Sample records for plasma system involves

  1. Solar system plasma waves (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.


    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  2. Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.


    The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L + or - S to T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived.

  3. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system (United States)

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong


    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  4. [Hand involvement in systemic sclerosis]. (United States)

    Mouthon, Luc


    Hand involvement is very common in patients with systemic sclerosis and represents an important tool for the early diagnosis of the disease. Vascular involvement of the hands is at the forefront of systemic sclerosis, with Raynaud's phenomenon, which may be complicated by digital ulcers, digital necrosis causing pain, infection and significant disability. Joint inflammation can also be disabling and causes the occurrence of contractures and deformities resulting in a marked hand disability. Skin sclerosis involving fingers and hands leads to the occurrence of pain and functional impairment. Hand involvement contributes to 75 % of global disability in patients with systemic sclerosis. Only a comprehensive care, taking into account the vascular, skin and joint manifestations, including physical therapy if needed can improve hand function in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  5. Gastrointestinal involvement in systemic sclerosis. (United States)

    Savarino, Edoardo; Furnari, Manuele; de Bortoli, Nicola; Martinucci, Irene; Bodini, Giorgia; Ghio, Massimo; Savarino, Vincenzo


    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune chronic disease characterised by microvascular, muscular and immunologic abnormalities that lead to progressive and systemic deposition of connective tissue in the skin and internal organs. The gastrointestinal tract is often overlooked by physicians but it is the most affected organ after the skin, from the mouth to the anus. Indeed, 80% of SSc patients may present with gastrointestinal involvement. Gastrointestinal manifestations range from bloating and heartburn to dysphagia and anorectal dysfunction to severe weight loss and malabsorption. However, the gastrointestinal involvement is rarely the direct cause of death, but has great impact on quality of life and leads to several comorbidities that subsequently affect patients' survival. Treatments, including nutritional support and prokinetics provide limited benefits and do not arrest the progressive course of the disease, but earlier detection of gastrointestinal involvement may reduce the risk of complications such as malnutrition.

  6. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masami; Minemura; Kazuto; Tajiri; Yukihiro; Shimizu


    The liver is often involved in systemic infections,resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results.In particular,hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis,and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed.In this review,we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic.In most patients with systemic infections,treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests.However,some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure,requiring intensive treatment of the liver.

  7. Plasma reactor waste management systems (United States)

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.


    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  8. Gastrointestinal system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Li, Z; Xu, D; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Zhang, S; Li, M; Zeng, X


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder which can affect the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Although GI symptoms can manifest in 50% of patients with SLE, these have barely been reviewed due to difficulty in identifying different causes. This study aims to clarify clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of the four major SLE-related GI system complications: protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO), hepatic involvement and pancreatitis. It is a systematic review using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the major search terms were SLE, PLE, IPO, hepatitis and pancreatitis. A total of 125 articles were chosen for our study. SLE-related PLE was characterized by edema and hypoalbuminemia, with Technetium 99m labeled human albumin scintigraphy ((99m)Tc HAS) and alpha-1-antitrypsin fecal clearance test commonly used as diagnostic test. The most common site of protein leakage was the small intestine and the least common site was the stomach. More than half of SLE-related IPO patients had ureterohydronephrosis, and sometimes they manifested as interstitial cystitis and hepatobiliary dilatation. Lupus hepatitis and SLE accompanied by autoimmune hepatitis (SLE-AIH overlap) shared similar clinical manifestations but had different autoantibodies and histopathological features, and positive anti-ribosome P antibody highly indicated the diagnosis of lupus hepatitis. Lupus pancreatitis was usually accompanied by high SLE activity with a relatively high mortality rate. Early diagnosis and timely intervention were crucial, and administration of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants was effective for most of the patients.

  9. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk


    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  10. Hydrogen sulfide is involved in maintaining ion homeostasis via regulating plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter system in the hydrogen peroxide-dependent manner in salt-stress Arabidopsis thaliana root. (United States)

    Li, Jisheng; Jia, Honglei; Wang, Jue; Cao, Qianhua; Wen, Zichao


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) function as the signaling molecules in plants responding to salt stresses. The present study presents a signaling network involving H2S and H2O2 in salt resistance pathway of the Arabidopsis root. Arabidopsis roots were sensitive to 100 mM NaCl treatment, which displayed a great increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) and Na(+)/K(+) ratio under salt stress. The treatment of H2S donors sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) enhanced the salt tolerance by maintaining a lower Na(+)/K(+) ratio. In addition, the inhibition of root growth under salt stress was removed by H2S. Further studies indicated that H2O2 was involved in H2S-induced salt tolerance pathway. H2S induced the production of the endogenous H2O2 via regulating the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and plasma membrane (PM) NADPH oxidase, with the treatment with dimethylthiourea (DMTU, an ROS scavenger), diphenylene iodonium (DPI, a PM NADPH oxidase inhibitor), or glycerol (G6PDH inhibitor) removing the effect of H2S. Treatment with amiloride (an inhibitor of PM Na(+)/H(+) antiporter) and vanadate (an inhibitor of PM H(+)-ATPase) also inhibited the activity of H2S on Na(+)/K(+) ratio. Through an analysis of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, we found that H2S promoted the genes expression and the phosphorylation level of PM H(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/H(+) antiporter protein level. However, when the endogenous H2O2 level was inhibited by DPI or DMTU, the effect of H2S on the PM Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system was removed. Taken together, H2S maintains ion homeostasis in the H2O2-dependent manner in salt-stress Arabidopsis root.

  11. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma technology that operates...

  12. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma technology. Compared to...

  13. Microwave Plasma Hydrogen Recovery System (United States)

    Atwater, James; Wheeler, Richard, Jr.; Dahl, Roger; Hadley, Neal


    A microwave plasma reactor was developed for the recovery of hydrogen contained within waste methane produced by Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), which reclaims oxygen from CO2. Since half of the H2 reductant used by the CRA is lost as CH4, the ability to reclaim this valuable resource will simplify supply logistics for longterm manned missions. Microwave plasmas provide an extreme thermal environment within a very small and precisely controlled region of space, resulting in very high energy densities at low overall power, and thus can drive high-temperature reactions using equipment that is smaller, lighter, and less power-consuming than traditional fixed-bed and fluidized-bed catalytic reactors. The high energy density provides an economical means to conduct endothermic reactions that become thermodynamically favorable only at very high temperatures. Microwave plasma methods were developed for the effective recovery of H2 using two primary reaction schemes: (1) methane pyrolysis to H2 and solid-phase carbon, and (2) methane oligomerization to H2 and acetylene. While the carbon problem is substantially reduced using plasma methods, it is not completely eliminated. For this reason, advanced methods were developed to promote CH4 oligomerization, which recovers a maximum of 75 percent of the H2 content of methane in a single reactor pass, and virtually eliminates the carbon problem. These methods were embodied in a prototype H2 recovery system capable of sustained high-efficiency operation. NASA can incorporate the innovation into flight hardware systems for deployment in support of future long-duration exploration objectives such as a Space Station retrofit, Lunar outpost, Mars transit, or Mars base. The primary application will be for the recovery of hydrogen lost in the Sabatier process for CO2 reduction to produce water in Exploration Life Support systems. Secondarily, this process may also be used in conjunction with a Sabatier reactor employed to

  14. Secret-involved Information System Security Audit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Ya-lan


    Secret-involved information system security audit is a network security technology developing rapidly in recent years.It uses various technical to detect the problem of secret-involved information system,and uses certain audit methods to analyze all kinds of suspicious behavior and irregularities.

  15. Second harmonic plasma emission involving ion sound waves (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.


    The theory for second harmonic plasma emission by the weak turbulence (or random phase) processes L + L + or - S to T, proceeding in two three-wave steps, L + or - S to L prime and L + L prime to T, where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and electromagnetic waves, respectively, is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes, and constraints on the characteristics of the source plasma, are derived. Limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation and the levels of the L prime and S waves are determined. Expressions for the growth rates and path-integrated wave temperatures are derived for simple models of the wave spectra and source plasma.

  16. Impulsive Synchronization of Laser Plasma System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; LIAO Xiao-Feng; LI Chuan-Dong; CHEN Guo


    The issue of impulsive synchronization of the coupled chaotic laser plasma system is investigated. A new framework for impulsive synchronization of such chaotic systems is presented, which makes the synchronization error system a linear impulsive control system. We derive some sufficient conditions for the synchronization of a laser plasma system via impulsive control with the varying impulsive intervals, which allows us to derive the impulsive synchronization law easily. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed results, two numerical examples are given.

  17. Central Nervous System Involvement in Whipple Disease


    Compain, Caroline; Sacre, Karim; Puéchal, Xavier; Klein, Isabelle; Vital-Durand, Denis; Houeto, Jean-Luc; De Broucker, Thomas; Raoult, Didier; Papo, Thomas


    Abstract Whipple disease (WD) is a rare multisystemic infection with a protean clinical presentation. The central nervous system (CNS) is involved in 3 situations: CNS involvement in classic WD, CNS relapse in previously treated WD, and isolated CNS infection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features, diagnostic workup, brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, treatment, and follow-up data in 18 patients with WD and CNS infection. Ten men and 8 women were included with a median ag...

  18. Central nervous system involvement in diabetic neuropathy. (United States)

    Selvarajah, Dinesh; Wilkinson, Iain D; Davies, Jennifer; Gandhi, Rajiv; Tesfaye, Solomon


    Diabetic neuropathy is a chronic and often disabling condition that affects a significant number of individuals with diabetes. Long considered a disease of the peripheral nervous system, there is now increasing evidence of central nervous system involvement. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods detailed in this review have led to a better understanding and refinement of how diabetic neuropathy affects the central nervous system. Recognition that diabetic neuropathy is, in part, a disease that affects the whole nervous system is resulting in a critical rethinking of this disorder, opening a new direction for further research.

  19. Plasma spraying system with distributed controlling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春旭; 陈克选; 张成


    A distributed control system is designed for plasma spraying equipment and the configurations of system software and hardware is discussed. Through founding an expert database, the spraying process parameters are worked out and the initialization and control of spraying process are realized. The plasma spraying system with this control configuration can simplify the spraying operation, improve automation level of spray process, and approach the experience criterion as soon as possible.

  20. A plasma process monitor/control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.O.; Ward, P.P.; Smith, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Markle, R.J. [Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a system to monitor plasma processes for control of industrial applications. The system is designed to act as a fully automated, sand-alone process monitor during printed wiring board and semiconductor production runs. The monitor routinely performs data collection, analysis, process identification, and error detection/correction without the need for human intervention. The monitor can also be used in research mode to allow process engineers to gather additional information about plasma processes. The plasma monitor can perform real-time control of support systems known to influence plasma behavior. The monitor can also signal personnel to modify plasma parameters when the system is operating outside of desired specifications and requires human assistance. A notification protocol can be selected for conditions detected in the plasma process. The Plasma Process Monitor/Control System consists of a computer running software developed by Sandia National Laboratories, a commercially available spectrophotometer equipped with a charge-coupled device camera, an input/output device, and a fiber optic cable.

  1. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro


    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  2. Lung involvement in systemic connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavec Goran


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Systemic connective tissue diseases (SCTD are chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorders of unknown cause that can involve different organs and systems. Their course and prognosis are different. All of them can, more or less, involve the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to find out the frequency of respiratory symptoms, lung function disorders, radiography and high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT abnormalities, and their correlation with the duration of the disease and the applied treatment. Methods. In 47 non-randomized consecutive patients standard chest radiography, HRCT, and lung function tests were done. Results. Hypoxemia was present in nine of the patients with respiratory symptoms (20%. In all of them chest radiography was normal. In five of these patients lung fibrosis was established using HRCT. Half of all the patients with SCTD had symptoms of lung involvement. Lung function tests disorders of various degrees were found in 40% of the patients. The outcome and the degree of lung function disorders were neither in correlation with the duration of SCTD nor with therapy used (p > 0.05 Spearmans Ro. Conclusion. Pulmonary fibrosis occurs in about 10% of the patients with SCTD, and possibly not due to the applied treatment regimens. Hypoxemia could be a sing of existing pulmonary fibrosis in the absence of disorders on standard chest radiography.

  3. Recent development of plasma optical systems (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, A. A., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Science, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine)


    The article devotes a brief description of the recent development and current status of an ongoing research of plasma optical systems based on the fundamental plasma optical idea magnetic electron isolation, equipotentialization magnetic field lines, and the axi-symmetric cylindrical electrostatic plasma lens (PL) configuration. The experimental, theoretical, and simulation investigations have been carried out over recent years collaboratively between IP NASU (Kiev), LBNL (Berkeley, USA), and HCEI RAS (Tomsk). The crossed electric and magnetic fields inherent the PL configuration that provides the attractive method for establishing a stable plasma discharge at low pressure. Using PL configuration, several high reliability plasma devices were developed. These devices are attractive for many high-tech applications.

  4. Ocular Involvement in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases. (United States)

    Generali, Elena; Cantarini, Luca; Selmi, Carlo


    Eye involvement represents a common finding in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, particularly rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome, seronegative spondyloarthropathy, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. The eye is a privileged immune site but commensal bacteria are found on the ocular surface. The eye injury may be inflammatory, vascular or infectious, as well as iatrogenic, as in the case of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, corticosteroids, and bisphosphonates. Manifestations may affect different components of the eye, with episcleritis involving the episclera, a thin layer of tissue covering the sclera; scleritis being an inflammation of the sclera potentially leading to blindness; keratitis, referring to corneal inflammation frequently associated with scleritis; and uveitis as the inflammation of the uvea, including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid, subdivided into anterior, posterior, or panuveitis. As blindness may result from the eye involvement, clinicians should be aware of the possible manifestations and their management also independent of the ophthalmologist opinion as the therapeutic approach generally points to the underlying diseases. In some cases, the eye involvement may have a diagnostic implication, as for episcleritis in rheumatoid arthritis, or acute anterior uveitis in seronegative spondyloarthritis. Nonetheless, some conditions lack specificity, as in the case of dry eye which affects nearly 30 % of the general population. The aim of this review is to elucidate to non-ophthalmologists the major ocular complications of rheumatic diseases and their specific management and treatment options.

  5. Primary Systemic Amyloidosis with Extensive Gastrointestinal Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya Gaduputi


    Full Text Available We report this case of a 42-year-old woman who presented with a debilitating illness manifested by intractable nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and unchecked weight loss. The patient had multisystem involvement that presented as anemia, abnormal liver function tests and progressively deteriorating renal function necessitating dialysis. She was found to be profoundly hypoalbuminemic secondary to malabsorptive and protein-losing enteropathy in tandem with nephrotic range proteinuria. Intolerance to enteral feeding led the patient to be dependent on parenteral nutrition. Serum immunofixation revealed IgG lambda monoclonal protein. The patient underwent endoscopic evaluation with biopsies taken from the gastrointestinal tract that confirmed the diagnosis of primary systemic light-chain amyloidosis. A subsequent bone marrow biopsy revealed normocellular bone marrow with deposition of amyloid. The patient was not considered for autologous stem cell transplantation as the outcomes in patients with multisystem involvement are often poor, with a high mortality risk. Diffuse primary systemic light-chain amyloidosis involving the gastrointestinal tract is a rare entity and is to be considered among differentials in patients presenting with unexplained malabsorptive symptoms.

  6. Central Nervous System Involvement by Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, A.; Gozzetti, A.; Cerase, A.


    Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare occurrence and is found in approximately 1% of MM patients at some time during the course of their disease. At the time of diagnosis, extramedullary MM is found in 7% of patients, and another 6% may develop....... Results: The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Upon diagnosis, 97% patients with CNS MM received frontline therapy, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. The most common symptoms at presentation were visual changes (36...... history of chemotherapy and unfavorable cytogenetic profile, survival of individuals free from these negative prognostic factors can be prolonged due to administration of systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. Prospective multi-institutional studies are warranted to improve the outcome of patients...

  7. Adaptive Embedded Digital System for Plasma Diagnostics (United States)

    González, Angel; Rodríguez, Othoniel; Mangual, Osvaldo; Ponce, Eduardo; Vélez, Xavier


    An Adaptive Embedded Digital System to perform plasma diagnostics using electrostatic probes was developed at the Plasma Engineering Laboratory at Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico. The system will replace the existing instrumentation at the Laboratory, using reconfigurable hardware to minimize the equipment and software needed to perform diagnostics. The adaptability of the design resides on the possibility of replacing the computational algorithm on the fly, allowing to use the same hardware for different probes. The system was prototyped using Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL) into an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) board. The design of the Embedded Digital System includes a Zero Phase Digital Filter, a Derivative Unit, and a Computational Unit designed using the VHDL-2008 Support Library. The prototype is able to compute the Plasma Electron Temperature and Density from a Single Langmuir probe. The system was tested using real data previously acquired from a single Langmuir probe. The plasma parameters obtained from the embedded system were compared with results computed using matlab yielding excellent matching. The new embedded system operates on 4096 samples versus 500 on the previous system, and completes its computations in 26 milliseconds compared with about 15 seconds on the previous system.

  8. Involvement of serotonin system in bullimia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marazziti, D.; Macchi, E.; Rotondo, A.; Placidi, G.F.; Cassano, G.B.


    Platelet /sup 3/H-imipramine binding was investigated in 8 patients affected by bulimia according to DSM III criteria, and in 7 health volunteers. The Bmax /+ -/SD (fmol/mg protein) was 356 /+ -/ 53 in patients, and 1144 /+ -/ 134 in controls. The Kd /+ -/ SD (nM) was 1.35 /+ -/ 0.44 in patients, and 1.90 /+ -/ 0.72 in controls. There was a significant difference in Bmax values in the two groups, whereas no significant difference was observed in Kd values. This study suggests the possible involvement of the indoleamine system in bullimia.

  9. Supersymmetric plasma systems and their nonsupersymmetric counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Czajka, Alina


    In this thesis a systematic comparison of supersymmetric plasma systems and their nonsupersymmetric counterparts is presented. The work is motivated by the AdS/CFT correspondence and the main aim is to check how much the plasma governed by the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory resembles the quark-gluon plasma studied experimentally in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The analysis is done in a weak coupling regime where perturbative methods are applicable. Since the Keldysh-Schwinger approach is used, not only equilibrium but also nonequilibrium plasmas, which are assumed to be ultrarelativistic, are under consideration. First, using the functional techniques we introduce Faddeev-Popov ghosts into the Keldysh-Schwinger formalism of nonAbelian gauge theories. Next the collective excitations of the N=1 SUSY QED plasma are considered and compared to those of the usual QED system. The analysis is repeated to confront with each other the plasmas governed by the N=4 super Yang-Mills and QCD theories. Finally, transport ...

  10. Bone Marrow Involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. (United States)

    Chalayer, Emilie; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Ninet, Jacques; Durupt, Stephane; Tebib, Jacques; Asli, Bouchra; Lambotte, Olivier; Ffrench, Martine; Vasselon, Christian; Cathébras, Pascal


    Besides peripheral cytopenias, bone marrow abnormalities, such as fibrosis, pure red cell aplasia, and aplastic anemia have been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), suggesting that bone marrow may be a target organ in SLE. Our objective was to describe this bone marrow involvement. This registry is a nationwide retrospective study. Centers provided data concerning medical history, SLE manifestations, type of hematologic disorder, treatments and outcome. Bone marrow aspirations and/or biopsies were transferred for centralized review. Thirty patients from 19 centers were included. Central hematologic manifestations comprised bone marrow fibrosis (n=17; 57%), pure red cell aplasia (n=8; 27%), myelodysplastic syndrome (n=3; 10%), aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis (n=1; 3% each). Bone marrow involvement was diagnosed concomitantly with SLE in 12 patients. Bone marrow biopsies showed fibrosis in 19 cases, including one case of pure red cell aplasia and one case of agranulocytosis and variable global marrow cellularity. Treatments included corticosteroids (90%), hydroxychloroquine (87%), rituximab (33%), intravenous immunoglobulins (30%), mycophenolate mofetil (20%) and ciclosporine (20%). After a median follow-up of 27 months (range: 1-142), 24 patients manifested complete improvement. No patient died. This registry comprises the largest series of SLE patients with bone marrow involvement. It demonstrates the strong link between SLE and bone marrow fibrosis. Patients with atypical or refractory cytopenia associated with SLE should undergo bone marrow examination to enable appropriate, and often effective, treatment. Long-term prognosis is good. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  11. Theory and Simulations of Solar System Plasmas (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.


    "Theory and simulations of solar system plasmas" aims to highlight results from microscopic to global scales, achieved by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations of the plasma dynamics in the solar system. The theoretical approach must allow evidencing the universality of the phenomena being considered, whatever the region is where their role is studied; at the Sun, in the solar corona, in the interplanetary space or in planetary magnetospheres. All possible theoretical issues concerning plasma dynamics are welcome, especially those using numerical models and simulations, since these tools are mandatory whenever analytical treatments fail, in particular when complex nonlinear phenomena are at work. Comparative studies for ongoing missions like Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Stereo, Wind, SDO, Hinode, as well as those preparing future missions and proposals, like, e.g., MMS and Solar Orbiter, are especially encouraged.

  12. Stomatognathic system involvement in rheumatoid arthritis patients. (United States)

    Bono, Andrea E; Learreta, Jorge Alfonso; Rodriguez, Graciela; Marcos, Juan Carlos


    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and stomatognathic system involvement are usually observed during the course of rheumatoid arthritis. This article presents the findings during examination of 190 TMJs from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and 44 TMJs from controls without RA, including a description of signs and symptoms related to the stomatognathic system, radiological findings in hands-, and TMJ, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) values, and scores obtained in the Disease Activity Score (Das 28) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). The sample included 57.89% TMJs associated with spontaneous pain, 87.89% with signs of destruction in radiological images, and 58.94% with 20 teeth or less. Restricted mouth opening was detected in 42.1% of RA patients, from which 71% had blocked opening; headache was present in 58%, and pain in the masticatory muscles was found in 57%. TMJ erosions had a significant association with Larsen scores (r=0.62), but not with the Das 28, HAQ, and ESR values. The early evaluation of this joint and the collaborative work of odontologists and rheumatologists are both necessary for a better management of TMJ pathologies.

  13. Plasma Processes : Sheath and plasma parameters in a magnetized plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bornali Singha; A Sharma; J Chutia


    The variation of electron temperature and plasma density in a magnetized 2 plasma is studied experimentally in presence of a grid placed at the middle of the system. Plasma leaks through the negatively biased grid from the source region into the diffused region. It is observed that the electron temperature increases with the magnetic field in the diffused region whereas it decreases in the source region of the system for a constant grid biasing voltage. Also, investigation is done to see the change of electron temperature with grid biasing voltage for a constant magnetic field. This is accompanied by the study of the variation of sheath structure across the grid for different magnetic field and grid biasing voltage as well. It reveals that with increasing magnetic field and negative grid biasing voltage, the sheath thickness expands.

  14. Plasma confinement system and methods for use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Sutherland, Derek


    A plasma confinement system is provided that includes a confinement chamber that includes one or more enclosures of respective helicity injectors. The one or more enclosures are coupled to ports at an outer radius of the confinement chamber. The system further includes one or more conductive coils aligned substantially parallel to the one or more enclosures and a further set of one or more conductive coils respectively surrounding portions of the one or more enclosures. Currents may be provided to the sets of conductive coils to energize a gas within the confinement chamber into a plasma. Further, a heat-exchange system is provided that includes an inner wall, an intermediate wall, an outer wall, and pipe sections configured to carry coolant through cavities formed by the walls.

  15. Diagnostic for Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition and Etch Systems (United States)

    Cappelli, Mark A.


    In order to meet NASA's requirements for the rapid development and validation of future generation electronic devices as well as associated materials and processes, enabling technologies ion the processing of semiconductor materials arising from understanding etch chemistries are being developed through a research collaboration between Stanford University and NASA-Ames Research Center, Although a great deal of laboratory-scale research has been performed on many of materials processing plasmas, little is known about the gas-phase and surface chemical reactions that are critical in many etch and deposition processes, and how these reactions are influenced by the variation in operating conditions. In addition, many plasma-based processes suffer from stability and reliability problems leading to a compromise in performance and a potentially increased cost for the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Such a lack of understanding has hindered the development of process models that can aid in the scaling and improvement of plasma etch and deposition systems. The research described involves the study of plasmas used in semiconductor processes. An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source in place of the standard upper electrode assembly of the Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) radio-frequency (RF) Reference Cell is used to investigate the discharge characteristics and chemistries. This ICP source generates plasmas with higher electron densities (approximately 10(exp 12)/cu cm) and lower operating pressures (approximately 7 mTorr) than obtainable with the original parallel-plate version of the GEC Cell. This expanded operating regime is more relevant to new generations of industrial plasma systems being used by the microelectronics industry. The motivation for this study is to develop an understanding of the physical phenomena involved in plasma processing and to measure much needed fundamental parameters, such as gas-phase and surface reaction rates. species

  16. Involving human forecasters in numerical prediction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Homar


    Full Text Available Human forecasters routinely improve upon the output from numerical weather prediction models and often have keen insight to model biases and shortcomings. This wealth of knowledge about model performance is largely untapped, however, as it is used only at the end point in the forecast process to interpret the model-predicted fields. Yet there is no reason why human forecasters cannot intervene at other earlier times in the numerical weather prediction process, especially when an ensemble forecasting system is in use. Human intervention in ensemble creation may be particularly helpful for rare events, such as severe weather events, that are not predicted well by numerical models. The USA/NOAA SPC/NSSL Spring Program 2003 tested an ensemble generation method in which human forecasters were involved in the ensemble creation process. The forecaster highlighted structures of interest and, using an adjoint model, a set of perturbations were obtained and used to generate a 32-member ensemble. The results show that this experimental ensemble improves upon the operational numerical forecasts of severe weather. The human-generated ensemble is able to provide improved guidance on high-impact weather events, but lacks global dispersion and produces unreliable forecasts for non-hazardous weather events. Further results from an ensemble constructed by combining the operational ensemble perturbations with the human-generated perturbations shows promising skill for the forecast of severe weather while avoiding the problem of limited global dispersion. The value of human beings in the creation of ensembles designed to target specific high- impact weather events is potentially large. Further investigation of the value of forecasters being part of the ensemble creation process is strongly recommended. There remains a lot to learn about how to create ensembles for short-range forecasts of severe weather, and we need to make better use of the skill and experience of

  17. Plasma D-dimer concentration in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagnana Martina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue characterized by widespread vascular lesions and fibrosis. Little is known so far on the activation of the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems in SSc, and most preliminary evidences are discordant. Methods To verify whether SSc patients might display a prothrombotic condition, plasma D-dimer was assessed in 28 consecutive SSc patients and in 33 control subjects, matched for age, sex and environmental habit. Results and discussion When compared to healthy controls, geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (IC95% of plasma D-dimer were significantly increased in SSc patients (362 ng/mL, IC 95%: 361–363 ng/mL vs 229 ng/mL, IC95%: 228–231 ng/mL, p = 0.005. After stratifying SSc patients according to disease subset, no significant differences were observed between those with limited cutaneous pattern and controls, whereas patients with diffuse cutaneous pattern displayed substantially increased values. No correlation was found between plasma D-dimer concentration and age, sex, autoantibody pattern, serum creatinine, erythrosedimentation rate, nailfold videocapillaroscopic pattern and pulmonary involvement. Conclusion We demonstrated that SSc patients with diffuse subset are characterized by increased plasma D-dimer values, reflecting a potential activation of both the hemostatic and fibrinolytic cascades, which might finally predispose these patients to thrombotic complications.

  18. Modeling human operator involvement in robotic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.


    A modeling approach is presented to describe complex manned robotic systems. The robotic system is modeled as a (highly) nonlinear, possibly time-varying dynamic system including any time delays in terms of optimal estimation, control and decision theory. The role of the human operator(s) is modeled

  19. Human plasma levels of vitamin E and carotenoids are associated with genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in lipid metabolism. : Plasma vitamin E and carotenoid levels and genes


    Borel, Patrick; Moussa, Myriam; Reboul, Emmanuelle; Lyan, Bernard; Defoort, Catherine; Vincent-Baudry, Stéphanie; Maillot, Matthieu; Gastaldi, Marguerite; Darmon, Michel; Portugal, Henri; Planells, Richard; Lairon, Denis


    International audience; Vitamin E and carotenoids are fat-soluble micronutrients carried by plasma lipoproteins. Their plasma concentrations are governed by several factors, some of which are genetic, but data on these genetic factors remain scarce. We hypothesized that genes involved in lipid metabolism, i.e. the genes implicated in intestinal uptake, intracellular trafficking, and the lipoprotein distribution of lipids, play a role in the plasma concentrations of these micronutrients. To ve...

  20. Involving the motor system in decision making. (United States)

    Wyss, Reto; König, Peter; Verschure, Paul F M J


    The control of behaviour is usually understood in terms of three distinct components: sensory processing, decision making and movement control. Recently, this view has been questioned on the basis of physiological and behavioural data, blurring the distinction between these three stages. This raises the question to what extent the motor system itself can contribute to the interpretation of behavioural situations. To investigate this question we use a neural model of sensory motor integration applied to a behaving mobile robot performing a navigation task. We show that the population response of the motor system provides a substrate for the categorization of behavioural situations. This categorization allows for the assessment of the complexity of a behavioural situation and regulates whether higher-level decision making is required to resolve behavioural conflicts. Our model lends credence to an emerging reconceptualization of behavioural control where the motor system can be considered as part of a high-level perceptual system.

  1. Proteins involved in the Vroman effect during exposure of human blood plasma to glass and polyethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turbill, P.; Beugeling, T.; Poot, A.A.


    The amounts of fibrinogen adsorbed to glass from various human blood plasmas have been measured as a function of time. The plasmas were 11 single donor plasmas, pooled plasma, a single donor high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK)-deficient plasma and HMWK-deficient plasma, which had been reconstitut

  2. A conserved cysteine residue is involved in disulfide bond formation between plant plasma membrane aquaporin monomers. (United States)

    Bienert, Gerd P; Cavez, Damien; Besserer, Arnaud; Berny, Marie C; Gilis, Dimitri; Rooman, Marianne; Chaumont, François


    AQPs (aquaporins) are conserved in all kingdoms of life and facilitate the rapid diffusion of water and/or other small solutes across cell membranes. Among the different plant AQPs, PIPs (plasma membrane intrinsic proteins), which fall into two phylogenetic groups, PIP1 and PIP2, play key roles in plant water transport processes. PIPs form tetramers in which each monomer acts as a functional channel. The intermolecular interactions that stabilize PIP oligomer complexes and are responsible for the resistance of PIP dimers to denaturating conditions are not well characterized. In the present study, we identified a highly conserved cysteine residue in loop A of PIP1 and PIP2 proteins and demonstrated by mutagenesis that it is involved in the formation of a disulfide bond between two monomers. Although this cysteine seems not to be involved in regulation of trafficking to the plasma membrane, activity, substrate selectivity or oxidative gating of ZmPIP1s (Zm is Zea mays), ZmPIP2s and hetero-oligomers, it increases oligomer stability under denaturating conditions. In addition, when PIP1 and PIP2 are co-expressed, the loop A cysteine of ZmPIP1;2, but not that of ZmPIP2;5, is involved in the mercury sensitivity of the channels.

  3. Involvement of Plasma Membrane Ca2+/H+ Antiporter in Cd2+ Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-ming SHEN


    Full Text Available Cation exchangers (CAXs belong to the cation/Ca2+ exchanger superfamily which have been extensively investigated in plant tonoplasts over the last decade. Recently, the roles of CAXs involved in heavy metal accumulation and tolerance in plants have been studied for phytoremediation and food security. In this mini review, we summarize the roles of the Ca2+/H+ antiporter in Ca2+ signal transduction, maintaining ion homeostasis and sequestering heavy metals into the vacuole. Moreover, we present a possible role of the plasma membrane Ca2+/H+ antiporter in heavy metal detoxification.

  4. Plasma exchange in progressive systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Owlia


    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune systemic disease of unknown etiology. Present treatment modalities have limited impact on clinical/ laboratory outcomes. For the first time in our center, we used plasma exchange (PEx in a rather young woman with recent onset but progressive SSc. She is a 39-year-old woman with a recent history of skin stiffness, Raynaud’s phenomenon, nail fold capillary changes and newly diagnosis of SSc presented to us due to worsening her clinical symptoms even after initiation of routine remedies such as low dose oral prednisolone, Ca-channel blockers, azathioprine and pentoxyfylline. After obtaining written consent, interdisciplinary discussion with experts in this field and agreement we started a series of plasma exchange with FFP replacement for her. A dramatic clinical response was observed in respect to Raynaud’s phenomenon, skin stiffness, tendon rub after three sessions of PEx. Her modified Rodnan skin score (MRSS dropped from 36 (before commencement of therapy to 28 in day 4 and 18 in day 20 after 15 sessions of PEx. In conclusion PEx could significantly modify the course of SSc as observed in our case study. Elimination of culprit immune mediators/cytokines/autoantibodies could be the possible mechanism of action of PEx. 

  5. Architecture of WEST plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravenel, N., E-mail: [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Nouailletas, R.; Barana, O.; Brémond, S.; Moreau, P.; Guillerminet, B.; Balme, S.; Allegretti, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mannori, S. [ENEA C.R. Brasimone (Italy)


    To operate advanced plasma scenario (long pulse with high stored energy) in present and future tokamak devices under safe operation conditions, the control requirements of the plasma control system (PCS) leads to the development of advanced feedback control and real time handling exceptions. To develop these controllers and these exceptions handling strategies, a project aiming at setting up a flight simulator has started at CEA in 2009. Now, the new WEST (W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project deals with modifying Tore Supra into an ITER-like divertor tokamak. This upgrade impacts a lot of systems including Tore Supra PCS and is the opportunity to improve the current PCS architecture to implement the previous works and to fulfill the needs of modern tokamak operation. This paper is dealing with the description of the architecture of WEST PCS. Firstly, the requirements will be presented including the needs of new concepts (segments configuration, alternative (or backup) scenario, …). Then, the conceptual design of the PCS will be described including the main components and their functions. The third part will be dedicated to the proposal RT framework and to the technologies that we have to implement to reach the requirements.

  6. Imaging System and Plasma Imaging on HL-2A Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑银甲; 冯震; 罗萃文; 刘莉; 李伟; 严龙文; 杨青巍; 刘永


    As a new diagnostic means, plasma-imaging system has been developed on the HL2A tokamak, with a basic understanding of plasma discharge scenario of the entire torus, checking the plasma position and the clearance between the plasma and the first wall during discharge. The plasma imaging system consists of (1) color video camera, (2) observation window and turn mirror,(3) viewing & collecting optics, (4) video cable, (5) Video capture card as well as PC. This paper mainly describes the experimental arrangement, plasma imaging system and detailed part in the system, along with the experimental results. Real-time monitoring of plasma discharge process,particularly distinguishing limitor and divertor configuration, the imaging system has become key diagnostic means and laid the foundation for further physical experiment on the HL-2A tokamak.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myopathies are disorders of muscle with structural c hanges or functional impairment. Mitochondrial myopathies are caused by g enetic mutations that directly influence the functioning of the electron transport chain. The ubiquitous distribution of the mitochondria in the human body explains the multiple organ involv ement. Diagnosis often requires a multifaceted approach with measurements of serum lact ate, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, muscle histology and ultrastructure, enzymology, ge netic analysis, and exercise testing. The present study was conducted to find out the reason b ehind unexplained myopathies with multi- organ involvement by measuring plasma lactate concen tration in patients who were suspected to be suffering from mitochondrial disorders. Muscl e biopsy samples of those patients were also subjected for histopathological assessment. Out of t wenty suspected patients, nine patients showed high lactate concentration and their muscle biopsy sample also revealed some changes suggestive of mitochondrial disorders.

  8. Polymerization monitoring in plasma etching systems (United States)

    Kim, Jinsoo


    -suppressing nature of the oxide etch. A new sensor for monitoring polymer buildup in plasma etching systems was designed, fabricated, and tested as part of this work. The device is mounted flush in the chamber wall and uses an electrothermal oscillator to measure the thermal mass change of a micromachined dielectric window as polymer deposits on it. The variation in the oscillation pulse width (cooling time) is used as the sensor output. The device operates with a typical cooling time of 2.7msec and has a thickness resolution of modified to add the needed micromachining steps, and photoresist masking was explored for the first time to protect the devices from silicon etchant (tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide: TMAH) attack. A chevron-based support structure is used on the back side of the wafer to hold the devices in wafer form after micromachining to allow testing, high-yield die separation, and non-lithographic post-TMAH processing. The device metallization, package, and O-ring-based placement structure have been designed to ensure compatibility with the plasma etching environment.

  9. Lymphangioma involving the urogenital system in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Yap


    Full Text Available Lymphangioma of the urogenital system is extremely rare and we present two cases treated at our institution over a one year period. The first case is a 3 year-old boy who presented with scrotal swelling and was initially thought to have a complex hydrocele. On surgical exploration, an extratesticular multiloculated cystic mass was discovered and testis-sparing excision of the mass was performed. Pathology revealed lymphangioma. The second case is a 5 year-old male who initially presented with gross hematuria. Ultrasound was unremarkable but cystoscopy revealed varicosities extending from the bladder wall. On transurethral resection, histology showed non-specific benign vascular malformation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was obtained because of persistent hematuria and showed multiple bladder lesions suggestive of lymphatic malformation. Partial cystectomy was ultimately performed and histology confirmed lymphangioma. To the author's knowledge, this represents the fifth reported case of lymphangioma of bladder.

  10. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu


    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  11. Involvement of singlet oxygen in biochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A. (Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada); Singh, H.; Kremers, W.; Koroll, G.W.


    Reliable monitoring of singlet oxygen in biological systems is complicated by reactions of superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which can often be present. However, tryptophan is now emerging as a potential monitor of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxy-species, in aqueous solutions, on the basis of the following results. Tryptophan reacts with singlet oxygen to produce N-form lykynurenine (FK), kynurenine (K), 2-carboxy-3a hydroxy-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrlo-(2,3b)-indole (HPI) and an unidentified product. It also reacts with hydroxyl radicals; in the presence of oxygen, six products are formed which include 5-hydroxy-tryptophan, FK, K, and HPI; in the absence of oxygen, K and HPI are not formed and a different unidentified product is formed. The relative yields of the common products in these three cases are different. Trytophan does not react with superoxide anions. Thus, by comparing the products formed and their ratios, tyrptophan can be used as a discriminating monitor for singlet oxygen, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. On direct irradiation of tryptophan, at 280 nm, only two products (FK and HPI) are formed in measurable yields. In reaction with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, seven products result. Again, the relative ratios of the common products in these cases are different than the ones described above. In radiolysis, in the absence of oxygen, the decomposition of tryptophan is negligible. (JMT)

  12. On the attractive plasma-charge system in 2-d

    CERN Document Server

    Caprino, Silvia; Miot, Evelyne; Pulvirenti, Mario


    We study a positively charged Vlasov-Poisson plasma in which N negative point charges are immersed. The attractiveness of the system forces us to consider a possibly unbounded plasma density near the charges. We prove the existence of a global in time solution, assuming a suitable initial distribution of the velocities of the plasma particles. Uniqueness remains unsolved.

  13. Clinical applications of plasma based electrosurgical systems (United States)

    Woloszko, Jean; Endler, Ashley; Ryan, Thomas P.; Stalder, Kenneth R.


    Over the past 18 years, several electrosurgical systems generating a low temperature plasma in an aqueous conductive solution have been commercialized for various clinical applications and have been used in over 10 million patients to date. The most popular utilizations are in arthroscopic surgery, otorhinolaryngology surgery, spine and neurosurgery, urology and wound care. These devices can be configured to bring saline to the tip and to have concomitant aspiration to remove by-products and excess fluid. By tuning the electrode geometry, waveform and fluid dynamic at the tip of the devices, tissue resection and thermal effects can be adjusted individually. This allows one to design products that can operate as precise tissue dissectors for treatment of articular cartilage or debridement of chronic wounds, as well as global tissue debulking devices providing sufficient concomitant hemostasis for applications like tonsillectomies. Effects of these plasma based electrosurgical devices on cellular biology, healing response and nociceptive receptors has also been studied in various models. This talk will include a review of the clinical applications, with product descriptions, results and introductory review of some of the research on the biological effects of these devices.

  14. Collisionless relaxation in beam-plasma systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Ekaterina Yu. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This thesis reports the results from the theoretical investigations, both numerical and analytical, of collisionless relaxation phenomena in beam-plasma systems. Many results of this work can also be applied to other lossless systems of plasma physics, beam physics and astrophysics. Different aspects of the physics of collisionless relaxation and its modeling are addressed. A new theoretical framework, named Coupled Moment Equations (CME), is derived and used in numerical and analytical studies of the relaxation of second order moments such as beam size and emittance oscillations. This technique extends the well-known envelope equation formalism, and it can be applied to general systems with nonlinear forces. It is based on a systematic moment expansion of the Vlasov equation. In contrast to the envelope equation, which is derived assuming constant rms beam emittance, the CME model allows the emittance to vary through coupling to higher order moments. The CME model is implemented in slab geometry in the absence of return currents. The CME simulation yields rms beam sizes, velocity spreads and emittances that are in good agreement with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for a wide range of system parameters. The mechanism of relaxation is also considered within the framework of the CME system. It is discovered that the rapid relaxation or beam size oscillations can be attributed to a resonant coupling between different modes of the system. A simple analytical estimate of the relaxation time is developed. The final state of the system reached after the relaxation is complete is investigated. New and accurate analytical results for the second order moments in the phase-mixed state are obtained. Unlike previous results, these connect the final values of the second order moments with the initial beam mismatch. These analytical estimates are in good agreement with the CME model and PIC simulations. Predictions for the final density and temperature are developed that show

  15. Involvement of multiple stressors induced by non-thermal plasma-charged aerosols during inactivation of airborne bacteria (United States)

    Vaze, Nachiket D.; Park, Sin; Brooks, Ari D.; Fridman, Alexander; Joshi, Suresh G.


    A lab-scale, tunable, single-filament, point-to-point nonthermal dieletric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma device was built to study the mechanisms of inactivation of aerosolized bacterial pathogens. The system inactivates airborne antibiotic-resistant pathogens efficiently. Nebulization mediated pre-optimized (4 log and 7 log) bacterial loads were challenged to plasma-charged aerosols, and lethal and sublethal doses determined using colony assay, and cell viability assay; and the loss of membrane potential and cellular respiration were determined using cell membrane potential assay and XTT assay. Using the strategies of Escherichia coli wildtype, over-expression mutant, deletion mutants, and peroxide and heat stress scavenging, we analyzed activation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heat shock protein (hsp) chaperons. Superoxide dismutase deletion mutants (ΔsodA, ΔsodB, ΔsodAΔsodB) and catalase mutants ΔkatG and ΔkatEΔkatG did not show significant difference from wildtype strain, and ΔkatE and ΔahpC was found significantly more susceptible to cell death than wildtype. The oxyR regulon was found to mediate plasma-charged aerosol-induced oxidative stress in bacteria. Hsp deficient E. coli (ΔhtpG, ΔgroEL, ΔclpX, ΔgrpE) showed complete inactivation of cells at ambient temperature, and the treatment at cold temperature (4°C) significantly protected hsp deletion mutants and wildtype cells, and indicate a direct involvement of hsp in plasma-charged aerosol mediated E. coli cell death. PMID:28166240

  16. Pattern Formation in a Dusty Plasma System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄峰; 叶茂福; 王龙; 江南


    A rich variety of dust patterns have been observed in a capacitively coupled rf discharge dusty plasma system. Dust particles are synthesized through chemical reaction of the filled gas mixture during discharge. Different patterns are formed in different stages of particle growth. In the early stage of particle growth, dust cloud can be formed by a large number of small particles, and its behavior appears to be fluid-like. Such interesting nonlinear phenomena as dust void and complex dust cloud patterns are observed in this stage. As dust particles grow, the particle size and structure can be controlled to follow two different routes. In one of the routes, the particles grow up in a ball-like shape and can be formed into regular lattice and cluster patterns.In the other, the particles grow up in a fractal shape.

  17. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein


    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  18. Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving central nervous system: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok; Ju, Kyung Bin [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Langerhans cell histiocytosis(LCH) is a systemic disorder characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes in the reticuloendothelial system; CNS involvement outside the hypothalamus or pituitary gland is uncommon. We present a case of LCH involving the brainstem, cerebellum, and temporal lobes, and also showing hypothalamic involvement. The lesions were isointense or hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI, and showed multifocal enhancing nodules on post-contrast CT and Gd-enhanced MRI.

  19. Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vipin K Yadav; K Sathyanarayana; D Bora


    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma breakdown is studied in a small linear cylindrical system with four different gases - hydrogen, helium, argon and nitrogen. Microwave power in the experimental system is delivered by a magnetron at 2.45 ± 0.02 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extra-ordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the fundamental ECR surface ( = 875.0 G) resides at the geometrical centre of the plasma system. ECR breakdown parameters such as plasma delay time and plasma decay time from plasma density measurements are carried out at the centre using a Langmuir probe. The operating parameters such as working gas pressure (1 × 10-5 -1 × 10-2 mbar) and input microwave power (160{800 W) are varied and the corresponding effect on the breakdown parameters is studied. The experimental results obtained are presented in this paper.

  20. Monitoring system for thermal plasma; Sistema de monitoreo para plasma termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero G, M.; Vilchis P, A.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    In the Thermal plasma applications laboratory it has been the degradation project of oils for isolation in transformers. These are a very hazardous residues and at this time in the country they are stored in metal barrels. It has been the intention to undergo the oils to plasma for degradate them to non-hazardous residues. The system behavior must be monitored to establish the thermal plasma behavior. (Author)

  1. Plasma system for start-up of pulverized fuel-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyjakon, A.K. [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. of Power Engineering and Fluid Mechanics


    Pulverized coal combustion requires preliminary heating of the combustion chamber. Conventional heavy oil start-up systems are used during the boiler kindling, resulting in pollution, additional maintenance and high cost. This paper described the advantages of a plasma start-up system for the ignition and stabilization of a pulverized coal flame in coal-fired steam boiler. In a plasma start-up system, the heat source for ignition and stabilization of the pulverized coal combustion is a plasma at a temperature of 5,000 to 10,000 degrees C. The plasma interaction involves rapid heating of coal particles and thermal decomposition of the organic compounds resulting in fast release of the volatile matter and destruction of particles below 5 {mu}m. It also involves thermal dissociation of gaseous products with radical generation and gas ionization. The highly reactive mixture that is produced promotes flame propagation in the presence of oxygen. A continuous plasma discharge in a pulverized burner stabilizes the dust flame. This paper described the advantages associated with the use of a plasma start-up system, such as the possibility of limiting pollutant emissions to the atmosphere. It also presented laboratory study results on the influence of the fuels such as lignite, bituminous coal, wood and carbonaceous shale and their properties on the operational range of the plasma assisted pulverized coal burner. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. Selective involvement of the amygdala in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart J Emmer


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibodies specifically affect the amygdala in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there is also specific involvement of the amygdala in human SLE. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed a group of 37 patients with neuropsychiatric SLE (NP-SLE, 21 patients with SLE, and a group of 12 healthy control participants with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI. In addition, in a subset of eight patients, plasma was available to determine their anti-NMDAR antibody status. From the structural magnetic resonance imaging data, the amygdala and the hippocampus were segmented, as well as the white and gray matter, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC was retrieved. ADC values between controls, patients with SLE, and patients with NP-SLE were tested using analysis of variance with post-hoc Bonferroni correction. No differences were found in the gray or white matter segments. The average ADC in the amygdala of patients with NP-SLE and SLE (940 x 10(-6 mm2/s; p = 0.006 and 949 x 10(-6 mm2/s; p = 0.019, respectively was lower than in healthy control participants (1152 x 10(-6 mm2/s. Mann-Whitney analysis revealed that the average ADC in the amygdala of patients with anti-NMDAR antibodies (n = 4; 802 x 10(-6 mm2/s was lower (p = 0.029 than the average ADC of patients without anti-NMDAR antibodies (n = 4; 979 x 10(-6 mm2/s and also lower (p = 0.001 than in healthy control participants. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to our knowledge to observe damage in the amygdala in patients with SLE. Patients with SLE with anti-NMDAR antibodies had more severe damage in the amygdala compared to SLE patients without anti-NMDAR antibodies.

  3. Analysis of bilinear stochastic systems. [involving multiplicative noise processes (United States)

    Willsky, A. S.; Marcus, S. I.; Martin, D. N.


    Analysis of stochastic dynamical systems that involve multiplicative (bilinear) noise processes is considered. After defining the systems of interest, the evolution of the moments of such systems, the question of stochastic stability, and estimation for bilinear stochastic systems are discussed. Both exact and approximate methods of analysis are introduced, and, in particular, the uses of Lie-theoretic concepts and harmonic analysis are discussed.

  4. Microwave Plasma System: PVA Tepla 300 (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: CORAL Name: Microwave Asher A tool using microwave oxygen plasma to remove organics on the surfaces Specifications / Capabilities: Frequency: 2.45 GHz...

  5. Plasma distribution of cathodic ARC deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, S.; Raoux, S.; Krishnan, K.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    The plasma distribution using a cathodic arc plasma source with and without magnetic macroparticle filter has been determined by depositing on a transparent plastic substrate and measuring the film absorption. It was found that the width of the distribution depends on the arc current, and it also depends on the cathode material which leads to a spatial separation of the elements when an alloy cathode is used. By applying a magnetic multicusp field near the exit of the magnetic filter, it was possible to modify the plasma distribution and obtain a flat plasma profile with a constant and homogeneous elemental distribution.

  6. Estimation of dynamic properties of attractors observed in hollow copper electrode atmospheric pressure arc plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ghorul; S N Sahasrabudhe; P S S Murthy; A K Das; N Venkatramani


    Understanding of the basic nature of arc root fluctuation is still one of the unsolved problems in thermal arc plasma physics. It has direct impact on myriads of thermal plasma applications being implemented at present. Recently, chaotic nature of arc root behavior has been reported through the analysis of voltages, acoustic and optical signals which are generated from a hollow copper electrode arc plasma torch. In this paper we present details of computations involved in the estimation process of various dynamic properties and show how they reflect chaotic behavior of arc root in the system.

  7. Microwave Plasma System: PVA Tepla 300 (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Microwave AsherA tool using microwave oxygen plasma to remove organics on the surfacesSpecifications / Capabilities:Frequency: 2.45 GHzPower:...

  8. Optimization of audio - ultrasonic plasma system parameters (United States)

    Haleem, N. A.; Abdelrahman, M. M.; Ragheb, M. S.


    The present plasma is a special glow plasma type generated by an audio ultrasonic discharge voltage. A definite discharge frequency using a gas at a narrow band pressure creates and stabilizes this plasma type. The plasma cell is a self-extracted ion beam; it is featured with its high output intensity and its small size. The influence of the plasma column length on the output beam due to the variation of both the audio discharge frequency and the power applied to the plasma electrodes is investigated. In consequence, the aim of the present work is to put in evidence the parameters that influence the self-extracted collected ion beam and to optimize the conditions that enhance the collected ion beam. The experimental parameters studied are the nitrogen gas, the applied frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, the plasma length that varies from 8 to 14 cm, at a gas pressure of ≈ 0.25 Torr and finally the discharge power from 50 to 500 Watt. A sheet of polyethylene of 5 micrometer covers the collector electrode in order to confirm how much ions from the beam can go through the polymer and reach the collector. To diagnose the occurring events of the beam on the collector, the polymer used is analyzed by means of the FTIR and the XRF techniques. Optimization of the plasma cell parameters succeeded to enhance and to identify the parameters that influence the output ion beam and proved that its particles attaining the collector are multi-energetic.

  9. Electromagnetic-wave excitation in a large laboratory beam-plasma system (United States)

    Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.


    The mechanism by which unstable electrostatic waves of a beam-plasma system are converted into observed electromagnetic waves is of current interest in space physics and in tokamak fusion research. The process involved in the conversion of electrostatic to electromagnetic waves at the critical layer is well understood. However, the radiation from uniform plasmas cannot be explained on the basis of this process. In connection with certain difficulties, it has not yet been possible to establish the involved emission processes by means of experimental observations. In the considered investigation these difficulties are overcome by employing a large laboratory plasma in a parameter range suitable for detailed diagnostics. A finite-diameter electron beam is injected into a uniform quiescent afterglow plasma of dimensions large compared with electromagnetic wavelengths. The considered generation mechanism concerning the electromagnetic waves is conclusively confirmed by observing the temporal evolution of an instability

  10. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet induces apoptosis involving mitochondria via generation of free radicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Jun Ahn

    Full Text Available The plasma jet has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for anticancer treatment. However, its biological effects and mechanism of action remain elusive. Here, we investigated its cell death effects and underlying molecular mechanisms, using air and N₂ plasma jets from a micro nozzle array. Treatment with air or N₂ plasma jets caused apoptotic death in human cervical cancer HeLa cells, simultaneously with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, the plasma jets were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS, which function as surrogate apoptotic signals by targeting the mitochondrial membrane potential. Antioxidants or caspase inhibitors ameliorated the apoptotic cell death induced by the air and N₂ plasma jets, suggesting that the plasma jet may generate ROS as a proapoptotic cue, thus initiating mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest the potential employment of plasma jets as a novel therapy for cancer.

  11. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet induces apoptosis involving mitochondria via generation of free radicals. (United States)

    Ahn, Hak Jun; Kim, Kang Il; Kim, Geunyoung; Moon, Eunpyo; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Jong-Soo


    The plasma jet has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for anticancer treatment. However, its biological effects and mechanism of action remain elusive. Here, we investigated its cell death effects and underlying molecular mechanisms, using air and N₂ plasma jets from a micro nozzle array. Treatment with air or N₂ plasma jets caused apoptotic death in human cervical cancer HeLa cells, simultaneously with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, the plasma jets were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which function as surrogate apoptotic signals by targeting the mitochondrial membrane potential. Antioxidants or caspase inhibitors ameliorated the apoptotic cell death induced by the air and N₂ plasma jets, suggesting that the plasma jet may generate ROS as a proapoptotic cue, thus initiating mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest the potential employment of plasma jets as a novel therapy for cancer.

  12. Optical Characterization of Plasma Generated in a Commercial Grade Plasma Etching System (United States)

    Hardy, Ashley; Drake, Dereth


    The use of plasma for etching and cleaning of many types of metal surfaces is becoming more prominent in industry. This is primarily due to the fact that plasma etching can reduce the amount of time necessary to clean/etch the surface and does not require large amounts of environmentally hazardous chemicals. Most plasma etching systems are designed and built in academic institutions. These systems provide reasonable etching rates and easy accessibility for monitoring plasma parameters. The downside is that the cost is typically high. Recently a number of commercial grade plasma etchers have been introduced on the market. These etching systems cost near a fraction of the price, making them a more economical choice for researchers in the field. However, very few academics use these devices because their effectiveness has not yet been adequately verified in the current literature. We will present the results from experiments performed in a commercial grade plasma etching system, including analysis of the pulse characteristics observed by a photo diode and the plasma parameters obtained with optical emission spectroscopy.

  13. Numerical studies on divertor plasmas in helical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Noriaki (Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae


    Scrape-off layer and divertor plasmas in helical systems are studied by using the two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulation code. Unified edge divertor analysis code (UEDA code) is applied to the straight helical model of torsatron/helical heliotron configurations. 2D profiles of plasma parameter, neutrals and impurities are obtained. Erosion rate and neutral back flow rate to the core plasma are also evaluated. Various shapes of the buffle plate are examined from the view point of the establishment of 'dense-cold divertor plasma' by which we can avoid the damage of the target plate. (author).

  14. Development of New Sputter System by Magnetic Null Plasma


    敦田, 悟; 楊, 鍾煥; 川尻, 晋平; 成, 烈[ブン; 本田, 親久; 大坪, 昌久


    Abstract ###A new type of plasma system based on the magnetic neutral loop discharge (NLD) concept ###has been developed for sputter application. This system is characterized by plasma production ###around the multi null magnetic field on the electrode surface, where a capacitive RF electric ###field is applied. From the experimental results and numerical analysis of electron behavior in ###this system, we found that electrons around the magnetic null region on the target surface ###moved in ...

  15. Fast ion beam-plasma interaction system. (United States)

    Breun, R A; Ferron, J R


    A device has been constructed for the study of the interaction between a fast ion beam and a target plasma of separately controllable parameters. The beam of either hydrogen or helium ions has an energy of 1-4 keV and a total current of 0.5-2 A. The beam energy and beam current can be varied separately. The ion source plasma is created by a pulsed (0.2-10-ms pulse length) discharge in neutral gas at up to 3 x 10(-3) Torr. The neutrals are pulsed into the source chamber, allowing the neutral pressure in the target region to remain less than 5 x 10(-5) Torr at a 2-Hz repetition rate. The creation of the source plasma can be described by a simple set of equations which predict optimum source design parameters. The target plasma is also produced by a pulsed discharge. Between the target and source chambers the beam is neutralized by electrons drawn from a set of hot filaments. Currently under study is an unstable wave in a field-free plasma excited when the beam velocity is nearly equal to the target electron thermal velocity (v(beam) approximately 3.5 x 10(7) cm/s, Te = 0.5 eV).

  16. Mechanisms of a novel anticancer therapeutic strategy involving atmospheric pressure plasma-mediated apoptosis and DNA strand break formation. (United States)

    Chung, Woo-Hyun


    Atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed for a variety of biomedical applications due to its chemically reactive components. Recently, the plasma has emerged as a promising novel cancer therapy based on its ability to selectively ablate cancer cells while leaving normal cells essentially unaffected. The therapeutic effect of plasma is attributed to intracellular generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) leading to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and to activation of the DNA damage checkpoint signaling pathway via severe DNA strand break formation. However, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for appropriate activation of these physiological events and which pathway is more crucial for plasma-mediated cytotoxicity have not been clarified. Understanding the molecular link between ROS/RNS-mediated apoptosis and DNA damage-involved chromosome instability is critical for the development of more efficacious therapeutic strategies for selective killing of diverse cancer cells.

  17. [Eales' disease involving central nervous system white matter]. (United States)

    Antigüedad, A; Zarranz, J J


    Eales' disease (ED) is a rare condition characterized by repeated retinal and vitreous hemorrhages. The only extraocular involvement described occasionally in the literature is neurological. Histologically, vasculitis in ED is usually restricted to the eye, but occasionally involves the central nervous system, where demyelinizing lesions may also occur. We present a 34-year-old male with ED and subclinical central nervous system involvement. Craneal magnetic resonance images (MR) suggested demyelinization; brainstem auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials were abnormal. There was moderate pleocytosis in CSF and intratecal production of immunoglobulins with oligoclonal bands. Follow-up over a period of 2.5 years showed no clinical, MR or CSF changes in spite of continued opthamological impairment. Little is known about factors that affect the development or not of demyelinizing lesions in ED patients with neurological involvement demonstrated by intratecal production of immunoglobulins. Identification of such factors may contribute to our understanding of other diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈加林; 陈克敏; 蒋蕴毅; 丁小龙


    Objective To assess the sensitivity of high-resolution CT (HRCT) in detecting pulmonary involvement attributed to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Plain chest radiography, HRCT, and pulmonary function testing of 36 patients with SLE were analyzed. Results The sensitivity of the pulmonary involvement by HRCT, plain chest radiography and pulmonary function testing were 88.9%,36.1%,and 33.3%, respectively. Conclusion HRCT played an important role in detecting pulmonary involvemen due to SLE, especially in early and mild cases.

  19. Electron cyclotron resonance heating in a short cylindrical plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vipin K Yadav; D Bora


    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma is produced and studied in a small cylindrical system. Microwave power is delivered by a CW magnetron at 2.45 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extraordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the first two ECR surfaces ( = 875.0 G and = 437.5 G) reside in the system. ECR plasma is produced with hydrogen with typical plasma density e as 3.2 × 1010 cm-3 and plasma temperature e between 9 and 15 eV. Various cut-off and resonance positions are identified in the plasma system. ECR heating (ECRH) of the plasma is observed experimentally. This heating is because of the mode conversion of X-wave to electron Bernstein wave (EBW) at the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) layer. The power mode conversion efficiency is estimated to be 0.85 for this system. The experimental results are presented in this paper.

  20. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper deals with the clinical, immunological and pathological data of 5 eases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Each of the five cases has typical SLE damages on the skin and multiple organs. Among

  1. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi


    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  2. A plasma-arc pyrolysis system for hazardous waste treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ A laboratory system for the treatment of medical and hazardous wastes via AC plasma-arc pyrolysis was recently built up by a research team led by Prof. SHENG Hongzhi at the CAS Institute of Mechanics (IMECH) in Beijing.

  3. Application of particle image velocimetry to dusty plasma systems (United States)

    Williams, Jeremiah D.


    > Particle image velocimetry is a fluid measurement technique that has been used for more than 20 years to characterize the particle transport and thermal state of dusty plasma systems. This manuscript provides an overview of this diagnostic technique, highlighting the strengths and limitations that are associated with its use. Additionally, the variations of this technique that have been applied in the study of dusty plasma systems will be discussed, along with a small selection of measurements that can be made with the technique. Potential future directions for this diagnostic tool within the dusty plasma community will also be discussed.

  4. Chaotic synchronization in coupled spatially extended beam-plasma systems


    Filatov, Roman A.; Hramov, Alexander E.; ALEXEY A. KORONOVSKII


    The appearance of the chaotic synchronization regimes has been discovered for the coupled spatially extended beam-plasma Pierce systems. The coupling was introduced only on the right bound of each subsystem. It has been shown that with coupling increase the spatially extended beam-plasma systems show the transition from asynchronous behavior to the phase synchronization and then to the complete synchronization regime. For the consideration of the chaotic synchronization we used the concept of...

  5. Studies on plasma production in a large volume system using multiple compact ECR plasma sources (United States)

    Tarey, R. D.; Ganguli, A.; Sahu, D.; Narayanan, R.; Arora, N.


    This paper presents a scheme for large volume plasma production using multiple highly portable compact ECR plasma sources (CEPS) (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026). The large volume plasma system (LVPS) described in the paper is a scalable, cylindrical vessel of diameter  ≈1 m, consisting of source and spacer sections with multiple CEPS mounted symmetrically on the periphery of the source sections. Scaling is achieved by altering the number of source sections/the number of sources in a source section or changing the number of spacer sections for adjusting the spacing between the source sections. A series of plasma characterization experiments using argon gas were conducted on the LVPS under different configurations of CEPS, source and spacer sections, for an operating pressure in the range 0.5-20 mTorr, and a microwave power level in the range 400-500 W per source. Using Langmuir probes (LP), it was possible to show that the plasma density (~1  -  2  ×  1011 cm-3) remains fairly uniform inside the system and decreases marginally close to the chamber wall, and this uniformity increases with an increase in the number of sources. It was seen that a warm electron population (60-80 eV) is always present and is about 0.1% of the bulk plasma density. The mechanism of plasma production is discussed in light of the results obtained for a single CEPS (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026).

  6. Transition regions in solar system and astrophysical plasmas (United States)

    Eastman, Timothy E.


    A brief review is presented of basic particle and field characteristics of plasmas observed within the solar system, especially near transition regions, and their parameter ranges are compared with those inferred for stellar winds and the interstellar medium. Parameter ranges for solar system and astrophysical plasmas are found to have considerable overlap. In addition, astrophysics provides unique, global perspectives of large-scale systems, whereas solar-system space physics provides for direct quantitative testing of physical processes. Astrophysics and solar-system space physics studies thus have complementary and synergistic roles.

  7. Plasma sources of solar system magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Michel; Chappell, Charles; Krupp, Norbert


    This volume reviews what we know of the corresponding plasma source for each intrinsically magnetized planet. Plasma sources fall essentially in three categories: the solar wind, the ionosphere (both prevalent on Earth), and the satellite-related sources. Throughout the text, the case of each planet is described, including the characteristics, chemical composition and intensity of each source. The authors also describe how the plasma generated at the source regions is transported to populate the magnetosphere, and how it is later lost. To summarize, the dominant sources are found to be the solar wind and sputtered surface ions at Mercury, the solar wind and ionosphere at Earth (the relative importance of the two being discussed in a specific introductory chapter), Io at Jupiter and – a big surprise of the Cassini findings – Enceladus at Saturn. The situation for Uranus and Neptune, which were investigated by only one fly-by each, is still open and requires further studies and exploration. In the final cha...

  8. Pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis: A clinical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Deepa


    Full Text Available Background: Systemic sclerosis is a generalized disorder of connective tissue affecting skin and internal organs. Lung involvement accounts for significant morbidity and is a leading cause of mortality in patients. Objectives: This study intends to study the frequency of occurrence of pulmonary involvement in progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS and to describe the clinical and radiological picture of pulmonary involvement in PSS. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. A detailed history, modified Rodnan score, clinical examination, routine investigation, antinuclear antibody, immuno biot, chest X-ray (CXR, pulmonary function test (PFT, and 6 min walk test (6MWT were performed on all patients. High resolution computed tomography was done on those who consented. Results: Hundred subjects with PSS were included in the study; 90 were females and 10 were males. Common presenting complaints were skin thickening in 98% and Raynaud's phenomenon in 98%. Skin thickening of digits beyond metacarpo phalangeal was seen in 98%, face and neck in 92%, and hands in 92%. Chest wall thickening was seen in 40 subjects (40%. 90 (90% of the studied subjects had pulmonary involvement, longer duration of disease was significantly associated with pulmonary involvement (P < 0.05. Dyspnea, cough, bilateral crepitations, CXR, Borg score, and Rodnan score was found to be significantly associated with severe pulmonary involvement (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of pulmonary involvement in this cohort study was 90%. Almost 1/3rd of patients, that is 29 (29% were detected to have pulmonary involvement despite being asymptomatic for respiratory complaints, hence early screening and evaluation is recommended. PFT and 6MWT are noninvasive, cost-effective, and easily available screening tests which can be used in resource-limited settings.

  9. Method and system for nanoscale plasma processing of objects (United States)

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Hua, Xuefeng; Stolz, Christian


    A plasma processing system includes a source of plasma, a substrate and a shutter positioned in close proximity to the substrate. The substrate/shutter relative disposition is changed for precise control of substrate/plasma interaction. This way, the substrate interacts only with a fully established, stable plasma for short times required for nanoscale processing of materials. The shutter includes an opening of a predetermined width, and preferably is patterned to form an array of slits with dimensions that are smaller than the Debye screening length. This enables control of the substrate/plasma interaction time while avoiding the ion bombardment of the substrate in an undesirable fashion. The relative disposition between the shutter and the substrate can be made either by moving the shutter or by moving the substrate.

  10. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Manipulation of Proteins in Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolouie, Haniye; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin


    Plasma processing has been getting a lot of attention in recent applications as a novel, eco-friendly, and highly efficient approach. Cold plasma has mostly been used to reduce microbial counts in foodstuff and biological materials, as well as in different levels of packaging, particularly in cases...... where there is thermal sensitivity. As it is a very recent application, the impact of cold plasma treatment has been studied on the protein structures of food and pharmaceutical systems, as well as in the packaging industry. Proteins, as a food constituent, play a remarkable role in the techno...... of plasma on the conformation and function of proteins with food origin, especially enzymes and allergens, as well as protein-made packaging films. In enzyme manipulation with plasma, deactivation has been reported to be either partial or complete. In addition, an activity increase has been observed in some...

  11. Peripheral nervous system involvement in chronic spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tankisi, Hatice; Pugdahl, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius


    Introduction: Upper motor neuron disorders are believed to leave the peripheral nervous system (PNS) intact. In this study we examined whether there is evidence of PNS involvement in spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Twelve subjects with chronic low cervical or thoracic SCI were included...

  12. Immune systems in animals involve complex combi- nations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Immune systems in animals involve complex combi- nations of humoral and ..... R. S., Söderhäll, K. and B. A. Weeks-Perkins (Eds). Fair. Haven, New Jersey; SOS ... Analysis of Octopus vulgaris hemolymph containing a glycoprotein with blood ...

  13. Impact of plasma noise on a direct thrust measurement system (United States)

    Pottinger, S. J.; Lamprou, D.; Knoll, A. K.; Lappas, V. J.


    In order to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of a pendulum-type thrust measurement system, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) and a laser optical displacement sensor have been used simultaneously to determine the displacement resulting from an applied thrust. The LVDT sensor uses an analog interface, whereas the laser sensor uses a digital interface to communicate the displacement readings to the data acquisition equipment. The data collected by both sensors show good agreement for static mass calibrations and validation with a cold gas thruster. However, the data obtained using the LVDT deviate significantly from that of the laser sensor when operating two varieties of plasma thrusters: a radio frequency (RF) driven plasma thruster, and a DC powered plasma thruster. Results establish that even with appropriate shielding and signal filtering the LVDT sensor is subject to plasma noise and radio frequency interactions which result in anomalous thrust readings. Experimental data show that the thrust determined using the LVDT system in a direct current plasma environment and a RF discharge is approximately a factor of three higher than the thrust values obtained using a laser sensor system for the operating conditions investigated. These findings are of significance to the electric propulsion community as LVDT sensors are often utilized in thrust measurement systems and accurate thrust measurement and the reproducibility of thrust data is key to analyzing thruster performance. Methods are proposed to evaluate system susceptibility to plasma noise and an effective filtering scheme presented for DC discharges.

  14. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D


    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  15. Involvement of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Adaption of Rice to Ammonium Nutrient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yi-yong; LIAN Juan; ZENG Hou-qing; LIU GAN; DI Ting-jun; SHEN Qi-rong; XU Guo-hua


    The preference of paddy rice for NH4+ rather than NO3- is associated with its tolerance to low pH since a rhizosphere acidification occurs during NH4+ absorption.However,the adaptation of rice root to low pH has not been fully elucidated.The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a universal electronic H+ pump,which uses ATP as energy source to pump H+ across the plasma membranes into the apoplast.The key function of this enzyme is to keep pH homeostasis of plant cells and generate a H+ electrochemical gradient,thereby providing the driving force for the active influx and efflux of ions and metabolites across the plasma membrane.This study investigated the acclimation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase of rice root to low pH.This mechanism might be partly responsible for the preference of rice plants to NH4+ nutrition.

  16. Continuous, saturation, and discontinuous tokamak plasma vertical position control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrishkin, Yuri V., E-mail: [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Pavlova, Evgeniia A., E-mail: [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Evgenii A., E-mail: [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Gaydamaka, Kirill I., E-mail: [V. A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • Robust new linear state feedback control system for tokamak plasma vertical position. • Plasma vertical position relay control system with voltage inverter in sliding mode. • Design of full models of multiphase rectifier and voltage inverter. • First-order unit approximation of full multiphase rectifier model with high accuracy. • Wider range of unstable plant parameters of stable control system with multiphase rectifier. - Abstract: This paper is devoted to the design and comparison of unstable plasma vertical position control systems in the T-15 tokamak with the application of two types of actuators: a multiphase thyristor rectifier and a transistor voltage inverter. An unstable dynamic element obtained by the identification of plasma-physical DINA code was used as the plasma model. The simplest static feedback state space control law was synthesized as a linear combination of signals accessible to physical measurements, namely the plasma vertical displacement, the current, and the voltage in a horizontal field coil, to solve the pole placement problem for a closed-loop system. Only one system distinctive parameter was used to optimize the performance of the feedback system, viz., a multiple real pole. A first-order inertial unit was used as the rectifier model in the feedback. A system with a complete rectifier model was investigated as well. A system with the voltage inverter model and static linear controller was brought into a sliding mode. As this takes place, real time delays were taken into account in the discontinuous voltage inverter model. The comparison of the linear and sliding mode systems showed that the linear system enjoyed an essentially wider range of the plant model parameters where the feedback system was stable.

  17. Long velocity tails in plasmas and gravitational systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brenig, L; Filho, T M Rocha


    Long tails in the velocity distribution are observed in plasmas and gravitational systems. Some experiments and observations in far-from-equilibrium conditions show that these tails behave as 1/v^(5/2). We show here that such heavy tails are due to a universal mechanism related to the fluctuations of the total force field. Owing to the divergence in 1/r^2 of the binary interaction force, these fluctuations can be very large and their probability density exhibits a similar long tail. They induce large velocity fluctuations leading to the 1/v^(5/2) tail. We extract the mechanism causing these properties from the BBGKY hierarchy representation of Statistical Mechanics. This leads to a modification of the Vlasov equation by an additional term. The novel term involves a fractional power 3/4 of the Laplacian in velocity space and a fractional iterated time integral. Solving the new kinetic equation for a uniform system, we retrieve the observed 1/v^(5/2) tail for the velocity distribution. These results are confirm...

  18. Observation of Vortex Patterns in a Magnetized Dusty Plasma System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Feng; YE Maofu; WANG Long; LIU Yanhong


    Vortex patterns of dust particles have been observed in a magnetized dusty plasma system. The formation mechanism of two-dimensional (2D) vortex patterns has been investigated by analysing the forces acting on dust particles and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in a 2D confined magnetized dusty plasma. It has been found that with a weak confining electric field and a strong magnetic field, the particles' trajectories will form a vortex shape. The simulation results agree with our experimental observations. In our experiments, vortex patterns can be induced via circular rotation of particles by changing the rf (radio-frequency) power in a magnetized dusty plasma.

  19. Three Filtered Vacuum Arc Plasma Sources Deposition & Implantation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xian-ying; ZHANG Hui-xing; LI Qiang


    A deposition & implantation system, which includes three filtered vacuum arc plasma sources, has been built. Vacuum arc discharge is used to produce high-density metal plasma; Curved magnetic filtering technique is used to transfer the plasma into out-of-sight vacuum chamber and reduce macro-particles from the vacuum arc plasma in order to drastically reduce the macro-particles contamination of the films. The up to 30 kV negative bias applied to the target can be used for ion implantation in order to improve the film adhesion; or for ion sputtering to clear the substrate surface. The 0 to 300 V negative bias can be used to adjust the ion energy which forming films. The system is designed for various thin films synthesizing, such as single-layer, compound layer, multi-layer films. It's principle, components and applications are described in the literature.

  20. Onset of normal and inverse homoclinic bifurcation in a double plasma system near a plasma fireball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Vramori; Sarma, Bornali; Sarma, Arun [VIT University Chennai Campus, Vandalur-Kelambakkam Road, Chennai-600127, Tamil Nadu (India); Janaki, M. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N. [Plasma Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)


    Plasma fireballs are generated due to a localized discharge and appear as a luminous glow with a sharp boundary, which suggests the presence of a localized electric field such as electrical sheath or double layer structure. The present work reports the observation of normal and inverse homoclinic bifurcation phenomena in plasma oscillations that are excited in the presence of fireball in a double plasma device. The controlling parameters for these observations are the ratio of target to source chamber (n{sub T}/n{sub S}) densities and applied electrode voltage. Homoclinic bifurcation is noticed in the plasma potential fluctuations as the system evolves from narrow to long time period oscillations and vice versa with the change of control parameter. The dynamical transition in plasma fireball is demonstrated by spectral analysis, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), and statistical measures, viz., skewness and kurtosis. The increasing trend of normalized variance reflects that enhancing n{sub T}/n{sub S} induces irregularity in plasma dynamics. The exponential growth of the time period is strongly indicative of homoclinic bifurcation in the system. The gradual decrease of skewness and increase of kurtosis with the increase of n{sub T}/n{sub S} also reflect growing complexity in the system. The visual change of recurrence plot and gradual enhancement of RQA variables DET, L{sub max}, and ENT reflects the bifurcation behavior in the dynamics. The combination of RQA and spectral analysis is a clear evidence that homoclinic bifurcation occurs due to the presence of plasma fireball with different density ratios. However, inverse bifurcation takes place due to the change of fireball voltage. Some of the features observed in the experiment are consistent with a model that describes the dynamics of ionization instabilities.

  1. Onset of normal and inverse homoclinic bifurcation in a double plasma system near a plasma fireball (United States)

    Mitra, Vramori; Sarma, Bornali; Sarma, Arun; Janaki, M. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.


    Plasma fireballs are generated due to a localized discharge and appear as a luminous glow with a sharp boundary, which suggests the presence of a localized electric field such as electrical sheath or double layer structure. The present work reports the observation of normal and inverse homoclinic bifurcation phenomena in plasma oscillations that are excited in the presence of fireball in a double plasma device. The controlling parameters for these observations are the ratio of target to source chamber (nT/nS) densities and applied electrode voltage. Homoclinic bifurcation is noticed in the plasma potential fluctuations as the system evolves from narrow to long time period oscillations and vice versa with the change of control parameter. The dynamical transition in plasma fireball is demonstrated by spectral analysis, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), and statistical measures, viz., skewness and kurtosis. The increasing trend of normalized variance reflects that enhancing nT/nS induces irregularity in plasma dynamics. The exponential growth of the time period is strongly indicative of homoclinic bifurcation in the system. The gradual decrease of skewness and increase of kurtosis with the increase of nT/nS also reflect growing complexity in the system. The visual change of recurrence plot and gradual enhancement of RQA variables DET, Lmax, and ENT reflects the bifurcation behavior in the dynamics. The combination of RQA and spectral analysis is a clear evidence that homoclinic bifurcation occurs due to the presence of plasma fireball with different density ratios. However, inverse bifurcation takes place due to the change of fireball voltage. Some of the features observed in the experiment are consistent with a model that describes the dynamics of ionization instabilities.

  2. Tokamak Plasmas : Electron temperature $(T_{e})$ measurements by Thomson scattering system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Rajesh; B Ramesh Kumar; S K Varshney; Manoj Kumar; Chhaya Chavda; Aruna Thakkar; N C Patel; Ajai Kumar; Aditya Team


    Thomson scattering technique based on high power laser has already proved its superoirity in measuring the electron temperature (e) and density (e) in fusion plasma devices like tokamaks. The method is a direct and unambiguous one, widely used for the localised and simultaneous measurements of the above parameters. In Thomson scattering experiment, the light scattered by the plasma electrons is used for the measurements. The plasma electron temperature is measured from the Doppler shifted scattered spectrum and density from the total scattered intensity. A single point Thomson scattering system involving a -switched ruby laser and PMTs as the detector is deployed in ADITYA tokamak to give the plasma electron parameters. The system is capable of providing the parameters e from 30 eV to 1 keV and e from 5 × 1012 cm-3-5× 1013 cm-3. The system is also able to give the parameter profile from the plasma center ( = 0 cm) to a vertical position of = +22 cm to = -14 cm, with a spatial resolution of 1 cm on shot to shot basis. This paper discusses the initial measurements of the plasma temperature from ADITYA.

  3. Detailed search for protein kinase(s) involved in plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity regulation of yeast cells. (United States)

    Pereira, Renata R; Castanheira, Diogo; Teixeira, Janaina A; Bouillet, Leoneide E M; Ribeiro, Erica M C; Trópia, Maria M J; Alvarez, Florencia; Correa, Lygia F M; Mota, Bruno E F; Conceição, Luis Eduardo F R; Castro, Ieso M; Brandão, Rogelio L


    This study displays a screening using yeast strains deficient in protein kinases known to exist in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From 95 viable single mutants, 20 mutants appear to be affected in the glucose-induced extracellular acidification. The mutants that are unaffected in calcium signaling were tested for their sensitivity to hygromycin B. Furthermore, we verified whether the remaining mutants produced enzymes that are appropriately incorporated at plasma membrane. Finally, we measure the kinetic properties of the enzyme in purified plasma membranes from glucose-starved as well as glucose-fermenting cells. We confirmed the kinase Ptk2 involvement in H(+)-ATPase regulation (increase of affinity for ATP). However, the identification of the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylation that leads to an increase in Vmax appears to be more complex. Complementary experiments were performed to check how those protein kinases could be related to the control of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and/or the potential membrane. In summary, our results did not permit us to identify the protein kinase(s) involved in regulating the catalytic efficiency of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Therefore, our results indicate that the current regulatory model based on the phosphorylation of two different sites located in the C-terminus tail of the enzyme could be inappropriate.

  4. Plasma transport simulation modeling for helical confinement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K.; Amano, T.


    New empirical and theoretical transport models for helical confinement systems are developed based on the neoclassical transport theory including the effect of radial electric field and multi-helicity magnetic components, and the drift wave turbulence transport for electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, or the anomalous semi-empirical transport. These electron thermal diffusivities are compared with CHS (Compact Helical System) experimental data, which indicates that the central transport coefficient of the ECH plasma agrees with the neoclassical axi-symmetric value and the transport outside the half radius is anomalous. On the other hand, the transport of NBI-heated plasmas is anomalous in the whole plasma region. This anomaly is not explained by the electrostatic drift wave turbulence models in these flat-density-profile discharges. For the detailed prediction of plasma parameters in LHD (Large Helical Device), 3-D(dimensional) equilibrium/1-D transport simulations including empirical or drift wave turbulence models are carried out, which suggests that the global confinement time of LHD is determined mainly by the electron anomalous transport near the plasma edge region rather than the helical ripple transport in the core region. Even if the ripple loss can be eliminated, the increase of the global confinement is 10%. However, the rise in the central ion temperature is more than 20%. If the anomalous loss can be reduced to the half level of the present scaling, like so-called `H-mode` of the tokamak discharge, the neoclassical ripple loss through the ion channel becomes important even in the plasma core. The 5% radial inward shift of the plasma column with respect to the major radius is effective for improving plasma confinement and raising more than 50% of the fusion product by reducing this neoclassical asymmetric ion transport loss and increasing 10% in the plasma radius. (author).

  5. Automatization of hardware configuration for plasma diagnostic system (United States)

    Wojenski, A.; Pozniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kolasinski, P.; Krawczyk, R. D.; Zabolotny, W.; Linczuk, P.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Malinowski, K.


    Soft X-ray plasma measurement systems are mostly multi-channel, high performance systems. In case of the modular construction it is necessary to perform sophisticated system discovery in parallel with automatic system configuration. In the paper the structure of the modular system designed for tokamak plasma soft X-ray measurements is described. The concept of the system discovery and further automatic configuration is also presented. FCS application (FMC/ FPGA Configuration Software) is used for running sophisticated system setup with automatic verification of proper configuration. In order to provide flexibility of further system configurations (e.g. user setup), common communication interface is also described. The approach presented here is related to the automatic system firmware building presented in previous papers. Modular construction and multichannel measurements are key requirement in term of SXR diagnostics with use of GEM detectors.

  6. Laser-produced plasma source system development (United States)

    Fomenkov, Igor V.; Brandt, David C.; Bykanov, Alexander N.; Ershov, Alexander I.; Partlo, William N.; Myers, David W.; Böwering, Norbert R.; Vaschenko, Georgiy O.; Khodykin, Oleh V.; Hoffman, Jerzy R.; Vargas L., Ernesto; Simmons, Rodney D.; Chavez, Juan A.; Chrobak, Christopher P.


    This paper describes the development of laser produced plasma (LPP) technology as an EUV source for advanced scanner lithography applications in high volume manufacturing. EUV lithography is expected to succeed 193 nm immersion technology for critical layer patterning below 32 nm beginning with beta generation scanners in 2009. This paper describes the development status of subsystems most critical to the performance to meet joint scanner manufacturer requirements and semiconductor industry standards for reliability and economic targets for cost of ownership. The intensity and power of the drive laser are critical parameters in the development of extreme ultraviolet LPP lithography sources. The conversion efficiency (CE) of laser light into EUV light is strongly dependent on the intensity of the laser energy on the target material at the point of interaction. The total EUV light generated then scales directly with the total incident laser power. The progress on the development of a short pulse, high power CO2 laser for EUV applications is reported. The lifetime of the collector mirror is a critical parameter in the development of extreme ultra-violet LPP lithography sources. The deposition of target materials and contaminants, as well as sputtering of the collector multilayer coating and implantation of incident particles can reduce the reflectivity of the mirror substantially over the exposure time even though debris mitigation schemes are being employed. The results of measurements of high energy ions generated by a short-pulse CO2 laser on a laser-produced plasma EUV light source with Sn target are presented. Droplet generation is a key element of the LPP source being developed at Cymer for EUV lithography applications. The main purpose of this device is to deliver small quantities of liquid target material as droplets to the laser focus. The EUV light in such configuration is obtained as a result of creating a highly ionized plasma from the material of the

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis: immune system involvement and distinctive clinical cases. (United States)

    Imbesi, S; Minciullo, P L; Isola, S; Gangemi, S


    The aim of this review is drawing the attention to the contact dermatitis, an inflammatory skin condition due to pro-inflammatory and toxic factors able to activate the skin innate immunity (irritant contact dermatitis) or caused by a T-cell- mediated hypersensitivity reaction (allergic contact dermatitis). The immune system involvement and a variety of clinical pictures are described in order to better diagnose, prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.

  8. Informational analysis involving application of complex information system (United States)

    Ciupak, Clébia; Vanti, Adolfo Alberto; Balloni, Antonio José; Espin, Rafael

    The aim of the present research is performing an informal analysis for internal audit involving the application of complex information system based on fuzzy logic. The same has been applied in internal audit involving the integration of the accounting field into the information systems field. The technological advancements can provide improvements to the work performed by the internal audit. Thus we aim to find, in the complex information systems, priorities for the work of internal audit of a high importance Private Institution of Higher Education. The applied method is quali-quantitative, as from the definition of strategic linguistic variables it was possible to transform them into quantitative with the matrix intersection. By means of a case study, where data were collected via interview with the Administrative Pro-Rector, who takes part at the elaboration of the strategic planning of the institution, it was possible to infer analysis concerning points which must be prioritized at the internal audit work. We emphasize that the priorities were identified when processed in a system (of academic use). From the study we can conclude that, starting from these information systems, audit can identify priorities on its work program. Along with plans and strategic objectives of the enterprise, the internal auditor can define operational procedures to work in favor of the attainment of the objectives of the organization.

  9. Proteomic methodological recommendations for studies involving human plasma, platelets, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (United States)

    de Roos, Baukje; Duthie, Susan J; Polley, Abigael C J; Mulholland, Francis; Bouwman, Freek G; Heim, Carolin; Rucklidge, Garry J; Johnson, Ian T; Mariman, Edwin C; Daniel, Hannelore; Elliott, Ruan M


    This study was designed to develop, optimize and validate protocols for blood processing prior to proteomic analysis of plasma, platelets and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and to determine analytical variation of a single sample of depleted plasma, platelet and PBMC proteins within and between four laboratories each using their own standard operating protocols for 2D gel electrophoresis. Plasma depleted either using the Beckman Coulter IgY-12 proteome partitioning kit or the Amersham albumin and IgG depletion columns gave good quality gels, but reproducibility appeared better with the single-use immuno-affinity column. The use of the Millipore Filter Device for protein concentration gave a 16% ( p appears as a single abundant spot. The average within-laboratory coefficient of variation (CV) for each of the matched spots after automatic matching using either PDQuest or ProteomWeaver software ranged between 18 and 69% for depleted plasma proteins, between 21 and 55% for platelet proteins, and between 22 and 38% for PBMC proteins. Subsequent manual matching improved the CV with on average between 1 and 16%. The average between laboratory CV for each of the matched spots after automatic matching ranged between 4 and 54% for depleted plasma proteins, between 5 and 60% for platelet proteins, and between 18 and 70% for PBMC proteins. This variation must be considered when designing sufficiently powered studies that use proteomics tools for biomarker discovery. The use of tricine in the running buffer for the second dimension appears to enhance the resolution of proteins especially in the high molecular weight range.

  10. Study of Systemic Risk Involved in Mutual Funds (United States)

    Dash, Kishore C.; Dash, Monika

    Systemic risk, may be defined as the risk that contaminates to the whole system, consisting of many interacting agents that fail one after another. These agents, in an economic context, could be firms, banks, funds, or other financial institutions. Systemic risk is a macroscopic property of a system which emerges due to the nonlinear interaction of agents on a microscopic level. A stock market itself is a system in which there are many sub-systems, like Dowjones, Nifty, Sensex, Nasdaq, Nikkei and other market indices in global perspective. In Indian market, subsystems may be like Sensex, Nifty, BSE200, Bankex, smallcap index, midcap index, S&P CNX 500 and many others. Similarly there are many mutual funds, which have their own portfolio of different stocks, bonds etc. We have attempted to study the systemic risk involved in a fund as a macroscopic object with regard to its microscopic components as different stocks in its portfolio. It is observed that fund managers do manage to reduce the systemic risk just like we take precautions to control the spread of an epidemic.

  11. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina de Abreu Ferrari


    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resourses available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  12. Cardiac tamponade preceding skin involvement in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bozzola


    Full Text Available The frequency of pericardial involvement in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc is high on autoptic or echocardiographic studies, but the clinical recognition of pericarditis with or without effusion is rare. We describe a case of a 71-year-old female with no previous history of heart disease, who presented with a large pericardial effusion and tamponade that required pericardial drain. She had suffered from Raynaud’s phenomenon since 25 years. Six weeks after hospital discharge she complained of skin hardening on left leg. Pericardial tamponade is a very rare manifestation of SSc and occurs both early or late in the course of the disease, but in our case it preceded the recognition of scleroderma. We have only identified two other cases of pericardial effusion preceding cutaneous involvement in scleroderma.

  13. Acute strength exercise and the involvement of small or large muscle mass on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Correia


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blood neurotrophins, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, are considered to be of great importance in mediating the benefits of physical exercise. In this study, the effect of acute strength exercise and the involvement of small versus large muscle mass on the levels of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor were evaluated in healthy individuals. METHODS: The concentric strengths of knee (large and elbow (small flexor and extensor muscles were measured on two separate days. Venous blood samples were obtained from 16 healthy subjects before and after exercise. RESULTS: The levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the plasma did not significantly increase after both arm and leg exercise. There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the arms and legs. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrate that acute strength exercise does not induce significant alterations in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasma concentrations in healthy individuals. Considering that its levels may be affected by various factors, such as exercise, these findings suggest that the type of exercise program may be a decisive factor in altering peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

  14. Atmospheric Pressure Low Temperature Plasma System for Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Burnette, Matthew; Staack, David


    There is growing interest in using plasmas for additive manufacturing, however these methods use high temperature plasmas to melt the material. We have developed a novel technique of additive manufacturing using a low temperature dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet. The jet is attached to the head of a 3D printer to allow for precise control of the plasma's location. Various methods are employed to deposit the material, including using a vaporized precursor or depositing a liquid precursor directly onto the substrate or into the plasma via a nebulizer. Various materials can be deposited including metals (copper using copper (II) acetylacetonate), polymers (PMMA using the liquid monomer), and various hydrocarbon compounds (using alcohols or a 100% methane DBD jet). The rastering pattern for the 3D printer was modified for plasma deposition, since it was originally designed for thermoplastic extrusion. The design constraints for fill pattern selection for the plasma printer are influenced by substrate heating, deposition area, and precursor consumption. Depositions onto pressure and/or temperature sensitive substrates can be easily achieved. Deposition rates range up to 0.08 cm3/hr using tris(2-methoxyethoxy)(vinyl)silane, however optimization can still be done on the system to improve the deposition rate. For example higher concentration of precursor can be combined with faster motion and higher discharge powers to increase the deposition rate without overheating the substrate.

  15. The plasma carboxypeptidases and the regulation of the plasminogen system. (United States)

    Plow, E F; Allampallam, K; Redlitz, A


    Central to the regulation of the plasminogen system, a proteolytic network that mediates degradation of fibrin and facilitates cell migration, is the binding of plasminogen to carboxy-terminal lysines. These residues occur either naturally on plasmin substrates or cell surfaces or are generated as a consequence of partial plasmin degradation. The basic carboxypeptidases of plasma are capable of removing such carboxy-terminal lysines. Carboxypeptidase N, which is constitutively active, suppresses plasminogen binding to cell surfaces; plasma carboxypeptidase B, which must be proteolytically activated, not only suppresses cellular binding of plasminogen but also dampens fibrinolysis. Thus, the plasma carboxypeptidases may constitute an important regulatory pathway for controlling the activity of the plasminogen system in physiologic, pathophysiologic, and pharmacologic circumstances. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:71-75). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  16. Development and Integration of a Data Acquisition System for SST-1 Phase-1 Plasma Diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit K SRIVASTAVA; Manika SHARMA; Imran MANSURI; Atish SHARMA; Tushar RAVAL; Subrata PRADHAN


    Long pulse (of the order of 1000 s or more) SST-1 tokamak experiments demand a data acquisition system that is capable of acquiring data from various diagnostics channels without losing useful data (and hence physics information) while avoiding unnecessary generation of a large volume data. SST-1 Phase-1 tokamak operation has been envisaged with data acquisition of several essential diagnostics channels. These channels demand data acquisition at a sampling rate ranging from 1 kilo samples per second (KSPS) to 1 mega samples per second (MSPS). Considering the technical characteristics and requirements of the diagnostics, a data acquisition system based on PXI and CAMAC has been developed for SST-1 plasma diagnostics. Both these data acquisition systems are scalable. Present data acquisition needs involving slow plasma diagnostics are catered by the PXI based data acquisition system. On the other hand, CAMAC data acquisition hardware meets all requirements of the SST-1 Phase-1 fast plasma diagnostics channels. A graphical user interface for both data acquisition systems (PXI and CAMAC) has been developed using LabVIEW application development software. The collected data on the local hard disk are directly streaming to the central server through a dedicated network for post-shot data analysis. This paper describes the development and integration of the data acquisition system for SST-1 Phase-1 plasma diagnostics. The integrated testing of the developed data acquisition system has been performed using SST-1 central control and diagnostics signal conditioning units. In the absence of plasma shots, the integrated testing of the data acquisition system for the initial diagnostics of SST-1 Phase-1 operation has been performed with simulated physical signals. The primary engineering objective of this integrated testing is to validate the performance of the developed data acquisition system under simulated conditions close to that of actual tokamak operation. The data


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Giannì


    Full Text Available Obstacle detection is a fundamental task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV as a part of a Sense and Avoid system. In this study, we present a method of multi-sensor obstacle detection that demonstrated good results on different kind of obstacles. This method can be implemented on low-cost platforms involving a DSP or small FPGA. In this paper, we also present a study on the typical targets that can be tough to detect because of their characteristics of reflectivity, form factor, heterogeneity and show how data fusion can often overcome the limitations of each technology.

  18. Modulation of Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System Activity by Curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Singh


    Full Text Available Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD. Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP. Results show that curcumin significantly (p<0.01 downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects.

  19. The involvement of proteoglycans in the human plasma prekallikrein interaction with the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Lopes Veronez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of human plasma prekallikrein assembly and processing in cells and to determine whether proteoglycans, along with high molecular weight kininogen (H-kininogen, influence this interaction. METHODS: We used the endothelial cell line ECV304 and the epithelial cell lines CHO-K1 (wild type and CHO-745 (deficient in proteoglycans. Prekallikrein endocytosis was studied using confocal microscopy, and prekallikrein cleavage/activation was determined by immunoblotting using an antibody directed to the prekallikrein sequence C364TTKTSTR371 and an antibody directed to the entire H-kininogen molecule. RESULTS: At 37°C, prekallikrein endocytosis was assessed in the absence and presence of exogenously applied H-kininogen and found to be 1,418.4±0.010 and 1,070.3±0.001 pixels/cell, respectively, for ECV304 and 1,319.1±0.003 and 631.3±0.001 pixels/cell, respectively, for CHO-K1. No prekallikrein internalization was observed in CHO-745 in either condition. Prekallikrein colocalized with LysoTracker in the absence and presence of exogenous H-kininogen at levels of 76.0% and 88.5%, respectively, for ECV304 and at levels of 40.7% and 57.0%, respectively, for CHO-K1. After assembly on the cell surface, a plasma kallikrein fragment of 53 kDa was predominant in the incubation buffer of all the cell lines studied, indicating specific proteolysis; plasma kallikrein fragments of 48-44 kDa and 34-32 kDa were also detected in the incubation buffer, indicating non-specific cleavage. Bradykinin free H-kininogen internalization was not detected in CHO-K1 or CHO-745 cells at 37°C. CONCLUSION: The prekallikrein interaction with the cell surface is temperature-dependent and independent of exogenously applied H-kininogen, which results in prekallikrein endocytosis promoted by proteoglycans. Prekallikrein proteolysis/activation is influenced by H-kininogen/glycosaminoglycans assembly and controls plasma kallikrein

  20. Brain endocannabinoid system is involved in fluoxetine-induced anorexia. (United States)

    Zarate, Jon; Churruca, Itziar; Pascual, Jesús; Casis, Luis; Sallés, Joan; Echevarría, Enrique


    In order to describe the effects of chronic fluoxetine administration on the brain endocannabinoid system in lean and obese Zucker rats, brain immunostaining for the CB1 and CB1-phosphorylated cannabinoid receptors was carried out. Obese Zucker rats showed significantly increased the numbers of neural cells positively immunostained for the CB1-phosphorylated receptor in the striatum, compared to their lean litter-mates. Chronic fluoxetine administration decreased the number of neural cells immunostained for CB1-phosphorylated receptor in several striatal and hippocampal regions of obese Zucker rats, compared to controls treated with saline. In contrast, no change in CB1-phosphorylated receptor immunostaining was observed in fluoxetine-treated lean rats, with respect to controls. Taken together, these results suggest the involvement of the hippocampal and striatal endocannabinoid receptor system in fluoxetine-induced anorexia in lean and obese Zucker rats.

  1. Evaluating a tobacco leaf humidification system involving nebulisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Enrique Cerquera Peña


    Full Text Available A tobacco leaf humidifying system involving nebulisation was designned, implemented and evaluated; it had a system for monitoring and recording environmental conditions thereby producing an environment having more homogeneous relative humidity, ensuring better water use, better control of relative humidity and better control in managing cured tobacco leaf moisture content, thereby leading to a consequent improvement in final product quality. 55% to 75% relative humidity and 4 to 6 hour working ranges were obtained to en- sure leaf humidification reached 16% humidity on a wet basis. Two new designs are proposed for the conditioning stage regarding this conditioning chamber’s operational management, based on the results and field observations, which would allow better leaf management, thereby avoiding the risk of losses due to manipulation and over-humidification. This work strengthens research in the field of tobacco pos- tharvest technology, complementing other research projects which have been carried out in Colombia.

  2. Penile involvement in Systemic Sclerosis: New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aversa


    Full Text Available Systemic Sclerosis (SSc is a connective tissue disorder featuring vascular alterations and an immunological activation leading to a progressive and widespread fibrosis of several organs such as the skin, lung, gastrointestinal tract, heart, and kidney. Men with SSc are at increased risk of developing erectile dysfunction (ED because of the evolution of early microvascular tissutal damage into corporeal fibrosis. The entity of penile vascular damage in SSc patients has been demonstrated by using Duplex ultrasonography and functional infra-red imaging and it is now clear that this is a true clinical entity invariably occurring irrespective of age and disease duration and constituting the ‘‘sclerodermic penis’’. Once-daily phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE5 inhibitors improve both sexual function and vascular measures of cavernous arteries by improving surrogate markers of endothelial dysfunction, that is, plasma endothelin-1 and adrenomedullin levels, which may play a potential role in preventing progression of penile fibrosis and ED. Also, the beneficial effect of long-term PDE5i add-on therapy to SSc therapy in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon is described.

  3. Quantum dynamics of biological systems and dust plasma nanoparticles (United States)

    Lasukov, V. V.; Lasukova, T. V.; Lasukova, O. V.


    A quantum solution of the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation with convection and linear diffusion is obtained which can provide the basis for the quantum biology and quantum microphysics equation. On this basis, quantum emission of biological systems, separate microorganisms (cells or bacteria), and dust plasma particles is investigated.

  4. Wave Propagation in an Ion Beam-Plasma System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T. D.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    The spatial evolution of a velocity- or density-modulated ion beam is calculated for stable and unstable ion beam plasma systems, using the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equations. The propagation properties are found to be strongly dependent on the form of modulation. In the case of velocity...

  5. Spacecraft charging and plasma interaction implications for large space systems (United States)

    Miller, E.; Stauber, M.; Rossi, M.; Fischbein, W.


    Specific discharge mechanisms, plasma interactions, and scale effects associated with very large spacecraft are studied. The large area, low density character, and extensive use of non-conducting materials is thought to have a major impact on the performance and survivability of many large space systems.

  6. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system in Chagas heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Reis Lopes


    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system and especially the intracardiac autonomic nervous system is involved in Chagas' disease. Ganglionitis and periganglionitis were noted in three groups ofpatients dying with Chagas'disease: 1 Those in heart failure; 2 Those dying a sudden, non violent death and; 3 Those dying as a consequence ofaccidents or homicide. Hearts in the threegroups also revealed myocarditis and scattered involvement of intramyocardial ganglion cells as well as lesions of myelinic and unmyelinic fibers ascribable to Chagas'disease. In mice with experimentally induced Chagas' disease weobserved more intensive neuronal lesions of the cardiac ganglia in the acute phase of infection. Perhaps neuronal loss has a role in the pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy. However based on our own experience and on other data from the literature we conclude that the loss of neurones is not the main factor responsible for the manifestations exhibited by chronic chagasic patients. On the other hand the neuronal lesions may have played a role in the sudden death ofone group of patients with Chagas'disease but is difficult to explain the group of patients who did not die sudderly but instead progressed to cardiac failure.

  7. [Involvement of Syk in pathology of systemic autoimmune disease]. (United States)

    Iwata, Shigeru; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Niiro, Hiroaki; Nakano, Kazuhisa; Wang, Sheau-Pey; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Akashi, Koichi; Tanaka, Yoshiya


    Biological products have proven its high efficacy on autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Meanwhile, small molecular drugs have attracted attention over the years because of its availability of oral administration and cost effectiveness. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a 72 kDa protein tyrosine kinase widely expressed on cells that are involved in the immune system and inflammation such as B cells, T cells, macrophages and synovial fibroblast. Syk is involved in intracellular signaling of the multi-chain immune receptors, including B cell receptor (BCR), ζchain of T-cell receptor (TCR), FcR and integrins, which contains the immune-receptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). Recently, Syk inhibitor fostamatinib has exerted potent therapeutic efficacy against autoimmune and allergic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), bronchial asthma and thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Moreover, Syk blockade prevented the development of skin and kidney lesions in lupus-prone mice, however the mechanism of action is unclear. We have revealed that Syk-mediated BCR-signaling is prerequisite for optimal induction of toll-like receptor (TLR)-9, thereby allowing efficient propagation of CD40- and TLR9- signaling in human B cells. These results indicate that inhibition of Syk have a potential to regulate B-cell mediated inflammatory diseases such as SLE. We here document the in vitro and in vivo effects of a Syk inhibitor for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, mainly in RA and SLE.

  8. Entheseal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: are we missing something? (United States)

    Di Matteo, A; Satulu, I; Di Carlo, M; Lato, V; Filippucci, E; Grassi, W


    Background Musculoskeletal involvement is extremely common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Continuing the research initiated in patients with inflammatory arthritis, recent studies have shown the potential role of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) in the evaluation of clinical and subclinical lupus synovitis. The inflammatory process in SLE is traditionally considered to be localized at synovial tissue areas while enthesis is not included among the possible targets of the disease. Patients and methods Entheses included in the Glasgow Ultrasound Enthesitis Scoring System were scanned in a cohort of 20 SLE patients serving as disease controls in an MSUS study aimed at assessing enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis. We describe in detail four cases with unexpected and unequivocal expressions of MSUS enthesitis according to the OMERACT definition. Three out of four patients had no predisposing factors for enthesopathy. Case no. 2 was treated with a variable-dose prednisone regimen. Results In the four cases MSUS examination revealed relevant grey-scale and power Doppler abnormalities at the entheseal level, most commonly at the distal insertion of the patellar tendon. Signs of clinical enthesitis were detected in only one patient. Conclusions This case series shows for the first time the presence of clearly evident MSUS findings indicative of enthesitis in four out of 20 SLE patients (20%), raising the hypothesis that enthesis could be a missing target in the clinical evaluation of SLE patients. Our case series justifies further investigations for a better evaluation of the prevalence, characteristics and clinical relevance of entheseal involvement in SLE.

  9. Characteristics of joint involvement and relationships with systemic inflammation in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avouac, Jerome; Walker, Ulrich; Tyndall, Alan


    To determine the prevalence of and independent factors associated with joint involvement in a large population of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc).......To determine the prevalence of and independent factors associated with joint involvement in a large population of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc)....

  10. Counter-facing plasma focus system as a repetitive and/or long-pulse high energy density plasma source (United States)

    Aoyama, Yutaka; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko


    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial plasma guns is proposed as a long-pulse and/or repetitive high energy density plasma source. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated that with an assist of breakdown and outer electrode connections, current sheets evolved into a configuration for stable plasma confinement at the center of the electrodes. The current sheets could successively compress and confine the high energy density plasma every half period of the discharge current, enabling highly repetitive light emissions in extreme ultraviolet region with time durations in at least ten microseconds.

  11. Remote network control plasma diagnostic system for Tokamak T-10 (United States)

    Troynov, V. I.; Zimin, A. M.; Krupin, V. A.; Notkin, G. E.; Nurgaliev, M. R.


    The parameters of molecular plasma in closed magnetic trap is studied in this paper. Using the system of molecular diagnostics, which was designed by the authors on the «Tokamak T-10» facility, the radiation of hydrogen isotopes at the plasma edge is investigated. The scheme of optical radiation registration within visible spectrum is described. For visualization, identification and processing of registered molecular spectra a new software is developed using MatLab environment. The software also includes electronic atlas of electronic-vibrational-rotational transitions for molecules of protium and deuterium. To register radiation from limiter cross-section a network control system is designed using the means of the Internet/Intranet. Remote control system diagram and methods are given. The examples of web-interfaces for working out equipment control scenarios and viewing of results are provided. After test run in Intranet, the remote diagnostic system will be accessible through Internet.

  12. Neurogenic Inflammation Involves in Systemic Spread of Oral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo


    Full Text Available Focal infection theory proposed in early 1900’s stated that dental infection caused systemic disorders. Nevertheless, the theory was abandoned since large number of teeth were extracted with no satisfying result. Recent reports revealed that oral infections were able to spread systemically. However, there is no rationalization available to explain how assisted drainage therapy (ADT, a periodontal therapy that could relief migraine and asthma within minutes. Oral neurogenic and immunogenic inflammation interaction involving pro-inflammatory markers such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, TNF-α; and antiinflammatory vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP was still under investigation. Objective: To verify the spread of oral inflammation to distant organ after performing ADT by analysing CGRP, VIP and TNF-α expressions. Methods: Two different concentration of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (PgLPS1435/1450 was injected intragingivally into two groups of 12 Wistar rats. After four days, 12 rats were given ADT and all samples were subsequently sacrificed 40 mins after ADT. Immunohistochemistry analysis using CGRP, VIP and TNF-α on the nasal and bronchus tissue was performed. ANOVA was used for statistical analyisis of the difference between CGRP, VIP and TNF-α expression between experimental groups. Results: PgLPS injections slightly increased CGRP, VIP and TNF-α expressions in the control group. Rats undergone ADT had lower CGRP and TNF-α but higher VIP expressions. Conclusion: Neurogenic inflammation involved in systemic spread of oral infection. ADT was able to downregulate inflammation in distant organ posibly by stimulating VIP.

  13. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry (United States)

    Montaser, A.

    This research follows a multifaceted approach, from theory to practice, to the investigation and development of novel helium plasmas, sample introduction systems, and diagnostic techniques for atomic and mass spectrometries. During the period January 1994 - December 1994, four major sets of challenging research programs were addressed that each included a number of discrete but complementary projects: (1) The first program is concerned with fundamental and analytical investigations of novel atmospheric-pressure helium inductively coupled plasmas (He ICPS) that are suitable for the atomization-excitation-ionization of elements, especially those possessing high excitation and ionization energies, for the purpose of enhancing sensitivity and selectivity of analytical measurements. (2) The second program includes simulation and computer modeling of He ICPS. The aim is to ease the hunt for new helium plasmas by predicting their structure and fundamental and analytical properties, without incurring the enormous cost for extensive experimental studies. (3) The third program involves spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of plasma discharges to instantly visualize their prevailing structures, to quantify key fundamental properties, and to verify predictions by mathematical models. (4) The fourth program entails investigation of new, low-cost sample introduction systems that consume micro- to nanoliter quantity of sample solution in plasma spectrometries. A portion of this research involves development and applications of novel diagnostic techniques suitable for probing key fundamental properties of aerosol prior to and after injection into high-temperature plasmas. These efforts, still in progress, collectively offer promise of solving singularly difficult analytical problems that either exist now or are likely to arise in the future in the various fields of energy generation, environmental pollution, material science, biomedicine and nutrition.

  14. Correlations of plasma citrulline levels with clinical and endoscopic score and blood markers according to small bowel involvement in pediatric Crohn disease. (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Ko, Jae Sung; Seo, Jeong Kee


    Several studies have indicated that plasma citrulline levels reflect the extent of mucosal injury of the small intestine. This study was performed to determine whether plasma citrulline levels correlate with the disease activity in pediatric patients with Crohn disease (CD). A total of 63 CD and 23 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were included in this study. Disease severity was assessed by pediatric CD activity index (PCDAI), pediatric UC activity index, simplified endoscopic activity score for CD, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The correlations among these variables and plasma citrulline levels were evaluated. We performed subgroup analysis whether correlations between plasma citrulline levels and disease activity depend on small bowel involvement in patients with CD. The plasma citrulline levels correlated negatively with CRP (r = -0.332, P = 0.008), ESR (r = -0.290, P = 0.022), and PCDAI (r = -0.424, P = 0.001) in patients with CD. The plasma citrulline levels were significantly lower in patients with jejunal involvement than in those without (P = 0.027). In subgroup analysis, patients with CD with jejunal involvement showed significantly negative correlations of plasma citrulline levels with CRP (r = -0.628, P = 0.016) and PCDAI (r = -0.632, P = 0.015); however, patients with CD without jejunal involvement revealed no correlations of plasma citrulline levels with CRP and PCDAI. There were no significant correlations between plasma citrulline levels and simplified endoscopic activity score for CD. There were no significant correlations of plasma citrulline levels with CRP, ESR, and pediatric UC activity index in patients with UC. Plasma citrulline levels correlated with disease severity as measured by PCDAI, CRP, and ESR in pediatric patients with CD with jejunal involvement.

  15. Highly charged ions in a dilute plasma: an exact asymptotic solution involving strong coupling. (United States)

    Brown, Lowell S; Dooling, David C; Preston, Dean L


    The ion sphere model introduced long ago by Salpeter is placed in a rigorous theoretical setting. The leading corrections to this model for very highly charged but dilute ions in thermal equilibrium with a weakly coupled, one-component background plasma are explicitly computed, and the subleading corrections shown to be negligibly small. This is done using the effective field theory methods advocated by Brown and Yaffe. Thus, corrections to nuclear reaction rates that such highly charged ions may undergo can be computed precisely. Moreover, their contribution to the equation of state can also be computed with precision. Such analytic results for very strong coupling are rarely available, and they can serve as benchmarks for testing computer models in this limit.

  16. ATP-binding cassette-like transporters are involved in the transport of lignin precursors across plasma and vacuolar membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Y.C.; Liu, C.


    Lignin is a complex biopolymer derived primarily from the condensation of three monomeric precursors, the monolignols. The synthesis of monolignols occurs in the cytoplasm. To reach the cell wall where they are oxidized and polymerized, they must be transported across the cell membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the transport process are unclear. There are conflicting views about whether the transport of these precursors occurs by passive diffusion or is an energized active process; further, we know little about what chemical forms are required. Using isolated plasma and vacuolar membrane vesicles prepared from Arabidopsis, together with applying different transporter inhibitors in the assays, we examined the uptake of monolignols and their derivatives by these native membrane vesicles. We demonstrate that the transport of lignin precursors across plasmalemma and their sequestration into vacuoles are ATP-dependent primary-transport processes, involving ATP-binding cassette-like transporters. Moreover, we show that both plasma and vacuolar membrane vesicles selectively transport different forms of lignin precursors. In the presence of ATP, the inverted plasma membrane vesicles preferentially take up monolignol aglycones, whereas the vacuolar vesicles are more specific for glucoconjugates, suggesting that the different ATP-binding cassette-like transporters recognize different chemical forms in conveying them to distinct sites, and that glucosylation of monolignols is necessary for their vacuolar storage but not required for direct transport into the cell wall in Arabidopsis.

  17. Esophageal hypomotility in systemic sclerosis. Close relationship with pulmonary involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinuya, Keiko [Tonami General Hospital, Toyama (Japan); Nakajima, Kenichi; Kinuya, Seigo; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa; Takehara, Kazuhiko


    Esophageal motility was assessed in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) by scintigraphy and compared with extent of scleroderma, duration of disease, index of anti-topoisomerase I antibody (topo I), and pulmonary involvement. A multiple-swallow test was performed in 47 patients with SSc in the supine position with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. A region of interest on the entire esophagus was defined and the retention ratio (RR) was calculated from a time-activity curve. Patients with diffuse scleroderma had higher RRs than those with limited scleroderma (48.8% vs. 30.0%; p<0.05). There was no correlation between the RRs and the duration of disease. Patients with positive topo I had higher RRs than those who were negative (53.8% vs. 29.7%; p<0.05). Patients with reduced % diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (%DL{sub CO}) had higher RRs than those with normal %DL{sub CO} (40.5% vs. 19.6%; p=0.03). Patients with reduced % vital capacity (%VC) had higher RRs than those with normal %VC (54.6% vs. 25.0%; p<0.005). Patients with pulmonary fibrosis had higher RRs than those who were negative (58.5% vs. 20.3%; p<0.00005). Esophageal dysfunction in patients with SSc showed a correlation with the extent of scleroderma, positive topo I, and pulmonary involvement. The RR can be an objective clinical marker for the severity of organ fibrosis. (author)

  18. Functional type 1 secretion system involved in Legionella pneumophila virulence. (United States)

    Fuche, Fabien; Vianney, Anne; Andrea, Claire; Doublet, Patricia; Gilbert, Christophe


    Legionella pneumophila is a Gram-negative pathogen found mainly in water, either in a free-living form or within infected protozoans, where it replicates. This bacterium can also infect humans by inhalation of contaminated aerosols, causing a severe form of pneumonia called legionellosis or Legionnaires' disease. The involvement of type II and IV secretion systems in the virulence of L. pneumophila is now well documented. Despite bioinformatic studies showing that a type I secretion system (T1SS) could be present in this pathogen, the functionality of this system based on the LssB, LssD, and TolC proteins has never been established. Here, we report the demonstration of the functionality of the T1SS, as well as its role in the infectious cycle of L. pneumophila. Using deletion mutants and fusion proteins, we demonstrated that the repeats-in-toxin protein RtxA is secreted through an LssB-LssD-TolC-dependent mechanism. Moreover, fluorescence monitoring and confocal microscopy showed that this T1SS is required for entry into the host cell, although it seems dispensable to the intracellular cycle. Together, these results underline the active participation of L. pneumophila, via its T1SS, in its internalization into host cells.

  19. Involvement of systemic venous congestion in heart failure. (United States)

    Rubio Gracia, J; Sánchez Marteles, M; Pérez Calvo, J I


    Systemic venous congestion has gained significant importance in the interpretation of the pathophysiology of acute heart failure, especially in the development of renal function impairment during exacerbations. In this study, we review the concept, clinical characterisation and identification of venous congestion. We update current knowledge on its importance in the pathophysiology of acute heart failure and its involvement in the prognosis. We pay special attention to the relationship between abdominal congestion, the pulmonary interstitium as filtering membrane, inflammatory phenomena and renal function impairment in acute heart failure. Lastly, we review decongestion as a new therapeutic objective and the measures available for its assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  20. CCL21 and IP-10 as blood biomarkers for pulmonary involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. (United States)

    Odler, B; Bikov, A; Streizig, J; Balogh, C; Kiss, E; Vincze, K; Barta, I; Horváth, I; Müller, V


    Biomarkers for pulmonary manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are missing. Plasma samples of nine SLE patients with known pulmonary involvement (SLEpulm) and nine SLE patients without pulmonary involvement (SLE) were tested by multiplex microarray analysis for various cyto- and chemokines. Significantly decreased lung function paramters for forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and diffusion of CO corrected on lung volume (KLCO) were observed in SLEpulm as compared to SLE patients. CC chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21) and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) levels were significantly higher in SLEpulm, than in patients without pulmonary manifestations. CCL21 correlated negatively with DLCO ( r = -0.73; p < 0.01) and KLCO ( r = -0.62; p < 0.01), while IP-10 with FVC and forced expiratory volume one second. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis confirmed high sensitivity and specificity for the separation of SLE patients with and without pulmonary involvement for the chemokines CCL21 (Area Under Curve (AUC): 0.85; sensitivity%: 88.90; specificity%: 75.00; p < 0.01) and IP-10 (AUC: 0.82; sensitivity%: 66.67, specificity%: 100; p < 0.01). Pleuropulmonary manifestations in SLE patients associated with lung functional and DLCO/KLCO changes and were associated with significant increase in CCL21 and IP-10. These chemokines might serve as potential biomarkers of lung involvement in SLE patients.

  1. Neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: current therapeutic approach. (United States)

    Sanna, Giovanni; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Khamashta, Munther A


    The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and the less understood aspect of the disease. Its recognition and treatment continue to represent a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Due to the lack of controlled randomized trials, current therapeutic approach is still empirical and based on clinical experience. The therapeutic choice depends on accurate diagnosis, identification of underlying pathogenic mechanism, severity of the presenting neuropsychiatric symptoms, and on prompt identification and management of contributing causes of CNS disease. Mild neuropsychiatric manifestations may need symptomatic treatment only. In more severe CNS disease it is important to distinguish between thrombotic and non-thrombotic mechanisms. Focal CNS manifestations, particularly TIA and stroke, are associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Anticoagulation is warranted in patients with thrombotic disease, particularly in those with the antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS). Other CNS manifestations, such as demyelinating syndrome, transverse myelitis, chorea, seizures, migraine and/or cognitive dysfunction, when associated with persistent positivity for aPL, may also benefit from anticoagulation in selected patients. Severe diffuse CNS manifestations, such as acute confusional state, generalised seizures, mood disorders and psychosis, generally require corticosteroids in the first instance. Pulse intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy may help when more severe manifestations are refractory to corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, generally when response is not seen in 3-5 days. Plasmapheresis may also be added in severe cases of symptoms refractory to conventional treatment. Intravenous immunoglobulins, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, intratecal methotrexate and dexametasone deserve further studies to confirm their

  2. Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Frye, J. G.; Riley, Brian J.; Rappe, Kenneth G.


    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed an assessment of a Hybrid Plasma/Filter system as an alternative to conventional methods for collective protection. The key premise of the hybrid system is to couple a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor with reactive adsorption to provide a broader envelope of protection than can be provided through a single-solution approach. The first step uses highly reactive species (e.g. oxygen radicals, hydroxyl radicals, etc.) created in a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor to destroy the majority (~75% - 90%) of an incoming threat. Following the NTP reactor an O3 reactor/filter uses the O3 created in the NTP reactor to further destroy the remaining organic materials. This report summarizes the laboratory development of the Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter to protect against a ‘worst-case’ simulant, methyl bromide (CH3Br), and presents a preliminary engineering assessment of the technology to Joint Expeditionary Collective Protection performance specifications for chemical vapor air purification technologies.

  3. Experiments on Plasma Injection into a Centrifugally Confined System (United States)

    Messer, S.; Bomgardner, R.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Uzun-Kaymak, I.; Elton, R.; Young, W.; Teodorescu, C.; Morales, C. H.; Ellis, R. F.


    We describe the cross-field injection of plasma into a centrifugally-confined system. Two different types of plasma railgun have been installed on the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) in an attempt to drive that plasma's rotation. The initial gun was a coaxial device designed to mitigate the blowby instability. The second one was a MiniRailgun with a rectangular bore oriented so that the MCX magnetic field augments the railgun's internal magnetic field. Tests at HyperV indicate this MiniRailgun reaches much higher densities than the original gun, although muzzle velocity is slightly reduced. We discuss the impact of these guns on MCX for various conditions. Initial results show that even for a 2 kG field, firing the MiniRailgun modifies oscillations of the MCX diamagnetic loops and can impact the core current and voltage. The gun also has a noticeable impact on MCX microwave emissions. These observations suggest plasma enters the MCX system. We also compare diagnostic data collected separately from MCX for these and other guns, focussing primarily on magnetic measurements.

  4. First results from the MAST digital plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, G.J. E-mail:; Storrs, J


    The mega-amp spherical tokamak (MAST) has operated under a new digital plasma control system [Fusion Eng. Des. 66-68 (2003) 761]. The new system, based on commercially available VME hardware, has replaced most of the old analogue control electronics [Fusion Eng. Des. 56-57 (2001) 749] with algorithms implemented in the control software. General Atomics provided their PCS [B.G. Penaflor, J.R. Ferron, M.L. Walker, A structured architecture for advanced plasma control experiments, in: Proceedings of the 19th SOFT, vol. 1, Lisbon, Portugal, 1996, p. 965] software infrastructure as a generic framework for a plasma control system. A powerful configuration tool has been developed to generate the MAST-specific code from a set of structured documents written in extensible mark-up language (XML). This enables rapid development of new control algorithms and permits safe re-configuration of the code layout, whilst maintaining the coherence of multiple cross-references. The initial algorithm set emulates the behaviour of the original analogue control hardware where it is sensible to do so, but implements several new plant protection capabilities that were previously too difficult to provide with analogue electronics. Shots previously run with the old system can be converted to run in the new system, thus allowing previous campaigns to be continued without the need to develop new scenarios. During the present engineering break, a new suite of algorithms is being developed to provide plasma boundary reconstruction and control functions that fully exploit the capabilities of the digital system.

  5. Lack of plasma kallikrein-kinin system cascade in teleosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Kwok-Shing Wong

    Full Text Available The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS consists of two major cascades in mammals: "plasma KKS" consisting of high molecular-weight (HMW kininogen (KNG, plasma kallikrein (KLKB1, and bradykinin (BK; and "tissue KKS" consisting of low molecular-weight (LMW KNG, tissue kallikreins (KLKs, and [Lys(0]-BK. Some components of the KKS have been identified in the fishes, but systematic analyses have not been performed, thus this study aims to define the KKS components in teleosts and pave a way for future physiological and evolutionary studies. Through a combination of genomics, molecular, and biochemical methods, we showed that the entire plasma KKS cascade is absent in teleosts. Instead of two KNGs as found in mammals, a single molecular weight KNG was found in various teleosts, which is homologous to the mammalian LMW KNG. Results of molecular phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicated that the all current teleost genomes lack KLKB1, and its unique protein structure, four apple domains and one trypsin domain, could not be identified in any genome or nucleotide databases. We identified some KLK-like proteins in teleost genomes by synteny and conserved domain analyses, which could be the orthologs of tetrapod KLKs. A radioimmunoassay system was established to measure the teleost BK and we found that [Arg(0]-BK is the major circulating form instead of BK, which supports that the teleost KKS is similar to the mammalian tissue KKS. Coincidently, coelacanths are the earliest vertebrate that possess both HMW KNG and KLKB1, which implies that the plasma KKS could have evolved in the early lobe-finned fish and descended to the tetrapod lineage. The co-evolution of HMW KNG and KLKB1 in lobe-finned fish and early tetrapods may mark the emergence of the plasma KKS and a contact activation system in blood coagulation, while teleosts may have retained a single KKS cascade.

  6. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: Overview on classification criteria. (United States)

    Sciascia, Savino; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Baldovino, Simone; Roccatello, Dario; Khamashta, Munther A; Sanna, Giovanni


    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Clinical manifestations can involve both the central and peripheral nervous systems, and they must be differentiated from infections, metabolic complications, and drug-induced toxicity. Recognition and treatment of CNS involvement continues to represent a major diagnostic challenge. In this Review, we sought to summarise the current insights on the various aspects of neuropsychiatric SLE with special emphasis on the terminology and classification criteria needed to correctly attribute the particular event to SLE.

  7. Aggression proneness: Transdiagnostic processes involving negative valence and cognitive systems. (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Bresin, Konrad


    Aggressive behavior is observed in persons with various mental health problems and has been studied from the perspectives of neuroscience and psychophysiology. The present research reviews some of the extant experimental literature to help clarify the interplay between domains of functioning implicated in aggression proneness. We then convey a process-oriented model that elucidates how the interplay of the Negative Valence and Cognitive System domains of NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) helps explain aggression proneness, particularly reactive aggression. Finally, we report on a study involving event-related potential (ERP) indices of emotional and inhibitory control processing during an emotional-linguistic go/no-go task among 67 individuals with histories of violence and criminal offending (30% female, 44% African-American) who reported on their aggressive tendencies using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results provide evidence that tendencies toward angry and aggressive behavior relate to reduced inhibitory control processing (no-go P3) specifically during relevant threat-word blocks, suggesting deterioration of cognitive control by acute or sustained threat sensitivity. These findings highlight the value of ERP methodologies for clarifying the interplay of Negative Valence and Cognitive System processes in aggression proneness.

  8. Microseconds-scale magnetic actuators system for plasma feedback stabilization (United States)

    Kogan, K.; Be'ery, I.; Seemann, O.


    Many magnetic confinement machines use active feedback stabilization with magnetic actuators. We present a novel magnetic actuators system with a response time much faster than previous ones, making it capable of coping with the fast plasma instabilities. The system achieved a response time of 3 μs with maximal current of 500 A in a coil with inductance of 5.2 μH. The system is based on commercial solid-state switches and FPGA state machine, making it easily scalable to higher currents or higher inductivity.

  9. Brain systems involved in arithmetic with positive versus negative numbers. (United States)

    Gullick, Margaret M; Wolford, George


    Positive number arithmetic is based on combining and separating sets of items, with systematic differences in brain activity in specific regions depending on operation. In contrast, arithmetic with negative numbers involves manipulating abstract values worth less than zero, possibly involving different operation-activity relationships in these regions. Use of procedural arithmetic knowledge, including transformative rules like "minus a negative is plus a positive," may also differ by operand sign. Here, we examined whether the activity evoked in negative number arithmetic was similar to that seen in positive problems, using region of interest analyses (ROIs) to examine a specific set of brain regions. Negative-operand problems demonstrated a positive-like effect of operation in the inferior parietal lobule with more activity for subtraction than addition, as well as increased activity across operation. Interestingly, while positive-operand problems demonstrated the expected addition > subtraction activity difference in the angular gyrus, negative problems showed a reversed effect, with relatively more activity for subtraction than addition. Negative subtraction problems may be understood after translation to addition via rule, thereby invoking more addition-like activity. Whole-brain analyses showed increased right caudate activity for negative-operand problems across operation, indicating a possible overall increase in usage of procedural rules. Arithmetic with negative numbers may thus shows some operation-activity relationships similar to positive numbers, but may also be affected by strategy. This study examines the flexibility of the mental number system by exploring to what degree the processing of an applied usage of a difficult, abstract mathematical concept is similar to that for positive numbers.

  10. Molecular mechanisms involved in secretory vesicle recruitment to the plasma membrane in beta-cells. (United States)

    Varadi, Aniko; Ainscow, E K; Allan, V J; Rutter, G A


    Glucose stimulates the release of insulin in part by activating the recruitment of secretory vesicles to the cell surface. While this movement is known to be microtubule-dependent, the molecular motors involved are undefined. Active kinesin was found to be essential for vesicle translocation in live beta-cells, since microinjection of cDNA encoding dominant-negative KHC(mut) (motor domain of kinesin heavy chain containing a Thr(93)-->Asn point mutation) blocked vesicular movements. Moreover, expression of KHC(mut) strongly inhibited the sustained, but not acute, stimulation of secretion by glucose. Thus, vesicles released during the first phase of insulin secretion exist largely within a translocation-independent pool. Kinesin-driven anterograde movement of vesicles is then necessary for the sustained (second phase) of insulin release. Kinesin may, therefore, represent a novel target for increases in intracellular ATP concentrations in response to elevated extracellular glucose and may be involved in the ATP-sensitive K+channel-independent stimulation of secretion by the sugar.

  11. Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in periodontal healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozono, Sayaka [Department of Periodontology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Matsuyama, Takashi, E-mail: [Department of Periodontology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Biwasa, Kamal Krishna [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Kawahara, Ko-ichi [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Nakajima, Yumiko; Yoshimoto, Takehiko; Yonamine, Yutaka; Kadomatsu, Hideshi [Department of Periodontology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Tancharoen, Salunya [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Hashiguchi, Teruto [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Noguchi, Kazuyuki [Department of Periodontology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Maruyama, Ikuro [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)


    Endocannabinoids including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are important lipid mediators for immunosuppressive effects and for appropriate homeostasis via their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid (CB) receptors in mammalian organs and tissues, and may be involved in wound healing in some organs. The physiological roles of endocannabinoids in periodontal healing remain unknown. We observed upregulation of the expression of CB1/CB2 receptors localized on fibroblasts and macrophage-like cells in granulation tissue during wound healing in a wound-healing model in rats, as well as an increase in AEA levels in gingival crevicular fluid after periodontal surgery in human patients with periodontitis. In-vitro, the proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) by AEA was significantly attenuated by AM251 and AM630, which are selective antagonists of CB1 and CB2, respectively. CP55940 (CB1/CB2 agonist) induced phosphorylation of the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), and Akt in HGFs. Wound closure by CP55940 in an in-vitro scratch assay was significantly suppressed by inhibitors of MAP kinase kinase (MEK), p38MAPK, and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K). These findings suggest that endocannabinoid system may have an important role in periodontal healing.

  12. Association between Plasma Leptin Level and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Aggressive Periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Shi; Yun-Yu Liu; Wei Li; Xin Zhang; Xiao-Jun Sun; Li Xu; Li Zhang


    Background:Increasing evidence supports an association between periodontitis and systemic diseases.Leptin is involved both in the energy metabolism and inflammatory processes and is suggested to be a link between periodontal infection and systemic health.The present study aimed to evaluate the peripheral leptin concentration in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and to explore the relationship between leptin and systemic inflammation.Methods:Ninety patients with AgP visiting the Clinic of the Periodontology Department,Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology between July 2001 and May 2006,and 44 healthy controls (staffand student volunteers in the same institute) were recruited.Plasma levels of leptin and inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β,I L-6,tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analyze the association between plasma leptin level and other variables.Results:Plasma leptin level of AgP group was significantly higher than that of the control group (19.7-4.4 ng/ml vs.7.5 ± 1.3 ng/ml,P < 0.01).After controlling for age,gender,and body mass index,positive correlation was observed between plasma leptin concentration and log-transformed levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α and CRP),and the partial correlation coefficients ranged from 0.199 to 0.376 (P < 0.05).Log-transformed IL-1β and I L-6 levels entered the final regression model (standardized β were 0.422 and 0.461 respectively,P < 0.01).Conclusions:Elevated plasma leptin concentration may be associated with increased systemic levels of inflammatory markers in AgP patients.

  13. Data management software concept for WEST plasma measurement system (United States)

    Zienkiewicz, P.; Kasprowicz, G.; Byszuk, A.; Wojeński, A.; Kolasinski, P.; Cieszewski, R.; Czarski, T.; Chernyshova, M.; Pozniak, K.; Zabolotny, W.; Juszczyk, B.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.


    This paper describes the concept of data management software for the multichannel readout system for the GEM detector used in WEST Plasma experiment. The proposed system consists of three separate communication channels: fast data channel, diagnostics channel, slow data channel. Fast data channel is provided by the FPGA with integrated ARM cores providing direct readout data from Analog Front Ends through 10GbE with short, guaranteed intervals. Slow data channel is provided by multiple, fast CPUs after data processing with detailed readout data with use of GNU/Linux OS and appropriate software. Diagnostic channel provides detailed feedback for control purposes.

  14. CD27-triggering on primary plasma cell leukaemia cells has anti-apoptotic effects involving mitogen activated protein kinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guikema, JEJ; Vellenga, E; Abdulahad, WH; Hovenga, S; Bos, NA


    Primary plasma cell leukaemia (PCL) is a rare plasma cell malignancy, which is related to multiple myeloma (MM) and is characterized by a poor prognosis. In a previous study we demonstrated that PCL plasma cells display a high expression of CD27, in contrast to MM plasma cells. The present study was

  15. Student Involvement in the Egyptian Quality Assurance System (United States)

    Elassy, Noha


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the extent and the quality of student involvement in the quality assurance process (QAP) in Egyptian higher education institutions (HEIs). Design/methodology/approach: In this study, two qualitative methods were used to explore the extent and the quality of student involvement; these were focus groups…

  16. Dehydration-induced vasopressin secretion in humans: involvement of the histaminergic system. (United States)

    Kjaer, A; Knigge, U; Jørgensen, H; Warberg, J


    In rats, the hypothalamic neurotransmitter histamine participates in regulation of vasopressin secretion and seems to be of physiological importance, because blockade of the histaminergic system reduces dehydration-induced vasopressin secretion. We investigated whether histamine is also involved in regulation of vasopressin secretion during dehydration in humans. We found that 40 h of dehydration gradually increased plasma osmolality by 10 mosmol/kg and induced a fourfold increase in vasopressin levels. Pretreatment with the H(2)-receptor antagonists cimetidine or ranitidine significantly reduced the dehydration-induced increase in vasopressin levels approximately 40% after 34 and 37 h of dehydration, whereas this was not the case with the H(1)-receptor antagonist mepyramine. Dehydration reduced aldosterone secretion by approximately 50%. This effect of dehydration was reduced by both H(1)- and H(2)-receptor blockade after 16 and/or 34 h of dehydration. We conclude that vasopressin secretion in response to dehydration in humans is under the regulatory influence of histamine and that the effect seems to be mediated via H(2)-receptors. In addition, the regulation of aldosterone secretion during dehydration also seems to involve the histaminergic system via H(1) and H(2) receptors.

  17. Olive oil and immune system functions: potential involvement in immunonutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Gerardo


    Full Text Available Olive oil plays a crucial role as a main component of the Mediterranean diet, which has shown important benefits for the human health. According to the current knowledge, the administration of diets containing olive oil exerts some beneficial effects on the immune system functions due likely to the action of oleic acid rather than other substances contained in this fat. In the last few years, epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have evidenced the potential of certain dietary lipids (containing polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids as modulators of immune system functions due to their ability to suppress several functions of immune system in both humans and animals. As a result, these fats have been applied in the reduction of symptoms from diseases characterized by an overactivation of the immune system (autoimmune diseases or in the reduction of cancer risk. Here, we review several relevant experimental and clinical data associated with the beneficial effects of olive oil upon the health, the mechanisms of action and the immune function susceptible of being be altered by the administration of dietary lipids and particularly of olive oil. In addition, we will also discuss the detrimental effects on the immune system functions caused by the administration of certain dietary lipids attributed mainly to a reduction of host natural resistance against infectious microorganisms as well as the involvement of olive oil diets in the regulation of immune resistance.El aceite de oliva tiene un papel crucial como componente de la dieta Mediterránea, con importantes beneficios sobre la salud humana. Dietas conteniendo aceite de oliva actúan de manera favorable en las funciones del sistema inmune por la acción sobretodo del ácido oleico. Los estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales publicados en los últimos años demuestran que ciertos lípidos de la dieta [ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y poliinsaturados (PUFA

  18. Geoethical issues involved in Tsunami Warning System concepts and operations (United States)

    Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Tinti, Stefano


    The main goal of a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) is to mitigate the effect of an incoming tsunami by alerting coastal population early enough to allow people to evacuate safely from inundation zones. Though this representation might seem oversimplified, nonetheless, achieving successfully this goal requires a positive synergy of geoscience, communication, emergency management, technology, education, social sciences, politics. Geoethical issues arise always when there is an interaction between geoscience and society, and TWS is a paradigmatic case where interaction is very strong and is made critical because a) the formulation of the tsunami alert has to be made in a time as short as possible and therefore on uncertain data, and b) any evaluation error (underestimation or overestimation) can lead to serious (and sometimes catastrophic) consequences involving wide areas and a large amount of population. From the geoethical point of view three issues are critical: how to (i) combine forecasts and uncertainties reasonably and usefully, (ii) cope and possibly solve the dilemma whether it is better over-alerting or under-alerting population and (iii) deal with responsibility and liability of geoscientists, TWS operators, emergency operators and coastal population. The discussion will be based on the experience of the Hellenic National Tsunami Warning Center (HL-NTWC, Greece), which operates on 24/7 basis as a special unit of the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens, and acts also as Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) in the framework of the North-Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) of the IOC/UNESCO. Since August 2012, when HL-NTWC was officially declared as operational, 14 tsunami warning messages have been disseminated to a large number of subscribers after strong submarine earthquakes occurring in Greece and elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean. It is recognized that the alerting process

  19. Platelet-rich plasma: the PAW classification system. (United States)

    DeLong, Jeffrey M; Russell, Ryan P; Mazzocca, Augustus D


    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been the subject of hundreds of publications in recent years. Reports of its effects in tissue, both positive and negative, have generated great interest in the orthopaedic community. Protocols for PRP preparation vary widely between authors and are often not well documented in the literature, making results difficult to compare or replicate. A classification system is needed to more accurately compare protocols and results and effectively group studies together for meta-analysis. Although some classification systems have been proposed, no single system takes into account the multitude of variables that determine the efficacy of PRP. In this article we propose a simple method for organizing and comparing results in the literature. The PAW classification system is based on 3 components: (1) the absolute number of Platelets, (2) the manner in which platelet Activation occurs, and (3) the presence or absence of White cells. By analyzing these 3 variables, we are able to accurately compare publications.

  20. Sustainability of a public system for plasma collection, contract fractionation and plasma-derived medicinal product manufacturing. (United States)

    Grazzini, Giuliano; Ceccarelli, Anna; Calteri, Deanna; Catalano, Liviana; Calizzani, Gabriele; Cicchetti, Americo


    In Italy, the financial reimbursement for labile blood components exchanged between Regions is regulated by national tariffs defined in 1991 and updated in 1993-2003. Over the last five years, the need for establishing standard costs of healthcare services has arisen critically. In this perspective, the present study is aimed at defining both the costs of production of blood components and the related prices, as well as the prices of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained by national plasma, to be used for interregional financial reimbursement. In order to analyse the costs of production of blood components, 12 out 318 blood establishments were selected in 8 Italian Regions. For each step of the production process, driving costs were identified and production costs were. To define the costs of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained by national plasma, industrial costs currently sustained by National Health Service for contract fractionation were taken into account. The production costs of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained from national plasma showed a huge variability among blood establishments, which was much lower after standardization. The new suggested plasma tariffs were quite similar to those currently in force. Comparing the overall costs theoretically sustained by the National Health Service for plasma-derived medicinal products obtained from national plasma to current commercial costs, demonstrates that the national blood system could gain a 10% cost saving if it were able to produce plasma for fractionation within the standard costs defined in this study. Achieving national self-sufficiency through the production of plasma-derived medicinal products from national plasma, is a strategic goal of the National Health Service which must comply not only with quality, safety and availability requirements but also with the increasingly pressing need for economic sustainability.

  1. Parametric instabilities in an electron beam plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakach, R.; Cuperman, S.; Gell, Y.; Levush, B.


    The excitation of low-frequency parametric instabilities by a finite wavelength pump in a system consisting of a warm electron plasma traversed by a warm electron beam is investigated in a fluid dissipationless model. The dispersion relation for the three-dimensional problem in a magnetized plasma with arbitrary directions for the waves is derived, and the one-dimensional case is analyzed numerically. For the one-dimensional back-scattering decay process, it is found that when the plasma-electron Debye length (lambda/sub D//sup p/) is larger than the beam-electron Debye length (lambda/sub D//sup b/), two low-frequency electrostatic instability branches with different growth rates may exist simultaneously. When lambda/sub D//sup p/approx. =lambda/sub D//sup b/, the large growth rate instability found in the analysis depends strongly on the amplitude of the pump field. For the case lambda/sub D//sup p/


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.K. Mathur


    In the past decade, the emission of toxic elements from human activities has become a matter of great public concern. Hg, As, Se and Cd typically volatilize during a combustion process and are not easily caught with conventional air pollution control techniques. In addition, there is no pollution prevention technique available now or likely be available in the foreseeable future that can prevent the emission of these trace elements. These trace elements pose additional scientific challenge as they are present at only ppb levels in large gas streams. Mercury, in particular, has attracted significant attention due to its high volatility, toxicity and potential threat to human health. In the present research work, a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge technique has been used to oxidize Hg{sup 0}(g) to HgO. The basic premise of this approach is that Hg{sup 0} in vapor form cannot be easily removed in an absorption tower whereas HgO as a particulate is amiable to water scrubbing. The work presented in this report consists of three steps: (1) setting-up of an experimental apparatus to generate mercury vapors at a constant rate and modifying the existing non-thermal plasma reactor system, (2) solving the analytical challenge for measuring mercury vapor concentration at ppb level, and (3) conducting experiments on mercury oxidation under plasma conditions to establish proof of concept.

  3. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis. (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu


    Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO.

  4. New Horizons: Gas and Plasma in the Pluto System (United States)

    Young, Leslie; Gladstone, Randy; Summers, Michael; Bagenal, Fran; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Grundy, William M.; New Horizons Atmospheres Science Theme Team, New Horizons Particles and Plasma Science Theme Team


    NASA's New Horizons mission gave us information about gas and plasma in the Pluto system from Pluto's surface up to a distance of ~200,000 km beyond Pluto. This review will give an overview of our current theories and observations of the near-surface atmospheric structure; the properties, production and settling of Pluto's ubiquitous haze; the minor atmospheric species and atmospheric chemistry; the energetics and high-altitude thermal structure; the escape rate and the pickup of methane ions; the effect of methane impacting Charon; and Pluto's heavy-ion tail. Details are given in other presentations at this conference.This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  5. Plasma membrane H+ and K+ transporters are involved in the weak-acid preservative response of disparate food spoilage yeasts. (United States)

    Macpherson, Neil; Shabala, Lana; Rooney, Henrietta; Jarman, Marcus G; Davies, Julia M


    The food spoilage yeasts Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been proposed to resist weak-acid preservative stress by different means; Z. bailii by limiting influx of preservative combined with its catabolism, S. cerevisiae by active extrusion of the preservative weak-acid anion and H(+). Measurement of H(+) extrusion by exponential-phase Z. bailii cells suggest that, in common with S. cerevisiae, this yeast uses a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase to expel H(+) when challenged by weak-acid preservative (benzoic acid). Simultaneous measurement of Z. bailii net H(+) and K(+) fluxes showed that net K(+) influx accompanies net H(+) efflux during acute benzoic acid stress. Such ionic coupling is known for S. cerevisiae in short-term preservative stress. Both yeasts significantly accumulated K(+) on long-term exposure to benzoic acid. Analysis of S. cerevisiae K(+) transporter mutants revealed that loss of the high affinity K(+) uptake system Trk1 confers sensitivity to growth in preservative. The results suggest that cation accumulation is an important factor in adaptation to weak-acid preservatives by spoilage yeasts and that Z. bailii and S. cerevisiae share hitherto unsuspected adaptive responses at the level of plasma membrane ion transport.

  6. Technology-Related Involvement: The Effect of the MASHOV System on Parent Involvement in Israeli Junior Highs (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Yavich, Roman


    The purpose of the study was to examine differences in parental involvement between two high schools that use the MASHOV program (an online learning management system) and one high school where parents receive updates regarding their children in other ways, with attention to parents' background variables: sex, income, and schooling. The study…

  7. Experimental analyses of dynamical systems involving shape memory alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Savi, Marcelo A.; Santos, Ilmar F.


    The use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in dynamical systems has an increasing importance in engineering especially due to their capacity to provide vibration reductions. In this regard, experimental tests are essential in order to show all potentialities of this kind of systems. In this work, SMA...... springs are incorporated in a dynamical system that consists of a one degree of freedom oscillator connected to a linear spring and a mass, which is also connected to the SMA spring. Two types of springs are investigated defming two distinct systems: a pseudoelastic and a shape memory system......-tension of the springs. This article shows several experimental tests that allow one to obtain a general comprehension of the dynamical behaviour of SMA systems. Results show the general thermo-mechanical behaviour of SMA dynamical systems and the obtained conclusions can be applied in distinct situations as in rotor...

  8. Systemic effects of locally injected platelet rich plasma in a rat model: an analysis on muscle and bloodstream. (United States)

    Borrione, P; Grasso, L; Racca, S; Abbadessa, G; Carriero, V; Fagnani, F; Quaranta, F; Pigozzi, F


    Abundant evidence suggests that growth factors, contained in platelets alpha granules, may play a key role in the early stages of the muscle healing process with particular regard to the inflammatory phase. Although the contents of the platelet-rich plasma preparations have been extensively studied, the biological mechanisms involved as well as the systemic effects and the related potential doping implications of this approach are still largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether local platelet-rich plasma administration may modify the levels of specific cytokines and growth factors both in treated muscle and bloodstream in rats. An additional aim was to investigate more deeply whether the local platelet-rich plasma administration may exert systemic effects by analyzing contralateral lesioned but untreated muscles. The results showed that platelet-rich plasma treatment induced a modification of certain cytokines and growth factor levels in muscle but not in the bloodstream, suggesting that local platelet-rich plasma treatment influenced directly or, more plausibly, indirectly the synthesis or recruitment of cytokines and growth factors at the site of injury. Moreover, the observed modifications of cytokine and growth factor levels in contralateral injured but not treated muscles, strongly suggested a systemic effect of locally injected platelet-rich plasma.

  9. Experimental beam system studies of plasma-polymer interactions (United States)

    Nest, Dustin George

    Since the invention of the integrated circuit, the semiconductor industry has relied on the shrinking of device dimensions to increase device performance and decrease manufacturing costs. However, the high degree of roughening observed during plasma etching of current generation photoresist (PR) polymers can result in poor pattern transfer and ultimately decreased device performance or failure. Plasma-surface interactions are inherently difficult to study due to the highly coupled nature of the plasma enviroment. To better understand these interactions, a beam system approach is employed where polymers are exposed to beams of ions and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons. Through the use of the beam system approach, simultaneous VUV radiation, ion bombardment, and moderate substrate heating have been identified as key elements, acting synergistically, as being responsible for roughening of current generation 193 nm PR during plasma processing. Sequential exposure is not adequate for the development of surface roughness, as observed through AFM and SEM. Ion bombardment results in the formation of a graphitized near-surface region with a depth of a few nanometers, the expected ion penetration depth of 150 eV argon ions. In contrast, VUV radiation results in the loss of carbon-oxygen bonds in the bulk PR as observed through Transmission FTIR. Based on the differing penetration depth of either ions or photons, their resulting chemical modifications, and the temperature dependence of the observed roughening, a mechanism is proposed based on stress relaxation resulting in surface buckling. The surface roughness of poly(4-methyl styrene) (P4MS) and poly(alpha-methyl styrene) (PalphaMS) have also been investigated under exposure to ions and VUV photons. PaMS degrades during VUV radiation above its ceiling temperature of ˜60°C. Despite having the same chemical composition as PalphaMS, P4MS does not degrade during VUV exposure at 70°C due to its relatively high ceiling

  10. Overview on the power supply systems for plasma instabilities control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toigo, V., E-mail: [Consorzio RFX - EURATOM - ENEA Association, Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Gaio, E.; Piovan, R.; Barp, M.; Bigi, M.; Ferro, A.; Finotti, C.; Novello, L.; Recchia, M.; Zamengo, A.; Zanotto, L. [Consorzio RFX - EURATOM - ENEA Association, Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)


    The paper presents an overview on the power supply (PS) systems for plasma instabilities control in fusion experiments, based on active control coils. First, the MHD instabilities and the approach to their control in Tokamaks and Reversed Field Pinches (RFPs) are described. Then, the features of MHD modes controls presently used in fusion experiments are reviewed. For the control systems based on active coils fed by fast power supplies, the typical requirements in terms of power, dynamics, accuracy and delay are summarized and discussed. Then, a survey on the technology available to design these types of PSs is given, together with the most suitable circuit topologies and guidelines for the design, on the basis of solutions adopted in existing experiments.

  11. Two, three, many body systems involving mesons. Multimeson condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Dote, A; Hyodo, T; Khemchandani, P K; Liang, W H; Torres, A Martinez; Oka, M; Roca, L; Uchino, T; Xiao, C W


    In this talk we review results from studies with unconventional many hadron systems containing mesons: systems with two mesons and one baryon, three mesons, some novel systems with two baryons and one meson, and finally systems with many vector mesons, up to six, with their spins aligned forming states of increasing spin. We show that in many cases one has experimental counterparts for the states found, while in some other cases they remain as predictions, which we suggest to be searched in BESIII, Belle, LHCb, FAIR and other facilities.

  12. Hormones and the autonomic nervous system are involved in suprachiasmatic nucleus modulation of glucose homeostasis. (United States)

    Ruiter, Marieke; Buijs, Ruud M; Kalsbeek, Andries


    Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore, changes in energy expenditure associated with the light-dark cycle induce variations in the plasma glucose concentration that are more gradual. Organisms take advantage of adapting their internal physiology to the predictable daily changes in energy expenditure, because it enables them to anticipate these changes and to prevent unnecessary disturbance of homeostasis. The hypothalamic biological clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), receives light information from the eyes and transmits this information to the rest of the body to synchronize physiology to the environment. Here we review several studies providing evidence for biological clock control of the daily variation in several aspects of glucose metabolism. Although both hormones and the autonomic nervous system can stimulate glucose uptake or production by organs in the periphery, we have shown that the biological clock control of glucose metabolism mostly occurs through the autonomic nervous system. The critical involvement of the biological clock is also indicated by several studies, indicating that disturbance of the biological clock is often associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  13. Red wine activates plasma membrane redox system in human erythrocytes. (United States)

    Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi


    In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity.

  14. Electromagnetic radiation and nonlinear energy flow in an electron beam-plasma system (United States)

    Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.


    It is shown that the unstable electron-plasma waves of a beam-plasma system can generate electromagnetic radiation in a uniform plasma. The generation mechanism is a scattering of the unstable electron plasma waves off ion-acoustic waves, producing electromagnetic waves whose frequency is near the local plasma frequency. The wave vector and frequency matching conditions of the three-wave mode coupling are experimentally verified. The electromagnetic radiation is observed to be polarized with the electric field parallel to the beam direction, and its source region is shown to be localized to the unstable plasma wave region. The frequency spectrum shows negligible intensity near the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. These results suggest that the observed electromagnetic radiation of type III solar bursts may be generated near the local plasma frequency and observed downstream where the wave frequency is near the harmonic of the plasma frequency.

  15. Multibiological life support system experiments with humans partially involved (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Hu, Dawei; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu

    To establish bioregenerative life support system in lunar or mars bases in the future, manned stimulation experiments including several kinds of creatures are needed to be conducted first. Gas exchange relation, element transfer and transformation principles, etc. between human beings and the multibiological system composed of plants, animals, Chlorella vulgaris and so on must be investigated in order to place different organisms with appropriate numbers and proportions. This research cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) in the Closed Integrative Cultivating System (CICS) of the Integrative Experimental Sys-tem (IES) with Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the Plate Photo Bioreactor (PPB) of the IES. Gas exchange between testers and the IES were conducted periodically. The automotive control system of the PPB changed the illumination intensity of the photo bioreactor according to the CO2 concentration in the IES to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels by regu-lating the photosynthesis of alga. The conveyor-type cultivation method which was harvesting the biggest batch of lettuce and silkworms through the mass exchange chamber of IES every four days and transferring the smallest batch of lettuce and silkworms into the system; carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with nutrient liquid replenished into the system was implemented in the experiments. In terms of gas circulation, CO2 /O2 concentration changes in the system with trace gas contaminants (CH4 , NH3 and C2 H4 ) were measured. As to the mass transfer and transformation, element (C, H, O, N) contents, height, crown width and biomasses of lettuce in different developing stages, silkworms' bioconversion rates, alga's biomass changes, the amount and community change trends of the microorganism in different positions of the system, the quality of condensates gained under different running conditions and so on were studied. Results showed

  16. Monitoring of low pressure plasma systems; Ueberwachung von Niederdruck-Plasmaanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaeli, W.; Hegenbart, A.; Binkowski, D.; Fragstein, F. v. [Inst. fuer Kunststoffverarbeitung (IKV) an der RWTH Aachen (Germany)


    The optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is a very flexible and easy to use method to monitor industrial plasma processes. By directly monitoring the plasma itself many additional factors influencing low pressure plasma processes can be observed. First of all factors that can not be controlled directly play an important role in this context. Examples are contaminations and leaks in the plasma system. These can negatively influence the reproducibility of production processes. In this paper the effect of a leak on the coating and the plasma process is being shown. Additionally the detection of contaminations and sealing problems in a microwave plasma source is being demonstrated. By using the correlations being presented the OES can be used to continually monitor low pressure plasma systems and thus enhance reproducibility of industrial low pressure plasma processes. (orig.)

  17. HL-2A Tokamak Plasma Visible Light Imaging System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGYinjia; FENGZhen; LUOCuiwen; CHENGLiaoyuan


    Visible imagery is extremely useful to overview the edge and divertor structure. The plasma configuration and the position of the strike lines on the target plates can be also observed by imaging technique. By imaging the edge or core plasma with visible emission in the desired wavelength band, usually with a “tangential” view, the plasma position can be determined in principle.

  18. A brief review of dusty plasma effects in the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D.


    Dusty plasmas are commonly found in the solar system and in the rest of space. In this paper we briefly describe some of the more common dusty plasmas: the rings of Saturn, dust tails of comets, dust streams from Jupiter, and noctilucent clouds in the upper atmosphere. We also discuss some of the theoretical issues related to grain charging, dust particle dynamics, waves in dusty plasmas, and dusty plasma crystals.

  19. Pattern phenomena in an rf discharge dusty plasma system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Feng; YE Maofu; WANG Long


    Various dust patterns are observed in an rf discharge dusty plasma system.According to the dust growth process from small to large in size, the formation of different dust patterns can be divided into two stages: the small-particle stage (or dust cloud stage),and the large-particle stage (or dust crystal stage). The evolution relations between different dust patterns with gas pressure changing are investigated. Dust voids, dust acoustic waves and strong turbulence modes are presented at the small-particle stage. The self-organized dust lattices and dust clusters are investigated at the large-particle stage.The static structure of a dust lattice is characterized by means of the pair correlation function. Dust clusters formed by particles with different numbers and the regular evolution of the clusters with gas pressure are also investigated. The packing sequences of dust clusters are verified through two-dimensional confined molecular dynamics simulations.

  20. Recent advances involving the renin–angiotensin system


    Crowley, Steven D.; Coffman, Thomas M.


    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) exercises fundamental control over sodium and water handling in the kidney. Accordingly, dysregulation of the RAS leads to blood pressure elevation with ensuing renal and cardiovascular damage. Recent studies have revealed that the RAS hormonal cascade is more complex than initially posited with multiple enzymes, effector molecules, and receptors that coordinately regulate the effects of the RAS on the kidney and vasculature. Moreover, recently identified ti...

  1. Reactor plasma facing component designs based on liquid metal concepts supported in porous systems (United States)

    Tabarés, F. L.; Oyarzabal, E.; Martin-Rojo, A. B.; Tafalla, D.; de Castro, A.; Soleto, A.


    The use of liquid metals (LMs) as plasma facing components in fusion devices was proposed as early as 1970 for a field reversed concept and inertial fusion reactors. The idea was extensively developed during the APEX Project, at the turn of the century, and it is the subject at present of the biennial International Symposium on Lithium Applications (ISLA), whose fourth meeting took place in Granada, Spain at the end of September 2015. While liquid metal flowing concepts were specially addressed in USA research projects, the idea of embedding the metal in a capillary porous system (CPS) was put forwards by Russian teams in the 1990s, thus opening the possibility of static concepts. Since then, many ideas and accompanying experimental tests in fusion devices and laboratories have been produced, involving a large fraction of countries within the international fusion community. Within the EUROFusion Roadmap, these activities are encompassed into the working programs of the plasma facing components (PFC) and divertor tokamak test (DTT) packages. In this paper, a review of the state of the art in concepts based on the CPS set-up for a fusion reactor divertor target, aimed at preventing the ejection of the liquid metal by electro-magnetic (EM) forces generated under plasma operation, is described and required R+D activities on the topic, including ongoing work at CIEMAT specifically oriented to filling the remaining gaps, are stressed.

  2. A potential kidney-bone axis involved in the rapid minute-to-minute regulation of plasma Ca2+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anders; Mace, Maria L; Gravesen, Eva;


    of plasma-Ca(2+) (p-Ca(2+)) takes place via an exchange mechanism of Ca(2+) between plasma and bone. A labile Ca storage pool exists on bone surfaces storing excess or supplying Ca when blood Ca is lowered. Aim was to examine minute-to-minute regulation of p-Ca(2+) in the very early phase of acute uremia...

  3. Members of rice plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subfamily are involved in arsenite permeability and tolerance in plants. (United States)

    Mosa, Kareem A; Kumar, Kundan; Chhikara, Sudesh; Mcdermott, Joseph; Liu, Zijuan; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash


    Rice accumulates high level of arsenic (As) in its edible parts and thus plays an important role in the transfer of As into the food chain. However, the mechanisms of As uptake and its detoxification in rice are not well understood. Recently, members of the Nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily of plant aquaporins were shown to transport arsenite in rice and Arabidopsis. Here we report that members of the rice plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily are also involved in As tolerance and transport. Based on the homology search with the mammalian AQP9 and yeast Fps1 arsenite transporters, we identified and cloned five rice PIP gene subfamily members. qRT-PCR analysis of PIPs in rice root and shoot tissues revealed a significant down regulation of transcripts encoding OsPIP1;2, OsPIP1;3, OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in response to arsenite treatment. Heterologous expression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Xenopus laevis oocytes significantly increased the uptake of arsenite. Overexpression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Arabidopsis yielded enhanced arsenite tolerance and higher biomass accumulation. Further, these transgenic plants showed no significant accumulation of As in shoot and root tissues in long term uptake assays. Whereas, short duration exposure to arsenite caused both active influx and efflux of As in the roots. The data suggests a bidirectional arsenite permeability of rice PIPs in plants. These rice PIPs genes will be highly useful for engineering important food and biofuel crops for enhanced crop productivity on contaminated soils without increasing the accumulation of toxic As in the biomass or edible tissues.

  4. Peripheral nervous system involvement in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Kamchatnov


    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease often affecting peripheral nervous system. This include diabetic autonomous neuropathy that can endanger the patient's life. Timely detection of complications of diabetes mellitus as well as its adequate therapy can improve prognosis of the disease. The possibilities of Milgamma and Tiogamma for pathogenic therapy in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy are considered in this paper. Gabagamma can be effectively relieve neuropathic pain and used together with other drugs that normalize nerve tissue metabolism.

  5. Systemic issues involved in working with professional sports teams. (United States)

    Calhoun, Joshua W; Herring, Kennise M; Iadevito, Teresa L


    Sport psychiatrists face a number of systemic and intra-psychic issues when treating professional athletes. Although only a modicum of literature exists to aid sport psychiatrists, there are several steps they may take to become an integral part of an athletic organization and to be successful in the treatment of the athletes themselves. The ability to delineate their role within the sports club is crucial to mental health professionals' organizational success. Equally important, it is incumbent upon sport psychiatrists to recognize and transcend intra-psychic issues that occur between athlete and physician.

  6. The plasma membrane transport systems and adaptation to salinity. (United States)

    Mansour, Mohamed Magdy F


    Salt stress represents one of the environmental challenges that drastically affect plant growth and yield. Evidence suggests that glycophytes and halophytes have a salt tolerance mechanisms working at the cellular level, and the plasma membrane (PM) is believed to be one facet of the cellular mechanisms. The responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in contrasting species/cultivars were discussed. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances describing the crucial roles that the PM transport systems have in plant adaptation to salt. Several lines of evidence were presented to demonstrate the correlation between the PM transport proteins and adaptation of plants to high salinity. How alterations in these transport systems of the PM allow plants to cope with the salt stress was also addressed. Although inconsistencies exist in some of the information related to the responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in different species/cultivars, their key roles in adaptation of plants to high salinity is obvious and evident, and cannot be precluded. Despite the promising results, detailed investigations at the cellular/molecular level are needed in some issues of the PM transport systems in response to salinity to further evaluate their implication in salt tolerance.

  7. Aqueous biphasic systems involving alkylsulfate-based ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deive, Francisco J. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Rodriguez, Ana [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, P.O. Box 36310, Vigo (Spain); Marrucho, Isabel M., E-mail: [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Rebelo, Luis P.N. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, UNL, Av. Republica, Apartado 127, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal)


    Highlights: > K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as phase promoter in aqueous solutions of ILs. > Remarkable influence of alkyl-chain length on solubility curves of alkylsulfate-based ILs. > Merchuck correlation was used for describing these systems. > {Delta}S{sub hyd} and Hofmeister series were used to discuss the different salting out effects. - Abstract: The specific effects of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, as high charge-density inorganic salts and thus inducers of the formation of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) containing several ethyl-methylimidazolium alkylsulfate ionic liquids, C{sub 2}MIM C{sub n}SO{sub 4} (n = 2, 4, 6, or 8), have been assessed at T = 298.15 K. The results are analyzed in the light of the Hofmeister series. The influence of different alkyl chain lengths in the anion, together with the ability of the selected inorganic salts to induce the formation of ABS, is discussed. Phase diagrams have been determined through turbidimetry, including tie lines assignments from mass phase ratios according to the lever - arm rule. The Merchuck equation was satisfactorily used to correlate the solubility curve.

  8. Vitamin D endocrine system involvement in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Pizzorni, Carmen; Sulli, Alberto


    Vitamin D is synthesized from cholesterol in the skin (80-90%) under the sunlight and then metabolized into an active D hormone in liver, kidney and peripheral immune/inflammatory cells. These endocrine-immune effects include also the coordinated activities of the vitamin D-activating enzyme, 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) on cells of the immune system in mediating intracrine and paracrine actions. Vitamin D is implicated in prevention and protection from chronic infections (i.e. tubercolosis), cancer (i.e. breast cancer) and autoimmune rheumatic diseases since regulates both innate and adaptive immunity potentiating the innate response (monocytes/macrophages with antimicrobial activity and antigen presentation), but suppressing the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocyte functions). Vitamin D has modulatory effects on B lymphocytes and Ig production and recent reports have demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 does indeed exert direct effects on B cell homeostasis. A circannual rhythm of trough vitamin D levels in winter and peaks in summer time showed negative correlation with clinical status at least in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, the onset of symptoms of early arthritis during winter or spring have been associated with greater radiographic evidence of disease progression at 12 months possibly are also related to seasonal lower vitamin D serum levels.

  9. Association of polymorphisms in genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism with plasma concentrations of remnant lipoproteins and HDL subpopulations before and after hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. (United States)

    Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Asztalos, Bela F; Howard, Timothy D; Reboussin, David M; Horvath, Katalin V; Schaefer, Ernst J; Herrington, David M


    A high degree of inter-individual variability in plasma lipid level response to hormone therapy (HT) has been reported. Variations in the oestrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) and in genes involved in lipid metabolism may explain some of the variability in response to HT. Subjects Postmenopausal Caucasian women (n = 208) participating in a placebo-controlled randomized trial of 3.2 years of hormone therapy (HT). Plasma triglyceride (TG), remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and HDL subpopulations were assessed at baseline and at follow up. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1 and in the ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), hepatic lipase (LIPC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and scavenger receptor class B type I (SRB1) genes were assessed for their association with baseline plasma levels and HT-related changes in levels of RLP-C and HDL subpopulations. Carriers of the ESR1 PvuII or IVS1-1505 variants had lower plasma TG concentrations and higher plasma HDL-C and alpha-1 and prealpha-1 HDL particle levels at baseline and showed greater increases in HDL-C, apo A-I and alpha-1 particle levels after HT than wild-type carriers. Carriers of the N291S and D9N variants in the LPL gene had significantly higher remnant lipoproteins and lower alpha-2 HDL particle levels at baseline. The CETP TaqIB SNP was a significant determinant of baseline plasma HDL-C and HDL subpopulation profile. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in ESR1, CETP and LPL had significant effects on baseline plasma levels of TG-rich and HDL subpopulations. With the exception of ESR1 SNPs, variation in genes involved in lipid metabolism has a very modest effect on lipoprotein response to HT.

  10. Counter-facing plasma focus system as an efficient and long-pulse EUV light source (United States)

    Kuwabara, H.; Hayashi, K.; Kuroda, Y.; Nose, H.; Hotozuka, K.; Nakajima, M.; Horioka, K.


    A plasma focus system composed of a pair of counter-facing coaxial plasma guns is proposed as a long-pulse and efficient EUV light source. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated that with an assist of breakdown and outer electrode connections, current sheets evolved into a configuration for stable plasma confinement at the center of the electrode. The current sheets could successively compress and confine the high energy density plasma every half period of the discharge current, enabling highly repetitive light emissions in extreme ultraviolet region with time duration in at least ten microseconds for Xe plasma. Also, we confirmed operations of our system for Li plasma. We estimated the highest EUV energy in Li plasma operation at 93mJ/4π sr per 2% bandwidth per pulse.

  11. The construction of an electrode biasing system for driving plasma rotation in J-TEXT tokamak (United States)

    Zhu, T. Z.; Chen, Z. P.; Sun, Yue; Nan, J. Y.; Liu, H.; Zhuang, G.; Wang, Z. J.


    A newly designed electrode biasing system has been constructed for driving plasma rotation in J-TEXT tokamak. To reduce the influence to the plasma, the system contains a pneumatic driving system so that it can reciprocate in a single discharge, with a stroke of about 5 cm in 100 ms. The power supply of the system can provide stable and adjustable dc voltage in the range of 0-700 V, with adjustable duration of 10-200 ms; its instantaneous power output can reach up to more than 200 kW. In addition, the power supply can also provide a multi-cycle voltage waveform, with adjustable pulse width and voltage amplitude. When applying a positive bias to the plasma, both an improvement of plasma confinement and the speed-up of plasma-edge toroidal rotation in the same direction of plasma current are observed in the experiments.

  12. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup. (United States)

    Nigam, S; Aneesh, K; Navathe, C P; Gupta, P D


    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is ∼4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  13. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup (United States)

    Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Navathe, C. P.; Gupta, P. D.


    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is ˜4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  14. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels in Non-Thermal Plasma-Liquid Systems (United States)


    channel with liquid wall in the microporous media under the ultrasound cavitations has shown the following: · The action of the ultrasound field in the...microporous liquid which has a very large ratio of the plasma-liquid contact surface to the plasma volume. As is known the ultrasonic (US) cavitation is a very...2) and it ran over a flat dielectric surface of the magnetostrictive transmitter (5) which produced ultrasonic (US) cavitations , so the discharge

  15. Ubiquitin-proteasome system involvement in Huntington’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira eOrtega


    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is a genetic autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin (htt gene. This triplet expansion encodes a polyglutamine stretch (polyQ in the N-terminus of the high molecular weight (348-kDa and ubiquitously expressed protein huntingtin (htt. Normal individuals have between 6 and 35 CAG triplets, while expansions longer than 40 repeats lead to HD. The onset and severity of the disease depend on the length of the polyQ tract: the longer the polyQ is, the earlier the disease begins and the more severe the symptoms are. One of the main histopathological hallmarks of HD is the presence of intraneuronal proteinaceous inclusion bodies (IBs, whose prominent and invariant feature is the presence of Ubiquitin (Ub; therefore, they can be detected with anti-ubiquitin and anti-proteasome antibodies. This, together with the observation that mutations in components of the Ubiquitin Proteasome system (UPS give rise to some neurodegenerative diseases, suggests that UPS impairment may be causative of HD. Even though the link between disrupted Ub homeostasis and protein aggregation to HD is undisputed, the functional significance of these correlations and their mechanistic implications remains unresolved. Moreover, there is no consistent evidence documenting an accompanying decrease in levels of free Ub or disruption of Ub pool dynamics in neurodegenerative disease or models thus suggesting that the Ub-conjugate accumulation may be benign and just underlie lesion in 26S function. In this chapter we will elaborate on the different studies that have been performed using different experimental approaches, in order to shed light to this matter.

  16. Electromagnetic Radiation From An Equilibrium Quark -Gluon Plasma System

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S S; Jha, Agam K.


    We study the electromagnetic radiation from a hot and slightly strong interacting fireball system of quark-gluon plasma using the Boltzmann distribution function for the incoming particles and Bose-Einstein distribution for gluon in first calculation of electromagnetic radiation and Fermi-Dirac distribution for quark, antiquark and Boltzmann distribution for gluon in our second calculation. The thermal photon emission rate is found that it is infrared divergent for massless quarks which are discussed by many authors and regulate this divergence using different cut-off in the qurak mass. However we remove this divergence using the same technique of Braaten and Pisarski in the thermal mass of the system by using our model calculation in the coupling parameter. Thus the production rate of the thermal photon is found to be smoothly worked by this cut-off technique of our model. The result is found to be matched with the most of the theoretical calculations and it is in the conformity with the experimental results...

  17. Involvement of Ghrelin-Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor System in Pathoclinical Profiles of Digestive System Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang WANG; Weigang WANG; Wencai QIU; Youben FAN; Jun ZHAO; Yu WANG; Qi ZHENG


    Ghrelin receptor has been shown to be expressed along the human gastrointestinal tract.Recent studies showed that ghrelin and a synthetic ghrelin receptor agonist improved weight gain and lean body mass retention in a rat model of cancer cachexia by acting on ghrelin receptor, that is, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). This study aims to explore the expression and the distribution of ghrelin receptor in human gastrointestinal tract cancers and to investigate the possible involvement of the ghrelin-GHS-R system in human digestive cancers. Surgical human digestive cancer specimens were obtained from various portions of the gastrointestinal tract from different patients. The expression of ghrelin receptor in these tissues was detected by tissue microarray technique. Our results showed that ghrelin receptor was expressed in cancers throughout the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in the cytoplasm of mucosal layer cells.Its expression level possibly correlated with organ type, histological grade, tumor-nodes-metastases stage,and nutrition status (weight loss) of the patients. For the first time, we identified the distribution of ghrelin receptor in digestive system cancers. Our results implied that the ghrelin-GHS-R system might be involved in the pathoclinical profiles of digestive cancers.

  18. Solar system plasma Turbulence: Observations, inteRmittency and Multifractals (United States)

    Echim, Marius M.


    The FP7 project STORM is funded by the European Commission to "add value to existing data bases through a more comprehensive interpretation". STORM targets plasma and magnetic field databases collected in the solar wind (Ulysses and also some planetary missions), planetary magnetospheres (Venus Express, Cluster, a few orbits from Cassini), cometary magnetosheaths (e.g. Haley from Giotto observations). The project applies the same package of analysis methods on geomagnetic field observations from ground and on derived indices (e.g. AE, AL, AU, SYM-H). The analysis strategy adopted in STORM is built on the principle of increasing complexity, from lower (like, e.g., the Power Spectral Density - PSD) to higher order analyses (the Probability Distribution Functions - PDFs, Structure Functions - SFs, Fractals and Multifractals - MFs). Therefore STORM targets not only the spectral behavior of turbulent fluctuations but also their topology and scale behavior inferred from advanced mathematical algorithms and geometrical-like analogs. STORM started in January 2013 and ended in December 2015. We will report on a selection of scientific and technical achievements and will highlight: (1) the radial evolution of solar wind turbulence and intermittency based on Ulysses data with some contributions from Venus Express and Cluster; (2) comparative study of fast and slow wind turbulence and intermittency at solar minimum; (3) comparative study of the planetary response (Venus and Earth magnetosheaths) to turbulent solar wind; (4) the critical behavior of geomagnetic fluctuations and indices; (5) an integrated library for non-linear analysis of time series that includes all the approaches adopted in STORM to investigate solar system plasma turbulence. STORM delivers an unprecedented volume of analysed data for turbulence. The project made indeed a systematic survey, orbit by orbit, of data available from ESA repositories and Principal Investigators and provides results ordered as a

  19. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations (United States)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.


    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  20. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.I. Karpenko; Y.E. Karpenko; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko [RAO Unified Energy Systems of Russia, Gusinoozersk (Russian Federation). Russia Sectional Center for Plasma-Power Technologies


    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  1. Autonomous Method and System for Minimizing the Magnitude of Plasma Discharge Current Oscillations in a Hall Effect Plasma Device (United States)

    Hruby, Vladimir (Inventor); Demmons, Nathaniel (Inventor); Ehrbar, Eric (Inventor); Pote, Bruce (Inventor); Rosenblad, Nathan (Inventor)


    An autonomous method for minimizing the magnitude of plasma discharge current oscillations in a Hall effect plasma device includes iteratively measuring plasma discharge current oscillations of the plasma device and iteratively adjusting the magnet current delivered to the plasma device in response to measured plasma discharge current oscillations to reduce the magnitude of the plasma discharge current oscillations.

  2. Nontrivial Solution of Fractional Differential System Involving Riemann-Stieltjes Integral Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge-Feng Yang


    differential system involving the Riemann-Stieltjes integral condition, by using the Leray-Schauder nonlinear alternative and the Banach contraction mapping principle, some sufficient conditions of the existence and uniqueness of a nontrivial solution of a system are obtained.

  3. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaser, A.


    New high temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Emphasis was placed on atmospheric pressure He inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements; simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources with potential for use in spectrochemical analysis; spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high temperature plasmas, particularly He ICP discharges; and development of new, low-cost sample introduction systems, and examination of techniques for probing the aerosols over a wide range. Refs., 14 figs. (DLC)

  4. The modeling and simulation of plasma sheath effect on GNSS system (United States)

    Song, Zhongguo; Liu, Jiangfan; Du, Yongxing; Xi, Xiaoli


    Plasma sheath can potentially degrade global navigation satellite system (GNSS) through signal attenuation as well as phase noise when a hypersonic vehicle reenters the Earth's atmosphere. Modeling and simulation method of GNSS system disturbed by plasma sheath is introduced in this paper by means of electromagnetic wave propagation theory combined with the satellite signal simulation technique. The transmission function of the plasma sheath with stratified model is derived utilizing scattering matrix method. The effects of the plasma sheath on GPS signal reception and positioning performance are examined. Experimental results are presented and discussed, partly supporting the validity of the analytical method proposed.

  5. Self-organization in a driven dissipative plasma system (United States)

    Shaikh, Dastgeer; Dasgupta, B.; Hu, Q.; Zank, G. P.


    We perform a fully self-consistent three-dimensional numerical simulation for a compressible, dissipative magnetoplasma driven by large-scale perturbations, that contain a fairly broad spectrum of characteristic modes, ranging from largest scales to intermediate scales and down to the smallest scales, where the energy of the system is dissipated by collisional (ohmic) and viscous dissipations. Additionally, our simulation includes nonlinear interactions amongst a wide range of fluctuations that are initialized with random spectral amplitudes, leading to the cascade of spectral energy in the inertial range spectrum, and takes into account large-scale as well as small-scale perturbations that may have been induced by the background plasma fluctuations, as well as the non-adiabatic exchange of energy leading to the migration of energy from the energy-containing modes or randomly injected energy driven by perturbations and further dissipated by the smaller scales. Besides demonstrating the comparative decays of the total energy and the dissipation rate of the energy, our results show the existence of a perpendicular component of the current, thus clearly confirming that the self-organized state is non-force free.

  6. Nitrate transport in cucumber leaves is an inducible process involving an increase in plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolic Miroslav


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms by which nitrate is transported into the roots have been characterized both at physiological and molecular levels. It has been demonstrated that nitrate is taken up in an energy-dependent way by a four-component uptake machinery involving high- and low- affinity transport systems. In contrast very little is known about the physiology of nitrate transport towards different plant tissues and in particular at the leaf level. Results The mechanism of nitrate uptake in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese long plants was studied and compared with that of the root. Net nitrate uptake by roots of nitrate-depleted cucumber plants proved to be substrate-inducible and biphasic showing a saturable kinetics with a clear linear non saturable component at an anion concentration higher than 2 mM. Nitrate uptake by leaf discs of cucumber plants showed some similarities with that operating in the roots (e.g. electrogenic H+ dependence via involvement of proton pump, a certain degree of induction. However, it did not exhibit typical biphasic kinetics and was characterized by a higher Km with values out of the range usually recorded in roots of several different plant species. The quantity and activity of plasma membrane (PM H+-ATPase of the vesicles isolated from leaf tissues of nitrate-treated plants for 12 h (peak of nitrate foliar uptake rate increased with respect to that observed in the vesicles isolated from N-deprived control plants, thus suggesting an involvement of this enzyme in the leaf nitrate uptake process similar to that described in roots. Molecular analyses suggest the involvement of a specific isoform of PM H+-ATPase (CsHA1 and NRT2 transporter (CsNRT2 in root nitrate uptake. At the leaf level, nitrate treatment modulated the expression of CsHA2, highlighting a main putative role of this isogene in the process. Conclusions Obtained results provide for the first time evidence that a saturable

  7. Development of Fe-deficiency responses in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) roots: involvement of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. (United States)

    Dell'Orto, M; Santi, S; De Nisi, P; Cesco, S; Varanini, Z; Zocchi, G; Pinton, R


    One of the mechanisms through which some strategy I plants respond to Fe-deficiency is an enhanced acidification of the rhizosphere due to proton extrusion. It was previously demonstrated that under Fe-deficiency, a strong increase in the H(+)-ATPase activity of plasma membrane (PM) vesicles isolated from cucumber roots occurred. This result was confirmed in the present work and supported by measurement of ATP-dependent proton pumping in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. There was also an attempt to clarify the regulatory mechanism(s) which lead to the activation of the H(+)-ATPase under Fe-deficiency conditions. Plasma membrane proteins from Fe-deficient roots submitted to immunoblotting using polyclonal antibodies showed an increased level in the 100 kDa polypeptide. When the plasma membrane proteins were treated with trypsin a 90 kDa band appeared. This effect was accompanied by an increase in the enzyme activity, both in the Fe-deficient and in the Fe-sufficient extracts. These results suggest that the increase in the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity seen under Fe-deficiency is due, at least in part, to an increased steady-state level of the 100 kDa polypeptide.

  8. Hydrophobization of polymer particles by tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) plasma irradiation using a barrel-plasma-treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Keisuke; Danno, Masato; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Nishizawa, Hideki; Honda, Yuji; Abe, Takayuki, E-mail:


    In this study, tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) plasma-treatments of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) powder were performed using a polygonal barrel-plasma-treatment system to improve the PMMA's hydrophobicity. Characterization of the treated samples showed that the PMMA particle surfaces were fluorinated by the CF{sub 4} treatment. The smooth surfaces of the particles changed into nano-sized worm-like structures after the plasma-treatment. The hydrophobicity of the treated PMMA samples was superior to that of the untreated samples. It was noted that the hydrophobicity of the treated samples and the surface fluorination level depended on the plasma-treatment time and radiofrequency (RF) power; high RF power increased the sample temperature, which in turn decreased the hydrophobicity of the treated samples and the surface fluorination because of the thermal decomposition of PMMA. The water-repellent effects were evaluated by using paper towels to show the application of the plasma-treated PMMA particles, with the result that the paper towel coated with the treated sample was highly water-repellent.

  9. Clinical analysis of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus involving the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Huan


    Full Text Available Background Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NP-SLE presents with a wide variety of clinical manifestations, which is often difficult to diagnose with a high mortality. This study aims to investigate the clinical features of NP-SLE involving the central nervous system (CNS and the differential diagnoses between CNS NP-SLE and intracranial infections. Methods The clinical manifestations, serum immunological features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examinations (including intracranial pressure, leukocyte count, protein, glucose and chloride, CT and (or MRI and electroencephalogram (EEG data of 23 NP-SLE patients with CNS involved were retrospectively reviewed. Results Nine patients presented with diffuse manifestations, while 14 patients presented with focal manifestations. Serum analysis showed the positive rates of immunoglobulins anti-nuclear antibody (ANA, anti-double stranded DNA antibody (dsDNA, anti-Sm, anti-ribosmal P protein, anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibodies were 21/22, 7/22, 1/14, 2/14, 9/14 and 3/14 respectively. Patients with decreased serum C3 accounted for 14/20 while patients with decreased serum C4 accounted for 5/20. Besides, patients with increased CSF leukocyte count and microalbumin took up 5/12 and 7/12, while patients with decreased glucose and chloride levels took up 5/12 and 6/12. All 23 patients presented abnormal CT and (or MRI and 6 patients presented abnormal EEG. Conclusion Serum immunological levels, CT and (or MRI and EEG examinations contributed to the diagnosis of NP-SLE involving CNS. Although CSF analyses were slightly abnormal, the increase of leukocyte count and average microalbumin was not obvious, and the mean values of glucose and chloride were in the normal range, suggesting that the CSF examinations were helpful for the differential diagnoses from intracranial infections. Glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive drugs were remarkably effective for CNS NP-SLE patients.

  10. Launching of Microwaves into a Dense Plasma in Open Confinement Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)


    A study is made of the propagation of microwave beams in a plasma and their passage through the critical surface. It is shown that, in order for microwaves to penetrate deeply into a dense plasma, it is necessary to launch them through a magnetic mirror at a slight angle to the device axis. The characteristic features of ray trajectories are analyzed both ahead of and behind the critical surface. In a dense plasma behind the critical surface, microwaves tend to run out of the axial region toward the plasma periphery. This tendency may be unfavorable for heating plasmas whose radial density profiles are strongly peaked about the system axis. The problems under analysis are particularly important for assessing the prospects for ECR heating of dense plasmas in open confinement systems.

  11. Development of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma system for surface modification of polymeric materials (United States)

    Kasih, T. P.


    Non-thermal plasma has become one of the new technologies which are highly developed now days. This happens because the cold plasma using the principle of generated reactive gases that have the ability to modify the surface properties of a material or product without changing the original characteristics of the material. The purpose of this study is to develop a cold plasma system that operates at atmospheric pressure and investigates the effect of cold plasma treatment to change the surface characteristics of the polymer material polyethylene (PE) at various time conditions. We are successfully developing a non-thermal plasma system that can operate at atmospheric pressure and can be run with Helium or Argon gas. The characteristics of plasma will be discussed from the view of its electrical property, plasma discharge regime andoperation temperature. Experiment results on plasma treatment on PE material shows the changes of surface properties of originally hydrophobic material PE becomes hydrophilic by only few seconds of plasma treatment and level of hydrophilicity become greater with increasing duration of plasma treatment. Confirmation of this is shown by the measurement of contact angle of droplets of water on the surface of PE are getting smaller.

  12. EMAPS: An Efficient Multiscale Approach to Plasma Systems with Non-MHD Scale Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omelchenko, Yuri A. [Trinum Research, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)


    , mirrors, etc) lie at the core of many space and laboratory plasma phenomena ranging from magnetoshells and solar wind interactions with planetary magnetospheres to compact fusion plasmas. HYPERS simulations are compared with data from the MSX experiment (LANL) that focuses on the physics of magnetized collisionless shocks through the acceleration and subsequent stagnation of FRC plasmoids against a strong magnetic mirrors and flux-conserving boundaries. 3. Exploding magnetoplasmas Results from hybrid simulations of two experiments at the LAPD and Nevada Terawatt Facility are discussed where short-pulse lasers are used to ablate solid targets to produce plasmas that expand across external magnetic fields. The first simulation recreates flutelike density striations observed at the leading edge of a carbon plasma and predicts an early destruction of the magnetic cavity in agreement with experimental evidence. In the second simulation a polyethylene target is ablated into a mixture of protons and carbon ions. A mechanism is demonstrated that allows protons to penetrate the magnetic field in the form of a collimated flow. The results are compared to experimental data and single-fluid MHD simulations. The EMAPS framework has the potential for wide application in many other engineering and scientific fields, such as climate models, biological systems, electronic devices, seismic events, oil reservation simulators that all involve advancing solutions of partial differential equations in time where the rate of activity can be adapted widely over the spatial domain depending on locally space/time phenomena (“events”).

  13. Development of High-Throughput Liquid Treatment System using Slot Antenna Excited Microwave Plasma (United States)

    Takitou, Sho; Ito, Michiko; Takashima, Seigou; Nomura, Norio; Kitagawa, Tominori; Toyoda, Hirotaka


    Recently, much attention has been given to plasma production under liquid and its industrial applications as well as investigation of chemical reactions as a result of plasma-liquid interactions. In various kinds of plasma production techniques, we have proposed pulsed microwave excited plasma using slot antenna, where damage to the slot electrode can be minimized and plasma volume can be increased. Furthermore, we have proposed an in-line microwave plasma system where plasma is efficiently produced under reduced pressures using Venturi effect, and have demonstrated enhancement of organic decomposition efficiency. For practical use of the plasma liquid treatment, however, cost-effective and more efficient treatment system with high treatment capability is required. In this study, we propose further enhancement of the treatment speed by designing four-parallel-type liquid treatment device where four discharges for the treatment are performed using one microwave power source. Decomposition speed of newly-developed plasma system is investigated. Not only high decomposition rate but also enhanced energy efficiency is realized.

  14. A dileucine motif is involved in plasma membrane expression and endocytosis of rat sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp). (United States)

    Stross, Claudia; Kluge, Stefanie; Weissenberger, Katrin; Winands, Elisabeth; Häussinger, Dieter; Kubitz, Ralf


    The sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) is the major uptake transporter for bile salts into liver parenchymal cells, and PKC-mediated endocytosis was shown to regulate the number of Ntcp molecules at the plasma membrane. In this study, mechanisms of Ntcp internalization were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analyses in HepG2 cells. PKC activation induced endocytosis of Ntcp from the plasma membrane by ~30%. Endocytosis of Ntcp was clathrin dependent and was followed by lysosomal degradation. A dileucine motif located in the third intracellular loop of Ntcp was essential for endocytosis but also for processing and plasma membrane targeting, suggesting a dual function of this motif for intracellular trafficking of Ntcp. Mutation of two of five potential phosphorylation sites surrounding the dileucine motif (Thr225 and Ser226) inhibited PKC-mediated endocytosis. In conclusion, we could identify a motif, which is critical for Ntcp plasma membrane localization. Endocytic retrieval protects hepatocytes from elevated bile salt concentrations and is of special interest, because NTCP has been identified as a receptor for the hepatitis B and D virus.

  15. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Related to Protein Signaling Involved in Glucose Homeostasis in a Tissue-Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewan Parker


    Full Text Available Vitamin D has been suggested to play a role in glucose metabolism. However, previous findings are contradictory and mechanistic pathways remain unclear. We examined the relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, insulin sensitivity, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventeen healthy adults (Body mass index: 26 ± 4; Age: 30 ± 12 years underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and resting skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies. In this cohort, the plasma 25(OHD concentration was not associated with insulin sensitivity (r = 0.19, p = 0.56. However, higher plasma 25(OHD concentrations correlated with lower phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 αSer21 and βSer9 in skeletal muscle (r = −0.66, p = 0.015 and r = −0.53, p = 0.06, respectively and higher GSK-3 αSer21 and βSer9 phosphorylation in adipose tissue (r = 0.82, p < 0.01 and r = 0.62, p = 0.042, respectively. Furthermore, higher plasma 25(OHD concentrations were associated with greater phosphorylation of both protein kinase-B (AktSer473 (r = 0.78, p < 0.001 and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1Ser312 (r = 0.71, p = 0.01 in adipose tissue. No associations were found between plasma 25(OHD concentration and IRS-1Tyr612 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The divergent findings between muscle and adipose tissue with regard to the association between 25(OHD and insulin signaling proteins may suggest a tissue-specific interaction with varying effects on glucose homeostasis. Further research is required to elucidate the physiological relevance of 25(OHD in each tissue.

  16. Liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry determination of ibogaine and noribogaine in human plasma and whole blood. Application to a poisoning involving Tabernanthe iboga root. (United States)

    Kontrimaviciūte, Violeta; Breton, Hélène; Mathieu, Olivier; Mathieu-Daudé, Jean-Claude; Bressolle, Françoise M M


    A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method was developed for the first time for the determination of ibogaine and noribogaine in human plasma and whole blood. The method involved solid phase extraction of the compounds and the internal standard (fluorescein) from the two matrices using OasisHLB columns. LC separation was performed on a Zorbax eclipse XD8 C8 column (5 microm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile containing 0.02% (v/v) trimethylamine and 2mM ammonium formate buffer. MS data were acquired in single ion monitoring mode at m/z 311.2, 297.2 and 332.5 for ibogaine, noribogaine and fluorescein, respectively. The drug/internal standard peak area ratios were linked via a quadratic relationship to plasma (0.89-179 microg/l for ibogaine; 1-200 microg/l for noribogaine) and to whole blood concentrations (1.78-358 microg/kg for ibogaine; 2-400 microg/kg for noribogaine). Precision ranged from 4.5 to 13% and accuracy was 89-102%. Dilution of the samples had no influence on the performance of the method. Extraction recoveries were > or =94% in plasma and > or =57% in whole blood. The lower limits of quantitation were 0.89 microg/l for ibogaine and 1 microg/l for noribogaine in plasma, and 1.78 microg/kg for ibogaine and 2 microg/kg for noribogaine in whole blood. In frozen plasma samples, the two drugs were stable for at least 1 year. In blood, ibogaine and noribogaine were stable for 4h at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C and 2 months at -20 degrees C. The method was successfully used for the analysis of a poisoning involving Tabernanthe iboga root.

  17. An investigation into possible xenobiotic-endobiotic inter-relationships involving the amino acid analogue drug, S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and plasma amino acids in humans. (United States)

    Steventon, Glyn B; Mitchell, Stephen C; Angulo, Santigo; Barbas, Coral


    The amino acid derivative, S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, is an anti-oxidant agent extensively employed as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of human pulmonary conditions. A major biotransformation route of this drug, which displays considerable variation in capacity in man, involves the oxidation of the sulfide moiety to the inactive S-oxide metabolite. Previous observations have indicated that fasted plasma L-cysteine concentrations and fasted plasma L-cysteine/free inorganic sulfate ratios were correlated with the degree of sulfoxidation of this drug and that these particular parameters may be used as endobiotic biomarkers for this xenobiotic metabolism. It has been proposed also that the enzyme, cysteine dioxygenase, was responsible for the drug sulfoxidation. Further in this theme, the degree of S-oxidation of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine in 100 human volunteers was investigated with respect to it potential correlation with fasted plasma amino acid concentrations. Extensive statistical analyses showed no significant associations or relationships between the degree of drug S-oxidation and fasted plasma amino acid concentrations, especially with respect to the sulfur-containing compounds, methionine, L-cysteine, L-cysteine sulfinic acid, taurine and free inorganic sulfate, also the derived ratios of L-cysteine/L-cysteine sulfinic acid and L-cysteine/free inorganic sulfate. It was concluded that plasma amino acid levels or derived ratios cannot be employed to predict the degree of S-oxidation of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine (or vice versa) and that it is doubtful if the enzyme, cysteine dioxygenase, has any involvement in the metabolism of this drug.

  18. Plasma system requirements and performance data base for the Starlite/Demo fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mau, T.K.; Lee, B.J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Fusion Energy Research Program; Ehst, D.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)


    General plasma system requirements for the US Demo fusion power plant have been identified, taking into account factors of economics, operability and reliability. Required extrapolations from the present plasma performance database have been assessed for the Demo options in five areas of tokamak operation, namely, stability, current drive, energy confinement, heat exhaust, and ash removal, for which figures of merit have been identified.

  19. Collective Thomson scattering system for determination of ion properties in a high flux plasma beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meiden, H. J.; Vernimmen, J. W. M.; Bystrov, K.; Jesko, K.; Kantor, M. Y.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T. W.


    A collective Thomson scattering system has been developed for measuring ion temperature, plasma velocity and impurity concentration in the high density magnetized Magnum-PSI plasma beam, allowing for measurements at low temperature (<5 eV) and high electron density >4 × 1020 m−3, while

  20. Docetaxel-Induced Systemic Sclerosis with Internal Organ Involvement Masquerading as Congestive Heart Failure. (United States)

    Park, Bumsoo; Vemulapalli, Raghavendra C; Gupta, Amit; Shreve, Maria E; Rees, Della A


    Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a complex medical disorder characterized by limited or diffuse skin thickening with frequent involvement of internal organs such as lungs, gastrointestinal tract, or kidneys. Docetaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent which has been associated with cutaneous side effects. An uncommon cutaneous side effect of docetaxel is scleroderma-like skin changes that extend from limited to diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Several case reports have been published regarding the association of docetaxel and systemic sclerosis. However, those reports demonstrated the association between docetaxel and scleroderma-like skin changes without internal organ involvement. Here, we report a case of systemic sclerosis with pulmonary arterial hypertension and a microangiopathic kidney involvement induced by docetaxel chemotherapy. After an exhaustive literature review, this could be the first case of docetaxel-induced systemic sclerosis involving internal organs.

  1. Docetaxel-Induced Systemic Sclerosis with Internal Organ Involvement Masquerading as Congestive Heart Failure (United States)

    Vemulapalli, Raghavendra C.; Gupta, Amit; Shreve, Maria E.; Rees, Della A.


    Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a complex medical disorder characterized by limited or diffuse skin thickening with frequent involvement of internal organs such as lungs, gastrointestinal tract, or kidneys. Docetaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent which has been associated with cutaneous side effects. An uncommon cutaneous side effect of docetaxel is scleroderma-like skin changes that extend from limited to diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Several case reports have been published regarding the association of docetaxel and systemic sclerosis. However, those reports demonstrated the association between docetaxel and scleroderma-like skin changes without internal organ involvement. Here, we report a case of systemic sclerosis with pulmonary arterial hypertension and a microangiopathic kidney involvement induced by docetaxel chemotherapy. After an exhaustive literature review, this could be the first case of docetaxel-induced systemic sclerosis involving internal organs.

  2. A national study of male involvement among families in contact with the child welfare system. (United States)

    Bellamy, Jennifer L


    Few studies inform the frequency and type of adult male involvement in families in contact with child welfare, and even fewer explore how male involvement relates to child welfare outcomes. This study employed data from a sample of 3,978 families in contact with the U.S. child welfare system, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. The nature of male involvement in these families and its relationship to (a) caseworkers' perception of children's risk for maltreatment rereport and (b) entry into out-of-home care were explored. Results indicate that most caregivers report male involvement, distinct types of male involvement are related to the likelihood of out-of-home care, and households that include nonparental adult males are perceived by caseworkers as relatively risky. No male involvement indicator tested, however, was related to maltreatment rereport. Implications include the need to appropriately assess, include, and engage adult male family members across diverse family systems.

  3. Plasma properties of RF magnetron sputtering system using Zn target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafarizal, N.; Andreas Albert, A. R.; Sharifah Amirah, A. S.; Salwa, O.; Riyaz Ahmad, M. A. [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology - Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)


    In the present work, we investigate the fundamental properties of magnetron sputtering plasma using Zn target and its deposited Zn thin film. The magnetron sputtering plasma was produced using radio frequency (RF) power supply and Argon (Ar) as ambient gas. A Langmuir probe was used to collect the current from the plasma and from the current intensity, we calculate the electron density and electron temperature. The properties of Zn sputtering plasma at various discharge conditions were studied. At the RF power ranging from 20 to 100 W and gas pressure 5 mTorr, we found that the electron temperature was almost unchanged between 2-2.5 eV. On the other hand, the electron temperature increased drastically from 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} when the discharge gas pressure increased from 5 to 10 mTorr. The electron microscope images show that the grain size of Zn thin film increase when the discharge power is increased. This may be due to the enhancement of plasma density and sputtered Zn density.

  4. Microwave heating systems for atmospheric pressure: Nonequilibrium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, G.E.; Dandl, R.A. (AMPC, Inc., Carlsbad, CA (USA))


    Nonequilibrium plasma-chemical processing is attracting increasing interest because of the possibility of creating mixtures of active species that would not be available in thermal equilibrium. For significant throughput of reactants it would be advantageous to create nonequilibrium plasmas in large volumes of atmospheric-pressure mixtures of gases. Techniques for accomplishing this are very limited at present. Here they describe a novel microwave approach to creating nonequilibrium plasmas in large volumes of atmospheric-pressure gases using pulses of microwave radiation with very high peak power that are focused by quasi-optical techniques at one or more points in the interior of the reaction chamber. A new type of microwave source, the Plasma Electron Microwave Source (PEMS), is able to produce the require power levels by storing cw microwave power in a mirror-confined, relativistic-electron plasma and periodically transforming a fraction of that stored energy into intense microwave pulses. This approach avoids many of the limitations inherent in resonant cavity approaches and is expected to permit ultrahigh purity discharges to be produced.

  5. Chinese plasma-derived products supply under the lot release management system in 2007-2011. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Ye, Shengliang; Du, Xi; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Chaoming; Li, Changqing


    In 2007, the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) implemented a management system for lot release of all plasma-derived products. Since then, there have been only a few systematic studies of the blood supply, which is a concern when considering the small amount of plasma collected per capita (approximately 3 L/1000 people). As a result, there may be a threat to the safety of the available blood supply. In this study, we examined the characteristics of the supply of Chinese plasma-derived products. We investigated the reports of lot-released biological products derived from all 8 national or regional regulatory authorities in China from 2007 to 2011. The market supply characteristics of Chinese plasma-derived products were analyzed by reviewing the changes in supply varieties, the batches of lot-released plasma-derived products and the actual supply. As a result, the national regulatory authorities can more accurately develop a specific understanding of the production and quality management information provided by Chinese plasma product manufacturers. The implementation of the lot release system further ensures the clinical validity of the plasma-derived products in China and improves the safety of using plasma-derived products. This work provides an assessment of the future Chinese market supply of plasma-derived products and can function as a theoretical basis for the establishment of hemovigilance. Copyright © 2013 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The development of a quality prediction system for aluminum laser welding to measure plasma intensity using photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ji Young [Technical Research Center, Hyundai Steel Company, Dangjin (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Yong Ho [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando (United States); Park, Young Whan; Kwak, Jae Seob [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Lightweight metals have been used to manufacture the body panels of cars to reduce the weight of car bodies. Typically, aluminum sheets are welded together, with a focus on weld quality assurance. A weld quality prediction system for the laser welding of aluminum was developed in this research to maximize welding production. The behavior of the plasma was also analyzed, dependent on various welding conditions. The light intensity of the plasma was altered with heat input and wire feed rate conditions, and the strength of the weld and sensor signals correlated closely for this heat input condition. Using these characteristics, a new algorithm and program were developed to evaluate the weld quality. The design involves a combinatory algorithm using a neural network model for the prediction of tensile strength from measured signals and a fuzzy multi-feature pattern recognition algorithm for the weld quality classification to improve predictability of the system.

  7. Kinetic analysis and energy efficiency of phenol degradation in a plasma-photocatalysis system. (United States)

    Wang, Hui-juan; Chen, Xiao-yang


    Combination of two kinds of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is an effective approach to control wastewater pollution. In this research, a pulsed discharge plasma system with multi-point-to-plate electrode and an immobilized TiO(2) photocatalysis system is coupled to oxidize target pollutant in aqueous solution. Kinetic analysis (pseudo-first order kinetic constant, k) and energy efficiency (energy yield value at 50% phenol conversion, G(50)) of phenol oxidation in different reaction systems (plasma alone and plasma-photocatalysis) are reviewed to account for the synergistic mechanism of plasma and photocatalysis. The experimental results show that higher k and G(50) of phenol oxidation can be obtained in the plasma-photocatalysis system under the conditions of different gas bubbling varieties, initial solution pH and radical scavenger addition. Moreover, the investigation tested hydroxyl radical (OH) is the most important species for phenol removal in the synergistic system of plasma-photocatalysis as well as in the plasma alone system.

  8. Clinical features and early treatment response of central nervous system involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Mette; Taskinen, Mervi; Abrahamsson, Jonas


    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a therapeutic challenge. PROCEDURE: To explore leukemia characteristics of patients with CNS involvement at ALL diagnosis, we analyzed clinical features and early treatment response of 744...... leukemia and patients without such characteristics (0.50 vs. 0.61; P = 0.2). CONCLUSION: CNS involvement at diagnosis is associated with adverse prognostic features but does not indicate a less chemosensitive leukemia....

  9. Brief review on plasma propulsion with neutralizer-free systems (United States)

    Rafalskyi, D.; Aanesland, A.


    Electric space propulsion is an intensively developing field addressing new demands and challenges for long-term spacecraft operation. Many novel plasma propulsion concepts aim to find new acceleration principles, use alternative propellants, upscale or downscale thrusters for large thrust or for very small spacecrafts etc. In this work we review the neutralizer-free concepts, where both positive and negative particles are extracted and accelerated from plasmas. We can divide these concepts into three main categories, defined by their acceleration principle: (i) neutral beam generation, (ii) plasma acceleration/expansion and (iii) bipolar beam acceleration. We describe the basic physical principles and evaluate the main advantages and drawbacks in view of general space applications. We also present here further detail on a recent concept where RF voltages are used to accelerate quasi-simultaneously positive ions and electrons from the same source.

  10. Upgrade of plasma density feedback control system in HT-7 tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Da-Zheng; LUO Jia-Rong; LI Gang; JI Zhen-Shan; WANG Feng


    The HT-7 is a superconducting tokamak in China used to make researches on the controlled nuclear fusion as a national project for the fusion research. The plasma density feedback control subsystem is the one of the subsystems of the distributed control system in HT-7 tokamak (HT7DCS). The main function of the subsystem is to control the plasma density on real-time. For this reason, the real-time capability and good stability are the most significant factors, which will influence the control results. Since the former plasma density feedback control system (FPDFCS) based on Windows operation system could not fulfill such requirements well, a new subsystem has to be developed. The paper describes the upgrade of the plasma density feedback control system (UPDFCS), based on the dual operation system (Windows and Linux), in detail.

  11. Involvement of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in nicotinic calcium responses in dystrophic myotubes assessed by near-plasma membrane calcium measurement. (United States)

    Basset, Olivier; Boittin, François-Xavier; Dorchies, Olivier M; Chatton, Jean-Yves; van Breemen, Cornelis; Ruegg, Urs T


    In skeletal muscle cells, plasma membrane depolarization causes a rapid calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors triggering contraction. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a lethal disease that is caused by the lack of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, the cytosolic calcium concentration is known to be increased, and this increase may lead to cell necrosis. Here, we used myotubes derived from control and mdx mice, the murine model of DMD, to study the calcium responses induced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation. The photoprotein aequorin was expressed in the cytosol or targeted to the plasma membrane as a fusion protein with the synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25, thus allowing calcium measurements in a restricted area localized just below the plasma membrane. The carbachol-induced calcium responses were 4.5 times bigger in dystrophic myotubes than in control myotubes. Moreover, in dystrophic myotubes the carbachol-mediated calcium responses measured in the subsarcolemmal area were at least 10 times bigger than in the bulk cytosol. The initial calcium responses were due to calcium influx into the cells followed by a fast refilling/release phase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In addition and unexpectedly, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor pathway was involved in these calcium signals only in the dystrophic myotubes. This surprising involvement of this calcium release channel in the excitation-contraction coupling could open new ways for understanding exercise-induced calcium increases and downstream muscle degeneration in mdx mice and, therefore, in DMD.

  12. Second-Order Integrals for Systems in E2 Involving Spin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Yurduşen


    Full Text Available In two-dimensional Euclidean plane, existence of second-order integrals of motion is investigated for integrable Hamiltonian systems involving spin (e.g., those systems describing interaction between two particles with spin 0 and spin 1/2 and it has been shown that no nontrivial second-order integrals of motion exist for such systems.

  13. Plasma lipids profile and erythrocytes system in patients with coronary heart disease (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.


    Erythrocytes system study can provide a framework for detailed exploration of blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions, one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. Our objective was to explore erythrocytes system in patients with stable angina pectoris II f.c. (Canadian classification). The participants (N = 56, age 40 - 55 years) without obesity, glucose tolerance violations, lipid lowering drugs treating, heart failure of II and more functional classes (NYHA), coronary episode at least 6 months before study were involved in the study. Blood samples were incubated with glucose solutions of increasing concentrations (from 2.5% to 20% with 2.5% step) during 60 mm (36° C). In prepared blood smears erythrocyte's sizes were studied. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels were also measured. Received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree, with after going first and second derivations. Erythrocytes system "behavior" was studied by means of phase pattern constructing. By lipids levels all the patient were divided into five groups: 1) patients with normal lipids levels, 2) patients with borderline total cholesterol level, 3) patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, 4) patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and 5) patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Erythrocytes size lowering process was of set of "stages", which characteristics differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all five groups. Their rate and acceleration characteristics allow us to detect type of lipid profile in patients. Erythrocyte system disturbing by glucose concentration increase show to be most resistant in group of patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.

  14. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechana, A. [Program of Physics and General Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Songkhla Rajabhat University, Songkhla 90000 (Thailand); Thamboon, P. [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Boonyawan, D., E-mail: [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)


    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed.

  15. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber (United States)

    Dechana, A.; Thamboon, P.; Boonyawan, D.


    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al2O3 layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al2O3 films—analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques—will be discussed.

  16. Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources (United States)

    Kong, Peter C


    Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

  17. A New Waste Disposal Technology-plasma arc Pyrolysis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建军; 施嘉标; 梁荣庆; 刘正之


    This paper introduces a new waste disposal technology with plasma arc. Being different from conventional combustion or burning such as incineration, it is based on a process called controlled pyrolysis-thermal destruction and recovery process. It has four advantages, they are completely safe, clean, high-energy synthesis gas, non-toxic vitrified slag and metal.

  18. Ultrashort pulse laser microsurgery system with plasma luminescence feedback control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.M.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Gold, D.M.; Darrow, C.B.; Da Silva, L.B.


    Plasma luminescence spectroscopy was used for precise ablation of bone tissue during ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) micro-spinal surgery. Strong contrast of the luminescence spectra between bone marrow and spinal cord provided the real time feedback control so that only bone tissue can be selectively ablated while preserving the spinal cord.

  19. Numerical simulations of the electrodynamic interactions between the Tethered-Satellite-System and space plasma (United States)

    Vashi, Bharat I.


    The first Tethered-Satellite-System (TSS-1), scheduled for a flight in late 1992, is expected to provide relevant information related to the concept of generating an emf in a 20-km-long (or longer) conducting wire. This paper presents numerical simulations of the electrodynamic interactions between the TSS system and space plasma, using a 2D and 3D models of the system. The 2D case code simulates the motion of a long cylinder past a plasma, which is composed of electrons and H(+) ions. The system is solved by allowing the plasma to flow past the cylinder with an imposed magnetic field. The more complex 3D case is considered to study the dynamics in great detail. Results of 2D simulation show that the interaction of a satellite with plasma flowing perpendicularly to the magnetic field results in an enhancement in the current collection.

  20. Cardiac involvement in primary systemic vasculitis and potential drug therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. (United States)

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Shenoy, Sajjan N


    Cardiac involvement is common in primary systemic vasculitides and may be due to direct effect of the disease on the heart or due to therapy. We shall review involvement of the heart in the various forms of primary systemic vasculitis. Among anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis most commonly involves the heart. Involvement of the heart confers poorer prognosis in AAV, which is also complicated by increased risk of cardiovascular events. Kawasaki's disease (KD) is the most common form of medium-vessel vasculitis to affect the heart, with coronary artery aneurysms being the most common manifestation. These predispose patients with KD to develop premature ischemic heart disease. Takayasu's arteritis is the most common large-vessel vasculitis to involve the heart and can result in aortic incompetence, myocarditis, or coronary heart disease. Involvement of the heart in Behcet's disease is usually in the form of intracardiac mass lesions, thrombosis, or endomyocardial fibrosis. Drugs used in the treatment of systemic vasculitis influence the risk of developing cardiovascular events. Corticosteroid therapy has been shown to increase the risk of myocardial infarction, whereas methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, and anti-tumor necrosis alpha agents favorably modulate the risk of cardiovascular events, predominantly by dampening systemic inflammation. Awareness of cardiac involvement in vasculitis and accelerated cardiovascular risk in these patients should help clinicians to maximize the modulation of modifiable risk factors for heart disease in these individuals.

  1. Service user involvement for mental health system strengthening in India: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Samudre, Sandesh; Shidhaye, Rahul; Ahuja, Shalini; Nanda, Sharmishtha; Khan, Azaz; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Hanlon, Charlotte


    There is a wide recognition that involvement of service users and their caregivers in health system policy and planning processes can strengthen health systems; however, most evidence and experience has come from high-income countries. This study aimed to explore baseline experiences, barriers and facilitators to service user-caregiver involvement in the emerging mental health system in India, and stakeholders' perspectives on how greater involvement could be achieved. A qualitative study was conducted in Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh, India. In-depth interviews (n = 27) and a focus group discussion were conducted among service users, caregivers and their representatives at district, state and national levels and policy makers, service providers and mental health researchers. The topic guide explored the baseline situation in India, barriers and facilitators to service user and caregiver involvement in the following aspects of mental health systems: policy-making and planning, service development, monitoring and quality control, as well as research. Framework analysis was employed. Respondents spoke of the limited involvement of service users and caregivers in the current Indian mental health system. The major reported barriers to this involvement were (1) unmet treatment and economic needs arising from low access to mental health services coupled with the high burden of illness, (2) pervasive stigmatising attitudes operating at the level of service user, caregiver, community, healthcare provider and healthcare administrators, and (3) entrenched power differentials between service providers and service users. Respondents prioritised greater involvement of service users in the planning of their own individual-level mental health care before considering involvement at the mental health system level. A stepwise progression was endorsed, starting from needs assessment, through empowerment and organization of service users and caregivers, leading finally to

  2. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. The application of cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, S.; Ishigatsubo, Y.; Katou, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Chiba, J. (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)


    Cranial computed tomography scans were performed on 47 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Abnormal findings in the computed tomograms (CT) were observed in 17 patients (36.2%). Cerebral atrophy was the most common feature (eight cases), followed by abnormal high density areas (five cases), abnormal low density areas (three cases), sulcal enlargement (two cases), intracranial hemorrhage (one case) and others (two cases). The abnormal cranial CT group of SLE was associated with a significantly higher incidence of urinary casts and of thrombocytopenia. In particular, the frequency of urinary casts was greater in the group with cerebral atrophy than in the group with normal CT findings, and there was a higher incidence of alopecia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in the group with intracranial calcifications. Neuropsychiatric involvements were noted in 70.6% of patients with CT abnormalities, but neuropsychiatric features (20.7%) and electroencephalographic abnormalities (44.8%) were also observed in patients with normal CT findings. The age at onset of SLE, the mean duration of the disease and the survival rate were not significantly different between the groups with and without CT abnormalities, but the mortality rate was significantly greater in the group with CT abnormalities, especially among those with brain atrophy. Concerning the relationship between the findings of cranial CT and corticosteroid treatment, there was no significant difference in either the total dose or the mean duration of prednisolone therapy. Although SLE patients with cerebral atrophy were taking a larger maintenance dose of corticosteroids, the differences were not statistically significant.

  3. Improvement of alcoholic fermentation by calcium ions under enological conditions involves the increment of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. (United States)

    Li, Jingyuan; Huang, Weidong; Wang, Xiuqin; Tang, Tian; Hua, Zhaozhe; Yan, Guoliang


    The effect of Ca(2+) on alcoholic fermentation and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity of wine yeast under enological conditions were investigated in this study. The results showed that fermentation rate, cell growth and ethanol production were improved by 0.5 and 1.5 mM Ca(2+) supplementation, which correlated well with the increment of ATPase activity and protein levels. Considering the important role of ATPase in the tolerance of yeast to ethanol, the improvement could be, at least partially, attributed to the increment of ATPase activity. No activation of ATPase by Ca(2+) was observed in the early phase of fermentation and the increment of activity was only observed when ethanol concentration exceeded 6.5%. Therefore, the enhancement of ATPase activity by Ca(2+) was ascribed to alleviating the inhibition of ATPase activity by ethanol through protection of membrane structure. Our results suggest that, besides maintenance of cell membrane structure, the increment of plasma membrane ATPase activity was also responsible for the improvement of alcoholic fermentation by Ca(2+) supplementation.

  4. Involvement of plasma membrane peroxidases and oxylipin pathway in the recovery from phytoplasma disease in apple (Malus domestica). (United States)

    Patui, Sonia; Bertolini, Alberto; Clincon, Luisa; Ermacora, Paolo; Braidot, Enrico; Vianello, Angelo; Zancani, Marco


    Apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) may be affected by apple proliferation (AP), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'. Some plants can spontaneously recover from the disease, which implies the disappearance of symptoms through a phenomenon known as recovery. In this article it is shown that NAD(P)H peroxidases of leaf plasma membrane-enriched fractions exhibited a higher activity in samples from both AP-diseased and recovered plants. In addition, an increase in endogenous SA was characteristic of the symptomatic plants, since its content increased in samples obtained from diseased apple trees. In agreement, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was increased too. Jasmonic acid (JA) increased only during recovery, in a phase subsequent to the pathological state, and in concomitance to a decline of salicylic acid (SA). Oxylipin pathway, responsible for JA synthesis, was not induced during the development of AP-disease, but it appeared to be stimulated when the recovery occurred. Accordingly, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions, showed an increase in apple leaves obtained from recovered plants. This enhancement was paralleled by an increase of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) activity, detected in leaf microsomes, albeit the latter enzyme was activated in either the disease or recovery conditions. Hence, a reciprocal antagonism between SA- and JA-pathways could be suggested as an effective mechanism by which apple plants react to phytoplasma invasions, thereby providing a suitable defense response leading to the establishment of the recovery phenomenon. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  5. Involvement in the US criminal justice system and cost implications for persons treated for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faries Douglas E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with schizophrenia may have a higher risk of encounters with the criminal justice system than the general population, but there are limited data on such encounters and their attendant costs. This study assessed the prevalence of encounters with the criminal justice system, encounter types, and the estimated cost attributable to these encounters in the one-year treatment of persons with schizophrenia. Methods This post-hoc analysis used data from a prospective one-year cost-effectiveness study of persons treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia and related disorders in the United States. Criminal justice system involvement was assessed using the Schizophrenia Patients Outcome Research Team (PORT client survey and the victimization subscale of the Lehman Quality of Life Interview (QOLI. Direct cost of criminal justice system involvement was estimated using previously reported costs per type of encounter. Patients with and without involvement were compared on baseline characteristics and direct annual health care and criminal justice system-related costs. Results Overall, 278 (46% of 609 participants reported at least 1 criminal justice system encounter. They were more likely to be substance users and less adherent to antipsychotics compared to participants without involvement. The 2 most prevalent types of encounters were being a victim of a crime (67% and being on parole or probation (26%. The mean annual per-patient cost of involvement was $1,429, translating to 6% of total annual direct health care costs for those with involvement (11% when excluding crime victims. Conclusions Criminal justice system involvement appears to be prevalent and costly for persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States. Findings highlight the need to better understand the interface between the mental health and the criminal justice systems and the related costs, in personal, societal, and economic terms.

  6. Plasma simulation in a hybrid ion electric propulsion system (United States)

    Jugroot, Manish; Christou, Alex


    An exciting possibility for the next generation of satellite technology is the microsatellite. These satellites, ranging from 10-500 kg, can offer advantages in cost, reduced risk, and increased functionality for a variety of missions. For station keeping and control of these satellites, a suitable compact and high efficiency thruster is required. Electrostatic propulsion provides a promising solution for microsatellite thrust due to their high specific impulse. The rare gas propellant is ionized into plasma and generates a beam of high speed ions by electrostatic processes. A concept explored in this work is a hybrid combination of dc ion engines and hall thrusters to overcome space-charge and lifetime limitations of current ion thruster technologies. A multiphysics space and time-dependent formulation was used to investigate and understand the underlying physical phenomena. Several regions and time scales of the plasma have been observed and will be discussed.

  7. Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems (United States)


    None From the ion chromatography results we can calculate the concentration of HNO3 in the gas leaving the plasma reactor. The small NO3- detected...resistant to decomposition by O3. Carbon and polymeric adsorbents were not considered because they would react with O3 and decompose . Potential...nor any ability to decompose ozone. A SAC-13 catalyst was obtained from Engelhard for testing also. This material is an H- Nafion Ion Exchange

  8. Preparation for the operation of ITER: EU study on the plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavinato, M., E-mail: [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Ambrosino, G. [CREATE/ENEA/Euratom Association, Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Figini, L.; Granucci, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Gribov, Y. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Koechl, F. [Association EURATOM-ÖAW/ATI, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Mattei, M. [CREATE/ENEA/Euratom Association, Seconda Università di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Parail, V. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pironti, A. [CREATE/ENEA/Euratom Association, Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Ricci, D. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Saibene, G.; Sartori, R. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Zabeo, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France)


    In view of the preparation for the operation of the ITER tokamak it is necessary to develop the plasma scenarios taking into account all engineering constraints coming from the plant and including a realistic control system. It is important to consider that, due to the high energy of ITER plasmas, much more stringent requirements are posed on the control of transients in order to avoid machine damage. Several activities are performed in the EU focusing on one side on the scenario optimization from a physics point of view and on the other side on the design and modeling of a realistic plasma control system driving the plasma configuration throughout the whole pulse and suitable for implementation on a real machine. The issues related to the computation of the control feed-forward component are addressed. In particular, the possibility to trigger a feed-forward component to solve controllability problems arising in the transitions from plasma L to H and H to L modes is studied in detail with the support of linear and non-linear simulations. A control strategy is designed and tested on non-linear simulations of the whole pulse, including linear and non-linear effects due to controller switching, plasma shape reconstruction and power supplies. The paper reports on the results of the studies performed and discuss the proposed design of the plasma control system.

  9. Numerical simulation of nonlinear processes in a beam-plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efimova, A. A., E-mail:; Berendeev, E. A.; Vshivkov, V. A. [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics SB RAS 6 Acad. Lavrentyev Ave., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Dudnikova, G. I. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS, 6 Acad. Lavrentyev Ave., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)


    In the present paper we consider the efficiency of the electromagnetic radiation generation due to various nonlinear processes in the beam-plasma system. The beam and plasma parameters were chosen close to the parameters in the experiment on the GOL-3 facility (BINP SB RAS). The model of the collisionless plasma is described by system of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations with periodic boundary conditions. The parallel numerical algorithm is based on the particles-in-cell method (PIC) with mixed Euler-Lagrangian domain decomposition. Various scenarios of nonlinear evolution in the beam-plasma system under the influence of an external magnetic field in case of a low density beam were studied. The energy transfer from one unstable mode to the others modes was observed.

  10. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey


    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  11. Feature profile evolution in plasma processing using on-wafer monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Samukawa, Seiji


    This book provides for the first time a good understanding of the etching profile technologies that do not disturb the plasma. Three types of sensors are introduced: on-wafer UV sensors, on-wafer charge-up sensors and on-wafer sheath-shape sensors in the plasma processing and prediction system of real etching profiles based on monitoring data. Readers are made familiar with these sensors, which can measure real plasma process surface conditions such as defect generations due to UV-irradiation, ion flight direction due to charge-up voltage in high-aspect ratio structures and ion sheath conditions at the plasma/surface interface. The plasma etching profile realistically predicted by a computer simulation based on output data from these sensors is described.

  12. Structural analysis of converging jets in a triple torch plasma system

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, K


    A three-dimensional numerical model is developed to clarify the structure of the converging jets in a triple torch plasma system. Three individual argon plasma jets, issued into atmospheric argon, are mixed with given angle of convergence and form a converged plasma jet. Predicted results show that thermo-fluid fields of the converging plasma jets are symmetric with three symmetric sections at an interval 120 deg. Symmetry and uniformity of thermo-fluid fields increase with decreasing angle of convergence. Temperature field is more sensitive to angle of convergence than the velocity field. Symmetry of thermo-fluid fields is improved in downstream direction. A dip in the velocity fields corresponds to poor mixing and diffusion of velocity fields of three individual plasma jets. Central gas injection decreases converging jets temperature significantly.

  13. Understanding the involvement of rhizobacteria-mediated induction of systemic resistance in biocontrol of plant diseases


    Bakker, P.A.H.M; Ran, L.X.; Pieterse, C. M. J.; Loon, L.C. van


    Specific strains of nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can induce systemic resistance that is effective against a range of plant pathogens. To exploit induced systemic resistance, detailed knowledge of the triggering bacterial traits involved and on signal transduction pathways in the plant is necessary. Possibilities to improve effectiveness of induced resistance by rhizobacterial strains are discussed.

  14. E-Learning System for Experiments Involving Construction of Practical Electronic Circuits (United States)

    Takemura, Atsushi


    This paper proposes a novel e-learning system for technical experiments involving the construction of practical electronic circuits; this system would meet the various demands of individual experimenters. This mixed mode is beneficial for practical use in that an experimenter who does not have sufficient circuit components for circuit making can…

  15. From Corrections to Community: The Juvenile Reentry Experience as Characterized by Multiple Systems Involvement (United States)

    Cusick, Gretchen Ruth; Goerge, Robert M.; Bell, Katie Claussen


    This Chapin Hall report describes findings on the extent of system involvement among Illinois youth released from correctional facilities, tracking a population of youth under age 18 in Illinois following their release. Using administrative records, researchers develop profiles of reentry experiences across the many systems that serve youth and…

  16. Inductively Coupled Plasma and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Etching of InGaAlP Compound Semiconductor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernathy, C.R.; Hobson, W.S.; Hong, J.; Lambers, E.S.; Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.


    Current and future generations of sophisticated compound semiconductor devices require the ability for submicron scale patterning. The situation is being complicated since some of the new devices are based on a wider diversity of materials to be etched. Conventional IUE (Reactive Ion Etching) has been prevalent across the industry so far, but has limitations for materials with high bond strengths or multiple elements. IrI this paper, we suggest high density plasmas such as ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) and ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma), for the etching of ternary compound semiconductors (InGaP, AIInP, AlGaP) which are employed for electronic devices like heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) or high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), and photonic devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. High density plasma sources, opeiating at lower pressure, are expected to meet target goals determined in terms of etch rate, surface morphology, surface stoichiometry, selectivity, etc. The etching mechanisms, which are described in this paper, can also be applied to other III-V (GaAs-based, InP-based) as well as III-Nitride since the InGaAIP system shares many of the same properties.

  17. Dust in the planetary system: Dust interactions in space plasmas of the solar system (United States)

    Mann, Ingrid; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Czechowski, Andrzej


    Cosmic dust particles are small solid objects observed in the solar planetary system and in many astronomical objects like the surrounding of stars, the interstellar and even the intergalactic medium. In the solar system the dust is best observed and most often found within the region of the orbits of terrestrial planets where the dust interactions and dynamics are observed directly from spacecraft. Dust is observed in space near Earth and also enters the atmosphere of the Earth where it takes part in physical and chemical processes. Hence space offers a laboratory to study dust-plasma interactions and dust dynamics. A recent example is the observation of nanodust of sizes smaller than 10 nm. We outline the theoretical considerations on which our knowledge of dust electric charges in space plasmas are founded. We discuss the dynamics of the dust particles and show how the small charged particles are accelerated by the solar wind that carries a magnetic field. Finally, as examples for the space observation of cosmic dust interactions, we describe the first detection of fast nanodust in the solar wind near Earth orbit and the first bi-static observations of PMSE, the radar echoes that are observed in the Earth ionosphere in the presence of charged dust.

  18. Comparing 193 nm photoresist roughening in an inductively coupled plasma system and vacuum beam system (United States)

    Titus, M. J.; Nest, D. G.; Chung, T.-Y.; Graves, D. B.


    We present a comparison of blanket 193 nm photoresist (PR) roughening and chemical modifications of samples processed in a well-characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system and an ultra-high vacuum beam system. In the ICP system, PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and Ar ions, while in the vacuum beam system, samples are irradiated with either a Xe-line VUV source or Ar-lamp VUV source with Ar ions. Sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that under VUV-only conditions in the vacuum beam and ICP (with no substrate bias applied) systems 193 nm PR does not roughen. However, roughness increases with simultaneous high energy (>70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV irradiation and is a function of VUV fluence, substrate temperature and photon-to-ion flux ratio. PR processed in the ICP system experiences increased etching, probably due to release of H- and O-containing gaseous products and subsequent chemical etching, in contrast to samples in the vacuum beam system where etch-products are rapidly pumped away. The surface roughness structure and behaviour, however, remain similar and this is attributed to the synergy between VUV-photon and positive ions.

  19. Antinociceptive effects of systemic lidocaine: involvement of the spinal glycinergic system. (United States)

    Muth-Selbach, Uta; Hermanns, Henning; Stegmann, Jens Ulrich; Kollosche, Kathrin; Freynhagen, Rainer; Bauer, Inge; Lipfert, Peter


    Beside their action on voltage-gated Na(+) channels, local anesthetics are known to exert a variety of effects via alternative mechanisms. The antinociceptive effect of lidocaine is well documented, yet the exact mechanism is not fully understood. Whether glycinergic mechanisms, which play a pivotal role in pain modulation, are involved in lidocaine-induced antinociception is hitherto unclear. In the present study, lidocaine was injected intravenously in rats using the formalin test for acute pain and the chronic constriction injury model for neuropathic pain. The effect of intrathecally administered d-serine (an agonist at the glycine-binding site at the NMDA-receptor), its inactive isomer l-serine, CGP 78608 (antagonist at the glycineB-site of the NMDA-receptor) and strychnine (antagonist at inhibitory glycine-receptors) on lidocaine-induced antinociception was examined. Systemically administered lidocaine was antinociceptive in both acute and chronic pain model. In the formalin test, the effect of lidocaine was antagonized by d-serine, but not by l-serine or strychnine. In the chronic constriction injury model, antinociception evoked by lidocaine was reduced by d-serine, strychnine and CGP 78608, while l-serine had no effect. These results indicate a modulatory effect of lidocaine on the NMDA-receptor. Additionally, since in our study lidocaine-induced antinociception was antagonized by both glycineB-site modulators and strychnine our results may favor the hypothesis of a general glycine-like action of lidocaine or some of its metabolites on inhibitory strychnine-sensitive receptors and on strychnine-insensitive glycine receptors.

  20. A Research Framework for Understanding the Practical Impact of Family Involvement in the Juvenile Justice System: The Juvenile Justice Family Involvement Model. (United States)

    Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace


    Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems.

  1. Comparative study of the active cadmium efflux systems operating at the plasma membrane and tonoplast of cucumber root cells. (United States)

    Migocka, Magdalena; Papierniak, Anna; Kosatka, Ewelina; Klobus, Grazyna


    The strategies developed by plants to avoid the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and other heavy metals involve active sequestration of metals into the apoplast and vacuoles. The protein systems excluding heavy metals from the cell cytosol localize to the plasma membrane and tonoplast and are energized either by ATP or by the electrochemical gradient generated by H(+)-ATPase or by V-ATPase and pyrophosphatase (PPase), respectively. In this work, a comparative study on the contribution of both the plasma membrane and tonoplast in the active detoxification of plant cells after treatment with Cd was performed. The studies using plants treated and untreated with Cd reveal that both, H(+)-coupled and MgATP-driven efflux of Cd across plasma membranes and tonoplast is markedly stimulated in the presence of Cd in the environment. Previous studies on plasma-membrane localized H(+)-coupled Cd efflux together with the present data demonstrating tonoplast H(+)/Cd(2+) antiport activity suggest that H(+)-coupled secondary transport of Cd displays a lower affinity for Cd when compared with Cd primary pumps driven by MgATP. In addition, it is shown that MgATP-energized Cd efflux across both membranes is significantly enhanced by cysteine, dithiothreitol, and glutathione. These results suggest that Cd is excluded from the cytosol through an energy-dependent system as a free ion as well as a complexed form. Although both membranes contribute in the active exclusion of ionized and complexed Cd from the cytosol, the overall calculation of Cd accumulation in the everted plasma membranes and vacuolar vesicles suggests that the tonoplast and vacuole have a major function in Cd efflux from the cytosol in the roots of cucumber subjected to Cd stress.

  2. Development of Diagnostics for Large-Scale Experiments with Dense Magnetized Plasmas - MJ Plasma-focus diagnostics systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, M.; Karpinski, L.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E.; Chodukowski, T. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)] [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swiert (Poland); Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Malinowski, K. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swiert (Poland); Krauz, S. [RNC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mitrovanov, K. [FGUP GNC RF Triniti, Troick (Russian Federation)


    This document presents the diagnostics arrangements and interesting results of research on fusion pulsed plasma, which was generated within the large PF-1000 facility operated in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (Warsaw, Poland). Experimental studies were carried out with the following diagnostic techniques: 1) Rogovski coil for current measurements; 2) Four dI/dt probes in different places around the collector of PF-1000; 3) Voltage divider; 4) Mach-Zender interferometer (16 frames); 5) Fast scintillation probes for X-ray and neutron detection; 6) Silver activation counters; 7) Specially prepared current probes; 8) Thomson spectrometer for mass- and energy-analysis of deuterium beams; 9) Ion-pinhole cameras equipped with nuclear-track detectors, etc. The studies have been carried out with the pure deuterium filling, and particular attention was paid to correlations between the fast-neutron emission and an evolution of plasma parameters. The total fusion-neutron yield, as measured with four silver-activation counters, was found to be up to 7*10{sup 11} per shot, depending on the experimental conditions. Correlations of the neutron pulses with interferometric frame-pictures of the PF pinch column were studied. From time-of-flight (ToF) measurements of the fusion neutrons it was possible to estimate a CM velocity of deuterons involved in the D-D reactions. The fast fusion-produced protons have also been recorded and analyzed by means pinhole cameras and shielded track detectors. The document is composed of an abstract followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  3. Global Dynamical Systems Involving Generalized -Projection Operators and Set-Valued Perturbation in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-zhi Zou


    Full Text Available A new class of generalized dynamical systems involving generalized f-projection operators is introduced and studied in Banach spaces. By using the fixed-point theorem due to Nadler, the equilibrium points set of this class of generalized global dynamical systems is proved to be nonempty and closed under some suitable conditions. Moreover, the solutions set of the systems with set-valued perturbation is showed to be continuous with respect to the initial value.

  4. Presenting features and imaging in childhood acute myeloid leukemia with central nervous system involvement. (United States)

    Ranta, Susanna; Palomäki, Maarit; Levinsen, Mette; Taskinen, Mervi; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Hasle, Henrik; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Heyman, Mats; Harila-Saari, Arja


    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can manifest as leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid, a solid CNS tumor, or as neurological symptoms. We evaluated the presenting symptoms and neuroimaging findings in 33 of 34 children with AML and CNS involvement at diagnosis in the period 2000-2012 in Sweden, Finland, and Denmark. Imaging was performed in 22 patients, of whom 16 had CNS-related symptoms. Seven patients, including all but two with facial palsy, had mastoid cell opacification, considered an incidental finding. The frequent involvement of the mastoid bone with facial palsy warrants evaluation in larger series. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Modeling of Plasma-Assisted Conversion of Liquid Ethanol into Hydrogen Enriched Syngas in the Nonequilibrium Electric Discharge Plasma-Liquid System

    CERN Document Server

    Levko, Dmitry; Naumov, Vadim; Chernyak, Valery; Yukhymenko, Vitaly; Prysiazhnevych, Irina; Olszewski, Sergey


    In this work we report recent results of our experimental and theoretical studies related to plasma conversion of liquid ethanol into hydrogen-enriched syngas in the plasma-liquid system with the electric discharge in a gas channel with liquid wall using available diagnostics and numerical modeling.

  6. Impact of the Digital Coil Protection System and Plasma Shutdown Handler on NSTX-U Operations (United States)

    Gerhardt, Stefan; Battaglia, D.; Boyer, M.; Erickson, K.; Mueller, D.; Myers, C.; Mueller, D.; Sabbagh, S. A.


    In order to prevent excessive forces on the NSTX-U vessel and coils, a digital coil protection system (DCPS) has been implemented. This system computes approximately 400 different forces/torques/stresses, and terminates the discharge if limits on those quantities are exceeded. It is desirable, however, to prevent these coil system trips from ever happening. Given that many of these limits would be reached during transients associated with disruptions, as ``discharge shutdown handler'' was coded in the plasma control system to automatically control the plasma shutdown. This is a state machine with five states, and a set of rules for transitioning between states. The first use of these systems during plasma operations on NSTX-U will be described, with a focus on operational experiences and directions for future improvements. Work Supported by U.S.D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Dose dependence of endotoxin-induced activation of the plasma contact system: an in vitro study. (United States)

    Roeise, O; Bouma, B N; Stadaas, J O; Aasen, A O


    The dose and time dependence of endotoxin-induced activation of the plasma contact system have been studied. Citrated pool plasma was incubated at 37 degrees C with endotoxin doses of 2.10(5), 2.10(6), 2.10(7), and 2.10(9) ng/l (lipopolysaccharide B, E. coli 026: B6, Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) for 24 hr. Samples for determination of components of the contact system were obtained prior to incubation and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hr. Plasma kallikrein (KK) activity markedly increased at 12 hr in test plasma containing the highest dose of endotoxin (2.10(9) ng/l). Coincident with the elevated KK activity, reductions of both plasma prekallikrein (PKK) and functional kallikrein inhibition (KKI) were seen as assayed by chromogenic peptide substrate analyses. Also, functionally determined alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-M) and C1 inhibitor (C1INH) values were decreased, confirming the reduction of KKI values. Changes of Hageman factor (FXII), PKK, and high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) values were also found at the same time point when assayed by immunochemical techniques. The same pattern of changes was seen in test plasma containing 2.10(7) and 2.10(6) ng/l of endotoxin. These changes, however, were less pronounced and not seen until 24 hr after beginning incubation. In control plasma and in plasma containing the lowest dose of endotoxin (2.10(5) ng/l), no changes were seen in any factors of the contact system. Our study shows that in vitro endotoxin-induced activation of the contact system is a slow process that is both time and dose dependent.

  8. Plant polyphenols as electron donors for erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system: validation through in silico approach


    Kesharwani, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Durg Vijay; Misra, Krishna; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim


    Background The plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) has extensively been studied in erythrocytes. The PMRS plays an important role in maintaining plasma redox balance and provides a protective mechanism against oxidative stress. Earlier it was proposed that only NADH or NADPH provided reducing equivalents to PMRS; however, now it is acknowledged that some polyphenols also have the ability to donate reducing equivalents to PMRS. Methods Two different docking simulation softwares, Molegro Virtua...

  9. The plasma membrane redox system: a candidate source of aging-related oxidative stress


    de Grey, Aubrey D. N. J


    The plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) is an electron transport chain in the plasma membrane that transfers electrons from either intra- or extracellular donors to extracellular acceptors. Unlike the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes and the homologous (but much less active) enzymes found in some other cells, the PMRS is still incompletely characterised at the molecular level. Much is known, however, concerning its function and affinity for both physiological and non-physiolo...

  10. CERN LINAC4 H- Source and SPL plasma generator RF systems, RF power coupling and impedance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Paoluzzi, M; Marques-Balula, J; Nisbet, D


    In the LINAC4 H- source and the SPL plasma generator at CERN, the plasma is heated by a 100 kW, 2 MHz RF system. Matching of the load impedance to the final amplifier is achieved with a resonant network. The system implements a servo loop for power stabilization and frequency hopping to cope with the detuning effects induced by the plasma. This paper provides a detailed description of the system, including the pulse rate increase to 50 Hz for use in the SPL plasma generator. The performances, measurements of RF power coupling, contribution of the plasma to the impedance as well as first operation are reported.

  11. Analytic Hierarchy and Economic Analysis of a Plasma Gasification System for Naval Air Station Oceana-Dam Neck (United States)


    Hierarchy and Economic Analysis of a Plasma Gasification System for Naval Air Station Oceana-Dam Neck Matthew R. Yost Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Analytic Hierarchy and Economic Analysis of a Plasma Gasification System for Naval Air...ABSTRACT The overall objective of this project was to determine if a plasma gasification system is a possible alternative to the current system of MSW

  12. Endothelial cell permeability during hantavirus infection involves factor XII-dependent increased activation of the kallikrein-kinin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Taylor

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS are diseases caused by hantavirus infections and are characterized by vascular leakage due to alterations of the endothelial barrier. Hantavirus-infected endothelial cells (EC display no overt cytopathology; consequently, pathogenesis models have focused either on the influx of immune cells and release of cytokines or on increased degradation of the adherens junction protein, vascular endothelial (VE-cadherin, due to hantavirus-mediated hypersensitization of EC to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. To examine endothelial leakage in a relevant in vitro system, we co-cultured endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC to generate capillary blood vessel-like structures. In contrast to results obtained in monolayers of cultured EC, we found that despite viral replication in both cell types as well as the presence of VEGF, infected in vitro vessels neither lost integrity nor displayed evidence of VE-cadherin degradation. Here, we present evidence for a novel mechanism of hantavirus-induced vascular leakage involving activation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS. We show that incubation of factor XII (FXII, prekallikrein (PK, and high molecular weight kininogen (HK plasma proteins with hantavirus-infected EC results in increased cleavage of HK, higher enzymatic activities of FXIIa/kallikrein (KAL and increased liberation of bradykinin (BK. Measuring cell permeability in real-time using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS, we identified dramatic increases in endothelial cell permeability after KKS activation and liberation of BK. Furthermore, the alterations in permeability could be prevented using inhibitors that directly block BK binding, the activity of FXIIa, or the activity of KAL. Lastly, FXII binding and autoactivation is increased on the surface of hantavirus-infected EC. These data are the first to demonstrate KKS activation

  13. Computer-Controlled System for Plasma Ion Energy Auto-Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴先球; 陈俊芳; 蒋珍美; 钟清华; 熊予莹; 吴开华


    A computer-controlled system for plasma ion energy auto-analyzer was technicallystudied for rapid and online measurement of plasma ion energy distribution. The system intel-ligently controls all the equipments via a RS-232 port, a printer port and a home-built circuit.The software designed by LabVIEW G language automatically fulfils all of the tasks such as sys-tem initializing, adjustment of scanning-voltage, measurement of weak-current, data processing,graphic export, etc. By using the system, a few minutes are taken to acquire the whole ion energydistribution, which rapidly provides important parameters of plasma process techniques based onsemiconductor devices and microelectronics.

  14. Energy transfer between degrees of freedom of a dusty plasma system (United States)

    Semyonov, V. P.; Timofeev, A. V.


    Dust particles under certain conditions can acquire kinetic energy of the order of 10 eV and higher, far above the temperature of gas and temperatures of ions and electrons in the discharge. Such heating can be explained by the energy transfer between degrees of freedom of a dusty plasma system. One of the mechanisms of such energy transfer is based on parametric resonance. A model of dust particles system in gas discharge plasma including fluctuations of dust particles charge and features of near-electrode layer is presented. Molecular dynamics simulation of the dust particles system is performed. Conditions of the resonance occurrence are obtained for a wide range of parameters.

  15. Synthesis of few layer graphene by non-transferred arc plasma system. (United States)

    Baek, Jong-Jun; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Dong-Wha


    Graphene has recently been the focus of a great deal of attention owing to its outstanding properties, which include high mobility, high thermal conductivity and high structural stability. In this study, a few layer graphene was successfully synthesized from methane gas using a non-transferred direct current arc plasma system. Non-transferred thermal plasma offers high temperature, steep temperature gradient and high enthalpy to enhance the reaction kinetics of graphene synthesis. In order to prepare high quality few layer graphene, graphene products synthesized under several conditions was analyzed comparatively. Effects of gap distance between the plasma torch and graphite substrate, the flow rate of additional reactant gas, and different types of plasma forming gas on the synthesis of few layer graphene were investigated. Methane gas was injected into the plasma jet as a carbon source for the synthesis of graphene and a thermal plasma jet was generated by pure argon or a mixture of argon-hydrogen. The results revealed that hydrogen gas improved the quality of few layer graphene by inducing surface etching and increasing plasma power.

  16. Evaluation of a new microporous filtration membrane system for therapeutic plasma exchange. (United States)

    Kurtz, S R; Carey, P M; McGill, M; Pineda, A A; Zaroulis, C G; Case, M T


    A new therapeutic plasma exchange device developed by Sarns Inc./3M was evaluated in plasmapheresis of 20 healthy volunteers and in a multicenter clinical study of therapeutic plasma exchange that included 49 patients. Safety and efficacy of plasma separation from whole blood were assessed for a module that contains Durapore microporous surfactant-free polyvinylidene fluoride membrane (Millipore Corp., Bedford, Mass., USA). The extra-corporeal volume was 80 ml. Citrate and heparin anticoagulants were utilized. Mean plasma separation efficiency was 62% with unhindered passage of plasma proteins through the membrane pores and no hemolysis or activation of complement as measured by total hemolytic complement (CH50) and C3 conversion. Mean decrease in platelet count after procedures was 10%. No severe reactions occurred, and citrate effects (13%) were comparable to values reported with centrifugal instruments. The Sarns Inc./3M Therapore device is a rapid, safe and efficient system for plasma exchange and potentially for source plasma collection. The principal benefits are small extracorporeal volume and cell-free filtrate.

  17. FAR-TECH's Nanoparticle Plasma Jet System and its Application to Disruptions, Deep Fueling, and Diagnostics (United States)

    Thompson, J. R.; Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.


    Hyper-velocity plasma jets have potential applications in tokamaks for disruption mitigation, deep fueling and diagnostics. Pulsed power based solid-state sources and plasma accelerators offer advantages of rapid response and mass delivery at high velocities. Fast response is critical for some disruption mitigation scenario needs, while high velocity is especially important for penetration into tokamak plasma and its confining magnetic field, as in the case of deep fueling. FAR-TECH is developing the capability of producing large-mass hyper-velocity plasma jets. The prototype solid-state source has produced: 1) >8.4 mg of H2 gas only, and 2) >25 mg of H2 and >180 mg of C60 in a H2/C60 gas mixture. Using a coaxial plasma gun coupled to the source, we have successfully demonstrated the acceleration of composite H/C60 plasma jets, with momentum as high as 0.6, and containing an estimated C60 mass of ˜75 mg. We present the status of FAR-TECH's nanoparticle plasma jet system and discuss its application to disruptions, deep fueling, and diagnostics. A new TiH2/C60 solid-state source capable of generating significantly higher quantities of H2 and C60 in <0.5 ms will be discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal AFSAR


    Full Text Available The basic aim of high performance work systems is to enable employees to exercise decision making, leading to flexibility, innovation, improvement and skill sharing. By facilitating the development of high performance work systems we help organizations make continuous improvement a way of life.The notion of a high-performance work system (HPWS constitutes a claim that there exists a system of work practices for core workers in an organisation that leads in some way to superior performance. This article will discuss the relation that HPWS has with the improvement of firms’ performance and high involvement of the employees.

  19. A case of Erdheim Chester disease with central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Patil


    Full Text Available Erdheim Chester disease (ECD is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, commonly involving the musculoskeletal system. Other tissue can also be involved, including the central nervous system with wide spectrum of clinical features, at times being nonspecific. This can cause diagnostic dilemmas with delay in diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Here we describe a 63-year-old man who had presented with ataxia and behavioral changes, bony pains, weight loss, and fatigue. His computed tomography (CT, 99Tc scintigraphy and histopathological features on bone biopsy were consistent with ECD. Thus, ECD should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with bony pain and nonspecific features of multiorgan involvement.

  20. A high performance real-time plasma control and event detection DSP based VME system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A.P. E-mail:; Correia, Carlos; Varandas, Carlos


    This paper describes the digital signal processors module of a high performance system, specially designed for real-time plasma control and event detection on the next generation fusion experiments with long duration discharges. The system is composed of a commercial CPU board and several on-site developed intelligent modules inserted in the same VME crate.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Endotoxin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of septicaemia by activation of cellular and plasmatic systems. This study was performed to investigate the effects of infusion of endotoxin in rabbits by measuring the activation of cellular and plasma systems. Endotoxin was infused at a rate of

  2. User Characteristics、User Involvement and Technology Acceptance in Library Automation System Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piching Chu


    Full Text Available This paper looks into the relationship of user characteristics, user involvement and technology acceptance, also try to find the relationship of the above three variables and library automation system usage. By interview and questionnaire study, the results are described, according to the analysis of the relative literature and the main conclusions, the researcher offers some suggestions for improving the system usage.[Article content in Chinese

  3. High Involvement Management, High Performance Work Systems and Well-being


    Wood, S; Menezes, L. M.


    Studies on the impact of high-performance work systems on employees' well-being are emerging but the underlying theory remains weak. This paper attempts to develop theory of the effects on well-being of four dimensions of high-performance work systems: enriched jobs, high involvement management, employee voice, and motivational supports. Hypothesized associations are tested using multilevel models and data from Britain's Workplace Employment Relations Survey of 2004 (WERS2004). Results show t...

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D


    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  5. Central nervous system involvement in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: diagnosis by immunophenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Silva Peres Cancela


    Full Text Available The central nervous system is the most commonly affected extramedullary site in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although morphologic evaluation of the cerebrospinal fluid has been traditionally used for diagnosing central nervous system involvement, it is a method of low sensitivity. The present study aimed at evaluating the use of immunophenotyping in the detection of blasts in the cerebrospinal fluid from children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  6. Gastrointestinal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus:Insight into pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by the presence of a plethora of autoantibodies and immune complex formation. Virtually every system and organ can be affected by SLE. Gastrointestinal symptoms are com-mon in SLE patients, and more than half of them are caused by adverse reactions to medications and viral or bacterial infections. Though not as common as lu-pus nephritis, SLE-related gastrointestinal involvement is clinically important because most cases ...

  7. System Involvement for Women Subordinates: Relations with Communication and Personality Variables. (United States)

    Gorden, William I.; Infante, Dominic A.

    It was hypothesized that the quality of superior-subordinate communication relationships, self-esteem, clothing consciousness, impulsiveness, and intellectual interest would account for a significant portion of variance in a multiple regression equation of female subordinates' system involvement. This hypothesis was tested with data from 164…

  8. Crash involvement during the different phases of the New Zealand Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis Evans, B.


    Introduction: The New Zealand Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS) is designed to allow novice drivers to gain driving experience under conditions of reduced risk. Method: To examine the effectiveness of the GDLS, an analysis of how the crash involvement of novice drivers changes as drivers move

  9. Time-optimal control of infinite order distributed parabolic systems involving time lags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Bahaa


    Full Text Available A time-optimal control problem for linear infinite order distributed parabolic systems involving constant time lags appear both in the state equation and in the boundary condition is presented. Some particular properties of the optimal control are discussed.

  10. Order-disorder transitions in comb-like polymer-surfactant systems involving hydrogen bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, G.; Huh, J; Ruokolainen, J.; Torkkeli, M.; Serimaa, R.; Ikkala, O.

    Conditions to obtain micro-phase separated morphologies in polymer-surfactant systems involving hydrogen bonds have been investigated using poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP) and surfactants capable of forming hydrogen bonds of different strength with the basic nitrogen of P4VP. Depending on the tail

  11. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan


    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  12. Positive Solutions for Nonlinear Singular Differential Systems Involving Parameter on the Half-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Liu


    Full Text Available By using the upper-lower solutions method and the fixed-point theorem on cone in a special space, we study the singular boundary value problem for systems of nonlinear second-order differential equations involving two parameters on the half-line. Some results for the existence, nonexistence and multiplicity of positive solutions for the problem are obtained.

  13. Crash involvement during the different phases of the New Zealand Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis Evans, B.


    Introduction: The New Zealand Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS) is designed to allow novice drivers to gain driving experience under conditions of reduced risk. Method: To examine the effectiveness of the GDLS, an analysis of how the crash involvement of novice drivers changes as drivers move

  14. Maltreatment, Academic Difficulty, and Systems-Involved Youth: Current Evidence and Opportunities (United States)

    Stone, Susan; Zibulsky, Jamie


    Youth involved in child-serving systems of care (e.g., child welfare and juvenile justice) often exhibit specific academic performance problems. The magnitude of academic risk among these students is a serious concern given that school attachment, performance, and attainment closely relate to indicators of well-being across the lifespan. It is…

  15. An adult case of chronic myelogenous leukemia with myeloblastic involvement of the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A 31-year-old female with chronic myelogenous leukemia, who developed myeloblastic involvement of the central nervous system during acute myeloblastic transformation of the disease, was treated with methotrexate intrathecally. The therapy produced prompt clinical response and complete reversal of abnormal cerebrospinal fluid findings. However, the patient expired 10 months following the acute blastic crisis.

  16. Educational Support System for Experiments Involving Construction of Sound Processing Circuits (United States)

    Takemura, Atsushi


    This paper proposes a novel educational support system for technical experiments involving the production of practical electronic circuits for sound processing. To support circuit design and production, each student uses a computer during the experiments, and can learn circuit design, virtual circuit making, and real circuit making. In the…

  17. Criminal Justice System Involvement and Continuity of Youth Crime: A Longitudinal Analysis (United States)

    Johnson, Lee Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Conger, Rand D.


    Studies of criminal careers reveal several possible factors associated with persistent offending. This analysis examines the part that criminal justice system involvement plays in persistent offending. Seven waves of data collected on 153 boys as part of the Iowa Youth and Families Project were used to test a structural equation model…

  18. Symptomatic central nervous system involvement in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia. (United States)

    Alakel, Nael; Stölzel, Friedrich; Mohr, Brigitte; Kramer, Michael; Oelschlägel, Uta; Röllig, Christoph; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ehninger, Gerhard; Schaich, Markus


    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) rarely involves the central nervous system (CNS). Little is known about the clinical course in adult AML patients since most studies examined pediatric patients. Therefore, this study analyzed the data of patients treated in three prospective trials of the "Study Alliance Leukemia" (SAL) study group for CNS involvement. In all, 3,261 AML patients included in the prospective AML96, AML2003, and AML60+ trials of the SAL study group were analyzed. Symptomatic patients underwent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) puncture and CNS involvement was diagnosed depending on morphology and/or flow cytometry of the CSF. Cytogenetic, molecular, clinical, and laboratory parameters were analyzed in order to identify risk factors. A total of 55 patients had proven symptomatic CNS involvement. Significantly more patients revealed CNS involvement at relapse (34 patients, 2.9%) compared with first diagnosis (21 patients, 0.6%), pinvolvement at initial diagnosis had a significantly higher frequency in patients with complex aberrant karyotypes, high serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, French-American-British M5 subtype, FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations alone, and co-occurrence of a FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutation. Furthermore, AML patients with CNS involvement at diagnosis had an inferior outcome compared with patients without CNS involvement even if treated with intrathecal chemotherapy with an overall survival of 11% versus 30% at 5 years, p=0.004. This study analyzed the largest data set of adult AML patients with proven CNS involvement reported so far. The data demonstrated very low prevalence of CNS involvement at initial diagnosis in adult patients with AML, and described new risk factors. In patients with risk factors, intense diagnostic and treatment strategies should be employed in the future.

  19. Central nervous system involvement in T-cell lymphoma: A single center experience. (United States)

    Gurion, Ronit; Mehta, Neha; Migliacci, Jocelyn C; Zelenetz, Andrew; Moskowitz, Alison; Lunning, Matthew; Moskowitz, Craig; Hamlin, Paul; Horwitz, Steven


    Background We characterized the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, risk factors and outcome in a large single institution dataset of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). Methods Retrospective review of the PTCL database at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. We identified 231 patients with any subtype of PTCL between 1994-2011 with a minimum six months of follow-up or an event defined as relapse or death. Results Histologies included peripheral T-cell lymphoma-not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) (31.6%), angioimmunoblastic (16.9%), anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), ALK- (12.1%), ALCL, ALK + (6.1%), extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (7.4%), adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) (7.4%), and transformed mycosis fungoides (8.7%). Seventeen patients had CNS disease (7%). Fifteen had CNS involvement with PTCL and two had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and glioblastoma. Median time to CNS involvement was 3.44 months (0.16-103.1). CNS prophylaxis was given to 24 patients (primarily intrathecal methotrexate). Rates of CNS involvement were not different in patients who received prophylaxis. Univariate analysis identified stage III-IV, bone marrow involvement, >1 extranodal site and ATLL as risk factors for CNS disease. On multivariate analysis, >1 extranodal site and international prognostic index (IPI) ≥ 3 were predictive for CNS involvement. The median survival of patients with CNS involvement was 2.63 months (0.10-75). Conclusions Despite high relapse rates, PTCL, except ATLL, carries a low risk of CNS involvement. Prognosis with CNS involvement is poor and risk factors include: >1 extra nodal site and IPI ≥3.

  20. High Current Systems for HyperV and PLX Plasma Railguns (United States)

    Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Messer, S.; Elton, R.; Witherspoon, F. D.


    HyperV is developing gas fed, pulsed, plasma railgun accelerators for PLX and other high momentum plasma applications. The present 2.5 cm square-bore plasma railgun forms plasma armatures from high density neutral gas (argon), preionizes it electrothermally, and accelerates the armature with 30 cm long parallel-plate railgun electrodes driven by a pulse forming network (PFN). Recent experiments have successfully formed and accelerated plasma armatures of ~4 mg at 40 km/s, with PFN currents of ~400 kA. In order to further increase railgun performance to the PLX design goal of 8 mg at 50 km/s, the PFN was upgraded to support currents of up to ~750 kA. A high voltage, high current linear array spark-gap switch and flexible, low-inductance transmission line were designed and constructed to handle the increased current load. We will describe these systems and present initial performance data from high current operation of the plasma rail gun from spectroscopy, interferometry, and imaging systems as well as pressure, magnetic field, and optical diagnostics. High current performance of railgun bore materials for electrodes and insulators will also be discussed as well as plans for upcoming experimentation with advanced materials. Supported by the U.S. DOE Joint Program in HEDLP.

  1. Contamination due to memory effects in filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, D R; Verdonck, P; Brown, I G


    Thin film synthesis by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition is a widely used technique with a number of important emerging technological applications. A characteristic feature of the method is that during the deposition process not only is the substrate coated by the plasma, but the plasma gun itself and the magnetic field coil and/or vacuum vessel section constituting the macroparticle filter are also coated to some extent. If then the plasma gun cathode is changed to a new element, there can be a contamination of the subsequent film deposition by sputtering from various parts of the system of the previous coating species. We have experimentally explored this effect and compared our results with theoretical estimates of sputtering from the SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) code. We find film contamination of order 10-4 - 10-3, and the memory of the prior history of the deposition hardware can be relatively long-lasting.

  2. Toward a design for the ITER plasma shape and stability control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.; Kellman, A.G. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Haney, S.W.; Bulmer, R.H.; Pearlstein, L.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Portone, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). ITER Joint Central Team


    A design strategy for an integrated shaping and stability control algorithm for ITER is described. This strategy exploits the natural multivariable nature of the system so that all poloidal field coils are used to simultaneously control all regulated plasma shape and position parameters. A nonrigid, flux-conserving linearized plasma response model is derived using a variational procedure analogous to the ideal MHD Extended Energy Principle. Initial results are presented for the non-rigid plasma response model approach applied to an example DIII-D equilibrium. For this example, the nonrigid model is found to yield a higher passive growth rate than a rigid current-conserving plasma response model. Multivariable robust controller design methods are discussed and shown to be appropriate for the ITER shape control problem.

  3. Pulverized coal torch combustion in a furnace with plasma-coal system (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Askarova, A. S.; Nagibin, A. O.


    Combustion of a pulverized coal torch has been numerically simulated on the basis of the equations of multicomponent turbulent two-phase flows. The results of three-dimensional simulation of conventional and plasma activated coal combustion in a furnace are presented. Computer code Cinar ICE was verified at coal combustion in the experimental furnace with thermal power of 3 MW that was equipped with plasma-fuel system. Operation of the furnace has been studied at the conventional combustion mode and with plasma activation of coal combustion. Influence of plasma activation of combustion on thermotechnical characteristics of the torch and decrease of carbon loss and nitrogen oxides concentration at the furnace outlet has been revealed.

  4. Control of ROS and RNS productions in liquid in atmospheric pressure plasma-jet system (United States)

    Uchida, Giichiro; Ito, Taiki; Takenaka, Kosuke; Ikeda, Junichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi


    Non-thermal plasma jets are of current interest in biomedical applications such as wound disinfection and even treatment of cancer tumors. Beneficial therapeutic effects in medical applications are attributed to excited species of oxygen and nitrogen from air. However, to control the production of these species in the plasma jet is difficult because their production is strongly dependent on concentration of nitrogen and oxygen from ambient air into the plasma jet. In this study, we analyze the discharge characteristics and the ROS and RNS productions in liquid in low- and high-frequency plasma-jet systems. Our experiments demonstrated the marked effects of surrounding gas near the plasma jet on ROS and RNS productions in liquid. By controlling the surround gas, the O2 and N2 main plasma jets are selectively produced even in open air. We also show that the concentration ratio of NO2- to H2O2 in liquid is precisely tuned from 0 to 0.18 in deionized water by changing N2 gas ratio (N2 / (N2 +O2)) in the main discharge gas, where high NO2- ratio is obtained at N2 gas ratio at N2 / (N2 +O2) = 0 . 8 . The low-frequency plasma jet with controlled surrounding gas is an effective plasma source for ROS and RNS productions in liquid, and can be a useful tool for biomedical applications. This study was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas ``Plasma Medical Innovation'' (24108003) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rosu


    Full Text Available In our research we review the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s (IBRD most important contributions to the functionality of the pension systems around the world. The pension systems design constitutes an important premise for the adequate functioning of these systems. In international practice, there is a wide variety of principles and mechanisms which can constitute the foundation of pension systems, the most common being materialized in the multi-pillar pension system, promoted by the IBRD. Its involvement in modernizing and improving the functionality of pension systems has reached also many other aspects such as evaluation of the national pension systems’ performance, financial assistance to governments with the aim of meeting the objectives corresponding to pension systems, scientific, technical and informational support. We conclude that IBRD’s involvement in modernizing and improving the functionality of pension systems has determined a significant transformation of the national pension systems, especially in Latin America and Eastern and Central Europe. However, its well-known multi-pillar model is not free of criticism as a result of the various analytical errors.

  6. Design and operation of the RFX-mod plasma shape control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, G., E-mail: [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Finotti, C. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Kudlacek, O. [Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Villone, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell’Informazione (DIEI), Università di Cassino (Italy); Zanca, P. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Abate, D. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell’Informazione (DIEI), Università di Cassino (Italy); Cavazzana, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Jackson, G.L.; Luce, T.C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Marrelli, L. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)


    Highlights: • Linearized plasma response model of RFX-mod Tokamak Double/Single Null discharges. • Model based design of a vertical stability control system. • Model based design of a plasma shape LQG control system with Kalman state estimator. • Real time plasma boundary reconstruction algorithm. • Tracking and disturbance rejection experimental tests. - Abstract: The aim of executing Single Null discharges in RFX-mod operating as a Tokamak led to the design and implementation of a plasma shape feedback control system. A fully model-based approach was followed which allowed dealing with critical issues such as the presence of a conducting shell, the strong coupling of the poloidal field coils and the voltage limits of the power supplies. A Linear Quadratic regulator and a Kalman state estimator were designed and implemented in the real time MARTe framework together with an algorithm for the real-time plasma boundary reconstruction. The problem of a number of sensors along the poloidal direction adequate only for circular discharges was also successfully tackled. The development of the system and its performances in terms of tracking and disturbance rejection capability are presented in the paper.

  7. K+ uptake in plant roots. The systems involved, their regulation and parallels in other organisms. (United States)

    Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; Alemán, Fernando; Martínez, Vicente; Rubio, Francisco


    Potassium (K(+)) is an essential macronutrient for plants. It is taken into the plant by the transport systems present in the plasma membranes of root epidermal and cortical cells. The identity of these systems and their regulation is beginning to be understood and the systems of K(+) transport in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana remain far better characterized than in any other plant species. Roots can activate different K(+) uptake systems to adapt to their environment, important to a sessile organism that needs to cope with a highly variable environment. The mechanisms of K(+) acquisition in the model species A. thaliana are the best characterized at the molecular level so far. According to the current model, non-selective channels are probably the main pathways for K(+) uptake at high concentrations (>10mM), while at intermediate concentrations (1mM), the inward rectifying channel AKT1 dominates K(+) uptake. Under lower concentrations of external K(+) (100μM), AKT1 channels, together with the high-affinity K(+) uptake system HAK5 contribute to K(+) acquisition, and at extremely low concentrations (root K(+) uptake are shared by other organisms, whilst others are specific to plants. This indicates that some crucial properties of the ancestral of K(+) transport systems have been conserved through evolution while others have diverged among different kingdoms.

  8. A study of increasing radical density and etch rate using remote plasma generator system (United States)

    Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Kyunghyun; Cho, Sung-Won; Chung, Chin-Wook


    To improve radical density without changing electron temperature, remote plasma generator (RPG) is applied. Multistep dissociation of the polyatomic molecule was performed using RPG system. RPG is installed to inductively coupled type processing reactor; electrons, positive ions, radicals and polyatomic molecule generated in RPG and they diffused to processing reactor. The processing reactor dissociates the polyatomic molecules with inductively coupled power. The polyatomic molecules are dissociated by the processing reactor that is operated by inductively coupled power. Therefore, the multistep dissociation system generates more radicals than single-step system. The RPG was composed with two cylinder type inductively coupled plasma (ICP) using 400 kHz RF power and nitrogen gas. The processing reactor composed with two turn antenna with 13.56 MHz RF power. Plasma density, electron temperature and radical density were measured with electrical probe and optical methods.

  9. Plasma-mediated inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms grown on borosilicate surfaces under continuous culture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt G Vandervoort

    Full Text Available Biofilms are microbial communities attached to a surface and embedded in a matrix composed of exopolysaccharides and excreted nucleic acids. Bacterial biofilms are responsible for undesirable effects such as disease, prostheses colonization, biofouling, equipment damage, and pipe plugging. Biofilms are also more resilient than free-living cells to regular sterilization methods and therefore it is indispensable to develop better ways to control and remove them. The use of gas discharge plasmas is a good alternative since plasmas contain a mixture of reactive agents well-known for their decontamination potential against free microorganisms. We have previously reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were inactivated after a 1-min plasma exposure. We determined that the adhesiveness and the thickness of Pseudomonas biofilms grown on borosilicate were reduced. We also reported sequential morphological changes and loss of viability upon plasma treatment. However, the studies were carried out in batch cultures. The use of a continuous culture results in a more homogenous environment ensuring reproducible biofilm growth. The aim of this work was to study plasma-mediated inactivation of P. aeruginosa biofilms grown on borosilicate in a continuous culture system. In this paper we show that biofilms grown on glass under continuous culture can be inactivated by using gas discharge plasma. Both biofilm architecture and cell culturability are impacted by the plasma treatment. The inactivation kinetics is similar to previously described ones and cells go through sequential changes ranging from minimal modification without loss of viability at short plasma exposure times, to major structure and viability loss at longer exposure times. We report that changes in biofilm structure leading to the loss of culturability and viability are related to a decrease of the biofilm matrix adhesiveness. To our knowledge, there has been no attempt to evaluate the

  10. Plasma-mediated inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms grown on borosilicate surfaces under continuous culture system. (United States)

    Vandervoort, Kurt G; Brelles-Mariño, Graciela


    Biofilms are microbial communities attached to a surface and embedded in a matrix composed of exopolysaccharides and excreted nucleic acids. Bacterial biofilms are responsible for undesirable effects such as disease, prostheses colonization, biofouling, equipment damage, and pipe plugging. Biofilms are also more resilient than free-living cells to regular sterilization methods and therefore it is indispensable to develop better ways to control and remove them. The use of gas discharge plasmas is a good alternative since plasmas contain a mixture of reactive agents well-known for their decontamination potential against free microorganisms. We have previously reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were inactivated after a 1-min plasma exposure. We determined that the adhesiveness and the thickness of Pseudomonas biofilms grown on borosilicate were reduced. We also reported sequential morphological changes and loss of viability upon plasma treatment. However, the studies were carried out in batch cultures. The use of a continuous culture results in a more homogenous environment ensuring reproducible biofilm growth. The aim of this work was to study plasma-mediated inactivation of P. aeruginosa biofilms grown on borosilicate in a continuous culture system. In this paper we show that biofilms grown on glass under continuous culture can be inactivated by using gas discharge plasma. Both biofilm architecture and cell culturability are impacted by the plasma treatment. The inactivation kinetics is similar to previously described ones and cells go through sequential changes ranging from minimal modification without loss of viability at short plasma exposure times, to major structure and viability loss at longer exposure times. We report that changes in biofilm structure leading to the loss of culturability and viability are related to a decrease of the biofilm matrix adhesiveness. To our knowledge, there has been no attempt to evaluate the inactivation

  11. Membrane Properties Involved in Calcium-Stimulated Microparticle Release from the Plasma Membranes of S49 Lymphoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauryl E. Campbell


    Full Text Available This study answered the question of whether biophysical mechanisms for microparticle shedding discovered in platelets and erythrocytes also apply to nucleated cells: cytoskeletal disruption, potassium efflux, transbilayer phospholipid migration, and membrane disordering. The calcium ionophore, ionomycin, disrupted the actin cytoskeleton of S49 lymphoma cells and produced rapid release of microparticles. This release was significantly inhibited by interventions that impaired calcium-activated potassium current. Microparticle release was also greatly reduced in a lymphocyte cell line deficient in the expression of scramblase, the enzyme responsible for calcium-stimulated dismantling of the normal phospholipid transbilayer asymmetry. Rescue of the scrambling function at high ionophore concentration also resulted in enhanced particle shedding. The effect of membrane physical properties was addressed by varying the experimental temperature (32–42°C. A significant positive trend in the rate of microparticle release as a function of temperature was observed. Fluorescence experiments with trimethylammonium diphenylhexatriene and Patman revealed significant decrease in the level of apparent membrane order along that temperature range. These results demonstrated that biophysical mechanisms involved in microparticle release from platelets and erythrocytes apply also to lymphocytes.

  12. Membrane properties involved in calcium-stimulated microparticle release from the plasma membranes of S49 lymphoma cells. (United States)

    Campbell, Lauryl E; Nelson, Jennifer; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Judd, Allan M; Bell, John D


    This study answered the question of whether biophysical mechanisms for microparticle shedding discovered in platelets and erythrocytes also apply to nucleated cells: cytoskeletal disruption, potassium efflux, transbilayer phospholipid migration, and membrane disordering. The calcium ionophore, ionomycin, disrupted the actin cytoskeleton of S49 lymphoma cells and produced rapid release of microparticles. This release was significantly inhibited by interventions that impaired calcium-activated potassium current. Microparticle release was also greatly reduced in a lymphocyte cell line deficient in the expression of scramblase, the enzyme responsible for calcium-stimulated dismantling of the normal phospholipid transbilayer asymmetry. Rescue of the scrambling function at high ionophore concentration also resulted in enhanced particle shedding. The effect of membrane physical properties was addressed by varying the experimental temperature (32-42°C). A significant positive trend in the rate of microparticle release as a function of temperature was observed. Fluorescence experiments with trimethylammonium diphenylhexatriene and Patman revealed significant decrease in the level of apparent membrane order along that temperature range. These results demonstrated that biophysical mechanisms involved in microparticle release from platelets and erythrocytes apply also to lymphocytes.

  13. Effect of nutrition on plasma lipid profile and mRNA levels of ovarian genes involved in steroid hormone synthesis in Hu sheep during luteal phase. (United States)

    Ying, S J; Xiao, S H; Wang, C L; Zhong, B S; Zhang, G M; Wang, Z Y; He, D Y; Ding, X L; Xing, H J; Wang, F


    Ovarian steroid hormones regulate follicular growth and atresia. This study aims to determine whether key ovarian sterol-regulatory genes are differentially expressed in Hu sheep under different short-term nutritional regimens. Estrus was synchronized using intravaginal progestagen sponges. The ewes were assigned randomly to 3 groups. On d 6 to 12 of their estrous cycle, the control (CON) group received a maintenance diet (1.0×M), the supplemented (SUP) group received 1.5×M, and the restricted (R) group received 0.5×M. On d 7 to 12, blood samples were taken. The sheep were slaughtered at the end of the treatment, and their organs and ovaries were collected. The plasma concentrations of urea (P2.5 mm. Follicle size affected the mRNA expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2), FSH receptor (FSHR), CYP17A1, and CYP19A1 (P<0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that a potential mechanism by which short-term negative energy balance inhibits follicular growth may involve responses to disrupted reproductive hormone concentrations and influenced the intrafollicular expression of CYP17A1, CYP19A1, and ESR1. This result may be due to increased plasma urea and lipid concentrations.

  14. A systematic review of ultrasonography as an outcome measure of skin involvement in systemic sclerosis. (United States)

    Ch'ng, Shereen S; Roddy, Janet; Keen, Helen I


    The modified Rodnan skin score is widely accepted as a validated tool to assess skin involvement in systemic sclerosis, which is a hallmark of this heterogeneous disease. Ultrasonography is increasingly being utilized in the study of other rheumatic diseases. The utility of ultrasonography to measure skin thickness in systemic sclerosis has been explored since three decades ago. The aim of this review was to examine the validity of ultrasonography as an outcome measure of skin involvement in systemic sclerosis. Original articles in English, published before December 2010, pertaining to the use of B mode ultrasound assessing skin involvement in systemic sclerosis were reviewed. Data were extracted with a focus on criterion and construct validity, reproducibility and responsiveness to change. Seventeen papers were analyzed. Skin thickness was most commonly studied, although skin echogenicity has also been examined. There was heterogeneity with regards to subjects, definitions used and sites imaged. Although there was limited information regarding reliability, when reported, the results showed excellent reproducibility. There was also a lack of construct and criterion validity and evidence for sensitivity to change. Ultrasound has potential as an outcome measure in systemic sclerosis. However, more work needs to be done in order to prove that it is a feasible outcome measure with proven validity.

  15. Saliva Versus Plasma Bioequivalence of Azithromycin in Humans: Validation of Class I Drugs of the Salivary Excretion Classification System. (United States)

    Idkaidek, Nasir; Arafat, Tawfiq; Hamadi, Hazim; Hamadi, Salim; Al-Adham, Ibrahim


    The aim of this study was to compare human pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence metrics in saliva versus plasma for azithromycin as a model class I drug of the Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS). A pilot, open-label, two-way crossover bioequivalence study was done, and involved a single 500-mg oral dose of azithromycin given to eight healthy subjects under fasting conditions, followed by a 3-week washout period. Blood and unstimulated saliva samples were collected over 72 h and deep frozen until analysis by a validated liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy method. The pharmacokinetic parameters and bioequivalence metrics of azithromycin were calculated by non-compartment analysis using WinNonlin V5.2. Descriptive statistics and dimensional analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters of azithromycin were performed using Microsoft Excel. PK-Sim V5.6 was used to estimate the effective intestinal permeability of azithromycin. No statistical differences were shown in area under the concentration curves to 72 h (AUC0-72), maximum measured concentration (C max) and time to maximum concentration (T max) between test and reference azithromycin products (P > 0.05) in the saliva matrix and in the plasma matrix. Due to the high intra-subject variability and low sample size of this pilot study, the 90% confidence intervals of AUC0-72 and C max did not fall within the acceptance range (80-125%). However, saliva levels were higher than that of plasma, with a longer salivary T max. The mean saliva/plasma concentration of test and reference were 2.29 and 2.33, respectively. The mean ± standard deviation ratios of saliva/plasma of AUC0-72, C max and T max for test were 2.65 ± 1.59, 1.51 ± 0.49 and 1.85 ± 1.4, while for the reference product they were 3.37 ± 2.20, 1.57 ± 0.77 and 2.6 ± 1.27, respectively. A good correlation of R = 0.87 between plasma and saliva concentrations for both test and reference products was also observed

  16. Dual-System Families: Cash Assistance Sequences of Households Involved with Child Welfare. (United States)

    Kang, JiYoung; Romich, Jennifer L; Hook, Jennifer L; Lee, JoAnn S; Marcenko, Maureen


    Dual-system families, those involved with the child welfare system and receiving public cash assistance, may be more vulnerable than families only connected to either of the two systems. This study advances our understanding of the heterogeneous and dynamic cash assistance histories of dual-system families in the post-welfare reform era. With merged administrative data from [state name removed] over the period 1998 to 2009, we use cluster analysis to group month-to-month sequences of cash assistance use among households over the 37-month period surrounding child removal. Close to two thirds of families who received any assistance either had a short spell of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) or lost TANF. Smaller percentages had steady support. Families who lose assistance are less likely than average to reunify while those who connect to benefits are more likely, suggesting coordination between systems may serve dual-system families well.

  17. First plasma operation of the enhanced JET vertical stabilisation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rimini, F. G.; Crisanti, F.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Artaserse, G.; Bellizio, T.; Coccorese, V.; De Tommasi, G.; P. de Vries,; Lomas, P. J.; Maviglia, F.; Neto, A.; Nunes, I.; Pironti, A.; Ramogida, G.; Sartori, F.; Shaw, S. R.; Tsalas, M.; Vitelli, R.; Zabeo, L.


    A project dedicated to the enhancement of the JET vertical stabilization system was launched in 2006, including an upgrade of the Power Supply of the Radial Field Amplifier, of hardware and software of the vertical stabilization control system. The main aim was to double the JET capability in stabil

  18. Hybrid power system intelligent operation and protection involving distributed architectures and pulsed loads (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed

    Efficient and reliable techniques for power delivery and utilization are needed to account for the increased penetration of renewable energy sources in electric power systems. Such methods are also required for current and future demands of plug-in electric vehicles and high-power electronic loads. Distributed control and optimal power network architectures will lead to viable solutions to the energy management issue with high level of reliability and security. This dissertation is aimed at developing and verifying new techniques for distributed control by deploying DC microgrids, involving distributed renewable generation and energy storage, through the operating AC power system. To achieve the findings of this dissertation, an energy system architecture was developed involving AC and DC networks, both with distributed generations and demands. The various components of the DC microgrid were designed and built including DC-DC converters, voltage source inverters (VSI) and AC-DC rectifiers featuring novel designs developed by the candidate. New control techniques were developed and implemented to maximize the operating range of the power conditioning units used for integrating renewable energy into the DC bus. The control and operation of the DC microgrids in the hybrid AC/DC system involve intelligent energy management. Real-time energy management algorithms were developed and experimentally verified. These algorithms are based on intelligent decision-making elements along with an optimization process. This was aimed at enhancing the overall performance of the power system and mitigating the effect of heavy non-linear loads with variable intensity and duration. The developed algorithms were also used for managing the charging/discharging process of plug-in electric vehicle emulators. The protection of the proposed hybrid AC/DC power system was studied. Fault analysis and protection scheme and coordination, in addition to ideas on how to retrofit currently available

  19. A computer-based control system for keyhole plasma arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Chuanbao; Wu Chuansong; Zhang Yuming


    A new kind of control system for keyhole plasma arc welding (K-PAW) was developed based on the computer and the Graphics Language-LabVIEW. It can set and output the required current waveforms with desired decreasing slopes so that the corresponding "opening and closing" of keyhole can occur periodically. With this control strategy of welding current waveforms, the workpiece is fully penetrated while no burn-through occurs. Keyhole plasma arc welding experiments were conducted to verify the stability and reliability of the developed system.

  20. Heterogenous GABA(B) receptor-mediated pathways are involved in the local GABAergic system of the rat trigeminal ganglion: possible involvement of KCTD proteins. (United States)

    Hayasaki, H; Sohma, Y; Kanbara, K; Otsuki, Y


    It is well known that Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays an important role in signal transduction in the central nervous system. However, the function of GABA in the peripheral nervous system, including sensory ganglions, is still unclear. In this study we have characterized the expression, cellular distribution, and function of GABA(B) receptor subunits, and the recently discovered GABA(B) auxiliary subunits, K(+) channel tetramerization domain-containing (KCTD) proteins, in rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) neuronal cells, which are devoid of synapses. We found heterogeneous expression of both GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits, and a near-plasma membrane localization of KCTD12. In addition, we found that GABA(B2) subunits correlated with KCTD16. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings showed that responses to the GABA(B) receptor agonist, baclofen, were variable and both increases and decreases in excitability were observed. This correlated with observed differences in voltage-dependent K(+) current responses to baclofen in voltage-clamped TG neuronal cells. The functional diversity of the GABA(B)ergic regulation on the excitability of the TG neuronal cell bodies could be due to the heterogenous expression of KCTD proteins, and subsequent regulation of plasma membrane K(+) channels. Taken together with our previous demonstration of a local GABA(A) receptor-mediated system in rat TG, we provide an updated GABAergic model in the rat TG that incorporates both GABA(A)- and GABA(B)-receptor systems.

  1. Mass and energy analysis of the ions in a plasma flood system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooding, A.C. [Institute of Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M54WT (United Kingdom); Armour, D.G. [Institute of Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M54WT (United Kingdom); Berg, J.A. van den [Institute of Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M54WT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Holmes, A.J.T. [Marcham Scientific, Hungerford, Berks RG17 0LH (United Kingdom); Burgess, C. [Applied Materials UK Ltd., Foundry Lane, Horsham, West Sussex RH13 5PX (United Kingdom); Goldberg, R.D. [Applied Materials UK Ltd., Foundry Lane, Horsham, West Sussex RH13 5PX (United Kingdom)


    Plasma flood systems, capable of providing a copious supply of electrons are used in ion implanters to control wafer charging and provide effective space charge neutralisation of the ion beam in the post-analysis/post-deceleration section of the beamline. Under appropriate conditions the plasma from the flood system interacts with the ion beam and this bridging leads to an enhanced beam transport efficiency in the final critical stage of the beamline. The effectiveness of this process depends on the properties of the plasma emanating from the system. In this study, a plasma analyser comprising a double hemi-spherical electrostatic energy analyser and a quadrupole mass spectrometer, was used to measure the energy distributions of all the ion species leaving a magnetically confined argon plasma, generated in the discharge chamber of a conventional flood neutraliser. The energy distributions extended to surprisingly high energies and the peak structures depended strongly on discharge voltage, discharge current and gas pressure. The nature of these dependencies was complex with both the pressure and arc current affecting the way in which the ion energy distributions depended on arc voltage. In all cases, multiply charged ions played a significant role in determining the nature of the ion energy distributions.

  2. A novel 300 kW arc plasma inverter system based on hierarchical controlled building block structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To date, the high power arc plasma technology is widely used. A next generation high power arc plasma system based on building block structure is presented. The whole arc plasma inverter system is composed of 12 paralleled units to increase the system output capability. The hierarchical control system is adopted to improve the reliability and flexibility of the high power arc plasma inverter. To ensure the reliable turn on and off of the IGBT module in each building block unit, a special pulse drive circuit is designed by using pulse transformer. The experimental result indicates that the high power arc plasma inverter system can transfer 300 kW arc plasma energy reliably with high efficiency.

  3. The NO/ET-1 System Is Involved in the Protection of the Hepatic Ischemic Preconditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕平; 王春友; 陈道达; 田源; 张锦辉; 吴毅华


    To study the relationship between the disturbance of nitric oxide/endothelin-1 (NO/ET-1) and the hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury as well as the regulation of the NO/ET-1 system by the hepatic ischemic preconditioning (IPC), the changes of the NO/ET-1 system and their relationship with the hepatic I/R injury were compared between the I/R group and the IPC+I/R group in a rat hepatic I/R model. 2 h after reperfusion, the liver tissues were examined for expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA by RT-PCR. In the acute phase of hepatic reperfusion, the ratio of NO/ET-1 was reduced, which was due to the significant reduction of NO2-/NO3- (the metabolic product of NO) and significant elevation of ET-1 in the blood plasma. The content of ALT, AST, LDH and TNF-α in blood plasma, and level of MDA in liver tissue were increased but ATP in liver tissue was reduced, and the hepatic damage was deteriorated. The protection of the hepatic IPC was associated with the elevated ratio of NO/ET-1 caused by the elevation of NO2-/NO3-,and reduction of ET-1 as well. No iNOS mRNA was detected in the liver tissues. It was concluded that hepatic I/R injury was related to the disturbance of NO/ET-1. The protection of the hepatic IPC in the acute phase might be mediated by its regulation of NO/ET-1 system. The cNOS rather than the iNOS generated the NO in this scenario.

  4. [Designing and implementation of a web-based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement in multicenter population study]. (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Limin; Pang, Richard; Mo, Nanxun; Hu, Yan; Deng, Qian; Hu, Zhaohui


    The aim of this paper is to describe the designing and implementation of a web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system to assess the analytical quality of plasma glucose measurements in multicenter population study and provide evidence for the future studies. In the chronic non-communicable disease and related factor surveillance in China, a web based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement was established to conduct evaluation on plasma glucose monitoring quality and effectiveness in 302 surveillance centers, including quality control data entry, transmission and feedback. The majority of the surveillance centers met the quality requirements and passed the evaluation of reproducibility and precision of plasma glucose measurement, only a few centers required intensive training and re-assessment. In order to ensure the completeness and reliability of plasma glucose measurement in the surveillance centers, the establishment of web-based plasma glucose measurement quality control system can facilitate the identification of the qualified surveillance centers and evaluation of plasma glucose measurement quality in different regions. Communication and training are important in ensuring plasma glucose measurement quality. It is necessary to further improve this web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system in the future to reduce the method specific plasma glucose measurement bias.

  5. Efficacy of plasma exchange and immunoadsorption in systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome: A systematic review. (United States)

    Kronbichler, Andreas; Brezina, Biljana; Quintana, Luis F; Jayne, David R W


    Extracorporeal treatments have been used since the 1970s in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A randomised controlled trial comparing the efficacy of standard of care (SOC) combined with plasma exchange against SOC alone in patients with lupus nephritis revealed no difference in terms of renal outcome. Subsequently, initial expectations have been dampened and further experience with plasma exchange is mainly limited to observational studies and single case reports. Beneficial effects have been reported in patients with refractory disease course or in pregnancy with prior complications due to SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome. A more specific form of extracorporeal treatment, immunoadsorption (IAS), has emerged as a valuable option in the treatment of SLE. In line with the plasma exchange experience, IAS seems to have beneficial effects in patients with refractory disease, contraindications to standard immunosuppression or during pregnancy. The mechanism IAS relates to autoantibody removal but for plasma exchange removal of activated complement components, coagulation factors, cytokines and microparticles may also be relevant. Both treatment forms have good safety profiles although reactions to blood product replacement in plasma exchange and procedure related complications such as bleeding or catheter-related infections have occurred. There is a need to more clearly define the clinical utility of plasma exchange and IAS in refractory lupus and APS subgroups.

  6. Clinical features and early treatment response of central nervous system involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (United States)

    Levinsen, Mette; Taskinen, Mervi; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Forestier, Erik; Frandsen, Thomas L; Harila-Saari, Arja; Heyman, Mats; Jonsson, Olafur G; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M; Lausen, Birgitte; Vaitkevičienė, Goda; Asberg, Ann; Schmiegelow, Kjeld


    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a therapeutic challenge. To explore leukemia characteristics of patients with CNS involvement at ALL diagnosis, we analyzed clinical features and early treatment response of 744 patients on Nordic-Baltic trials. CNS status was classified as CNS1 (no CSF blasts), CNS2 ( 0.15). The 12-year event-free survival for patients with leukemic mass on neuroimaging did not differ from patients with negative or no scan (0.50 vs. 0.60; P = 0.7) or between patients with symptoms or signs suggestive of CNS leukemia and patients without such characteristics (0.50 vs. 0.61; P = 0.2). CNS involvement at diagnosis is associated with adverse prognostic features but does not indicate a less chemosensitive leukemia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Molecular evidence for central nervous system involvement in children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, D A; Nowak, J S


    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) would have profound implication for the prognosis and accurate stratification of CNS prophylactic therapy. Using PCR technique with specific primers for V, D and J segments of TCRD gene, the pattern of TCRD gene rearrangements in bone marrow lymphoblasts and in cells from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been investigated. The study involved 21 children at the time of diagnosis with B-lineage ALL. In nine of 21 patients incomplete TCRDVD gene rearrangement has been found in CSF cells, which was identical to that observed in bone marrow of the same children. It can be concluded that at least in 43 per cent of all analysed cases, there were signs of CNS involvement in newly diagnosed ALL patients.

  8. Cardiac involvement in progressive systemic sclerosis and polymyositis: a comparative study in 116 patients. (United States)

    Purice, S; Luca, R; Vintilă, M; Tănăseanu, S; Bălănescu, E


    A comparative study was carried out in 116 patients-51 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) and 65 with polymyositis (PM) to detect the cardiac involvements secondary to these two collagen diseases. Different forms of cardiac involvement could be detected in 51% of the patients with PSS and in 18.5% of those with PM. The most frequent cardiac dysfunctions were disturbances of rhythm and conduction probably due to the coronary vascular changes in PSS and to processes of fibrosis and degenerescence of the specific myocardial fibers in PM. Myocardial lesions expressed by myocarditis and cardiomyopathies are not infrequent and have important prognostic implications. In the group of patients studied the valvular cardiopathies and clinically evident pericardites were rare. Cardiac involvement clearly proved more frequent in PSS - in which the pathogenic mechanism is mainly vascular - than in PM. This emphasizes the great importance of coronary circulation disturbances in the pathogenesis of collagen heart diseases.

  9. Involvement of type VI secretion system in secretion of iron chelator pyoverdine in Pseudomonas taiwanensis (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jen; Kuo, Tzu-Yen; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Chen, Pi-Yu; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Shih, Yu-Ling; Lai, Ying-Mi; Liu, Je-Ruei; Yang, Yu-Liang; Shih, Ming-Che


    Rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. Therefore, in addition to breeding disease-resistant rice cultivars, it is desirable to develop effective biocontrol agents against Xoo. Here, we report that a soil bacterium Pseudomonas taiwanensis displayed strong antagonistic activity against Xoo. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry, we identified an iron chelator, pyoverdine, secreted by P. taiwanensis that could inhibit the growth of Xoo. Through Tn5 mutagenesis of P. taiwanensis, we showed that mutations in genes that encode components of the type VI secretion system (T6SS) as well as biosynthesis and maturation of pyoverdine resulted in reduced toxicity against Xoo. Our results indicated that T6SS is involved in the secretion of endogenous pyoverdine. Mutations in T6SS component genes affected the secretion of mature pyoverdine from the periplasmic space into the extracellular medium after pyoverdine precursor is transferred to the periplasm by the inner membrane transporter PvdE. In addition, we also showed that other export systems, i.e., the PvdRT-OpmQ and MexAB-OprM efflux systems (for which there have been previous suggestions of involvement) and the type II secretion system (T2SS), are not involved in pyoverdine secretion. PMID:27605490

  10. Plasma ficolin levels and risk of nephritis in Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Tanha, Nima; Pilely, Katrine; Faurschou, Mikkel; Garred, Peter; Jacobsen, Søren


    Given the scavenging properties of ficolins, we hypothesized that variation in the plasma concentrations of the three ficolins may be associated with development of lupus nephritis (LN), type of LN, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and/or mortality among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE patients attending a Danish tertiary rheumatology referral center were included. Plasma concentrations of ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3 were determined and dichotomized by the median into high and low. LN was defined by clinical criteria; type of LN by renal biopsy; ESRD follow-up time was defined as time from onset of LN to the development of ESRD or censoring at the end of follow-up. The study included 112 SLE patients with median disease duration of 8 years of which 53 (47%) had LN at the time of inclusion. During a median follow-up of 10 years, five patients developed ESRD. Sixteen patients died. Odds ratios (ORs) of LN were 1.2 (95% CI: 0.6-2.7), 4.1 (95% CI: 1.7-9.7), and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4-2.0) for patients with low ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3 plasma levels, respectively. The distribution of histological classes differed between patients with high and low plasma levels of ficolin-1 (p = 0.009). Patients with high ficolin-1 plasma levels had an increased risk of ESRD. There was no association between the levels of the analyzed plasma ficolins and mortality. Low plasma ficolin-2 levels were associated with an increased risk of having LN. High plasma levels of ficolin-1 were associated with the histological subtype of LN and development of ESRD.

  11. Weakly nonlinear dynamics in noncanonical Hamiltonian systems with applications to fluids and plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, P.J., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin (United States); Vanneste, J. [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)


    A method, called beatification, is presented for rapidly extracting weakly nonlinear Hamiltonian systems that describe the dynamics near equilibria of systems possessing Hamiltonian form in terms of noncanonical Poisson brackets. The procedure applies to systems like fluids and plasmas in terms of Eulerian variables that have such noncanonical Poisson brackets, i.e., brackets with nonstandard and possibly degenerate form. A collection of examples of both finite and infinite dimensions is presented.

  12. Human leukocyte antigen-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Bzorek, Michael; Pass, Malene B


    -eclampsia. We have investigated whether HLA-G protein is present in human seminal plasma and in different tissue samples of the male reproductive system. Western blot technique and a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) assay were used to detect sHLA-G in human seminal plasma samples. Immunohistochemical staining......One of the non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib proteins, HLA-G, is believed to exert important immunoregulatory functions, especially during pregnancy. The presence of HLA protein in paternal seminal fluid has been suggested to have an influence on the risk of developing pre...... was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples. We detected sHLA-G protein in seminal plasma, and HLA-G expression in normal testis and in epididymal tissue of the male reproductive system but not in the seminal vesicle. Furthermore, the results indicated a weak expression of HLA-G in hyperplastic prostatic...

  13. Relapsing and Progressive Tumefactive Demyelinating Form of Central Nervous System Involvement in a Patient with Progressive Systemic Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hui Joong [Dept. of Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    White matter hyper intensities (WMHI) on MRI are not rare in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). In this presentation, WMHI were developed in both middle cerebellar peduncles and temporal white matter in a patient with PSS, and regressed after medication of high dose steroid. However, new lesions were developed in the subcortices of both precentral gyri, and progressed rapidly to tumefactive hyperintensity on MRI. We report an unusual relapsing and progressive tumefactive demyelinating form of central nervous system involvement in PSS.

  14. Central nervous system involvement in pediatric rheumatic diseases: current concepts in treatment. (United States)

    Duzova, Ali; Bakkaloglu, Aysin


    Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations are not rare in pediatric rheumatic diseases. They may be a relatively common feature of the disease, as in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Behçet's disease. Direct CNS involvement of a systemic rheumatic disease, primary CNS vasculitis, indirect involvement secondary to hypertension, hypoxia and metabolic changes, and drug associated adverse events may all result in CNS involvement. We have reviewed the CNS manifestations of SLE, Behçet's disease, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, polyarteritis nodosa, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, familial Mediterranean fever, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, Wegener's granulomatosis, Takayasu's arteritis, CINCA syndrome, Kawasaki disease, and primary CNS vasculitis; and adverse CNS effects of anti-rheumatic drugs in pediatric patients. The manifestations are diverse; ranging from headache, seizures, chorea, changes in personality, depression, memory and concentration problems, cognitive impairment, cerebrovascular accidents to coma, and death. The value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination (pleocytosis, high level of protein), auto-antibodies in serum and CSF, electroencephalography, neuroimaging with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, SPECT, PET, and angiography depends on the disease. Brain biopsy is gold standard for the diagnosis of CNS vasculitis, however it may be inconclusive in 25% of cases. A thorough knowledge of the rheumatic diseases and therapy-related adverse events is mandatory for the management of a patient with rheumatic disease and CNS involvement. Severe CNS involvement is associated with poor prognosis, and high mortality rate. High dose steroid and cyclophosphamide (oral or intravenous) are first choice drugs in the treatment; plasmapheresis, IVIG, thalidomide, and intratechal treatment may be valuable in treatment-resistant, and serious cases.

  15. Substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system: evidence and implications. (United States)

    Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J


    As child welfare systems across the country face the problem of parental substance abuse, there is an increasing need to understand the types of treatment approaches that are most effective for substance-abusing parents in the child welfare system-the majority of whom are mothers. This structured review of the literature focuses on evidence related to two areas: (1) individual-level interventions designed to assist mothers and women in addressing their substance abuse problems, and (2) system-level interventions designed to improve collaboration and coordination between the child welfare system and the alcohol and other drug system. Overall, research suggests the following program components may be effective with substance-abusing women with children: (1) Women-centered treatment that involves children, (2) Specialized health and mental health services, (3) Home visitation services, (4) Concrete assistance, (5) Short-term targeted interventions, and (6) Comprehensive programs that integrate many of these components. Research also suggests that promising collaborative models between the child welfare system (CWS) and the alcohol and other drug (AOD) system typically include the following core elements: (1) Out-stationing AOD workers in child welfare offices, (2) Joint case planning, (3) Using official committees to guide collaborative efforts, (4) Training and cross-training, (5) Using protocols for sharing confidential information, and (6) Using dependency drug courts. Although more rigorous research is needed on both individual-level and system-level substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system, the integration of individual-level interventions and system-level approaches is a potentially useful practice approach with this vulnerable population.

  16. EMAPS: An Efficient Multiscale Approach to Plasma Systems with Non-MHD Scale Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omelchenko, Yuri A. [SciberQuest, Inc., Del Mar, CA (United States); Karimabadi, Homa [SciberQuest, Inc., Del Mar, CA (United States)


    Using Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) as a novel paradigm for time integration of large-scale physics-driven systems, we have achieved significant breakthroughs in simulations of multi-dimensional magnetized plasmas where ion kinetic and finite Larmor radius (FLR) and Hall effects play a crucial role. For these purposes we apply a unique asynchronous simulation tool: a parallel, electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code, HYPERS (Hybrid Particle Event-Resolved Simulator), which treats plasma electrons as a charge neutralizing fluid and solves a self-consistent set of non-radiative Maxwell, electron fluid equations and ion particle equations on a structured computational grid. HYPERS enables adaptive local time steps for particles, fluid elements and electromagnetic fields. This ensures robustness (stability) and efficiency (speed) of highly dynamic and nonlinear simulations of compact plasma systems such spheromaks, FRCs, ion beams and edge plasmas. HYPERS is a unique asynchronous code that has been designed to serve as a test bed for developing multi-physics applications not only for laboratory plasma devices but generally across a number of plasma physics fields, including astrophysics, space physics and electronic devices. We have made significant improvements to the HYPERS core: (1) implemented a new asynchronous magnetic field integration scheme that preserves local divB=0 to within round-off errors; (2) Improved staggered-grid discretizations of electric and magnetic fields. These modifications have significantly enhanced the accuracy and robustness of 3D simulations. We have conducted first-ever end-to-end 3D simulations of merging spheromak plasmas. The preliminary results show: (1) tilt-driven relaxation of a freely expanding spheromak to an m=1 Taylor helix configuration and (2) possibility of formation of a tilt-stable field-reversed configuration via merging and magnetic reconnection of two double-sided spheromaks with opposite helicities.

  17. Review of Treating chronic depression with disciplined personal involvement: Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP). (United States)

    Hellerstein, David J


    Reviews the book, Treating chronic depression with disciplined personal involvement: Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP) by James P. McCullough Jr. (see record 2006-11486-000). The premise of this book is that therapeutic neutrality does not apply to the psychotherapy of chronically depressed individuals, and that disciplined personal involvement is an efficacious and perhaps necessary component of their treatment. Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP) is a learning model, in which the therapist focuses on teaching patients to recognize the consequences of their behavior. McCullough addresses practical and theoretical objections to this therapeutic approach, which include fears of overinvolvement, and inappropriate behavior, and clinical risks of flooding patients with excessively personal information and content. Ultimately, most readers will finish reading this volume with many open questions, some specific to McCullough's approach, others related to the challenging condition of chronic depression itself. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Dust Detection Using Radio and Plasma Wave Instruments in the Solar System (United States)

    Ye, S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Averkamp, T. F.; Kempf, S.; Hsu, S.; Srama, R.; Grün, E.; Morooka, M. W.; Sakai, S.; Wahlund, J. E.


    Nanometer to micrometer sized dust particles pervade our solar system. The origins of these dust particles include asteroid collisions, cometary activity, and geothermal activity of the planetary moons, for example, the water dust cloud ejected from Saturn's moon Enceladus. Radio and plasma wave instruments have been used to detect such dust particles via voltage pulses induced by impacts on the spacecraft body and antennas. The first detection of such dust impacts occurred when Voyager 1 passed through Saturn's ring plane. Since then, dust impacts have been detected by radio and plasma wave instruments on many spacecraft, including ISEE-3, Cassini, and STEREO. In this presentation, we review the detection of dust particles in the solar system using radio and plasma wave instruments aboard various spacecraft since the Voyager era. We also show characteristics of the dust particles derived from recent observations by Cassini RPWS in Saturn's magnetosphere. The dust size distribution and density are consistent with those measured by the conventional dust detectors. A new method of measuring the electron density inside the Enceladus plume based on plasma oscillations observed after dust impacts will also be discussed. The dust measurement by radio and plasma wave instruments complements that by conventional dust detectors and provide important information about the spatial distribution of dust particles due to less pointing constraints and the larger detection area.

  19. First Breakthrough for Future Air-Breathing Magneto-Plasma Propulsion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Goksel, Berkant


    A new breakthrough in jet propulsion technology since the invention of the jet engine is achieved. The first critical tests for future air-breathing magneto-plasma propulsion systems have been successfully completed. In this regard, it is also the first time that a pinching dense plasma focus discharge could be ignited at one atmosphere and driven in pulse mode using very fast, nanosecond electrostatic excitations to induce self-organized plasma channels for ignition of the propulsive main discharge. Depending on the capacitor voltage (200-600 V) the energy input at one atmosphere varies from 52-320 J/pulse corresponding to impulse bits from 1.2-8.0 mNs. Such a new pulsed plasma propulsion system driven with one thousand pulses per second would already have thrust-to-area ratios (50-150 kN/m2) of modern jet engines. An array of thrusters could enable future aircrafts and airships to start from ground and reach altitudes up to 50km and beyond. The needed high power could be provided by future compact plasma fu...

  20. Enhancement of Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico's plasma machine cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Escalante, D; Colmenares, F; Gonzalez-Lizardo, A; Leal-Quiros, E [Plasma Engineering Laboratory, Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00918 (Puerto Rico)


    The Mirror and Cusp Plasma Machine at the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico is a unique research and development machine to create plasma. Due to the high current, high magnetic field confinement and large chamber capacity, this machine is the only plasma machine in the Caribbean to reach high plasma temperatures and densities. Certainly these parameters are achieved by a high dc power supply that produces high currents in order to create a fine magnetic field; these currents range from 300 to 800 A, and the heat dissipation created by this process limits the use of the machine. Originally the machine had a water cooling line to circulate water at room temperature, but this line was not cool enough to efficiently remove heat from the system for large periods of time. Also, the high vacuum diffusion pumps used are water-cooled. The present study was developed to design a more efficient cooling system for the Plasma Laboratory using a water-cooled chiller; the main goals are to operate at lower temperatures but at stable currents I> 600 A, and to recycle the water. Now the machine can operate for longer periods of time and on a daily basis, resulting in more efficient experiments and investigations.

  1. Kadomtsev-Petviashvili solitons propagation in a plasma system with superthermal and weakly relativistic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafeez-Ur-Rehman; Mahmood, S. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, PIEAS, Nilore, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Shah, Asif; Haque, Q. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)


    Two dimensional (2D) solitons are studied in a plasma system comprising of relativistically streaming ions, kappa distributed electrons, and positrons. Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation is derived through the reductive perturbation technique. Analytical solution of the KP equation has been studied numerically and graphically. It is noticed that kappa parameters of electrons and positrons as well as the ions relativistic streaming factor have an emphatic influence on the structural as well as propagation characteristics of two dimensional solitons in the considered plasma system. Our results may be helpful in the understanding of soliton propagation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, specifically the interaction of pulsar relativistic wind with supernova ejecta and the transfer of energy to plasma by intense electric field of laser beams producing highly energetic superthermal and relativistic particles [L. Arons, Astrophys. Space Sci. Lib. 357, 373 (2009); P. Blasi and E. Amato, Astrophys. Space Sci. Proc. 2011, 623; and A. Shah and R. Saeed, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 095006 (2011)].

  2. Demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification system for effective hazardous waste treatment. (United States)

    Moustakas, K; Fatta, D; Malamis, S; Haralambous, K; Loizidou, M


    Plasma gasification/vitrification is a technologically advanced and environmentally friendly method of disposing of waste, converting it to commercially usable by-products. This process is a drastic non-incineration thermal process, which uses extremely high temperatures in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose input waste material into very simple molecules. The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of plasma technology enable a plasma gasification/vitrification facility to treat a large number of waste streams in a safe and reliable manner. The by-products of the process are a combustible gas and an inert slag. Plasma gasification consistently exhibits much lower environmental levels for both air emissions and slag leachate toxicity than other thermal technologies. In the framework of a LIFE-Environment project, financed by Directorate General Environment and Viotia Prefecture in Greece, a pilot plasma gasification/vitrification system was designed, constructed and installed in Viotia Region in order to examine the efficiency of this innovative technology in treating industrial hazardous waste. The pilot plant, which was designed to treat up to 50kg waste/h, has two main sections: (i) the furnace and its related equipment and (ii) the off-gas treatment system, including the secondary combustion chamber, quench and scrubber.

  3. Alternative Coordinate Systems for High Latitude Ionospheric Plasma Studies. (United States)


    only a small fraction of this energy flux is directly coupled into the magnetosphere system. However, it has been suggested that a high altitude...upon numerical error arising frori off-center differencing . To complete the mesh in three dimensions, the contours of of Figure 2 must he rotated

  4. Unique Solution of a Coupled Fractional Differential System Involving Integral Boundary Conditions from Economic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li


    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution for the fractional differential system involving the Riemann-Stieltjes integral boundary conditions , , , , , and , where , , and and are the standard Riemann-Liouville derivatives, and are functions of bounded variation, and and denote the Riemann-Stieltjes integral. Our results are based on a generalized fixed point theorem for weakly contractive mappings in partially ordered sets.

  5. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles highlight early involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation


    Millward, Jason M.; Jörg Schnorr; Matthias Taupitz; Susanne Wagner; Jens T. Wuerfel; Carmen Infante-Duarte


    Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood–brain barrier). Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis). We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles) reveal CNS (central nervous system) lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in M...

  6. Central nervous system involvement in incontinentia pigmenti: cranial MRI of two siblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydingoez, Ue.; Midia, M. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)


    Incontinentia pigmenti is an uncommon neurocutaneous syndrome characterised by skin lesions, dental and ocular abnormalities and central nervous system involvement. We report the cranial MRI findings in two sisters with this condition. These include hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the lateral ventricles and periventricular white-matter lesions. One girl also had unilateral microphthalmia and rostral agenesis of the corpus callosum, a feature not previously described. (orig.) With 2 figs., 9 refs.

  7. Diagnostic systems for the nuclear fusion and plasma research in the PF-24 plasma focus laboratory at the IFJ PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak Łukasz


    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of diagnostics dedicated to PF-24 - new medium size - plasma focus (PF device built and operated at the Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN. The PF-24 can operate at energy level up to 93 kJ and charging voltage up to 40 kV. Each condenser is connected with a specially designed spark gap with a very small jitter, which ensures a high effi ciency and a low current rise time. The working parameters of PF-24 generator make it a suitable tool for testing new detection systems to be used in fusion research. Four types of such detection systems are presented in this article: three diagnostic systems used to measure electric quantities (Rogowski coil, magnetic probe, capacitance probe, neutron counter based on beryllium activation, fast neutron pinhole camera based on small-area BCF-12 plastic scintillation detectors and high-speed four-frame soft X-ray camera with microchannel plate.

  8. Service user involvement in mental health system strengthening in a rural African setting: qualitative study. (United States)

    Abayneh, Sisay; Lempp, Heidi; Alem, Atalay; Alemayehu, Daniel; Eshetu, Tigist; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte


    It is essential to involve service users in efforts to expand access to mental health care in integrated primary care settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is little evidence from LMICs to guide this process. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to, and facilitators of, service user/caregiver involvement in rural Ethiopia to inform the development of a scalable approach. Thirty nine semi-structured interviews were carried out with purposively selected mental health service users (n = 13), caregivers (n = 10), heads of primary care facilities (n = 8) and policy makers/planners/service developers (n = 8). The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed in Amharic, and translated into English. Thematic analysis was applied. All groups of participants supported service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening. Potential benefits were identified as (i) improved appropriateness and quality of services, and (ii) greater protection against mistreatment and promotion of respect for service users. However, hardly any respondents had prior experience of service user involvement. Stigma was considered to be a pervasive barrier, operating within the health system, the local community and individuals. Competing priorities of service users included the need to obtain adequate individual care and to work for survival. Low recognition of the potential contribution of service users seemed linked to limited empowerment and mobilization of service users. Potential health system facilitators included a culture of community oversight of primary care services. All groups of respondents identified a need for awareness-raising and training to equip service users, caregivers, service providers and local community for involvement. Empowerment at the level of individual service users (information about mental health conditions, care and rights) and the group level (for advocacy and representation) were considered

  9. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the central nervous system. (United States)

    Gualco, Gabriela; Weiss, Lawrence M; Barber, Glen N; Bacchi, Carlos E


    Lymphomas involving the central nervous system are recognized increasingly in immunocompetent as well as immunosuppressed individuals, and the majority of the cases are diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of this study was to compare the immunophenotype, clinicopathological features, and association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) of DLBCL of the central nervous system (CNS) in 3 different clinical situations: primary, in immunocompetent patients; "primary," in immunosuppressed patients; and in patients with secondary involvement by systemic lymphoma. The authors reviewed the clinicopathological features, morphology, immunophenotype (according to germinal-center B-cell-like and nongerminal B-cell-like subtypes), and association with EBV in 36 cases of DLBCL of the CNS, including 25 primary cases, 5 associated with immunosuppression, and 6 cases with secondary involvement. Survival was evaluated in 15 cases of primary CNS lymphomas. Of the 36 patients, 19 were male and 18 female. Only 2 cases of lymphomas were EBV-positive; both occurred in immunosuppressed patients. Separation into germinal-center and non-germinal center subtypes by an immunohistochemistry panel showed that 68% of primary, 80% of secondary, and 83% of the cases associated with immunosuppression were of non-germinal-center subtype, respectively. Patients with non-germinal-center immunophenotype showed significantly worse survival than those with CNS lymphomas of the germinal-center subtype.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ilaria Del Principe


    Full Text Available In adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, Central Nervous System (CNS involvement is associated with a very poor prognosis. The diagnostic assessment of this condition relies on the use of neuroradiology, conventional cytology (CC and flow cytometry (FCM. Among these approaches, which is the gold standard it is still a matter of debate. Neuroradiology and CC have a limited sensitivity with a higher rate of false negative results. FCM demonstrated a superior sensitivity over CC, particularly when low levels of CNS infiltrating cells are present. Although prospective studies of large series of patients are still awaited, a positive finding by FCM appears to anticipate an adverse outcome even if CC shows no infiltration. Current strategies for adult ALL CNS-directed prophylaxis or therapy involve systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Actually, early and frequent intrathecal injection of cytostatic combined with systemic chemotherapy is the most effective strategy to reduce the frequency of CNS involvement. In patients with CNS overt ALL, at diagnosis or upon relapse, allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might be considered. This review will discuss risk factors, diagnostic techniques for identification of CNS infiltration and modalities of prophylaxis and therapy to manage it.

  11. From the conceptual design to the first simulation of the new WEST plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouailletas, R., E-mail: [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Ravenel, N.; Signoret, J. [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Treutterer, W. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Spring, A.; Lewerentz, M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Wendeksteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Rapson, C.J. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Masand, H.; Dhongde, J. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India); Moreau, P.; Guillerminet, B.; Brémond, S.; Allegretti, L. [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Raupp, G. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Werner, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Wendeksteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Saint Laurent, F.; Nardon, E. [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bhandarkar, M. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)


    Highlights: • We propose an overview of the future control system of the Tore Supra in WEST configuration. • The control system will be based on DCS (Discharge Control System) of ASDEX Upgrade. • The Pulse Schedule Editor will be based on the experiment program editor of the future W7X facility. • The operation of this new system is illustrated by an example based on a simple plasma current/loop voltage control. - Abstract: The configuration of the Tore Supra WEST project leads to control challenges and event handling close to those of ITER from a plasma scenario point of view (X-point configuration, H mode, long duration pulse) and from a machine protection point of view (metallic environment). Based on previous conceptual studies and to meet the WEST requirements, a sub-project will implement a new plasma control system (PCS) and a new pulse schedule editor (PSE). The main idea is to use a segment approach to describe the pulse scheduling with a full integration of event handling both on the PCS and on the PSE. After detailed specification work, it has been shown that the real-time framework called DCS (Discharge Control System) which is currently used on ASDEX upgrade fulfills the requirements and could be integrated into the WEST global control infrastructure. For the PSE, the Xedit tool, developed for the future W7X facility, has been chosen. This contribution will begin by a short explanation of the concepts proposed for the control of the plasma and the handling of events during the plasma discharge. Then it will focus on the new centralized architecture of the new Tore Supra PCS and an operating principle example showing the efficiency of the approach to handle normal and off-normal events. This later point will illustrate the required modifications of DCS and Xedit to fit with the Tore Supra Control infrastructure.

  12. Plasma contact system activation drives anaphylaxis in severe mast cell-mediated allergic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala-Cunill, Anna; Björkqvist, Jenny; Senter, Riccardo; Guilarte, Mar; Cardona, Victoria; Labrador, Moises; Nickel, Katrin F; Butler, Lynn; Luengo, Olga; Kumar, Parvin; Labberton, Linda; Long, Andy; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Kenne, Ellinor; Jämsä, Anne; Krieger, Thorsten; Schlüter, Hartmut; Fuchs, Tobias; Flohr, Stefanie; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Cumin, Frederic; McCrae, Keith; Maas, Coen; Stavrou, Evi; Renné, Thomas


    BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially lethal, multisystem syndrome resulting from the sudden release of mast cell-derived mediators into the circulation. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We report here that a plasma protease cascade, the factor XII-driven contact system, critically contributes to

  13. Key steps in type III secretion system (T3SS) towards translocon assembly with potential sensor at plant plasma membrane. (United States)

    Ji, Hongtao; Dong, Hansong


    Many plant- and animal-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins from bacterial cells into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. The effector translocation occurs through an integral component of T3SS, the channel-like translocon, assembled by hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteinaceous translocators in a two-step process. In the first, hydrophilic translocators localize to the tip of a proteinaceous needle in animal pathogens, or a proteinaceous pilus in plant pathogens, and associate with hydrophobic translocators, which insert into host plasma membranes in the second step. However, the pilus needs to penetrate plant cell walls in advance. All hydrophilic translocators so far identified in plant pathogens are characteristic of harpins: T3SS accessory proteins containing a unitary hydrophilic domain or an additional enzymatic domain. Two-domain harpins carrying a pectate lyase domain potentially target plant cell walls and facilitate the penetration of the pectin-rich middle lamella by the bacterial pilus. One-domain harpins target plant plasma membranes and may play a crucial role in translocon assembly, which may also involve contrapuntal associations of hydrophobic translocators. In all cases, sensory components in the target plasma membrane are indispensable for the membrane recognition of translocators and the functionality of the translocon. The conjectural sensors point to membrane lipids and proteins, and a phosphatidic acid and an aquaporin are able to interact with selected harpin-type translocators. Interactions between translocators and their sensors at the target plasma membrane are assumed to be critical for translocon assembly.

  14. Antioxidant properties of carnosine re-evaluated with oxidizing systems involving iron and copper ions. (United States)

    Mozdzan, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Rysz, Jacek; Nowak, Dariusz


    Carnosine has antioxidant properties and is efficient in the treatment of chemically-induced inflammatory lesions in animals. However, some studies question its biological significance as antioxidant and show lack of protection and even pro-oxidant effect of carnosine in systems containing nickel and iron ions. The ability of carnosine to: (1) reduce Fe(3+) into Fe(2+) ions; (2) protect deoxyribose from oxidation by Fe(2+)-, Fe(3+)-, and Cu(2+)-H(2)O(2)-EDTA systems; (3) protect DNA from damage caused by Cu(2+)-, and Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2)-ascorbate systems; (4) inhibit HClO- and H(2)O(2)-peroxidase-induced luminol dependent chemiluminescence was tested in vitro. At concentration 10 mM carnosine reduced 16.6+/-0.5 nmoles of Fe(3+) into Fe(2+) ions during 20 min. incubation and added to plasma significantly increased its ferric reducing ability. Inhibition of deoxyribose oxidation by 10 mM carnosine reached 56+/-5, 40+/-11 and 30+/-11% for systems containing Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) ions, respectively. The damage to DNA was decreased by 84+/-9 and 61+/-14% when Cu(2+)-, and Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2)-ascorbate systems were applied. Combination of 10 mM histidine with alanine or histidine alone (but not alanine) enhanced 1.3 and 2.3 times (Peffect on DNA. Carnosine at 10 and 20 mM decreased by more than 90% light emission from both chemiluminescent systems. It is concluded that carnosine has significant antioxidant activity especially in the presence of transition metal ions. However, hydrolysis of carnosine with subsequent histidine release may be responsible for some pro-oxidant effects.

  15. Herpesvirus-associated central and peripheral nervous system involvement: two clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Popova


    Full Text Available Herpesviruses can directly affect the structure of the nervous system, resulting in encephalitis, and also induce immune-mediated disorders of the peripheral nervous system as sensory-predominant chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP. Patients with immunodeficiency may simultaneously develop two pathological processes, determining the severity of the condition. Parainfectious limbic encephalitis (PILE associated with viruses from the family Herpes viridae is a form of chronic herpes encephalitis, which is characterized by dysfunction of the limbic system and by a long-term course with exacerbations. CIDP is a dysimmune disease leasing to peripheral nervous system involvement, which belongs to a class of myelinopathies. The paper describes two clinical cases of a concurrence of chronic PILE and CIDP in middle-aged men who have symptomatic status epilepticus and iatrogenic complications. It characterizes difficulties in diagnosis and the clinical features of chronic herpes infection involving the central and peripheral nervous systems. The given clinical cases suggest that not only neurologistsand epileptologists, but also resuscitation specialists and ngiosurgeons should be particularly alert to the pathology in question.

  16. A new modular multichamber plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system (United States)

    Madan, A.; Rava, P.; Schropp, R. E. I.; von Roedern, B.


    The present work reports on a new modular UHV multichamber PECVD system with characteristics which prevent both the incorporation of residual impurities and cross contamination between different layers. A wide range of intrinsic and doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) materials have been produced and single junction pin solar cells with an efficiency greater than 10% have been readily obtained with little optimization. The system contains three UHV modular process zones (MPZ's); the MPZ's and a load lock chamber are located around a central isolation and transfer zone which contains the transport mechanism consisting of an arm with radial and linear movement. This configuration allows for introduction of the substrate into the MPZ's in any sequence so that any type of multilayer device can be produced. The interelectrode distance in the MPZ's can be adjusted between 1 and 5 cm. This has been found to be an important parameter in the optimisation of the deposition rate and of the uniformity. The multichamber concept also allows individually optimized deposition temperatures and interelectrode distances for the various layers. The system installed in Utrecht will be employed for further optimization of single junction solar cells and for research and development of stable a-Si:H tandem cells.

  17. A Traveller Information System: Minimisation of the Number of Graphs’ Nodes Involved When Processing Route Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendaoud Zakaria


    Full Text Available The number of people using public transport is continuously increasing. Transport companies want to fulfil travellers’ expectations wherever possible. However, the great number of public transport companies operating in the same area can sometimes confuse travellers as to which route they should take and how to obtain the information relative to their journey. In this paper we suggest integrating several traveller information systems from different companies into the same multimodal information system, offering companies the choice not to share their data. This encourages them to join the system. Additionally, we have minimised the number of nodes involved when processing travellers’ requests in order to simplify the calculation process. To put our plan into action, we have opted for a multi-agent system coupled with the Voronoi decomposition for managing the network.

  18. Enhancement of the power supply systems in RFX-mod towards 2 MA plasma current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novello, Luca, E-mail: [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Padova (Italy); Zamengo, Andrea; Ferro, Alberto; Zanotto, Loris; Barp, Marco; Cavazzana, Roberto; Finotti, Claudio; Recchia, Mauro; Gaio, Elena [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Padova (Italy)


    The recent start-up improvements brought to RFX-mod have allowed increasing the plasma current in the range 1.7-1.9 MA, but still they proved to be not sufficient to routinely and reliably reach higher values of plasma current that would be very useful for the present studies on enhanced confinement. The need for higher poloidal flux variation together with the overabundant available toroidal flux has led to the study of a rearrangement of the power supply system with the aim of increasing the first at the expenses of the latter. Thanks to the flexibility of the power supply system, composed of modular thyristor converters, the rearrangement has been easily obtained and the resulting enhanced poloidal flux capability scenario described in the paper allows a two step plasma current ramp-up. In order to increase as much as possible the plasma current up to the nominal value of 2 MA it is necessary to fully exploit the thyristor converter power capability, in particular in the first ramp-up phase. In the paper a detailed verification of their maximum performance is presented. The first results obtained after power supply reconfiguration are very good, with plasma current kept constant at about 2 MA for 100 ms. The enabled operation at very high plasma current requires also an optimization of the magneto hydro dynamics (MHD) mode coil power supplies that are required to provide higher current values. Therefore a dedicated study of their control system has been worked out, which allowed understanding how to increase as much as possible the output current without losing the dynamic performance, so keeping the efficiency in the control of dominant and secondary modes, which is essential to obtain good and reproducible discharges.

  19. Bifurcation and hysteresis of plasma edge transport in a flux-driven system (United States)

    Li, B.; Wang, X. Y.; Sun, C. K.; Zhou, A.; Liu, D.; Ma, C. H.; Wang, X. G.


    Transition dynamics and mean shear flow generation in plasma interchange turbulence are explored in a flux-driven system that resembles the plasma edge region. The nonlinear evolution of the interchange mode shows two confinement regimes with different transport levels. Large amplitude oscillations in the phase space of turbulence intensity and mean flow energy are observed and investigated. Both clockwise and counterclockwise oscillations occur during the transition between the two regimes. The Reynolds stress gradients are shown to play a critical role in the generation of mean sheared flows in the edge region. Both the forward and back transitions are simulated self-consistently and a significant hysteresis is found.

  20. Plasma Modes of the Three-Chain Electron System Over Liquid Helium (United States)

    Sokolov, S. S.; Syvokon, V. E.


    We simulate the surface electron system over liquid helium subjected to a confinement potential in the electron layer plane. In the solid phase, the two-dimensional system is observed to transform first into a multi-chain system and, finally, into a three chain, a zigzag structure and a single chain. Both longitudinal and transversal plasma oscillations of the three-chain electron system are determined. One of the longitudinal oscillation modes is acoustic, whereas the other two are optical. On turn, all transversal oscillations branches are optical. The theoretical results obtained can be used to identify experimentally the configurations of the low-dimensional electron system over helium under confinement potential.

  1. An unusual presentation of brucellosis, involving multiple organ systems, with low agglutinating titers: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorvash Farzin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a multi-system disease that may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. While hepatic involvement in brucellosis is not rare, it may rarely involve the kidney or display with cardiac manifestations. Central nervous system involvement in brucellosis sometimes can cause demyelinating syndromes. Here we present a case of brucella hepatitis, myocarditis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and renal failure. Case presentation A 26-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd and gave a history of low grade fever, chilly sensation, cold sweating, loss of appetite, arthralgia and 10 Kg weight loss during the previous 3 months. He had a body temperature of 39°C at the time of admission. On laboratory tests he had elevated level of liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Creatine phosphokinase (MB, and moderate proteinuria. He also had abnormal echocardiography and brain MRI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG and IgM was negative. Standard tube agglutination test (STAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME titers were 1:80 and 1:40 respectively. Finally he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and the polymerase chain reaction for Brucella mellitensis. Conclusion In endemic areas clinicians should consider brucellosis in any unusual presentation involving multiple organ systems, even if serology is inconclusive. In endemic areas low STAT and 2-ME titers should be considered as an indication of brucellosis and in these cases additional testing is recommended to rule out brucellosis.

  2. The cholinergic system is involved in regulation of the development of the hematopoietic system. (United States)

    Serobyan, Naira; Jagannathan, Suchitra; Orlovskaya, Irina; Schraufstatter, Ingrid; Skok, Marina; Loring, Jeanne; Khaldoyanidi, Sophia


    Gene expression profiling demonstrated that components of the cholinergic system, including choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), are expressed in embryonic stem cells and differentiating embryoid bodies (EBs). Triggering of nAChRs expressed in EBs by nicotine resulted in activation of MAPK and shifts of spontaneous differentiation toward hemangioblast. In vivo, non-neural nAChRs are detected early during development in fetal sites of hematopoiesis. Similarly, in vivo exposure of the developing embryo to nicotine resulted in higher numbers of hematopoietic progenitors in fetal liver. However postpartum, the number of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) was decreased, suggesting an impaired colonization of the fetal bone marrow with HSPCs. This correlated with increased number of circulating HSPC and decreased expression of CXCR4 that mediates migration of circulating cells into the bone marrow regulatory niche. In addition, protein microarrays demonstrated that nicotine changed the profile of cytokines produced in the niche. While the levels of IL1alpha, IL1beta, IL2, IL9 and IL10 were not changed, the production of hematopoiesis-supportive cytokines including G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL3, IL6 and IGFBP-3 was decreased. This correlated with the decreased repopulating ability of HSPC in vivo and diminished hematopoietic activity in bone marrow cultures treated with nicotine. Interestingly, nicotine stimulated the production of IL4 and IL5, implying a possible role of the cholinergic system in pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Our data provide evidence that the nicotine-induced imbalance of the cholinergic system during gestation interferes with normal development and provides the basis for negative health outcomes postpartum in active and passive smokers.

  3. Magnetic fields, plasmas, and coronal holes - The inner solar system (United States)

    Burlaga, L. F.


    Recent results concerning streams and magnetic fields in the inner solar system are reviewed. Observations have shown that MHD streams are bounded by thin shear layers within 1 AU, probably because they originate in coronal holes which have sharp boundaries. The properties of Alfvenic fluctuations in streams cannot be fully explained on the basis of the hypothesis that they are plane, transverse Alfven waves. A more complete and accurate description might be that they represent nonplanar general Alfven waves weakly coupled to a compressive mode and moving through a medium containing tangential discontinuities and other convected inhomogeneities.

  4. Hypoxic preconditioning involves system Xc- regulation in mouse neural stem cells. (United States)

    Sims, Brian; Clarke, Melinda; Francillion, Ludwig; Kindred, Elijah; Hopkins, Elana Shuford; Sontheimer, Harald


    In animals, hypoxic preconditioning has been used as a form of neuroprotection. The exact mechanism involved in neuroprotective hypoxic preconditioning has not been described, yet could be valuable for possible neuroprotective strategies. The overexpression of the cystine-glutamate exchanger, system Xc-, has been demonstrated as being neuroprotective (Shih, Erb et al. 2006). Here, using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that C57BL/6 mice exposed to hypoxia showed an increase in system Xc- expression, with the highest level of intensity in the hippocampus. Western Blot analysis also showed an almost 2-fold increase in system Xc- protein in hypoxia-exposed versus control mice. The mRNA for the regulatory subunit of system Xc-, xCT, and the xCT/actin ratio were also increased under hypoxic conditions. Experiments using hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) siRNA showed a statistically significant decrease in HIF-1α and system Xc- expression. Under hypoxic conditions, system Xc- activity, as determined by cystine uptake, increased 2-fold. Importantly, hypoxic preconditioning was attenuated in neural stem cells by pharmacological inhibition of system Xc- activity with S4-carboxyphenylglycine. These data provide the first evidence of hypoxic regulation of the cystine glutamate exchanger system Xc-.

  5. Advanced Thomson scattering system for high-flux linear plasma generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiden, H. J. van der; Lof, A. R.; Berg, M. A. van den; Brons, S.; Eck, H. J. N. van; Koelman, P. M. J.; Koppers, W. R.; Kruijt, O. G.; Oyevaar, T.; Prins, P. R.; Rapp, J.; Scholten, J.; Smeets, P. H. M.; Star, G. van der; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P. A. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Donne, A. J. H.; Schram, D. C. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Naumenko, N. N. [IPh NASB, Minsk (Belarus); Tugarinov, S. N. [SRC TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow Reg. (Russian Federation)


    An advanced Thomson scattering system has been built for a linear plasma generator for plasma surface interaction studies. The Thomson scattering system is based on a Nd:YAG laser operating at the second harmonic and a detection branch featuring a high etendue (f /3) transmission grating spectrometer equipped with an intensified charged coupled device camera. The system is able to measure electron density (n{sub e}) and temperature (T{sub e}) profiles close to the output of the plasma source and, at a distance of 1.25 m, just in front of a target. The detection system enables to measure 50 spatial channels of about 2 mm each, along a laser chord of 95 mm. By summing a total of 30 laser pulses (0.6 J, 10 Hz), an observational error of 3% in n{sub e} and 6% in T{sub e} (at n{sub e}= 9.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}) can be obtained. Single pulse Thomson scattering measurements can be performed with the same accuracy for n{sub e} > 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. The minimum measurable density and temperature are n{sub e} < 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} m{sup -3} and T{sub e} < 0.07 eV, respectively. In addition, using the Rayleigh peak, superimposed on the Thomson scattered spectrum, the neutral density (n{sub 0}) of the plasma can be measured with an accuracy of 25% (at n{sub 0}= 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}). In this report, the performance of the Thomson scattering system will be shown along with unprecedented accurate Thomson-Rayleigh scattering measurements on a low-temperature argon plasma expansion into a low-pressure background.

  6. Physical therapy combined with corticosteroid intervention for systemic lupus erythematosus with central nervous system involvement: a case report. (United States)

    Lee, In-Hee; Ryu, Young Uk


    [Purpose] Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease, affecting 0.1% of the general population. To date, few studies have investigated the efficacy of physical therapy for SLE patients with CNS involvement. The aim of this study was to report whether the combined use of corticosteroids and physical therapy, consisting of reflex inhibition and functional training, was beneficial to functional recovery. [Subjects and Methods] A 22-year-old male SLE patient with CNS involvement requested physical therapy due to strong spasticity of the trunk and limbs in a bedridden state. Corticosteroid intervention and physical therapy were undertaken for 16 days. [Result] After 16 days of the interventions, the patient demonstrated stabilized and alleviated neurological symptoms and an improved functional level. [Conclusion] The present case indicates that physical therapy combined with corticosteroids might be a possible treatment and rehabilitation method to effectively recover motor function for SLE patients who have strong spasticity due to CNS involvement.

  7. [Changes in Kinetics of Chemiluminescence of Plasma as a Measure of Systemic Oxidative Stress in Humans]. (United States)

    Sozarukova, M M; Polimova, A M; Proskurnina, E V; Vladimirov, Yu A


    Oxidative stress is a pathogenetic factor of many diseases. The control of its level is important for early diagnosis and therapy adjustment. In this work, antioxidant status was estimated in blood plasma. In the system of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride-luminol a set of chemiluminescence kinetic curve parameters is proposed for oxidative stress level estimation (the latent period τ(lat) and the increasing of analytical signal ΔI(CL)). Uric acid and albumin were shown as the main components that responsible for changes in chemiluminescence kinetic curve of plasma. Serum albumin undergoes oxidative modification in dose-depend manner under the action of UV irradiation, it causes the enhancement of antioxidant properties. Changes in plasma chemiluminescence kinetics are proposed as a measure of oxidative stress in human body.

  8. Real-time dielectric-film thickness measurement system for plasma processing chamber wall monitoring. (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Chung, Chin-Wook


    An in-situ real-time processing chamber wall monitoring system was developed. In order to measure the thickness of the dielectric film, two frequencies of small sinusoidal voltage (∼1 V) signals were applied to an electrically floated planar type probe, which is positioned at chamber wall surface, and the amplitudes of the currents and the phase differences between the voltage and current were measured. By using an equivalent sheath circuit model including a sheath capacitance, the dielectric thickness can be obtained. Experiments were performed in various plasma condition, and reliable dielectric film thickness was obtained regardless of the plasma properties. In addition, availability in commercial chamber for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was verified. This study is expected to contribute to the control of etching and deposition processes and optimization of periodic maintenance in semiconductor manufacturing process.

  9. A novel two-component system involved in secretion stress response in Streptomyces lividans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gullón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Misfolded proteins accumulating outside the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane can interfere with the secretory machinery, hence the existence of quality factors to eliminate these misfolded proteins is of capital importance in bacteria that are efficient producers of secretory proteins. These bacteria normally use a specific two-component system to respond to the stress produced by the accumulation of the misfolded proteins, by activating the expression of HtrA-like proteases to specifically eliminate the incorrectly folded proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overproduction of alpha-amylase in S. lividans causing secretion stress permitted the identification of a two-component system (SCO4156-SCO4155 that regulates three HtrA-like proteases which appear to be involved in secretion stress response. Mutants in each of the genes forming part of the two-genes operon that encodes the sensor and regulator protein components accumulated misfolded proteins outside the cell, strongly suggesting the involvement of this two-component system in the S. lividans secretion stress response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first time that a specific secretion stress response two-component system is found to control the expression of three HtrA-like protease genes in S. lividans, a bacterium that has been repeatedly used as a host for the synthesis of homologous and heterologous secretory proteins of industrial application.

  10. Plasma-water systems studied with optical diagnostics including sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (United States)

    Ito, Tsuyohito


    Recently, various applications of plasma-water systems have been reported, such as materials synthesis, agricultural applications, and medical treatments. As one of basic studies of such systems, we are investigating water surface structure influenced by a plasma via vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. Vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy is known to be an interfacially active diagnostic technique, as such process occurs in noncentrosymmetric medium. Visible and wavenumber-tunable infrared beams are simultaneously irradiated to the interface. The interfacial water has ice-like ( 3200 cm-1), liquid-like ( 3400 cm-1), and free OH (3700 cm-1) structures (assignment of the ice-like structure still remains contentious), and the intensity of the signal becomes stronger when the tunable infrared beam resonates with a vibration of the structures. The results indicate that with generating air dielectric barrier discharges for supplying reactive species to the water surface, all investigated signals originating from the above-mentioned three structures decrease. Furthermore, the signal strengths are recovered after terminating the plasma generation. We currently believe that the surface density of the reactive species should be high when they are found at the water surface. Details on the experimental results of the sum-frequency generation spectroscopy, as well as other spectroscopic results of plasma-water systems, will be presented at the conference.

  11. Sputter-cleaning of an aluminum alloy using a thermionically assisted triode plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, J.H., E-mail: [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan, Taipei 24301, Taiwan ROC (China); Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications (CTFTA), Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan, Taipei 24301, Taiwan, ROC (China); Li, C. [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications (CTFTA), Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan, Taipei 24301, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, S.J. [Dept. of Math. and Sci., National Taiwan Normal University, Linkou 244, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    Polished aluminum alloy (6061) samples were cleaned using Ar plasma in a diode or triode plasma system. By monitoring cathode current, the changes of surface state and removal (cleaning) rate were determined and compared based on various setup. A modified mathematical model, based on Berg's reactive sputtering model, is derived and proposed to simulate the cleaning process. The results show that it is possible to sputter-clean the substrate under a triode setup with low bias and high ion bombardment rate (i.e. −500 V, triode, 1.3 Pa). This triode cleaning process was comparable with high bias and high working pressure diode process (i.e. −2500 V, diode, 3.3 Pa). Cleaning with high energy particle bombardment can create rough surface in nano-scale, although with the similar efficiency. Also, according to the regressive fitting on the cathode current–time curve, it is found that the average secondary electron yield for the oxide compound is around 0.33 if the average secondary electron yield for aluminum metal is 0.1. - Highlights: • Plasma with various ion energies could be generated using a triode system. • A model was built to explain the plasma cleaning process. • The results are believed to be useful in cleaning precision metal parts. • Secondary electron yield could be estimated using the adopted approach. • By using a triode system, the surface roughness could be controlled as will.

  12. A novel flexible field-aligned coordinate system for tokamak edge plasma simulation (United States)

    Leddy, J.; Dudson, B.; Romanelli, M.; Shanahan, B.; Walkden, N.


    Tokamak plasmas are confined by a magnetic field that limits the particle and heat transport perpendicular to the field. Parallel to the field the ionised particles can move freely, so to obtain confinement the field lines are ;closed; (i.e. form closed surfaces of constant poloidal flux) in the core of a tokamak. Towards, the edge, however, the field lines intersect physical surfaces, leading to interaction between neutral and ionised particles, and the potential melting of the material surface. Simulation of this interaction is important for predicting the performance and lifetime of future tokamak devices such as ITER. Field-aligned coordinates are commonly used in the simulation of tokamak plasmas due to the geometry and magnetic topology of the system. However, these coordinates are limited in the geometry they allow in the poloidal plane due to orthogonality requirements. A novel 3D coordinate system is proposed herein that relaxes this constraint so that any arbitrary, smoothly varying geometry can be matched in the poloidal plane while maintaining a field-aligned coordinate. This system is implemented in BOUT++ and tested for accuracy using the method of manufactured solutions. A MAST edge cross-section is simulated using a fluid plasma model and the results show expected behaviour for density, temperature, and velocity. Finally, simulations of an isolated divertor leg are conducted with and without neutrals to demonstrate the ion-neutral interaction near the divertor plate and the corresponding beneficial decrease in plasma temperature.

  13. Resonance-like structure for soliton characteristics in an electron beam-plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, Y.; Nakach, R.


    The characteristics of ion acoustic solitons in an electron beam-plasma system are considered. The dependence of the amplitude of the soliton on the density of the beam electrons is found to exhibit a pronounced resonance-like structure. A numerical analysis of the analytic expressions for the soliton characteristics (amplitude and width) is performed for different values of the relevant parameters of the system. The existence and origin of the resonance structure is discussed.

  14. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation. (United States)

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S


    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Microwave plasma monitoring system for the elemental composition analysis of high temperature process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)


    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, high temperature capability refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. The invention may be incorporated into a high temperature process device and implemented in situ for example, such as with a DC graphite electrode plasma arc furnace. The invention further provides a system for the elemental analysis of process streams by removing particulate and/or droplet samples therefrom and entraining such samples in the gas flow which passes through the plasma flame. Introduction of and entraining samples in the gas flow may be facilitated by a suction pump, regulating gas flow, gravity or combinations thereof.

  16. Inactivating effects of the lactoperoxidase system on bacterial lyases involved in oral malodour production. (United States)

    Nakano, Manabu; Shin, Kouichirou; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Hironaka, Shouji


    The main components of oral malodour have been identified as volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), including hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH). The lactoperoxidase (LPO) system (consisting of LPO, glucose oxidase, glucose and thiocyanate) was previously shown to exhibit antimicrobial activities against some oral bacteria in vitro and suppressive effects on VSCs in mouth air in a clinical trial. Here, we examined the in vitro effects of the LPO system on the activities of the bacterial lyases involved in the production of VSCs by oral anaerobes. The exposure of crude bacterial extracts of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis or purified methionine γ-lyase to the LPO system resulted in the inactivation of their lyase activities through l-cysteine and l-methionine, which was linked to the production of H(2)S and CH(3)SH, respectively. The exposure of living F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis cells to the LPO system resulted in the suppression of cell numbers and lyase activities. The inactivation of the crude bacterial extracts of F. nucleatum and purified methionine γ-lyase by the LPO system was partly recovered by the addition of DTT. Therefore, the LPO system may inactivate bacterial lyases including methionine γ-lyase by reacting with the free cysteine residues of lyases. These results suggested that the LPO system suppresses the production of VSCs not only through its antimicrobial effects, but also by its inactivating effects on the bacterial lyases of F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis.

  17. Endoscopic biopsy of a B-cell lymphoma involving the entire ventricular system: A case report (United States)



    A 62-year-old male suffering from vomiting and mild preceding nausea for 15 days was examined in the present case report. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a homogeneously enhancing cluster-like lesion involving the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. An endoscopic biopsy was performed, and histopathological examination led to the diagnosis of a high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. To the best of our knowledge, the present study reports the first case of a primary lymphoma involving the entire ventricular system. Therefore, primary lymphomas should be considered in the list of ventricular tumors. An endoscopic biopsy requires minimal invasion to obtain an adequate tissue sample, and frequently leads to the correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment protocols. PMID:26889262

  18. Heart involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid syndrome and neonatal lupus. (United States)

    Tincani, A; Rebaioli, C B; Taglietti, M; Shoenfeld, Y


    Cardiac involvement is one of the main complications substantially contributing to the morbidity and mortality of patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases. All the anatomical heart structures can be affected, and multiple pathogenic mechanisms have been reported. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies have been implicated in immune complex formation and deposition as the initial triggers for inflammatory processes responsible for Libman-Sacks verrucous endocarditis, myocarditis and pericarditis. Anti-phospholipid antibodies have been associated with thrombotic events in coronary arteries, heart valve involvement and intra-myocardial vasculopathy in the context of primary and secondary anti-phospholipid syndrome. Antibodies-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antigens play a major pathogenic role in affecting the heart conduction tissue leading to the electrocardiographic abnormalities of the neonatal lupus syndrome and have been closely associated with endocardial fibroelastosis.

  19. Relapsing Polychondritis with Central Nervous System Involvement: Experience of Three Different Cases in a Single Center. (United States)

    Jeon, Chan Hong


    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation in cartilaginous structures including the ears, noses, peripheral joints, and tracheobronchial tree. It rarely involves the central nervous system (CNS) but diagnosis of CNS complication of RP is challenging because it can present with varying clinical features. Herein we report 3 cases of relapsing polychondritis involving CNS with distinct manifestations and clinical courses. The first patient presented with rhombencephalitis resulting in brain edema and death. The second patient had acute cognitive dysfunction due to limbic encephalitis. He was treated with steroid pulse therapy and recovered without sequelae. The third patient suffered aseptic meningitis that presented as dementia, which was refractory to steroid and immune suppressive agents. We also reviewed literature on CNS complications of RP.

  20. Calpain system and its involvement in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiane; Neuhof; Heinz; Neuhof


    Calpains are ubiquitous non-lysosomal Ca2+-dependent cysteine proteases also present in myocardial cytosol and mitochondria.Numerous experimental studies reveal an essential role of the calpain system in myocardial injury during ischemia,reperfusion and postischemic structural remodelling.The increasing Ca2+-content and Ca2+-overload in myocardial cytosol and mitochondria during ischemia and reperfusion causes an activation of calpains.Upon activation they are able to injure the contractile apparatus and impair the energy production by cleaving structural and functional proteins of myocytes and mitochondria.Besides their causal involvement in acute myocardial dysfunction they are also involved in structural remodelling after myocardial infarction by the generation and release of proapoptotic factors from mitochondria.Calpain inhibition can prevent or attenuate myocardial injury during ischemia,reperfusion,and in later stages of myocardial infarction.

  1. Methodology for Design and Analysis of Reactive Distillation Involving Multielement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantharasuk, Amnart; Gani, Rafiqul; Górak, Andrzej;


    A new methodology for design and analysis of reactive distillation has been developed. In this work, the elementbased approach, coupled with a driving force diagram, has been extended and applied to the design of a reactive distillation column involving multielement (multicomponent) systems....... The transformation of ordinary systems to element-based ones and the aggregation of non-key elements allow the important design parameters, such as the number of stages, feed stage and minimum reflux ratio, to be determined by using simple diagrams similar to those regularly employed for non-reactive systems...... consisting of two components. Based on this methodology, an optimal design configuration is identified using the equivalent binary-element-driving force diagram. Two case studies of methyl acetate (MeOAc) synthesis and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis have been considered to demonstrate...

  2. Bifurcation and complex dynamics of a discrete-time predator-prey system involving group defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sohel Rana


    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a discrete-time predator-prey system involving group defense. The existence and local stability of positive fixed point of the discrete dynamical system is analyzed algebraically. It is shown that the system undergoes a flip bifurcation and a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the interior of R+2 by using bifurcation theory. Numerical simulation results not only show the consistence with the theoretical analysis but also display the new and interesting dynamical behaviors, including phase portraits, period-7, 20-orbits, attracting invariant circle, cascade of period-doubling bifurcation from period-20 leading to chaos, quasi-periodic orbits, and sudden disappearance of the chaotic dynamics and attracting chaotic set. The Lyapunov exponents are numerically computed to characterize the complexity of the dynamical behaviors.

  3. Systemic Sclerosis Patients Present Alterations in the Expression of Molecules Involved in B-Cell Regulation. (United States)

    Soto, Lilian; Ferrier, Ashley; Aravena, Octavio; Fonseca, Elianet; Berendsen, Jorge; Biere, Andrea; Bueno, Daniel; Ramos, Verónica; Aguillón, Juan Carlos; Catalán, Diego


    The activation threshold of B cells is tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activator receptors in such a way that disturbances in their expression can lead to the appearance of autoimmunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of activating and inhibitory molecules involved in the modulation of B cell functions in transitional, naive, and memory B-cell subpopulations from systemic sclerosis patients. To achieve this, blood samples were drawn from 31 systemic sclerosis patients and 53 healthy individuals. Surface expression of CD86, MHC II, CD19, CD21, CD40, CD22, Siglec 10, CD35, and FcγRIIB was determined by flow cytometry. IL-10 production was evaluated by intracellular flow cytometry from isolated B cells. Soluble IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA from supernatants of stimulated B cells. Systemic sclerosis patients exhibit an increased frequency of transitional and naive B cells related to memory B cells compared with healthy controls. Transitional and naive B cells from patients express higher levels of CD86 and FcγRIIB than healthy donors. Also, B cells from patients show high expression of CD19 and CD40, whereas memory cells from systemic sclerosis patients show reduced expression of CD35. CD19 and CD35 expression levels associate with different autoantibody profiles. IL-10(+) B cells and secreted levels of IL-10 were markedly reduced in patients. In conclusion, systemic sclerosis patients show alterations in the expression of molecules involved in B-cell regulation. These abnormalities may be determinant in the B-cell hyperactivation observed in systemic sclerosis.

  4. Systemic sclerosis patients present alterations in the expression of molecules involved in B cell regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian eSoto


    Full Text Available The activation threshold of B cells is tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activator receptors, in such a way that disturbances in their expression can lead to the appearance of autoimmunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of activating and inhibitory molecules involved in the modulation of B cell functions in transitional, naïve and memory B cell sub-populations from systemic sclerosis patients. To achieve this, blood samples were drawn from thirty one systemic sclerosis patients and fifty three healthy individuals. Surface expression of CD86, MHC II, CD19, CD21, CD40, CD22, Siglec 10, CD35, and FcgammaRIIB was determined by flow cytometry. IL-10 production was evaluated by intracellular flow cytometry from isolated B cells. Soluble IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA from supernatants of stimulated B cells. Systemic sclerosis patients exhibit an increased frequency of transitional and naïve B cells related to memory B cells, compared to healthy controls. Transitional and naïve B cells from patients express higher levels of CD86 and FcgammaRIIB than healthy donors. Also, B cells from patients show high expression of CD19 and CD40, while memory cells from systemic sclerosis patients show reduced expression of CD35. CD19 and CD35 expression levels associate to different autoantibody profiles. IL-10+ B cells and secreted levels of IL-10 were markedly reduced in patients. In conclusion, systemic sclerosis patients show alterations in the expression of molecules involved in B cell regulation. These abnormalities may be determinant in the B cell hyperactivation observed in systemic sclerosis.

  5. Physical Therapy Combined with Corticosteroid Intervention for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Central Nervous System Involvement: A Case Report


    Lee, In-Hee; Ryu, Young Uk


    [Purpose] Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease, affecting 0.1% of the general population. To date, few studies have investigated the efficacy of physical therapy for SLE patients with CNS involvement. The aim of this study was to report whether the combined use of corticosteroids and physical therapy, consisting of reflex inhibition and functional training, was beneficial to functional recovery. [Subjects and Methods] A 22-year-old male SLE patient with CNS...

  6. Physical Therapy Combined with Corticosteroid Intervention for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Central Nervous System Involvement: A Case Report


    Lee, In-Hee; Ryu, Young Uk


    [Purpose] Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease, affecting 0.1% of the general population. To date, few studies have investigated the efficacy of physical therapy for SLE patients with CNS involvement. The aim of this study was to report whether the combined use of corticosteroids and physical therapy, consisting of reflex inhibition and functional training, was beneficial to functional recovery. [Subjects and Methods] A 22-year-old male SLE patient with CNS...

  7. A Method to Ease the Deployment of Web Applications that Involve Database Systems A Method to Ease the Deployment of Web Applications that Involve Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega Corona


    . Thus, an object-oriented approach is proposedto ease the development of applications that involve database systems.

  8. The Construction of Plasma Density Feedback Control System on J-TEXT Tokamak (United States)

    Ke, Xin; Chen, Zhipeng; Ba, Weigang; Shu, Shuangbao; Gao, Li; Zhang, Ming; Zhuang, Ge


    The plasma density feedback control system (PDFCS) has been established on the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT) for meeting the need for an accurate plasma density in physical experiments. It consists of a density measurement subsystem, a feedback control subsystem and a gas puffing subsystem. According to the characteristic of the gas puffing system, a voltage amplitude control mode has been applied in the feedback control strategy, which is accomplished by the proportion, integral and differential (PID) controller. In this system, the quantity calibration of gas injection, adjusted responding to the change of the density signal, has been carried out. Some experimental results are shown and discussed. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program (Nos. 2014GB103001 and 2013GB106001) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11305070 and 11105028)

  9. Design of the power supply system for the plasma current modulation on J-TEXT tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M.; Shao, J.; Ma, S.X., E-mail:; Liang, X.; Yu, K.X.; Pan, Y.


    Highlights: • A modification scheme of heating field power supply system for plasma current modulation. • High-power fast control power supply with multilevel cascade circuit. • Restraining circulating current with coupled inductors in cyclic symmetric structure. - Abstract: In order to further study the influence of current modulation parameters on suppressing tearing instability, the plasma current should be modulated in a wider range. So a modification scheme is designed to improve the performance of ohmic heating power supply system on J-TEXT tokamak. A multilevel cascade circuit with carrier phase-shifted PWM technique has been proposed. Coupled inductors are connected in the form of cyclic symmetry to restrain the circulating current caused by multiple paralleled branches. The simulation proves this proposed current modulation power supply system matches output requirement and achieves good current sharing effect. Finally, a prototype is designed, and the experiment results can verify the correctness of the simulation model well.

  10. Transition of the BELLA PW laser system towards a collaborative research facility in laser plasma science (United States)

    Toth, Csaba; Evans, Dave; Gonsalves, Anthony J.; Kirkpatrick, Mark; Magana, Art; Mannino, Greg; Mao, Hann-Shin; Nakamura, Kei; Riley, Joe R.; Steinke, Sven; Sipla, Tyler; Syversrud, Don; Ybarrolaza, Nathan; Leemans, Wim P.


    The advancement of Laser-Plasma Accelerators (LPA) requires systematic studies with ever increasing precision and reproducibility. A key component of such a research endeavor is a facility that provides reliable, well characterized laser sources, flexible target systems, and comprehensive diagnostics of the laser pulses, the interaction region, and the produced electron beams. The Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA), a PW laser facility, now routinely provides high quality focused laser pulses for high precision experiments. A description of the commissioning process, the layout of the laser systems, the major components of the laser and radiation protection systems, and a summary of early results are given. Further scientific plans and highlights of operational experience that serve as the basis for transition to a collaborative research facility in high-peak power laser-plasma interaction research are reviewed.

  11. Dietary induced anorexia: a review of involvement of the histaminergic system. (United States)

    Mercer, L P; Kelley, D S; Haq, A; Humphries, L L


    This review examines possible relationships between anorexia, dietary intake and central nervous system histaminergic activity. The hypothesis being reviewed is that one component of normal or pathophysiological neuroregulation of food intake involves histaminergic activity in the central nervous system, as influenced by concentrations and bioperiodicities of histamine and/or histamine receptors. Changes in concentrations of receptors are gender specific. Low protein quality or quantity diets elevate both central histamine and histamine receptors (H1) in rats while significantly decreasing their food intake. When injected with histaminergic antagonists, rats fed low protein diets increase food intake and have improved efficiency of weight gain. This review supports a dual hypotheses: central histaminergic activity is involved in the regulation of food intake, but food intake patterns (including dietary composition or energy content) can modify central histaminergic activity. This review also suggests that modified histamine and/or H1 receptor concentrations are potential mechanisms for elevated central histaminergic activity in food intake-related pathophysiological states. Thus, dietary interventions (clinically- or self-imposed) which modify food intake or diet composition have the potential of affecting the histaminergic system. Also, drugs with antihistaminergic properties have the potential of affecting food intake/weight gain patterns by interfering with normal neurochemical signals.

  12. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in nicotine dependence and reward: participation of the endogenous opioid system (United States)

    Berrendero, Fernando; Robledo, Patricia; Trigo, José Manuel; Martín-García, Elena; Maldonado, Rafael


    Nicotine is the primary component of tobacco that maintains the smoking habit and develops addiction. The adaptive changes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors produced by repeated exposure to nicotine play a crucial role in the establishment of dependence. However, other neurochemical systems also participate in the addictive effects of nicotine including glutamate, cannabinoids, GABA and opioids. This review will cover the involvement of these neurotransmitters in nicotine addictive properties, with a special emphasis on the endogenous opioid system. Thus, endogenous enkephalins and beta-endorphins acting on mu-opioid receptors are involved in nicotine rewarding effects, whereas opioid peptides derived from prodynorphin participate in nicotine aversive responses. An upregulation of mu-opioid receptors has been reported after chronic nicotine treatment that could counteract the development of nicotine tolerance, whereas the downregulation induced on kappa-opioid receptors seems to facilitate nicotine tolerance. Endogenous enkephalins acting on mu-opioid receptors also play a role in the development of physical dependence to nicotine. In agreement with these actions of the endogenous opioid system, the opioid antagonist naltrexone has shown to be effective for smoking cessation in certain subpopulations of smokers. PMID:20170672

  13. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don


    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis.

  14. Modelling and pathway identification involving the transport mechanism of a complex metabolic system in batch culture (United States)

    Yuan, Jinlong; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Xi; Feng, Enmin; Yin, Hongchao; Xiu, Zhilong


    The bio-dissimilation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) can be characterized by a complex metabolic system of interactions among biochemical fluxes, metabolic compounds, key enzymes and genetic regulation. In this paper, in consideration of the fact that the transport ways of 1,3-PD and glycerol with different weights across cell membrane are still unclear in batch culture, we consider 121 possible metabolic pathways and establish a novel mathematical model which is represented by a complex metabolic system. Taking into account the difficulty in accurately measuring the concentration of intracellular substances and the absence of equilibrium point for the metabolic system of batch culture, the novel approach used here is to define quantitatively biological robustness of the intracellular substance concentrations for the overall process of batch culture. To determine the most possible metabolic pathway, we take the defined biological robustness as cost function and establish an identification model, in which 1452 system parameters and 484 pathway parameters are involved. Simultaneously, the identification model is subject to the metabolic system, continuous state constraints and parameter constraints. As such, solving the identification model by a serial program is a very complicated task. We propose a parallel migration particle swarm optimization algorithm (MPSO) capable of solving the identification model in conjunction with the constraint transcription and smoothing approximation techniques. Numerical results show that the most possible metabolic pathway and the corresponding metabolic system can reasonably describe the process of batch culture.

  15. The RND protein is involved in the vulnibactin export system in Vibrio vulnificus M2799. (United States)

    Kawano, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Katsushiro; Yasunobe, Megumi; Murata, Masahiro; Myojin, Tomoka; Tsuchiya, Takahiro; Tanabe, Tomotaka; Funahashi, Tatsuya; Sato, Takaji; Azuma, Takashi; Mino, Yoshiki; Tsujibo, Hiroshi


    Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic marine bacterium that causes a serious, often fatal, infection in humans, requires iron for its pathogenesis. This bacterium exports vulnibactin for iron acquisition from the environment. The mechanisms of vulnibactin biosynthesis and ferric-vulnibactin uptake systems have recently been reported, while the vulnibactin export system has not been reported. Mutant growth under low-iron concentration conditions and a bioassay of the culture supernatant indicate that the VV1_0612 protein plays a crucial role in the vulnibactin secretion as a component of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type efflux system in V. vulnificus M2799. To identify which RND protein(s) together with VV1_0612 TolC constituted the RND efflux system for vulnibactin secretion, deletion mutants of 11 RND protein-encoding genes were constructed. The growth inhibition of a multiple mutant (Δ11) of the RND protein-encoding genes was observed 6 h after the beginning of the culture. Furthermore, ΔVV1_1681 exhibited a growth curve that was similar to that of Δ11, while the multiple mutant except ΔVV1_1681 showed the same growth as the wild-type strain. These results indicate that the VV1_1681 protein is involved in the vulnibactin export system of V. vulnificus M2799. This is the first genetic evidence that vulnibactin is secreted through the RND-type efflux systems in V. vulnificus.

  16. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlquist, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Technology Development Div.


    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  17. The involvement of serotonergic system in the antidepressant effect of zinc in the forced swim test. (United States)

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Poleszak, Ewa; Wlaź, Piotr; Wróbel, Andrzej; Blicharska, Eliza; Cichy, Agnieszka; Dybała, Małgorzata; Siwek, Agata; Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Brański, Piotr; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel


    Recent preclinical data indicated the antidepressant-like activity of zinc in different tests and models of depression. The present study investigates the involvement of the serotonergic system in zinc activity in the forced swim test (FST) in mice and rats. The combined treatment of sub-effective doses of zinc (hydroaspartate, 2.5 mg Zn/kg) and citalopram (15 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) but not with reboxetine (2.5 mg/kg) significantly reduces the immobility time in the FST in mice. These treatments had no influence on the spontaneous locomotor activity. Moreover, while the antidepressant-like effect of zinc (5 mg/kg) in the FST was significantly blocked by pretreatment with inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA, 3x200 mg/kg), 5HT-2(A/C) receptor antagonist, ritanserin (4 mg/kg) or 5HT-1A receptor antagonist, WAY 1006335 (0.1 mg/kg), the zinc-induced reduction in the locomotor activity was not affected by these serotonin modulator agents. These results indicate the specific involvement of the serotonergic system in antidepressant but not the motion behavior of zinc in mice. Also, an increase in the swimming but not climbing parameter of the rat FST observed following zinc administration (2.5 and 5 mg Zn/kg) indicates the serotonin pathway participation. This present data indicates that the antidepressant-like activity of zinc observed in the FST involves interaction with the serotonergic system.

  18. Special issue editorial - Plasma interactions with Solar System Objects: Anticipating Rosetta, Maven and Mars Orbiter Mission (United States)

    Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Yamauchi, M.


    Within our solar system, the planets, moons, comets and asteroids all have plasma interactions. The interaction depends on the nature of the object, particularly the presence of an atmosphere and a magnetic field. Even the size of the object matters through the finite gyroradius effect and the scale height of cold ions of exospheric origin. It also depends on the upstream conditions, including position within the solar wind or the presence within a planetary magnetosphere. Soon after ESA's Rosetta reached comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, NASA's Maven and ISRO's Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) reached Mars, and ESA's Venus Express mission was completed, this issue explores our understanding of plasma interactions with comets, Mars, Venus, and moons in the solar system. We explore the processes which characterise the interactions, such as ion pickup and field draping, and their effects such as plasma escape. Papers are based on data from current and recent space missions, modelling and theory, as we explore our local part of the 'plasma universe'.

  19. Analysis of inflammatory response in human plasma samples by an automated multicapillary electrophoresis system. (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Hansson, Lars-Olof


    A new automated multicapillary zone electrophoresis instrument with a new high-resolution (HR) buffer (Capillarys with HR buffer) for analysis of human plasma proteins was evaluated. Albumin, alpha(1)-antitrypsin, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG and IgM were determined nephelometrically in 200 patient plasma samples. The same samples were then analyzed on the Capillarys system (Sebia, Paris, France). The albumin concentration from the nephelometric determination was used for quantification of the individual peaks in the capillary electrophoresis (CE) electropherogram. There was strong linear correlation between the nephelometric and electrophoretic determination of alpha(1)-antitrypsin (R(2) = 0.906), alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (R(2) =0.894) and haptoglobin (R(2) = 0.913). There was also good correlation between the two determinations of gamma-globulins (R(2) = 0.883), while the correlation was weaker for fibrinogen (R(2) = 0.377). The Capillarys instrument is a reliable system for plasma protein analysis, combining the advantages of full automation, good analytical performance and high throughput. The HR buffer in combination with albumin quantification allows the simultaneous quantification of inflammatory markers in plasma samples without the need for nephelometric determination of these proteins.

  20. A supersonic gas injection system for fuelling and probing fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Scott [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Howard, John [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Blackwell, Boyd [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Carlsson, Peter [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteburg (Sweden); Abelsson, Mattias [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteburg (Sweden); Powell, Ben [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)


    The large gas reservoir surrounding the H-1NF plasma leads to difficulties in achieving the density control required to maximize the plasma temperature. We have designed and tested an alternative fuelling system which uses a double conical nozzle to generate a directed flow of particles into the plasma without adding to the gas inventory in the rest of the vacuum vessel. By using a closed plenum at a programmable pressure and a piezo-electric valve, the particle flux can be dynamically changed in a controlled and quantitative manner. Measurements of the gas jet using constant temperature hot wire anemometry show that, for plenum pressures between 500 and 1000 Torr, the particle injection rate (helium) ranges between 2 x 10{sup 20} and 4 x 10{sup 20} s{sup -1} with half-cone angles between 5 deg. and 20 deg. The system has been installed on the H-1NF device and first plasma results indicate localized gas injection consistent with test tank anemometry measurements.

  1. High Current Systems for HyperV and PLX Plasma Railguns (United States)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Wu, Linchun; Elton, Raymond; Witherspoon, F. Douglas


    HyperV has been developing coaxial pulsed, plasma railgun accelerators for PLX and other high momentum plasma experiments. The full scale HyperV coaxial gun accelerates plasma armatures using a contoured electrode gap designed to mitigate the blow-by instability. Previous experiments with the full scale gun successfully formed and accelerated annular plasma armatures, but were limited to currents of up to only ˜400 kA. In order to increase full scale gun performance to the design goal of 200 μg at 200 km/s, the pulse forming networks required upgrading to support currents up to ˜1 MA. A high voltage, high current field-effect sparkgap switch and low inductance transmission line were designed and constructed to handle the increased current pulse. We will describe these systems and present initial test data from high current operation of the full-scale coax gun along with plans for future testing. Similar high current accelerator banks, switches, and TM lines will also be required to power PLX railguns which are planned to operate at 8000 μg at 50 km/s. The design of that experiment may require the capacitor banks to be located as much as 10 feet from the gun. We discuss the available options for low inductance connections for these systems.

  2. Involvement of the Cdc42 pathway in CFTR post-translational turnover and in its plasma membrane stability in airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Ferru-Clément

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR is a chloride channel that is expressed on the apical plasma membrane (PM of epithelial cells. The most common deleterious allele encodes a trafficking-defective mutant protein undergoing endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD and presenting lower PM stability. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the Cdc42 pathway in CFTR turnover and trafficking in a human bronchiolar epithelial cell line (CFBE41o- expressing wild-type CFTR. Cdc42 is a small GTPase of the Rho family that fulfils numerous cell functions, one of which is endocytosis and recycling process via actin cytoskeleton remodelling. When we treated cells with chemical inhibitors such as ML141 against Cdc42 and wiskostatin against the downstream effector N-WASP, we observed that CFTR channel activity was inhibited, in correlation with a decrease in CFTR amount at the cell surface and an increase in dynamin-dependent CFTR endocytosis. Anchoring of CFTR to the cortical cytoskeleton was then presumably impaired by actin disorganization. When we performed siRNA-mediated depletion of Cdc42, actin polymerization was not impacted, but we observed actin-independent consequences upon CFTR. Total and PM CFTR amounts were increased, resulting in greater activation of CFTR. Pulse-chase experiments showed that while CFTR degradation was slowed, CFTR maturation through the Golgi apparatus remained unaffected. In addition, we observed increased stability of CFTR in PM and reduction of its endocytosis. This study highlights the involvement of the Cdc42 pathway at several levels of CFTR biogenesis and trafficking: (i Cdc42 is implicated in the first steps of CFTR biosynthesis and processing; (ii it contributes to the stability of CFTR in PM via its anchoring to cortical actin; (iii it promotes CFTR endocytosis and presumably its sorting toward lysosomal degradation.

  3. Involvement of the Cdc42 pathway in CFTR post-translational turnover and in its plasma membrane stability in airway epithelial cells. (United States)

    Ferru-Clément, Romain; Fresquet, Fleur; Norez, Caroline; Métayé, Thierry; Becq, Frédéric; Kitzis, Alain; Thoreau, Vincent


    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel that is expressed on the apical plasma membrane (PM) of epithelial cells. The most common deleterious allele encodes a trafficking-defective mutant protein undergoing endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) and presenting lower PM stability. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the Cdc42 pathway in CFTR turnover and trafficking in a human bronchiolar epithelial cell line (CFBE41o-) expressing wild-type CFTR. Cdc42 is a small GTPase of the Rho family that fulfils numerous cell functions, one of which is endocytosis and recycling process via actin cytoskeleton remodelling. When we treated cells with chemical inhibitors such as ML141 against Cdc42 and wiskostatin against the downstream effector N-WASP, we observed that CFTR channel activity was inhibited, in correlation with a decrease in CFTR amount at the cell surface and an increase in dynamin-dependent CFTR endocytosis. Anchoring of CFTR to the cortical cytoskeleton was then presumably impaired by actin disorganization. When we performed siRNA-mediated depletion of Cdc42, actin polymerization was not impacted, but we observed actin-independent consequences upon CFTR. Total and PM CFTR amounts were increased, resulting in greater activation of CFTR. Pulse-chase experiments showed that while CFTR degradation was slowed, CFTR maturation through the Golgi apparatus remained unaffected. In addition, we observed increased stability of CFTR in PM and reduction of its endocytosis. This study highlights the involvement of the Cdc42 pathway at several levels of CFTR biogenesis and trafficking: (i) Cdc42 is implicated in the first steps of CFTR biosynthesis and processing; (ii) it contributes to the stability of CFTR in PM via its anchoring to cortical actin; (iii) it promotes CFTR endocytosis and presumably its sorting toward lysosomal degradation.

  4. Involvement of the Cdc42 Pathway in CFTR Post-Translational Turnover and in Its Plasma Membrane Stability in Airway Epithelial Cells (United States)

    Ferru-Clément, Romain; Fresquet, Fleur; Norez, Caroline; Métayé, Thierry; Becq, Frédéric; Kitzis, Alain; Thoreau, Vincent


    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel that is expressed on the apical plasma membrane (PM) of epithelial cells. The most common deleterious allele encodes a trafficking-defective mutant protein undergoing endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) and presenting lower PM stability. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the Cdc42 pathway in CFTR turnover and trafficking in a human bronchiolar epithelial cell line (CFBE41o-) expressing wild-type CFTR. Cdc42 is a small GTPase of the Rho family that fulfils numerous cell functions, one of which is endocytosis and recycling process via actin cytoskeleton remodelling. When we treated cells with chemical inhibitors such as ML141 against Cdc42 and wiskostatin against the downstream effector N-WASP, we observed that CFTR channel activity was inhibited, in correlation with a decrease in CFTR amount at the cell surface and an increase in dynamin-dependent CFTR endocytosis. Anchoring of CFTR to the cortical cytoskeleton was then presumably impaired by actin disorganization. When we performed siRNA-mediated depletion of Cdc42, actin polymerization was not impacted, but we observed actin-independent consequences upon CFTR. Total and PM CFTR amounts were increased, resulting in greater activation of CFTR. Pulse-chase experiments showed that while CFTR degradation was slowed, CFTR maturation through the Golgi apparatus remained unaffected. In addition, we observed increased stability of CFTR in PM and reduction of its endocytosis. This study highlights the involvement of the Cdc42 pathway at several levels of CFTR biogenesis and trafficking: (i) Cdc42 is implicated in the first steps of CFTR biosynthesis and processing; (ii) it contributes to the stability of CFTR in PM via its anchoring to cortical actin; (iii) it promotes CFTR endocytosis and presumably its sorting toward lysosomal degradation. PMID:25768293

  5. Central nervous system involvement in primary Sjogren`s syndrome manifesting as multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Yao; Zhao, Teng; Zhou, Chun-Kui


    Central nervous system symptoms in patients with primary Sjogren`s syndrome are rare. They can present as extraglandular manifestations and require a differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis. Due to a variety of presentations, Sjogren`s syndrome with neurologic involvement may be difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a case of a 75-year-old woman who was first diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 2010, but who was subsequently diagnosed with primary Sjogren`s syndrome 2 years later after showing signs of atypical neurologic manifestations. Therefore, primary Sjogren`s syndrome should be suspected in patients who present with atypical clinical and radiologic neurologic manifestations.

  6. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system. (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan


    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  7. Involvement of purinergic system in inflammation and toxicity induced by copper in zebrafish larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina: Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90035-003 (Brazil); Maboni, Lucas de Oliveira [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Faculdade de Biociências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Cruz, Fernanda Fernandes [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Faculdade de Farmácia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Rosemberg, Denis Broock [Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó, Chapecó, CEP 89809-000 (Brazil); and others


    The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasing as an intermediate preclinical model, to prioritize drug candidates for mammalian testing. As the immune system of the zebrafish is quite similar to that of mammals, models of inflammation are being developed for the screening of new drugs. The characterization of these models is crucial for studies that seek for mechanisms of action and specific pharmacological targets. It is well known that copper is a metal that induces damage and cell migration to hair cells of lateral line of zebrafish. Extracellular nucleotides/nucleosides, as ATP and adenosine (ADO), act as endogenous signaling molecules during tissue damage by exerting effects on inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to characterize the inflammatory status, and to investigate the involvement of the purinergic system in copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. Fishes of 7 days post-fertilization were exposed to 10 μM of copper for a period of 24 h. The grade of oxidative stress, inflammatory status, copper uptake, the activity and the gene expression of the enzymes responsible for controlling the levels of nucleotides and adenosine were evaluated. Due to the copper accumulation in zebrafish larvae tissues, the damage and oxidative stress were exacerbated over time, resulting in an inflammatory process involving IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE{sub 2}. Within the purinergic system, the mechanisms that control the ADO levels were the most involved, mainly the reactions performed by the isoenzyme ADA 2. In conclusion, our data shed new lights on the mechanisms related to copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. - Graphical abstract: This scheme provides a chronological proposition for the biochemical events induced by copper in zebrafish larvae. The dashed line shows the absorption of copper over the exposure time. After 1 h of exposure to copper, the release of PGE{sub 2} occurs, followed by an increase of MPO (as a consequence

  8. [Participation of proteinkinase CK2 in regulation of human erythrocytes plasma membrane redox system activity: relative contribution of ca(2+)-dependent and ca(2+)-independent mechanisms of its activation]. (United States)

    Iakovenko, I N; Zhirnov, V V; Kozachenko, O P; Shablykin, O V; Brovarets', V S


    Involvement of protein kinase CK2 ( in modulation of live cells trans-plasma membrane electron transport was first discovered. Using human erythrocytes a decrease of plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) activity is shown under the action of specific protein kinase CK2 inhibitors. Using inhibitory analysis the activity regulation of human erythrocytes PMRS by Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent mechanisms were investigated. It was shown that functional Ca(2+)-antagonists (nitrendipine and calmidazolium) significantly increased, and functional Ca(2+)-agonists to some extent reduced or did not affect the trans-plasma membrane electron transport in these cells.

  9. Central Nervous System Involvement in Henoch-Schonlein Purpura in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyana H. Pacheva


    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS involvement in Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP is rare but poses diagnostic difficulties. The aim of the study was to establish the frequency of CNS involvement in HSP, to analyze its clinical characteristics and do a literature review. Medical files of patients with HSP admitted at the Department of Pediatrics, Plovdiv, were studied retrospectively for a five-year period (2009–2013. Diagnosis was based on the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Out of 112 children with HSP 1 case (0.9% had CNS involvement presenting as Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES, which may be a result of CNS vasculitis or arterial hypertension. It was an 8-year-old girl with atypical HSP which started with abdominal pain requiring surgery. On the third day after the operation a transient macular rash and arterial hypertension appeared, followed by visual disturbances, hemiconvulsive epileptic seizures, postictal hemiparesis, and confusion. Head CT showed occipital hypodense lesions and MRT-T2 hyperintense lesion in the left occipital lobe. The patient experienced a second similar episode after 2 weeks when palpable purpura had also appeared. Neurological symptoms and MRI resolved completely. HSP can be an etiological factor for PRES in childhood. Although PRES is a rare complication of HSP, clinicians must be aware of it and avoid diagnostic and therapeutic delays.

  10. Role of the endocannabinoid system in the mechanisms involved in the LPS-induced preterm labor. (United States)

    Bariani, María Victoria; Domínguez Rubio, Ana Paula; Cella, Maximiliano; Burdet, Juliana; Franchi, Ana María; Aisemberg, Julieta


    Prematurity is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a strong causal relationship between infection and preterm births. Intrauterine infection elicits an immune response involving the release of inflammatory mediators like cytokines and prostaglandins (PG) that trigger uterine contractions and parturition events. Anandamide (AEA) is an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Similarly to PG, endocannabinoids are implicated in different aspects of reproduction, such as maintenance of pregnancy and parturition. Little is known about the involvement of endocannabinoids on the onset of labor in an infectious milieu. Here, using a mouse model of preterm labor induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we explored changes on the expression of components of endocannabinoid system (ECS). We have also determined whether AEA and CB antagonists alter PG production that induces labor. We observed an increase in uterine N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D expression (NAPE-PLD, the enzyme that synthesizes AEA) upon LPS treatment. Activity of catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) did not change significantly. In addition, we also found that LPS modulated uterine cannabinoid receptors expression by downregulating Cb2 mRNA levels and upregulating CB1 protein expression. Furthermore, LPS and AEA induced PGF2a augmentation, and this was reversed by antagonizing CB1 receptor. Collectively, our results suggest that ECS may be involved in the mechanism by which infection causes preterm birth. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  11. Central Nervous System Involvement in Henoch-Schonlein Purpura in Children and Adolescents (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan S.; Stefanova, Krastina; Chepisheva, Elena; Chochkova, Lyubov; Grozeva, Dafina; Stoyanova, Angelina; Milenkov, Stojan; Stefanova, Penka; Petrova, Anna


    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is rare but poses diagnostic difficulties. The aim of the study was to establish the frequency of CNS involvement in HSP, to analyze its clinical characteristics and do a literature review. Medical files of patients with HSP admitted at the Department of Pediatrics, Plovdiv, were studied retrospectively for a five-year period (2009–2013). Diagnosis was based on the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Out of 112 children with HSP 1 case (0.9%) had CNS involvement presenting as Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES), which may be a result of CNS vasculitis or arterial hypertension. It was an 8-year-old girl with atypical HSP which started with abdominal pain requiring surgery. On the third day after the operation a transient macular rash and arterial hypertension appeared, followed by visual disturbances, hemiconvulsive epileptic seizures, postictal hemiparesis, and confusion. Head CT showed occipital hypodense lesions and MRT-T2 hyperintense lesion in the left occipital lobe. The patient experienced a second similar episode after 2 weeks when palpable purpura had also appeared. Neurological symptoms and MRI resolved completely. HSP can be an etiological factor for PRES in childhood. Although PRES is a rare complication of HSP, clinicians must be aware of it and avoid diagnostic and therapeutic delays.

  12. Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in reward processing in the human brain. (United States)

    van Hell, Hendrika H; Jager, Gerry; Bossong, Matthijs G; Brouwer, Annelies; Jansma, J Martijn; Zuurman, Lineke; van Gerven, Joop; Kahn, René S; Ramsey, Nick F


    Disturbed reward processing in humans has been associated with a number of disorders, such as depression, addiction, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system has been implicated in reward processing in animals, but in humans, the relation between eCB functioning and reward is less clear. The current study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the role of the eCB system in reward processing in humans by examining the effect of the eCB agonist Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on reward-related brain activity. Eleven healthy males participated in a randomized placebo-controlled pharmacological fMRI study with administration of THC to challenge the eCB system. We compared anticipatory and feedback-related brain activity after placebo and THC, using a monetary incentive delay task. In this task, subjects are notified before each trial whether a correct response is rewarded ("reward trial") or not ("neutral trial"). Subjects showed faster reaction times during reward trials compared to neutral trials, and this effect was not altered by THC. THC induced a widespread attenuation of the brain response to feedback in reward trials but not in neutral trials. Anticipatory brain activity was not affected. These results suggest a role for the eCB system in the appreciation of rewards. The involvement of the eCB system in feedback processing may be relevant for disorders in which appreciation of natural rewards may be affected such as addiction.

  13. Acceleration of multiple solution of a boundary value problem involving a linear algebraic system (United States)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Kuksenko, Sergey P.; Surovtsev, Roman S.


    Multiple solution of a boundary value problem that involves a linear algebraic system is considered. New approach to acceleration of the solution is proposed. The approach uses the structure of the linear system matrix. Particularly, location of entries in the right columns and low rows of the matrix, which undergo variation due to the computing in the range of parameters, is used to apply block LU decomposition. Application of the approach is considered on the example of multiple computing of the capacitance matrix by method of moments used in numerical electromagnetics. Expressions for analytic estimation of the acceleration are presented. Results of the numerical experiments for solution of 100 linear systems with matrix orders of 1000, 2000, 3000 and different relations of variated and constant entries of the matrix show that block LU decomposition can be effective for multiple solution of linear systems. The speed up compared to pointwise LU factorization increases (up to 15) for larger number and order of considered systems with lower number of variated entries.

  14. A visual warning system to reduce struck-by or pinning accidents involving mobile mining equipment. (United States)

    Sammarco, J; Gallagher, S; Mayton, A; Srednicki, J


    This paper describes an experiment to examine whether a visual warning system can improve detection of moving machine hazards that could result in struck-by or pinning accidents. Thirty-six participants, twelve each in one of three age groups, participated in the study. A visual warning system capable of providing four different modes of warning was installed on a continuous mining machine that is used to mine coal. The speed of detecting various machine movements was recorded with and without the visual warning system. The average speed of detection for forward and reverse machine movements was reduced by 75% when using the flashing mode of the visual warning system. This translated to 0.485 m of machine travel for the fast speed condition of 19.8 m/min, which is significant in the context of the confined spaces of a mine. There were no statistically significant differences among age groups in the ability to detect machine movements for the visual warning modes in this study. The visual warning system shows promise as a safety intervention for reducing struck-by or pinning accidents involving continuous mining machines. The methods and results of this study could be applied to other moving machinery used in mining or other industries where moving machinery poses struck-by or pinning hazards.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kudyrko


    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyze the features of formation and functioning of multi-marketing distribution systems involving global retail chains and identify the causes of conflicts between participants in the global supply chain and suggest possible ways to displace them. The article represents the author’s definition of the term “global retail chain”. The role and responsibilities of international retailers in the formation of marketing structures on international markets are discovered. The algorithm of the relationship between the participants in the traditional vertical marketing system with the definition of international components is determined. The conflict causes between the participants within the distribution channel are identified.

  16. Involvement of histaminergic system in the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine. (United States)

    Mori, Tomohisa; Narita, Minoru; Onodera, Kenji; Suzuki, Tsutomu


    The interactions between morphine and the histaminergic system are not yet fully clarified. More especially, the involvement of the histaminergic system in the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine has not been determined. Therefore, the effects of histamine-related compounds on the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine were examined in rats. Combination tests using histamine-related compounds with morphine were initiated in rats trained to discriminate between 3.0 mg/kg morphine and saline. Zolantidine (central histamine H2-receptor antagonist), but not pyrilamine (central histamine H1-receptor antagonist) or ranitidine (peripheral histamine H2-receptor antagonist), significantly attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine. The histamine precursor L-histidine significantly potentiated the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine. These results suggest that the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine are, at least in part, mediated through the central activation of histamine H2-receptors in rats.

  17. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Associated with Central Nervous System Involvement in an Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy L. H. Chan


    Full Text Available Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with varicella zoster virus reactivation affecting the central nervous system is rare. We describe a 55-year-old diabetic female who presented with gait ataxia, right peripheral facial palsy, and painful vesicular lesions involving her right ear. Later, she developed dysmetria, fluctuating diplopia, and dysarthria. Varicella zoster virus was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. She was diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with spread to the central nervous system. Her facial palsy completely resolved within 48 hours of treatment with intravenous acyclovir 10 mg/kg every 8 hours. However, cerebellar symptoms did not improve until a tapering course of steroid therapy was initiated.

  18. [Pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis. Alveolitis, fibrosis and pulmonar arterial hypertension]. (United States)

    Navarro, Carmen


    Pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis. Alveolitis, fibrosis and pulmonar arterial hypertension Lung disease is present in most of the patients with systemic sclerosis and is now the most important cause of mortality. Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension are, so far, the main disorders found and both are difficult to detect at the earliest stages. However, diagnostic tools such as immunological test, lung function test, high resolution CT, bronchoalveolar lavage, echocardiography, right-side cardiac catheterization, or lung biopsy are necessary to accurately evaluate the clinical status and allow to improve the management organ-specific ad hoc. Progress in immunological and vascular therapies as well as other emergence drugs offer new expectations to scleroderma patients. Copyright © 2006 Elsevier España S.L. Barcelona. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular Chaperones, Cochaperones, and Ubiquitination/Deubiquitination System: Involvement in the Production of High Quality Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Meccariello


    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a complex process in which mitosis, meiosis, and cell differentiation events coexist. The need to guarantee the production of qualitatively functional spermatozoa has evolved into several control systems that check spermatogenesis progression/sperm maturation and tag aberrant gametes for degradation. In this review, we will focus on the importance of the evolutionarily conserved molecular pathways involving molecular chaperones belonging to the superfamily of heat shock proteins (HSPs, their cochaperones, and ubiquitination/deubiquitination system all over the spermatogenetic process. In this respect, we will discuss the conserved role played by the DNAJ protein Msj-1 (mouse sperm cell-specific DNAJ first homologue and the deubiquitinating enzyme Ubpy (ubiquitin-specific processing protease-y during the spermiogenesis in both mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates.

  20. Local stress and heat flux in atomistic systems involving three-body forces. (United States)

    Chen, Youping


    Local densities of fundamental physical quantities, including stress and heat flux fields, are formulated for atomistic systems involving three-body forces. The obtained formulas are calculable within an atomistic simulation, in consistent with the conservation equations of thermodynamics of continuum, and can be applied to systems with general two- and three-body interaction forces. It is hoped that this work may correct some misuse of inappropriate formulas of stress and heat flux in the literature, may clarify the definition of site energy of many-body potentials, and may serve as an analytical link between an atomistic model and a continuum theory. Physical meanings of the obtained formulas, their relation with virial theorem and heat theorem, and the applicability are discussed.

  1. System Dynamics Modelling of the Processes Involving the Maintenance of the Naive T Cell Repertoire

    CERN Document Server

    Figueredo, Grazziela P; Whitbrook, Amanda


    The study of immune system aging, i.e. immunosenescence, is a relatively new research topic. It deals with understanding the processes of immunodegradation that indicate signs of functionality loss possibly leading to death. Even though it is not possible to prevent immunosenescence, there is great benefit in comprehending its causes, which may help to reverse some of the damage done and thus improve life expectancy. One of the main factors influencing the process of immunosenescence is the number and phenotypical variety of naive T cells in an individual. This work presents a review of immunosenescence, proposes system dynamics modelling of the processes involving the maintenance of the naive T cell repertoire and presents some preliminary results.

  2. Renal involvement in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus in Egypt. (United States)

    Mahmoud, Samia Salah-El-Din; Bazaraa, Hafez Mahmoud; Lotfy, Hala Mohamed; Abd-El-Aziz, Doaa Mohamed


    Lupus nephritis has been described as the most serious complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the strongest predictor of poor outcome. While the incidence of childhood SLE is relatively low, renal involvement appears to be more common and more severe in childhood SLE. This study aims to characterize the features and outcome of renal involvement in childhood-onset SLE based on a study of 100 Egyptian patients (mean age at diagnosis 10.1 years, range 2-17 years). Initial data regarding disease manifestations and biopsy findings were reviewed. Disease activity was assessed using SLEDAI scores. Follow-up data (mean duration 6 years) were noted regarding specific treatment, response, complications and renal survival. Initial renal involvement was present in 78 patients, including 66 with hypertension and 23 with renal impairment. Pathologically, class IV nephropathy was found in 18 patients, class V in 9 and low-grade lesions (class II-III) in 49. Twenty patients required follow-up biopsy, and all transformations were observed. SLEDAI scores significantly decreased from initial (mean ± SD) of 21.4 ± 7.3 to 13.4 ± 7.8, in association with response to therapy (P < 0.0001). Poor response was associated with initial hypertension and renal impairment but not with initial SLEDAI score or pathological class. The projected renal survival was 82.4 and 64.7% 5 and 10 years from diagnosis. Early renal involvement in childhood SLE is common, serious and requires proper evaluation and management.

  3. Effect of Acetaldehyde Intoxication and Withdrawal on NPY Expression: Focus on Endocannabinoidergic System Involvement. (United States)

    Plescia, Fulvio; Brancato, Anna; Marino, Rosa Anna Maria; Vita, Carlotta; Navarra, Michele; Cannizzaro, Carla


    Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first alcohol metabolite, plays a pivotal role in the rewarding, motivational, and addictive properties of the parental compound. Many studies have investigated the role of ACD in mediating neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by alcohol administration, but very little is known about the modulation of neuropeptide systems following ACD intoxication and withdrawal. Indeed, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is altered during alcohol withdrawal in key regions for cerebrocortical excitability and neuroplasticity. The primary goal of this research was to investigate the effects of ACD intoxication and withdrawal by recording rat behavior and by measuring NPY immunoreactivity in hippocampus and NAcc, two brain regions mainly involved in processes which encompass neuroplasticity in alcohol dependence. Furthermore, on the basis of the involvement of endocannabinoidergic system in alcohol and ACD reinforcing effects, the role of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 in modulating NPY expression during withdrawal was assessed. Our results indicate that (i) ACD intoxication induced a reduction in NPY expression in hippocampus and NAcc; (ii) symptoms of physical dependence, similar to alcohol's, were scored at 12 h from the last administration of ACD; and (iii) NPY levels increased in early and prolonged acute withdrawal in both brain regions examined. The administration of AM281 was able to blunt signs of ACD-induced physical dependence, to modulate NPY levels, and to further increase NPY expression during ACD withdrawal both in hippocampus and NAcc. In conclusion, the present study shows that complex plastic changes take place in NPY system during ACD intoxication and subsequent withdrawal in rat hippocampal formation and NAcc. The pharmacological inhibition of CB1 signaling could counteract the neurochemical imbalance associated with ACD, and alcohol withdrawal, likely boosting the setting up of homeostatic functional recovery.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio ePlescia


    Full Text Available Acetaldehyde (ACD, the first alcohol metabolite, plays a pivotal role in the rewarding, motivational and addictive properties of the parental compound. Many studies have investigated the role of ACD in mediating neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by alcohol administration, but very little is known about the modulation of neuropeptide systems following ACD intoxication and withdrawal. Indeed the neuropeptide Y (NPY system is altered during alcohol withdrawal in key regions for cerebrocortical excitability and neuroplasticity. The primary goal of this research was to investigate the effects of ACD intoxication and withdrawal by recording rat behavior and by measuring neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in hippocampus and NAcc, two brain regions mainly involved in processes which encompass neuroplasticity in alcohol dependence. Furthermore, on the basis of the involvement of endocannabinoidergic system in alcohol and ACD reinforcing effects, the role of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 in modulating NPY expression during withdrawal was assessed. Our results indicate that: i ACD intoxication induced a reduction in NPY expression in hippocampus and NAcc; ii symptoms of physical dependence, similar to alcohol's, were scored at 12h from the last administration of ACD; iii NPY levels increased in early and prolonged acute withdrawal in both brain regions examined. The administration of AM281 was able to blunt signs of ACD-induced physical dependence; to modulate NPY levels, and to further increase NPY expression during ACD withdrawal both in hippocampus and NAcc. In conclusion, the present study shows that complex plastic changes take place in NPY system during ACD intoxication and subsequent withdrawal in rat hippocampal formation and NAcc. The pharmacological inhibition of CB1 signaling could counteract the neurochemical imbalance associated with ACD, and alcohol withdrawal, likely boosting the setting up of homeostatic functional

  5. Pain involving the motor system and serum vitamin D concentration in postmenopausal women working in agriculture. (United States)

    Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Owoc, Alfred; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Bojar, Iwona


    Since the role of vitamin D is essential in numerous biological processes its deficiency was suggested to be a risk factor for e.g. osteoporosis, musculoskeletal pain and spine pain. The purpose of the study was to analyse whether serum vitamin D concentration is related to pain involving the motor system in Polish postmenopausal women working in agriculture. The study group consisted of 1,751 post-menopausal women, aged 45-65, at least 12 months from the last menstrual period, living in rural areas and working in agriculture. The research method was self-assessment of pain involving the motor system using VAS, laboratory test of serum vitamin D concentration and a medical interview. Statistical methods included generalized linear models, analysis of variance, t test for two means in two independents, χ2 test of stochastic independence. Postmenopausal women working in agriculture and suffering from pain in at least one part of the motor system were younger and lower educated, they also had higher abdominal obesity and lower serum vitamin D, compared to those without pain in any part of the motor system. Decreased serum vitamin D concentration in postmenopausal women working in agriculture is important from the aspect of a higher prevalence of pain in the thoracic spine and more severe pain in the neck spine, but not for severity of pain in the lumbar spine; higher occurrence of pain in both hands or wrists; higher prevalence and more severe pain in at least one knee; and no prevalence or severity of pain in the shoulders and elbows. Serum vitamin D concentration is important for the prevalence and severity of pain in the neck and thoracic spine, knees and hands or wrists, but not for the lumbar spine, shoulders and elbows.

  6. Lupus-related advanced liver involvement as the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Chi; Li, Ko-Jen; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Wu, Cheng-Han; Yu, Chia-Li


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of systemic autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement with diverse clinical and serological manifestations, principally affects women in their child-bearing years. Clinically significant hepatic abnormality as the initial presentation of SLE has rarely been reported. Eleven patients with lupus with initial presentation of lupus-related hepatitis were included in this retrospective review. Clinical manifestation, immunological profiles, and risk factors for poor prognosis were analyzed. The most commonly associated clinical manifestations were found to be thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, advancing age, and presence of anti-SSA/Ro antibody and anti-thyroid antibodies. The diagnosis of SLE was delayed due to dominant hepatic abnormalities. Age greater than 50 years and marked hepatic decompensation in accordance with Child classification B and C might suggest poor prognosis (p=0.06). However, the p value was not statistically significant because of the small sample size. Lupus-related hepatitis, particularly in late-onset lupus, is common. In addition, the presence of anti-SSA, anti-thyroglobulin, and anti-microsomal antibodies is indicative of hepatic involvement in patients with SLE.

  7. Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Involvement: Towards a Tailored Approach to Our Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Faria


    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE is a complex condition that remains poorly understood, and includes heterogeneous manifestations involving both the central and peripheral nervous system, with disabling effects. There are several models to improve NPSLE diagnosis when a neurological syndrome is present. In the last couple of years, the growing knowledge of the role of cytokines and antibodies in NPSLE, as well as the development of new functional imaging techniques, has brought some insights into the physiopathology of the disease, but their validation for clinical use remains undetermined. Furthermore, besides the classic clinical approach, a new tool for screening the 19 NPSLE syndromes has also been developed. Regarding NPSLE therapeutics, there is still no evidence-based treatment approach, but some data support the safety of biological medication when classic treatment fails. Despite the tendency to reclassify SLE patients in clinical and immunological subsets, we hope that these data will inspire medical professionals to approach NPSLE in a manner more tailored to the individual patient.

  8. Bilirubin adsorption properties of water-soluble adsorbents with different cyclodextrin cavities in plasma dialysis system. (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Cao, Yaming; Wei, Houliang; Jia, Lingyun; Xu, Li; Xie, Jian


    In this study, we explored the use of α-, β- or γ-cyclodextrin (CD)-grafted polyethyleneimine (PEI) as water-soluble adsorbent for removing excess plasma bilirubin. To evaluate the bilirubin-binding capacity of these adsorbents, bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution or plasma with high level of bilirubin were dialyzed against CD-PEI-spiked dialysate. In BSA solution with an initial biliurbin concentration of 171.5mg/L, α-CD-PEI, β-CD-PEI and γ-CD-PEI achieved adsorption capacities of 2.5, 5.8 and 3.8 mg/g, respectively. In a plasma dialysis system, 45.6% of bilirubin (260 mg/L) was removed from 200 mL plasma by 1L dialysate spiked with 10mg/mL β-CD-PEI, which was significantly higher than that removed by the same volume of BSA-spiked dialysate (Padsorption was related to the CD functional group, not the PEI matrix. Subsequent molecular docking study indicated that the size of CD cavity could affect the affinity energy of CD-bilirubin complex. The cavity of β-CD was most suitable for accommodating the pyrrole rings of bilirubin. The inclusion complex of bilirubin and β-CD in the molar ratio of 1:2 was more logical in terms of affinity energy. All the results demonstrated the potential of β-CD-PEI (water-soluble adsorbent) as an effective agent for removing of bilirubin from plasma in dialysis system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. End loss analyzer system for measurements of plasma flux at the C-2U divertor electrode (United States)

    Griswold, M. E.; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C.


    An end loss analyzer system consisting of electrostatic, gridded retarding-potential analyzers and pyroelectric crystal bolometers was developed to characterize the plasma loss along open field lines to the divertors of C-2U. The system measures the current and energy distribution of escaping ions as well as the total power flux to enable calculation of the energy lost per escaping electron/ion pair. Special care was taken in the construction of the analyzer elements so that they can be directly mounted to the divertor electrode. An attenuation plate at the entrance to the gridded retarding-potential analyzer reduces plasma density by a factor of 60 to prevent space charge limitations inside the device, without sacrificing its angular acceptance of ions. In addition, all of the electronics for the measurement are isolated from ground so that they can float to the bias potential of the electrode, 2 kV below ground.

  10. A novel flexible field-aligned coordinate system for tokamak edge plasma simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Leddy, Jarrod; Romanelli, Michele; Shanahan, Brendan; Walkden, Nick


    Tokamak plasmas are confined by a magnetic field that limits the particle and heat transport perpendicular to the field. Parallel to the field the ionised particles can move freely, so to obtain confinement the field lines are "closed" (ie. form closed surfaces of constant poloidal flux) in the core of a tokamak. Towards, the edge, however, the field lines begin to intersect physical surfaces, leading to interaction between neutral and ionised particles, and the potential melting of the material surface. Simulation of this interaction is important for predicting the performance and lifetime of future tokamak devices such as ITER. Field-aligned coordinates are commonly used in the simulation of tokamak plasmas due to the geometry and magnetic topology of the system. However, these coordinates are limited in the geometry they allow in the poloidal plane due to orthogonality requirements. A novel 3D coordinate system is proposed herein that relaxes this constraint so that any arbitrary, smoothly varying geometry...

  11. Numerical simulation study of disk MHD generator for nonequilibrium plasma (NPG) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, Kazumi [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Harada, Nob [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan)


    Design and performance prediction of a disk-shaped magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, which is applied to the nonequilibrium plasma generator (NPG) system, have been carried out by means of a quasi-one-dimensional numerical simulation. The calculations have been performed for generator with constant height which is planned to be used for NPG-MHD disk generator pulse power demonstration. A maximum enthalpy extraction ratio obtained from the present calculation reached up to 20%, and, in this case, the electron temperature of working plasma fluctuated in the unstable regime against ionization instability. Taking into account this phenomenon, in order to obtain much higher generator performance, the MHD channel, in which electron temperature was kept at 5000 K, was designed. With this channel, enthalpy extraction ratio of 40% and output power of 7.2 MW were achieved without major modification of the supersonic nozzle, the inlet swirl vanes and the configuration of magnet system.

  12. Modeling and full-scale tests of vortex plasma-fuel systems for igniting high-ash power plant coal (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Chernetskiy, M. Yu.; Dekterev, A. A.; Filimonov, S. A.


    The processes of supplying pulverized-coal fuel into a boiler equipped with plasma-fuel systems and its combustion in the furnace of this boiler are investigated. The results obtained from 3D modeling of conventional coal combustion processes and its firing with plasma-assisted activation of combustion in the furnace space are presented. The plasma-fuel system with air mixture supplied through a scroll is numerically investigated. The dependence of the swirled air mixture flow trajectory in the vortex plasma-fuel system on the scroll rotation angle is revealed, and the optimal rotation angle at which stable plasma-assisted ignition of pulverized coal flame is achieved is determined.

  13. Development of simple designs of multitip probe diagnostic systems for RF plasma characterization. (United States)

    Naz, M Y; Shukrullah, S; Ghaffar, A; Rehman, N U


    Multitip probes are very useful diagnostics for analyzing and controlling the physical phenomena occurring in low temperature discharge plasmas. However, DC biased probes often fail to perform well in processing plasmas. The objective of the work was to deduce simple designs of DC biased multitip probes for parametric study of radio frequency plasmas. For this purpose, symmetric double probe, asymmetric double probe, and symmetric triple probe diagnostic systems and their driving circuits were designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) source. Using I-V characteristics of these probes, electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current was measured as a function of input power and filling gas pressure. An increasing trend was noticed in electron temperature and electron number density for increasing input RF power whilst a decreasing trend was evident in these parameters when measured against filling gas pressure. In addition, the electron energy probability function (EEPF) was also studied by using an asymmetric double probe. These studies confirmed the non-Maxwellian nature of the EEPF and the presence of two groups of the energetic electrons at low filling gas pressures.

  14. Development of Simple Designs of Multitip Probe Diagnostic Systems for RF Plasma Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Naz


    Full Text Available Multitip probes are very useful diagnostics for analyzing and controlling the physical phenomena occurring in low temperature discharge plasmas. However, DC biased probes often fail to perform well in processing plasmas. The objective of the work was to deduce simple designs of DC biased multitip probes for parametric study of radio frequency plasmas. For this purpose, symmetric double probe, asymmetric double probe, and symmetric triple probe diagnostic systems and their driving circuits were designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP generated by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF source. Using I-V characteristics of these probes, electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current was measured as a function of input power and filling gas pressure. An increasing trend was noticed in electron temperature and electron number density for increasing input RF power whilst a decreasing trend was evident in these parameters when measured against filling gas pressure. In addition, the electron energy probability function (EEPF was also studied by using an asymmetric double probe. These studies confirmed the non-Maxwellian nature of the EEPF and the presence of two groups of the energetic electrons at low filling gas pressures.

  15. Plasma protein fractions in healthy blood donors quantitated by an automated multicapillary electrophoresis system. (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Hansson, Lars-Olof


    During the last decade, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as an important alternative to traditional analysis of serum and plasma proteins by agarose or celluloseacetate electrophoresis. CE analysis of plasma proteins can now be fully automated and also includes bar-code identification of samples, preseparation steps, and direct post-separation quantitation of individual peaks, which permits short assay times and high throughput. For laboratory work, it is important to have reference values from healthy individuals. Therefore, plasma samples from 156 healthy blood donors (79 females and 77 males) have been analyzed with the Capillarys instrument and the new high resolution buffer, which yields higher resolution than the beta1-beta2+ buffer. Albumin concentrations in samples are measured using nephelometry in order to assign protein concentrations to each peak. The 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles for both the percentages of different peaks and the protein concentrations in the peaks are calculated according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values. The Capillarys instrument is a reliable system for plasma protein analysis, combining advantages of full automation with high analytical performances and throughput.

  16. Space plasma physics: I - Stationary processes (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya


    The physics of stationary processes in space plasmas is examined theoretically in an introduction intended for graduate students. The approach involves the extensive use of numerical simulations. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, small-amplitude waves, and the stationary solar plasma system; typical measurement data and simulation results are presented graphically.

  17. Envolvimento nos direitos humanos e sistemas de valores Involvement in human rights and value systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Pereira


    Full Text Available Com base no modelo da análise quantitativa das representações sociais, o estudo (N = 300 tratou do posicionamento de estudantes universitários em relação aos Direitos Humanos (DHs e à ancoragem social desse posicionamento nos sistemas de valores dos estudantes. Os resultados mostram que as representações dos estudantes sobre o envolvimento nos DHs envolvem quatro princípios organizadores: pessoal-abstrato; pessoal-concreto; governamental-abstrato; governamental-concreto. Em relação à ancoragem social dos princípios organizadores do envolvimento nos DHs, observou-se que os valores pós-materialistas se relacionaram positivamente com o envolvimento pessoal-abstrato, enquanto a adesão aos valores religiosos implicou maior envolvimento no princípio pessoal-concreto. Além disso, a adesão aos valores materialistas levou a uma avaliação mais positiva do envolvimento do Governo Brasileiro nos DHs, ao passo que os valores pós-materialistas contribuíram com uma avaliação mais crítica desse governo. As discussões abordam a centralidade dos valores na formação das representações sociais dos DHs.Based on the quantitative analysis model of social representations, a study (N=300 was carried out concerning the opinion of university students on Human Rights (HR, and the social link of this positioning in the students system of values. The results show that the students representations of the involvement in HR comprise four organizing principles: personal-abstract; personal-concrete; governmental-abstract; governmental-concrete. With regard to the social anchorage of the organizing principles of involvement in HR, it has been observed that post-materialist values were positively related to the involvement personal-abstract, whereas adherence to religious values implied a greater involvement in the personal-concrete principle. In addition, adherence to materialist values led to a more positive appraisal of the Brazilian Government

  18. Neurological involvement in primary Sjogren syndrome: a focus on central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Morreale

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune disease involving mainly salivary and lacrimal glands. Beyond widely described PNS involvement, high variable prevalence of CNS manifestations ranging from 2.5 and 60% of all pSS patients has been reported, without specific syndrome definition. The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the prevalence of CNS signs and symptoms in pSS patients and to identify possible biomarkers of CNS damage. METHODS: 120 patients with pSS diagnosis according to the 2002 American-European Consensus Group criteria were enrolled after exclusion of secondary causes. All patients underwent to a wide neurological, neuropsychological, psychiatric, neuroradiological and ultrasonographic evaluation. RESULTS: Central and peripheral nervous system involvement was observed in 81 patients with a prevalence of 67.5%. The prevalence of CNS involvement was significantly higher than PNS disease (p 0.001. 68 patients (84% shown non-focal CNS symptoms and 64 (79% focal CNS deficits with headache as the most common feature (46.9%, followed by cognitive (44.4% and mood disorders (38.3%. Particularly, we observed a high prevalence of migraine without aura, subcortical frontal executive functions and verbal memory impairment and apathy/alexythimia. MR spectroscopy revealed a reduction of NAA levels or NAA/Cr ratio decrease in subcortical frontal and basal ganglia white matter, while ultrasonography showed an impairment of microvasculature response. At multivariate analysis, headache, cognitive disorders and psychiatric symptoms was significantly associated to serological markers (anti-SSA, MRS and ultrasonographic features. CONCLUSIONS: The higher prevalence of MWO-mimic headache, cognitive dys-executive syndrome and mood disorders observed in this series confirmed previous evidences of a higher diffused CNS compromission rather than focal involvement such as SM-like clinical course or NMO-like syndrome. The association with

  19. Saliva vs. plasma bioequivalence of metformin in humans: validation of class II drugs of the salivary excretion classification system. (United States)

    Idkaidek, N; Arafat, T


    To study saliva and plasma bioequivalence of metformin in humans, and to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as surrogate for bioequivalence of class II drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS).Plasma and saliva samples were collected for 12 h after 500 mg oral dosing of metformin to 16 healthy humans. Plasma and saliva pharmacokinetic parameters, 90% confidence intervals and intra-subject variability values were calculated using Kinetica V5. Descriptive statistics and dimensional analysis were calculated by Excel. SimCYP program V13 was used for estimation of effective intestinal permeability.Metformin was subjected to salivary excretion since it falls into class II (Low permeability/High fraction unbound to plasma proteins), with correlation coefficients of 0.95-0.99 between plasma and saliva concentrations. Saliva/plasma concentration ratios were 0.29-0.39. The 90% confidence limits of all parameters failed in both saliva and plasma. Intra-subject variability values in saliva were higher than plasma leading to need for higher number of subjects to be used in saliva.Saliva instead of plasma can be used as surrogate for bioequivalence of class II drugs according to SECS when adequate sample size is used. Future work is planned to demonstrate SECS robustness in drugs that fall into class III.

  20. Residual stress analysis of the thermal barrier coating system by considering the plasma spraying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Jae; Lee, Byung Chai [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jang Gyun; Kim, Moon Ki [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    The residual stress is the key factor causing the reliability problem of thermal barrier coating (TBC). The failure of plasma spray coatings due to residual stresses is a serious and recurring problem of TBC. The difference of thermal expansion coefficient between the substrate and each coating combined with temperature evolution and temperature gradients during deposition process determine the residual stress for the whole TBC system. The magnitudes and distributions of the residual stresses are affected by deposition process and deposition characteristics. Most of FEA (finite element analysis) has been performed under the assumption that the multilayer coating system is stacked at once without considering the deposition process during plasma spraying. In this research, FEA for a coupled heat transfer and elastic-plastic thermal stress was performed to obtain the more detailed and reliable result of residual stress of the TBC system using the element activation/deactivation technique. The residual stress variation from the start of plasma spraying to cooling stage with room temperature was obtained systematically considering the deposition process. It can be used as reference data to improve the performance of TBC. In addition, the relationship between residual stress and coating conditions such as cooling rate and time is also examined thoroughly.

  1. Li-BES detection system for plasma turbulence measurements on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Széchenyi István University, Győr (Hungary); Anda, G.; Bencze, A.; Dunai, D. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Háček, P., E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Kovácsik, A. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Krbec, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Pánek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Réfy, D.; Veres, G. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Weinzettl, V. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Zoletnik, S. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary)


    Highlights: • Li-BES detection system on the COMPASS tokamak is optimized observation system with high temporal resolution. • High sensitivity to low level light fluctuations. • Optics and detectors with electronics are placed in thermally stabilized compact box. • Fast deflection system allows us to measure background corrected electron density profiles on microsecond time-scale. - Abstract: A new Li beam emission spectroscopy (Li-BES) diagnostic system with a ∼ cm spatial resolution, and with beam energy ranging from 10 keV up to 120 keV and a 18 channel Avalanche photo diode (APD) detector system sampled at 2 MHz has been recently installed and tested on the COMPASS tokamak. This diagnostic allows to reconstruct density profile based on directly measured light profiles, and to follow turbulent behaviour of the edge plasma. The paper reports technical capabilities of this new system designed for fine spatio-temporal measurements of plasma electron density. Focusing on turbulence-induced fluctuation measurements, we demonstrate how physically relevant information can be extracted using the COMPASS Li-BES system.

  2. Cross-section analysis of the Magnum-PSI plasma beam using a 2D multi-probe system (United States)

    Costin, C.; Anita, V.; Ghiorghiu, F.; Popa, G.; De Temmerman, G.; van den Berg, M. A.; Scholten, J.; Brons, S.


    The linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI was designed for the study of plasma-surface interactions under relevant conditions of fusion devices. A key factor for such studies is the knowledge of a set of parameters that characterize the plasma interacting with the solid surface. This paper reports on the electrical diagnosis of the plasma beam in Magnum-PSI using a multi-probe system consisting of 64 probes arranged in a 2D square matrix. Cross-section distributions of floating potential and ion current intensity were registered for a hydrogen plasma beam under various discharge currents (80-175 A) and magnetic field strengths (0.47-1.41 T in the middle of the coils). Probe measurements revealed a high level of flexibility of plasma beam parameters with respect to the operating conditions.

  3. The power-supply control system in the device of acetylene production by H-plasma pyrolysis coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.Y.; Zhang, M.; Fu, P.; Weng, P.D. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)


    The device of acetylene production by hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plasma pyrolysis coal is examined and developed not only for studying the application of low temperature plasma but also for studying the clean use of coal. The power-supply control system is used to ensure supplying a steady energy to generate and maintain the plasma electric arc of the device. The hardware configuration and the software design of the system are described in this paper. Verified by experiments, this system can meet the requirements of real-time performance, reliability and extensibility for the device.

  4. The Power-Supply Control System in the Device of Acetylene Production by H-Plasma Pyrolysis Coal (United States)

    Chen, Feiyun; Zhang, Ming; Fu, Peng; Weng, Peide


    The device of acetylene production by hydrogen (H-) plasma pyrolysis coal is examined and developed not only for studying the application of low temperature plasma but also for studying the clean use of coal. The power-supply control system is used to ensure supplying a steady energy to generate and maintain the plasma electric arc of the device. The hardware configuration and the software design of the system are described in this paper. Verified by experiments, this system can meet the requirements of real-time performance, reliability and extensibility for the device.

  5. Cutaneous Plasmacytosis with Perineural Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Brezinski


    Full Text Available Importance. Cutaneous and systemic plasmacytosis are rare conditions of unknown etiology with characteristic red-brown skin lesions and a mature polyclonal plasma cell infiltrate within the dermis. Perineural plasma cell infiltrates may be a histologic clue to the diagnosis of cutaneous plasmacytosis. Observations. Our patient had a five-year history of persistent reddish-brown plaques on the neck and trunk without systemic symptoms. Histologic examination showed dermal perivascular and perineural plasma cells with excess lambda light chain expression. Due to decreased quality of life caused by his skin lesions, he was placed on a chemotherapeutic regimen with bortezomib. Conclusions and Relevance. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous plasmacytosis based on classic histopathology results with a recently characterized pattern of perineural involvement. Bortezomib therapy was initiated to manage his skin eruption, which has not been previously described as a treatment for this chronic condition.

  6. Mars plasma system response to ICME transients at different phases of the solar cycle (United States)

    Sanchez-Cano, Beatriz; Lester, Mark; Hall, Benjamin E. S.; Witasse, Olivier; Mays, M. Leila; Blelly, Pierre-Louis; Andrews, David G.; Cartacci, Marco; Opgenoorth, Hermann; Milan, Stephen E.; Ambrosi, Richard M.; Odstrcil, Dusan; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Imber, Suzanne


    We assess the reaction of the full Martian plasma system after the impact of different Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICME) at Mars at different levels of solar activity and phases of the solar cycle 23/24. The Mars' plasma system behaviour is characterised from the surface of the planet to the bow shock position, which is the most external boundary where the solar wind directly interacts with the Martian system. Events at the extreme phases of the solar cycle will be given special attention, i.e. low and high solar activity periods, since variations in the maximum of the thermal pressure of the ionosphere are a key factor in order to create a significant/weak plasma obstacle to compete with the solar wind. The strength of this obstacle is ultimately controlled by the long-term EUV flux modulations. Likewise, the effect of such ICMEs on the plasma boundaries and induced magnetic fields within the ionosphere will be analysed in detail. The study uses data from TIMED, GOES and STEREOs observatories at 1 AU to monitor the solar irradiance and the propagation of such space weather transits. At Mars, long-term data come from Mars Express and Mars Odyssey missions since both spacecraft have been working from more than 12 years. The MAVEN and MSL missions provide supplementary data. Solar wind propagation modelling is used through the WSA-ENLIL+Cone model, as well as several numerical simulations of the ionosphere of Mars for such scenarios are made through the numerical/fluid TRANSMARS model.

  7. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luong, Elise [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 ± 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 ± 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 ± 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 ± 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and β-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of 13C+ with 12C 1H+ comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or β-cyclodextrin.

  8. Premature aging in mice activates a systemic metabolic response involving autophagy induction. (United States)

    Mariño, Guillermo; Ugalde, Alejandro P; Salvador-Montoliu, Natalia; Varela, Ignacio; Quirós, Pedro M; Cadiñanos, Juan; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos


    Autophagy is a highly regulated intracellular process involved in the turnover of most cellular constituents and in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. It is well-established that the basal autophagic activity of living cells decreases with age, thus contributing to the accumulation of damaged macromolecules during aging. Conversely, the activity of this catabolic pathway is required for lifespan extension in animal models such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In this work, we describe the unexpected finding that Zmpste24-null mice, which show accelerated aging and are a reliable model of human Hutchinson-Gilford progeria, exhibit an extensive basal activation of autophagy instead of the characteristic decline in this process occurring during normal aging. We also show that this autophagic increase is associated with a series of changes in lipid and glucose metabolic pathways, which resemble those occurring in diverse situations reported to prolong lifespan. These Zmpste24(-/-) mice metabolic alterations are also linked to substantial changes in circulating blood parameters, such as leptin, glucose, insulin or adiponectin which in turn lead to peripheral LKB1-AMPK activation and mTOR inhibition. On the basis of these results, we propose that nuclear abnormalities causing premature aging in Zmpste24(-/-) mice trigger a metabolic response involving the activation of autophagy. However, the chronic activation of this catabolic pathway may turn an originally intended pro-survival strategy into a pro-aging mechanism and could contribute to the systemic degeneration and weakening observed in these progeroid mice.

  9. Effects of high-involvement work systems on employee satisfaction and service costs in veterans healthcare. (United States)

    Harmon, Joel; Scotti, Dennis J; Behson, Scott; Farias, Gerard; Petzel, Robert; Neuman, Joel H; Keashly, Loraleigh


    Two strong imperatives for healthcare managers are reducing costs of service and attracting and retaining highly dedicated and competent patient care and support employees. Is there a trade-off or are there organizational practices that can further both objectives at the same time? High-involvement work systems (HIWS) represent a holistic work design that includes interrelated core features such as involvement, empowerment, development, trust, openness, teamwork, and performance-based rewards. HIWS have been linked to higher productivity, quality, employee and customer satisfaction, and market and financial performance in Fortune 1000 firms. Apparently, few prior studies have looked at the impacts of this holistic design within the healthcare sector. This research found that HIWS were associated with both greater employee satisfaction and lower patient service costs in 146 Veterans Health Administration centers, indicating that such practices pay off in both humanistic and financial terms. This suggests that managers implementing HIWS will incur real expenses that are likely to be more than offset by more satisfied employees, less organizational turmoil, and lower service delivery costs, which, in this study, amounted to over $1.2 million in savings for an average VHA facility.

  10. Determinants of Pseudomonas putida WCS358 involved in inducing systemic resistance in plants. (United States)

    Meziane, Hamid; VAN DER Sluis, Ientse; VAN Loon, Leendert C; Höfte, Monica; Bakker, Peter A H M


    SUMMARY Pseudomonas putida WCS358 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium originally isolated from the rhizosphere of potato. It can suppress soil-borne plant diseases by siderophore-mediated competition for iron, but it has also been reported to result in induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Bacterial determinants of this strain involved in inducing systemic resistance in Arabidopsis were investigated using a Tn5 transposon mutant defective in biosynthesis of the fluorescent siderophore pseudobactin, a non-motile Tn5 mutant lacking flagella, and a spontaneous phage-resistant mutant lacking the O-antigenic side chain of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS). When using Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato as the challenging pathogen, purified pseudobactin, flagella and LPS all triggered ISR. However, the mutants were all as effective as the parental strain, suggesting redundancy in ISR-triggering traits in WCS358. The Botrytis cinerea-tomato, B. cinerea-bean and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum-bean model systems were used to test further the potential of P. putida WCS358 to induce ISR. Strain WCS358 significantly reduced disease development in all three systems, indicating that also on tomato and bean WCS358 can trigger ISR. In both tomato and bean, the LPS mutant had lost the ability to induce resistance, whereas the flagella mutant was still effective. In bean, the pseudobactin mutant was still effective, whereas this mutant has lost its effectivity in tomato. In both bean and tomato, flagella isolated from the parental strain were not effective, whereas LPS or pseudobactin did induce systemic resistance.

  11. Eclectic Ocular Comorbidities and Systemic Diseases with Eye Involvement: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María D. Pinazo-Durán


    Full Text Available Coexistence of several ocular diseases is more frequent than suspected. In spite of the refractive errors, one or more of the following can be detected simultaneously: glaucoma, cataracts, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eyes. In addition, as people age, ocular comorbidities are much more usually seen. Specific diseases are openly acknowledged to affect the eyes and vision, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension blood pressure, arthritis, hyperthyroidism, neurodegenerative disorders, hematologic malignancies, and/or systemic infections. Recent advances in early diagnosis and therapy of the ophthalmic pathologies have reinforced patient options to prevent visual impairment and blindness. Because of this, it is essential not to overlook sight-threatening conditions such as the ocular comorbidities and/or the eye involvement in the context of systemic disorders. Moreover, the important role of the multidisciplinary cooperation to improve and sustain management of patients affected with eclectic ocular comorbidities and/or systemic disorders with eye repercussion is specifically addressed. This review intends to shed light on these topics to help in making opportune diagnosis and appropriately managing the affected patients.

  12. An overlap syndrome involving autoimmune hepatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusuf Usta; Figen Gurakan; Zuhal Akcoren; Seza Ozen


    We report a 12 years old female patient with an overlap syndrome involving autoimmune hepatitis (ALM) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The patient presented with jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, malAlse, polyarthralgia, arthritis and butterfly rash on the face. Laboratory tests revealed severe liver dysfunction, Coombs positive hemolytic anemia and a positive ANA/ anti-dsDNA test. Renal biopsy showed class IIA kidney disease, while liver biopsy showed chronic hepatitis with severe inflammatory activity. The patient satisfied the international criteria for both SLE and ALM. Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of SLE improved with high dose treatment with corticosteroids and azathioprine, however, remission of the liver disease could not be achieved. Repeat biopsy of the liver after three years of therapy revealed ongoing chronic hepatitis with high level of inflammatory activity. The present case indicates that children with liver dysfunction and SLE should be investigated for ALM. There is much diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma in patients with ALH-SLE overlap syndrome.

  13. The ghrelin signalling system is involved in the consumption of sweets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Landgren

    Full Text Available The gastric-derived orexigenic peptide ghrelin affects brain circuits involved in energy balance as well as in reward. Indeed, ghrelin activates an important reward circuit involved in natural- as well as drug-induced reward, the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link. It has been hypothesized that there is a common reward mechanism for alcohol and sweet substances in both animals and humans. Alcohol dependent individuals have higher craving for sweets than do healthy controls and the hedonic response to sweet taste may, at least in part, depend on genetic factors. Rat selectively bred for high sucrose intake have higher alcohol consumption than non-sucrose preferring rats and vice versa. In the present study a group of alcohol-consuming individuals selected from a population cohort was investigated for genetic variants of the ghrelin signalling system in relation to both their alcohol and sucrose consumption. Moreover, the effects of GHS-R1A antagonism on voluntary sucrose-intake and operant self-administration, as well as saccharin intake were investigated in preclinical studies using rodents. The effects of peripheral grelin administration on sucrose intake were also examined. Here we found associations with the ghrelin gene haplotypes and increased sucrose consumption, and a trend for the same association was seen in the high alcohol consumers. The preclinical data show that a GHS-R1A antagonist reduces the intake and self-administration of sucrose in rats as well as saccharin intake in mice. Further, ghrelin increases the intake of sucrose in rats. Collectively, our data provide a clear indication that the GHS-R1A antagonists reduces and ghrelin increases the intake of rewarding substances and hence, the central ghrelin signalling system provides a novel target for the development of drug strategies to treat addictive behaviours.

  14. System for transporting an electron beam to the atmosphere for a gun with a plasma emitter (United States)

    Kornilov, S. Yu.; Rempe, N. G.; Shidlovskiy, S. V.


    We report on the results of simulation of the gas flow in a gun with a plasma emitter and in the system for extracting the electron beam to the atmosphere, constructed on the basis of standard gasdynamic windows (GDWs). The design of the gun and GDWs is described. Calculations are performed for a pressure of about 10-3 Torr in the electron beam generation range. It is shown that the pressure drop to the atmospheric pressure in the system of electron beam extraction to the atmosphere can be ensured by two GDW stages evacuated by pumps with optimal performance.

  15. Deposition of hybrid organic-inorganic composite coatings using an atmospheric plasma jet system. (United States)

    Dembele, Amidou; Rahman, Mahfujur; Reid, Ian; Twomey, Barry; MacElroy, J M Don; Dowling, Denis P


    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of alcohol addition on the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into nm thick siloxane coatings. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with diameters of 30-80 nm were incorporated into an atmospheric plasma deposited tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) siloxane coating. The TMOS/TiO2 coating was deposited using the atmospheric plasma jet system known as PlasmaStream. In this system the liquid precursor/nanoparticle mixture is nebulised into the plasma. It was observed that prior to being nebulised the TiO2 particles agglomerated and settled over time in the TMOS/TiO2 mixture. In order to obtain a more stable nanoparticle/TMOS suspension the addition of the alcohols methanol, octanol and pentanol to this mixture was investigated. The addition of each of these alcohols was found to stabilise the nanoparticle suspension. The effect of the alcohol was therefore assessed with respect to the properties of the deposited coatings. It was observed that coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2, with and without the addition of methanol were broadly similar. In contrast the coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol addition to the TMOS/TiO2 mixture were significantly thicker, for a given set of deposition parameters and were also more homogeneous. This would indicate that the alcohol precursor was incorporated into the plasma polymerised siloxane. The incorporation of the organic functionality from the alcohols was confirmed from FTIR spectra of the coatings. The difference in behaviour with alcohol type is likely to be due to the lower boiling point of methanol (65 degrees C), which is lower than the maximum plasma temperature measured at the jet orifice (77 degrees C). This temperature is significantly lower than the 196 degrees C and 136 degrees C boiling points of octanol and pentanol respectively. The friction of the coatings was determined using the Pin-on-disc technique. The more organic coatings deposited with

  16. Extraction characteristics of a low-energy ion beam system with a remote plasma chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M. R., E-mail: [Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)


    Low-energy argon beams were extracted from a dual-chamber ion source system. The first chamber is a quartz cylinder where dense inductively coupled plasmas were produced using 13.56 MHz radio frequency (rf) power. The discharge was driven into an adjacent chamber which acts as a reservoir for ion beam extraction using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. Extraction of ions from the second chamber with energies in the 100 eV range was achieved while minimizing fluctuations induced by the rf signal. A custom-built retarding potential analyzer was used to analyze the effectiveness of ion beam transport using the remote plasma chamber. Well-defined beams were extracted between 60 and 100 V extraction potentials at 50–100 W rf powers. An increase in rf power resulted in an increase in average ion energy, increase in ion current density while the energy spread remains constant.

  17. Influence of plasma etching in a multi chamber system on a-Si solar cell performance (United States)

    Kausche, H.; Moeller, M.; Plaettner, R.

    The plasma-CVD deposition system consisting of two chambers and developed at Siemens can deposit 9 pin solar cells of 100 sq cm simultaneously. Cleaning of the internal surfaces coated with a-Si is performed by plasma etching. The etch gases CF4+O2, SF6 and NF3 were investigated with respect to their etch rates, their efficacy in cleaning 'hidden' parts in the chamber, and with respect to the etching reaction products affecting the performance of the subsequently deposited cells. Mass spectrometric cell performance measurements were therefore taken. The sequence of etching with CF4+O2 or NF3, glow discharge in Ar+H2, pre-deposition of a-Si and cell deposition proved to be a suitable method for achieving high cell performance.

  18. Henoch-Schönlein purpura without systemic involvement beginning with acute scrotum and mimicking torsion of testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Verim


    Full Text Available Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP is the most common systemic vasculitis in children. Typical presentations of HSP are palpable purpura of the small vessels in the hips and lower limbs, abdominal pain, arthritis, and hematuria. Scrotal involvement manifested by the presence of scrotal pain and swelling during the course of the disease is rarely seen. HSP without systemic involvement with acute scrotum mimicking testicular torsion is even rare in the medical literature. In most cases, patients with this disease achieve complete recovery. Herein, we report an interesting HSP case with skin symptoms but without systemic involvement and then progression to acute scrotum resembling torsion of testis.

  19. CD36 and SR-BI are involved in cellular uptake of provitamin A carotenoids by Caco-2 and HEK cells, and some of their genetic variants are associated with plasma concentrations of these micronutrients in humans. (United States)

    Borel, Patrick; Lietz, Georg; Goncalves, Aurélie; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Lecompte, Sophie; Curtis, Peter; Goumidi, Louisa; Caslake, Muriel J; Miles, Elizabeth A; Packard, Christopher; Calder, Philip C; Mathers, John C; Minihane, Anne M; Tourniaire, Franck; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Breidenassel, Christina; González Gross, Marcela; Moussa, Myriam; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Reboul, Emmanuelle


    Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and cluster determinant 36 (CD36) have been involved in cellular uptake of some provitamin A carotenoids. However, data are incomplete (e.g., there are no data on α-carotene), and it is not known whether genetic variants in their encoding genes can affect provitamin A carotenoid status. The objectives were 1) to assess the involvement of these scavenger receptors in cellular uptake of the main provitamin A carotenoids (i.e., β-carotene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) as well as that of preformed vitamin A (i.e., retinol) and 2) to investigate the contribution of genetic variations in genes encoding these proteins to interindividual variations in plasma concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids. The involvement of SR-BI and CD36 in carotenoids and retinol cellular uptake was investigated in Caco-2 and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. The involvement of scavenger receptor class B type I (SCARB1) and CD36 genetic variants on plasma concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids was assessed by association studies in 3 independent populations. Cell experiments suggested the involvement of both proteins in cellular uptake of provitamin A carotenoids but not in that of retinol. Association studies showed that several plasma provitamin A carotenoid concentrations were significantly different (P < 0.0083) between participants who bore different genotypes at single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in CD36 and SCARB1. In conclusion, SR-BI and CD36 are involved in cellular uptake of provitamin A carotenoids, and genetic variations in their encoding genes may modulate plasma concentrations of provitamin A carotenoids at a population level.

  20. A two component system is involved in acid adaptation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. (United States)

    Cui, Yanhua; Liu, Wei; Qu, Xiaojun; Chen, Zhangting; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Lanwei


    The Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is of vital importance to the food industry, especially to the dairy industry. Two component systems (TCSs) are one of the most important mechanisms for environmental sensing and signal transduction in the majority of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A typical TCS consists of a histidine protein kinase (HPK) and a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR). To investigate the functions of TCSs during acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus, we used quantitative PCR to reveal how TCSs expression changes during acid adaptation. Two TCSs (JN675228/JN675229 and JN675230/JN675231) and two HPKs (JN675236 and JN675240) were induced during acid adaptation. These TCSs were speculated to be related with the acid adaptation ability of L. bulgaricus. The mutants of JN675228/JN675229 were constructed in order to investigate the functions of JN675228/JN675229. The mutants showed reduced acid adaptation compared to that of wild type, and the complemented strains were similar to the wild-type strain. These observations suggested that JN675228 and JN675229 were involved in acid adaptation in L. bulgaricus. The interaction between JN675228 and JN675229 was identified by means of yeast two-hybrid system. The results indicated there is interaction between JN675228 and JN675229.

  1. The renin-angiotensin system and its involvement in vascular disease. (United States)

    van Thiel, Bibi S; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; te Riet, Luuk; Essers, Jeroen; Danser, A H Jan


    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of many types of cardiovascular diseases including cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, aneurysms, stroke, coronary artery disease and vascular injury. Besides the classical regulatory effects on blood pressure and sodium homoeostasis, the RAS is involved in the regulation of contractility and remodelling of the vessel wall. Numerous studies have shown beneficial effect of inhibition of this system in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. However, dysregulation and overexpression of the RAS, through different molecular mechanisms, also induces, the initiation of vascular damage. The key effector peptide of the RAS, angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes cell proliferation, apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress and inflammation, processes known to contribute to remodelling of the vasculature. In this review, we focus on the components that are under the influence of the RAS and contribute to the development and progression of vascular disease; extracellular matrix defects, atherosclerosis and ageing. Furthermore, the beneficial therapeutic effects of inhibition of the RAS on the vasculature are discussed, as well as the need for additive effects on top of RAS inhibition.

  2. Neuronal systems and circuits involved in the control of food intake and adaptive thermogenesis. (United States)

    Caron, Alexandre; Richard, Denis


    With the still-growing prevalence of obesity worldwide, major efforts are made to understand the various behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that promote excess fat gain. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, which emphasizes the importance of deciphering the mechanisms behind energy balance regulation to understand its physiopathology. The control of energy balance is assured by brain systems/circuits capable of generating adequate ingestive and thermogenic responses to maintain the stability of energy reserves, which implies a proper integration of the homeostatic signals that inform about the status of the energy stores. In this article, we overview the organization and functionality of key neuronal circuits or pathways involved in the control of food intake and energy expenditure. We review the role of the corticolimbic (executive and reward) and autonomic systems that integrate their activities to regulate energy balance. We also describe the mechanisms and pathways whereby homeostatic sensing is achieved in response to variations of homeostatic hormones, such as leptin, insulin, and ghrelin, while putting some emphasis on the prominent importance of the mechanistic target of the rapamycin signaling pathway in coordinating the homeostatic sensing process. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. The Future of the Food System: Cases Involving the Private Sector in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Pereira


    Full Text Available The food system is facing unprecedented pressure from environmental change exacerbated by the expansion of agri-food corporations that are consolidating their power in the global food chain. Although Africa missed the Green Revolution and the wave of supermarket expansion that hit the West and then spread to Asia and Latin America, this is unlikely to continue. With a large proportion of sub-Saharan African countries’ GDP still heavily reliant on agriculture, global trends in agri-food business are having an increasing impact on African countries. South Africa, a leader in agribusiness on the continent, has a well-established agri-food sector that is facing increasing pressure from various social and environmental sources. This paper uses interview data with corporate executives from South African food businesses to explore how they are adapting to the dual pressures of environmental change and globalisation. It shows that companies now have to adapt to macro-trends both within and outside the formal food sector and how this in turn has repercussions for building sustainable farming systems—both small and large-scale. It concludes with the recognition that building a sustainable food system is a complex process involving a diversity of actors, however changes are already being seen. Businesses have strategically recognised the need to align the economic bottom line with social and environmental factors, but real sustainability will only happen when all stakeholders are included in food governance.

  4. System Model Bias Processing Approach for Regional Coordinated States Information Involved Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebo Zhou


    Full Text Available In the Kalman filtering applications, the conventional dynamic model which connects the states information of two consecutive epochs by state transition matrix is usually predefined and assumed to be invariant. Aiming to improve the adaptability and accuracy of dynamic model, we propose multiple historical states involved filtering algorithm. An autoregressive model is used as the dynamic model which is subsequently combined with observation model for deriving the optimal window-recursive filter formulae in the sense of minimum mean square error principle. The corresponding test statistics characteristics of system residuals are discussed in details. The test statistics of regional predicted residuals are then constructed in a time-window for model bias testing with two hypotheses, that is, the null and alternative hypotheses. Based on the innovations test statistics, we develop a model bias processing procedure including bias detection, location identification, and state correction. Finally, the minimum detectable bias and bias-to-noise ratio are both computed for evaluating the internal and external reliability of overall system, respectively.

  5. Altitude acclimatization improves submaximal cognitive performance in mice and involves an imbalance of the cholinergic system. (United States)

    Guerra-Narbona, R; Delgado-García, J M; López-Ramos, J C


    The aim of this work was to reveal a hypothetical improvement of cognitive abilities in animals acclimatized to altitude and performing under ground level conditions, when looking at submaximal performance, once seen that it was not possible when looking at maximal scores. We modified contrasted cognitive tasks (object recognition, operant conditioning, eight-arm radial maze, and classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex), increasing their complexity in an attempt to find performance differences in acclimatized animals vs. untrained controls. In addition, we studied, through immunohistochemical quantification, the expression of choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine, in the septal area, piriform and visual cortexes, and the hippocampal CA1 area of animals submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia, or acclimatized to this simulated altitude, to find a relationship between the cholinergic system and a cognitive improvement due to altitude acclimatization. Results showed subtle improvements of the cognitive capabilities of acclimatized animals in all of the tasks when performed under ground-level conditions (although not before 24 h), in the three tasks used to test explicit memory (object recognition, operant conditioning in the Skinner box, and eight-arm radial maze) and (from the first conditioning session) in the classical conditioning task used to evaluate implicit memory. An imbalance of choline acetyltransferase/acetyl cholinesterase expression was found in acclimatized animals, mainly 24 h after the acclimatization period. In conclusion, altitude acclimatization improves cognitive capabilities, in a process parallel to an imbalance of the cholinergic system.

  6. Involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol: the role of acetaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eFont


    Full Text Available Significant evidence implicates the endogenous opioid system (opioid peptides and receptors in the mechanisms underlying the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol. Ethanol modulates opioidergic signaling and function at different levels, including biosynthesis, release, and degradation of opioid peptides, as well as binding of endogenous ligands to opioid receptors. The role of β-endorphin and µ-opioid receptors (OR have been suggested to be of particular importance in mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including psychomotor stimulation and sensitization, consumption and conditioned place preference. Ethanol increases the release of β-endorphin from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (NArc, which can modulate activity of other neurotransmitter systems such as mesolimbic dopamine. The precise mechanism by which ethanol induces a release of β-endorphin, thereby inducing behavioral responses, remains to be elucidated. The present review summarizes accumulative data suggesting that the first metabolite of ethanol, the psychoactive compound acetaldehyde, could participate in such mechanism. Two lines of research involving acetaldehyde are reviewed: 1 implications of the formation of acetaldehyde in brain areas such as the NArc, with high expression of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and presence of cell bodies of endorphinic neurons and 2 the formation of condensation products between DA and acetaldehyde such as salsolinol, which exerts its actions via OR.

  7. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents. (United States)

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J


    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up.

  8. Higher resolution helium measuring system for deuterium plasma on EAST tokamak via normal Penning gauge (United States)

    Houyin, Wang; Jiansheng, Hu; Yaowei, Yu; Bin, Cao; Jinhua, Wu; Guoqing, Shen; Zhao, Wan; EAST, Contributors


    Although the deuterium and helium have almost the same mass, a Penning Optical Gas Analyzer (POGA) system on the basis of the spectroscopic method and Penning discharging has been designed on EAST, since 2014. The POGA system was developed successfully in 2015, it was the first time that EAST could detect helium partial pressure in deuterium plasma (wall conditioning and plasma operation scenario). With dedicated calibration and proper adjustment of the parameters, the minimum concentration of helium in deuterium gas can be measured as about 0.5% instead of 1% on the other tokamak devices. Moreover, the He and D2 partial pressures are measured simultaneously. At present, the measurable range of deuterium partial pressure is 1 × 10-7 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar, meanwhile the range of helium is 1 × 10-8 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar. The measurable range can be modified by means of the adjustment of POGA system’s parameters. It is possible to detect the interesting part of the gas with a time resolution of less than 5 ms (the 200 ms because of conductance of transfer pipe at present). The POGA system was routinely employed to wall conditioning and helium enrichment investigation in 2015. Last but not the least, the low temperature plasma of POGA is generated by normal penning gauge Pfeiffer IKR gauge instead of Alcatel CF2P, which has been suspended for a few years and was used for almost all the POGA systems in the world.

  9. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood. (United States)

    Copeland, William E; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E Jane


    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one's status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9-16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child's role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health.

  10. Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA: evidence of primary and secondary central nervous system involvement. (United States)

    Borlot, Felippe; Arantes, Paula Ricci; Quaio, Caio Robledo; Franco, José Francisco da Silva; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Gomy, Israel; Bertola, Debora Romeo; Kim, Chong Ae


    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfatase. Studies usually focus on skeletal abnormalities and their consequences. This study explores the neurological manifestations in a cohort of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA patients, with a detailed focus on brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. We performed a cross-sectional study involving nine patients with a biochemical confirmation of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA. The protocol consists of a comprehensive clinical examination and brain and spinal cord MRI analysis for all subjects. The mean age was 16.4 years (±5.7) and the mean onset of symptoms was 11.5 months (±6.3). Overall, cognition was spared in all but one patient and motor weakness was a constant finding in all patients. Deep sensation impairment was found in six patients. The brain MRIs showed non-specific white matter changes in two patients. Other abnormalities such as clival hypoplasia, basilar invagination, and arachnoid cists appeared in seven of the nine patients. Eight patients presented spinal cord compression, and in three of them, two spinal levels were compromised. Odontoid hypoplasia and degenerative features in the neuroaxis were present in all patients. Our experience with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA patients supports the evidence of central nervous system involvement. We emphasize the importance of regular clinical assessments with complete MRI studies, as an attempt to detect the early signs of spinal cord compression. This evaluation may be especially important before surgical interventions, as occult lesions may become symptomatic and promote postoperative unfavorable outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Development of radially movable multichannel Reynolds stress probe system for a cylindrical laboratory plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Takuma; Takase, Yuichi [GSFS, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 816-8561 (Japan); Inagaki, Shigeru; Kamakaki, Kunihiro; Yagi, Masatoshi; Fujisawa, Akihide; Itoh, Sanae-I. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Yoshinobu [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Shinohara, Shunjiro [IE, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)


    A new radially movable multichannel azimuthal probe system has been developed for measuring azimuthal and radial profiles of electrostatic Reynolds stress (RS) per mass density of microscale fluctuations for a cylindrical laboratory plasma. The system is composed of 16 probe units arranged azimuthally. Each probe unit has six electrodes to simultaneously measure azimuthal and radial electric fields for obtaining RS. The advantage of the system is that each probe unit is radially movable to measure azimuthal RS profiles at arbitrary radial locations as well as two-dimensional structures of fluctuations. The first result from temporal observation of fluctuation azimuthal profile presents that a low-frequency fluctuation (1-2 kHz) synchronizes oscillating Reynolds stress. In addition, radial scanning of the probe system simultaneously demonstrates two-dimensional patterns of mode structure and nonlinear forces with frequency f= 1.5 kHz and azimuthal mode number m= 1.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Schippinger


    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP to increase levels of platelets and growth factors has been used for the treatment of sports injuries suggesting to improve healing and regeneration. This method offers some potential especially for elite athletes. However, the insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is prohibited by the World Anti Doping Agency and, in addition, there may be a possible link between increased levels of IGF-1 and cancer risk. Aim of the study was to evaluate a systemic increase of IGF-1 after local intramuscular administration of PRP in young healthy moderately trained male subjects. Blood samples were drawn and PRP preparation was performed by means of centrifugation. Enriched plasma was injected into the gluteus muscle. Venous blood was collected and serum prepared before as well as after 0.5, 3 and 24 hours after PRP administration. IGF-1 analysis was performed applying an ELISA test kit. No significant systemic increase of mean IGF-1 was found after the PRP injection. Only one subject showed an increase after 24 h, but all IGF-1 values were found within reference limits. We conclude that a single intramuscular application of PRP does not significantly increase systemic IGF-1 levels. Therefore, a single application of PRP is safe with respect to systemic IGF-1 response and cancer risk and this should be allowed for treatment of muscle injuries in elite athletes

  13. Antinociceptive effects of maprotiline in a rat model of peripheral neuropathic pain: possible involvement of opioid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Banafshe


    Conclusion: Our results suggest that maprotiline can be considered a potential therapeutic for the treatment of neuropathic pain, and the opioid system may be involved in the antihyperalgesic effects of maprotiline.

  14. Exploring the relationships between high involvement work system practices, work demands and emotional exhaustion : A multi-level study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenauer, V.; van de Voorde, F.C.


    This study explores the impact of enacted high involvement work systems (HIWS) practices on employee emotional exhaustion. This study hypothesized that work overload and job responsibility mediate the relationship between HIWS practices (ability, motivation, opportunity and work design HIWS

  15. The role of plasma volume, plasma renin and the sympathetic nervous system in the posture-induced decline in renal lithium clearance in man. (United States)

    Smith, D F; Shimizu, M


    Excretion of lithium in urine was studied in 2 healthy males while recumbent and while upright, either walking or standing quietly. An oral dose of 24.3 mmol of Lit was taken as three lithium carbonate tablets 13 h before clearance tests. Renal lithium clearance decreased and lithium fractional reabsorption increased while upright. Standing immersed to the neck in water, which prevents the fall in plasma volume upon changing posture from recumbent to upright, prevented the fall in renal lithium clearance as well as the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption while upright. Oral doses of guanethidine (total dose of 200 mg) or oxprenolol (total dose of 140 mg) taken to prevent high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity and plasma renin, respectively, failed to prevent the fall in renal lithium clearance or the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright. The findings indicate that the fall in renal lithium clearance and the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright is related to the fall in plasma volume but not to high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity or plasma renin activity.

  16. FY 1998 annual summary report on research and development of hybrid pulse plasma coating (HPPC) system (first year); 1998 nendo hybrid gata pulse plasma coating (HPPC) system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Daiichinendo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The R and D program was implemented for a hybrid pulse plasma coating system, where organometallic gases as the feed gases were selected, and methods for feeding them and treating the exhaust gases to remove organic metals were studied, as the preliminary steps for the pulse introduction tests. The tests of combining an rf plasma with microwaves and pulse plasma generation have been started. The power source characteristics, e.g., pulse width, voltage and current, were analyzed, and high-voltage pulse voltage application tests were conducted, in order to grasp the power source characteristics related to the pulse voltage application. Generation of high-density plasma has been confirmed by the tests with microwaves absorbed by an rf plasma, and the plasma density measurement has been started using the single probe and double probe methods. It is also confirmed that a pulse voltage can be applied to a high-density plasma. A plasma source type ion injector (PSII) has been made on a trial basis, to collect the data for the injector. (NEDO).

  17. Characteristics of joint involvement and relationships with systemic inflammation in systemic sclerosis: results from the EULAR Scleroderma Trial and Research Group (EUSTAR) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avouac, Jerome; Walker, Ulrich; Tyndall, Alan


    To determine the prevalence of and independent factors associated with joint involvement in a large population of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc).......To determine the prevalence of and independent factors associated with joint involvement in a large population of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc)....

  18. ECRH on ASDEX Upgrade - System Status, Feed-Back Control, Plasma Physics Results -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamm J.


    Full Text Available The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG ECRH system now delivers a total of 3.9 MW to the plasma at 140 GHz. Three new units are capable of 2-frequency operation and may heat the plasma alternatively with 2.1 MW at 105 GHz. The system is routinely used with X2, O2, and X3 schemes. For Bt = 3.2 T also an ITER-like O1-scheme can be run using 105 GHz. The new launchers are capable of fast poloidal movements necessary for real-time control of the location of power deposition. Here real-time control of NTMs is summarized, which requires a fast analysis of massive data streams (ECE and Mirnov correlation and extensive calculations (equilibria, ray-tracing. These were implemented at AUG using a modular concept of standardized real-time diagnostics. The new realtime capabilities have also been used during O2 heating to keep the first reflection of the non-absorbed beam fraction on the holographic reflector tile which ensures a well defined second pass of the beam through the central plasma. Sensors for the beam position are fast thermocouples at the edge of the reflector tile. The enhanced ECRH power was used for several physics studies related to the unique feature of pure electron heating without fueling and without momentum input. As an example the effect of the variation of the heating mix in moderately heated H-modes is demonstrated using the three available heating systems, i.e. ECRH, ICRH and NBI. Keeping the total input power constant, strong effects are seen on the rotation, but none on the pedestal parameters. Also global quantities as the stored energy are hardly modified. Still it is found that the central ion temperature drops as the ECRH fraction exceeds a certain threshold.

  19. Copper transport systems are involved in multidrug resistance and drug transport. (United States)

    Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Komatsu, Masaharu; Ikeda, Ryuji; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Akiyama, Shin-ichi


    metabolism modulate drug transport appears to involve modulation of drug cellular localization via modulation of the vesicle transport system. In ATP7A overexpressing cells, Dox accumulates in the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, in the parental cells, Dox is localized in the nuclei, where the target molecules of Dox, topoisomerase II and DNA, are found. Disruption of the intracellular vesicle transport system with monensin, a Na+/H+ ionophore, induced the relocalization of Dox from the Golgi apparatus to the nuclei in the ATP7A overexpressing cells. These data suggested that ATP7A-related drug transport is dependent on the vesicle transport system. Thus copper transport systems play important roles in drug transport as well as in copper metabolism. Components of copper metabolism are therefore likely to include target molecules for the modulation of drug potency of not only anti-cancer agents but also of other drugs.

  20. Central nervous system granulomastous phlebitis with limited extracranial involvement of the heart and lungs: An autopsy case. (United States)

    Mlakar, Jernej; Zorman, Jerneja Videčnik; Matičič, Mojca; Vrabec, Matej; Alibegović, Armin; Popović, Mara


    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare condition, usually with an insidious onset. There is a wide variety of histological types (granulomatous, lymphocytic or necrotizing vasculitis) and types of vessel involved (arteries, veins or both). Most cases are idiopathic. We describe a first case of idiopathic granulomatous central nervous system phlebitis with additional limited involvement of the heart and lung, exclusively affecting small and medium sized veins in a 22-year-old woman, presenting as a sub acute headache. The reasons for this peculiar limitation of inflammation to the veins and the involvement of the heart and lungs are unknown.

  1. Phenotypic Alterations Involved in CD8+ Treg Impairment in Systemic Sclerosis. (United States)

    Negrini, Simone; Fenoglio, Daniela; Parodi, Alessia; Kalli, Francesca; Battaglia, Florinda; Nasi, Giorgia; Curto, Monica; Tardito, Samuele; Ferrera, Francesca; Filaci, Gilberto


    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease characterized by tissue fibrosis, vasculopathy, and autoimmunity. Although the exact pathogenetic mechanisms behind SSc remain to be fully elucidated, a great deal of evidence suggests the existence of an unbalanced ratio between the effector and regulatory arms of the immune system. With regard to the T regulatory (Treg) compartment, we observed that CD8+ Treg subsets display functional defects in SSc-affected patients. Since CD127 down-modulation and CD39 upregulation have been observed on Treg subsets, the phenotypic expression of these molecules was analyzed on the CD8+CD28- Treg precursors and on CD8+ Treg cells generated in vitro through interleukin-10 commitment. Immunophenotypic data from SSc patients were compared to those obtained from healthy subjects. The analyses performed on ex vivo-isolated CD8+CD28- Treg precursors did not show any significant differences in CD39 or CD127 expression as compared to values obtained from healthy donors. On the contrary, in vitro-generated CD8+ Tregs obtained from SSc patients displayed reduced expression of the CD39 molecule as compared to controls. Moreover, the percentage of CD127+ cells was significantly higher in in vitro-generated CD8+ Tregs from SSc patients compared to CD8+ Tregs obtained from healthy donors. Taken together, these findings may indicate an impairment of maturation processes affecting CD8+ Treg cells in SSc patients. This impairment of maturation involves phenotypic alterations that are mainly characterized by a deficient CD39 upregulation and a lack of down-modulation of the CD127 molecule.

  2. Prediction of microRNAs involved in immune system diseases through network based features. (United States)

    Prabahar, Archana; Natarajan, Jeyakumar


    MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding regulatory RNA molecules that modulate the expression of several genes at post-transcriptional level and play a vital role in disease pathogenesis. Recent research shows that a range of miRNAs are involved in the regulation of immunity and its deregulation results in immune mediated diseases such as cancer, inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Computational discovery of these immune miRNAs using a set of specific features is highly desirable. In the current investigation, we present a SVM based classification system which uses a set of novel network based topological and motif features in addition to the baseline sequential and structural features to predict immune specific miRNAs from other non-immune miRNAs. The classifier was trained and tested on a balanced set of equal number of positive and negative examples to show the discriminative power of our network features. Experimental results show that our approach achieves an accuracy of 90.2% and outperforms the classification accuracy of 63.2% reported using the traditional miRNA sequential and structural features. The proposed classifier was further validated with two immune disease sub-class datasets related to multiple sclerosis microarray data and psoriasis RNA-seq data with higher accuracy. These results indicate that our classifier which uses network and motif features along with sequential and structural features will lead to significant improvement in classifying immune miRNAs and hence can be applied to identify other specific classes of miRNAs as an extensible miRNA classification system.

  3. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies and central nervous system involvement in Behçet's disease. (United States)

    Souza, Romy Christmann; Lage, Laís; Goldesntein-Schainberg, Cláudia; Macedo, André Regis; Carrasco, Solange; Gonçalves, Célio Roberto


    Previous studies have detected the presence of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in patients with Behçet's disease (BD). However, no real evidence exists whether these antibodies exert any influence on clinical presentation and/or activity of this disease. To determine the frequency of AECA in patients with BD and analyze possible clinical associations. 50 patients with BD who fulfilled diagnostic criteria were selected. Thirty-seven patients were females, and 13 were males; the mean age was 44 +/- 9 years with a mean follow-up time of 10 +/- 7.5 years. AECA were assayed by ELISA using ECV-304 cells as the antigenic substrate. The prevalence of AECA was determined, and their possible relationships with present and past clinical features were investigated. AECA were detected in the sera of 38% of the patients (IgG in 13, IgM in four, and IgG plus IgM in two). An association was observed between AECA and a previous history of central nervous system involvement (OR= 5.4, p= 0.03). This association was more evident for IgG-AECA (OR= 6.0, p= 0.02). A trend of an increased risk of aneurysms was also observed in patients with IgG-AECA (OR= 2.58, p= 0.77). None of the other clinical characteristics showed a relevant association with these antibodies. Our data suggest that IgG-AECA may be a marker of more severe lesions in patients with BD based on the higher frequency of previous central nervous system manifestations in patients who presently display circulating AECA.

  4. Involvement of Spinal Angiotensin II System in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Mice. (United States)

    Ogata, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Wataru; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yamagata, Ryota; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi


    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity increases under hyperglycemic states, and is thought to be involved in diabetic complications. We previously demonstrated that angiotensin (Ang) II, a main bioactive component of the RAS, might act as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the transmission of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Here, we examined whether the spinal Ang II system is responsible for diabetic neuropathic pain induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Tactile allodynia was observed concurrently with an increase in blood glucose levels the day after mice received STZ (200 mg/kg, i.v.) injections. Tactile allodynia on day 14 was dose-dependently inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan, an Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. In the lumbar dorsal spinal cord, the expression of Ang II, Ang converting enzyme (ACE), and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were all significantly increased on day 14 after STZ injection compared with vehicle-treated controls, whereas no differences were observed among AT1 receptors or angiotensinogen levels. Moreover, the increase in phospho-p38 MAPK was significantly inhibited by intrathecal administration of losartan. These results indicate that the expression of spinal ACE increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice, which in turn led to an increase in Ang II levels and tactile allodynia. This increase in spinal Ang II was accompanied by the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was shown to be mediated by AT1 receptors.

  5. Spraying of Super Fine Powders With HVOF and Axial Plasma Thermal Spray Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan Burgess; G(o)tz Matth(a)us


    The use of fine powders in thermal spray can lead to many advantages. These advantages include denser coatings, coatings with increased wear resistance, coatings with smoother surface finish, coatings that can be applied to internal surfaces, less expensive coatings. The use of fine powders also has an disadvantage that th ey can have poor flow characteristics. The paper will discuss a feeder that is able to feed fine powders to overcome this difficulty and the coating equipment, both axial plasma and HVOF systems, used to deposit these materials to produce smooth dense coatings.

  6. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2: a novel gene involved in zebrafish central nervous system development. (United States)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Lina; Zhou, Wenhao; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Jin; Deng, Shanshan; Li, Weihua; Li, Huawei; Mao, Zuohua; Ma, Duan


    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (Tfpi-2) is an important serine protease inhibitor in the extracellular matrix (ECM), but its precise physiological significance remains unknown. This work is part of a series of studies intended to investigate functional roles of Tfpi-2 and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. First, we cloned and identified zebrafish Tfpi-2 (zTfpi-2) as an evolutionarily conserved protein essential for zebrafish development. We also demonstrated that ztfpi-2 is mainly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of zebrafish, and embryonic depletion of ztfpi-2 caused severe CNS defects. In addition, changes of neural markers, including pax2a, egr2b, huC, ngn1, gfap and olig2, confirmed the presence of developmental abnormalities in the relevant regions of ztfpi-2 morphants. Using microarray analysis, we found that members of the Notch pathway, especially her4 and mib, which mediate lateral inhibition in CNS development, were also downregulated. Intriguingly, both her4 and mib were able to partially rescue the ztfpi-2 morphant phenotype. Furthermore, Morpholino knockdown of ztfpi-2 resulted in upregulation of neuronal markers while downregulation of glial markers, providing evidence that the Notch pathway is probably involved in ztfpi-2-mediated CNS development.

  7. Short- and long-term memory: differential involvement of neurotransmitter systems and signal transduction cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Since William James (1890 first distinguished primary from secondary memory, equivalent to short- and long-term memory, respectively, it has been assumed that short-term memory processes are in charge of cognition while long-term memory is being consolidated. From those days a major question has been whether short-term memory is merely a initial phase of long-term memory, or a separate phenomena. Recent experiments have shown that many treatments with specific molecular actions given into the hippocampus and related brain areas after one-trial avoidance learning can effectively cancel short-term memory without affecting long-term memory formation. This shows that short-term memory and long-term memory involve separate mechanisms and are independently processed. Other treatments, however, influence both memory types similarly, suggesting links between both at the receptor and at the post-receptor level, which should not be surprising as they both deal with nearly the same sensorimotor representations. This review examines recent advances in short- and long-term memory mechanisms based on the effect of intra-hippocampal infusion of drugs acting upon neurotransmitter and signal transduction systems on both memory types.

  8. Chanarin-Dorfman Syndrome with Multi-System Involvement in Two Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil Arslansoyu Çamlar


    Full Text Available Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS is a very rare autosomal recessive inherited neutral lipid metabolism disorder associated with congenital ichthyosis and multi-system involvement. Observation of lipid vacuoles in neutrophils (Jordan’s anomaly in peripheral blood smears in patients with ichthyosiform erythroderma is diagnostic. Herein we present 2 siblings with CDS that were referred to Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine Department of Pediatrics due to ichthyosis. They had hepatomegaly, cataract, growth retardation, and sensorineural hearing loss. Some lipid vacuoles in neutrophils were noted in peripheral blood smear evaluation. Genetic analysis showed homozygous N209X mutation in both patients. They were put on a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet supplemented with medium-chain fatty acids. During 6 months of follow-up, no improvement was observed in both patients. In conclusion, although CDS is a rare lipid storage disease, it should always be a consideration in patients with congenital ichthyosis, especially those with extracutaneous symptoms or signs. The diagnosis of CDS is made based on a very simple test-peripheral blood smear.

  9. Histamine and spontaneous motor activity: biphasic changes, receptors involved and participation of the striatal dopamine system. (United States)

    Chiavegatto, S; Nasello, A G; Bernardi, M M


    The time- and dose-related effects of exogenous histamine on spontaneous motor activity and receptors involved were evaluated in male rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of histamine (5.4 and 54.3 nmol) produced a biphasic effect with initial transitory hypoactivity and later hyperactivity expressed by locomotion frequency in an open-field. The rearing frequencies were only reduced by all doses of histamine used. The histamine-induced hypoactivity was inhibited by the H3-antagonist thioperamide and was also induced by the H3-agonist N-alpha-methylhistamine. The histamine-induced hyperactivity phase was blocked by the H1-antagonist mepyramine. The H2-antagonist ranitidine increased locomotion and rearing frequencies. The participation of other neurotransmitters in the persistent hypokinetic effect induced by 135.8 nmol of histamine was determined by HPLC in the striatum and hypothalamus as counter-proof. A decreased DOPAC/DA ratio was observed only in the striatum. In the hypothalamus, low levels of 5HT were detected, probably not correlated with motor activity. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the exogenous histamine-induced hypoactivity response is probably due to activation of H3-receptors as heteroreceptors reducing the activity of the striatal dopaminergic system. This effect can partially overlap with the expression of the hyperactivity induced by H1-receptor activation. The participation of H2-receptors requires further investigation.

  10. IgG4-Related Disease Presenting as Recurrent Mastoiditis With Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April L. Barnado MD


    Full Text Available We report a case of a 43-year-old female who presented with right ear fullness and otorrhea. She was initially diagnosed with mastoiditis that was not responsive to multiple courses of antibiotics and steroids. She was then diagnosed with refractory inflammatory pseudotumor, and subsequent treatments included several mastoidectomies, further steroids, and radiation therapy. The patient went on to develop mastoiditis on the contralateral side as well as central nervous system involvement with headaches and right-sided facial paresthesias. Reexamination of the mastoid tissue revealed a significantly increased number of IgG4-positive cells, suggesting a diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. The patient improved clinically and radiographically with rituximab and was able to taper off azathioprine and prednisone. IgG4-related disease should be considered in patients with otologic symptoms and be on the differential diagnosis in patients with inflammatory pseudotumor. Staining for IgG and IgG4 is essential to ensure a prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Involvement of Cholinergic and Opioid System in γ-Terpinene-Mediated Antinociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Franceli de Brito Passos


    Full Text Available The literature shows that the monoterpenes are great candidates for the development of new drugs for the treatment of various pathological processes, including painful conditions. The gamma terpinene (γ-TPN is a monoterpene present in plant species that have multiple pharmacological properties and has structural similarity to antinociceptive monoterpenes, such as limonene and alpha-phellandrene. The γ-TPN molecular mass was evaluated by mass spectrometry and showed a pseudomolecular ion with m/z 137.0 Da. The animals did not present any signs of acute toxicity at 2 g/kg, p.o. γ-TPN (1.562 to 50 mg/kg, p.o. showed an antinociceptive effect in the formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests. γ-TPN has antinociceptive action when administered by others routes in glutamate test. To eliminate a possible sedative effect of γ-TPN, the open field and rota-rod test were conducted and the γ-TPN did not show muscle relaxant activity or central depressant effect. To investigate the mechanisms of action, the animals were pretreated with naloxone, glibenclamide, atropine, mecamylamine, or L-arginine in the glutamate test. γ-TPN antinociception was inhibited in the presence of naloxone, glibenclamide, atropine, and mecamylamine. The results suggest that the γ-TPN (p.o. produced antinociceptive effect in models of chemical nociception through the cholinergic and opioid systems involvement.

  12. Need for Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium Data Generation of Systems Involving Green Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Parsana


    Full Text Available Much has been said and written over the years regarding green chemistry concept and use of green solvents. The green solvents can potentially replace the traditional or classical solvents in order to reduce the environment footprint or their harmful impact on human being and/or environment. Vapour-liquid equilibrium data is indispensable for the design of distillation columns for separation processes which account for a large percentage of total costs in a typical chemical plant. Though extensive approach has been made for the replacement of traditional solvents, but not enough consideration been given for vapour-liquid equilibrium data, required for designing separation processes in case of replacement with green solvents. So this paper aims at encouraging vapour-liquid equilibrium data generation for design of efficient separation for binary systems involving ethereal green solvents such as cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME and 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF. A brief review and outline of procedure for generating vapour-liquid equilibrium data is presented here.

  13. Inflammatory/demyelinating central nervous system involvement in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF): coincidence or association? (United States)

    Akman-Demir, G; Gul, A; Gurol, E; Ozdogan, H; Bahar, S; Oge, A E; Gurvit, H; Saruhan-Direskeneli, G; Yazici, H; Eraksoy, M


    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent febrile polyserositis. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in FMF is uncommon, but recently cases with multiple sclerosis (MS) and FMF have been reported. Here we assess patients with both FMF and MS, in order to clarify any relationship between FMF and MS, and to evaluate disease characteristics. Our MS database between 1986-2005 was screened retrospectively, and patients with both FMF and inflammatory/demyelinating CNS disease were evaluated among a total of 2800 patients including definite MS (n = 2268) and other demyelinating disorders. There were 12 patients with FMF, who developed a CNS disorder with multifocal white matter lesions. Median age at onset of FMF was 7 years, and median age at neurological onset was 26.8 years. Nine patients (including two siblings) had definite MS according to clinical and MRI findings, whereas 3 patients had atypical features suggesting other demyelinating disorders. Disease severity varied among the patients between very mild to a fatal course. All 8 patients evaluated for oligoclonal IgG bands in CSF were positive. The rate of FMF among our patients with definite MS is almost 4 times the expected prevalence in Turkey. Our series including a sibling pair concordant for FMF and MS may suggest that similar genetic susceptibility and environmental factors might be responsible, although coincidence still remains a possibility. A prospective study on a larger sample seems to be justified.

  14. A Putative Type II Secretion System Is Involved in Cellulose Utilization in Cytophaga hutchisonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang


    Full Text Available Cytophaga hutchinsonii is a gliding cellulolytic bacterium that degrades cellulose in a substrate contact-dependent manner. Specific proteins are speculated to be translocated to its extracellular milieu or outer membrane surface to participate in adhesion to cellulose and further digestion. In this study, we show that three orthologous genes encoding the major components (T2S-D, -F, and -G of type II secretion system (T2SS are involved in cellulose degradation but not in cell motility. The individual disruption of the three t2s genes results in a significantly retarded growth on cellobiose, regenerated amorphous cellulose, and Avicel cellulose. Enzymatic analyses demonstrate that, whereas the endoglucanase activity of the t2s mutant cells is increased, the β-glucosidase activity is remarkably reduced compared to that of WT cells. Further analyses reveal that the t2s mutant cells not only exhibit a different profile of cellulose-bound outer membrane proteins from that of wild-type cells, but also display a significant decrease in their capability to adhere to cellulose. These results indicate that a functional link exits between the putative T2SS and cellulose utilization in C. hutchinsonii, and thus provide a conceptual framework to understand the unique strategy deployed by C. hutchinsonii to assimilate cellulose.

  15. Is autonomic nervous system involved in restless legs syndrome during wakefulness? (United States)

    Izzi, Francesca; Placidi, Fabio; Romigi, Andrea; Lauretti, Benedetta; Marfia, Girolama A; Mercuri, Nicola B; Marciani, Maria G; Rocchi, Camilla


    To investigate cardiovascular autonomic function in patients with restless leg syndrome (RLS) by means of cardiovascular reflexes and heart rate variability (HRV) during wakefulness. Twelve RLS patients and 14 controls underwent cardiovascular function tests including head-up tilt test (HUTT), Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing, hand grip, and cold face. HRV analysis was performed in the frequency domain using both autoregressive (AR) and fast Fourier transform algorithms in rest supine condition and during HUTT. There was a significant increase in systolic blood pressure values in supine rest condition and a trend toward a lower Valsalva ratio in RLS patients with respect to controls. The significant and physiological changes of HRV at HUTT detected in healthy subjects were not found in RLS patients. RLS patients exhibit a tendency toward hypertension, reduced amplitude of both sympathetic and parasympathetic responses at HUTT, as well as blunted parasympathetic drive to blood pressure changes. These findings, if confirmed by more controlled studies, might support the hypothesis of autonomic nervous system involvement during wakefulness and consequently an enhanced cardiovascular risk in RLS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Untargeted plasma metabolite profiling reveals the broad systemic consequences of xanthine oxidoreductase inactivation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Chen

    Full Text Available A major challenge in systems biology is integration of molecular findings for individual enzyme activities into a cohesive high-level understanding of cellular metabolism and physiology/pathophysiology. However, meaningful prediction for how a perturbed enzyme activity will globally impact metabolism in a cell, tissue or intact organisms is precluded by multiple unknowns, including in vivo enzymatic rates, subcellular distribution and pathway interactions. To address this challenge, metabolomics offers the potential to simultaneously survey changes in thousands of structurally diverse metabolites within complex biological matrices. The present study assessed the capability of untargeted plasma metabolite profiling to discover systemic changes arising from inactivation of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR, an enzyme that catalyzes the final steps in purine degradation. Using LC-MS coupled with a multivariate statistical data analysis platform, we confidently surveyed >3,700 plasma metabolites (50-1,000 Da for differential expression in XOR wildtype vs. mice with inactivated XOR, arising from gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition. Results confirmed the predicted derangements in purine metabolism, but also revealed unanticipated perturbations in metabolism of pyrimidines, nicotinamides, tryptophan, phospholipids, Krebs and urea cycles, and revealed kidney dysfunction biomarkers. Histochemical studies confirmed and characterized kidney failure in xor-nullizygous mice. These findings provide new insight into XOR functions and demonstrate the power of untargeted metabolite profiling for systemic discovery of direct and indirect consequences of gene mutations and drug treatments.

  17. Plasma facilities measuring equipment and high-voltage systems for basic research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M.; Pawlowicz, W. [eds.] [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)


    The report presents short description and the main technical data of various devices and systems designed and constructed at the Thermonuclear Research Dept. of the Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) in Swierk n. Warsaw, Poland. Different Plasma-Focus (PF) facilities of energy ranging from several kJ to 360 kJ, as well as the Ion Implosion Facilities of energy equal to 400 kJ, are shortly described. We present different cameras and analyzers used for studies of ions and X-rays. We also describe e.g. IONOTRONs used for material engineering. High-Voltage Pulse Generators developed for the voltage range from 40 kV to 2.4 MV, various Data Acquisition Systems, and special Vacuum Stands. Some selected technical units used in high-voltage systems are also presented. (author). 32 figs.

  18. Structures and Dynamics of a Two-Dimensional Confined Dusty Plasma System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Feng; LIU Yan-Hong; WANG Long


    The influence of the confining potential strength and temperature on the structures and dynamics of a two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma system is investigated through molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. The circular symmetric confining potential leads to the nonuniform packing of particles, that is, an inner core with a hexagon lattice surrounded by a few outer circular shells. Under the appropriate confining potential and temperature, the particle trajectories on middle shells form a series of concentric and nested hexagons due to tangential movements of particles.Mean square displacement, self-diffusion constant, pair correlation function, and the nearest bond are used to characterize the structural and dynamical properties of the system. With the increase of the confining potential, the radial and tangential movements of particles have different behaviors. With the increase of temperature, the radial and tangential motions strengthen, particle trajectories gradually become disordered, and the system gradually changes from a crystal or liquid state to a gas state.

  19. MIT modular x-ray source systems for the study of plasma diagnostics (United States)

    Coleman, J. W.; Wenzel, K. W.; Petrasso, R. D.; Lo, D. H.; Li, C. K.; Lierzer, J. R.; Wei, T.


    Two new x-ray source systems are now on line at our facility. Each provides an e-beam to 25 kV. Targets are interchangeable between machines, and four x-ray detectors may be used simultaneously with a target. The gridded e-gun of the RACEHORSE system gives a 0.5-1.0-cm pulsable spot on target. The nongridded e-gun of the SCORPION system provides a 0.3-mm or smaller dc microspot on target. RACEHORSE is being used to study and characterize type-II diamond photoconductors for use in diagnosing plasmas, while SCORPION is being used to develop a slitless spectrograph using photographic film. Source design details and some RACEHORSE results are presented.

  20. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis overview and involvement of the temporomandibular joint: prevalence, systemic therapy. (United States)

    Carrasco, Ruy


    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is one of the many joints involved in the inflammatory arthritides. As imaging of joints has developed, so have the data regarding extent and prevalence of TMJ involvement in these diseases. TMJ disease is especially prevalent in juvenile arthritis. The adult and pediatric inflammatory arthritides share common pathophysiology but are still markedly different. The preponderance of TMJ arthritis research exists in juvenile arthritis. This article discusses classification, treatment, and TMJ involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.