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Sample records for plasma substitutes

  1. Ion-substituted calcium phosphate coatings deposited by plasma-assisted techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Gabriela; Bianchi, Michele; Sassoni, Enrico; Russo, Alessandro; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2017-05-01

    One of the main critical aspects behind the failure or success of an implant resides in its ability to fast bond with the surrounding bone. To boost osseointegration, the ideal implant material should exhibit composition and structure similar to those of biological apatite. To this aim, the most common approach is to coat the implant surface with a coating of hydroxyapatite (HA), resembling the main component of mineralized tissues. However, bone apatite is a non-stoichiometric, multi-substituted poorly-crystalline apatite, containing significant amounts of foreign ions, with high biological relevance. Ion-substituted HAs can be deposited by so called "wet methods", which are however poorly reproducible and hardly industrially feasible; at the same time bioactive coatings realized by plasma assisted method, interesting for industrial applications, are generally made of stoichiometric (i.e. un-substituted) HA. In this work, the literature concerning plasma-assisted deposition methods used to deposit ion-substituted HA was reviewed and the last advances in this field discussed. The ions taken into exam are those present in mineralized tissues and possibly having biological relevance. Notably, literature about this topic is scarce, especially relating to in vivo animal and clinical trials; further on, available studies evaluate the performance of substituted coatings from different points of view (mechanical properties, bone growth, coating dissolution, etc.) which hinders a proper evaluation of the real efficacy of ion-doped HA in promoting bone regeneration, compared to stoichiometric HA. Moreover, results obtained for plasma sprayed coatings (which is the only method currently employed for deposition at the industrial scale) were collected and compared to those of novel plasma-assisted techniques, that are expected to overcome its limitations. Data so far available on the topic were discussed to highlight advantages, limitations and possible perspectives of these

  2. Bioengineering a human plasma-based epidermal substitute with efficient grafting capacity and high content in clonogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexaline, Maia M; Trouillas, Marina; Nivet, Muriel; Bourreau, Emilie; Leclerc, Thomas; Duhamel, Patrick; Martin, Michele T; Doucet, Christelle; Fortunel, Nicolas O; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques

    2015-06-01

    Cultured epithelial autografts (CEAs) produced from a small, healthy skin biopsy represent a lifesaving surgical technique in cases of full-thickness skin burn covering >50% of total body surface area. CEAs also present numerous drawbacks, among them the use of animal proteins and cells, the high fragility of keratinocyte sheets, and the immaturity of the dermal-epidermal junction, leading to heavy cosmetic and functional sequelae. To overcome these weaknesses, we developed a human plasma-based epidermal substitute (hPBES) for epidermal coverage in cases of massive burn, as an alternative to traditional CEA, and set up critical quality controls for preclinical and clinical studies. In this study, phenotypical analyses in conjunction with functional assays (clonal analysis, long-term culture, or in vivo graft) showed that our new substitute fulfills the biological requirements for epidermal regeneration. hPBES keratinocytes showed high potential for cell proliferation and subsequent differentiation similar to healthy skin compared with a well-known reference material, as ascertained by a combination of quality controls. This work highlights the importance of integrating relevant multiparameter quality controls into the bioengineering of new skin substitutes before they reach clinical development. This work involves the development of a new bioengineered epidermal substitute with pertinent functional quality controls. The novelty of this work is based on this quality approach. ©AlphaMed Press.

  3. Marking with radioactive iodine of a plasma substitute and preliminary essays of his kinetic behaviour in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cova, Wilma Guimaraes

    1973-01-01

    A blood plasma substitute (Haem accel - PGO), which has as a base a degraded and polymerized gelatin, was labelled with radioactive iodine (I-131) and preliminary essays of its kinetic behavior was done. We have used the labelling method of McFarlaner. The results obtained - radiochemical yield and purity - were favorable. The kinetic behaviour the residual radioactivity studied by measuring the residual radioactivity of the body and excreta in groups of male Wistar rats for a maximum period of 150 hours. These results have shown and excellent correlation for a two components exponential function's adjustment, suggesting therefore a bi compartmental mathematical model. (author)

  4. Impaired psychomotor function and plasma methadone and levo-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM) concentrations in opioid-substitution patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, David A L; Somogyi, Andrew A; Bochner, Felix; White, Jason M

    2017-06-01

    Tolerance to the psychomotor impairing effects of opioid drugs is expected to develop with repeated dosing, but may be incomplete. The relationship between plasma opioid concentration and psychomotor function in opioid-dependent patients was examined to determine whether impairment was more likely at the time of highest plasma drug concentration. Sixteen patients participating in a cross-over trial comparing methadone and LAAM completed a tracking task (OSPAT) 11 times over the dosing-interval for methadone (24-hrs) and LAAM (48-hrs). Venous blood was collected for the quantification of plasma (R)-(-)-methadone, LAAM, and nor-LAAM concentrations. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and Trail-Making Test were administered at the time of peak plasma concentration. Ten healthy controls (HCs) also participated. OSPAT scores (obtained for 15 patients) fluctuated significantly across the dosing-interval for both drugs and were lower in patients than HCs at the times of peak concentrations of (R)-(-)-methadone (1 hr: (mean difference; 95% CI) (2.13; 0.18-4.08); 2 hrs: (2.38; 0.48-4.28) postdosing) and LAAM (2 hrs: (1.81; 0.09-3.53), and 4 hrs (1.90: 0.9-3.71) postdosing). Within-participant analysis of the peak-change from baseline for OSPAT scores found that 10 of the 15 patients could be categorized as impaired on methadone and 9 on LAAM. No HCs were impaired. Patients performed worse on the DSST and Trails-A than HCs, but not on Trails-B. Results suggest that some patients receiving opioids long term may exhibit impairment at the time of highest plasma drug concentration. These patients should be made aware that their ability to undertake complex tasks may be affected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Pharmacokinetic study and interaction with the reticulo-endothelial system of a plasma substitute: modified fluid gelatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vie, M.-T.

    1973-01-01

    By the labelling of a plasma substitute prepared from gelatine, MFG or modified fluid gelatine, it was possible to establish certain facts concerning the kinetics of MFG and its action on the cells of the reticulo-endothelial system. Iodine labelling proved sufficiently reliable to allow the pharmakokinetic exploration of the product by a method which, being relatively simple to use, offers good reproducibility of results. Various tests on the strength of the iodine protein bond showed the stability of the entire protein molecule. A study of the metabolism revealed that the MFG in question behaves towards the organism not as a pure substance but as a mixture of two molecular species of different mass. The experimental results concerning the influence of MFG on the reticulo-endothelial system showed that the phagocyte function is only modified if there is competition between the phagocyted molecule and the MFG [fr

  6. Human Plasma and Human Platelet-rich Plasma as a Substitute for Fetal Calf Serum during Long-term Cultivation of Mesenchymal Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Suchánková Kleplová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Our aims were to isolate and cultivate mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC in various media enriched with human blood components, and subsequently to investigate their basic biological properties. Methods: DPSC were cultivated in five different media based on α MEM containing different concentrations of human plasma (HP, platelet-rich plasma (PRP, or fetal calf serum (FCS. The DPSC biological properties were examined periodically. Results: We cultivated DPSC in the various cultivation media over 15 population doublings except for the medium supplemented with 10% HP. Our results showed that DPSC cultivated in medium supplemented with 10% PRP showed the shortest average population doubling time (DT (28.6 ± 4.6 hours, in contrast to DPSC cultivated in 10% HP which indicated the longest DT (156.2 ± 17.8 hours; hence this part of the experiment had been cancelled in the 6th passage. DPSC cultivated in media with 2% FCS+ITS (DT 47.3 ± 10.4 hours, 2% PRP (DT 40.1 ± 5.7 hours and 2% HP (DT 49.0 ± 15.2 hours showed almost the same proliferative activity. DPSC’s viability in the 9th passage was over 90% except for the DPSC cultivated in the 10% HP media. Conclusions: We proved that human blood components are suitable substitution for FCS in cultivation media for long-term DPSC cultivation.

  7. Stochastic substitute for coupled rate equations in the modeling of highly ionized transient plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.; Falquina, R.; Minguez, E.

    1994-01-01

    Plasmas produced by intense laser pulses incident on solid targets often do not satisfy the conditions for local thermodynamic equilibrium, and so cannot be modeled by transport equations relying on equations of state. A proper description involves an excessively large number of coupled rate equations connecting many quantum states of numerous species having different degrees of ionization. Here we pursue a recent suggestion to model the plasma by a few dominant states perturbed by a stochastic driving force. The driving force is taken to be a Poisson impulse process, giving a Langevin equation which is equivalent to a Fokker-Planck equation for the probability density governing the distribution of electron density. An approximate solution to the Langevin equation permits calculation of the characteristic relaxation rate. An exact stationary solution to the Fokker-Planck equation is given as a function of the strength of the stochastic driving force. This stationary solution is used, along with a Laplace transform, to convert the Fokker-Planck equation to one of Schroedinger type. We consider using the classical Hamiltonian formalism and the WKB method to obtain the time-dependent solution

  8. Management of an endo perio lesion in a maxillary canine using platelet-rich plasma concentrate and an alloplastic bone substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sangeeta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma concentrate in the management of a cirumferential, infrabony defect associated with an endoperio lesion in a maxillary canine. A 45 year-old male patient with an endoperio lesion in the left maxillary canine was initially treated with endodontic therapy. Following the endodontic treatment, the circumferential, infrabony defect was treated using platelet-rich plasma and an alloplastic bone substitute. At the end of three months, there was a gain in the clinical attachment level and reduction in probing depth. Radiographic evidence showed that there was significant bony fill. The results were maintained at the time of recall nine months later.

  9. NS3 protease resistance-associated substitutions in liver tissue and plasma samples from patients infected by hepatitis C virus genotype 1A or 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsica, Giulia; Andolina, Andrea; Merli, Marco; Messina, Emanuela; Hasson, Hamid; Lazzarin, Adriano; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Bagaglio, Sabrina

    2017-08-01

    The presence of naturally occurring resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in the HCV-protease domain has been poorly investigated in the liver, the main site of HCV replication. We evaluated the natural resistance of the virus to NS3 protease inhibitors in liver tissue and plasma samples taken from HCV-infected patients. RASs were investigated by means of viral population sequencing in liver tissue samples from 18 HCV-infected patients harbouring genotype 1a or genotype 1b; plasma samples from 12 of these patients were also available for virological investigation. A discordant genotype was found in two of the 12 patients (16.6%) who provided samples from both compartments. Sequence analysis of the NS3 protease domain showed the presence of RASs in four of the 18 liver tissue samples (22.2%), two of which showed cross-resistance to protease inhibitors in clinical use or phase 2-3 trials. The analysis of the 12 paired tissues and plasma samples excluded the presence of RASs in the plasma compartment. The dominance of discordant genotypes in the paired liver and plasma samples of some HCV-infected patients suggests mixed infection possibly leading to the selective advantage of different genotype in the two compartments. The presence of RASs at intra-hepatic level is not uncommon and may lead to the early emergence of cross-resistant strains.

  10. Marking with radioactive iodine of a plasma substitute and preliminary essays of his kinetic behaviour in rats; Marcacao com radioiodo de um sucedaneo do plasma e ensaios preliminares de seu comportamento cinetico em ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cova, Wilma Guimaraes

    1973-07-01

    A blood plasma substitute (Haem accel - PGO), which has as a base a degraded and polymerized gelatin, was labelled with radioactive iodine (I-131) and preliminary essays of its kinetic behavior was done. We have used the labelling method of McFarlaner. The results obtained - radiochemical yield and purity - were favorable. The kinetic behaviour the residual radioactivity studied by measuring the residual radioactivity of the body and excreta in groups of male Wistar rats for a maximum period of 150 hours. These results have shown and excellent correlation for a two components exponential function's adjustment, suggesting therefore a bi compartmental mathematical model. (author)

  11. Marking with radioactive iodine of a plasma substitute and preliminary essays of his kinetic behaviour in rats; Marcacao com radioiodo de um sucedaneo do plasma e ensaios preliminares de seu comportamento cinetico em ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cova, Wilma Guimaraes

    1973-07-01

    A blood plasma substitute (Haem accel - PGO), which has as a base a degraded and polymerized gelatin, was labelled with radioactive iodine (I-131) and preliminary essays of its kinetic behavior was done. We have used the labelling method of McFarlaner. The results obtained - radiochemical yield and purity - were favorable. The kinetic behaviour the residual radioactivity studied by measuring the residual radioactivity of the body and excreta in groups of male Wistar rats for a maximum period of 150 hours. These results have shown and excellent correlation for a two components exponential function's adjustment, suggesting therefore a bi compartmental mathematical model. (author)

  12. Effects of neutron-gamma or gamma irradiations on plasma clotting factors. Effect of a treatment by substituted factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestries, J.C.; Martin, S.; Janodet, D.; Herodin, F.; Gourmelon, P.; Fatome, M.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron-gamma irradiation of the baboon at lethal dose altered the plasma clotting factors and induced a fibrinoformation alteration which occurred shortly before death. These disturbances, which were not found after gamma irradiation, could explain the importance of the haemorrhagic syndrome. Treatment by P.P.S.B. (factors II, VII, X and IX) counteracted the alterations of the plasma clotting factors, but had no influence on the lethality nor on the fibrinoformation alteration which seems to be an important cause of death [fr

  13. Effects of the gelatin plasma substitutes Haemaccel, Plasmagel and Plasmion (Geloplasma) on collagen-, ADP- and adrenaline-induced aggregation of human platelets in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibbe, J; van der Plas, P M; Ong, G L; ten Hoor, F; Nauta, J; de Jong, D S; Krenning-Douma, E; Gomes, M

    1981-01-01

    The effect of some gelatin plasma substitutes (Haemaccel, plasmagel and Plasmion (Geloplasma), which are widely used in Europe) on collagen-, ADP- and adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation in human PRP in vitro was studied under controlled conditions (pH, electrolyte composition). Haemaccel inhibited these aggregations, both in citrated as well as in heparinised PRP, whereas they were enhanced by both Plasmagel and Plasmion as compared to the appropriate control. Increasing teh concentration of the inducer overcame the inhibition by Haemaccel. Haemaccel inhibited, while Plasmion enhanced 14C-serotonin release induced by collagen, ADP or adrenaline. Also in the presence of indomethacin (90 muM) Haemaccel inhibited aggregation induced by high concentrations of collagen and the primary aggregation induced by ADP and adrenaline, while Plasmion enhanced these aggregations induced by ADP and adrenaline, while Plasmion enhanced these aggregations. The inhibition by Haemaccel was not caused by binding of Ca2+ to haemaccel.

  14. Zn2+ in-situ substitution behavior during the formation of BaTiO3 coatings from plasma-sprayed powders collected in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Xing, Zhiguo; Wang, Haidou; Xue, Zifan; Chen, Shuying; Cui, Xiufang; Jin, Guo

    2018-04-01

    The dielectric performance of BaTiO3 ceramic coatings is enhanced significantly by the addition of ZnO. In this study, the maximum relative permittivity value (εr ≈ 923) was measured in BaTiO3 coatings with ZnO added at 6 wt%. The Curie temperature (Tc) was in the range of 111 °C-121 °C for all of the ZnO-modified BaTiO3 coatings. Tc shifted to low temperatures as the ZnO content increased. Detailed analyses were performed to determine the phase composition and optical band gaps of powders collected in liquid nitrogen, which showed that the Zn2+ ions were incorporated into the BaTiO3 lattice where they substituted into the Ti4+ sites, and the composite powders (BaTiO3 + 6 wt% ZnO) tolerated high temperatures in the plasma beam. In addition, some residual Zn accumulated in the grain boundary in the form of ZnO. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy showed that the substitution led to changes in the compositional and structural properties. The red shift in the optical band gap of BaTiO3 indicated that the ZnTi'' defects caused by the dopants acted as carriers in the doped BaTiO3 coatings.

  15. Enhancement of Osteoblastic-Like Cell Activity by Glow Discharge Plasma Surface Modified Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisner Salamanca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glow discharge plasma (GDP treatments of biomaterials, such as hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP composites, produce surfaces with fewer contaminants and may facilitate cell attachment and enhance bone regeneration. Thus, in this study we used argon glow discharge plasma (Ar-GDP treatments to modify HA/β-TCP particle surfaces and investigated the physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles (HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP. The HA/β-TCP particles were treated with GDP for 15 min in argon gas at room temperature under the following conditions: power: 80 W; frequency: 13.56 MHz; pressure: 100 mTorr. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations showed similar rough surfaces of HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP HA/β-TCP particles, and energy dispersive spectrometry analyses showed that HA/β-TCP surfaces had more contaminants than HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP surfaces. Ca/P mole ratios in HA/β-TCP and HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP were 1.34 and 1.58, respectively. Both biomaterials presented maximal intensities of X-ray diffraction patterns at 27° with 600 a.u. At 25° and 40°, HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP and HA/β-TCP particles had peaks of 200 a.u., which are similar to XRD intensities of human bone. In subsequent comparisons, MG-63 cell viability and differentiation into osteoblast-like cells were assessed on HA/β-TCP and HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP surfaces, and Ar-GDP treatments led to improved cell growth and alkaline phosphatase activities. The present data indicate that GDP surface treatment modified HA/β-TCP surfaces by eliminating contaminants, and the resulting graft material enhanced bone regeneration.

  16. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    ammonia-nitrogen and milk concentration of urea, corresponding to an increase in percentage of protein in milk. Compared with multiparous cows, primiparous cows had greater rumen pH, metabolite concentrations in plasma (glucose, cholesterol, urea nitrogen, total protein, and globulins), milk production, and concentrations of milk components. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage at up to 12% of dietary dry matter can be beneficial during heat stress conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Substitutional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Daniel Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Classic monograph, suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include calculus of permutations and tableaux, semi-normal representation, orthogonal and natural representations, group characters, and substitutional equations. 1968 edition.

  18. Operator substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Substitution of an operator into an operator-valued map is defined and studied. A Bezout-type remainder theorem is used to derive a number of results. The tensor map is used to formulate solvability conditions for linear matrix equations. Some applications to system theory are given, in particular

  19. Solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general ''Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated

  20. Tonemic Substitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezenwafor

    grammatical constructions. The choice of substitutable tonemes as observed from the analyzed data is highly. Ezenwafordependent on the intuitive judgement of the native speaker. This work shows with adequate data, that regular tonemic changes are not always meaningful in Ekwulobia lect. Such tonemic alternations are ...

  1. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  2. Hidrolisado de mucosa intestinal de suínos em substituição ao plasma sangüíneo em dietas para leitões de 21 a 49 dias Hydrolyzed of intestinal mucosa of swine in substitution to blood plasma in diets of pigs from 21 to 49 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Corassa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da substituição parcial ou total do plasma sangüíneo por hidrolisado de mucosa intestinal de suínos (HI em dietas para leitões de 21 a 49 dias. Cento e quarenta leitões desmamados aos 21,7 ± 2,9 dias com peso médio de 5,54 ± 0,65 kg foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos, sete repetições e quatro animais por unidade experimental. O experimento foi dividido nas fases de 21 a 35 dias e de 36 a 49 dias de idade. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta com plasma e de quatro dietas contendo diferentes níveis dos produtos HI 50 e HI 62 em substituição ao plasma. A substituição parcial ou total do plasma pelos produtos HI 50 e HI 62 não resultou em diferenças no consumo médio diário, no ganho de peso médio diário e na conversão alimentar de leitões nos períodos avaliados. Os pesos absoluto e relativo das vísceras funcionais não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. Não houve efeito das dietas sobre as características de integridade intestinal no duodeno, jejuno e íleo de leitões com 35 dias de idade. Os produtos HI 50 e HI 62 podem substituir total ou parcialmente o plasma em rações para leitões de 21 a 49 dias de idade sem efeitos significativos.A trial was conduced to evaluate the effect partial or total substitution of blood plasma for hydrolyzed of intestinal mucosa of swine (HI in diets of pigs from 21 to 49 days of age. A total of 140 piglets weaned at 21.7 ± 2.9 days of age with average weight of 5.54 ± 0.65 kg were allotted to a randomized experimental block design, with five treatments, seven replications of four animals per experimental unit. The experiment was divided in the phases from 21 to 35 days and from 36 to 49 days of age. The treatments consisted of a diet with plasma and four diets with different levels of HI 50 and HI 62 products in substitution of plasma. The partial or total plasma

  3. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  4. Effects of dietary substitution of mixed amino acids for glucose on the splanchnic metabolism of plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, carbohydrates, and amino acids in conscious fed baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, B M; Redinger, R N; Marliss, E B; Grace, D M

    1983-04-01

    Splanchnic metabolism was studied in the fed state during prolonged constant intravenous administration of tracer amounts of [9,10]-3H palmitic acid and the calculated isocaloric intraduodenal administration (13 mg/min X kg body wt0.75) of either (1) glucose, (2) 15% mixed amino acids and 85% glucose or (3) 45% mixed amino acids and 55% glucose to conscious, restrained female baboons that had been maintained on a similar diet (supplemented in essential nutrients) for the previous 9 days. Secretion of plasma triglycerides from the splanchnic region was quantified from splanchnic flow and radiochemical measurements of transsplanchnic gradients of 3H-labeled free fatty acids and triglycerides. Mean splanchnic secretion of plasma triglycerides increased significantly as the proportion of dietary calories derived from amino acids was varied from 0 to 15 to 45% (mean values 1.1 +/- 0.1, 2.6 +/- 0.2 and 4.2 +/- 0.3 mumol/min kg body wt0.75, respectively, p less than 0.05). Increased triglyceride secretion was attributable to both significantly higher rates of esterification of free fatty acids taken up in the splanchnic region to triglycerides released into hepatic venous blood plasma (mean values 10 +/- 1, 16 +/- 2 and 34 +/- 5%, respectively) and to significantly higher rates of secretion of triglycerides derived from precursors other than free fatty acids. Higher intake of amino acids was also associated with both higher plasma concentrations of cholesterol and higher values for hepatic oxidation of cholesterol to bile acids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Subsequent growth performance and digestive physiology of broilers fed on starter diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma as a substitute for meat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beski, S S M; Swick, R A; Iji, P A

    2015-01-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), in lieu of meat meal, in the starter diet on performance and digestive physiology of broiler chickens between hatch and 35 d of age. Four levels of SDPP (0, 5, 10 or 20 g/kg) were included in the starter diets in lieu of meat meal on either wheat- or maize-based diets. Over the first 10 d, and throughout the 35-d experimental period, birds gained more body weight with increasing concentrations of SDPP regardless to the type of grain used. Inclusion of SDPP in the starter diet markedly improved feed per gain in the starter phase and across the 35-d study. There was no significant effect of the type of grain and its interaction with SDPP on the body weight gain and feed per gain for the two assessed periods. At d 10, the relative weight of the gizzard+proventriculus, spleen and liver increased with increasing concentrations of SDPP. At 24 d of age, the grain and SDPP inclusion significantly interacted, depressing the weight of bursa and spleen in birds that received the highest concentration of SDPP in the maize-based diet. Birds fed on the maize-based diets had higher relative weight of pancreas than those on the wheat-based diets. Increasing concentrations of SDPP in the starter diet improved the activities of maltase, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase at 24 d of age. The interaction of grain and SDPP concentration was significant for sucrase activity in birds on the wheat-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher alkaline phosphatase and maltase activities than those on wheat-based diets. Chicks that were offered SDPP-containing starter diets had longer villi, deeper crypts and lower villi/crypt than the control at 24 d of age regardless of the grain type used. Furthermore, longer villi and larger villi/crypt were found in chicken groups fed on wheat-based diets than those on maize-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher

  6. Medicineringsfejl ved generisk substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rölfing, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Generic substitution is a major cause of medical mistakes in the general population. Danish legislation obligates pharmacies to substitute prescribed medicine with the cheapest equivalent formulation, despite variations in product name, packaging, shape and colour. Consequently, medical mistakes...... occur. Scientific evidence on the consequences of generic substitution is sparse. Call upon fellow health workers to report medical mistakes to the national entities and scientific peers, in order to increase awareness and scientific evidence about the problem....

  7. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject to...

  8. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  9. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  10. [Delegation yes, substitution no!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, A

    2014-08-01

    The aging of society leads on the one hand to increasing case numbers and on the other hand to a reduction in the number of physicians available for patient treatment. The delegation and substitution of medical duties as a tried and tested method is increasingly being recommended in order to compensate for the lack of physicians. The Berufsverband der Deutschen Urologen (BDU, Professional Association of German Urologists) supports the guiding principle of the Bundesärztekammer (Federal Medical Council) of "delegation yes, substitution no" and rejects a substitution of medical duties by non-medical academic health personnel. Against the background of the demographic changes, the increasing need for treatment and the current deficiency of junior physicians, a more extensive inclusion of well-qualified and experienced non-medical personnel by the delegation of medically responsible duties (medical scope of practice) can be an appropriate measure to maintain a good medical service in practices, hospitals and nursing homes.

  11. Aryl substitution of pentacenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas R. Waterloo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of 11 new pentacene derivatives has been synthesized, with unsymmetrical substitution based on a trialkylsilylethynyl group at the 6-position and various aryl groups appended to the 13-position. The electronic and physical properties of the new pentacene chromophores have been analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy (solution and thin films, thermoanalytical methods (DSC and TGA, cyclic voltammetry, as well as X-ray crystallography (for 8 derivatives. X-ray crystallography has been specifically used to study the influence of unsymmetrical substitution on the solid-state packing of the pentacene derivatives. The obtained results add to our ability to better predict substitution patterns that might be helpful for designing new semiconductors for use in solid-state devices.

  12. Aryl substitution of pentacenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterloo, Andreas R; Sale, Anna-Chiara; Lehnherr, Dan; Hampel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Summary A series of 11 new pentacene derivatives has been synthesized, with unsymmetrical substitution based on a trialkylsilylethynyl group at the 6-position and various aryl groups appended to the 13-position. The electronic and physical properties of the new pentacene chromophores have been analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy (solution and thin films), thermoanalytical methods (DSC and TGA), cyclic voltammetry, as well as X-ray crystallography (for 8 derivatives). X-ray crystallography has been specifically used to study the influence of unsymmetrical substitution on the solid-state packing of the pentacene derivatives. The obtained results add to our ability to better predict substitution patterns that might be helpful for designing new semiconductors for use in solid-state devices. PMID:25161729

  13. Muon substituted free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, P.; Fischer, H.; Roduner, E.; Strub, W.; Gygax, F.N.; Brinkman, G.A.; Louwrier, P.W.F.; McKenna, D.; Ramos, M.; Webster, B.C.

    1984-01-01

    Spin polarized energetic positive muons are injected as magnetic probes into unsaturated organic liquids. They are implemented via fast chemical processes ( -10 s) in various molecules. Of particular interest among these are muonium substituted free radicals. The technique allows determination of accurate rate coefficients for fast chemical reactions of radicals. Furthermore, radiochemical processes occuring in picoseconds after injection of the muon are studied. Of fundamental interest are also the structural and dynamical implications of substituting a proton by a muon, or in other terms, a hydrogen atom by a muonium atom. Selected examples for each of these three types of experiments are given. (Auth.)

  14. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article is an overview of efforts at INEL to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes through the elimination of hazardous solvents. To aid in their efforts, a number of databases have been developed and will become a part of an Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System. This latter data system will be accessible through Internet

  15. Carbolanthanation of substituted alkynes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, V.N.; Kazimirchuk, E.I.; Vitt, S.V.; Khandozhko, V.N.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1993-01-01

    Using the reaction between CH 3 YbI and substituted alkynes as an example, agents can enter into carbolanthanation reaction via transfer of a methyl group to carbon atom of acetylene bond with the production of a new olefin carbanion. 5 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  16. [Currently available skin substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcová, Darina; Koller, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. Autologous split or full-thickness skin graft are the best definitive burn wound coverage, but it is constrained by the limited available sources, especially in major burns. Donor site morbidities in term of additional wounds and scarring are also of concern of the autograft application. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. This paper reviews currently available skin substitutes, produced in not for-profit skin banks as well as commercially available. They are divided according to type of material included, as biological, biosynthetic and synthetic and named respectively.

  17. Protein substitution to produce a processed cheese with high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple studies report the beneficial effects of BCAAs supplementation to improve plasma amino acids imbalance, several neurologic diseases, protein energy malnutrition, and subsequently the survival rate of cirrhotic patients. Methods: In the present study we used a protein substitution technique to synthesize a new ...

  18. Hexavalent Chromium Substitution Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    Hexavalent Chromium Substitution Projects Date (12 May 2011) Gene McKinley ASC/WNV (937) 255-3596 Gene.McKinley@wpafb.af.mil Aeronautical Systems...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 12 MAY 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hexavalent ...A-10) – AETC (T-6, T-38 and T1A) • Both Cr Primers & Non-Cr primers as well as Cr Surface Treatment – F-22 8 Non- Chrome Tie-coat & touch-up

  19. Muonium substituted molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.

    1990-12-01

    The manner in which Muon Spin Rotation and Level Crossing Resonance are used to characterise muonium substituted organic radicals is described, and illustrated with spectra for the ethyl radical and related species. Comparison with electron spin resonance data for the unsubstituted radicals reveals significant structural and hyperfine isotope effects which can be traced to the effects of zero point motion. The first comparable results for a diamagnetic species, exhibiting a quadrupole isotope effect by comparison with conventional nuclear quadrupole resonance data, are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Resources, recycle, and substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    A two-fold strategy appears necessary to ensure that the resource needs of the developed and developing nations are met. First, recycle and substitution must be encouraged in those instances where they do find application. Although these measures have limited applicability, they may be of vital importance in those instances where they do apply; in any event, they buy time. Second, practical and economical technologies must be developed to exploit the lower-grade and marginal ores and the oftentimes abundant but highly refractory ores, as well as to greatly increase the recovery of secondary elements present in the ores - elements whose form and amounts in the ores make them economically unrecoverable by themselves, but which are economically recoverable as by-products. It is often the case that if these elements are not recovered during the initial mining and milling operations, they are rendered unrecoverable, in a practical sense, forever. Furthermore, they may even become environmental pollutants. Specific examples of recovery from refractory ores, by-product recovery, and recycle are given. Also, some suggestions of substitutes for important resources are tabulated

  1. Plasma cleaning for waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.P.

    1993-07-01

    Although plasma cleaning is a recognized substitute for solvent cleaning in removing organic contaminants, some universal problems in plasma cleaning processes prevent wider use of plasma techniques. Lack of understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of the process, unreliable endpoint detection techniques, and slow process times make plasma cleaning processes less than desirable. Our approach to address these plasma cleaning problems is described. A comparison of plasma cleaning rates of oxygen and oxygen/sulfur hexafluoride gases shows that fluorine-containing plasmas can enhance etch rates by 400% over oxygen alone. A discussion of various endpoint indication techniques is discussed and compared for application suitability. Work toward a plasma cleaning database is discussed. In addition to the global problems of plasma cleaning, an experiment where the specific mixed-waste problem of removal of machine oils from radioactive scrap metal is discussed.

  2. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates

  3. Why Does Trigonometric Substitution Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Daniel W.

    2018-01-01

    Modern calculus textbooks carefully illustrate how to perform integration by trigonometric substitution. Unfortunately, most of these books do not adequately justify this powerful technique of integration. In this article, we present an accessible proof that establishes the validity of integration by trigonometric substitution. The proof offers…

  4. Substitution of matrices over rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautus, M.L.J.

    1995-01-01

    For a given commutative ring with an identity element, we define and study the substitution of a matrix with entries in into a matrix polynomial or rational function over . A Bezout-type remainder theorem and a "partial-substitution rule" are derived and used to obtain a number of results. The

  5. Substitution in recreation choice behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. Peterson; Daniel J. Stynes; Donald H. Rosenthal; John F. Dwyer

    1985-01-01

    This review discusses concepts and theories of substitution in recreation choice. It brings together the literature of recreation research, psychology, geography, economics, and transportation. Parallel and complementary developments need integration into an improved theory of substitution. Recreation decision behavior is characterized as a nested or sequential choice...

  6. Biological background of dermal substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; van der Wal, M.B.; van Leeuwen, M.C.; Ulrich, M.; Middelkoop, E.

    2010-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are of major importance in treating full thickness skin defects, both in acute and chronic wounds. In this review we will outline specific requirements of three classes of dermal substitutes:-natural biological materials, with a more or less intact extracellular matrix

  7. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders: Synthesis, thermal stability and sinterability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, Alessandra; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Lombardi, Mariangela; Montanaro, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatites incorporating small amounts of Si have shown improved biological performances in terms of enhanced bone apposition, bone in-growth and cell-mediated degradation. This paper reports a systematic investigation on Si-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si 1.40 wt%) nanopowders produced following two different conventional wet methodologies: (a) precipitation of Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O and (b) titration of Ca(OH) 2 . The influence of the synthesis process on composition, thermal behaviour and sinterability of the resulting nanopowders is studied. Samples were characterised by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, N 2 adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. Semicrystalline Si-substituted hydroxyapatite powders made up of needle-like nanoparticles were obtained, the specific surface area ranged between 84 and 110 m 2 /g. Pure and Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders derived from Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O decomposed around 1000 deg. C. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders obtained from Ca(OH) 2 were thermally stable up to 1200 deg. C and showed a distinct decreased thermal stability with respect to the homologous pure sample. Si-substituted hydroxyapatites exhibited higher sintering temperature and increased total shrinkage with respect to pure powders. Nanostructured dense ceramics were obtained by sintering at 1100 deg. C Si-substituted hydroxyapatites derived from Ca(OH) 2

  8. N-substituted iminodiacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, A.; Loberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of several new N-substituted iminodiacetic acid derivatives are described. These compounds when complexed with sup(99m)Tc provide useful radiopharmaceuticals for the external imaging of the hepatobiliary system. (U.K.)

  9. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent of prot...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  10. Stores, Prices, and Currency Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele, Camera; Winkler, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    We study endogenous currency substitution in a decentralized trade environment. Sellers maximize profits from sales of imperfectly substitutable goods by posting prices in either one of two currencies. A unique symmetric equilibrium exists where goods are priced only in the local currency. This occurs if foreign trade is sporadic, there is sufficient but not excessive liquidity, and discounting is low. Excess or scarcity of liquidity, however, induces sellers to extract all surplus from bu...

  11. Substitution reactions of technetium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, T.

    1997-01-01

    Substitution reactions of a series of technetium complexes are considered in comparison with corresponding reactions of rhenium. Rhenium and technetium complexes are rather inert in substitution reactions, the latter are characterized by greater rate constants when they proceed according to dissociative mechanism. In rare cases when k Tc /k Re id little it is assumed that the reaction proceeds according to the associative mechanism. (author)

  12. Approaches in Substitution of Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    In substitution of harmful chemicals or products with less harmful or harmless ones, there are different approaches according to the different situations, the technical requirements to the substitutes, and the goals for the substitution. Three different cases are presented. The substitution process...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl...

  14. Substituted decision making: elder guardianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Martha E; Goethe, Katherine E

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this column is to help experienced clinicians navigate the judicial system when they are confronted with requests for capacity evaluations that involve guardianship (conservatorship). The interface between the growing elderly medical population and increasing requests for substituted decision making is becoming more complex. This column will help practicing psychiatrists understand the medical, legal, and societal factors involved in adult guardianship. Such understanding is necessary in order to effectively perform guardianship evaluations and adequately inform courts, patients, and families about the psychiatric diagnoses central to substituted decision making.

  15. Substitution determination of Fmoc‐substituted resins at different wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, Markus; Bächle, Dirk; Loidl, Günther; Meier, Thomas; Samson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In solid‐phase peptide synthesis, the nominal batch size is calculated using the starting resin substitution and the mass of the starting resin. The starting resin substitution constitutes the basis for the calculation of a whole set of important process parameters, such as the number of amino acid derivative equivalents. For Fmoc‐substituted resins, substitution determination is often performed by suspending the Fmoc‐protected starting resin in 20% (v/v) piperidine in DMF to generate the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct that is quantified by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. The spectrometric measurement is performed at the maximum absorption wavelength of the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct, that is, at 301.0 nm. The recorded absorption value, the resin weight and the volume are entered into an equation derived from Lambert–Beer's law, together with the substance‐specific molar absorption coefficient at 301.0 nm, in order to calculate the nominal substitution. To our knowledge, molar absorption coefficients between 7100 l mol−1 cm−1 and 8100 l mol−1 cm−1 have been reported for the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct at 301.0 nm. Depending on the applied value, the nominal batch size may differ up to 14%. In this publication, a determination of the molar absorption coefficients at 301.0 and 289.8 nm is reported. Furthermore, proof is given that by measuring the absorption at 289.8 nm the impact of wavelength accuracy is reduced. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28635051

  16. Substitution determination of Fmoc-substituted resins at different wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Stefan; Kley, Markus; Bächle, Dirk; Loidl, Günther; Meier, Thomas; Samson, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    In solid-phase peptide synthesis, the nominal batch size is calculated using the starting resin substitution and the mass of the starting resin. The starting resin substitution constitutes the basis for the calculation of a whole set of important process parameters, such as the number of amino acid derivative equivalents. For Fmoc-substituted resins, substitution determination is often performed by suspending the Fmoc-protected starting resin in 20% (v/v) piperidine in DMF to generate the dibenzofulvene-piperidine adduct that is quantified by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The spectrometric measurement is performed at the maximum absorption wavelength of the dibenzofulvene-piperidine adduct, that is, at 301.0 nm. The recorded absorption value, the resin weight and the volume are entered into an equation derived from Lambert-Beer's law, together with the substance-specific molar absorption coefficient at 301.0 nm, in order to calculate the nominal substitution. To our knowledge, molar absorption coefficients between 7100 l mol -1  cm -1 and 8100 l mol -1  cm -1 have been reported for the dibenzofulvene-piperidine adduct at 301.0 nm. Depending on the applied value, the nominal batch size may differ up to 14%. In this publication, a determination of the molar absorption coefficients at 301.0 and 289.8 nm is reported. Furthermore, proof is given that by measuring the absorption at 289.8 nm the impact of wavelength accuracy is reduced. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Behavioral service substitution (Chapter 9)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Bouguettaya, A.; Sheng, Q.Z.; Daniel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Service-oriented design supports system evolution and encourages reuse and modularization. A key ingredient of service orientation is the ability to substitute one service by another without reconfiguring the overall system. This chapter aims to give an overview of the state of the art and open

  18. prismane structure by silicon substitution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using the second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation (MP2) theoretic method and the cc-pVDZ basis set, it is shown that with an increase in the number of carbon atoms substituted by silicon, the [6]-prismane structure becomes increasingly more stable, relative to the two isolated benzene (like) structures. A similar trend is ...

  19. Story of skeletally substituted benzenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    values are extensively used to define aromaticity quantitatively.3 In a recent study on ... studies were directed to unravel the subtle ways in which the stability, reactivity, and ..... The singlet–triplet gaps of all the skeletally substituted benzenes ...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the following criteria, derived from Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standards and recommended... Substitutes] Application Substitute Decision Conditions Comments Electronics Cleaning w/CFC-113 and MCF HFC... Sector [Acceptable Subject to Narrowed Use Limits] Application Substitute Decision Comments Electronics...

  1. Smart Phones and their Substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on data from a longitudinal field study, this paper investigates the influence of existing, better and stand-alone technology substitutes on the use of smart phones. By applying prospect theory, media richness theory, and business model literature, the purpose of this paper is to improve...... our understanding of the role of substitutes, device content fit issues, and implications for business models by asking the question: What is an effective business model to address the relationship between user preference and the fit of the smart phone and everyday task? The field study data suggest...... the need for business models to recognize that adoption decisions are reference-dependent and strongly influenced by the fit between task and smart phone....

  2. Bone healing and bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David; Govindaraj, Satish; Moche, Jason

    2002-02-01

    With the advent of new biomaterials and surgical techniques, the reconstructive surgeon has a wider range of treatment modalities for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of craniofacial skeletal deformities than ever before. These innovative substances act as true bone graft substitutes, thereby allowing the surgeon to avoid the use of autogenous bone grafts and their associated donor site morbidity. Surgeons have long been interested in producing a composite graft that can heal faster by induction, incorporate with surrounding tissues, and be remodeled to resemble native bone. Currently, there are a host of bone graft substitutes available that vary in both their composition and properties. Craniomaxillofacial surgeons must therefore become comfortable with numerous biomaterials to best tailor the treatment for each patient individually. Ongoing investigations into the next phase of tissue engineering will continue to bring us closer to the ability to regenerate or replace bone.

  3. Substituting oil by electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    Parting from the development of primary energy use the author refers to the latest investigations and results presented on the 1980 World Energy Conference and with special regard to oil points out the threatening exhaustion of fossil energy resources. Maintaining the economic structure of the Federal Republic of Germany implies an orientation away from oil. Due to its flexible application technology and quasi-inexhaustible energy resources electric power may substantially contribute to oil substitution which as a matter of fact is of particular interest in connection with the heat market. Coal alone cannot substitute both oil and nuclear energy. Thus, the above postulates the use of the latter. Leaving nuclear energy inactive today will effect an increase in the demand for oil the negative consequences of which would weight heavily upon the anyhow unbalanced import/export ratio of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  4. 40 CFR 721.4420 - Substituted hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted hydroxylamine. 721.4420... Substances § 721.4420 Substituted hydroxylamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted hydroxylamine (PMN P-84-492) is...

  5. Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1978-01-01

    Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable...

  6. Substitutes for School Nurses in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollinger, Linda Jeno; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Belmonte-Mann, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore utilization of nurse substitutes in the school setting in Illinois. The literature described personnel who staff the school health office in the absence of the school nurse and the barriers to obtaining nurse substitutes. There were no empirical studies conducted on school nurse substitutes in…

  7. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  8. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  9. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  10. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Khoo, Teng Lye; Mohd Yussof, Shah Jumaat

    2010-09-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.

  11. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.

  12. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  13. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  14. Computational study of cation substitutions in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, Toomas; Peld, Merike

    2006-01-01

    Density-functional theory plane-wave modeling of fluor- and hydroxyapatites has been performed, where one or two calcium ions per unit cell were replaced with cadmium or zinc cations. It was found that cadmium ions favor Ca(1) positions in fluorapatites and Ca(2) positions in hydroxyapatites, in agreement with experiment. A similar pattern is predicted for zinc substitutions. In the doubly substituted cases, where only hydroxyapatites were modeled, a preference for the substituting ions to be located in Ca(2) position was also observed. Displacement of the hydroxide ions from their symmetrical positions on the hexagonal axis can be used to explain the preferred configurations of substituting ions around the axis. -- Deformation of the hydroxide ion chain due to substitutions around the ion channel in substituted hydroxyapatites

  15. The Morishima Gross elasticity of substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Blackorby, Charles; Primont, Daniel; Russell, R. Robert

    2007-01-01

    We show that the Hotelling-Lau elasticity of substitution, an extension of the Allen-Uzawa elasticity to allow for optimal output-quantity (or utility) responses to changes in factor prices, inherits all of the failings of the Allen-Uzawa elasticity identified by Blackorby and Russell [1989 AER]. An analogous extension of the Morishima elasticity of substitution to allow for output quantity changes preserves the salient properties of the original Hicksian notion of elasticity of substitution.

  16. Statistical Physics of Complex Substitutive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qing

    Diffusion processes are central to human interactions. Despite extensive studies that span multiple disciplines, our knowledge is limited to spreading processes in non-substitutive systems. Yet, a considerable number of ideas, products, and behaviors spread by substitution; to adopt a new one, agents must give up an existing one. This captures the spread of scientific constructs--forcing scientists to choose, for example, a deterministic or probabilistic worldview, as well as the adoption of durable items, such as mobile phones, cars, or homes. In this dissertation, I develop a statistical physics framework to describe, quantify, and understand substitutive systems. By empirically exploring three collected high-resolution datasets pertaining to such systems, I build a mechanistic model describing substitutions, which not only analytically predicts the universal macroscopic phenomenon discovered in the collected datasets, but also accurately captures the trajectories of individual items in a complex substitutive system, demonstrating a high degree of regularity and universality in substitutive systems. I also discuss the origins and insights of the parameters in the substitution model and possible generalization form of the mathematical framework. The systematical study of substitutive systems presented in this dissertation could potentially guide the understanding and prediction of all spreading phenomena driven by substitutions, from electric cars to scientific paradigms, and from renewable energy to new healthy habits.

  17. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  18. Controversial issues of maternity substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pușcă

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substitute maternity consists in a woman carrying a pregnancy (the implant of an embryo, at therequest of a sterile couple, most of the times in exchange of a sum of money, with her commitment tounconditionally give away the newborn after birth to the couple she concluded the agreement with. Manycontroversies emerged in what concerns the contract between the sterile couple and the carrying mother,especially when this contract is by onerous title, which happens in most of the cases. In that a civil contract? Is ita sales contract for the child? Is it a contract to provide services? Is it body marketing? Between total prohibitionand excessive liberalism, the middle way, which is the regulation according to ethical religious, cultural andsocial norms of each community, represents a realistic solution.

  19. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Substituted Phenylnitrenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Neloni R.; Da Fonte, Maria; Wenthold, Paul G.

    2009-06-01

    Nitrenes are unusual molecular structures with unfilled electronic valences that are isoelectronic with carbenes. Although, both can be generated by either thermal or photochemical decomposition of appropriate precursors they usually exhibit different reactivities. In this work, we carry out spectroscopic studies of substituted phenylnitrene to determine how the introduction of substituents will affect the reactivity and its thermochemical properties. All studies were carried out by using the newly constructed time-of-flight negative ion photoelectron spectrometer (NIPES) at Purdue University. The 355 nm photoelectron spectra of the o-, m-, and p-chlorophenyl nitrene anions are fairly similar to that measured for phenylnitrene anion. All spectra show low energy triplet state and a high energy singlet state. The singlet state for the meta isomer is well-resolved, with a well defined origin and observable vibrational structure. Whereas the singlet states for the ortho and para isomers have lower energy onsets and no resolved structure. The isomeric dependence suggests that the geometry differences result from the resonance interaction between the nitrogen and the substituent. Quinoidal resonance structures are possible for the open-shell singlet states of the o- and p-chlorinated phenyl nitrenes. The advantages of this type of electronic structures for the open-shell singlet states is that the unpaired electrons can be more localized on separate atoms in the molecules, minimizing the repulsion between. Because the meta position is not in resonance with the nitrenes, substitution at that position should not affect the structure of the open-shell singlet state. The measured electron affinities (EA) of the triplet phenylnitrenes are in excellent agreement with the values predicted by electronic structure calculations. The largest EA, 1.82 eV is found for the meta isomer, with para being the smallest, 1.70 eV.

  20. Structural properties and hyperfine characterization of Sn-substituted goethites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larralde, A.L. [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ramos, C.P. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, GIyA - CAC - CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); Arcondo, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), Bs. As. (Argentina); Tufo, A.E. [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saragovi, C. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, GIyA - CAC - CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); Sileo, E.E., E-mail: sileo@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure and tin-doped goethites were synthesized from Sn(II) solutions at ambient pressure and 70 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Rietveld refinement of PXRD data indicated that Sn partially substituted the Fe(III) ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The substitution provoked unit cell expansion, and a distortion of the coordination polyhedron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed that Sn(II) is incorporated as Sn(IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy showed a lower magnetic coupling as tin concentration increased. - Abstract: Tin-doped goethites obtained by a simple method at ambient pressure and 70 Degree-Sign C were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data, and {sup 57}Fe and {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. The particles size and the length to width ratios decreased with tin-doping. Sn partially substituted the Fe(III) ions provoking unit cell expansion and increasing the crystallinity of the particles with enlarged domains that grow in the perpendicular and parallel directions to the anisotropic broadening (1 1 1) axis. Intermetallic E, E Prime and DC distances also change although the variations are not monotonous, indicating different variations in the coordination polyhedron. In general, the Sn-substituted samples present larger intermetallic distances than pure goethite, and the greatest change is shown in the E Prime distance which coincides with the c-parameter. {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed that Sn(II) is incorporated as Sn(IV) in the samples. On the other hand, Fe(II) presence was not detected by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, suggesting the existence of vacancies in the Sn-doped samples. A lower magnetic coupling is also evidenced from the average magnetic hyperfine field values obtained as tin

  1. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  2. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  3. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  4. Type Substitution for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1990-01-01

    Genericity allows the substitution of types in a class. This is usually obtained through parameterized classes, although they are inflexible since any class can be inherited but is not in itself parameterized. We suggest a new genericity mechanism, type substitution, which is a subclassing concep...

  5. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution...

  6. Educators Take Another Look at Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    The mythology surrounding the substitute teacher is not a pretty one: Paper airplanes, lost learning, bullying. But as schools collect more information about teacher absenteeism and its consequences, districts and schools are exploring ways to professionalize substitute teaching--or experiment with alternative ways of coping with teacher absences.…

  7. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  8. Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    Abstract This paper analyzes the role of the elasticity of substitution for anti-dumping decisions across countries. In monopolistic competition models with cost heterogeneous firms across countries, price differences vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution. Anti-dumping duties should...... therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level...... in our empirical investigation support the predicted role of the elasticity of substitution as we find a significant negative relation between the elasticity of substitution and the final anti-dumping duties for the ‘lesser duty rule’ group of countries. The countries which do not follow the ‘lesser duty...

  9. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  10. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kolmas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency.

  11. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Różycka, Dagmara

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency. PMID:24949423

  12. Modeling competitive substitution in a polyelectrolyte complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, B.; Muthukumar, M.

    2015-01-01

    We have simulated the invasion of a polyelectrolyte complex made of a polycation chain and a polyanion chain, by another longer polyanion chain, using the coarse-grained united atom model for the chains and the Langevin dynamics methodology. Our simulations reveal many intricate details of the substitution reaction in terms of conformational changes of the chains and competition between the invading chain and the chain being displaced for the common complementary chain. We show that the invading chain is required to be sufficiently longer than the chain being displaced for effecting the substitution. Yet, having the invading chain to be longer than a certain threshold value does not reduce the substitution time much further. While most of the simulations were carried out in salt-free conditions, we show that presence of salt facilitates the substitution reaction and reduces the substitution time. Analysis of our data shows that the dominant driving force for the substitution process involving polyelectrolytes lies in the release of counterions during the substitution

  13. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  14. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufkin Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.. Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and

  15. Plasma chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the fundamental theory and various applications of ion mobility spectroscopy. Plasma chromatography developed from research on the diffusion and mobility of ions. Topics considered include instrument design and description (e.g., performance, spectral interpretation, sample handling, mass spectrometry), the role of ion mobility in plasma chromatography (e.g., kinetic theory of ion transport), atmospheric pressure ionization (e.g., rate equations), the characterization of isomers by plasma chromatography (e.g., molecular ion characteristics, polynuclear aromatics), plasma chromatography as a gas chromatographic detection method (e.g., qualitative analysis, continuous mobility monitoring, quantitative analysis), the analysis of toxic vapors by plasma chromatography (e.g., plasma chromatograph calibration, instrument control and data processing), the analysis of semiconductor devices and microelectronic packages by plasma chromatography/mass spectroscopy (e.g., analysis of organic surface contaminants, analysis of water in sealed electronic packages), and instrument design and automation (hardware, software)

  16. Arc plasma incineration of surrogate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girold, C.; Cartier, R.; Taupiac, J.P.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate the feasibility to substitute a single plasma reactor, where the arc is transferred on a melt glass bath, for several steps in an existing nuclear technological wastes incinerator. The incineration of wastes, the produced gas treatment and the vitrification of ashes issued from waste incineration are the three simultaneous functions of this new kind of reactor. The three steps of the work are described: first, post-combustion in an oxygen plasma of gases generated from the waste pyrolysis, then, vitrification of ashes from the calcination of wastes in the transferred plasma furnace and finally, incineration/vitrification of wastes in the same furnace

  17. Sensory Substitution and Multimodal Mental Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanay, Bence

    2017-09-01

    Many philosophers use findings about sensory substitution devices in the grand debate about how we should individuate the senses. The big question is this: Is "vision" assisted by (tactile) sensory substitution really vision? Or is it tactile perception? Or some sui generis novel form of perception? My claim is that sensory substitution assisted "vision" is neither vision nor tactile perception, because it is not perception at all. It is mental imagery: visual mental imagery triggered by tactile sensory stimulation. But it is a special form of mental imagery that is triggered by corresponding sensory stimulation in a different sense modality, which I call "multimodal mental imagery."

  18. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Khoo, Teng Lye; Mohd. Yussof, Shah Jumaat

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substit...

  19. Substitution within the Danish printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry and this work was recently finished. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study......The implementation of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... total 15 substances) were found in the Danish printing industry. This paper presents the results of the mapping of chemical candidates and the first results on preparing for actual substitutions....

  20. Substituted hydroxyapatites for biomedical applications: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šupová, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 8 (2015), s. 9203-9231 ISSN 0272-8842 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : bioapatite * calcium phosphate * hydroxyapatite * substitution Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.758, year: 2015

  1. Dodecatungstocobaltate and Sn (IV)-Substituted Polyoxometalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    work metals, or substituting different cations for the protons to make their acidic or neutral ... corrosive materials in comparison with traditional Lewis acids. The importance of .... salt by treatment with potassium chloride. Finally, the cobalt (II).

  2. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan

    2007-03-01

    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  3. DOES CURRENCY SUBSTITUTION AFFECT EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Kumamoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of the degree of currency substitution on nominal exchange rate volatility in seven countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Argentina, and Peru. We use the Threshold ARCH model to consider the ratchet effect of currency substitution and sample periods in the 2000s, during which time the economies of the sample countries stabilized, while the U.S. dollar and euro depreciated against other major currencies following the recent global financial crisis. The presented empirical analyses show that the degree of currency substitution has significant positive effects on the conditional variance of the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate in most sample countries. Moreover, a shock to the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate has asymmetric effects on the conditional variance, depending on the sign. One possible explanation for these differential effects is the existence of the ratchet effect of currency substitution.

  4. Development of a diesel substitute fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Anton; Mair-Zelenka, Philipp [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology; Zeymer, Marc [OMV Refining and Marketing GmbH, Vienna (Austria). MRDI-D Product Development and Innovation

    2013-06-01

    Substitute fuels composed of few real chemical compounds are an alternative characterisation approach for conventional fuels as opposed to the traditional pseudo-component method. With the algorithm proposed in this paper the generation of such substitutes will be facilitated and well-established thermodynamic methods can be applied for physical property-data prediction. Based on some quality criteria like true boiling-point curve, liquid density, C/H ratio, or cloud point of a target fuel a surrogate which meets these properties is determined by fitting its composition. The application and capabilities of the algorithm developed are demonstrated by means of an exemplary diesel substitute fuel. The substitute mixture obtained can be generated and used for evaluation of property-prediction methods. Furthermore this approach can help to understand the effects of mixing fossil fuels with biogenic compounds. (orig.)

  5. Hyperfine magnetic fields in substituted Finemet alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzózka, K., E-mail: k.brzozka@uthrad.pl [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland); Sovák, P. [P.J. Šafárik University, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Szumiata, T.; Gawroński, M.; Górka, B. [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine fields of Finemet-type alloys in form of ribbons, substituted alternatively by Mn, Ni, Co, Al, Zn, V or Ge of various concentration. The comparative analysis of magnetic hyperfine fields was carried out which enabled to understand the role of added elements in as-quenched as well as annealed samples. Moreover, the influence of the substitution on the mean direction of the local hyperfine magnetic field was examined.

  6. Trace maps of general substitutional sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, M.; Nori, F.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that for arbitrary n, there exists a trace map for any n-letter substitutional sequence. Trace maps are explicitly obtained for the well-known circle and Rudin-Shapiro sequences which can be defined by means of substitution rules on three and four letters, respectively. The properties of the two trace maps and their consequences for various spectral properties are briefly discussed

  7. Product portfolio optimization based on substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Moseley, A.; Hvam, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The development of production capabilities has led to proliferation of the product variety offered to the customer. Yet this fact does not directly imply increase of manufacturers' profitability, nor customers' satisfaction. Consequently, recent research focuses on portfolio optimization through...... substitution and standardization techniques. However when re-defining the strategic market decisions are characterized by uncertainty due to several parameters. In this study, by using a GAMS optimization model we present a method for supporting strategic decisions on substitution, by quantifying the impact...

  8. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suárez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru; that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period ...

  9. Substituting missing data in compositional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.real@usc.es [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Angel Fernandez, J.; Aboal, Jesus R.; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Multivariate analysis of environmental data sets requires the absence of missing values or their substitution by small values. However, if the data is transformed logarithmically prior to the analysis, this solution cannot be applied because the logarithm of a small value might become an outlier. Several methods for substituting the missing values can be found in the literature although none of them guarantees that no distortion of the structure of the data set is produced. We propose a method for the assessment of these distortions which can be used for deciding whether to retain or not the samples or variables containing missing values and for the investigation of the performance of different substitution techniques. The method analyzes the structure of the distances among samples using Mantel tests. We present an application of the method to PCDD/F data measured in samples of terrestrial moss as part of a biomonitoring study. - Highlights: > Missing values in multivariate data sets must be substituted prior to analysis. > The substituted values can modify the structure of the data set. > We developed a method to estimate the magnitude of the alterations. > The method is simple and based on the Mantel test. > The method allowed the identification of problematic variables in a sample data set. - A method is presented for the assessment of the possible distortions in multivariate analysis caused by the substitution of missing values.

  10. Substituting missing data in compositional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real, Carlos; Angel Fernandez, J.; Aboal, Jesus R.; Carballeira, Alejo

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate analysis of environmental data sets requires the absence of missing values or their substitution by small values. However, if the data is transformed logarithmically prior to the analysis, this solution cannot be applied because the logarithm of a small value might become an outlier. Several methods for substituting the missing values can be found in the literature although none of them guarantees that no distortion of the structure of the data set is produced. We propose a method for the assessment of these distortions which can be used for deciding whether to retain or not the samples or variables containing missing values and for the investigation of the performance of different substitution techniques. The method analyzes the structure of the distances among samples using Mantel tests. We present an application of the method to PCDD/F data measured in samples of terrestrial moss as part of a biomonitoring study. - Highlights: → Missing values in multivariate data sets must be substituted prior to analysis. → The substituted values can modify the structure of the data set. → We developed a method to estimate the magnitude of the alterations. → The method is simple and based on the Mantel test. → The method allowed the identification of problematic variables in a sample data set. - A method is presented for the assessment of the possible distortions in multivariate analysis caused by the substitution of missing values.

  11. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  12. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. [Guidelines for substitution treatments in prison populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L; Maguet, O

    2005-01-01

    Care access for the drug addict patients in prison (in particular for the treatments of substitution) in France is very unequal from one establishment to another. This reflects the great variability of the practices of substitution and especially the absence of consensus on the methods of adaptation of these practices to the prison environment. Because of difficulties expressed by prisoners and medical staff on this subject and of stakes (let us recall that approximately 30% of the prisoners are dependent or abusers of one or more psychoactive substances), the formulation of recommendations or of a good practices guide of substitution in prison appeared necessary. Work that we detail here answers a ordering of the Advisory Commission of the Treatments of Substitution (September 2001) whose authors are members. It was presented at the session April 2003. It results from the confrontation of a review of the literature (including legal texts and official reports concerning substitution, the organization of the care in prison environment and the lawful framework), with a vast investigation. The latter was carried out near medical staff (22 prisons), penitentiary staff (3 prisons, 27 people met including directors of these establishments) and prisoners (7 establishments, 28 prisoners met) in the form of individual talks (semi-directing interviews with evaluation of the type of existing device and its knowledge by the penitentiary staff and the prisoners; statement of the suggestions, needs and requests of the medical, penitentiary staffs and of the prisoners). In the whole visited prisons, 7.8% (870) of the prisoners received substitution treatments (6.35% by buprenorphine, 1.44% by methadone), representing a proportion of substituted drug addicts (870 substituted for an evaluation of 3,350 prisoners drug addicts among the 11,168 prisoners of the 22 visited prisons) notably lower than that in free environment (56%, ie 96,000 substituted for an evaluated population of

  14. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  15. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  16. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1991-06-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division continues to study a broad range of problems originating in plasma physics. Its principal focus is fusion plasma physics, and most particularly topics of particular significance for the world magnetic fusion program. During the calendar year 1990 we explored a wide range of topics including RF-induced transport as a plasma control mechanism, edge plasma modelling, further statistical analysis of L and H mode tokamak plasmas, antenna design, simulation of the edge of a tokamak plasma and the L-H transition, interpretation of the CCT experimental results at UCLA, turbulent transport, studies in chaos, the validity of moment approximations to kinetic equations and improved neoclassical modelling. In more basic studies we examined the statistical mechanisms of Coulomb systems and applied plasma ballooning mode theory to conventional fluids in order to obtain novel fluid dynamics stability results. In space plasma physics we examined the problem of reconnection, the effect of Alfven waves in space environments, and correct formulation of boundary conditions of the Earth for waves in the ionosphere

  17. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Cosmic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)

    1981-01-01

    The properties of space plasmas are analyzed, based on laboratory results and data obtained by in situ measurements in the magnetosphere (including the heliosphere). Attention is given to the question of how much knowledge can be gained by a systematic comparison of different regions of plasma, and plasmas are considered with linear dimensions varying from laboratory size up to the Hubble distance. The traditional magnetic field description of plasmas is supplemented by an electric current description and it is demonstrated that many problems are easier to understand with a dualistic approach. Using the general plasma properties obtained, the origin and evolution of the solar system is summarized and the evolution and present structure of the universe (cosmology) is discussed.

  19. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam which is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10 17 to 10 20 electrons per cubic centimeter. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. The high-temperature plasma can be used to heat a high Z material to generate radiation. Alternatively, a tunable radiation source is produced by using a moderate Z gas or a mixture of high Z and low Z gas as the target plasma. (author)

  20. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  1. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... demonstrate it can be used safely in this end-use. CFC-12 Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners (Retrofit and New... Conditions Application Substitute Decision Conditions Comments CFC-12 Automobile Motor Vehicle Air... refrigerant. CFC-12 Automobile Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning (New equipment only) R-152a as a substitute for...

  2. Optimal ordering quantities for substitutable deteriorating items under joint replenishment with cost of substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vinod Kumar

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we develop an inventory model, to determine the optimal ordering quantities, for a set of two substitutable deteriorating items. In this inventory model the inventory level of both items depleted due to demands and deterioration and when an item is out of stock, its demands are partially fulfilled by the other item and all unsatisfied demand is lost. Each substituted item incurs a cost of substitution and the demands and deterioration is considered to be deterministic and constant. Items are order jointly in each ordering cycle, to take the advantages of joint replenishment. The problem is formulated and a solution procedure is developed to determine the optimal ordering quantities that minimize the total inventory cost. We provide an extensive numerical and sensitivity analysis to illustrate the effect of different parameter on the model. The key observation on the basis of numerical analysis, there is substantial improvement in the optimal total cost of the inventory model with substitution over without substitution.

  3. Plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  4. [Contingency management in opioid substitution treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specka, M; Böning, A; Scherbaum, N

    2011-07-01

    The majority of opiate-dependent patients in substitution treatment show additional substance-related disorders. Concomitant use of heroin, alcohol, benzodiazepines or cocaine compromises treatment success. Concomitant drug use may be treated by using contingency management (CM) which is based on learning theory. In CM, abstinence from drugs, as verified by drug screenings, is reinforced directly and contingently. Reinforcers used in CM studies with substituted patients were, amongst others, vouchers and take-home privileges. Studies in the USA show a medium average effect of CM on drug consumption rates and abstinence. The effects decrease markedly after the end of the intervention. We discuss whether CM is applicable within the German substitution treatment system and how it can be combined with other interventions such as selective detoxification treatments or cognitive-behavioural programmes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Biomaterials in search of a meniscus substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, Jan J; van Tienen, Tony G; van Bochove, Bas; Grijpma, Dirk W; Buma, Pieter

    2014-04-01

    The menisci fulfill key biomechanical functions in the tibiofemoral (knee) joint. Unfortunately meniscal injuries are quite common and most often treated by (partial) meniscectomy. However, some patients experience enduring symptoms, and, more importantly, it leads to an increased risk for symptomatic osteoarthritis. Over the past decades, researchers have put effort in developing a meniscal substitute able to prevent osteoarthritis and treat enduring clinical symptoms. Grossly, two categories of substitutes are observed: First, a resorbable scaffold mimicking biomechanical function which slowly degrades while tissue regeneration and organization is promoted. Second, a non resorbable, permanent implant which mimics the biomechanical function of the native meniscus. Numerous biomaterials with different (material) properties have been used in order to provide such a substitute. Nevertheless, a clinically applicable cartilage protecting material is not yet emerged. In the current review we provide an overview, and discuss, these different materials and extract recommendations regarding material properties for future developmental research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  7. Substitute energy resource policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umehara, Katsuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Japan depends 88% of energy resources and 99.8% of petroleum on imports. The solution of energy problems is now made internationally. As the means for Japan, there are the substitution of other resources for petroleum and its promotion. However, this involves the considerable funds for the development and utilization, which must be borne by the people in the form of tax. For governmental financing, a special account must be set up for the particular purpose. In the research and development of new energy resources, new institution is required. The following matters are described: petroleum shortage coming even in 1980s, the international need of substitute energy development, the need for establishing measures for substitute energy resources, acquisition of the funds, special-account governmental financing, and an institute of new energy development. (author)

  8. Substituting telecommunications for travel - Feasible or desirable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vleck, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in telecommunications and examines the detailed structure of travel to estimate the feasibility of substituting telecommunications for various travel objectives. The impact of travel is analyzed from a social, economic, energy, and pollution standpoint to assess the desirability of substitution. Perhaps 35-50% of the nation's travel could, in theory, be replaced by very advanced telecommunications (such as a much improved large-screen teleconferencing network), but public resistance would be massive. Much economic dislocation would result since, for example, over 25% of retail sales are travel-related. The energy savings would be modest since only 25% of the nation's energy is consumed by transportation. However, all pollution would be reduced substantially since transportation accounts for 75% of the carbon monoxide, 60% of the hydrocarbon, and 55% of the nitrogen oxide pollution in the nation. Problems related to the implementation of large-scale substitution are discussed.

  9. Plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the AEB - Natal University summer school on plasma physics held in Durban during January 1979. The following topics were discussed: Tokamak devices; MHD stability; trapped particles in tori; Tokamak results and experiments; operating regime of the AEB Tokamak; Tokamak equilibrium; high beta Tokamak equilibria; ideal Tokamak stability; resistive MHD instabilities; Tokamak diagnostics; Tokamak control and data acquisition; feedback control of Tokamaks; heating and refuelling; neutral beam injection; radio frequency heating; nonlinear drift wave induced plasma transport; toroidal plasma boundary layers; microinstabilities and injected beams and quasilinear theory of the ion acoustic instability

  10. Plasma centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, Takashi; Mase, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    The plasma centrifuge is one of statistical isotope separation processes which uses the centrifugal force of a J x B driven rotating plasma in a magnetic field to give rise to the mass-dependent radial transport of isotopic ions. The system has been developed as an alternative to the gas centrifuge because a much higher rotational velocity and separation factor have been achieved. In this review, the physical aspects of the plasma centrifuge followed by the recent experimental achievements are described, especially in comparison with the gas centrifuge. (author)

  11. A New Substitution Cipher - Random-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falguni Patel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciphers are the encryption methods to prepare the algorithm for encryption and decryption. The currently known ciphers are not strong enough to protect the data. A new substitution cipher Random-X that we introduce in this paper can be used for password encryption and data encryption. Random-X cipher is a unique substitution cipher which replaces the units of plaintext with triplets of letters. The beauty of this cipher is that the encrypted string of the same plain text is not always same. This makes it strong and difficult to crack. This paper covers the principle the implementation ideas and testing of Random-X cipher.

  12. Hydrophosphorylation of substituted alkynes by phosphonic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifant'ev, E.F.; Solovetskaya, L.A.; Maslennikova, V.I.; Sergeev, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrophosphorylation of functionally substituted alkynes by phosphonic acids can be a convenient method for synthesis of functionally substituted mono- and diphosphine oxides. The ease of hydrophosphorylation is determined by the strength of the negative inductive effect of the substituents on the triple bond and the steric factor. The structure of the bis-adducts was confirmed by elementary analysis and the 31 P and 13 C NMR spectra. The 31 P NMR spectrum is an AB two-spin system. The values of the chemical shifts and spin-spin interaction constants 3 J/sub PP/ are in agreement with the data in the literature for similar compounds

  13. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  14. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  15. Laser Plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -focusing in a plasma ... Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India; Tata Consultancy Services, Gurgaon, India; Ideal Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India; Center for Research in Cognitive, ...

  16. Plasma will…

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 3 (2016), s. 486-487 ISSN 0007-0963 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma * ionized gas Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  17. Plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    IREQ was contracted by the Canadian Electrical Association to review plasma technology and assess the potential for application of this technology in Canada. A team of experts in the various aspects of this technology was assembled and each team member was asked to contribute to this report on the applications of plasma pertinent to his or her particular field of expertise. The following areas were examined in detail: iron, steel and strategic-metals production; surface treatment by spraying; welding and cutting; chemical processing; drying; and low-temperature treatment. A large market for the penetration of electricity has been identified. To build up confidence in the technology, support should be provided for selected R and D projects, plasma torch demonstrations at full power, and large-scale plasma process testing

  18. Plasma metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  19. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  20. Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  1. Substituting freshwater: Can ocean desalination and water recycling capacities substitute for groundwater depletion in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiuzzaman, Pierre; McLaughlin, Eoin; McCauley, Darren

    2017-12-01

    While the sustainability of resource depletion is a longstanding environmental concern, wider attention has recently been given to growing water scarcity and groundwater depletion. This study seeks to test the substitutability assumption embedded in weak sustainability indicators using a case study of Californian water supply. The volume of groundwater depletion is used as a proxy for unsustainable water consumption, and defined by synthesising existing research estimates into low, medium and high depletion baselines. These are compared against projected water supply increases from ocean desalination and water recycling by 2035, to determine whether new, drought-proof water sources can substitute for currently unsustainable groundwater consumption. Results show that the maximum projected supply of new water, 2.47 million acre-feet per year (MAF/yr), is sufficient to meet low depletion estimates of 2.02 MAF/yr, but fails to come near the high depletion estimate of 3.44 MAF/yr. This does not necessarily indicate physical limitations of substitutability, but more so socio-economic limitations influenced by high comparative costs. By including capacities in demand-substitutability via urban water conservation, maximum predicted capacities reach 5.57 MAF/yr, indicating wide room for substitution. Based on these results, investment in social and institutional capital is an important factor to enhance demand-side substitutability of water and other natural resources, which has been somewhat neglected by the literature on the substitutability of natural resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. P. Electricity demand, substitution and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report discusses the demand for electricity in New Zealand, the accuracy of demand predictions, and whether some other form of energy could be substituted for electricity. It then discusses past and possible future electricity generation in New Zealand by geothermal steam and hydro power and the resources of gas and coal that could be made available for electricity generation

  3. Endogenous cueing attenuates object substitution masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeys, Filip; Pomianowska, I; De Graef, P; Zaenen, P; Verfaillie, K

    2010-07-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) is a form of visual masking in which a briefly presented target surrounded by four small dots is masked by the continuing presence of the four dots after target offset. A major parameter in the prediction of OSM is the time required for attention to be directed to the target following its onset. Object substitution theory (Di Lollo et al. in J Exp Psychol Gen 129:481-507, 2000) predicts that the sooner attention can be focused at the target's location, the less masking will ensue. However, recently Luiga and Bachmann (Psychol Res 71:634-640, 2007) presented evidence that precueing of attention to the target location prior to target-plus-mask onset by means of a central (endogenous) arrow cue does not reduce OSM. When attention was cued exogenously, OSM was attenuated. Based on these results, Luiga and Bachmann argued that object substitution theory should be adapted by differentiating the ways of directing attention to the target location. The goal of the present study was to further examine the dissociation between the effects of endogenous and exogenous precueing on OSM. Contrary to Luiga and Bachmann, our results show that prior shifts of attention to the target location initiated by both exogenous and endogenous cues reduce OSM as predicted by object substitution theory and its computational model CMOS.

  4. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrader Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  5. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  6. Trace maps for arbitrary substitution sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of quasi-crystals and their 1-dimensional modeling have led to a deep mathematical study of Schroedinger operators with an arbitrary deterministic potential sequence. In this work we address this problem and find trace maps for an arbitrary substitution sequence. our trace maps have lower dimensionality than those of Kolar and Nori, which make them quite attractive for actual applications. (authors)

  7. Fossil Fuels, Backstop Technologies, and Imperfect Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijden, G.C.; Pittel, Karen; van der Ploeg, Frederick; Withagen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    This chapter studies the transition from fossil fuels to backstop technologies in a general equilibrium model in which growth is driven by research and development. The analysis generalizes the existing literature by allowing for imperfect substitution between fossil fuels and the new energy

  8. 3-Substituted 2-phenyl-indoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Karl Henrik; Jørgensen, T.B.; Gloriam, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    -indoles with a variety of substituents at the indole 3-position. Herein we describe the development of optimised and efficient synthetic routes to a series of new 2-phenyl-indole building blocks 3 to 9 and show that these can be used to generate a broad variety of 3-substituted 2-phenyl-indoles of interest to medicinal...

  9. Law of substitution for mixed arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koudelka, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear safety justification of a mixed array of dissimilar fissile units of metal units and dilute solution units, according to Clayton, has been a persistent and nagging problem. Dissimilar uranium metal or dissimilar uranium solution units in a mixed array can also create a modeling nightmare for the nuclear criticality safety engineer. Now, a calculational method known as the Law of Substitution has been developed to ensure that the k/sub eff/ of an array of uranium metal and uranium solution units will satisfy any k/sub eff/ limit set by the nuclear safety engineer. The nuclear criticality safety engineer can utilize the Law of Substitution to safely mix or substitute different uranium metal units, different uranium solution units, and more importantly, uranium metal and dilute UO 2 solution units in an array. The Law of Substitution is as follows: (1) calculate the k/sub eff/ of each unit type in its own infinite planar array. (2) Determine the edge-to-edge spacing of the infinite planar array of each type of unit to satisfy a desired k/sub eff/. (3) Select the largest edge-to-edge spacing from among the similar units in their infinite planar arrays and use that spacing for the finite or infinite planar array of mixed units

  10. Thermal stability of 4-substituted benzenediazonium tetrafluoroborates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, V.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of tetraborates of 4-methyl-, 4-phenyl- and 4-dimethylaminobenzenediazonium at 95, 120 and 148 deg, correspondingly, causes their autocatalytic destruction, two moles of gas (nitrogen, boron fluoride) being liberated. The thermal stability of 4-substituted benzenediazonium tetrafluoroborates increases with the increase of the electron-donor activity of the substituent at benzene ring

  11. complexes based on meso-substituted dipyrrins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Coordination polymers; meso-substituted dipyrrins; heteroleptic; acetylacetonato; ... Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements were ... After cooling to ambient tem- perature it ... crystals of 1 were obtained from CH2Cl2/ hexane (1. : 1) solution. .... are air-stable, crystalline solids, soluble in common.

  12. Facile Synthesis of N -Substituted Benzimidazoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurhade, Santosh; Rossetti, Arianna; Dömling, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A particularly mild and efficient one-pot synthesis of N-substituted benzimidazole derivatives was developed. 2-Fluoro-5-nitrophenylisocyanide reacts with a diverse set of primary amines to afford the respective products in moderate to very good yield (35-95%; 20 examples).

  13. Symptomatic hemorrhagic complications associated with dural substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The increased risk of hemorrhagic complications associated with craniotomy is modified by choice of dural replacement. Our results could assist clinicians in their decision-making with respect to the optimal timing for synthetic dural substitutes in patients with tumor infiltration of the patient's dura, severe brain swelling in traumatic brain injury, or a result of shrinkage from exposure and electrocautery.

  14. Stochastic diffusion models for substitutable technological innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Hu, B.; Yu, X.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analysis of firms' stochastic adoption behaviour, this paper first points out the necessity to build more practical stochastic models. And then, stochastic evolutionary models are built for substitutable innovation diffusion system. Finally, through the computer simulation of the

  15. Ultrasound Promoted Synthesis of Bis(substituted pyrazol-4-ylcarbonyl-Substituted Thioureas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiao

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel bis(substituted pyrazol-4-ylcarbonyl-substituted thioureas have been synthesized by the reactions of substituted pyrazol-4-ylcarbonyl isothiocyanates with different diamines under ultrasound irradiation and classical heating method at 20-25 °C. In general, substantial improvement in rates and modest yields increases were observed when reactions were carried out under sonication, compared with the classical heating method. The structures of these compounds have been elucidated by elemental and spectral (IR, 1H-NMR analysis.

  16. Oxide cathodes produced by plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheitrum, G.; Caryotakis, G.; Pi, T.; Umstattd, R.; Brown, I.; Montiero, O.

    1997-01-01

    These are two distinct applications for high-current-density, long-life thermionic cathodes. The first application is as a substitute for explosive emission cathodes used in high-power microwave (HPM) devices being developed for Air Force programs. The second application is in SLAC's X-band klystrons for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). SLAC, UCD, and LBL are developing a plasma deposition process that eliminates the problems with binders, carbonate reduction, peeling, and porosity. The emission layer is deposited using plasma deposition of metallic barium in vacuum with an oxygen background gas. An applied bias voltage drives the oxide plasma into the nickel surface. Since the oxide is deposited directly, it does not have problems with poisoning from a hydrocarbon binder. The density of the oxide layer is increased from the 40--50% for standard oxide cathodes to nearly 100% for plasma deposition

  17. Serum-converted platelet lysate can substitute for fetal bovine serum in human mesenchymal stromal cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Jacobson, Pam; Morris, Julie; Kelley, Linda; Pierce, Jan; Boyer, Michael; Reems, Jo-Anna

    2013-12-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is commonly used as a serum supplement for culturing human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). However, human cells grown in FBS, especially for extended periods, risk potential exposure to bovine immunogenic proteins and infectious agents. To address this issue, we investigated the ability of a novel human platelet serum supplement to substitute for FBS in hMSC cultures. Platelet lysate-serum (PL-serum) was converted from platelet lysate-plasma (PL-plasma) that was manufactured from pooled platelet-rich plasma (PRP) apheresis units. Growth factor levels and the number of residual intact platelets in PL-serum and PL-plasma were compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and flow cytometry, respectively. Proliferation responses of hMSCs cultured in PL-serum, PL-plasma, or FBS were assessed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the immunophenotype of harvested hMSCs was evaluated by flow cytometry and tri-lineage differentiation potential was evaluated by assessing adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic development. Selected growth factor levels in PL-serum were not significantly different from PL-plasma (P > 0.05). hMSC cultures supplemented with PL-serum had comparable growth kinetics to PL-plasma, and hMSC yields were consistently greater than with FBS. hMSCs harvested from cultures supplemented with PL-serum, PL-plasma or FBS had similar cell surface phenotypes and maintained tri-lineage differentiation potential. PL-serum, similar to PL-plasma, can substitute for FBS in hMSC cultures. Use of PL-serum, in contrast to PL-plasma, has an added advantage of not requiring addition of a xenogeneic source of heparin, providing a completely xeno-free culture medium. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  19. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period...

  1. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  2. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf

    2007-02-02

    After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT--first low because of strict admission criteria--increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP), who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65% to 85% in the first years, up to 50% after more than seven years) and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10% of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. In Germany, a history of substitution treatment spanning 20 years has meanwhile

  3. [The substitution effect of leadership substitutes for transformational leadership in nursing organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hee

    2006-04-01

    This paper was conducted to examine the effects of transformational leadership behaviors, within the substitutes for leadership model (Kerr & Jermier, 1978). Data was collected from 181 staff nurses in 3 general hospitals, with self-reporting questionnaires (MLQ developed by Bass, rd-SLS developed by Podsakoff, et al., and MSQ developed by Weiss, et al.). Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and moderated regression analysis were used. 1) The transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership each had correlations with job satisfaction. 2) The total amount of variance accounted for by the substitutes for leadership was substantially greater than by the transformational leadership behaviors. 3) Few of the substitutes variables moderated the relationships between the transformational leader behaviors and job satisfaction in a manner consistent with that specified by Howell, Dorfman, and Kerr (1986). The finding of this study suggest that leaders need to have a better understanding of those contextual variables that influence job satisfaction. Thus future research should focus attention on the moderating effects of substitutes, as well as the things that leaders can do to influence them. In addition, it may be good to examine the effects of substitutes on other criterion variables.

  4. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  5. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1989-08-01

    A cursory examination of the research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division for the calendar year 1988 shows the effects of the gradual transformation of the group. Although our principal activity, fusion plasma physics research, is unchanged, the work shows closer ties to problems relevant to present experiments than previously. Most notable is the concentrated effort on tokamak equilibrium and transport. We are exploring the implication of turbulence induced transport, resistive MHD effects, neoclassical transport, and possible interpretations of transport based on classical phenomena. In addition, one of our members has chosen to focus on problems of enhanced statistical methods for interpretation of experiments. All of this activity preceded the Tokamak Transport Initiative and reflects our active involvement and concern with the world-wide tokamak program. Since equilibrium and transport are by no means the only theoretical plasma physics problems affecting fusion devices we continue substantial efforts in wave propagation and heating, particle simulation of plasmas, stability theory, enhancement of numerical algorithms, and general plasma physics. We are attempting to develop effective numerical schemes for the Boltzmann equation, adaptive grid methods for MHD, and particle simulation of boundary and antenna effects. Many of these topics reflect our continuing concern to maintain a modest effort in the development of theoretical models and tools for problems of real significance to fusion, but not necessarily of immediate highest priority. We select problems which we expect to become extremely important in the future. Our space plasma physics activities, funded by agencies other than DOE, transfers knowledge learned in fusion plasma physics to another area and conversely stimulates work also relevant to fusion problems

  6. Electron plasma waves and plasma resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R N; Braithwaite, N St J

    2009-01-01

    In 1929 Tonks and Langmuir predicted of the existence of electron plasma waves in an infinite, uniform plasma. The more realistic laboratory environment of non-uniform and bounded plasmas frustrated early experiments. Meanwhile Landau predicted that electron plasma waves in a uniform collisionless plasma would appear to be damped. Subsequent experimental work verified this and revealed the curious phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. Electron plasma wave theory, extended to finite plasmas, has been confirmed by various experiments. Nonlinear phenomena, such as particle trapping, emerge at large amplitude. The use of electron plasma waves to determine electron density and electron temperature has not proved as convenient as other methods.

  7. ''Dusty plasmas''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de

    1989-09-01

    The field of ''dusty plasmas'' promises to be a very rewarding topic of research for the next decade or so, not only from the academic point of view where the emphasis is on developing the theory of the often complex collective and non-linear processes, but also from the point of view of applications in astrophysics, space physics, environmental and energy research. In this ''comment'' we should like to sketch the current development of this fast growing and potentially very important research area. We will discuss the new features of ''dusty'' plasmas in the most general terms and then briefly mention some successful applications and effects which have already been examined. (author)

  8. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  9. Convergent synthesis of 6-substituted phenanthridines via anionic ring closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysén, M.; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Vedsø, P.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical equation presented The addition of organometallic derivatives to the cyano group of 2-(2-fluorophenyl)benzonitrile followed by intramolecular nucleophilic substitution produces 6-substituted phenanthridines. Alkyllithiums, aryllithiums, and sterically nondemanding lithium amides reacted ...

  10. Substituted 2-Phenyl-Imidazopyridines: A New Class of Drug Leads for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatipaka, Hari Babu; Gillespie, J. Robert; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; Norcross, Neil R.; Hulverson, Matthew A.; Ranade, Ranae M.; Nagendar, Pendem; Creason, Sharon A.; McQueen, Joshua; Duster, Nicole A.; Nagle, Advait; Supek, Frantisek; Molteni, Valentina; Wenzler, Tanja; Brun, Reto; Glynne, Richard; Buckner, Frederick S.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    A phenotypic screen of a compound library for antiparasitic activity on Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis, led to the identification of substituted 2-(3-aminophenyl) oxazolopyridines as a starting point for hit-to-lead medicinal chemistry. A total of 110 analogues were prepared, which led to the identification of 64, a substituted 2-(3-aminophenyl) imidazopyridine. This compound showed antiparasitic activity in vitro with an EC50 of 2 nM and displayed reasonable drug-like properties when tested in a number of in vitro assays. The compound was orally bioavailable and displayed good plasma and brain exposure in mice. Compound 64 cured mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei when dosed orally down to 2.5 mg/kg. Given its potent anti-parasitic properties and its ease of synthesis, compound 64 represents a new lead for the development of drugs to treat human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:24354316

  11. Characterization of hydroxyapatite substituted with silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H.M. da; Soares, G.A.; Mateescu, M.; Anselme, K.; Palard, M.; Champion, E.

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of silicon (Si) ions into hydroxyapatite structure (HA) influences on physical, chemical and physiological properties. Some studies reported the improved bioactivity Si substitution, and it also accelerates the biomineralization process. The main objective of this work is to characterize stoichiometric hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite substituted with 1.13% in weight of Si (SiHA) using a wet precipitation method followed by a heat treatment. SEM/EDS, AFM, DRX and FTIR analyses were used to characterize the samples. EDS and FTIR results confirmed the presence of Si. Silicon induces small changes on crystal structure of HA, not detected on X-ray diffraction patterns of sintered tablets of SiHA and HA. No secondary phases were observed, that indicates the Si had entered the HA lattice. (author)

  12. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  13. The substitution bias of the consumer price index

    OpenAIRE

    Frenger, Petter

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: The paper uses elementary consumer theory to propose an inflation independent ratio definition of the substitution bias of the Laspeyres consumer price index, and derives an approximate substitution bias which depends on the size of the price change as measured by a norm in the Laspeyres plane and on the elasticity of substitution in the direction of the price change. This norm or distance measure can be interpreted as a price substitution index which yields useful in...

  14. Unemployment, Factor Substitution, and Capital Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Leo Kaas; Leopold von Thadden

    2001-01-01

    We incorporate a wage bargaining structure in a dynamic general equilibrium model and show how this feature changes short and long-run properties of equilibria compared with a perfectly competitive setting. We discuss how employment, capital, and income shares respond to wage setting shocks and show that adjustment dynamics depend decisively on the magnitude of the elasticity of substitution between labour and capital. Values of the elasticity below unity add persistence, tend to preserve sta...

  15. Mindfulness as substitute for transformational leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Kroon, B.; van Woerkom, M.; Menting, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Transformational leaders spark the intrinsic motivation of employees, thereby stimulating their extra-role performance. However, not all employees are lucky enough to have a transformational leader. The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent mindfulness can function as a substitute for transformational leadership. By being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present, mindfulness provides employees with a source of intrinsic motivation that lies within...

  16. Neutron scattering from a substitutional mass defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.D.; Lovesey, S.W.

    1985-06-01

    The dynamic structure factor is calculated for a low concentration of light mass scatterers substituted in a cubic crystal matrix. A new numerical method for the exact calculation is demonstrated. A local density of states for the low momentum transfer limit, and the shifts and widths of the oscillator peaks in the high momentum transfer limit are derived. The limitations of an approximation which decouples the defect from the lattice is discussed. (author)

  17. Substitution biases in price indices during transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Filer, Randall K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2004), s. 167-177 ISSN 0167-8000 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : price liberalization * substitution bias * transition economies Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://search. ebscohost .com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=17109091&site=ehost-live

  18. Synthesis of 2-azetidinones substituted quinoline derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashelkar Uday C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetanilide is converted into 2-chloro-3-formyl quinoline by reacting with DMF-POCl3 at 80-90ºC and then condensed with aromatic primary amines to give Schiff bases (3a-3c. These Schiff bases are then reacted with acid chlorides in the presence of base in toluene to give 1, 3, 4-substituted 2-azetidinones.

  19. Interfuel substitution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Vasetsky, Olexandr [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we use the locally flexible translog functional form to investigate the demand for energy and interfuel substitution in the United States and to provide a comparison of our results with most of the existing empirical energy demand literature. Motivated by the widespread practice of ignoring theoretical regularity, we follow Barnett's (2002) suggestions and estimate the model subject to theoretical regularity, using methods developed by Diewert and Wales (1987) and Ryan and Wales (2000), in an attempt to produce inference consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. Moreover, we use the most recent data, published by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), and in addition to investigating interfuel substitution possibilities in total U.S. energy demand, we follow Serletis et al. (2009) and also examine interfuel substitution possibilities in energy demand by sector. Moreover, we test for weak separability, with the objective of discovering the structure of the functional form in total energy demand as well as energy demand by sector. (author)

  20. An algorithm to provide real time neutral beam substitution in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.; Greene, K.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; McHarg, B.B. Jr.; Penaflor, B.G.

    1999-06-01

    A key component of the DIII-D tokamak fusion experiment is a flexible and easy to expand digital control system which actively controls a large number of parameters in real-time. These include plasma shape, position, density, and total stored energy. This system, known as the PCS (plasma control system), also has the ability to directly control auxiliary plasma heating systems, such as the 20 MW of neutral beams routinely used on DIII-D. This paper describes the implementation of a real-time algorithm allowing substitution of power from one neutral beam for another, given a fault in the originally scheduled beam. Previously, in the event of a fault in one of the neutral beams, the actual power profile for the shot might be deficient, resulting in a less useful or wasted shot. Using this new real-time algorithm, a stand by neutral beam may substitute within milliseconds for one which has faulted. Since single shots can have substantial value, this is an important advance to DIII-D's capabilities and utilization. Detailed results are presented, along with a description not only of the algorithm but of the simulation setup required to prove the algorithm without the costs normally associated with using physics operations time

  1. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years...

  2. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  3. 40 CFR 721.4596 - Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4596 Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex. (a) Chemical... as a diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex (PMN P-94-1039) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5350 - Substituted nitrile (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted nitrile (generic name... Substances § 721.5350 Substituted nitrile (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted nitrile (PMN P-83...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10043 - Dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10043 Dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate (PMN P-02-697) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. Arylazoindazole Photoswitches : Facile Synthesis and Functionalization via SNAr Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travieso-Puente, Raquel; Budzak, Simon; Chen, Juan; Stacko, Peter; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Jacquemin, Denis; Otten, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    A straightforward synthetic route to arylazoindazoles via nucleophilic aromatic substitution is presented. Upon deprotonation of the NH group, a C6F5-substituted formazan undergoes facile cyclization as a result of intermolecular nucleophilic substitution (SNAr). This new class of azo photoswitches

  7. Polarizer design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Salewski, Mirko; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2013-01-01

    Radiation from magnetized plasmas is in general elliptically polarized. In order to convert the elliptical polarization to linear polarization, mirrors with grooved surfaces are currently employed in our collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade. If these mirrors can be substituted...

  8. Electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of wurtzite Cu–Ga–S nanocrystals and their Zn substitution

    KAUST Repository

    Kandiel, Tarek

    2015-03-23

    Stoichiometric and gallium-rich wurtzite Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals were synthesized via a facile solution-based hot injection method using 1-dodecanethiol as a sulfur source. The use of 1-dodecanethiol was found to be essential not only as a sulfur source but also as a structure-directing reagent to form a metastable wurtzite structure. In addition, the substitution of zinc in the wurtzite gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S nanocrystals was also investigated. The obtained nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Electronic structures of pristine and the Zn-substituted Cu-Ga-S system were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) with HSE06 exchange-correlation functional. The calculated bandgaps accurately reflect the measured ones. The allowed electronic transitions occur upon the photon absorption from the (Cu + S) band towards the (Ga + S) one. The Zn substitution was found not to contribute to the band edge structure and hence altered the bandgaps only slightly, the direct transition nature remaining unchanged with the Zn substitution. The photocatalytic activities of H2 evolution from an aqueous Na2S/Na2SO3 solution under visible-light illumination on the synthesized nanocrystals were investigated. While the stoichiometric CuGaS2 exhibited negligible activity, the gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals displayed reasonable activity. The optimum Zn substitution in the gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals enhanced the H2 evolution rate, achieving an apparent quantum efficiency of >6% at 400 nm. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, F.S.; Hunter, R.O. Jr.; Pereira, N.R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-01-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed

  10. Progesterone radioimmunoassay with the use of progesterone derivative substituted at 12α position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kula, E.; Stupnicka, R.

    1981-01-01

    A direct (non-extraction) radioimmunoassay method for progesterone determination in blood plasma has been presented. A new progesterone derivative substituted at 12α position was used as antigen for production of antibody. Cheap and easily accessible substrate -deoxycholic acid - was used as starting material for 9 step degradation procedure yielding 12α-hydroxy-progesterone. The latter compound was subsequently esterified with succinic anhydrine and conjugated with bovine serum albumin. The conjugate was then used for the immunization of rabbits to obtain immune antisera. After the detailed characterization, the obtained antibodies have been used for the determination of progesterone in human and cattle blood plasma. Transcortin present in samples used for the determinations was saturated with the excess of cortisol. The sensitivity of the method was found to be 5 pg in a sample, which corresponds to the concentration of about 0.25 ng/ml in blood plasma, in as much as the volume of plasma used for analysis was 20 ml. The within-series error was 7% when progesterone concentration in plasma samples was higher than 2.5 ng/ml. (author)

  11. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  12. Plasma shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Takahide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent concentration of plasma currents to the plasma center upon plasma shutdown in a torus type thermonuclear device by the injection of fuels to the plasma center thereby prevent plasma disruption at the plasma center. Constitution: The plasma shutdown device comprises a plasma current measuring device that measures the current distribution of plasmas confined within a vacuum vessel and outputs a control signal for cooling the plasma center when the plasma currents concentrate to the plasma center and a fuel supply device that supplies fuels to the plasma center for cooling the center. The fuels are injected in the form of pellets into the plasmas. The direction and the velocity of the injection are set such that the pellets are ionized at the center of the plasmas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Annonaceae substitution rates: a codon model perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Willem Chatrou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Annonaceae includes cultivated species of economic interest and represents an important source of information for better understanding the evolution of tropical rainforests. In phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data that are used to address evolutionary questions, it is imperative to use appropriate statistical models. Annonaceae are cases in point: Two sister clades, the subfamilies Annonoideae and Malmeoideae, contain the majority of Annonaceae species diversity. The Annonoideae generally show a greater degree of sequence divergence compared to the Malmeoideae, resulting in stark differences in branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. Uncertainty in how to interpret and analyse these differences has led to inconsistent results when estimating the ages of clades in Annonaceae using molecular dating techniques. We ask whether these differences may be attributed to inappropriate modelling assumptions in the phylogenetic analyses. Specifically, we test for (clade-specific differences in rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. A high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions may lead to similarity of DNA sequences due to convergence instead of common ancestry, and as a result confound phylogenetic analyses. We use a dataset of three chloroplast genes (rbcL, matK, ndhF for 129 species representative of the family. We find that differences in branch lengths between major clades are not attributable to different rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. The differences in evolutionary rate between the major clades of Annonaceae pose a challenge for current molecular dating techniques that should be seen as a warning for the interpretation of such results in other organisms.

  14. Alkylation of N-substituted 2-phenylacetamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN D. PETROVIC

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Various N-substituted phenylacetamides were alkylated using different alkylating agents under neutral and basic conditions. Reactions were performed at different reaction temperatures and in various solvents. Also, a number of various catalysts were used including phase-transfer catalysts. Reactions were followed using GC or GC-MS technique and the presence as well as the yields of the alkylation products were established. Generally, the best yield and high selectivity in the studied reactions were achieved under basic conditions where in the certain cases some products, mostly N-product, were obtained solely in quantitative yields.

  15. Advances in Osteobiologic Materials for Bone Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Anwarul; Byambaa, Batzaya; Morshed, Mahboob; Cheikh, Mohammad Ibrahim; Shakoor, Rana Abdul; Mustafy, Tanvir; Marei, Hany

    2018-04-27

    A significant challenge in the current orthopedics is the development of suitable osteobiologic materials that can replace the conventional allografts, autografts and xenografts, and thereby serve as implant materials as bone substitutes for bone repair or remodeling. The complex biology behind the nano-microstructure of bones and their repair mechanisms, which involve various types of chemical and biomechanical signaling amongst different cells, has set strong requirements for biomaterials to be used in bone tissue engineering. This review presents an overview of various types of osteobiologic materials to facilitate the formation of the functional bone tissue and healing of the bone, covering metallic, ceramic, polymeric and cell-based graft substitutes, as well as some biomolecular strategies including stem cells, extracellular matrices, growth factors and gene therapies. Advantages and disadvantages of each type, particularly from the perspective of osteoinductive and osteoconductive capabilities, are discussed. Although the numerous challenges of bone regeneration in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are yet to be entirely addressed, further advancements in osteobiologic materials will pave the way towards engineering fully functional bone replacement grafts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Pressure-induced polymerization in substituted acetylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa, Raja S.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Sheffield, Stephen; Robbins, David (LANL)

    2012-04-10

    A fundamental understanding of shock-induced chemical reactions in organics is still lacking and there are limited studies devoted to determining reaction mechanisms, evolution of bonding, and effect of functional group substitutions. The fast timescale of reactions occurring during shock compression create significant experimental challenges (diagnostics) to fully quantify the mechanisms involved. Static compression combined with temperature provides a complementary route to investigate the equilibrium phase space and metastable intermediates under extreme P-T conditions. In this study, we present our results from our ongoing high pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments on substituted acetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-C=CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-SiC=CH]. We observed that the onset pressure of chemical reactions (at room temperature) in these compounds is higher under static compression (TBA: 12 GPa and ETMS: 17.6 GPa) when compared to shock input pressures (TBA: 6.1 GPa and ETMS: 6.6 GPa). At elevated temperatures, reactivity was observed to occur at pressures comparable to shock conditions. The products were polymeric in nature, recovered to ambient conditions with little degradation.

  17. Challenges in drug discovery for thiazolidinedione substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Ye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinedione (TZD is a powerful insulin sensitizer in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It acts as a ligand to the nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and induces transcription of PPARγ-responsive genes. TZD controls lipid synthesis and storage in adipose tissue, liver and many other tissues through PPARγ. Derivatives of TZD, such as rosiglitazone (Avandia and pioglitazone (Actos, are more powerful than metformin or berberine in insulin sensitization. Although they have common side effects such as weight gain and edema, these did not influence their clinical application in general. However, recent findings of risk for congestive heart failure and bladder cancer have significantly impaired their future in many countries. European countries have prohibited those drugs, and US will terminate application of rosiglitazone in clinics and hospitals. The multiple country actions may mark the end of TZD era. As a result, there is a strong demand for identification of TZD substitute in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this regard, literature about PPARγ ligands and potential TZD substitute are reviewed in this article. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor is emphasized as a new class of insulin sensitizer here. Regulators of SIRT1, CREB, NO, p38, ERK and Cdk5 are discussed in the activation of PPARγ.

  18. Substitution of thoriated tungsten electrodes in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, H.; Piller, G.

    2006-01-01

    Thoriated tungsten electrodes are frequently used for inert gas welding (TIG/WIG). The use of these electrodes can lead to doses which are well above the limit for the general population (1mSv/year). This has been shown by different investigations, for example from the ''Berufsgenossenschaft''. With these findings in mind, the regulatory authorities (Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) and Swiss National Accident Insurance Association (Suva)) started in 1999 to examine the justification of thoriated tungsten electrodes and a possible substitution with products containing no radioactive material. Up to this time, the use of thoriated tungsten electrodes could be justified since no thorium-free products leading to comparable results were available on the market. This was also the reason why the SFOPH approved several types of these electrodes. Discussions with formation centers for welding and inquiries made at welding shops, trading companies and producers showed that in the mean-time thorium-free products with comparable welding specifications and results became available on the market. Since the 1 January 2004, thoriated tungsten electrodes can only be used if the user has obtained the corresponding license from the SFOPH. The use of thoriated tungsten electrodes is thus not completely forbidden, but very strict conditions have to be fulfilled. Up to now and due to the involvement of the relevant partners, the substitution process has not met any problem. Neither trading companies nor users made any opposition and no request for obtaining a license for thoriated tungsten electrodes was made. (orig.)

  19. Pulsed electrodeposition for the synthesis of strontium-substituted calcium phosphate coatings with improved dissolution properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevet, Richard; Benhayoune, Hicham

    2013-10-01

    Strontium-substituted calcium phosphate coatings are synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Experimental conditions of the process are optimized in order to obtain a coating with a 5% atomic substitution of calcium by strontium which corresponds to the best observations on the osteoblast cells activity and on the osteoclast cells proliferation. The physical and chemical characterizations of the obtained coating are carried out by scanning electron microscopy associated to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) for X-ray microanalysis and the structural characterization of the coating is carried out by X-ray diffraction. The in vitro dissolution/precipitation properties of the coated substrates are investigated by immersion into Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) from 1h to 14 days. The calcium, phosphorus and strontium concentrations variations in the biological liquid are assessed by Induced Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy for each immersion time. The results show that under specific experimental conditions, the electrodeposition process is suitable to synthesize strontium-substituted calcium phosphate coatings. Moreover, the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into the electrolytic solution used in the process allows us to observe a control of the strontium release during the immersion of the prosthetic materials into DMEM. © 2013.

  20. Cation Radical Accelerated Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution via Organic Photoredox Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Nicholas E S; Nicewicz, David A

    2017-11-15

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S N Ar) is a direct method for arene functionalization; however, it can be hampered by low reactivity of arene substrates and their availability. Herein we describe a cation radical-accelerated nucleophilic aromatic substitution using methoxy- and benzyloxy-groups as nucleofuges. In particular, lignin-derived aromatics containing guaiacol and veratrole motifs were competent substrates for functionalization. We also demonstrate an example of site-selective substitutive oxygenation with trifluoroethanol to afford the desired trifluoromethylaryl ether.

  1. Perron-Frobenius theory and frequency convergence for reducible substitutions

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, Martin; Uyanik, Caglar

    2016-01-01

    We prove a general version of the classical Perron-Frobenius convergence property for reducible matrices. We then apply this result to reducible substitutions and use it to produce limit frequencies for factors and hence invariant measures on the associated subshift. The analogous results are well known for primitive substitutions and have found many applications, but for reducible substitutions the tools provided here were so far missing from the theory.

  2. Goods-Time Elasticity of Substitution in Health Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Yagihashi, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    We examine how inputs for health production, in particular, medical care and health-enhancing time, are combined to improve health. The estimated elasticity of substitution from a constant elasticity of substitution production function is significantly less than one for the working-age population, rejecting the unit elasticity of substitution used in previous studies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. [High plasma folate in patients with phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Magdalena; Żółkowska, Joanna; Przybylska-Kruszewska, Amanda; Gładysz, Dominika; Korycińska-Chaaban, Dorota; Nowacka, Maria; Hozyasz, Kamil K

    2016-04-01

    Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism treated with a closely monitored low phenylalanine diet. Protein substitutes used for treatment are supplemented with vitamins and micronutrients. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma folic acid concentrations in children with phenylketonuria. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 73 patients with phenylketonuria and 28 with mild hyperphenylalaninemia (on normal diet) was carried out. Intake of folic acid was calculated on the basis of protein substitute intake. Folate concentrations were analyzed according to their intake, and concentration of homocysteine and phenylalanine. In 76.7% patients with phenylketonuria intake of folic acid exceeded recommended dietary allowance. Serum folic acid concentrations above upper reference level were detected in 75.3% patients with phenylketonuria and only in 25% patients with hyperphenylalaninemia (pphenylketonuria requires further detailed research. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  4. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  5. Import Substitution in Regional Industrial Production: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Georgievich Animitsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the important role of import substitution in the economic security protection of state and its regions, especially in times of crisis, geopolitical and economical instability. The authors argue that the problem of import substitution is not modern, trendy scientific stream. The issue of displacement of import goods by domestic ones was brought up in famous classic theories of mercantilists. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis and systematization of different scientific approaches, which are utilized by native and foreign scientists to bring out the matter of “import substitution,” to determine its essential characteristics. The authors suggest their own interpretation of the import substitution notion. In the article, the most significant pro and contra arguments in import substitution policy are defined. The regional aspects in the import substitution are approved: case study — organization of industrial import substitution in the Sverdlovsk region. In the article, the authors analyze the subject matter of the Program “Development of Intraregional Industrial Cooperation and Implementation of an Import Substitution in Branches of Industry in the Sverdlovsk Region.” It is resumed, that active policy of import substitution in the industry may become the driver of regional economic development.

  6. Zinc and Carbonate Co-Substituted Nano-Hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, E. K.; Kumar, G. Suresh; Thamizhavel, A.

    2011-07-01

    Synthesis of Zn or CO32- substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) and its physico-chemical properties have been well documented. However, the effects of the simultaneous substitution of Zn and CO32- in nano-HA have not been reported. In the present study, Zn and CO32- substitutions in nano HA independently and concurrently have been done by wet precipitation method and characterized by XRD and FT-IR for its phase purity and chemical homogeneity. Further modulations of the bioactivity and thermal stability of HA due to the substitutions have been studied.

  7. Technological substitution options for controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, E.B.; Burgess, J.C.; Pearce, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with technological options for greenhouse gas substitution. The authors interpret the term substitution to exclude energy conservation/efficiency measures, investments in afforestation (sinks), and greenhouse gas removal or abatement technologies. Their working definition of greenhouse gas substitution includes (1) replacement technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with a nongreenhouse gas technology; and (2) reduction technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with an alternative technology that reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Essentially, replacement technologies involve 100 percent reduction in CO 2 ; reduction technologies involve a partial reduction in CO 2 . Of the man-made sources of greenhouse gases, energy is the most important and is expected to contribute to at least half of the global warming effect in the near future. The majority of this impact is from fossil fuel combustion as a source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), although fossil fuels also contribute significantly to methane (CH 4 ), to nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and to low-level ozone (O 3 ) through production of various nitrogen gases (NO x ) and carbon monoxide (CO). This study analyzes the available greenhouse gas substitutions and their costs. The authors concentrate particularly on substitutions for fossil-fuel combustion and CFC production and consumption. They conclude by summarizing the potential for greenhouse gas substitution, the cost-effectiveness of the various options and the design of incentives for substitution

  8. Time and Money - Are they Substitutes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    In this paper, we analyse the distribution of time and money for Danish wage earner couples, where time is defined as leisure time and money as extended income, i.e. the sum of disposable income and the value of housework. The hypothesis is that individuals being rich in one dimension are more...... likely to be poor in the other dimension, such that individuals can be classified as either money-poor/time-rich or money-rich/time-poor. We analyse two different distributions of income, where the first assumes no sharing and the second complete sharing of income between spouses. The data are from...... the Danish Time-Use Survey 2001, merged with register data. Results show that the substitution of money for time is more prominent for women than for men, because they have a larger income share of time-intensive value of housework, while men have the larger share of disposable income. Furthermore, when...

  9. SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTITUTED QUINOLINE-3-CARBALDEHYDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Klad'ko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dehalogenation of а series substituted 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehydes was investigated. It was found that zinc dust in alkali ethanol practically do not react with 2-chloro-3-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl-7-methylquinolines for a 5 day at ambient temperature. Increase temperature to boiling point of reaction mixture lead to increase yield 7-methylquinoline-3-carbaldehyde to 12.5%. This reaction with 2-chloro-3-dimetoxymetyl-7-methylquinoline give 26.5 above aldehyde. Replacement of ethanol to methanol give only traces of desired aldehyde. Neither 2-chloro-7-methylquinoline-3-carbaldehyde, nor his acetals do not react with sodium dithionite. Furthermore for activation of halogen we replaced chloraldehydes to iodoaldehydes by Finkelstein reaction, then protect aldehyde function by formation of dimethylacetals and treatment his by sodium dithionite in mixture pyridine-water. Desired aldehydes was obtained with poor to moderate yields. Increasing yields of this reaction is goal our further investigations.

  10. Porous bioresorbable magnesium as bone substitute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, C.E.; Yamada, Y.; Shimojima, K.; Chino, Y.; Hosokawa, H.; Mabuchi, M. [Inst. for Structural and Engineering Materials, National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Recently magnesium has been recognized as a very promising biomaterial for bone substitutes because of its excellent properties of biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioresorbability. In the present study, magnesium foams were fabricated by using a powder metallurgical process. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and compressive tester were used to characterize the porous magnesium. Results show that the Young's modulus and the peak stress of the porous magnesium increase with decreasing porosity and pore size. This study suggests that the mechanical properties of the porous magnesium with the low porosity of 35% and/or with the small pore size of about 70 {mu}m are close to those of human cancellous bones. (orig.)

  11. Substitution reactions of carbon nanotube template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi Pui; Chen, Ying; Gerald, John Fitz

    2006-05-01

    Substitution reactions between carbon nanotube (CNT) template and SiO with the formation of carbon rich silicon oxide nanowires (SiO-C-NWs) have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The reaction was carried out by thermal annealing at 1200°C for 1h of a mixture of silicon monoxide (SiO) and iron (II) phthalocyanine, FeC32N8H16 (FePc) powders. Multiwalled CNTs were produced first via pyrolysis of FePc at a lower temperature (1000°C ). SiO vapors reacted with the CNTs at higher temperatures to produce amorphous SiO-C-NWs with a uniform diameter and a length in tens of micrometers. The special bamboolike structure of the CNTs allows the reaction to start from the external surface of the tubes and transform each CNT into a solid nanowire section by section.

  12. Packing and Disorder in Substituted Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2016-07-15

    Fullerenes are ubiquitous as electron-acceptor and electron-transport materials in organic solar cells. Recent synthetic strategies to improve the solubility and electronic characteristics of these molecules have translated into a tremendous increase in the variety of derivatives employed in these applications. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the impact of going from mono-adducts to bis- and tris-adducts on the structural, cohesive, and packing characteristics of [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60. The packing configurations obtained at the MD level then serve as input for density functional theory calculations that examine the solid-state energetic disorder (distribution of site energies) as a function of chemical substitution. The variations in structural and site-energy disorders reflect the fundamental materials differences among the derivatives and impact the performance of these materials in thin-film electronic devices.

  13. Crossmodal Perceptual Learning and Sensory Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Proulx

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A sensory substitution device for blind persons aims to provide the missing visual input by converting images into a form that another modality can perceive, such as sound. Here I will discuss the perceptual learning and attentional mechanisms necessary for interpreting sounds produced by a device (The vOICe in a visuospatial manner. Although some aspects of the conversion, such as relating vertical location to pitch, rely on natural crossmodal mappings, the extensive training required suggests that synthetic mappings are required to generalize perceptual learning to new objects and environments, and ultimately to experience visual qualia. Here I will discuss the effects of the conversion and training on perception and attention that demonstrate the synthetic nature of learning the crossmodal mapping. Sensorimotor experience may be required to facilitate learning, develop expertise, and to develop a form of synthetic synaesthesia.

  14. Magnetic disaccommodation in Sn substituted magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Gomez, P.; Bendimya, K.; Francisco, C. de; Munoz, J.M.; Alejos, O.; Torres, C.

    2001-01-01

    The relaxation of the initial magnetic permeability has been measured in polycrystalline Sn-doped magnetite with nominal composition Sn x Fe 3-x O 4 with x ranging from x=0 to 0.6. In the temperature range between 80 and 500 K, the time decay of the initial permeability after sample demagnetization has been represented by means of isochronal disaccommodation curves, which show the presence of different relaxation processes at 250 K (IV' peak), 275 K (IV), 300 K (III), 400 K (II) and 440 K (I). This behavior is explained on the basis of the disaccommodation of vacancy-doped magnetite and another similar tetravalent substitution, as the previously analyzed Ti-doped magnetite

  15. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.; Skinner, N.L.

    1993-07-01

    This manual is the tutorial for the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS), an online, comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects. The HSSDS data base contains product information, material safety data sheets, toxicity reports, usage reports, biodegradable data, product chemical element lists, and background information on solvents. HSSDS use TOPIC reg-sign to search for information based on a query defined by the user. TOPIC provides a full text retrieval of unstructured source documents. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most queries performed with HSSDS. Instructions are provided for both window-based and character-based applications

  16. Substitution effects in magnetic and superconducting materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, O.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substitutions at very low level have been proved to be a very effective tool to change important physical parameters in many kinds of materials. These modifications may be the result of, for instance, subtle variations of the position of the Fermi level with respect to the density of states, presence of additional electrons which may change the hole carrier concentration, steric effects which impose contraints in the crystallographic lattice, mixed-valence states resultating from the dismutation of chemical components, etc. We review herein three systems in which the substitution effects are at the origin of new physical states : the high-Tc superconductor bismuth cuprate of the 2212 family, the mixed-valence manganese perovskites representative of giant magneto-resistive compounds, and the Chevrel phase materials in which a structural transition may inhibit the superconducting state.

    Las substituciones químicas a un nivel muy pequeño se han probado como una importante herramienta para cambiar los parámetros físicos en una gran variedad de materiales. Estas modificaciones pueden ser el resultado de, por ejemplo, muy ligeras variaciones de la posición del nivel de Fermi con respecto a la densidad de estados, presencia de electrones adicionales que pueden cambiar la concentración de portadores tipo huecos, efectos estéricos que imponen restricciones en la red cristalográfica, estados de valencia mixtos resultantes de la dismutación de los componentes químicos, etc. Aquí se revisan tres sistemas donde los efectos de substitución son el origen de nuevos estados físicos: los superconductores de alta temperatura basados en cupratos de bismuto de la familia 2212, las perovskitas de manganeso de valencia mixta representantes de compuestos con magnetorresistencia gigante, y los materiales con fases de Chevrelt cuya transición estructural puede inhibir el estado superconductor.

  17. Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Kralova

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of the corresponding chlorides of some substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acids (pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid or 5-tert-butyl-6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid withvarious ring-substituted aminothiazoles or anilines yielded a series of amides. Thesyntheses, analytical and spectroscopic data of thirty newly prepared compounds arepresented. Structure-activity relationships between the chemical structures and the anti-mycobacterial, antifungal and photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of the evaluatedcompounds are discussed. 3,5-Bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl derivatives of substitutedpyrazinecarboxylic acid, 16-18, have shown the highest activity against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis H37Rv (54-72% inhibition. The highest antifungal effect againstTrichophyton mentagrophytes, the most susceptible fungal strain tested, was found for5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-ylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (8, MIC =31.25 μmol·mL-1. The most active inhibitors of oxygen evolution rate in spinachMolecules 2006, 11 243 chloroplasts were the compounds 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(5-bromo-2-hydroxyphenyl- pyrazine-2-carboxamide (27, IC50 = 41.9 μmol·L-1 and 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(1,3- thiazol-2-yl-pyrazine-2-carboxamide (4, IC50 = 49.5 μmol·L-1.

  18. Polyphosphates substitution for zeolite to in detergents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo V, Gloria M.; Ocampo G, Aquiles; Saldarriaga M, Carlos

    1996-01-01

    The detergents, as well as the cleaning products, contain active ingredients that are good to increase their efficiency and some of them, as the sodium Tripoli-phosphate (TPF), they have turned out to be noxious for the environment. The zeolites use in the formulation of detergents has grown substantially since they fulfill the same function of the TPF and they have been recommended ecologically as substitutes from these when not being polluting. The objective of this work is to obtain a zeolite with appropriate characteristics for its use in the formulation of detergents, reproducing those of the zeolites used industrially. The zeolite synthesis is studied 4A starting from hydro-gels of different composition, varying the operation conditions and using two raw materials: (sodium meta-silicate, commercial degree and metallic aluminum) and clay type kaolin like silica source and aluminum It is looked for to get a product of beveled cubic morphology, or spherical, with glass size between 1 and 3 microns and that it possesses good capacity of conical exchange. Since the capacity and speed of ionic exchange is influenced by the particle size, time of contact and temperature, experimentation conditions settle down to measure the exchange of ions calcium and magnesium in watery solutions that they simulate the real situation of a laundry process in the country. This way the ability of the zeolite 4A obtained to diminish the concentration of these ions in the laundry waters is evaluated and its possibilities like component in the formulation of detergents non-phosphatates. Of the synthesized zeolites, the best in agreement is chosen with chemical properties as ionic and physical exchange capacity as crystalline, particle size and color, to prepare a detergent in which the polyphosphates is substituted partial and totally for the synthesized zeolite

  19. Plasma Free Metanephrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Plasma Free Metanephrines Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic ... Images View Sources Ask Us Also Known As Plasma Metanephrines Formal Name Fractionated Plasma Free Metanephrines (Metanephrine ...

  20. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  1. ECR plasma photographs as a plasma diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R; Biri, S; Palinkas, J [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2011-04-15

    Low, medium or highly charged ions delivered by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources all are produced in the ECR plasma. In order to study such plasmas, high-resolution visible light plasma photographs were taken at the ATOMKI ECR ion source. An 8 megapixel digital camera was used to photograph plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The analysis of the photo series gave many qualitative and some valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. A comparison was made between the plasma photos and computer simulations, and conclusions were drawn regarding the cold electron component of the plasma. The warm electron component of similar simulation was compared with x-ray photos emitted by plasma ions. While the simulations are in good agreement with the photos, a significant difference was found between the spatial distribution of the cold and warm electrons.

  2. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  3. Plasma waves in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The complete dispersion equation governing small amplitude plasma waves propagating in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is solved numerically. The efficiency of the wave energy thermalization in the lower hybrid frequency range is studied

  4. Quiescent plasma machine for plasma investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A large volume quiescent plasma device is being developed at INPE to study Langmuir waves and turbulence generated by electron beams (E b ≤ 500 e V) interacting with plasma. This new quiescent plasma machine was designed to allow the performance of several experiments specially those related with laboratory space plasma simulation experiments. Current-driven instabilities and related phenomena such as double-layers along magnetic field lines are some of the many experiments planned for this machine. (author)

  5. Plasma basic concepts and nitrogen containing plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Lluch, M. del Mar; Tanarro, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Basic concepts related to plasmas are described as well as the typical characterization methods currently available. A brief overview about some plasma applications is given, but focusing on plasma used in material processing mainly devoted to the microelectronics industry. Finally, specific applications related to plasma-assisted MBE for nitrides and dilute nitrides are given, showing some interesting research works performed to that purpose, and giving the usual characterization techniques ...

  6. Lectures in plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on plasma diagnostics: Electric probes in flowing and magnetized plasmas; Electron cyclotron emission absorption; Magnetic diagnostics; Spectroscopy; and Thomson Scattering

  7. Plasma electron losses in a multidipole plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The magnitude of the plasma electron cusp losses in a multidipole plasma device is determined by using a plasma electron heating technique. This method consists of suddenly generating approximately monoenergetic test electrons inside the multidipole plasma, which is in a steady-state equilibrium prior to the introduction of the test electrons. The Coulomb collisions between the test electrons and the plasma electrons result in heating the plasma electrons. The experimentally measured time evolution of the plasma electron temperature is compared with that predicted by a kinetic-theory model which calculates the time evolution of the test electron and the plasma electron distribution functions. The analytical solution of the plasma electron heating rate when the test electrons are first introduced into the plasma predicts that there is no dependence on ion mass. Experimental results in helium, neon, argon, and krypton multidipole plasmas confirm this prediction. The time-evolved solution of the kinetic equations must be solved numerically, and these results (when coupled with the experimental heating results) show that the plasma electron cusp-loss width is on the order of an electron Larmor radius

  8. Physics of plasma etching and plasma deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.; Hoog, de F.J.; Bisschops, T.J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Howorka, F.; Lindinger, W.; Maerk, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the title processes are discussed on the basis of a model in which the plasma-surface system is subdivided into 5 regions: (I) plasma prodn., (II) plasma flow plus radicals, (III) gas adsorbed layer, (IV) modified surface, and (V) undisturbed solid (or liq.) state.

  9. 49 CFR 383.77 - Substitute for driving skills tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitute for driving skills tests. 383.77... Substitute for driving skills tests. At the discretion of a State, the driving skill test as specified in... acceptable skills test, or an applicant's driving record in combination with certain driving experience. The...

  10. Substitute equations for index reduction and discontinuity handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabian, G.; Beek, van D.A.; Rooda, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Several techniques exist for index reduction and consistent initialization of higher index DAEs. Many such techniques change the original set of equations by differentiation, substitution, and/or introduction of new variables. This paper introduces substitute equations as a new language element. By

  11. Control of Chemical Risks by Substitution of Harmful Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Substitution of volatile, organic solvents with non-volatile, low-toxic esters of fatty acids for cleaning purposes in offset printing has successfully been implemented in several European countries. Similar substitutions in other industrial cleaning processes seem possible, especially regarding...

  12. Mass spectrometric investigation of vinyl-substituted organic boron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarielashvili, V.O.; Ordzhonikidze, K.G.; Parulava, L.P.; Vakhaniya, G.V.

    1992-01-01

    Mass spectrometric investigation of vinyl-substituted organic compounds was conducted. Ionization was performed by electron shock. Possibility of determining boron isotope content is all analyzed organic boron vinyl-substituted compounds by direct method is shown. This simplifies sufficiently and lowers the price of analysis, improves its accuracy and rapidity

  13. Design, Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Phenyl Substituted Isoxazolecarboxamides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng-fei; ZHANG Ji-feng; YAN Tao; XIONG Li-xia; LI Zheng-ming

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen novel phenyl substituted isoxazolecarboxamides were synthesized,and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR,elementary analysis and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS) techniques.Their evaluated insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm(Mythimna separata) indicate that the phcnyl substituted isoxazolecarboxamides exhibited moderate insecticidal activities,among which compounds 9c and 9k showed comparatively higher activities.

  14. Sublattice imbalance of substitutionally doped nitrogen in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, James A.; Gorman, Paul D.; Power, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the recently observed sublattice asymmetry of substitutional nitrogen impurities in CVD grown graphene, we show, in a mathematically transparent manner, that oscillations in the local density of states driven by the presence of substitutional impurities are responsible for breaking......, but should be present in other impurities. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Maximum parsimony, substitution model, and probability phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, J F; Thomas, D A; Mareels, I

    2011-01-01

    The problem of inferring phylogenies (phylogenetic trees) is one of the main problems in computational biology. There are three main methods for inferring phylogenies-Maximum Parsimony (MP), Distance Matrix (DM) and Maximum Likelihood (ML), of which the MP method is the most well-studied and popular method. In the MP method the optimization criterion is the number of substitutions of the nucleotides computed by the differences in the investigated nucleotide sequences. However, the MP method is often criticized as it only counts the substitutions observable at the current time and all the unobservable substitutions that really occur in the evolutionary history are omitted. In order to take into account the unobservable substitutions, some substitution models have been established and they are now widely used in the DM and ML methods but these substitution models cannot be used within the classical MP method. Recently the authors proposed a probability representation model for phylogenetic trees and the reconstructed trees in this model are called probability phylogenetic trees. One of the advantages of the probability representation model is that it can include a substitution model to infer phylogenetic trees based on the MP principle. In this paper we explain how to use a substitution model in the reconstruction of probability phylogenetic trees and show the advantage of this approach with examples.

  16. Effect of Honey as Partial Sugar Substitute on Pasting Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of partial substitution of sugar with liquid honey on the pasting properties of cooked dough made from cassava-wheat composite (10:90) flour as well as the sensory preference and shelf stability of its bread was investigated. Sucrose (S) in the bread recipe formulation was substituted with honey (H) at levels 0, 10, ...

  17. Thermal stability of substitutional ag in CdTe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahn, SG; Hofsass, H; Restle, M; Ronning, C; Quintel, H; BharuthRam, K; Wahl, U

    The thermal stability of substitutional Ag in CdTe was deduced from lattice location measurements at different temperatures. Substitutional Ag probe atoms were generated via transmutation doping from radioactive Cd isotopes. The lattice sites of Ag isotopes were determined by measuring the

  18. Influence of higher sodium substitutions on magnetic entropy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The change in entropy also decreases with increase in substitution of sodium. A notable change ... of substituting elements for A and B ions, valence states of. Mn and the oxygen ... applied external magnetic field of 7 T.17 Sodium substitu- ..... Bohigas X, Tejada J, Del Barco E, Zhang X X and Sales M. 1998 Appl. Phys. Lett.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section 184.1259... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1259 Cocoa butter substitute. (a) The common or...

  20. 76 FR 8666 - Substitution in Case of Death of Claimant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Parts 3, 14, 20 RIN 2900-AN91 Substitution in Case of Death... Veterans Affairs (VA) proposes to amend its regulations concerning adjudication of claims, representation..., not later than one year after the death of the claimant, request to be substituted for the claimant...

  1. Labour migration and substitution (updated) : Second, revised version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This (revised) paper compares the outcomes of several national and international studies on substitution as a consequence of migrants entering the labour market. Substitution appears if finding a job by one person results in the job loss (or non-obtaining of a job) of another person. The recruitment

  2. Substitution as a Device of Grammatical Cohesion in English Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study set out to investigate the effect of teaching substitution as a kind of grammatical cohesion on the true identification of confusing substitution elements with cohesive or non-cohesive roles in different contexts and also the production of modal, reporting and conditional contexts through clausal substitution acquaintance. To this end, the following procedures were taken. First 120 male and female EFL students were selected from Iranshahr Azad University. Having administered the language proficiency test, researchers selected 80 students as intermediate subjects according to their TOEFL band scores. First, pretests of cohesion identification (substitution and production of modal, reporting and conditional environments were administered to both control and experimental groups. Then, the experimental group was exposed to the teaching of the above-said above-mentioned cohesive device. Finally, post-tests of substitution elements’ identification and modal, reporting and conditional contexts’ production through clausal substitution familiarity were administered. The results showed that cohesive device treatment helped students on the true identification of substitution elements. Another finding proved that EFL students might have no difficulty in learning certain rules or classification of rules and application of their clausal substitution knowledge in creating modal, reporting and conditional contexts. Our findings can have implications for the field of language learning and teaching.

  3. 40 CFR 721.562 - Substituted alkylamine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkylamine salt. 721.562 Section 721.562 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.562 Substituted alkylamine salt...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject to...

  6. Cation substitution induced blue-shift of optical band gap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cation substitution induced blue-shift of optical band gap in nanocrystalline Zn ( 1 − x ) Ca x O thin films deposited by sol–gel dip coating technique ... thin films giving 13.03% enhancement in theenergy gap value due to the electronic perturbation caused by cation substitution as well as deterioration in crystallinity.

  7. MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS IN THE DESIGN OF SUBSTITUTE SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of physical properties and fluid behavior from molecular thermodynamics can lead to better decision making in the design of substitute solvents and can greatly reduce the expense and time required to find substitutes compared to designing solvents by experiment. this pape...

  8. Antimony substitution in SmFeAsO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Daniel; Braun, Hans F. [Universitaet Bayreuth (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the iron based compounds structural and magnetic phase transitions can be suppressed by applying external hydrostatic pressure and superconductivity emerges. Beside hydrostatic pressure, it is possible to apply chemical pressure by the substitution of atoms in the compounds with smaller ones. Such a substitution was successful for example in LaFeAs{sub 1-x}P{sub x}O, where the parent compound shows a structural and a spin-density-wave transition and the P doped samples become superconducting. We are interested in the opposite way and substitute the As by the bigger Sb. In literature, the substitution in the La-1111 compounds was possible up to a substitution level of 40 %. With Sm, instead of La, we used a smaller rare-earth metal. We present the results obtained on polycrystalline samples characterized by Xray powder diffraction and resistivity measurements.

  9. REACH-related substitution within the Danish printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten; Markussen, Helene

    are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study and an investigation of the actual......The accomplishment of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... fulfil one or more of the criteria (e.g. CMR, EDS) for the REACH Annex XIV candidate list (authorisation). The paper presents the results of the mapping of chemical candidates and the first results of the actual substitutions. Keywords: REACH, chemicals, substitution, printing industry....

  10. A Group Action Method for Construction of Strong Substitution Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Sajjad Shaukat; Shah, Tariq; Attaullah, Atta

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the method to develop cryptographically strong substitution box is presented which can be used in multimedia security and data hiding techniques. The algorithm of construction depends on the action of a projective general linear group over the set of units of the finite commutative ring. The strength of substitution box and ability to create confusion is assessed with different available analyses. Moreover, the ability of resistance against malicious attacks is also evaluated. The substitution box is examined by bit independent criterion, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity test, linear approximation probability test and differential approximation probability test. This substitution box is equated with well-recognized substitution boxes such as AES, Gray, APA, S8, prime of residue, Xyi and Skipjack. The comparison shows encouraging results about the strength of the proposed box. The majority logic criterion is also calculated to analyze the strength and its practical implementation.

  11. Potential radiosensitizing agents. 5. 2-Substituted benzimidazole derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.P.; Larroquette, C.A.; Agrawal, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    A series of 2-substituted benzimidazoles and their derivatives have been synthesized and tested for their ability to selectively sensitize hypoxic Chinese hamster cells (V-79) toward the lethal effect of ionizing radiation. These compounds were prepared by reacting the 2-substituted benzimidazoles with 1,2-epoxy-3-methoxypropane in the presence of potassium carbonate. Reaction of the 2-nitro and 2-methylfonyl analogue with the epoxide also yielded a cyclized material, which was confirmed to be a benzimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole. In an attempt to increase the electron affinity, 5- or 6-nitro-2-substituted-benzimidazoles were also synthesized and then reacted with the epoxide to yield the corresponding 1-substituted derivatives. The results of the biological tests for the radiosensitizing activity of these agents against Chinese hamster cells (V-79) in culture indicated that the 2-nitro-substituted analogues were the most effective sensitizers in this series

  12. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  13. Oscillatory processes in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallin, E.

    1980-01-01

    The oscillatory process play an important part in plasma evolution, In hot plasma in particular, the interactions between the oscillation modes are preponderant in relation to the binary collisions between particles. The nonlineary interactions between collective plasma oscillations can generate, in this case, a non-balanced steady state of plasma (steady turbulence). The paper elucidates some aspects of the oscillatory phenomena which contribute to the plasma state evolution, especially of hot plasma. A major part of the paper is devoted to the study of parametric instabilities in plasma and their role in increasing the temperature of plasma components (electrons, ions). Both parametric instabilities in plasma in the vicinity of thermodynamic balance and parametric processes is steady turbulent plasma are analysed - in relation to additional heating of hot plasma. An important result of the thesis refers to the drowing-up of a non-lineary interaction model between the oscillation modes in turbulent plasma, being responsible for the electromagnetic radiation in hot plasma. On the basis of the model suggested in the paper the existence of a low frequency radiative mode in hot plasma in a turbulent state, can be demonstrated. Its frequency could be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves. Such a radiative mode was detected experimentally in focussed plasma installations. (author)

  14. Substituted amylose matrices for oral drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghadam, S H; Wang, H W; El-Leithy, E Saddar; Chebli, C; Cartilier, L

    2007-01-01

    High amylose corn starch was used to obtain substituted amylose (SA) polymers by chemically modifying hydroxyl groups by an etherification process using 1,2-epoxypropanol. Tablets for drug-controlled release were prepared by direct compression and their release properties assessed by an in vitro dissolution test (USP XXIII no 2). The polymer swelling was characterized by measuring gravimetrically the water uptake ability of polymer tablets. SA hydrophilic matrix tablets present sequentially a burst effect, typical of hydrophilic matrices, and a near constant release, typical of reservoir systems. After the burst effect, surface pores disappear progressively by molecular association of amylose chains; this allows the creation of a polymer layer acting as a diffusion barrier and explains the peculiar behaviour of SA polymers. Several formulation parameters such as compression force, drug loading, tablet weight and insoluble diluent concentration were investigated. On the other hand, tablet thickness, scanning electron microscope analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry showed that the high crushing strength values observed for SA tablets were due to an unusual melting process occurring during tabletting although the tablet external layer went only through densification, deformation and partial melting. In contrast, HPMC tablets did not show any traces of a melting process

  15. Development of a piezoelectric bone substitute material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bader, Yousef A.

    2000-01-01

    The thesis deals with the preparation and testing of ceramic compositions to be used as bone substitute. The proposed composition consisted of calcium enriched calcium phosphate, kaolin and barium titanate in different ratios. The homogeneous powder mixture was dry pressed at different pressures and fired at temperatures up to 1350 degC for different soaking times. The physical properties of the fired compacts that were tested are bulk density and porosity. These were determined as function of pressing pressure, firing temperature and soaking time for different compositions. The mechanical properties investigated were the ultimate compressive strength and Young's modulus, which were determined for different compositions and forming pressures. The electrical properties investigated were D.C. characteristics (resistivity) and A.C. characteristics (A.C. resistivity, dielectric constant, dielectric loss and loss tangent). The piezoelectric behaviour of the fired compacts was investigated and the piezoelectric coefficient (d) in the axial direction was obtained as a function of the percent barium titanate added. The development of piezoelectricity when barium titanate is added was interpreted, using XRD, as due to the formation of barium titanate silicate. Compositions determined as having properties comparable to those of natural bone, were tested for in vitro solubility in pure water and saline solution. The results obtained showed that the selected composition (containing 15% kaolin, 10% barium titanate, pressed at 35 MPa and fired at 1350 degC for two hours) has properties comparable to those of dry bone and a reasonable in vitro solubility. (author)

  16. Substitution of photomultiplier tubes by photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, D.L.

    1990-04-01

    The application of Si semiconductors, either of the conventional or the avalanche type, as light amplifiers in radiation detection, has been studied aiming the substitution of photomultiplier (PM) tubes by photodiodes. The objective of this work is to compare the response of photodiodes and PM tubes when coupled to scintillation crystals. A Hamamatsu Si photodiode, model S 1337-66 B Q, was coupled to a Harshaw NaI (TI) scintillation crystal of window diameter equal to 25,4 mm. Its performance was evaluated by specially designed associated electronics, compatible with the photodiode characteristics. X-ray beams from 30 to 111 KeV were used to determine the response and the repeatability of the scintillator-photodiode and the scintillator-PM tube systems. The repeatability was found to be within 0,27% for the photodiode and 0,57% for the PM tube. This work confirmed that photodiodes can be used as light amplifiers, provided their characteristics, such as light spectrum response, are considered. It also shows that further studies are necessary in order to identify the applications in radiation detection where PM tubes might be replaced by photodiodes. (author)

  17. New substitution models for rooting phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tom A; Heaps, Sarah E; Cherlin, Svetlana; Nye, Tom M W; Boys, Richard J; Embley, T Martin

    2015-09-26

    The root of a phylogenetic tree is fundamental to its biological interpretation, but standard substitution models do not provide any information on its position. Here, we describe two recently developed models that relax the usual assumptions of stationarity and reversibility, thereby facilitating root inference without the need for an outgroup. We compare the performance of these models on a classic test case for phylogenetic methods, before considering two highly topical questions in evolutionary biology: the deep structure of the tree of life and the root of the archaeal radiation. We show that all three alignments contain meaningful rooting information that can be harnessed by these new models, thus complementing and extending previous work based on outgroup rooting. In particular, our analyses exclude the root of the tree of life from the eukaryotes or Archaea, placing it on the bacterial stem or within the Bacteria. They also exclude the root of the archaeal radiation from several major clades, consistent with analyses using other rooting methods. Overall, our results demonstrate the utility of non-reversible and non-stationary models for rooting phylogenetic trees, and identify areas where further progress can be made. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Some comments on the substituted judgement standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egonsson, Dan

    2010-02-01

    On a traditional interpretation of the substituted judgement standard (SJS) a person who makes treatment decisions on behalf of a non-competent patient (e.g. concerning euthanasia) ought to decide as the patient would have decided had she been competent. I propose an alternative interpretation of SJS in which the surrogate is required to infer what the patient actually thought about these end-of-life decisions. In clarifying SJS it is also important to differentiate the patient's consent and preference. If SJS is part of an autonomy ideal of the sort found in Kantian ethics, consent seems more important than preference. From a utilitarian perspective a preference-based reading of SJS seems natural. I argue that the justification of SJS within a utilitarian framework will boil down to the question whether a non-competent patient can be said to have any surviving preferences. If we give a virtue-ethical justification of SJS the relative importance of consent and preferences depends on which virtue one stresses--respect or care. I argue that SJS might be an independent normative method for extending the patient's autonomy, both from a Kantian and a virtue ethical perspective.

  19. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branham-Haar, K.A.; Twitchell, K.E.

    1993-07-01

    Concern for the environment, in addition to Federal regulation, mandate the replacement of hazardous solvents with safer cleaning agents. Manufacturers are working to produce these replacement solvents. As these products are developed, potential users need to be informed of their availability. To promote the use of these new products instead of traditional solvents, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS). The HSSDS provides a comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects, and it makes that information available to solvent users, industrial hygienists, and process engineers. The HSSDS uses TOPIC reg-sign, a text retrieval system produced by Verity, Inc., to allow a user to search for information on a particular subject. TOPIC reg-sign produces a listing of the retrieved documents and allows the use to examine the documents individually and to use the information contained in them. This reference manual does not replace the comprehensive TOPIC reg-sign user documentation (available from Verity, Inc.), or the HSSDS Tutorial (available from the INEL). The purpose of this reference manual is to provide enough instruction on TOPIC reg-sign so the user may begin accessing the data contained in the HSSDS

  20. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes, Effective May 28, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes, Effective May 28, 1999 H Appendix H to Subpart G of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Significant New Alternatives Policy Program Pt. 82, Subpt. G, App. H Appendix H to Subpart G...

  1. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Marelene

    2005-01-01

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  2. Communication through plasma sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkevich, A. O.; Newell, A. C.; Zakharov, V. E.

    2007-01-01

    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent

  3. Phosphorus doped graphene by inductively coupled plasma and triphenylphosphine treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong-Wook, E-mail: shindong37@skku.edu; Kim, Tae Sung; Yoo, Ji-Beom, E-mail: jbyoo@skku.edu

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Substitution doping is a promising method for opening the energy band gap of graphene. • Substitution doping with phosphorus in the graphene lattice has numerous advantage such as high band gap, low formation energy, and high net charge density compared to nitrogen. • V{sub dirac} of Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and triphenylphosphine (TPP) treated graphene was −57 V, which provided clear evidence of n-type doping. • Substitutional doping of graphene with phosphorus is verified by the XPS spectra of P 2p core level and EELS mapping of phosphorus. • The chemical bonding between P and graphene is very stable for a long time in air (2 months). - Abstract: Graphene is considered a host material for various applications in next-generation electronic devices. However, despite its excellent properties, one of the most important issues to be solved as an electronic material is the creation of an energy band gap. Substitution doping is a promising method for opening the energy band gap of graphene. Herein, we demonstrate the substitutional doping of graphene with phosphorus using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and triphenylphosphine (TPP) treatments. The electrical transfer characteristics of the phosphorus doped graphene field effect transistor (GFET) have a V{sub dirac} of ∼ − 54 V. The chemical bonding between P and C was clearly observed in XPS spectra, and uniform distribution of phosphorus within graphene domains was confirmed by EELS mapping. The capability for substitutional doping of graphene with phosphorus can significantly promote the development of graphene based electronic devices.

  4. Plasma Turbulence General Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadomtsev, B. B. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-06-15

    It is known that under experimental conditions plasma often shows chaotic motion. Such motion, when many degrees of freedom are excited to levels considerably above the thermal level, will be called turbulent. The properties of turbulent plasma in many respects differ from the properties of laminar plasma. It can be said that the appearance of various anomalies in plasma behaviour indicates the presence of turbulence in plasma. In order to verify directly the presence of turbulent motion in plasma we must, however, measure the fluctuation of some microscopic parameters in plasma.

  5. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I

    2013-01-01

    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  6. Nonsynonymous substitution in abalone sperm fertilization genes exceeds substitution in introns and mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Edward C.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Vacquier, Victor D.

    1998-01-01

    Strong positive Darwinian selection acts on two sperm fertilization proteins, lysin and 18-kDa protein, from abalone (Haliotis). To understand the phylogenetic context for this dramatic molecular evolution, we obtained sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI), and genomic sequences of lysin, 18-kDa, and a G protein subunit. Based on mtDNA differentiation, four north Pacific abalone species diverged within the past 2 million years (Myr), and remaining north Pacific species diverged over a period of 4–20 Myr. Between-species nonsynonymous differences in lysin and 18-kDa exons exceed nucleotide differences in introns by 3.5- to 24-fold. Remarkably, in some comparisons nonsynonymous substitutions in lysin and 18-kDa genes exceed synonymous substitutions in mtCOI. Lysin and 18-kDa intron/exon segments were sequenced from multiple red abalone individuals collected over a 1,200-km range. Only two nucleotide changes and two sites of slippage variation were detected in a total of >29,000 nucleotides surveyed. However, polymorphism in mtCOI and a G protein intron was found in this species. This finding suggests that positive selection swept one lysin allele and one 18-kDa allele to fixation. Similarities between mtCOI and lysin gene trees indicate that rapid adaptive evolution of lysin has occurred consistently through the history of the group. Comparisons with mtCOI molecular clock calibrations suggest that nonsynonymous substitutions accumulate 2–50 times faster in lysin and 18-kDa genes than in rapidly evolving mammalian genes. PMID:9724763

  7. The role of biomass in US industrial interfuel substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Clifton T.

    2014-01-01

    The role of biomass in US industrial interfuel substitution in the industrial sector has typically been analyzed using data for the four traditional fuels of coal, oil, electricity and natural gas. However, the use of biomass as an industrial fuel in the US has grown, and now exceeds that of coal. Using data from 1960 to 2011, interfuel substitution in the US industrial sector is modeled with a dynamic linear logit model which includes biomass alongside the other four traditional fuels. Adding biomass to the model reduces somewhat the estimated own-price and cross-price elasticities for the other four fuels, while revealing that biomass and natural gas are substitute fuels. This implies that previous studies excluding biomass may have overestimated the potential for interfuel substitution, giving policy makers an inaccurate impression of the ability of carbon taxes or other environmental regulation to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. - Highlights: • Biomass usage by the US industrial sector now exceeds coal usage. • Previous interfuel substitution studies have not included biomass as a fuel. • Linear logit model is used to examine role of biomass in interfuel substitution. • Including biomass in the model lowers estimated price elasticities for traditional fuels. • Biomass is found to be a substitute for natural gas for industrial users

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and subcellular localization studies of amino acid-substituted porphyrinic pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diggelen, Lisa; Khin, Hnin; Conner, Kip; Shao, Jenny; Sweezy, Margaretta; Jung, Anna H.; Isaac, Meden; Simonis, Ursula

    2009-06-01

    Stopping cancer in its path occurs when photosensitizers (PSs) induce apoptotic cell death after their exposure to light and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species. In pursuit of our hypothesis that mitochondrial localizing PSs will enhance the efficacy of the photosensitizing process in photodynamic therapy, since they provoke cell death by inducing apoptosis, we synthesized and characterized tetraphenylporphyrins (TPPs) that are substituted at the paraphenyl positions by two amino acids and two fluoro or hydroxyl groups, respectively. They were prepared according to the Lindsey-modified Adler-Longo methodology using trifluoromethanesulfonylchloride (CF3SO2Cl) as a catalyst instead of trifluoroacetic acid. The use of CF3SO2Cl yielded cleaner products in significantly higher yields. During the synthesis, not only the yields and work-up procedure of the TPPs were improved by using CF3SO2Cl as a catalyst, but also a better means of synthesizing the precursor dipyrromethanes was tested by using indium(III) chloride. Column chromatography, HPLC, and NMR spectroscopy were used to separate and characterize the di-amino acid-dihydroxy, or difluoro-substituted porphyrins and to ascertain their purity before subcellular localization studies were carried out. Studies using androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma cells LNCaP revealed that certain amino acid substituted porphyrins that are positively charged in the slightly acidic medium of cancer cells are very useful in shedding light on the targets of TPPs in subcellular organelles of cancer cells. Although some of these compounds have properties of promising photosensitizers by revealing increased water solubility, acidic properties, and innate ability to provoke cell death by apoptosis, the cell killing efficacy of these TPPs is low. This correlates with their subcellular localization. The di-amino acid, di-hydroxy substituted TPPs localize mainly to the lysosomes, whereas the di-fluoro-substituted

  9. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Collisionless plasmas in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Belmont, Gerard; Mottez, Fabrice; Pantellini, Filippo; Pelletier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics examines the unique properties of media without collisions in plasma physics. Experts in this field, the authors present the first book to concentrate on collisionless conditions in plasmas, whether close or not to thermal equilibrium. Filling a void in scientific literature, Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics explains the possibilities of modeling such plasmas, using a fluid or a kinetic framework. It also addresses common misconceptions that even professionals may possess, on phenomena such as "collisionless (Landau) damping". Abundant illustrations

  11. Experimental plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, H.; Banton, M.E.; Ingraham, J.C.; Wittman, F.; Wright, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Experimental Plasma Physics group's main efforts continue to be directed toward the understanding of the mechanisms of electromagnetic energy absorption in a plasma, and the resultant plasma heating and energy transport. The high-frequency spectrum of plasma waves parametrically excited by the microwave signal at high powers has been measured. The absorption of a small test microwave signal in a plasma made parametrically unstable by a separate high-power driver microwave signal was also studied

  12. Examples of plasma horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of the plasma horizon, defined as the boundary of the region in which an infinitely thin plasma can be supported against Coulomb attraction by a magnetic field, shows that the argument of selective accretion does not rule out the existence of charged black holes embedded in a conducting plasma. A detailed account of the covariant definition of plasma horizon is given and some examples of plasma horizons are presented. 7 references

  13. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  14. From incremental to fundamental substitution in chemical alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Weber, Roland; Scheringer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    to similarity in chemical structures and, hence, similar hazard profiles between phase-out and substitute chemicals, leading to a rather incremental than fundamental substitution. A hampered phase-out process, the lack of implementing Green Chemistry principles in chemicals design, and lack of Sustainable...... an integrated approach of all stakeholders involved toward more fundamental and function-based substitution by greener and more sustainable alternatives. Our recommendations finally constitute a starting point for identifying further research needs and for improving current alternatives assessment practice....

  15. Plasma end-loss studies on Scylla I-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, K.F.; York, T.M.

    1976-08-01

    The end-loss process in the collision dominated Scylla I-C plasma has been investigated with a local pressure sensitive diagnostic, integrated density measurement and axially arrayed diamagnetic loop probes. The development of a plasma loss orifice, well within the theta-pinch coil, has been identified. The magnitude of the observed orifice is found to be in excellent agreement with that predicted from collisional MHD theories. The axially flowing plasma is well confined until it flows through the loss orifice. After passing through the orifice, rapid axial expansion is observed. An indication of the existence of inward traveling rarefaction waves has been observed from the plasma midplane temperature data; an abrupt decrease in the plasma temperature at t approximately equal to 6.5 μs corresponds to the predicted time of arrival of rarefaction waves at the coil midplane. The plasma loss rate derived from the pressure data indicates an initial period (t 4 μs) of gradual decay in the loss rate. This initial period of high loss rate is predicted from the MHD flow theories when the measured, time dependent plasma parameters are substituted into the analytical models. The loss rate determined from the end-on interferograms does not respond to the detailed structure of the plasma loss process

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation in sterilization of dry dextran as plasma substitute and sodium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatkiewicz, A; Kusewicz, D [Politechnika Lodzka (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    The exposure of dry dextran, sodium chloride and polyethylene packing to 0,3-2 Mrad of gamma irradiation decreased their contamination by 60 to 96%. The sterilization effect of irradiation increased with gamma-ray dose. Spores of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were shown to be the most resistant to gamma-ray treatment. In some samples the resistant Micrococcus was also detected.

  17. Kinetics on the reaction of substituted quinolines and p-substituted benzoylchlorides under various pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Cheul; Lim, Jong Wan; Choi, Sung Yong; Kim, Se Kyong

    1999-01-01

    The reaction rates of substituted quinolines(6-CH 3 C 9 H 7 N, C 9 H 7 N) with p-substituted benzoylchlorides(p-CH 3 , p-H, p-NO 2 ) have been measured by conductometry in acetonitrile, and the rate constants are determined at various temperatures (10,15, 20, 25 .deg. C) and pressures(1, 200, 500, 1000bar). From the values of rate constants, the activation parameters(Ea, ΔV ≠ , ΔS ≠ , and ΔG ≠ ) and the pressure dependence of Hammett ρ values were determined. The rate constants increase as a function of temperatures and pressures, and are further increase by introduction the electron donor substituents in nucleophile(p-CH 3 ) or electron acceptor(p-NO 2 ) substituents in substrate. The activation volume, and the activation entropy are all negative. Hammett ρ values are also negative for nucleophile (ρ X ) and positive for the substrate (ρ Y ) over the pressure range studied. The results of kinetic studies for pressure and substituent show that these reactions proceed in typical S N 2 reaction mechanism and 'associative S N 2' in which bond formation favored with increasing pressures

  18. Chitosan Dermal Substitute and Chitosan Skin Substitute Contribute to Accelerated Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Irradiated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%, longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm, and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm. The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm were significantly decreased (P<0.05 compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  19. Elements of plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Chiow San

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some fundamental aspects of plasma technology that are important for beginners interested to start research in the area of plasma technology . These include the properties of plasma, methods of plasma generation and basic plasma diagnostic techniques. It also discusses several low cost plasma devices, including pulsed plasma sources such as plasma focus, pulsed capillary discharge, vacuum spark and exploding wire; as well as low temperature plasmas such as glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge which the authors believe may have potential applications in industry. The treatments are experimental rather than theoretical, although some theoretical background is provided where appropriate. The principles of operation of these devices are also reviewed and discussed.

  20. TFTR plasma feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, P.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hojsak, W.; Marsala, R.J.; Mueller, D.; Rauch, W.; Tait, G.D.; Taylor, G.; Thompson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor employs feedback control systems for four plasma parameters, i.e. for plasma current, for plasma major radius, for plasma vertical position, and for plasma density. The plasma current is controlled by adjusting the rate of change of current in the Ohmic Heating (OH) coil system. Plasma current is continuously sensed by a Rogowski coil and its associated electronics; the error between it and a preprogrammed reference plasma current history is operated upon by a ''proportional-plusintegral-plus-derivative'' (PID) control algorithm and combined with various feedforward terms, to generate compensating commands to the phase-controlled thyristor rectifiers which drive current through the OH coils. The plasma position is controlled by adjusting the currents in Equilibrium Field and Horizontal Field coil systems, which respectively determine the vertical and radial external magnetic fields producing J X B forces on the plasma current. The plasma major radius position and vertical position, sensed by ''B /sub theta/ '' and ''B /sub rho/ '' magnetic flux pickup coils with their associated electronics, are controlled toward preprogrammed reference histories by allowing PID and feedforward control algorithms to generate commands to the EF and HF coil power supplies. Plasma density is controlled by adjusting the amount of gas injected into the vacuum vessel. Time-varying gains are used to combine lineaveraged plasma density measurements from a microwave interferometer plasma diagnostic system with vacuum vessel pressure measurements from ion gauges, with various other measurements, and with preprogrammed reference histories, to determine commands to piezoelectric gas injection valves

  1. Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with mulberry leaf powder. Carlina Freddie Simol, Andrew Alek Tuen, Humrawali Hazid Ahmad Khan, John Keen Chubo, Patricia Jie Hung King, Kian Huat Ong ...

  2. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  3. Aligning protein sequence and analysing substitution pattern using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Aligning protein sequences using a score matrix has became a routine but valuable method in modern biological ..... the amino acids according to their substitution behaviour ...... which may cause great change (e.g. prolonging the helix) in.

  4. Long term substitution treatment (maintenance treatment of opioid dependent persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirl, Charlotte

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: Methadone substitution treatment in Germany is introduced in 1988 in the framework of a scientific pilot study in North Rhein Westphalia. Recent statistics show that by now a broad offer of substitution treatment exists. From 1 June 2002 to 31 December 2003 113,000 substitution treatments have been recorded as being started of which around 56,000 have been recorded as ongoing treatments by 1 December 2003. Scientific background: Substitution treatment (treatment of opioid-dependent persons using substitution substances is one part of addiction treatment. Its goals are harm reduction and the stabilisation of opioid dependent persons. Integration of opioid-dependent persons in a treatment-setting, reduction of consumption of psychoactive substances, reduction of risk behaviour (primarily related to infectious diseases, decrease of mortality and improvements concerning the social, psychic and physic situation are seen as a success of substitution treatment as maintenance therapy. Research questions: The aim of this HTA report is to investigate which indicators can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of substitution treatment. Based on these indicators an evaluation of the medical, social and economical benefit of substitution treatment - also in relation to abstinence oriented treatment - is carried out. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 31 international databases which yielded 2451 articles with publication date between 1995 and February 2005. Results: After a twofold selection process 32 publications were included for assessment and 276 publications were used as background literature. Despite serious restrictions due to selection bias and dropout in most studies focusing on substitution treatment, reduction of consumption of illegal opioids, reduction of risk behaviour, criminal behaviour, mortality and incidence of HIV can be seen as an empirically proven success of substitution treatment

  5. Computational Modeling of Degradation of Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, H.; Pivovar, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    The degradation of cations on the alkaline exchange membranes is the major challenge for alkaline membrane fuel cells. In this paper, we investigated the degradation barriers by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations, which is one of the most commonly used cations for alkaline exchange membranes. We found that substituted cations with electron-releasing substituent groups at meta-position of the benzyl ring could result in improved degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations with ten different substituent groups, the largest improvement of degradation barriers is only 1.6 kcal/mol. This implies that the lifetime of alkaline membrane fuel cells could increase from a few months to a few years by using substituted BTMA+ cations, an encouraging but still limited improvement for real-world applications.

  6. Gold-catalyzed oxidation of substituted phenols by hydrogen peroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Cheneviere, Yohan; Caps, Valerie; Tuel, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles deposited on inorganic supports are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various substituted phenols (2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and 2,3,6-trimethyl phenol) with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. By contrast to more conventional

  7. Macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone substitute applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thomas, ME

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available An improved strategy is described for the manufacture of macroporous hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone substitute applications. This is based on a modified fugitive phase technique, which allows production of relatively open, high-strength devices...

  8. A Web service substitution method based on service cluster nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, YuYue; Gai, JunJing; Zhou, MengChu

    2017-11-01

    Service substitution is an important research topic in the fields of Web services and service-oriented computing. This work presents a novel method to analyse and substitute Web services. A new concept, called a Service Cluster Net Unit, is proposed based on Web service clusters. A service cluster is converted into a Service Cluster Net Unit. Then it is used to analyse whether the services in the cluster can satisfy some service requests. Meanwhile, the substitution methods of an atomic service and a composite service are proposed. The correctness of the proposed method is proved, and the effectiveness is shown and compared with the state-of-the-art method via an experiment. It can be readily applied to e-commerce service substitution to meet the business automation needs.

  9. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Hengyun; Oxley, Les; Gibson, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world. (author)

  10. Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa and import substitution policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula F. Mendes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to the understanding of the process of import substitution in Sub-Saharan Africa. The process of industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa occurred in two phases: a first step, even very early during the colonial regime began around the 1920s and ended in the late forties; a second phase of industrialization began in the late fifties and gained momentum in the sixties, when import substitution was implemented more widely. Although these countries were the last to embark on the strategy of import substitution, they followed the same steps of Latin American countries, and as the structural domestic and external constraints were too strong, the failure of the policy of import substitution arrived early and the negative impact on these economies had a greater magnitude.

  11. Curvature and elasticity of substitution: what is the link?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matveenko, Andrei; Matveenko, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2014), s. 7-20 ISSN 1800-5845 Grant - others:UK(CZ) GAUK 308214 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : curvature * elasticity of substitution * production function Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  12. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hengyun [College of Economics and Management, Henan Agricultural University, 95 Wenhua Road, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Oxley, Les [Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gibson, John [Department of Economics, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world. (author)

  13. Calculating stocking rates for game ranches: substitution ratios for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calculating stocking rates for game ranches: substitution ratios for use in the Mopani ... Reports on a study conducted to quantify the overlap in ungulate resource-use on a game ranch, and to demonstrate how ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. 1-Hydroxyethyl-2-Substituted Phenoxymethyl Benzimidazoles: Synthesis and Crystal Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.; Wang, Z.; Gu, H.; Chen, W.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, C.

    2016-01-01

    Five novel 1-hydroxyethyl-2-substituted phenoxymethyl benzimidazoles c1-c5 were successfully synthesized by a three-step route. Firstly, five substituted phenoxymethyl acids a1-a5 were prepared by the O-carboxymethylation reaction of the starting substituted phenols under microwave irradiation. Then, these compounds reacted with o-phenylendiamine to get the key intermediates 2-substituted phenoxymethyl benzimidazoles b1-b5. At last, the target compounds were synthesized by the N-hydroxyethylation reaction of b1-b5 with 2-chloroethyl alcohol through the solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis method, where tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) was used as the catalyst. The structures of the target compounds were well characterized and verified by elemental analysis, MS, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. (author)

  15. Loan collaterals and collateral substitutes in rural finance: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loan collaterals and collateral substitutes in rural finance: a review. ... have difficulties in obtaining loans from banks and other financial institutions because ... The limited availability of conventional collaterals in rural financial markets has led ...

  16. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors Jette Østergaard Rathe1, Pia V. Larsen1, Morten Andersen2, Janus L. Thomsen3, Maja S. Paulsen1, Jens Søndergaard1 1. Research Unit of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark 2. Centre...... for Pharmacoepidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine Solna, Stockholm, Sweden 3. Danish Quality Unit of General Practice, Odense, Denmark Background Generic substitution means that chemically equivalent but less expensive drugs are dispensed in place of a brand name product. Although generic medicines...... by definition are bioequivalent to their brand name counterparts there are concerns about whether generic substitution is always accompanied by clinical equivalence in terms of effectiveness and that it may cause concerns and thereby causing some skepticism towards generic substitution. There is, however...

  17. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  18. Synthesis, characterization, magnetic and electrochemical properties of a new 3D hexa-copper-substituted germanotungstate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanzhou; Luo, Jie; Zhang, Yanting [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, Henan Key Lab of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Zhao, Junwei, E-mail: zhaojunwei@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, Henan Key Lab of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Basic Experiment Teaching Center, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Chen, Lijuan, E-mail: ljchen@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, Henan Key Lab of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, Henan Key Lab of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2013-09-15

    An inorganic–organic hybrid hexa-copper-substituted germanotungstate Na{sub 2}[Cu(dap){sub 2}]{sub 2}[Cu(dap){sub 2}] ([Cu{sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(dap){sub 2}][B-α-GeW{sub 9}O{sub 34}]{sub 2})·4H{sub 2}O (1) (dap=1,2-diaminopropane) has been hydrothermally prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 displays the six-connected 3D network with the long topological (O′Keefe) vertex symbol is 4·4·6{sub 4}·4·4·4·4·6{sub 4}·4·4·4·6{sub 4}·4·4·4 and the short vertex (Schläfli) symbol of 4{sup 12}6{sup 3}. Magnetic measurements indicate that there are the overall ferromagnetic exchange interactions in the belt-like hexa-Cu{sup II} cluster in 1. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior and electrocatalysis of 1 modified carbon paste electrode (1-CPE) have been studied. The reductions of nitrite, bromate and hydrogen peroxide are principally mediated by the W{sup VI}-based wave. - Graphical abstract: A hexa-Cu{sup II} sandwiched germanotungstate has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The magnetic, solid-state electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties have been investigated. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Transition-metal substituted polyoxometalates. • Hexa-copper-substituted germanotungstate. • Six-connected 3D network. • Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite, bromate and hydrogen peroxide.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, magnetic and electrochemical properties of a new 3D hexa-copper-substituted germanotungstate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanzhou; Luo, Jie; Zhang, Yanting; Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Lijuan; Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang

    2013-01-01

    An inorganic–organic hybrid hexa-copper-substituted germanotungstate Na 2 [Cu(dap) 2 ] 2 [Cu(dap) 2 ] ([Cu 6 (H 2 O) 2 (dap) 2 ][B-α-GeW 9 O 34 ] 2 )·4H 2 O (1) (dap=1,2-diaminopropane) has been hydrothermally prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 displays the six-connected 3D network with the long topological (O′Keefe) vertex symbol is 4·4·6 4 ·4·4·4·4·6 4 ·4·4·4·6 4 ·4·4·4 and the short vertex (Schläfli) symbol of 4 12 6 3 . Magnetic measurements indicate that there are the overall ferromagnetic exchange interactions in the belt-like hexa-Cu II cluster in 1. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior and electrocatalysis of 1 modified carbon paste electrode (1-CPE) have been studied. The reductions of nitrite, bromate and hydrogen peroxide are principally mediated by the W VI -based wave. - Graphical abstract: A hexa-Cu II sandwiched germanotungstate has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The magnetic, solid-state electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties have been investigated. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Transition-metal substituted polyoxometalates. • Hexa-copper-substituted germanotungstate. • Six-connected 3D network. • Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite, bromate and hydrogen peroxide

  20. Low rate of infectious complications following immunoadsorption therapy without regular substitution of intravenous immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselmin, Sergey; Julius, Ulrich; Bornstein, Stefan R; Hohenstein, Bernd

    2017-11-01

    Immunoadsorption (IA) is increasingly used instead of plasma exchange due to lower risk of side effects and a higher selectivity. As a consequence of the reduction of immunoglobulins (Ig), the rate of infectious complications might increase in those patients. We therefore aimed to investigate the infection rate following IA without intravenous IG (IVIG) substitution in our apheresis center, where patients do not receive IVIG on a regular basis. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the IA treatments performed between 2010 and 2015 without IVIG substitution and collected data on patient age, diagnosis, number of IA treatments, serum levels of Ig, total protein, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and infectious complications that occurred within 2 months after the IA treatment cycle. A total number of 52 patients (27 females) received at least 5 IA sessions using the following adsorbers: TheraSorb™-Ig (n = 3), TheraSorb™-Ig flex (n = 44), TheraSorb™ Ig pro (n = 1) and TheraSorb™-IgE (n = 5). The median number of treatment sessions was 8.8 [range 5-16], the median IgG reduction was 82 [11-99] %. Serum albumin was decreased by 8%. The median CRP levels remained normal until the end of therapy and within 2 months after that (3.10 and 4.30 mg/L respectively). Only 4 patients had infections (7.7%). Three of them received additional immunosuppressive therapy. Immunoadsorption leads to a significant reduction of IgG. CRP as inflammatory marker is not affected. Even without substitution of IVIG the complication rate directly linked with IA is low and questionable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. International conference on plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, V.P.; Sitenko, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report on the 6th International conference on plasma physics and on the 6th International Congress on plasma waves and plasma instabilities, which have taken place in summer 1984 in Losanne, is presented. Main items of the conference are enlightened, such as the general theory of a plasma, laboratory plasma, thermonuclear plasma, cosmic plasma and astrophysics

  2. Protein substitute for children and adults with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sarah H L; Singh, Rani H

    2015-02-27

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited metabolic disorder characterised by an absence or deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. The aim of treatment is to lower blood phenylalanine concentrations to the recommended therapeutic range to prevent developmental delay and support normal growth. Current treatment consists of a low-phenylalanine diet in combination with a protein substitute which is free from or low in phenylalanine. Guidance regarding the use, dosage, and distribution of dosage of the protein substitute over a 24-hour period is unclear, and there is variation in recommendations among treatment centres. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2005, and previously updated in 2008. To assess the benefits and adverse effects of protein substitute, its dosage, and distribution of dose in children and adults with phenylketonuria who are adhering to a low-phenylalanine diet. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which consists of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and hand searches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also contacted manufacturers of the phenylalanine-free and low-phenylalanine protein substitutes for any data from published and unpublished randomised controlled trials.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 03 April 2014. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing: any dose of protein substitute with no protein substitute; an alternative dosage; or the same dose, but given as frequent small doses throughout the day compared with the same total daily dose given as larger boluses less frequently. Both authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Three trials (69 participants) are included in this review. One trial investigated the use of protein substitute in 16 participants, while a further two trials investigated the

  3. Managing demand uncertainty: probabilistic selling versus inventory substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y.; Hua, Guowei; Wang, Shouyang; Zhang, Juliang; Fernández Alarcón, Vicenç

    2018-01-01

    Demand variability is prevailing in the current rapidly changing business environment, which makes it difficult for a retailer that sells multiple substitutable products to determine the optimal inventory. To combat demand uncertainty, both strategies of inventory substitution and probabilistic selling can be used. Although the two strategies differ in operation, we believe that they share a common feature in combating demand uncertainty by encouraging some customers to give up some specific ...

  4. Factor and Organizational Substitutions to Minimize Costs in the Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    than mere labour for capital substitutions if the objective is one of cost minimization. Static input substitution principle that cheaper inputs...produced? Is the correct mix of inputs being used? While advanced treatments of production theory can be found in microeconomics textbooks (e.g... Microeconomic Theory, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall Johnson, D.C. et al. (2009), “Managing Change on Complex Programs: VIRGINIA Class Cost Reduction,” Naval

  5. Currency Substitution and The Law of One Price

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Camera; Johannes Winkler

    2000-01-01

    We study endogenous currency substitution in a decentralized trade environment. Sellers maximize profits from sales of imperfectly substitutable goods by posting prices in either one of two currencies. A unique symmetric equilibrium exists where goods are priced only in the local currency. This occurs if foreign trade is sporadic, there is sufficient but not excessive liquidity, and discounting is low. Excess or scarcity of liquidity, however, induces sellers to extract all surplus from buyer...

  6. Diastereoselective Au-Catalyzed Allene Cycloisomerizations to Highly Substituted Cyclopentenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Ryan D; Phelps, Alicia M; Raimbach, William A T; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-07-07

    Site- and regiocontrolled Au-catalyzed allene carbocyclizations furnish highly substituted cyclopentenes in >1:1 dr. Significant substitution on the substrate is tolerated, with potential to install five contiguous stereocenters after alkene functionalization. Major challenges include identifying a Au/Cu catalyst that controls both the relative rates of allene epimerization/cyclization and the facial selectivity in addition of a metal enolate to the allene. Experiments to achieve stereodivergent cyclizations and transform key cyclopentenes into useful synthetic building blocks are described.

  7. A Novel Image Stream Cipher Based On Dynamic Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Elsharkawi, A.; El-Sagheer, R. M.; Akah, H.; Taha, H.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, many chaos-based stream cipher algorithms have been developed. Traditional chaos stream cipher is based on XORing a generated secure random number sequence based on chaotic maps (e.g. logistic map, Bernoulli Map, Tent Map etc.) with the original image to get the encrypted image, This type of stream cipher seems to be vulnerable to chosen plaintext attacks. This paper introduces a new stream cipher algorithm based on dynamic substitution box. The new algorithm uses one substitution b...

  8. The applied theory of energy substitution in production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Henry

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the applied theory of energy cross price partial elasticities of substitution, and presents it in a transparent fashion. It uses log linear and translog production and cost functions due to their economic properties and convenient estimating forms, but the theory applies other functional forms. The objective is to encourage increased empirical research that would deepen understanding and appreciation of energy substitution. (author)

  9. The elasticity of substitution of superlative price indices

    OpenAIRE

    Petter Frenger

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: The paper presents a method for computing the curvature implicit in the use of superlative price indices. It extends the quadratic lemma and allows us to compute the elasticity of substitution of the underlying preferences in the direction of the observed price change for the Törnqvist and the quadratic mean of order r indices. It derives the expressions for the directional shadow elasticity of substitution and applies the results to the Norwegian CPI data base. Ke...

  10. Think Again: Higher Elasticity of Substitution Increases Economic Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    P. Dumas; S. Hallegatte

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that, counter-intuitively, a higher elasticity of substitution in model production function can lead to reduced economic resilience and larger vulnerability to shocks in production factor prices. This result is due to the fact that assuming a higher elasticity of substitution requires a recalibration of the production function parameters to keep the model initial state unchanged. This result has consequences for economic analysis, e.g., on the economic vulnerability to climat...

  11. Laser ablation of Bi-substituted gadolinium iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Hayashida, K.; Kawano, K.; Higuchi, K.; Ohkoshi, M.; Tsushima, K.

    1995-01-01

    Bi-substituted gadolinium iron garnet films were deposited by laser ablation. The composition, the structure and the magnetic properties of the films were found to be strongly dependent both on the compositions of the targets and on the pressure of oxygen. The highest values of Bi-substitution up to x=1.44 with uniform composition were obtained, after annealing in air. ((orig.))

  12. Carbonate Hydroxyapatite and Silicon-Substituted Carbonate Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Mechanical Properties, and Solubility Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Bang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the chemical composition, solubility, and physical and mechanical properties of carbonate hydroxyapatite (CO3Ap and silicon-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (Si-CO3Ap which have been prepared by a simple precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray fluorescence (XRF spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP techniques were used to characterize the formation of CO3Ap and Si-CO3Ap. The results revealed that the silicate (SiO44- and carbonate (CO32- ions competed to occupy the phosphate (PO43- site and also entered simultaneously into the hydroxyapatite structure. The Si-substituted CO3Ap reduced the powder crystallinity and promoted ion release which resulted in a better solubility compared to that of Si-free CO3Ap. The mean particle size of Si-CO3Ap was much finer than that of CO3Ap. At 750°C heat-treatment temperature, the diametral tensile strengths (DTS of Si-CO3Ap and CO3Ap were about 10.8±0.3 and 11.8±0.4 MPa, respectively.

  13. BLOOD SUBSTITUTES: EVOLUTION FROM NON-CARRYING TO OXYGEN AND GAS CARRYING FLUIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrales, Pedro; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The development of oxygen (O2) carrying blood substitutes has evolved from the goal of replicating blood O2 transports properties to that of preserving microvascular and organ function, reducing the inherent or potential toxicity of the material used to carry O2, and treating pathologies initiated by anemia and hypoxia. Furthermore, the emphasis has shifted from blood replacement fluid to “O2 therapeutics” that restore tissue oxygenation to specific tissues regions. This review covers the different alternatives, potential and limitations of hemoglobin based O2 carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorocarbon based O2 carriers (PFCOCs), with emphasis on the physiological conditions disturbed in the situation that they will be used. It describes how concepts learned from plasma expanders without O2 carrying capacity can be applied to maintain O2 delivery and summarizes the microvascular responses due to HBOCs and PFCOCs. This review also presents alternative applications of HBOCs and PFCOCs namely: 1) How HBOC O2 affinity can be engineered to target O2 delivery to hypoxic tissues; and 2) How the high gas solubility of PFCOCs provides new opportunities for carrying, dissolving and delivering gases with biological activity. It is concluded that current blood substitutes development has amplified their applications horizon by devising therapeutic functions for oxygen carriers requiring limited O2 delivery capacity restoration. Conversely, full, blood-like O2 carrying capacity re-establishment awaits control of O2 carrier toxicity. PMID:23820271

  14. Plasmas and fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma and fluid physics includes the fields of fusion research and space investigation. This book discusses the most important advances in these areas over the past decade and recommends a stronger commitment to basic research in plasma and fluid physics. The book recommends that plasma and fluid physics be included in physics curriculums because of their increasing importance in energy and defense. The book also lists recent accomplishments in the fields of general plasma physics, fusion plasma confinement and heating, space and astrophysical plasmas, and fluid physics and lists research opportunities in these areas. A funding summary explains how research monies are allocated and suggests ways to improve their effectiveness

  15. Anthropogenic areas as incidental substitutes for original habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Jiménez, Juan

    2016-06-01

    One speaks of ecological substitutes when an introduced species performs, to some extent, the ecosystem function of an extirpated native species. We suggest that a similar case exists for habitats. Species evolve within ecosystems, but habitats can be destroyed or modified by natural and human-made causes. Sometimes habitat alteration forces animals to move to or remain in a suboptimal habitat type. In that case, the habitat is considered a refuge, and the species is called a refugee. Typically refugee species have lower population growth rates than in their original habitats. Human action may lead to the unintended generation of artificial or semiartificial habitat types that functionally resemble the essential features of the original habitat and thus allow a population growth rate of the same magnitude or higher than in the original habitat. We call such areas substitution habitats and define them as human-made habitats within the focal species range that by chance are partial substitutes for the species' original habitat. We call species occupying a substitution habitat adopted species. These are 2 new terms in conservation biology. Examples of substitution habitats are dams for European otters, wheat and rice fields for many steppeland and aquatic birds, and urban areas for storks, falcons, and swifts. Although substitution habitats can bring about increased resilience against the agents of global change, the conservation of original habitat types remains a conservation priority. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Eosin-sensitized photooxidation of substituted phenylalanines and tyrosines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzuto, F.; Spikes, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The cosin-sensitized photooxidation of tyrosine and a number of compounds related to tyrosine (substituted phenylalanines) was studied by steady-state kinetic and flash photolysis techniques. In particular, the role of the phenolic group and the amino and carboxyl groups of the alanyl side chain in the photooxidation mechanism was investigated in detail. Several relationships between substrate structure and susceptibility to photooxidation as well as effects of substrate structure on photooxidation mechanisms were found. For example, phenylalanine is not photooxidizable, but substitution of electron-donating (activating) groups such as -OH (as in tyrosine) or -NH/sub 2/ (as in p-aminophenylalanine) results in rapidly photooxidized derivatives. However, substituting deactivating groups such as -Cl (as in p-chlorophenylalanine) or weakly activating groups such as -OCH/sub 3/ (as in 4-methoxyphenylalanine) result in non-photooxidizable derivatives. Substitution of additional activating groups to the ring of hydroxy-substituted phenylalanines results in increased rates of photooxidation, whereas additional deactivating groups result in decreased photooxidation rates. The rate-determining step in the photooxidation mechanism is shown to be dependent on the presence and position of an electron-donating substituent on the benzenoid ring. Only minor involvement of the side chain amino and carboxyl groups was found. Both singlet oxygen and hydrogen abstraction mechanisms are involved in the eosin-sensitized photooxidation of hydroxy-substituted phenylalanines (e.g., tyrosine). The hydrogen abstraction mechanism probably predominates at both pH 8 and 11.

  17. Are Synonymous Substitutions in Flowering Plant Mitochondria Neutral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Emily L; Christensen, Alan C

    2015-10-01

    Angiosperm mitochondrial genes appear to have very low mutation rates, while non-gene regions expand, diverge, and rearrange quickly. One possible explanation for this disparity is that synonymous substitutions in plant mitochondrial genes are not truly neutral and selection keeps their occurrence low. If this were true, the explanation for the disparity in mutation rates in genes and non-genes needs to consider selection as well as mechanisms of DNA repair. Rps14 is co-transcribed with cob and rpl5 in most plant mitochondrial genomes, but in some genomes, rps14 has been duplicated to the nucleus leaving a pseudogene in the mitochondria. This provides an opportunity to compare neutral substitution rates in pseudogenes with synonymous substitution rates in the orthologs. Genes and pseudogenes of rps14 have been aligned among different species and the mutation rates have been calculated. Neutral substitution rates in pseudogenes and synonymous substitution rates in genes are significantly different, providing evidence that synonymous substitutions in plant mitochondrial genes are not completely neutral. The non-neutrality is not sufficient to completely explain the exceptionally low mutation rates in land plant mitochondrial genomes, but selective forces appear to play a small role.

  18. Neutron kerma factors, and water equivalence of some tissue substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V. P.; Badiger, N. M.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    The kerma factors and kerma relative to air and water of 24 compounds used as tissue substitutes were calculated for neutron energy from 2.53 x 10 -8 up to 29 MeV. The kerma ratio of the tissue substitutes relative to air and water were calculated by the ratio of kerma factors of the tissue substitute to air and water respectively. The water equivalence of the selected tissue substitutes was observed above neutron energies 100 eV. Kerma ratio relative to the air for Poly-vinylidene fluoride and Teflon are found to be nearest to unity in very low energy (up to 1 eV) and above 63 eV respectively. It was found that the natural rubber as a water equivalent tissue substitute compound. The results of the kerma factors in our investigation shows a very good agreement with those published in ICRU-44. We found that at higher neutron energies, the kerma factors and kerma ratios of the selected tissue substitute compounds are approximately same, but differences are large for energies below 100 eV. (Author)

  19. Noval 1-substituted-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazole derivatives: Synthesis and pharmacological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Hussain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several-1-carbothioamide-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 2a–d, 1-(pyridine-4-ylcarbonyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 3a–d, 1-(5-chloro-6-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazole-2-ylthiocarbamoyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 4a–d and 1-[(1,2,4-triazole-4-yl carbothioamide]-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 5a–d were synthesized. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were supported by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. These compounds were investigated for their, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ulcerogenic, lipid peroxidation, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Some of the synthesized compounds showed potent anti-inflammatory activity along with minimal ulcerogenic effect and lipid peroxidation, compared to ibuprofen and flurbiprofen. Some of the tested compounds also showed moderate antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains.

  20. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  1. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    positron or electron–proton plasma in the context of early universe, stars and supernova ... proper. Of course, in their later work on kinetic theory (KT) [5] of neutrino plasma inter- .... for electron also with additional electric potential term.

  2. Plasma kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma kinetic theory is discussed and a comparison made with the kinetic theory of gases. The plasma is described by a modified set of fluid equations and it is shown how these fluid equations can be derived. (UK)

  3. Physics of laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenchik, A.; Witkowski, S.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of laser fusion plasma physics and contains the most up-to-date information on high density plasma physics and radiation transport, useful for astrophysicists and high density physicists

  4. Plasma heating in collisionless plasma at low plasma density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, H.O.

    1977-01-01

    The high frequency heating of a collisionless, fully ionized low density plasma is investigated in the range: 2ωc 2 2 under pumping frequencies. A pulsed 1 MHz transmitter excites a fast standing, magneto-acoustical wave in the plasma, via the high frequency magnetic field of a Stix solenoid. The available modulation degrees are between 0.7 and 7.0%. As power consumption measurements show, there appears at all investigated pumping frequencies an effective energy transfer to the plasma that cannot be explained with the classical MHD models. Measurements with electrostatic probes and further with a miniature counter-field spectrometer yield an electron and ion temperature gain of two to three factors and 15-18, compared to the corresponding values in the initial plasma. (orig./HT) [de

  5. Plasma-Sprayed Fine-grained Zirconium Silicate and Its Dielectric Properties.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Pala, Zdeněk; Nevrlá, Barbara; Neufuss, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), s. 2388-2393 ISSN 1059-9495 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : electrical properties * insulators * plasma spraying * silica-substituted zirconia * zircon Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2016

  6. Plasma-Assisted Synthesis of NiCoP for Efficient Overall Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng; Gandi, Appala; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Wang, Xianbin; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    be further enhanced by substitution with extrinsic metals, though very little work has been conducted in this area. Here we present for the first time a novel PH plasma-assisted approach to convert NiCo hydroxides into ternary NiCoP. The obtained Ni

  7. Introduction to Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.

  8. Plasma-wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the 43 slides presented in the framework of the week long lecture 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to plasma-wall interaction in a tokamak. This document is divided into 4 parts: 1) thermal load on the wall, power extraction and particle recovery, 2) basic edge plasma physics, 3) processes that drive the plasma-solid interaction, and 4) material conditioning (surface treatment...) for ITER

  9. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  10. Application of plasma focus device to compression of toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari

    1980-01-01

    A new concept of compressing a toroidal plasma using a plasma focus device is considered. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined merely by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to a sheet plasma in a focus device because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. An initiation senario of plasma-linear is also proposed with a possible application of this concepts to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e., burning plasma vortex. (author)

  11. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  12. Plasma in wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tipa, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmas, due to their electrical and chemical properties, release in the invironment a unique cocktail of charged species, energetic photons and active radicals. Plasmas have a miriad of applications. To mention just a few, plasmas are being used in the semiconductors industry, atomic layer

  13. Plasma in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1982-10-01

    Two examples of plasma phenomena of importance to astrophysics are reviewed. These are examples where astrophysical understanding hinges on further progress in plasma physics understanding. The two examples are magnetic reconnection and the collisionless interaction between a population of energetic particles and a cooler gas or plasma, in particular the interaction between galactic cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

  14. Plasma processing and chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The growing field of applications of plasma as deposition, etching, surface modification and chemical conversion has stimulated a renewed interest in plasma science in the atomic physical chemistry regime. The necessity to optimize the various plasma processing techniques in terms of rates, and

  15. Some aspects of plasma thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgoraki, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The objective reasons which have inhibited the development of a plasma-thermodynamics theory are discussed and the authors formulate the fundamental principles which can be the basis of a common plasma-thermodynamics theory. Two kinds of thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas are discussed, an isothermal plasma and a nonisothermal plasma. An isothermal plasma is a high-temperature plasma; the Saha-Eggert equation describes its behavior. A nonisothermal plasma is a low-temperature plasma, and the reactions taking place therein are purely plasma-chemical. The ionization equilibrium and the composition of such a plasma can be found with the aid of the equations presented in this paper

  16. 26 CFR 601.505 - Revocation, change in representation and substitution or delegation of representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... authorizes the substitution or delegation. An employee of a recognized representative may not be substituted... substitution or delegation of representative. 601.505 Section 601.505 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Practice Requirements § 601.505 Revocation, change in representation and substitution or delegation of...

  17. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiman Amanda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG, a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350 The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal, 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%, better symptom management (57%, and less withdrawal potential (34% with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one

  18. Space plasma simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Scientific results of experiments and tests of instruments performed with the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber and its facility are reviewed in the following six categories. 1. Tests of instruments on board rockets, satellites and balloons. 2. Plasma wave experiments. 3. Measurements of plasma particles. 4. Optical measurements. 5. Plasma production. 6. Space plasms simulations. This facility has been managed under Laboratory Space Plasma Comittee since 1969 and used by scientists in cooperative programs with universities and institutes all over country. A list of publications is attached. (author)

  19. Computations in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.; Killeen, J.

    1984-01-01

    A review of computer application in plasma physics is presented. Computer contribution to the investigation of magnetic and inertial confinement of a plasma and charged particle beam propagation is described. Typical utilization of computer for simulation and control of laboratory and cosmic experiments with a plasma and for data accumulation in these experiments is considered. Basic computational methods applied in plasma physics are discussed. Future trends of computer utilization in plasma reseaches are considered in terms of an increasing role of microprocessors and high-speed data plotters and the necessity of more powerful computer application

  20. Model of detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Chance, M.

    1986-07-01

    Recently a tokamak plasma was observed in TFTR that was not limited by a limiter or a divertor. A model is proposed to explain this equilibrium, which is called a detached plasma. The model consists of (1) the core plasma where ohmic heating power is lost by anomalous heat conduction and (2) the shell plasma where the heat from the core plasma is radiated away by the atomic processes of impurity ions. A simple scaling law is proposed to test the validity of this model

  1. Mirror plasma apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma

  2. Contemporary plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Tewari, D.P.; Subbarao, D.

    1983-01-01

    The book consists of review articles on some selected contemporary aspects of plasma physics. The selected topics present a panoramic view of contemporary plasma physics and applications to fusion, space and MHD power generation. Basic non-linear plasma theory is also covered. The book is supposed to be useful for M.S./M.Sc. students specialising in plasma physics and for those beginning research work in plasma physics. It will also serve as a valuable reference book for more advanced research workers. (M.G.B.)

  3. ECR Plasma Photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Palinkas, J.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The effects of the main external setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, microwave power, microwave frequency) were studied to the shape, color and structure of the plasma. The double frequency mode (9+14 GHz) was also realized and photos of this special 'star-in-star' shape plasma were recorded. A study was performed to analyze and understand the color of the ECR plasmas. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. To our best knowledge our work is the first systematic study of ECR plasmas in the visible light region. When looking in the plasma chamber of an ECRIS we can see an axial image of the plasma (figure 1) in conformity with experimental setup. Most of the quantitative information was obtained through the summarised values of the Analogue Digital Unit (ADU) of pixels. By decreasing the strength of the magnetic trap we clearly observed that the brightness of the central part of the plasma gradually decreases, i.e. the plasma becomes more and more 'empty'. Figure 2 shows a photo series of ECR plasma at decreasing axial magnetic field. The radial size of the plasma increased because of the ascendant resonant zone. By increasing the power of the injected microwave an optimum (or at least saturation) was found in the brightness of the plasma. We found correlation between the gas dosing rates and plasma intensities. When sweeping the frequency of the microwave in a wide region

  4. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  5. Introduction to plasma engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The author has begun writing a textbook entitled Introduction to Plasma Engineering, which is intended for upper division undergraduates or professionals who are entering the field. This paper features a detailed topical outline of all 20 chapters of the book. The text is organized so that the first five chapters cover plasma physics and basic principles; the next 13 chapters cover the most important engineering applications of plasmas, in order of increasing plasma energy/number density; and two final chapters cover plasma diagnostics and magnetic coil design

  6. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wei; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jianglin; Zhang, Shengmin

    2012-01-01

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: ► We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. ► XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. ► Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. ► Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. ► Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  7. A test of the substitution-habitat hypothesis in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Galán, Pedro

    2017-12-08

    Most examples that support the substitution-habitat hypothesis (human-made habitats act as substitutes of original habitat) deal with birds and mammals. We tested this hypothesis in 14 amphibians by using percentage occupancy as a proxy of habitat quality (i.e., higher occupancy percentages indicate higher quality). We classified water body types as original habitat (no or little human influence) depending on anatomical, behavioral, or physiological adaptations of each amphibian species. Ten species had relatively high probabilities (0.16-0.28) of occurrence in original habitat, moderate probability of occurrence in substitution habitats (0.11-0.14), and low probability of occurrence in refuge habitats (0.05-0.08). Thus, the substitution-habitat hypothesis only partially applies to amphibians because the low occupancy of refuges could be due to the negligible human persecution of this group (indicating good conservation status). However, low occupancy of refuges could also be due to low tolerance of refuge conditions, which could have led to selective extinction or colonization problems due to poor dispersal capabilities. That original habitats had the highest probabilities of occupancy suggests amphibians have a good conservation status in the region. They also appeared highly adaptable to anthropogenic substitution habitats. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Fat substitutes in processing of sausages using piramutaba waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Henriques Lourenço, Lúcia; Dos Santos Galvão, Giane Célia; da Conceição Amaral Ribeiro, Suezilde; de Fátima Amaral Ribeiro, Carmelita; Park, Kil Jin

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fat substitute in processing of sausages prepared with surimi of waste from piramutaba filleting. The formulation ingredients were mixed with the fat substitutes added according to a fractional planning 2(4-1), where the independent variables, manioc starch (Ms), hydrogenated soy fat (F), texturized soybean protein (Tsp) and carrageenan (Cg) were evaluated on the responses of pH, texture (Tx), raw batter stability (RBS) and water holding capacity (WHC) of the sausage. Fat substitutes were evaluated in 11 formulations and the results showed that the greatest effects on the responses were found to Ms, F and Cg, being eliminated from the formulation Tsp. To find the best formulation for processing piramutaba sausage was made a complete factorial planning of 2(3) to evaluate the concentrations of fat substitutes in an enlarged range. The optimum condition found for fat substitutes in the sausages formulation were carrageenan (0.51%), manioc starch (1.45%) and fat (1.2%).

  9. Photophysical investigation of cyano-substituted terrylenediimide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, Koen; Baeten, Yannick; Vosch, Tom; Sempels, Wouter; Yordanov, Stoyan; Stappert, Sebastian; Chen, Long; Müllen, Klaus; Hofkens, Johan; Van der Auweraer, Mark; Fron, Eduard

    2014-12-18

    Two new terrylenediimide (TDI) chromophores with cyano substituents in the bay and core area (BCN-TDI and OCN-TDI, respectively) have been characterized by a wide range of techniques, and their applicability for stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy has been tested. By cyano substitution an increase of the fluorescence quantum yield and a decrease of the nonradiative rate constant is achieved and attributed to a reduced charge-transfer character of the excited state due to a lower electron density of the TDI core. For BCN-TDI, the substitution in the bay area induces a strong torsional twist in the molecule which, similar to phenoxy bay-perylenediimide (PDI), has a strong effect on the fluorescence lifetime but appears to prevent the aggregation that is observed for OCN-TDI. The single-molecule photobleaching stability of BCN- and OCN-TDI is lower than that of a reference TDI without cyano substitution (C7-TDI), although less so for OCN-TDI. The photophysical properties of the excited singlet state are only slightly influenced by the cyano groups. The observed intense stimulated emission, the pump-dump-probe experiments, and STED single-molecule imaging indicate that STED experiments with the cyano-substituted TDIs are possible. However, because of aggregation and more efficient photobleaching, the performance of BCN- and OCN-TDI is worse than that of the reference compound without cyano groups (C7-TDI). Bay-substituted TDIs are less suitable for STED microscopy.

  10. Bone substitute material composition and morphology differentially modulate calcium and phosphate release through osteoclast-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konermann, A; Staubwasser, M; Dirk, C; Keilig, L; Bourauel, C; Götz, W; Jäger, A; Reichert, C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the material composition and cell-mediated remodelling of different calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes. Osteoclasts were cultivated on bone substitutes (Cerabone, Maxresorb, and NanoBone) for up to 5 days. Bafilomycin A1 addition served as the control. To determine cellular activity, the supernatant content of calcium and phosphate was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Cells were visualized on the materials by scanning electron microscopy. Material composition and surface characteristics were assessed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Osteoclast-induced calcium and phosphate release was material-specific. Maxresorb exhibited the highest ion release to the medium (P = 0.034; calcium 40.25mg/l day 5, phosphate 102.08 mg/l day 5) and NanoBone the lowest (P = 0.021; calcium 8.43 mg/l day 5, phosphate 15.15 mg/l day 5); Cerabone was intermediate (P = 0.034; calcium 16.34 mg/l day 5, phosphate 30.6 mg/l day 5). All investigated materials showed unique resorption behaviours. The presented methodology provides a new perspective on the investigation of bone substitute biodegradation, maintaining the material-specific micro- and macrostructure. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program we are developing a neutral-beam source, the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS), for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of using certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  12. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    , external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous......In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode...... plasma. In this study, we are presenting the surface modification"pf polymers by plasma polymerization using Softplasma™. Softplasma™ can be used for two major types of polymerization: polymerization of vinyl monomers, where plasma acts as initiator; chemical vapour deposition, where plasma acts...

  13. Plasma engineering: a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralnick, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    This review paper will present the authors perspective of the field of Plasma Engineering as it has evolved over the preceding five years. This embrionic discipline has grown in that period of time to the point where it is sufficiently mature to become part of the curriculum, and a speciality within, the discipline of Nuclear Engineering. Plasma Engineering can be distinguished from the underlying science of plasma physics in that in the pursuit of the latter, our goal is the understanding of the fundamental processes governing the behavior of plasmas while the former discipline seeks the embodiment of these concepts in useful devices. Consequent to this goal, the plasma engineer, of necessity, is concerned with the interfaces between a plasma configuration and the device by which it is produced and maintained. These interface problems, often referred to as kitchen physics are multidisciplinary in nature, and their solution requires careful attention to both plasma physics and machine engineering detail

  14. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program, we are developing the intense, pulsed neutral-beam source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  15. Metallurgical plasma torches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.A.; Latash, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The technological equipment for the plasma heating of metals, plasma melting and plasma treatment of the surface is usually developed on the basis of are plasma torches using direct or alternating current. The reasons which partly restrict the industrial application of the plasma torches are the relatively short service life of the electrode (cathode) on which the arc is supported, and the contamination of the treated metal with the products of failure of the electrode. The aim of this work was to determine the reasons for the occurrence of negative phenomena observed in the process of service of plasma torches, and propose suitable approaches to the design of metallurgical plasma torches characterised by a long service life

  16. Plasmas for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous

  17. Plasma sheath in non-Maxwellian plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takuo; Horigome, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Reviewing many theoretical and experimental works on the electron-energy distributions (EEDF) of various plasmas, we point out that many plasmas have EEDF of non-Maxwellian in shape. Therefore, the recent treatment of plasma sheath using the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution approximation should be improved. To do this, we have adopted Rutcher's standard distribution as a generalized form in place of the traditional Maxwellian, and found that the minimum energy of ions entering the sheath edge (Bohm's criterion) varies largely, and have also shown the variation of Debye length with the shape of EEDF. The length is the most important parameter to proceed with more detailed analysis on plasma-sheaths, and also to control them in the future. (author)

  18. Characterization of oxidation end product of plasma albumin 'in vivo'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Luca; Bruschi, Maurizio; Candiano, Giovanni; Petretto, Andrea; Dimasi, Nazzareno; Del Boccio, Piero; Urbani, Andrea; Rialdi, Giovanni; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2006-10-20

    Anti-oxidants are paradoxically much lower in plasma than inside cells even blood is comparably exposed to the oxidative stress. 'In vitro' models suggest a critical role of albumin as substitutive anti-oxidant in plasma but no proof for this role is available 'in vivo.' Herein, we demonstrate by LC/MS/MS that plasma albumin undergoes massive oxidation in primary nephrotic syndrome, involving stable sulphonation SO3- of the free SH of Cys 34 with +48Da increase in exact mass of the protein (ESI-MS) and formation of a fast moving isoform in the pH range between 5 and 7. Physical-chemical experiments with DSC and fluorescence spectra indicate a thermal stabilization of the structure upon oxidation. This is the first demonstration of massive oxidation of albumin 'in vivo' that reflects a functional role of the protein. Free radicals should be implicated in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in human FSGS.

  19. Pesticide Substitution: Combining Food Safety with Environmental Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Various pesticides are authorized for use on agricultural food crops. Despite regulatory risk assessments aiming at ensuring consumer and environmental safety, pesticides contribute to human and environmental impacts. Guidance is needed to optimize pesticide use practice and minimize human...... and environmental exposure. Comparative pesticide substitution scenarios are presented to address this need. In a case study on wheat, different pesticides have been compared with respect to their substitution potential with focus on human health. Results demonstrate that health impacts can be reduced up to 99......% by defining adequate substitution scenarios. Comprehensive scenarios need to also consider worker and environmental burden, and information on crop rotation, pest pressure, environmental conditions, application costs and efficacy. Such scenarios help to increase food safety and more sustainable use...

  20. Application of queuing theory in inventory systems with substitution flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedhoseini, S. M.; Rashid, Reza; Kamalpour, Iman; Zangeneh, Erfan

    2015-03-01

    Considering the competition in today's business environment, tactical planning of a supply chain becomes more complex than before. In many multi-product inventory systems, substitution flexibility can improve profits. This paper aims to prepare a comprehensive substitution inventory model, where an inventory system with two substitute products with ignorable lead time has been considered, and effects of simultaneous ordering have been examined. In this paper, demands of customers for both of the products have been regarded as stochastic parameters, and queuing theory has been used to construct a mathematical model. The model has been coded by C++, and it has been analyzed due to a real example, where the results indicate efficiency of proposed model.

  1. Ionic Liquids: An Environmentally Friendly Media for Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorapur, Yogesh R.; Chi, Dae Yoon

    2006-01-01

    Ionic liquids are alternative reaction media of increasing interest and are regarded as an eco-friendly alternatives, of potential use in place of the volatile organic solvents typically used in current chemical processing methods. They are emerging as the smart and excellent solvents, which are made of positive and negative ions that they are liquids near room temperature. The nucleophilic substitution reaction is one of the important method for inserting functional groups into a carbon skeleton. Many nucleophilic substitution reactions have been found with enhanced reactivity and selectivity in ionic liquid. In this review, some recent interesting results of nucleophilic substitution reactions such as hydroxylations, ether cleavages, carbon-X (X = carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine) bond forming reactions, and ring opening of epoxides in ionic liquids are discussed

  2. Selected polyethylene glycols as DOP substitutes. Addendum 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    The recommendation is made that Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators producing a polydisperse distribution for testing the integrity of filters and for testing respirator fit. Further, the recommendation is made that pentaethylene glycol (PTAEG) and possibly hexaethylene glycol be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators thermally producing monodisperse aerosol for quality acceptance tests according tu US federal specifications and standards. The toxicology data base available on the polyethylene glycol family of chemical compounds is discussed and the conclusion is drawn that the probability of approval and acceptance as a non-hazardous substance in the filter and filter media test role is high. Data and analysis supporting PTAEG performance equivalent to DOP in the filter and filter media test role are given or referenced. Cost and availability of the substitute materials is discussed. Conclusions based on the present data and information are given and recommendations for further work are made

  3. Substituting fields within the action: Consistency issues and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Josep M.

    2010-01-01

    In field theory, as well as in mechanics, the substitution of some fields in terms of other fields at the level of the action raises an issue of consistency with respect to the equations of motion. We discuss this issue and give an expression which neatly displays the difference between doing the substitution at the level of the Lagrangian or at the level of the equations of motion. Both operations do not commute in general. A very relevant exception is the case of auxiliary variables, which are discussed in detail together with some of their relevant applications. We discuss the conditions for the preservation of symmetries--Noether as well as non-Noether--under the reduction of degrees of freedom provided by the mechanism of substitution. We also examine how the gauge fixing procedures fit in our framework and give simple examples on the issue of consistency in this case.

  4. Tissue reaction and material characteristics of four bone substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S S; Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M

    1996-01-01

    and Interpore 500 HA/CC) were implanted into 5-mm bur holes in rabbit tibiae. There was no difference in the amount of newly formed bone around the four biomaterials. Interpore 500 HA/CC resorbed completely, whereas the other three biomaterials did not undergo any detectable biodegradation. Bio......The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the tissue reactions around four different bone substitutes used in orthopedic and craniofacial surgery. Cylinders of two bovine bone substitutes (Endobon and Bio-Oss) and two coral-derived bone substitutes (Pro Osteon 500......-Oss was osseointegrated to a higher degree than the other biomaterials. Material characteristics obtained by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry analysis and energy-dispersive spectrometry did not explain the differences in biologic behavior....

  5. Synthesis and application of trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines and subphthalocyanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Mori

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Phthalocyanines and subphthalocyanines are attracting attention as functional dyes that are applicable to organic solar cells, photodynamic therapy, organic electronic devices, and other applications. However, phthalocyanines are generally difficult to handle due to their strong ability to aggregate, so this property must be controlled for further applications of phthalocyanines. On the other hand, trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines are known to suppress aggregation due to repulsion of the trifluoroethoxy group. Furthermore, the electronic characteristics of phthalocyanines are significantly changed by the strong electronegativity of fluorine. Therefore, it is expected that trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines can be applied to new industrial fields. This review summarizes the synthesis and application of trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanine and subphthalocyanine derivatives.

  6. Electronic and magnetic properties of Si substituted Fe3Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanavas, K. V.; McGuire, Michael A.; Parker, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Using first principles calculations, we studied the effect of Si substitution in the hexagonal Fe 3 Ge. We find the low temperature magnetic anisotropy in this system to be planar and originating mostly from the spin-orbit coupling in Fe-d states. Reduction of the unitcell volume reduces the magnitude of in-plane magnetic anisotropy, eventually turning it positive which reorients the magnetic moments to the axial direction. Substituting Ge with the smaller Si ions also increases the anisotropy, potentially enhancing the region of stability of the axial magnetization, which is beneficial for magnetic applications such as permanent magnets. Our experimental measurements on samples of Fe 3 Ge 1−x Si x confirm these predictions and show that substitution of about 6% of the Ge with Si increases by approximately 35 K the temperature range over which anisotropy is uniaxial

  7. Synthesis of Randomly Substituted Anionic Cyclodextrins in Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Jicsinszky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of influencing factors mean that the random substitution of cyclodextrins (CD in solution is difficult to reproduce. Reaction assembly in mechanochemistry reduces the number of these factors. However, lack of water can improve the reaction outcomes by minimizing the reagent’s hydrolysis. High-energy ball milling is an efficient, green and simple method for one-step reactions and usually reduces degradation and byproduct formation. Anionic CD derivatives have successfully been synthesized in the solid state, using a planetary ball mill. Comparison with solution reactions, the solvent-free conditions strongly reduced the reagent hydrolysis and resulted in products of higher degree of substitution (DS with more homogeneous DS distribution. The synthesis of anionic CD derivatives can be effectively performed under mechanochemical activation without significant changes to the substitution pattern but the DS distributions were considerably different from the products of solution syntheses.

  8. How Firms Substitute for Authority in Strategic Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Becker, Markus C.

    Strategic decisions are often made by multiple organizational members who form decision-making structures specialized for a given strategic decision. We study a series of strategic decisions in a business unit of a global Fortune 500 firm, identifying for each decision the hierarchical...... takes place in response to changes in decision characteristics, including decision complexity, decision importance, CEO proximity, and the degree to which a decision is routine. We show various manifestations of the substitution mechanism and discuss implications for strategic decision-making....... and departmental positions of all participating organizational members. We find that firms substitute between different structural components in decision-making structures to combine hierarchical authority with cross-departmental coordination and redundant knowledge. This substitution between structural components...

  9. Substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages with other beverage alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-01-01

    alternatives on long-term health outcomes. METHOD: We systematically retrieved studies from six electronic databases from inception to November 2013. Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of substituting beverage alternatives for SSBs on long-term health...... to high. Evidence from both cohort studies and RCTs showed substitution of SSBs by various beverage alternatives was associated with long-term lower energy intake and lower weight gain. However, evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions regarding the effect of beverage substitution on other health...... outcomes, and which beverage alternative is the best choice. CONCLUSIONS: Although studies on this topic are sparse, the available evidence suggests a potential beneficial effect on body weight outcomes when SSBs are replaced by water or low-calorie beverages. Further studies in this area are warranted...

  10. Absorption and transport of deuterium-substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol in human lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traber, M.G.; Ingold, K.U.; Burton, G.W.; Kayden, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Oral administration of a single dose of tri- or hexadeuterium substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (d3- or d6-alpha-T-Ac) to humans was used to follow the absorption and transport of vitamin E in plasma lipoproteins. Three hr after oral administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (15 mg) to 2 subjects, plasma levels of d3-alpha-T were detectable; these increased up to 10 hr, reached a plateau at 24 hr, then decreased. Following administration of d6-alpha-T-Ac (15-16 mg) to 2 subjects, the percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol in chylomicrons increased more rapidly than the corresponding percentage in whole plasma. Chylomicrons and plasma lipoproteins were isolated from 2 additional subjects following administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (140 or 60 mg). The percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol increased most rapidly in chylomicrons, then in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), followed by essentially identical increases in low and high density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL, respectively) and lastly, in the red blood cells. This pattern of appearance of deuterated tocopherol is consistent with the concept that newly absorbed vitamin E is secreted by the intestine into chylomicrons; subsequently, chylomicron remnants are taken up by the liver from which the vitamin E is secreted in VLDL. The metabolism of VLDL in the circulation results in the simultaneous delivery of vitamin E into LDL and HDL

  11. Effect of substitution groups in carbon-13 NMR of tri-substituted camphors; Efeitos de substituintes em RMN de carbono-13 de canforas 3-substituidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Carlos R; Rittner, Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Basso, Ernani A [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica

    1994-12-31

    This work presents and discusses the empirical effects of substitution groups in the carbon-13 NMR spectra of tri-substituted camphors and their correlation with the chemical properties of such substitution groups such as electronegativity. The obtained results are presented and discussed

  12. Particle modeling of plasmas computational plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, through the development of supercomputers, a powerful new method for exploring plasmas has emerged; it is computer modeling of plasmas. Such modeling can duplicate many of the complex processes that go on in a plasma and allow scientists to understand what the important processes are. It helps scientists gain an intuition about this complex state of matter. It allows scientists and engineers to explore new ideas on how to use plasma before building costly experiments; it allows them to determine if they are on the right track. It can duplicate the operation of devices and thus reduce the need to build complex and expensive devices for research and development. This is an exciting new endeavor that is in its infancy, but which can play an important role in the scientific and technological competitiveness of the US. There are a wide range of plasma models that are in use. There are particle models, fluid models, hybrid particle fluid models. These can come in many forms, such as explicit models, implicit models, reduced dimensional models, electrostatic models, magnetostatic models, electromagnetic models, and almost an endless variety of other models. Here the author will only discuss particle models. He will give a few examples of the use of such models; these will be taken from work done by the Plasma Modeling Group at UCLA because he is most familiar with work. However, it only gives a small view of the wide range of work being done around the US, or for that matter around the world

  13. Carbonate hydroxyapatite and silicon-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, L T; Long, B D; Othman, R

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the chemical composition, solubility, and physical and mechanical properties of carbonate hydroxyapatite (CO3Ap) and silicon-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (Si-CO3Ap) which have been prepared by a simple precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier......(3-)) site and also entered simultaneously into the hydroxyapatite structure. The Si-substituted CO3Ap reduced the powder crystallinity and promoted ion release which resulted in a better solubility compared to that of Si-free CO3Ap. The mean particle size of Si-CO3Ap was much finer than that of CO3Ap...

  14. Heterogenous Intertemporal Elasticity of Substitution and Relative Risk Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Gayle, Wayne-Roy

    This paper investigates the existence and degree of variation across house holds and over time in the intertemporal elasticity of substitution (IES) and the coefficient of relative risk aversion (RRA) that is generated by habit forming preferences. To do so, we develop a new nonlinear GMM estimator...... in food consumption. Using these estimates, we develop bounds for the expectation of the implied heterogenous intertemporal elasticity of substitution and relative risk aversion that account for measurement errors and compute asymptotically valid confidence intervals on these bounds. We find...

  15. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Sjåstad, Anja O.; Fjellvåg, Helmer

    2011-01-01

    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating...... factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates...

  16. Minority anion substitution by Ni in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa; Correia, João Guilherme; Amorim, Lígia Marina; Silva, Daniel José; David-Bosne, Eric; Decoster, Stefan; da Silva, Manuel Ribeiro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André

    2013-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of implanted Ni in ZnO using the $\\beta$− emission channeling technique. In addition to the majority substituting for the cation (Zn), a significant fraction of the Ni atoms occupy anion (O) sites. Since Ni is chemically more similar to Zn than it is to O, the observed O substitution is rather puzzling. We discuss these findings with respect to the general understanding of lattice location of dopants in compound semiconductors. In particular, we discuss potential implications on the magnetic behavior of transition metal doped dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  17. The electronic configuration of substitutional Fe in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Weyer, G; Fanciulli, M; Fedosseev, V; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Mishin, V I; Sielemann, R

    1999-01-01

    Ion implantations of radioactive /sup 57/Mn/sup +/ into differently doped silicon single crystals held at 300-600 K have been utilized for /sup 57/Fe Mossbauer studies of interstitial and substitutional Fe. Site and charge state assignments have been made on the basis of the determined hyperfine interaction parameters and Debye temperatures. Substantial fractions of substitutional /sup 57/Mn probe atoms are proposed to occur due to annealing reactions. This site is maintained in the subsequent decay to /sup 57/Fe by

  18. Antimalarial Activity of C-10 Substituted Triazolyl Artemisinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gab-Man; Park, Hyun; Oh, Sangtae; Lee, Seokjoon

    2017-12-01

    We synthesized C-10 substituted triazolyl artemisinins by the Huisgen cycloaddition reaction between dihydroartemisinins (2) and variously substituted 1, 2, 3-triazoles (8a-8h). The antimalarial activities of 32 novel artemisinin derivatives were screened against a chloroquine-resistant parasite. Among them, triazolyl artemisinins with electron-withdrawing groups showed stronger antimalarial activities than those shown by the derivatives having electron-donating groups. In particularly, m-chlorotriazolyl artemisinin (9d-12d) showed antimalarial activity equivalent to that of artemisinin and could be a strong drug candidate.

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-substituted benzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusamy Mariappan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of 2-substituted benzimidazole derivatives (3a–3j were synthesized by the reaction of 2-chloro methyl benzimidazole with substituted primary aromatic amines. All the compounds were characterized by UV, IR, 1H NMR, mass spectral data and CHN elemental analysis. The synthesized derivatives were screened for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. All the compounds showed significant effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. and the experimental data are statistically significant at p < 0.01 level.

  20. A Novel Non-Toxic Xylene Substitute (SBO) for Histology

    OpenAIRE

    Kunhua, Wang; Chuming, Fan; Tao, Lai; Yanmei, Yang; Xin, Yang; Xiaoming, Zhang; Xuezhong, Guo; Xun, Lai

    2011-01-01

    Xylene has been generally used as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent in histology. Because of the potential toxic and flammable nature of xylene, its substitutes have been introduced into some laboratories. In this study, we introduced a novel, non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO), which was generated through a mixture of 86% of white oil No.2 and 14% of N-heptane. SBO had a high boiling point (188°C) and flash point (144°C) coupled with a scentless and decreased volatility. To compare the eff...

  1. Researcher’s Perspective of Substitution Method on Text Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir Mansor, Fawwaz; Mustapha, Aida; Azah Samsudin, Noor

    2017-08-01

    The linguistic steganography studies are still in the stage of development and empowerment practices. This paper will present several text steganography on substitution methods based on the researcher’s perspective, all scholar paper will analyse and compared. The objective of this paper is to give basic information in the substitution method of text domain steganography that has been applied by previous researchers. The typical ways of this method also will be identified in this paper to reveal the most effective method in text domain steganography. Finally, the advantage of the characteristic and drawback on these techniques in generally also presented in this paper.

  2. Magnetospheric plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawhan, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of plasma wave observations in the Earth's magnetosphere is recounted and a classification of the identified plasma wave phenomena is presented. The existence of plasma waves is discussed in terms of the characteristic frequencies of the plasma, the energetic particle populations and the proposed generation mechanisms. Examples are given for which plasmas waves have provided information about the plasma parameters and particle characteristics once a reasonable theory has been developed. Observational evidence and arguments by analogy to the observed Earth plasma wave processes are used to identify plasma waves that may be significant in other planetary magnetospheres. The similarities between the observed characteristics of the terrestrial kilometric radiation and radio bursts from Jupiter, Saturn and possibly Uranus are stressed. Important scientific problems concerning plasma wave processes in the solar system and beyond are identified and discussed. Models for solar flares, flare star radio outbursts and pulsars include elements which are also common to the models for magnetospheric radio bursts. Finally, a listing of the research and development in terms of instruments, missions, laboratory experiments, theory and computer simulations needed to make meaningful progress on the outstanding scientific problems of plasma wave research is given. (Auth.)

  3. Particle beams and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, A.; Messerschmid, E.; Lawson, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    These lectures present a survey of some of the concepts of plasma physics and look at some situations familiar to particle-accelerator physicists from the point of view of a plasma physicist, with the intention of helping to link together the two fields. At the outset, basic plasma concepts are presented, including definitions of a plasma, characteristic parameters, magnetic pressure and confinement. This is followed by a brief discussion on plasma kinetic theory, non-equilibrium plasma, and the temperature of moving plasmas. Examples deal with beams in the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings as well as with non-steady beams in cyclic accelerators and microwave tubes. In the final chapters, time-varying systems are considered: waves in free space and the effect of cylinder bounds, wave motion in cold stationary plasmas, and waves in plasmas with well-defined streams. The treatment throughout is informal, with emphasis on the essential physical properties of continuous beams in accelerators and storage rings in relation to the corresponding problems in plasma physics and microwave tubes. (Author)

  4. Electromagnetic pulses at the boundary of a nonlinear plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satorius, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of the behavior of strong electromagnetic pulses at the boundary of a nonlinear, cold, collisionless, and uniform plasma. The nonlinearity considered here is due to the nonlinear terms in the fluid equation which is used to describe the plasma. Two cases are studied. First, the case where there is a voltage pulse applied across the plane boundary of a semi-infinite, nonlinear plasma. Two different voltage pulses are considered, i.e., a delta function pulse and a suddenly turned-on sinusoidal pulse. The resulting electromagnetic fields propagating in the nonlinear plasma are found in this case. In the second case, the reflection of incident E-polarized and H-polarized, electromagnetic pulses at various angles of incidence from a nonlinear, semi-infinite plasma are considered. Again, two forms of incident pulses are considered: a delta function pulse and a suddenly turned-on sinusoidal pulse. In case two, the reflected electromagnetic fields are found. In both cases, the method used for finding the fields is to first solve the fluid equation (which describes the plasma) for the nonlinear conduction current in terms of the electric field using a perturbation method (since the nonlinear effects are assumed to be small). Next, this current is substituted into Maxwell's equations, and finally the electromagnetic fields which satisfy the boundary conditions are found. (U.S.)

  5. Introduction to complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick; Horing, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates. (orig.)

  6. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  7. Nonideal plasmas - experimental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, K.; Hess, H.; Radtke, R.

    1986-01-01

    The investigation of nonideal, strongly coupled, or non-Debye plasmas is a new field of the well-known arc plasma physics. The increased pressure and density cause different behaviour of the dense plasma. The paper surveys the main differences between the nonideal and the usual arc plasmas. The electrical conductivity, continuum radiation absorption coefficient, shift and broadening of spectral lines, and plasma phase transition are discussed. The problems of generation and diagnostics of nonideal plasmas are also described. Finally, the importance of the topic is underlined: possible applications in astrophysics and in different fields of technology: light sources, MHD generators, circuit breakers, laser mirrors and shutters, high temperature gas-phase fission reactors, material treatment and laser fusion are mentioned. (D.Gy.)

  8. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  9. Synthesis of Novel Benzimidazolyl-substituted Acrylonitriles and Amidino-substituted Benzimidazo[1,2-a]Quinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Karminski-Zamola

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel benzimidazole derivatives 3-10 were synthesized. Benzimidazolyl-substituted acrylonitriles 3 and 4 underwent a photochemical dehydrocyclization reaction to give the corresponding mono- and dicyano-substituted benzimidazo[1,2-a] quinolines 5 and 6. Pinner reaction of these compounds did not give the expected mono- and diamidines, but rather only compounds 7-10, with amido groups at 6-position were isolated. A mechanism for the reaction is proposed. Acyclic compounds 3 and 4, as well as cyclic benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines 5-8, exhibit interesting spectroscopic properties and are potential biologically active compounds.

  10. Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1979-07-01

    A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)

  11. Space plasmas 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, N.E.; Hines, K.C.; Kowalenko, V.

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal dielectric response of an ultra-degenerate relativistic plasma composed of electrons and positrons is considered. The relativistic Hartree self-consistent field method is used to investigate the dispersion relations and damping parameters of such a plasma in the presence of a magnetic field. These properties must be studied in the various regimes appropriate for a relativistic plasma as detailed by Tsytovich and Jancovici

  12. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  13. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  14. More similar but less satisfying: comparing preferences for and the efficacy of within- and cross-category substitutes for food

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Young Eun; Vosgerau, Joachim; Morewedge, Carey

    2016-01-01

    When people cannot get what they want, they often satisfy their desire by consuming a substitute. Substitutes can originate from within the taxonomic category of the desired stimulus (i.e., within-category substitutes) or from a different taxonomic category that serves the same basic goal (i.e., cross-category substitutes). Both a store-brand chocolate (within-category substitute) and a granola bar (cross-category substitute), for example, can serve as substitutes for gourmet chocolate. Here,...

  15. Two approaches to the clinical dilemma of treating TTP with therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with a history of anaphylactic reactions to plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Davinder; Snyder, Edward L; Tormey, Christopher A

    2017-06-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare but serious disease caused by autoantibody-mediated deficiency in von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease, ADAMTS-13. The primary acute treatment is therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). However, some patients can develop allergic/anaphylactic reactions to the replacement (i.e., donor) plasma over time. Two potential treatment strategies for patients with TTP who demonstrate severe allergic reactions to plasma used for exchange were examined. Two patients with TTP exacerbations who developed severe allergic reactions to donor plasma were identified. One patient's TPE was re-initiated with Octaplas, a lot-batched solvent and detergent treated, type-specific, pooled donor plasma product. The other patient was exchanged with primarily albumin, followed by slow incremental exposures to donor plasma to mitigate exposures and allergic risks. Both patients were assessed for anaphylaxis. Both treatment strategies were successful in preventing any further clinically significant allergic/anaphylactic reactions and facilitated both patients' TTP remissions. Based on our experience with two similar patients with TTP exacerbations and history of anaphylactic reactions to plasma during TPE, we have identified two possible treatment protocols to achieve remission in this clinical dilemma. Substituting Octaplas for standard plasma or, alternatively, using albumin with slowly increasing amounts of standard plasma may help to mitigate the risk of further anaphylactic adverse events. J. Clin. Apheresis 32:158-162, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Synthesis of 1-Substituted-4-(Pyridin-4-yl)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize a new series of 1-substituted-4-(pyridin-4-yl) [1,2,4] triazolo [4,3-a]quinazolin- 5(4H)-ones and evaluate them for H1-antihistaminic activity with negligible side effects in guinea pigs. Methods: The synthesized compounds were characterized by Infrared spectroscopy (IR), proton nuclear magnetic ...

  17. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies,bone tissues will grow into their porous structure,which will reinforce their strength and stiffness.The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around,as if they were part of the bone.The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior,due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate.In this study,split Hopkinson pressure bar technique(SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite,bones with and bones without organic com-ponents,and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained.The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed,by comparing the difference between the Young’s moduli of the three materials.As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone,it can be regarded as an inclusion composite.The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness.The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is 0.8,which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  18. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN ChaoFeng; HOU ZhenDe; ZHAO Wei

    2009-01-01

    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies, bone tissues will grow into their porous structure, which will reinforce their strength and stiffness. The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around, as if they were part of the bone. The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior, due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate. In this study, split Hopkinson pressure bar technique (SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite, bones with and bones without organic com-ponents, and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained. The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed, by comparing the difference between the Young's moduli of the three materials. As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone, it can be regarded as an inclusion composite. The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness. The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is0.8, which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  19. Clinical review: impact of statin substitution policies on patient outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atar, Dan; Carmena, Rafael; Clemmensen, Peter; K-Laflamme, Annik; Wassmann, Sven; Lansberg, Peter; Hobbs, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The increasing awareness of cost issues in health care has led to the increasing use of policy-driven substitution of branded for generic medications, particularly relative to statin treatment for cardiovascular diseases. While there are potential short-term health care savings, the consequences for

  20. influence of the substitution on the electronic properties of perylene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The higher performance found in single crystal OFETs compared to thin-film. OFETs is related to the high ... Influence of substitution on electronic properties of perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximides). Bull. Chem. Soc. .... be good n-type materials for OFETs due to the efficient electron injection from common gold electrode, ca.

  1. Index Reduction and Discontinuity Handling Using Substitute Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabian, G.; Beek, van D.A.; Rooda, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Download at: http://se.wtb.tue.nl/~vanbeek/. Several techniques exist for index reduction and consistent initialization of higher index DAEs. Many such techniques change the original set of equations by differentiation, substitution, and/or introduction of new variables. This paper introduces

  2. Sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Z. Zyman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Powders of sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite, having sodium content in the range of 0.25–1.5 wt.% with a 0.25 wt.% step, were prepared by a precipitation-solid state reaction route. Compacts of the powders were sintered in a CO2 flow (4 mL/min at 1100 °C for 2 h. The sintered ceramics contained sodium and carbonate ions in the ranges of 0–1.5 wt.% and 1.3–6 wt.%, respectively, which are typical impurity concentrations in biological apatite. A relationship between sodium and carbonate contents and the type of carbonate substitution was found. The total carbonate content progressively increased with the sodium content. The obtained ceramics showed an AB-type carbonate substitution. However, the substitution became more B-type as the sodium content increased. As a result, the carbonation was almost B-type (94 % for the highest sodium content (1.5 wt.%.

  3. Elasticity of substitution and anti-dumping decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by a monopolistic competition model with market segmentation and international price discrimination, this paper analyzes whether there is an inverse relation between the elasticity of substitution and final ad valorem anti-dumping duties across products. We test this for 19 countries...

  4. Substitutional Doping for Aluminosilicate Mineral and Superior Water Splitting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Fu, Liangjie; Shu, Zhan; Yang, Huaming; Tang, Aidong; Jiang, Tao

    2017-07-01

    Substitutional doping is a strategy in which atomic impurities are optionally added to a host material to promote its properties, while the geometric and electronic structure evolution of natural nanoclay mineral upon substitutional metal doping is still ambiguous. This paper first designed an efficient lanthanum (La) doping strategy for nanotubular clay (halloysite nanotube, HNT) through the dynamic equilibrium of a substitutional atom in the presence of saturated AlCl3 solution, and systematic characterization of the samples was performed. Further density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to reveal the geometric and electronic structure evolution upon metal doping, as well as to verify the atom-level effect of the La doping. The CdS loading and its corresponding water splitting performance could demonstrate the effect of La doping. CdS nanoparticles (11 wt.%) were uniformly deposited on the surface of La-doped halloysite nanotube (La-HNT) with the average size of 5 nm, and the notable photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate of CdS/La-HNT reached up to 47.5 μmol/h. The results could provide a new strategy for metal ion doping and constructive insight into the substitutional doping mechanism.

  5. Are news media substitutes? Gratifications, contents, and uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wurff, R.

    2011-01-01

    Internet is generally expected to have one of two effects on traditional news media: It displaces them, or it forces them into distinct market niches. A shared assumption underlying both expectations is that news media displacement, or substitution, is a function of the degree to which news media

  6. Synthesis, characterization of N-, S-, O-substituted naphtho- and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    obtained on a Thermo Finnigan LCQ Advantage MAX. LC/MS/MS spectrometer .... organic layer was washed with water (4 × 30 mL), and dried with Na2SO4. ..... mono(thio)-substituted compounds containing chlorine atom derivatives were.

  7. Substitution Value of toasted Pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and eighty 7-day old broilers were used in a 28-day feeding trial to determine the substitution value of toasted pigeon pea seeds meal (TPSM) for soybean meal and maize in boiler starter diet. The brown coat coloured pigeon pea seeds were toasted at 100oC for 15minutes and milled. The inclusion levels of ...

  8. Cooperation in Experimental Games of Strategic Complements and Substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, J.J.M.; Suetens, S.

    2006-01-01

    Results are reported of a laboratory experiment aimed at examining whether strategic substitutability and strategic complementarity have an impact on the tendency to cooperate in two-player dominancesolvable games with a Pareto-inefficient Nash equilibrium.We find that there is significantly more

  9. KINETICS OF SUBSTITUTION OF CIS-BIS(MALONATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    In this process, it indicated that the substitution reaction occurs through an Ia mechanism in the ... isotopic water exchange and other anation processes. ... The potassium salt of cis-bis(malonato)diaquochromate(III) was prepared by a reported [26] ... of the synthesized metal complex showed maxima at 415 nm (ε = 41.6 M-1 ...

  10. 41 CFR 101-26.304 - Substitution policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Substitution policy. 101-26.304 Section 101-26.304 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND...

  11. Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of substituting strontium for calcium in fluoroaluminosilicate glass on the mechanical and ion-releasing properties of high-viscosity glass ionomer cements. Design: An exploratory, laboratory-based study. Setting: Dental biomaterials research laboratory, Dental Physical Sciences Unit, ...

  12. An extended gravity model with substitution applied to international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X

    The traditional gravity model has been applied many times to international trade flows, especially in order to analyze trade creation and trade diversion. However, there are two fundamental objections to the model: it cannot describe substitutions between flows and it lacks a cogent theoretical

  13. The Doubting System 1: Evidence for automatic substitution sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric D; Tubau, Elisabet; De Neys, Wim

    2016-02-01

    A long prevailing view of human reasoning suggests severe limits on our ability to adhere to simple logical or mathematical prescriptions. A key position assumes these failures arise from insufficient monitoring of rapidly produced intuitions. These faulty intuitions are thought to arise from a proposed substitution process, by which reasoners unknowingly interpret more difficult questions as easier ones. Recent work, however, suggests that reasoners are not blind to this substitution process, but in fact detect that their erroneous responses are not warranted. Using the popular bat-and-ball problem, we investigated whether this substitution sensitivity arises out of an automatic System 1 process or whether it depends on the operation of an executive resource demanding System 2 process. Results showed that accuracy on the bat-and-ball problem clearly declined under cognitive load. However, both reduced response confidence and increased response latencies indicated that biased reasoners remained sensitive to their faulty responses under load. Results suggest that a crucial substitution monitoring process is not only successfully engaged, but that it automatically operates as an autonomous System 1 process. By signaling its doubt along with a biased intuition, it appears System 1 is "smarter" than traditionally assumed.

  14. 12 CFR 27.6 - Substitute monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitute monitoring program. 27.6 Section 27.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN... (12 CFR 202.13(d)). A bank collecting the data in compliance with § 27.3 of this part will be in...

  15. Clinical review: impact of statin substitution policies on patient outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atar, Dan; Carmena, Rafael; Clemmensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing awareness of cost issues in health care has led to the increasing use of policy-driven substitution of branded for generic medications, particularly relative to statin treatment for cardiovascular diseases. While there are potential short-term health care savings...

  16. Bone Graft Substitutes : Developed for Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Stok (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Bone grafting was established in the 19th century and has become a common procedure in which bone defects are filled with bone grafts or bone graft substitutes. Bone defects that require bone grafting are encountered in approximately 10% of trauma and orthopaedic

  17. Bioefficacy And Economics Of Ronozyme™ P As A Substitute For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biological and economic efficiencies of Ronozyme ™ p as a substitute for bone meal in female Turkey poults was investigated. A total of eighty local female poults were brooded and fed commercial broiler starter diet containing 23% CP and 2800kcal/kg ME from day-old to four weeks of age. Sixty (60) female poults ...

  18. Iron-substituted AB5-type MH electrode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To study their electrochemical properties via measurements of discharge capacity, activation ... the higher electron attracting power of Fe, when substituted in small .... The phase analysis through XRD .... Only a small extra XRD peak of CeO2 is present in the alloy .... The open circuit voltage of MH electrode with respect to ...

  19. The kinetics of substitution reaction of oxydiacetate and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    molar ratio 1:1 and the ternary complex Cu(R)B were recorded to confirm that ... tion, the values of the rate constants were determined. Figure 2. .... Table 4. The free enthalpy of activation values for the substitution reaction of CuODA with bipy.

  20. SO2 policy and input substitution under spatial monopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerking, Shelby; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Following the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, electric utilities dramatically increased their utilization of low-sulfur coal from the Powder River Basin (PRB). Recent studies indicate that railroads hauling PRB coal exercise a substantial degree of market power and that relative price changes in the mining and transportation sectors were contributing factors to the observed pattern of input substitution. This paper asks the related question: To what extent does more stringent SO 2 policy stimulate input substitution from high-sulfur coal to low-sulfur coal when railroads hauling low-sulfur coal exercise spatial monopoly power? The question underpins the effectiveness of incentive-based environmental policies given the essential role of market performance in input, output, and abatement markets in determining the social cost of regulation. Our analysis indicates that environmental regulation leads to negligible input substitution effects when clean and dirty inputs are highly substitutable and the clean input market is mediated by a spatial monopolist. (author)

  1. Synthesis of meta-substituted monodentate phosphinite ligands and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SATEJ S DESHMUKH

    from organic synthesis, phosphinite ligands find appli- cations in a variety of ... thesis of meta-substituted phosphinite ligands is rarely reported.18 This is most ... 1.9 μm; mobile phase used, 90% methanol + 10% water +. 0.1% formic acid) ...

  2. An environmentally benign one pot synthesis of substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Instance of Plagiarism in Journal of Chemical Sci- ences and withdrawal of published article. The Journal of Chemical Sciences office received a complaint from an alert reader to the effect that the paper 'An environmentally benign one pot syn- thesis of substituted quinolines catalysed by fluo- roboric acid based ionic ...

  3. Effect of substitution of titanium by magnesium and niobium on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Effect of substitution of titanium by magnesium and niobium on structure and piezoelectric properties in (Bi1/2. Na1/2. )TiO3 ceramics. ZHOU CHANG-RONG*, LIU XIN-YU, LI WEI-ZHOU. † and YUAN CHANG-LAI. Department of Information Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology,. Guilin ...

  4. Thermodynamic studies on charge-coupled substituted synthetic monazite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawat, D. [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Phapale, S. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, R., E-mail: mishrar@barc.gov.in [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dash, S. [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Phosphate-based monazite ceramic is considered worldwide as a potential crystalline host matrix for immobilization of long-lived tri- and tetra-valent actinides present in high-level nuclear waste. Monazite is chemically stable with respect to the leaching processes and has high radiation stability. The present paper describes the influence of charged coupled (Ca{sup 2+}, Th{sup 4+}) substitution in place of La{sup 3+} on thermodynamic stability of synthetic monazite ceramics. XRD-analysis of Ca, Th substituted LaPO{sub 4} viz., La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x/2}Th{sub x/2}PO{sub 4} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) points to the formation of ideal solid-solution in the entire range of composition. However, thermodynamic analysis indicates deviation from ideal solid-solution with a minima at x = 0.25. The substituted La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x/2}Th{sub x/2}PO{sub 4} system is found to be iso-entropic and stabilized mainly by enthalpy. Enthalpies of formation as a function of Ca{sup 2+}, Th{sup 4+} substitution were analysed to provide insights into the development of thermodynamically stable nuclear waste matrix.

  5. Cu 2 + and Al 3 + co-substituted cobalt ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emissionscanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) are used for studying the effect of variation in the Cu–Al substitution and its impact on particle size, magnetic properties such as Ms and Hc.

  6. The Synthesis of Substituted Piperazine-cholesterol Conjugates for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A small library of cholesterol-piperazine conjugates were synthesized by the reaction of cholesteryl chloroformate with a set of substituted piperazines in dichloromethane at room temperature. The conjugates, all obtained in good to excellent yields, were synthesized to be key components of nucleic acid transfection ...

  7. Stabilisation of the [6]-prismane structure by silicon substitution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asif Equbal

    structure becomes increasingly more stable, relative to the two isolated benzene (like) structures. A similar trend is observed ... a theoretical point of view.1–4 However, experimental evidence .... For multi-Si-substituted benzene, the stability of the dimer depends on .... The light green color in the ring indicates silicon atoms.

  8. Implementing opioid substitution in Lebanon: Inception and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Joseph; Abbas, Zeinab; Nakhle, Pascale E; Matar, Marie-Therese

    2016-05-01

    Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST) is a firmly established method of treating and managing dependence to opioids in Europe, the US and rest of the developed world. It has a solid evidence base and a positive safety track record. Dissemination of its practice, in parallel to the acceptance of harm reduction as an effective approach, is still timid in low and middle Income countries. After years of advocacy on the parts of clinicians and the voluntary sector, the government of Lebanon launched a national opioid substitution program in 2011 using buprenorphine as the substance of substitution. Lebanon is one of the first countries in the MENA region to establish such a program despite a difficult socio-political context. This paper provides the background of harm reduction efforts in the region and presents the outline of the program from inception to present date. Challenges and recommendations for the future are also discussed. The Lebanese experience with opioid substitution is encouraging so far and can be used as a template for others in the region who might be contemplating broadening the range of services available to tackle addiction to heroin and related substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Substitutability and Independence: Matching Analyses of Brands and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive examination of panel data for 1,847 consumers and 2,209 brands of "biscuits" (a total of 76,682 records) in which matching analysis is employed to define brand substitutability and potential product clusters within the overall category. The results indicate that, while brands performed as expected as perfect…

  10. Placebo substitution for tnethyldopa in geriatric hypertensive patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the benefit of treatment is still disputed.6 The aim of this study was to substitute a matching placebo for methyldopa in order to evaluate the effect of removal of a drug from the antihypertensive regimen of elderly patients without concomitantly inducing a sense of in- security. Sex (female/male) 16/2. Mean age (yrs). 75,7.

  11. Biological relevance and synthesis of C-substituted morpholine derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijtmans, R.; Vink, M.K.S.; Schoemaker, H.E.; Delft, F.L. van; Blaauw, R.H.; Rutjes, F.P.J.T.

    2004-01-01

    C-Functionalized morpholines are found in a variety of natural products and biologically active compounds, but have also for other reasons been applied in organic synthesis. This review deals with the biological relevance of C-substituted morpholines, their synthesis and important applications in

  12. 1,3- and 1,4-Substituted tetrazolium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Gaponik, Pavel N; Ivashkevich, Oleg A

    2002-01-01

    The published data on the synthesis, physicochemical properties, structures and reactions of 1,3-(1,3,5)- and 1,4-(1,4,5)-substituted tetrazolium salts are systematised and generalised. Their applications as starting compounds in the preparative chemistry of heterocyclic derivatives and some other branches of science and technology are reviewed. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  13. Preparation, characterization and biological activity of C8-substituted cytokinins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahajská, Lenka; Nisler, Jaroslav; Voller, Jiří; Gucký, Tomáš; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Spíchal, Lukáš; Strnad, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 135, MAR (2017), s. 115-127 ISSN 0031-9422 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : potential purine antagonists * arabidopsis-thaliana * nucleosides * derivatives * thidiazuron * specificity * receptors * kinetin * Organic synthesis * Cytokinin bioassay * AHK3 and CRE1/AHK4 bacterial receptor assay * C8-substituted cytokinin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 3.205, year: 2016

  14. 12 CFR 229.53 - Substitute check indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... expenses of representation) related to the substitute check. (2) Comparative negligence. (i) If a loss... negligence or failure to act in good faith, then the indemnity amount described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall be reduced in proportion to the amount of negligence or bad faith attributable to the...

  15. Assessing a Currency Substitution Persistency in the Western Balkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmed Ganić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine the euroization phenomenon in seven Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, Serbia and Macedonia between 2000 and 2015 and a number of –specific challenges faced by the region. More precisely, the paper analyzes the impact of the latest global financial crisis on the extent of currency substitution persistency by exploring the trends before, in wake of the financial crisis, and after the financial crisis. The study employed several indicators as a proxy variable for measuring of the overall level of currency substitution or euroization and cross country analysis in selected countries (liability euroization, credit euroization and deposit euroization and asset substitution- overall euroization index. Finally, the study found that deposit euroisation, credit euroization, and liabilities euroization in seven Western Balkan countries is still high with relatively high degree of heterogeneity. In some countries of the Western Balkan region the process of euroisation was further intensified in spite of the consequences of the latest global financial crises, while in the other ones the crisis years were marked by the trend of de-euroisation. In overall, this study does not find any significant evidence on significantly increases or decreases in currency substitution at the region sub-samples. Finally, Student t-test results indicate that there is no significant difference in means of before, in wake and after the financial crises at level of Western Balkan region.

  16. Molecular substitution rate increases with latitude in butterflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schär, Sämi; Vila, Roger; Petrović, Andjeljko

    2017-01-01

    of five lycaenid butterfly species with varied ecological adaptations, sampled across a latitudinal gradient in the Holarctic region. We found a positive correlation between latitude and substitution rate of mitochondrial DNA sequences in all species investigated. We propose that this result is the signal...

  17. Substitution reactions of [Pd(bipy)(malonate)] explored with a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    −3. NaClO4. Table 1. Metal-Ligand ratios and structures of the product complexes. Metal:Ligand. Ligand. Structure ratio. Product complex. L1 Thioglycolic acid. HS ..... O. Scheme 1. Plausible mechanistic pathway. molecules substitute the bidentate malonate in a consec- utive fashion. Among the three sulphur donor ligands.

  18. Maximum potential cost-savings attributable to generic substitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D. Husselmann

    community. ... Conclusions: Potential economic benefits can be generated with generic substitution. ... Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ... supply of safe, cost-effective drugs of acceptable quality to all citizens of South Africa, and the rational use of drugs by .... different types of schizophrenic diagnosis) with a claim.

  19. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing substitutions of soyabean meal for breadfruit meal in diets fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) x Clarias gariepinus (♀) hybrid fingerlings led to weight increases in all dietary types with exception of diet G and higher growth induction in catfishes fed all diets with exception of diet B. Diets C had induced better ...

  20. Ortho lithiation-in situ borylation of substituted morpholine benzamides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederbalk, Anna; Lysén, Morten; Kehler, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Morpholine amides are cheap and safe alternative to Weinreb amides as acylating agents of organometallic species. Herein, the in-situ lithiation/borylation of 18 ortho- meta- and para-substituted morpholine benzamides has been investigated. 10 of the 18 substrates provided the desired boronic est...

  1. Competing for Consciousness: Prolonged Mask Exposure Reduces Object Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    In object substitution masking (OSM) a sparse, temporally trailing 4-dot mask impairs target identification, even though it has different contours from, and does not spatially overlap with the target. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown characteristic of OSM: Observers show reduced masking at prolonged (e.g., 640 ms) relative to intermediate…

  2. Synthesis and antibacterial activities of N-substituted maleopimarimide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hui

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With Macrogol 600(PEG-600 as solvent and toluene as dehydrant,eight N-Substituted maleopimarimide compounds were synthesized from maleopimaric acid and aniline or its derivatives by one-step reaction;Their structures were confirmed and the antimicrobial activities of these compounds were also preliminarily investigated.

  3. Quantum Dots Embedded in Graphene Nanoribbons by Chemical Substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonell-Sanroma, Eduard; Brandimarte, Pedro; Balog, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Bottom-up chemical reactions of selected molecular precursors on a gold surface can produce high quality graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Here, we report on the formation of quantum dots embedded in an armchair GNR by substitutional inclusion of pairs of boron atoms into the GNR backbone. The boron...

  4. Structure and magnetic properties of Zr–Mn substituted strontium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad ... ions prefer to occupy both 4f1 and 2b however, at higher level of substitution, they prefer exclusively 4f1 site. ... Up to authors' knowledge, the effect of Zr–Mn substitu-.

  5. 76 FR 41685 - Electronic Substitutions for Form SSA-538

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 [Docket No. SSA-2009-0027] RIN 0960-AH02 Electronic Substitutions for Form SSA-538 AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rule with request for...

  6. preparation and nucleophilic substitution of the 2,4,6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Three methods for preparation of D-amino acids by nucleophilic substitution on derivatives of ... bioactivity of the peptide (Wenger 1985, ... Acetic acid (0.29 mL, 5 mmol) was added, and the mixture was further stirred for 5 h at rt under ... methanol/dichloromethane) to yield a white ... temperature, diluted with water, extracted.

  7. Substitution and defect chemistry of La-Cu-O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, P.L.; McCarron, E.M.; Kunchur, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper substitutional effects of strontium in La-Cu-O system and defects accommodating stoichiometric deviations is investigated. The extended shear defects are analyzed using electron microscopy and the role in superconducting transport properties has been examined by magnetic measurements. The initial results suggest that the defects enhance flux pinning

  8. 40 CFR 721.10048 - Substituted anthraquinone (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and consumer activities. Requirements as specified in § 721.80(s) (4,500 kilograms). (ii) [Reserved... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted anthraquinone (generic). 721.10048 Section 721.10048 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10087 - Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are: (i) Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Requirements as specified in § 721.80(s... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic). 721.10087 Section 721.10087 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  10. 7 CFR 4287.135 - Substitution of lender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Business and Industry Guaranteed... borrower, the proposed substitute lender, and the original lender if still in existence. (b) Where the...

  11. Hydrophobic core substitutions in calbindin D9k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, B B; Jönsson, M; Bifulco, G

    1998-01-01

    Hydrophobic core residues have a marked influence on the Ca2+-binding properties of calbindin D9k, even though there are no direct contacts between these residues and the bound Ca2+ ions. Eleven different mutants with substitutions in the hydrophobic core were produced, and their equilibrium Ca2+...... that the hydrophobic core residues promote Ca2+ binding both by contributing to the preformation of the Ca2+ sites in the apo state and by preferentially stabilizing the Ca2+-bound state.......Hydrophobic core residues have a marked influence on the Ca2+-binding properties of calbindin D9k, even though there are no direct contacts between these residues and the bound Ca2+ ions. Eleven different mutants with substitutions in the hydrophobic core were produced, and their equilibrium Ca2...... that the mutation causes only very minimal perturbations in the immediate vicinity of residue 61. Substitutions of alanines or glycines for bulky residues in the center of the core were found to have significant effects on both Ca2+ affinity and dissociation rates. These substitutions caused a reduction in affinity...

  12. A safer alternative: Cannabis substitution as harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-11-01

    Substitution is operationalised as a conscious choice made by users to use one drug instead of, or in conjunction with another based on: perceived safety, level of addiction potential, effectiveness in relieving symptoms, access and level of acceptance. Harm reduction is a set of strategies that aim to minimise problems associated with drug use while recognising that for some users, abstinence may be neither a realistic nor a desirable goal. In this paper, we aim for deeper understandings of older adult cannabis users' beliefs and substitution practices as part of the harm reduction framework. We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964) marijuana users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Although the sample consisted of primary cannabis users, many had personal experience with other drugs throughout their lifetimes. Data collection consisted of an audio-recorded, semi-structured in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analysed to discover users' harm reduction beliefs and cannabis substitution practices. Study participants described using cannabis as a safer alternative for alcohol, illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals based on their perceptions of less adverse side effects, low-risk for addiction and greater effectiveness at relieving symptoms, such as chronic pain. Cannabis substitution can be an effective harm reduction method for those who are unable or unwilling to stop using drugs completely. More research is needed on cannabis as a safer alternative. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. A novel non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO) for histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunhua, Wang; Chuming, Fan; Tao, Lai; Yanmei, Yang; Xin, Yang; Xiaoming, Zhang; Xuezhong, Guo; Xun, Lai

    2012-01-01

    Xylene has been generally used as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent in histology. Because of the potential toxic and flammable nature of xylene, its substitutes have been introduced into some laboratories. In this study, we introduced a novel, non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO), which was generated through a mixture of 86% of white oil No.2 and 14% of N-heptane. SBO had a high boiling point (188°C) and flash point (144°C) coupled with a scentless and decreased volatility. To compare the effectiveness of SBO and xylene in histology, a wide range of tissue samples from rats and human beings were processed in parallel in SBO and xylene, subjected to various staining procedures. Similar to the xylene-processed paraffin blocks, the SBO-processed counterparts were easy to section without any evidence of cell shrinkage. Assessment of the SBO-treated sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin revealed a good maintenance of cell morphology and structure, and a clear definition of the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Moreover, comparable good results were achieved between the SBO- and xylene-processed tissues in other histochemical and immunohistochemical stainings. Six-month clinical applications at one department of pathology supported the potentials of SBO as a xylene substitute. In conclusion, we suggest that SBO is a safe and efficient substitute of xylene and may probably replace xylene without losing valuable diagnostic information.

  14. The synthesis of some unsaturated 4-substituted-g-lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUREN HUSINEC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of conjugated and nonconjugated unsaturated 4-substituted lactones of type 1 and 2 are described. The type 1 lactone was prepared by a two step procedure employing Bredereck's reagent. The type 2 lactone was synthesised by combining the Claisen-Ireland rearrangement and selenolactonisation.

  15. Effects of substituting fishmeal with immobilized urea periodate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth trails were conducted with Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (mean weight 0.88 + 0.02 g) to evaluate the suitability of incorporating immobilized urea periodate oxidized Lignocellulosic Materials (LCMs) namely, Acha (Digitaria exilis (Staph) and Rice (Oryza sativa (L.) straws for substituting fishmeal from the reference ...

  16. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxidation of meta- and para-substituted benzylamines by cetyltrimethyl- ... method.12 As per this method, the aldimine is hydrolysed to the aldehyde and then ... reactions were studied at constant temperature (± 0⋅1 K) and were followed by .... electronic interaction between the substituent and the reaction centre, (σ+–σ0) is ...

  17. Substitution of lucerne hay by ammoniated wheat straw in growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucerne hay (LH) was substituted by urea-ammoniated wheat straw (AWS) in four lamb-growth diets, all containing 60% roughage. ... Die ekonomiese voordeel van die verplasing van 'n hoë kwaliteit ruvoer, soos LH, met'n goedkoper bron (AKS), moet opgeweeg word teen die laer DMI en GDT, sowel as die nadelige effek ...

  18. Substitution rate and natural selection in parvovirus B19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Gorana G.; Ćirković, Valentina S.; Šiljić, Marina M.; Blagojević, Jelena V.; Knežević, Aleksandra M.; Joksić, Ivana D.; Stanojević, Maja P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate substitution rate and imprints of natural selection on parvovirus B19 genotype 1. Studied datasets included 137 near complete coding B19 genomes (positions 665 to 4851) for phylogenetic and substitution rate analysis and 146 and 214 partial genomes for selection analyses in open reading frames ORF1 and ORF2, respectively, collected 1973–2012 and including 9 newly sequenced isolates from Serbia. Phylogenetic clustering assigned majority of studied isolates to G1A. Nucleotide substitution rate for total coding DNA was 1.03 (0.6–1.27) x 10−4 substitutions/site/year, with higher values for analyzed genome partitions. In spite of the highest evolutionary rate, VP2 codons were found to be under purifying selection with rare episodic positive selection, whereas codons under diversifying selection were found in the unique part of VP1, known to contain B19 immune epitopes important in persistent infection. Analyses of overlapping gene regions identified nucleotide positions under opposite selective pressure in different ORFs, suggesting complex evolutionary mechanisms of nucleotide changes in B19 viral genomes. PMID:27775080

  19. Prioritizing substitution of organic solvents in industrial cleaning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Pia Brunn; Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A method for prioritizing the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) used in industrial cleaning processes is developed. The result is a matrix, which, if all information can be obtained, gives a comprehensive description of the effects, exposure and emission of VOC, as well as the pros...

  20. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn

    1997-01-01

    Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of new meso-substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    tems. 10. Their ability to carry out the reactions rather unusual in organic chemistry has been the object of intensive investigations aiming to utilize them as a model compounds for biological systems and as catalysts. 11. Therefore, the synthesis of well defined meso-substituted unsymmetrical porphyrin deriva- tives (A3B) is ...

  2. The Substitution of IVD (Ion Vapor Deposition) Aluminum for Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    thus lose the anvantages the substitution nay offer suco as improveu perfornance arc/or the elimination of hazaruous waste production. This report...various processe-s are snown in Tlaole 31. The lVU alumiinum capitai cost includes the cooTter arc ucoicoted equipmient suco as a grit olaster ano glass

  3. Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part 1): Glass synthesis and characterisation, and the effects on the cement handling variables and ... acid to form glass ionomer cements, whose properties were investigated at different time points: working and setting times were determined by rheometry; and, ...

  4. Interpretation of substitution experiments by homogenisation two-group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.

    1970-02-01

    This paper describes methods for interpretation of progressive substitution experiments for determining material buckling in homogeneous two-group approximation. These methods were applied for experiments on the zero power RB reactor in Vinca. Experiments were done on the reflected heavy water reactor core, the lattice pitch had unisotropy properties

  5. Synthesis of 3-Substituted 1,4-Benzodiazepin-2-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungjin Kim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepines by benzodiazepine enolate alkylation has been explored. Employing this approach, multigram quantities of benzodiazepine 1 have been prepared for animal studies to evaluate a new approach for the treatment of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE.

  6. Substitution af organiske opløsningsmidler med estre af

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Substitution of organic solvents, which are harmful to both man and environment, is often possible. Cleaning of machines in offset printing may to a large extent be performed with products, which are neither volatile nor toxic to man and environment. Apparently this experience may be transferred...

  7. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lominadse, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The book deals with fundamental physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities conditioned by the presence in plasma of direct or alternating electric currents passing in it perpendicularily to a magnetic field. A great variety of problems is considered connected with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium and electron plasma of metals and semiconductors. Parametric excitations of electron cyclotron oscillations of plasma in an alternating electric field are studied. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of plasma turbulence arising as a result of development of cyclotron instabilities. Experimental data are discussed and compared with theoretical results

  8. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  9. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990

  10. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  11. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  12. The plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1989-12-01

    The term 'Plasma Universe', coined by Hannes Alfven, emphasices the fact that plasma phenomena discovered in the laboratory and in accessible regions of space. must be important also in the rest of the universe, which consists almost entirely of matter in the plasma state. Relevant aspect of this concept will be discussed. They include the response of the plasma to electric currents, the support of magnetic-field aligned electric fields, violation of the frozen-field condition, rapid release of magnetically stored energy, acceleration of charged particles, chemical separation, and filamentary and cellular structures. (authors)

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterizations of Ti substituted Mn-ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Nasser Y., E-mail: nmost69@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888 Al-Haweiah, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt); Hessien, M.M. [Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888 Al-Haweiah, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Advanced materials Division-Central metallurgical R and D Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Shaltout, Abdallah A. [Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888 Al-Haweiah, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal synthesized of well-crystallized Ti-substituted MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles at 180 Degree-Sign C without any calcination step. The chemical composition was represented by Mn{sub 1-2x}Ti{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with x having values 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in lattice parameter and saturation magnetization with increasing Ti-substitution was investigated and explained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in microstructure due to Ti{sup 4+} ions substitutions was investigated using TEM analysis. - Abstarct: A series of well-crystallized Mn{sub 1-2x}Ti{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with x values of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 have been synthesized by hydrothermal route at 180 Degree-Sign C in the presence of NaOH as mineralizer. The obtained ferrite samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD analysis showed that pure single phases of cubic ferrites were obtained with x up to 0.2. However, samples with x > 0.2 showed traces of unreacted anatase. The increase in Ti-substitution up to x = 0.2 leads to an increase in the lattice parameter of the prepared ferrites. On the other hand, the increase in Ti-substitution over x = 0.2 leads to a decrease in the lattice parameter. The average crystallite size was in the range of 39-57 nm, where it is increased by increasing the Ti-substitution up to x = 0.3, then decreased for x = 0.4. According to VSM results, the saturation magnetization increased with Ti ion substitution of x = 0.1 and decreased for x > 0.1.

  14. Tracing the plasma interactions for pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jikun; Stender, Dieter; Pichler, Markus; Pergolesi, Daniele; Schneider, Christof W.; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.lippert@psi.ch [General Energy Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Döbeli, Max [Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-28

    Pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation is an effective technique to govern the chemical activity of plasma species and background molecules during pulsed laser deposition. Instead of using a constant background pressure, a gas pulse with a reactive gas, synchronized with the laser beam, is injected into vacuum or a low background pressure near the ablated area of the target. It intercepts the initially generated plasma plume, thereby enhancing the physicochemical interactions between the gaseous environment and the plasma species. For this study, kinetic energy resolved mass-spectrometry and time-resolved plasma imaging were used to study the physicochemical processes occurring during the reactive crossed beam laser ablation of a partially {sup 18}O substituted La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3} target using oxygen as gas pulse. The characteristics of the ablated plasma are compared with those observed during pulsed laser deposition in different oxygen background pressures.

  15. Tracing the plasma interactions for pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jikun; Stender, Dieter; Pichler, Markus; Döbeli, Max; Pergolesi, Daniele; Schneider, Christof W.; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation is an effective technique to govern the chemical activity of plasma species and background molecules during pulsed laser deposition. Instead of using a constant background pressure, a gas pulse with a reactive gas, synchronized with the laser beam, is injected into vacuum or a low background pressure near the ablated area of the target. It intercepts the initially generated plasma plume, thereby enhancing the physicochemical interactions between the gaseous environment and the plasma species. For this study, kinetic energy resolved mass-spectrometry and time-resolved plasma imaging were used to study the physicochemical processes occurring during the reactive crossed beam laser ablation of a partially 18O substituted La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 target using oxygen as gas pulse. The characteristics of the ablated plasma are compared with those observed during pulsed laser deposition in different oxygen background pressures.

  16. Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and pharmacological evaluation of substituted phenoxy acetamide derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy-N-(1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ylacetamide and N-(2-bromocyclohexyl-2-(substituted phenoxyacetamide derivatives having cyclohexyl nucleus as common in both types were synthesized and assessed for their anti-inflammatory activity by a carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method, analgesic activity by Eddy’s hot plate method and antipyretic activity by brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia method. All the novel derivatives have been synthesized by the reaction of camphor and similar ketone having cyclohexane nucleus (e.g. 2-bromocyclohexanone with ammonium carbonate and formic acid resulting in the formation of aromatic amines (1a-b. These amines on further chloroacetylation with chloroacetylchloride give compounds (2a-b. Compounds (2a-b are converted to 2-(substituted phenoxy-N-(1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl acetamide and N-(2-bromocyclohexyl-2-(substituted phenoxyacetamide derivatives on treatment with substituted phenol. Among the series 3a-f, 3i, 3k, 3l compounds showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to the standard drug diclofenac sodium and also compound 3a-f, 3h, 3j, 3k exhibit significant analgesic activity as compared to the standard drug. Compounds 3a-f and 3k showed antipyretic activity nearly to the standard drug indomethacin. Compounds 3a-f and 3k possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities near to the standard.

  18. The plasma physics of plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohet, L.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma processing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. It has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both high-technology and the more traditional industries. Plasma processing takes on a wide variety of apparently different forms in industry, but the techniques share many common characteristics and problems. Control of the generation and flux of ions, electrons and free radicals in the plasma and their incidence on a surface is vital. Diagnostics, sensors, modeling techniques, and associated statistical methods are needed. However, without an in-depth understanding of the variety of phenomena taking place and their application to the industrial environment, advances in this technology, and its efficient use, will occur at a diminishing rate

  19. [Anti-arrhythmic action of some amidinohydrazone substituted benzophenones. 1. Synthesis of new amidinohydrazone and N-phenylamidinohydrazone substituted benzophenones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, P H; Kasbohm, K; Besch, A; Hagen, A

    1992-10-01

    The title compounds are synthesized as a rule by condensation of substituted benzophenones and derivatives of aminoguanidine in the presence of up to 2.5 moles of an anorganic acid. They can be obtained alternatively via corresponding hydrazones, thiosemicarbazones or methylthiothiocarbonylhydrazones.

  20. Substitution Effects and Linear Free Energy Relationships During Reduction of 4- Benzoyl-n-(4-substituted Benzyl)pyridinium Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In analogy to 4-(para-substituted benzoyl)-N-methylpyridinium cations (1-X's), the title species (2-X's, -X = -OCH3, -CH3, -H, -Br, -COCH3, -NO2) undergo two reversible, well-separated (E(sub 1/2) greater than or equal to 650 mV) one-electron reductions. The effect of substitution on the reduction potentials of 2-X's is much weaker than the effect of the same substituents on 1-X's: the Hammett rho-values are 0.80 and 0.93 for the 1st- and 2nd-e reduction of 2-X's vs. 2.3 and 3.3 for the same reductions of 1-X's, respectively. Importantly, the nitro group of 2-NO2 undergoes reduction before the 2nd-e reduction of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system. These results suggest that the redox potentials of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system can be course-tuned via p-benzoyl substitution and fine-tuned via para-benzyl substitution. Introducing the recently derived substituent constant of the -NO2(sup)- group (sigma para-NO2(sup)- = -0.97) yields an excellent correlation for the 3rd-e reduction of 2- NO2 (corresponding to the reduction of the carbonyl group) with the 2nd-e reduction of the other 2-X's, and confirms the electron donating properties of -NO2(sup)-.

  1. Educating T-Shaped professionals to meet substitution challenges and developing business models for substitution and recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Ana; Mendibil Eguiluz, Javier; Sánchez Cupido, Laura

    2018-03-01

    One strategy to overcome the challenges related to critical raw materials (CRMs) is their substitution and recycling. However, the bright scientific idea, proof of concept or laboratory demonstration need to cross the valley of death in order to become stated as ‘a substitute’ instead of ‘a potential substitute’. Most PhD students and Post Docs specialize within a given thematic area; for example on specific materials or on substitution in a certain application. This specialization could limit the ability to generate innovations and profitable business models if there are not enough tools and skills to transform new knowledge and research results into an appealing value proposition towards customers and to a business opportunity for the current markets. The project proposes a framework for developing substitution and recycling related cross-sectorial skills and tools. These are applied for training business-related competences e.g. teamwork, management, communication, value proposition and business models design, especially within RTOs and industries. The proposed learning itinerary can radically improve the path from scientific proof of concept into innovation and lean start up or industrial market launch. The developed framework is tested by a pilot group having several topics within the areas of substitution and recycling of critical raw materials.

  2. Estimating intertemporal and intratemporal substitutions when both income and substitution effects are present: the role of durable goods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pakoš, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2011), s. 439-454 ISSN 0735-0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : durable goods * intertemporal substitution * nonhomotheticity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.779, year: 2011

  3. Substituent effects on mono-substituted and poly-substituted nitriles; Efeitos dos substituintes em nitrilas mono- e polissubstituidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofia, Raquel C.R.; Carneiro, Paulo I.B.; Rittner, Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Fabi, Marino T [Rhodia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    This work studies various mono substituted aliphatic nitriles, Y C H{sub 2} (Y=H, F, Cl, Br, I, OMe, S Me, SEt{sub 2}, Me and Ph), and some reference nitriles (Y=Et, n-Pr, n-Bu, n-Am, n-Hex and n-Hept) 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  5. SCAPIS Pilot Study: Sitness, Fitness and Fatness - Is Sedentary Time Substitution by Physical Activity Equally Important for Everyone's Markers of Glucose Regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Örjan; Bolam, Kate A; Ekblom, Björn; Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats

    2016-07-01

    Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels. A total of 654 men and women, 50 to 64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined. Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared with participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively. LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.

  6. Acid mine drainage simulated leaching behavior of goethite and cobalt substituted goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penprase, S. B.; Kimball, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Though most modern day mining aims to eliminate the seepage of acid mine drainage (AMD) to the local watershed, historical mines regularly receive little to no remediation, and often release acidic, metal-rich drainage and particles to the environment. Treatment of AMD often includes neutralizing pH to facilitate the precipitation of Fe-oxides and dissolved trace metals, thereby forming Trace Metal Substituted (TMS) forms of known minerals, such as goethite (α-FeOOH). The stability of TMS precipitates is not fully understood. As a result, we conducted a 20 day leach experiment using laboratory synthesized pure (Gt) and cobalt-substituted (CoGt) goethites with a dilute ultrapure HCl solution (pH = 3.61) at T = 23.3±2.5ºC. Leached solids were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy paired with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Leach solutions were sampled for pH and conductivity, and dissolved chemistry was determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Preliminary results indicate Gt and CoGt filtered leach solutions experienced constant pH (Gt = 3.9 ± 0.1, CoGt = 6.8 ± 0.2) and conductivity (Gt = 69 ± 6.6 μS/cm, CoGt = 81 ± 16 μS/cm) for t = 0-20 days. Micro-focused XRD results indicate that leached solids did not change in mineralogy throughout the experiment, and SEM images show minor disintegration along mineral grain edges, but little overall change in shape. Preliminary ICP-MS results show lower dissolved Fe concentrations for CoGt (1.1 ± 1.1 ppb) compared to Gt (17 ± 8.9 ppb) over time. Dissolved Co concentrations ranged from 560 - 830 ppb and increased over time. Compared to leaching of pure Gt, leaching of CoGt generated significantly higher pH, slightly higher conductivity, and significantly less dissolved Fe. During the CoGt leach, Co was preferentially leached over Fe. The differences in leaching behavior between pure and TMS goethite in the laboratory have implications for

  7. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    Plasma plumes, or plasma jets, belong to a large family of gas discharges whereby the discharge plasma is extended beyond the plasma generation region into the surrounding ambience, either by a field (e.g. electromagnetic, convective gas flow, or shock wave) or a gradient of a directionless physical quantity (e.g. particle density, pressure, or temperature). This physical extension of a plasma plume gives rise to a strong interaction with its surrounding environment, and the interaction alters the properties of both the plasma and the environment, often in a nonlinear and dynamic fashion. The plasma is therefore not confined by defined physical walls, thus extending opportunities for material treatment applications as well as bringing in new challenges in science and technology associated with complex open-boundary problems. Some of the most common examples may be found in dense plasmas with very high dissipation of externally supplied energy (e.g. in electrical, optical or thermal forms) and often in or close to thermal equilibrium. For these dense plasmas, their characteristics are determined predominantly by strong physical forces of different fields, such as electrical, magnetic, thermal, shock wave, and their nonlinear interactions [1]. Common to these dense plasma plumes are significant macroscopic plasma movement and considerable decomposition of solid materials (e.g. vaporization). Their applications are numerous and include detection of elemental traces, synthesis of high-temperature materials and welding, laser--plasma interactions, and relativistic jets in particle accelerators and in space [2]-[4]. Scientific challenges in the understanding of plasma jets are exciting and multidisciplinary, involving interweaving transitions of all four states of matter, and their technological applications are wide-ranging and growing rapidly. Using the Web of Science database, a search for journal papers on non-fusion plasma jets reveals that a long initial phase up

  8. Geospace Plasma Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    perturbations. High-speed solar wind streams cause recurrent geomagnetic activity and ionospheric disturbances. In [5], we analyze the equatorial...over eight successive orbits (~12 hours). A clear pre- reversal enhancement of upward plasma drift occurred between 18:00 and 19:00 LT when plasma

  9. Introduction to Plasma Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, H-J

    2009-01-01

    Based on lectures given at the Ruhr-University of Bochum for graduate students and postgraduates starting in plasma physics as well as from low- to high-density hot plasmas, this book introduces basic ideas and fundamental concepts and typical instrumentation from the X-ray to the infrared spectral regions

  10. General Relativistic Plasma Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss the importance of general relativity on plasma physics in several astrophysical and cosmological contexts. The first chapters show how gravitational waves can excite all three fundamental low frequency magnetohydrodynamic plasma modes, the Alfven, slow and fast

  11. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs

  12. Waves in unmagnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, A.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A review of linear and weakly non-linear theory of electron waves, ion waves and electromagnetic waves in plasmas is presented. The author restricts the discussion to an infinitely extended, homogeneous and isotropic plasma, not affected by external fields and described by Vlasov's and Maxwell's equations. (Auth.)

  13. Plasma processing and chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    A review. Plasma deposition and plasma conversion can be characterized by five steps: prodn. by ionization, transfer of chem. to precursors, transport of radicals to the surface, surface interactions with deposition, recirculation and generation of new monomers. For very fast deposition, large flows

  14. Plasma technology directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.P.; Dybwad, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Technology Directory has two main goals: (1) promote, coordinate, and share plasma technology experience and equipment within the Department of Energy; and (2) facilitate technology transfer to the commercial sector where appropriate. Personnel are averaged first by Laboratory and next by technology area. The technology areas are accelerators, cleaning and etching deposition, diagnostics, and modeling

  15. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  16. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Radiation characteristics of input power from surface wave sustained plasma antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, T., E-mail: Naito.Teruki@bc.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp [Advanced Technology R& D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Yamaura, S. [Information Technology R& D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Kamakura, Kanagawa 247-8501 (Japan); Fukuma, Y. [Communication System Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Sakai, O. [Department of Electronic System Engineering, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    This paper reports radiation characteristics of input power from a surface wave sustained plasma antenna investigated theoretically and experimentally, especially focusing on the power consumption balance between the plasma generation and the radiation. The plasma antenna is a dielectric tube filled with argon and small amount of mercury, and the structure is a basic quarter wavelength monopole antenna at 2.45 GHz. Microwave power at 2.45 GHz is supplied to the plasma antenna. The input power is partially consumed to sustain the plasma, and the remaining part is radiated as a signal. The relationship between the antenna gain and the input power is obtained by an analytical derivation and numerical simulations. As a result, the antenna gain is kept at low values, and most of the input power is consumed to increase the plasma volume until the tube is filled with the plasma whose electron density is higher than the critical electron density required for sustaining the surface wave. On the other hand, the input power is consumed to increase the electron density after the tube is fully filled with the plasma, and the antenna gain increases with increasing the electron density. The dependence of the antenna gain on the electron density is the same as that of a plasma antenna sustained by a DC glow discharge. These results are confirmed by experimental results of the antenna gain and radiation patterns. The antenna gain of the plasma is a few dB smaller than that of the identical metal antenna. The antenna gain of the plasma antenna is sufficient for the wireless communication, although it is difficult to substitute the plasma antenna for metal antennas completely. The plasma antenna is suitable for applications having high affinity with the plasma characteristics such as low interference and dynamic controllability.

  18. Radiation characteristics of input power from surface wave sustained plasma antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Yamaura, S.; Fukuma, Y.; Sakai, O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports radiation characteristics of input power from a surface wave sustained plasma antenna investigated theoretically and experimentally, especially focusing on the power consumption balance between the plasma generation and the radiation. The plasma antenna is a dielectric tube filled with argon and small amount of mercury, and the structure is a basic quarter wavelength monopole antenna at 2.45 GHz. Microwave power at 2.45 GHz is supplied to the plasma antenna. The input power is partially consumed to sustain the plasma, and the remaining part is radiated as a signal. The relationship between the antenna gain and the input power is obtained by an analytical derivation and numerical simulations. As a result, the antenna gain is kept at low values, and most of the input power is consumed to increase the plasma volume until the tube is filled with the plasma whose electron density is higher than the critical electron density required for sustaining the surface wave. On the other hand, the input power is consumed to increase the electron density after the tube is fully filled with the plasma, and the antenna gain increases with increasing the electron density. The dependence of the antenna gain on the electron density is the same as that of a plasma antenna sustained by a DC glow discharge. These results are confirmed by experimental results of the antenna gain and radiation patterns. The antenna gain of the plasma is a few dB smaller than that of the identical metal antenna. The antenna gain of the plasma antenna is sufficient for the wireless communication, although it is difficult to substitute the plasma antenna for metal antennas completely. The plasma antenna is suitable for applications having high affinity with the plasma characteristics such as low interference and dynamic controllability.

  19. Polychromatic holographic plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiglinskij, A.G.; Morozov, A.O.

    1992-01-01

    Review of holographic interferometry properties is performed and advantages of this method by plasma diagnostics are indicated. Main results obtained by the method of holographic interferometry in studies of various-type plasmas are considered. Special attention is paid to multiwave plasma diagnostics, the necessity of which is related as a rule to multicomponent composition of plasma. The eight laser and gas-discharge sources and holographic schemes, which make it possible to realize plasma polychromatic and holographic interferometry, are considered. The advantages of the method are demonstrated by examples of polychromatic holographic diagnostics of arc discharge and discharge in a hollow cathode. Review of theoretical works determining the applicability area of resonance polychromatic interferometry is carried out

  20. Chaotic phenomena in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.

    1991-08-01

    It has recently been recognized that the research on various aspects of chaotic dynamics grows rapidly as one of some areas in nonlinear science. On the other hands, the plasma has long been called a treasure-house of nonlinear phenomena, so it is easy to imagine that the plasma is abundant in chaotic phenomena. In fact, the research on plasma chaos is going on, such as the research on the stochastic magnetic field and the chaotic orbit in the toroidal helical system, as well as the research in other experiments. To review the present status of the research on plasma chaos and to make clear the basic common physics, a working group was organized in 1990 as a collaboration research of National Institute for Fusion Science. This is the report on its activity in 1990, with a stress on experimental data obtained in basic plasma experiments and RFP, and on the relaxed theories and computer simulations. (author)