WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma steroid hormone

  1. Steroid hormones and persistent organic pollutants in plasma from North-eastern Atlantic pilot whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoydal, Katrin S; Styrishave, Bjarne; Ciesielski, Tomasz M

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are known to have endocrine disruptive effects, interfering with endogenous steroid hormones. The present study examined nine steroid hormones and their relationships with the concentrations of selected POPs in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Faroe...

  2. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3 H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  3. The relationship between plasma steroid hormone concentrations and the reproductive cycle in the Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus oreganus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Husak, Jerry F; Eikenaar, Cas; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2010-05-01

    We describe the reproductive cycle of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) by quantifying steroid hormone concentrations and observing reproductive behaviors in free-ranging individuals. Additionally, we examined reproductive tissues from museum specimens. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations were quantified for both male and female snakes throughout the active season (March-October). We measured testosterone (T), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and corticosterone (B) concentrations in both sexes and 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in females only. We observed reproductive behaviors (e.g., consortship, courtship, and copulation) in the field and measured testis and follicle size in male and female snakes from museum collections to relate steroid hormone concentrations to the timing of reproductive events. Our study revealed that C. oreganus in central California exhibits a bimodal pattern of breeding, with most mating behavior occurring in the spring and some incidences of mating behavior observed in late summer/fall. Each breeding period corresponded with elevated androgen (T or DHT) levels in males. Testes were regressed in the spring when the majority of reproductive behavior was observed in this population, and they reached peak volume in August and September during spermatogenesis. Although we did not detect seasonal variation in female hormone concentrations, some females had high E2 in the spring and fall, coincident with mating and with increased follicle size (indicating vitellogenesis) in museum specimens. Females with high E2 concentrations also had high T and DHT concentrations. Corticosterone concentrations in males and females were not related either to time of year or to concentrations of any other hormones quantified. Progesterone concentrations in females also did not vary seasonally, but this likely reflected sampling bias as females tended to be underground, and thus unobtainable, in summer months when P would be

  4. (cGnRH-II) on plasma steroid hormone, maturation and ovulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... (LHRHa) and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa) in ..... Four out of six fish reached GVBD at 12 h after injection. Egg quality .... of the sbGnRH and cGnRH-II genes from the striped bass, Morone.

  5. Levels of plasma steroid hormones in relation to retained fetal membrane (RFM) in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhixi; Li Quanwu; Wu Hao

    1994-01-01

    The levels of plasma progesterone (P 4 ), 17β-estradiol (17β-E 2 ), and estrone (E 1 ) were measured by RIA in twenty pregnant cows (10 RFM and 10 NRFM cows). Jugular vein blood samples were collected from 10 days before parturition until 2 days after parturition. The results indicated that level of plasma progesterone in RFM cows was slight lower at the 6th-3rd days pre-partum than in NRFM cows (P>0.05), increased abruptly at 2nd day of pre-partum and was significantly higher than that of NRFM cows (P 4 /17β-E 2 ratios in RFM cows at 6th and 2nd day of pre-partum were significantly high. The results show that the significant decrease of estrone level and significant increase of P 4 /17β-E 2 ratios at the 6th day of pre-partum may be reliable indicators of retained placenta in dairy cows

  6. Direct binding and activation of protein kinase C isoforms by steroid hormones.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alzamora, Rodrigo

    2008-10-01

    The non-genomic action of steroid hormones regulates a wide variety of cellular responses including regulation of ion transport, cell proliferation, migration, death and differentiation. In order to achieve such plethora of effects steroid hormones utilize nearly all known signal transduction pathways. One of the key signalling molecules regulating the non-genomic action of steroid hormones is protein kinase C (PKC). It is thought that rapid action of steroids hormones results from the activation of plasma membrane receptors; however, their molecular identity remains elusive. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have pointed at the selective binding and activation of specific PKC isoforms by steroid hormones. This has led to the hypothesis that PKC could act as a receptor as well as a transducer of the non-genomic effects of these hormones. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of the direct binding and activation of PKC by steroid hormones.

  7. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique of steroid hormones in the laying hens, Gallus domesticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli bin Abdullah

    1990-01-01

    The principle of radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been applied to many organic compounds of biological interest. In this work, commercially available antisera developed for various steroid hormones were used in the analysis of steroid hormones in the laying hens. The RIA procedure for plasma steroid hormones was divided into three phases: sample preparation, incubation of the antibody-3H-steroid complex with prepared samples and a standard curve and separation of antibody bound 3H-steroid from free 3H-steroid. Results showed that it is possible to use commercially available antiserum source for the determination of steroid hormones in this species. This approach has the advantage of savings in both time and money, by eliminating time losses in screening potential animals producing steroid antiserum and the costs of maintaining these animals

  8. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of natural steroid hormones in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) plasma and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyong; Bussy, Ugo; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-15

    This study aims to provide a rapid, sensitive and precise UPLC-MS/MS method for target steroid quantitation in biological matrices. We developed and validated an UPLC-MS/MS method to simultaneously determine 16 steroids in plasma and tissue samples. Ionization sources of Electrospray Ionization (ESI) and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) were compared in this study by testing their spectrometry performances at the same chromatographic conditions, and the ESI source was found up to five times more sensitive than the APCI. Different sample preparation techniques were investigated for an optimal extraction of steroids from the biological matrices. The developed method exhibited excellent linearity for all analytes with regression coefficients higher than 0.99 in broad concentration ranges. The limit of detection (LOD) was from 0.003 to 0.1ng/mL. The method was validated according to FDA guidance and applied to determine steroids in sea lamprey plasma and tissues (fat and testes) by the developed method. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Advances in bioanalytical techniques to measure steroid hormones in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Steroid hormones are measured clinically to determine if a patient has a pathological process occurring in the adrenal gland, or other hormone responsive organs. They are very similar in structure making them analytically challenging to measure. Additionally, these hormones have vast concentration differences in human serum adding to the measurement complexity. GC-MS was the gold standard methodology used to measure steroid hormones clinically, followed by radioimmunoassay, but that was replaced by immunoassay due to ease of use. LC-MS/MS has now become a popular alternative owing to simplified sample preparation than for GC-MS and increased specificity and sensitivity over immunoassay. This review will discuss these methodologies and some new developments that could simplify and improve steroid hormone analysis in serum.

  10. Biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones by human adrenal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a 15-year period, our university-based laboratory obtained 125 adrenal tumors, of which 15 (12% were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Of these, 6 (40% of the carcinomas occurred in patients with clear clinical manifestations of steroid hormone excess. Adrenal cortical carcinoma cells derived from the surgically resected tumors in 4 of these patients were isolated and established in primary culture. Radiotracer steroid interconversion studies were carried out with these cultures and also on mitochondria isolated from homogenized tissues. Large tumors had the lowest steroidogenic activities per weight, whereas small tumors had more moderately depressed enzyme activities relative to cells from normal glands. In incubations with pregnenolone as substrate, 1 mM metyrapone blocked the synthesis of corticosterone and cortisol and also the formation of aldosterone. Metyrapone inhibition was associated with a concomitant increase in the formation of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone from pregnenolone. Administration of metyrapone in vivo before surgery in one patient resulted in a similar increase in plasma androstenedione, though plasma testosterone levels were not significantly affected. In cultures of two of four tumors examined, dibutyryl cAMP stimulated 11ß-hydroxylase activity modestly; ACTH also had a significant stimulatory effect in one of these tumors. Unlike results obtained with normal or adenomatous adrenal cortical tissues, mitochondria from carcinomatous cells showed a lack of support of either cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme complex or steroid 11ß-hydroxylase activity by Krebs cycle intermediates (10 mM isocitrate, succinate or malate. This finding is consistent with the concept that these carcinomas may tend to function predominantly in an anaerobic manner, rather than through the oxidation of Krebs cycle intermediates.

  11. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangesweran Ayakannu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The “endocannabinoid system (ECS” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed.

  12. Steroid hormones in environmental matrices: extraction method comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaluri, Gangadhar; Suri, Rominder P S; Graham, Kendon

    2017-11-09

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed methods for the analysis of steroid hormones in water, soil, sediment, and municipal biosolids by HRGC/HRMS (EPA Method 1698). Following the guidelines provided in US-EPA Method 1698, the extraction methods were validated with reagent water and applied to municipal wastewater, surface water, and municipal biosolids using GC/MS/MS for the analysis of nine most commonly detected steroid hormones. This is the first reported comparison of the separatory funnel extraction (SFE), continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE), and Soxhlet extraction methods developed by the U.S. EPA. Furthermore, a solid phase extraction (SPE) method was also developed in-house for the extraction of steroid hormones from aquatic environmental samples. This study provides valuable information regarding the robustness of the different extraction methods. Statistical analysis of the data showed that SPE-based methods provided better recovery efficiencies and lower variability of the steroid hormones followed by SFE. The analytical methods developed in-house for extraction of biosolids showed a wide recovery range; however, the variability was low (≤ 7% RSD). Soxhlet extraction and CLLE are lengthy procedures and have been shown to provide highly variably recovery efficiencies. The results of this study are guidance for better sample preparation strategies in analytical methods for steroid hormone analysis, and SPE adds to the choice in environmental sample analysis.

  13. Steroid determination in fish plasma using capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, L.; Archer-Hartmann, S. A.; Holland, L.A.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2010-01-01

    A capillary separation method that incorporates pH-mediated stacking is employed for the simultaneous determination of circulating steroid hormones in plasma from Perca flavescens (yellow perch) collected from natural aquatic environments. The method can be applied to separate eight steroid standards: progesterone, 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, estrone, 11-ketotestosterone, ethynyl estradiol, and 17β-estradiol. Based on screening of plasma, the performance of the analytical method was determined for 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17β-estradiol. The within-day reproducibility in migration time for these four steroids in aqueous samples was ≤2%. Steroid quantification was accomplished using a calibration curve obtained with external standards. Plasma samples from fish collected from the Choptank and Severn Rivers, Maryland, USA, stored for up to one year were extracted with ethyl acetate and then further processed with anion exchange and hydrophobic solid phase extraction cartridges. The recovery of testosterone and 17β-estradiol from yellow perch plasma was 84 and 85%, respectively. Endogenous levels of testosterone ranged from 0.9 to 44 ng/ml, and when detected 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one ranged from 5 to 34 ng/ml. The reported values for testosterone correlated well with the immunoassay technique. Endogenous concentrations of 17β-estradiol were ≤1.7 ng/ml. 11-Ketotestosterone was not quantified because of a suspected interferant. Higher levels of 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were found in male and female fish in which 17β-estradiol was not detected. Monitoring multiple steroids can provide insight into hormonal fluctuations in fish.

  14. Steroid determination in fish plasma using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Liliya; Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie A; Holland, Lisa A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S

    2010-09-01

    A capillary separation method that incorporates pH-mediated stacking is employed for the simultaneous determination of circulating steroid hormones in plasma from Perca flavescens (yellow perch) collected from natural aquatic environments. The method can be applied to separate eight steroid standards: progesterone, 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, estrone, 11-ketotestosterone, ethynyl estradiol, and 17beta-estradiol. Based on screening of plasma, the performance of the analytical method was determined for 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17beta-estradiol. The within-day reproducibility in migration time for these four steroids in aqueous samples was < or =2%. Steroid quantification was accomplished using a calibration curve obtained with external standards. Plasma samples from fish collected from the Choptank and Severn Rivers, Maryland, USA, stored for up to one year were extracted with ethyl acetate and then further processed with anion exchange and hydrophobic solid phase extraction cartridges. The recovery of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol from yellow perch plasma was 84 and 85%, respectively. Endogenous levels of testosterone ranged from 0.9 to 44 ng/ml, and when detected 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one ranged from 5 to 34 ng/ml. The reported values for testosterone correlated well with the immunoassay technique. Endogenous concentrations of 17beta-estradiol were < or =1.7 ng/ml. 11-Ketotestosterone was not quantified because of a suspected interferant. Higher levels of 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were found in male and female fish in which 17beta-estradiol was not detected. Monitoring multiple steroids can provide insight into hormonal fluctuations in fish. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  15. Biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones by human adrenal carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J.W.; Fishman, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    Over a 15-year period, our university-based laboratory obtained 125 adrenal tumors, of which 15 (12%) were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Of these, 6 (40% of the carcinomas) occurred in patients with clear clinical manifestations of steroid hormone excess. Adrenal cortical carcinoma cells derived from the surgically resected tumors in 4 of these patients were isolated and established in primary culture. Radiotracer steroid interconversion studies were carried out with these cultures and also on...

  16. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja

    2016-01-01

    's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo...... or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map...

  17. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. → Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. → Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor α, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  18. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  19. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  20. Divergence in sex steroid hormone signaling between sympatric species of Japanese threespine stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kitano

    Full Text Available Sex steroids mediate the expression of sexually dimorphic or sex-specific traits that are important both for mate choice within species and for behavioral isolation between species. We investigated divergence in sex steroid signaling between two sympatric species of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus: the Japan Sea form and the Pacific Ocean form. These sympatric forms diverge in both male display traits and female mate choice behaviors, which together contribute to asymmetric behavioral isolation in sympatry. Here, we found that plasma levels of testosterone and 17β-estradiol differed between spawning females of the two sympatric forms. Transcript levels of follicle-stimulating hormone-β (FSHβ gene were also higher in the pituitary gland of spawning Japan Sea females than in the pituitary gland of spawning Pacific Ocean females. By contrast, none of the sex steroids examined were significantly different between nesting males of the two forms. However, combining the plasma sex steroid data with testis transcriptome data suggested that the efficiency of the conversion of testosterone into 11-ketotestosterone has likely diverged between forms. Within forms, plasma testosterone levels in males were significantly correlated with male body size, a trait important for female mate choice in the two sympatric species. These results demonstrate that substantial divergence in sex steroid signaling can occur between incipient sympatric species. We suggest that investigation of the genetic and ecological mechanisms underlying divergence in hormonal signaling between incipient sympatric species will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of speciation in animals.

  1. Towards the emerging crosstalk: ERBB family and steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Uva, Gabriele; Lauriola, Mattia

    2016-02-01

    Growth factors acting through receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) of ERBB family, along with steroid hormones (SH) acting through nuclear receptors (NRs), are critical signalling mediators of cellular processes. Deregulations of ERBB and steroid hormone receptors are responsible for several diseases, including cancer, thus demonstrating the central role played by both systems. This review will summarize and shed light on an emerging crosstalk between these two important receptor families. How this mutual crosstalk is attained, such as through extensive genomic and non-genomic interactions, will be addressed. In light of recent studies, we will describe how steroid hormones are able to fine-tune ERBB feedback loops, thus impacting on cellular output and providing a new key for understanding the complexity of biological processes in physiological or pathological conditions. In our understanding, the interactions between steroid hormones and RTKs deserve further attention. A system biology approach and advanced technologies for the analysis of RTK-SH crosstalk could lead to major advancements in molecular medicine, providing the basis for new routes of pharmacological intervention in several diseases, including cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Status of sex steroid hormone receptors in large bowel cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meggouh, F.; Lointier, P.; Pezet, D.; Saez, S.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the potential role of sex steroid hormones in the development of colorectal tumors in humans, specific androgen (AR), estrogen (ER), and progesterone (PGR) receptors were investigated in normal mucosa (NM) and in tumor (T) paired biopsy specimens from 94 patients. Androgen receptors

  3. Steroid hormone profile in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Bytingsvik, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The polar bear is an iconic Arctic species, threatened by anthropogenic impacts such as pollution and climate change. Successful reproduction of polar bears depends on a functioning steroid hormone system, which is susceptible to effects of persistent organic pollutants. The present study...... is the first study to report circulating concentrations of nine steroid hormones (i.e., estrogens, androgens and progestagens) in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age, condition, location and reproductive status on steroid profile in female polar...... bears. Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone, androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in blood (serum) of free-living female polar bears (n = 15) from Svalbard, Norway, by gas...

  4. Endocrinology of sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Angelo; Mawhinney, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Numerous scientific studies assert the existence of hormone-sensitive periodontal tissues. Tissue specificity of hormone localization, identification of hormone receptors and the metabolism of hormones are evidence that periodontal tissues are targets for sex steroid hormones. Although the etiologies of periodontal endocrinopathies are diverse, periodontal pathologies are primarily the consequence of the actions and interactions of sex steroid hormones on specific cells found in the periodontium. This review provides a broad overview of steroid hormone physiology, evidence for the periodontium being a target tissue for sex steroid hormones and theories regarding the roles of sex steroid hormones in periodontal pathogenesis. Using this information, a teleological argument for the actions of steroid hormones in the periodontium is assessed.

  5. Psychological, social, and spiritual effects of contraceptive steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Hanna; Cortés, Manuel E

    2015-08-01

    Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed. When mentioned at all, depression and hypoactive sexual desire are usually treated symptomatically rather than discontinuing their most frequent pharmacological cause, the contraceptive. The rising incidence of premarital sex and cohabitation and decreased marriage rates parallel the use of contraceptive steroids as does decreased church attendance and/or reduced acceptance of Church teaching among Catholics. Lay summary: While there is wide, societal acceptance of hormonal contraceptives to space births, their physical side effects are often downplayed and their impact on emotions and life styles are largely unexamined. Coincidental to the use of "the pill" there has been an increase in depression, low sexual desire, "hook-ups," cohabitation, delay of marriage and childbearing, and among Catholics, decreased church attendance and reduced religious practice. Fertility is not a disease. Birth spacing can be achieved by natural means, and the many undesirable effects of contraception avoided.

  6. Psychological, social, and spiritual effects of contraceptive steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Hanna; Cortés, Manuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed. When mentioned at all, depression and hypoactive sexual desire are usually treated symptomatically rather than discontinuing their most frequent pharmacological cause, the contraceptive. The rising incidence of premarital sex and cohabitation and decreased marriage rates parallel the use of contraceptive steroids as does decreased church attendance and/or reduced acceptance of Church teaching among Catholics. Lay summary: While there is wide, societal acceptance of hormonal contraceptives to space births, their physical side effects are often downplayed and their impact on emotions and life styles are largely unexamined. Coincidental to the use of “the pill” there has been an increase in depression, low sexual desire, “hook-ups,” cohabitation, delay of marriage and childbearing, and among Catholics, decreased church attendance and reduced religious practice. Fertility is not a disease. Birth spacing can be achieved by natural means, and the many undesirable effects of contraception avoided. PMID:26912936

  7. TeBG- and CBG-bound steroid hormones in rabbits are available for influx into uterus in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, G.; Steingold, K.A.; Pardridge, W.M.; Judd, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of gonadal or adrenal steroid hormones in rabbits often does not bear the expected inverse relationship with hormone binding to testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) or corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). This suggests TeBG or CBG may not impede steroid hormone delivery to tissues. The effects of rabbit plasma proteins on the influxes of 3 H-labeled steroids from the circulation into the rabbit uterus were measured in vivo using a tissue sampling single-injection technique. In the absence of plasma proteins, estradiol (E 2 ) and testosterone (T) were freely diffusible through the uterine microvasculature (i.e., extraction >80%). The extractions of dihydrostestosterone (DHT) and corticosterone (B) ranged from 60 to 72%, while that of cortisol (F) was reduced at 40%. Rabbit serum exerted no inhibition of the influxes of the steroids tested. The influxes of T and B greatly exceeded the rates that would be expected if only the free and albumin-bound fractions estimated in vitro were diffusible in vivo. However, the extraction of [ 3 H]corticosteroid-binding globulin or bovine [ 3 H]albumin were low, consistent with little, if any, extravascular uptake of the plasma proteins. The results indicate both albumin-bound and globulin-bound steroid hormone are available for transport into the uterus in the rabbit in vivo without significant exodus of the plasma protein, per se

  8. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  9. Steroid Hormone Receptor Signals as Prognosticators for Urothelial Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of preclinical or clinical evidence suggesting that steroid hormone receptor-mediated signals play a critical role in urothelial tumorigenesis and tumor progression. These receptors include androgen receptor, estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, progesterone receptor, vitamin D receptor, retinoid receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and others including orphan receptors. In particular, studies using urothelial cancer tissue specimens have demonstrated that elevated or reduced expression of these receptors as well as alterations of their upstream or downstream pathways correlates with patient outcomes. This review summarizes and discusses available data suggesting that steroid hormone receptors and related signals serve as biomarkers for urothelial carcinoma and are able to predict tumor recurrence or progression.

  10. Clinical study on postoperative steroid hormon replacement for preclinical Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Nozomu; Koide, Haruhisa; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Miki, Jun; Kimura, Takahiro; Egawa, Shin

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria for preclinical Cushing's syndrome (PCS) were reported in 1996. However, requirement of postoperative steroid hormone replacement is still controversial issue. In this study, we observed recent surgical cases retrospectively and evaluate the use of postoperative steroid hormone replacement. Eighteen patients with PCS underwent surgery from 1997 to 2007 in Jikei University Hospital. Thirteen of them received postoperative steroid hormone replacement. We investigated preoperative hormone activity by 131 I-adosterol scintigraphy and suppression of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and evaluated the requirement of postoperative steroid hormone replacement. Preoperative serum cortisol was normal range in all patients. Serum ACTH was suppressed in 10 of them (56%). In 131 I-adosterol scintigraphy, accumulation in ipsilateral side was observed in all patients. Accumulation in contralateral side was observed in 13 patients whose serum ACTH had tendency to be suppressed. Mean period of steroid hormone replacement was 19.8 weeks. Patients with lower preoperative ACTH tended to require longer period until withdrawal of steroid hormone replacement. In addition, patients received steroid hormone replacement with higher starting dose significantly required longer period. Three of them had complications during tapering of steroid hormone. Postoperative adrenal insufficiency is important issue as postoperative management of PCS patients whose function of contralateral adrenal or pituitary gland is suppressed. 131 I-adosterol scintigraphy and preoperative serum ACTH were important factors to evaluate the requirement of postoperative steroid hormone replacement. Especially, patients with low preoperative serum ACTH tended to require long duration of postoperative steroid hormone replacement. On the other hand, patients with accumulation of contralateral side in 131 I-adosterol scintigraphy and without suppression of serum ACTH may not require steroid hormone

  11. Microsomal receptor for steroid hormones: functional implications for nuclear activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, T G; Watson, G H; Evans, A C; Steinsapir, J

    1988-01-01

    Target tissues for steroid hormones are responsive by virtue of and to the extent of their content of functional intracellular receptors. Recent years have seen a shift in considerations of the cellular dynamics and distribution of these receptors, with current views favoring predominant intranuclear localization in the intact cell. This paper summarizes our analyses of the microsomal estrogen and androgen binding capability of rat uterine and ventral prostate tissue, respectively; these studies have revealed a set of high affinity sites that may act as a conduit for estrogen traversing the cell en route to the nucleus. These sites have many properties in common with cytosolic receptors, with the salient difference of a failure to activate to a more avid DNA-binding form under conditions which permit such activation of cytosolic receptors. The microsomal estrogen-binding proteins also have appreciable affinity for progesterone, another distinction from other known cellular estrogen receptor species. Various experimental approaches were employed to demonstrate that the microsomal receptors were not simply cytosol contaminants; the most convincing evidence is the recent successful separation of the cytosolic and microsomal forms by differential ammonium sulfate precipitation. Discrete subfractionation of subcellular components on successive sucrose gradients, with simultaneous assessments of binding capability and marker enzyme concentrations, indicates that the major portion of the binding is localized within the vesicles of the endoplasmic reticulum free of significant plasma membrane contamination. The microsomal receptors are readily solubilized by extraction with high- or low-salt-containing buffers or with steroid. The residual microsomes following such extraction have the characteristics of saturable acceptor sites for cytosolic estrogen-receptor complexes. The extent to which these sites will accept the cytosolic complexes is equal to the concentration of

  12. Preparation of directly iodinated steroid hormones and related directly halogenated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahadevan, V.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of directly iodinated radioactive steroid hormones is described for use in radioimmunoassays or radiolocalization and treatment of human breast tumours. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormone is prepared by reacting a parent steroid hormone with an alkali metal iodide containing radioactive 123 I, 125 I, 130 I or 131 I in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or chloramine-T. The parent steroid hormones include the adrenal corticosteroids, the estrogens, the progestogens, the progestins and the diuretic and antidiuretic agents. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormone is prepared by iodinating the parent steroid hormone directly on the cyclopentanophenanthrene nucleus. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormones have the same antigenicity and receptor site specificity as the parent steroid hormone. The invention is illustrated by 1) the method of iodination of estradiol-17β, 2) results for the percentage labelling of several steroids and steroid hormones, 3) results for the radioimmunoassay of 125 I-estradiol and 4) results for the binding of directly iodinated estradiol-17β in an estrogen receptor assay of human breast cancer. (U.K.)

  13. Interactive effects of naphthalene treatment and the onset of vitellogenesis on energy metabolism in liver and gonad, and plasma steroid hormones of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintos, Adrián; Gesto, Manuel; Alvarez, Rosa; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess in female fish the possible interaction between treatment with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) like naphthalene and the onset of vitellogenesis. In a first experiment, female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at stages 2-3 (previtellogenesis) or 4 (early vitellogenesis) were intraperitoneally injected (2 microl g(-1)) with vegetable oil alone (control) or containing naphthalene (50 mg kg(-1)) to be sampled 3 h later. A second experiment was similarly designed but using fish intraperitoneally implanted (10 microl g(-1)) with slow-release coconut oil implants alone (control) or containing 50 mg naphthalene kg(-1) body mass that were sampled 3 days after injection. On each sampling time, plasma levels of cortisol and 17beta-estradiol, and several metabolic parameters in plasma, liver and gonad were assessed. In controls, early vitellogenic fish compared with previtellogenic fish displayed changes that in some cases are confirmatory of previous studies whereas in other cases provide new information in plasma (increased amino acid levels), liver (decreased capacity for exporting glucose and reduced amino acid levels) and gonad (decreased amino acid levels). Naphthalene treatment produced in previtellogenic fish decreased 17beta-estradiol levels in plasma, increased plasma glucose or decreased liver gluconeogenic capacity whereas no major effects were noticed on parameters involved in lipid, amino acid and lactate metabolism. Differential effects of naphthalene treatment were noticed in early vitellogenic fish such as decreased 17beta-estradiol and glucose levels in plasma, increased hexokinase and glucokinase and lack of changes in fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase activities in liver, and a lower decrease of amino acid levels in gonad. Those alterations produced by naphthalene treatment resulted in a decreased capacity for covering the energy demand of vitellogenesis in liver and gonad that could contribute to a delay and

  14. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  15. Radioisotope studies of steroid hormone levels of plasma in indigenous subjects living at high altitude and submitted to a low calorie diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, I.

    1975-08-01

    Radioimmunological techniques were applied to the evaluation of TSH and ACTH in the four groups of Ecuadorian subjects under investigation at Tocachi, Malchingui, Quito and Portoviejo, the first three populations living at a high altitude and the fourth at sea-level. This evaluation was of interest since previous studies had indicated that there were thyroid and adrenal hormone deficiency levels in individuals from Tocachi and Malchingui or, in other words, in populations from a high-altitude region, and also endemic goitre and caloric-protein malnutrition. Furthermore, the Tocachi group was composed of subjects suffering from chronic ''stress''. Parallel to the analysis of TSH and pituitary ACTH levels, the circadian rhythm in the production of these hormones in these subjects was studied. The basal values of TSH and ACHT for the studied groups were found to lie within the normal range. 131 I-TSH and 125 I-ACTH were used. As far as the nycthemeral TSH rhythm is concerned, the values tended to be lowest for the high-altitude populations, while for the groups living at sea-level, where there is also circadian variation, the higher values are found in the morning. Similarly, the circadian rhythm for ACTH was established, with a predominance of diurnal values at Tocachi, Malchingui and Portoviejo

  16. Animal manure separation technologies diminish the environmental burden of steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Erland; Popovic, Olga

    2015-01-01

    environmental risks associated with the release of steroid hormones to adjacent waterways. To assess the potential benefit of these technologies in reducing the level of release of steroid hormones to adjacent waterways, distribution profiles of nine steroid hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone......Newly developed treatment technologies are capable of separating livestock manure into a liquid fraction and a solid fraction using sedimentation, mechanical, and/or chemical methods. These technologies offer a potential means of distributing nutrients to agricultural lands without the unwanted...

  17. Assessing reproductive status in elasmobranch fishes using steroid hormones extracted from skeletal muscle tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Bianca K.; Tsang, Paul C. W.; Driggers, William B.; Hoffmayer, Eric R.; Wheeler, Carolyn R.; Brown, A. Christine; Sulikowski, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranch fishes (sharks, skates, and rays) are particularly susceptible to anthropogenic threats, making a thorough understanding of their life history characteristics essential for proper management. Historically, elasmobranch reproductive data have been collected by lethal sampling, an approach that is problematic for threatened and endangered species. However, recent studies have demonstrated that non-lethal approaches can be as effective as lethal ones for assessment of the reproductive status of an animal. For example, plasma has been used to examine concentrations of steroid hormones. Additionally, skeletal muscle tissue, which can be obtained non-lethally and with minimal stress, can also be used to quantify concentrations of steroid hormones. Skeletal muscle progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations were determined to be statistically significant indicators of reproductive status in the oviparous Leucoraja erinacea, the yolk-dependent viviparous Squalus acanthias, and the yolk-sac placental viviparous Rhizoprionodon terraenovae. The results of the present study demonstrate that steroid hormones present in non-lethally harvested skeletal muscle tissue can be used as reliable indicators of reproductive status in elasmobranchs. PMID:27293612

  18. Steroid Hormone Vitamin D: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demer, Linda L; Hsu, Jeffrey J; Tintut, Yin

    2018-05-25

    Understanding of vitamin D physiology is important because about half of the population is being diagnosed with deficiency and treated with supplements. Clinical guidelines were developed based on observational studies showing an association between low serum levels and increased cardiovascular risk. However, new randomized controlled trials have failed to confirm any cardiovascular benefit from supplementation in the general population. A major concern is that excess vitamin D is known to cause calcific vasculopathy and valvulopathy in animal models. For decades, administration of vitamin D has been used in rodents as a reliable experimental model of vascular calcification. Technically, vitamin D is a misnomer. It is not a true vitamin because it can be synthesized endogenously through ultraviolet exposure of the skin. It is a steroid hormone that comes in 3 forms that are sequential metabolites produced by hydroxylases. As a fat-soluble hormone, the vitamin D-hormone metabolites must have special mechanisms for delivery in the aqueous bloodstream. Importantly, endogenously synthesized forms are carried by a binding protein, whereas dietary forms are carried within lipoprotein particles. This may result in distinct biodistributions for sunlight-derived versus supplement-derived vitamin D hormones. Because the cardiovascular effects of vitamin D hormones are not straightforward, both toxic and beneficial effects may result from current recommendations. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Steroid hormone regulation of EMP2 expression and localization in the endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Carmen J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tetraspan protein epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2, which mediates surface display of diverse proteins, is required for endometrial competence in blastocyst implantation, and is uniquely correlated with poor survival from endometrial adenocarcinoma tumors. Because EMP2 is differentially expressed in the various stages of the murine and human estrous cycle, we tested the hypothesis that the steroid hormones progesterone and estrogen influence EMP2 expression and localization. Methods Frozen human proliferative and secretory endometrium were collected and analyzed for EMP2 expression using SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis. The response of EMP2 to progesterone and estradiol was determined using a combination of real-time PCR, SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis, and confocal immunofluorescence in the human endometrial carcinoma cell line RL95-2. To confirm the in vitro results, ovariectomized mice were treated with progesterone or estradiol, and EMP2 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Results Within normal human endometrium, EMP2 expression is upregulated in the secretory phase relative to the proliferative phase. To understand the role of steroid hormones on EMP2 expression, we utilized RL95-2 cells, which express both estrogen and progesterone receptors. In RL95-2 cells, both estradiol and progesterone induced EMP2 mRNA expression, but only progesterone induced EMP2 protein expression. To compare steroid hormone regulation of EMP2 between humans and mice, we analyzed EMP2 expression in ovarectomized mice. Similar to results observed in humans, progesterone upregulated endometrial EMP2 expression and induced EMP2 translocation to the plasma membrane. Estradiol did not promote translocation to the cell surface, but moderately induced EMP2 expression in cytoplasmic compartments in vivo. Conclusion These findings suggest that targeting of EMP2 to specific locations under the influence of these steroid hormones may

  20. Lonidamine affects testicular steroid hormones in immature mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traina, Maria Elsa; Guarino, Maria; Natoli, Alessia; Romeo, Antonella; Urbani, Elisabetta

    2007-01-01

    The effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of the well-known antispermatogenic drug lonidamine (LND) has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, the possible changes of the testicular steroid hormones were evaluated in immature mice for a better characterization of the LND adverse effects both in its use as antitumoral agent and male contraceptive. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on postnatal day 28 (PND28) with LND single doses (0 or 100 mg/kg b.w.) and euthanized every 24 h from PND29 to PND32, on PND35 and on PND42 (1 and 2 weeks after the administration, respectively). Severe testicular effects were evidenced in the LND treated groups, including: a) significant testis weight increase, 24 h and 48 h after dosing; b) sperm head counts decrease (more than 50% of the control) on PND29-32; c) damage of the tubule morphology primarily on the Sertoli cell structure and germ cell exfoliation. All these reproductive endpoints were recovered on PND42. At the same time, a significant impairment of the testicular steroid balance was observed in the treated mice, as evidenced by the decrease of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (ADIONE) and the increase of 17OH-progesterone (17OH-P4) on the first days after dosing, while the testicular content of 17β-estradiol (E2) was unchanged. The hormonal balance was not completely restored afterwards, as levels of T, ADIONE and 17OH-P4 tended to be higher in the treated mice than in the controls, on PND35 and PND42. These data showed for the first time that LND affects intratesticular steroids in experimental animals. However further data are needed both to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the impairment of these metabolic pathways and to understand if the androgens decrease observed after LND administration could be partially involved in the testicular damage

  1. Sex steroid hormones during the ovarian cycle of an all-female, parthenogenetic lizard and their correlation with pseudosexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Whittier, J M; Crews, D

    1985-11-01

    Cnemidophorus uniparens is a unisexual lizard that reproduces by parthenogenesis. Individuals of this species display male-like and female-like copulatory behaviors during different phases of the ovarian cycle suggesting that these pseudocopulatory behaviors are hormonally activated. To learn more about both the endocrinology of parthenogenesis and the possible hormonal activation of male-like copulatory behavior in female individuals, we (1) characterized changes in plasma levels of the sex steroid hormones progesterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol during the ovarian cycle in both free-living and captive individuals, and (2) measured sex steroid hormones in plasma collected from captive individuals immediately after they expressed male-like or female-like copulatory behavior. In general, the pattern of secretion of ovarian hormones in C. uniparens appears to be similar to that of other oviparous vertebrates with similar reproductive cycles. Estradiol is elevated only during the preovulatory phase, whereas progesterone increases slightly during vitellogenesis and then increases dramatically following ovulation. Circulating levels of androgen are very low and are generally below the sensitivity of our radioimmunoassay at all stages of the ovarian cycle. The hormonal correlates of female-like copulatory behavior suggest that, as in other vertebrates, female receptivity is activated by a synergism of estradiol and progesterone. There is no evidence that the hormonal cycle has been altered to produce elevated levels of androgens during the phase of the cycle when male-like behavior is expressed. Rather it seems more likely that the central nervous system has evolved a novel response to a typical pattern of ovarian steroid hormone secretion. At present, the best hormonal correlate of male-like behavior is that changes in plasma levels of progesterone closely parallel changes in probability of expressing male-like behavior.

  2. Determination of steroid hormones in blood by GC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Jacobsen, Naja Wessel; Nielsen, Frederik Knud

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a methodology to determine nine key steroid hormones (viz. pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, test......This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a methodology to determine nine key steroid hormones (viz. pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, test...

  3. Twenty Years of Brassinosteroids : Steroidal Plant Hormones Warrant Better Crops for the XXI Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khripach, V.; Zhabinskii, V.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of brassinosteroids (BS) just over 20 years ago opened a new era in studies of bio-regulation in living organisms. Previously, the only known role of steroids as hormones was in animals and fungi; now a steroidal hormone in plants had been added. Progress in brassinosteroid research

  4. Steroidal Hormone Receptor Expression in Male Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Homaei-Shandiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The etiology of male breast cancer is unclear, but hormonal levels may play a role in development of this disease. It seems that the risk of male breast cancer related to increased lifelong exposure to estrogen or reduced androgen. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the steroid hormone receptors including estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR in Iranian cases with male breast cancer. Methods: This is a prospective review of 18 cases of male breast cancer in in Omid Hospital, Mashhad, North East of Iran, between October 2001 and October 2006. ER and PR were measured by immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathologic features and family history were obtained by interview. Data were analyzed with SPSS 13 using descriptive statistics.  Results: The median age was 63.2 year. All the cases were infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A high rate of expression of ER (88.8% and PR (66.6% was found in the studied cases. Conclusion: Cancers of the male breast are significantly more likely than cancers of the female breast to express hormonal receptors.

  5. Correlations Between Seminal Plasma Hormones and Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: There is a complex relationship between seminal plasma hormone levels and infertility in men. Previous studies had shown no specific pattern in the serum or seminal plasma hormone profiles of men with infertility and it is debatable whether there is a need to perform routine seminal hormone assays in the ...

  6. Steroid hormone and epidermal growth factor receptors in meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfall, D J; Goldsmith, K G; Ricciardelli, C; Skinner, J M; Tilley, W D; Marshall, V R

    1989-11-01

    A prospective study of steroid hormone and epidermal growth factor receptor expression in 57 meningiomas is presented. Scatchard analysis of radioligand binding identified 20% of meningiomas as expressing classical oestrogen receptors (ER) at levels below that normally accepted for positivity, the remainder being negative. ER could not be visualized in any meningioma using immunocytochemistry. Alternatively, 74% of meningiomas demonstrated the presence of progesterone receptors (PR) by Scatchard analysis, the specificity of which could not be attributed to glucocorticoid or androgen receptors. Confirmation of classical PR presence was determined by immunocytochemical staining. The presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was demonstrated in 100% of meningiomas using immunocytochemical staining. These data are reviewed in the context of previously reported results and are discussed in relation to the potential for medical therapy as an adjunct to surgery.

  7. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival...... in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer...... in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer....

  8. Steroid hormones and peptide hormones in atopic eczema. Radioimmunological determination of diurnal plasma level variations of testosterone, cortisol, prolactin and human growth factor in healthy volunteers and patients showing atopic eczemae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of hormone measurements in sera from healthy volunteers and patients that was carried out on the basis of different criteria yielded the following results: 1) The testosterone levels determined in the patients sera were significantly lower than those of the healthy individuals and the daily rhythmic variations seen here did not attain statistical significance. 2) There were no statistically relevant differences in the serum concentrations of cortisol between healthy individuals and patients, nor was the amplitude of the daily variations observed to be changed in a consistent way. 3) In the patients, as compared to the healthy individuals, the prolactin level was considerably increased, as was the amplitude of the daily rhythmic variations. 4) The values determined for the human growth hormone (HCG) varied considerably between the individuals of either group. Since this held true for both the fluctuations with time and the height of the serum concentrations, a statistical analysis of the results appeared pointless. The results confirm that central and autonomous components have an important role in ectopic eczemae. (TRV) [de

  9. The rate of change in declining steroid hormones: a new parameter of healthy aging in men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Andreas; Philipp, Michel; Lozza, Niclà; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-09-20

    Research on healthy aging in men has increasingly focused on age-related hormonal changes. Testosterone (T) decline is primarily investigated, while age-related changes in other sex steroids (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], estradiol [E2], progesterone [P]) are mostly neglected. An integrated hormone parameter reflecting aging processes in men has yet to be identified. 271 self-reporting healthy men between 40 and 75 provided both psychometric data and saliva samples for hormone analysis. Correlation analysis between age and sex steroids revealed negative associations for the four sex steroids (T, DHEA, E2, and P). Principal component analysis including ten salivary analytes identified a principal component mainly unifying the variance of the four sex steroid hormones. Subsequent principal component analysis including the four sex steroids extracted the principal component of declining steroid hormones (DSH). Moderation analysis of the association between age and DSH revealed significant moderation effects for psychosocial factors such as depression, chronic stress and perceived general health. In conclusion, these results provide further evidence that sex steroids decline in aging men and that the integrated hormone parameter DSH and its rate of change can be used as biomarkers for healthy aging in men. Furthermore, the negative association of age and DSH is moderated by psychosocial factors.

  10. Specific DNA-binding proteins and DNA sequences involved in steroid hormone regulation of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelsberg, T.; Hora, J.; Horton, M.; Goldberger, A.; Littlefield, B.; Seelke, R.; Toyoda, H.

    1987-01-01

    Steroid hormones circulate in the blood and are taken by target cells via complexes with intracellular binding proteins termed receptors, that are hormone and tissue specific. Each receptor binds it specific steroid with very high affinity, having an equilibrium dissociation constant (K/sub d/) in the range of 10 -9 to 10 -10 M. Once bound by their specific steroid hormones, the steroid receptors undergo a conformational change which allows them to bind with high affinity to sites on chromatin, termed nuclear acceptor sites. There are estimated 5,000 to 10,000 of these sites expressed with an equal number not expressed (''masked'') in intact chromatin. The result of the binding to nuclear acceptor sites is an alteration of gene transcription or, in some cases, gene expression as measured by the changing levels of specific RNAs and proteins in that target tissue. Each steroid regulates specific effects on the RNA and protein profiles. The chronology of the above mechanism of action after injection of radiolabelled steroid as is follows: Steroid-receptor complex formation (1 minute), nuclear acceptor sites (2 minutes), effects on RNA synthesis (10 to 30 minutes), and finally the changing protein profiles via changes in protein synthesis and protein turnover (1 to 6 hours). Thus steroid receptors represent one of the first identified intracellular gene regulation proteins. The receptor molecules themselves are regulated by the presence or absence of the steroid molecule

  11. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? II. Critical review of the evidence that steroids have biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander P

    2013-02-01

    In assessing the evidence as to whether vertebrate sex steroids (e.g. testosterone, estradiol, progesterone) have hormonal actions in mollusks, ca. 85% of research papers report at least one biological effect; and 18 out of 21 review papers (published between 1970 and 2012) express a positive view. However, just under half of the research studies can be rejected on the grounds that they did not actually test steroids, but compounds or mixtures that were only presumed to behave as steroids (or modulators of steroids) on the basis of their effects in vertebrates (e.g. Bisphenol-A, nonylphenol and sewage treatment effluents). Of the remaining 55 papers, some can be criticized for having no statistical analysis; some for using only a single dose of steroid; others for having irregular dose-response curves; 40 out of the 55 for not replicating the treatments; and 50 out of 55 for having no within-study repetition. Furthermore, most studies had very low effect sizes in comparison to fish-based bioassays for steroids (i.e. they had a very weak 'signal-to-noise' ratio). When these facts are combined with the fact that none of the studies were conducted with rigorous randomization or 'blinding' procedures (implying the possibility of 'operator bias') one must conclude that there is no indisputable bioassay evidence that vertebrate sex steroids have endocrinological or reproductive roles in mollusks. The only observation that has been independently validated is the ability of estradiol to trigger rapid (1-5 min) lysosomal membrane breakdown in hemocytes of Mytilus spp. This is a typical 'inflammatory' response, however, and is not proof that estradiol is a hormone - especially when taken in conjunction with the evidence (discussed in a previous review) that mollusks have neither the enzymes necessary to synthesize vertebrate steroids nor nuclear receptors with which to respond to them. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tritium-labelled steroids, their preparation and application for the determination and location of steroid tissular hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouquey, Alain; Raynaud, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A product is prepared by the action of tritiated methanol on 11β-hydroxy-estra-4,9-dien-3,17-dione, the action of an aromatisation agent on the (11β)-11-methoxy- 3 H 3 -estra-4,9-dien-3,17-dione formed and the action of an ethynylation agent on the resulting (11β)-3-hydroxy-11-methoxy- 3 H 3 -estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one giving (11β, 17α)-11-methoxy- 3 H 3 -19-norpregna-1,3,5(10)-trien-20-yne-3,17 diol, the free hydroxyl function or functions of this product may be etherified or esterified as the case may be. The tritiated methanol acts in the presence of perchloric acid. The aromatisation agent is palladium hydroxide and the operation is carried out in methanol. The ethynylation agent is acetylene and the reaction takes place in the presence of sodium t-amylate in toluene. This product allows the study and determination of the estrogen specific receptor present in the tissue cells of target organs for the action of estrogens: uterus, vagina, hypophysis, hypothalamus and tumours, of the breast and prostate for example, in both animals and man. Not being fixed by the plasma proteins binding such hormones as testosterone and estradiol in women the product is an ideal indicator of the tissular estrogen receptor with which it forms a complex of strong affinity and great stability, especially since it interacts with the tissular receptors of no other steroid hormone groups (glucocorticoids, androgen or progestogen mineralocorticosteroids) [fr

  13. Liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) of steroid hormone metabolites and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Trevor M.; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Jin, Yi; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Blair, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be used to measure steroid hormone metabolites in vitro and in vivo. We find that LC-Electrospray Ionization (ESI)-MS using a LCQ ion trap mass spectrometer in the negative ion mode can be used to monitor the product profile that results from 5α–dihydrotestosterone(DHT)-17β-glucuronide, DHT-17β-sulfate, and tibolone-17β-sulfate reduction catalyzed by human members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C subfamily and assign kinetic constants to these reactions. We also developed a stable-isotope dilution LC-electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ECAPCI)-MS method for the quantitative analysis of estrone (E1) and its metabolites as pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) derivatives in human plasma in the attomole range. The limit of detection for E1-PFB was 740 attomole on column. Separations can be performed using normal-phase LC because ionization takes place in the gas phase rather than in solution. This permits efficient separation of the regioisomeric 2- and 4-methoxy-E1. The method was validated for the simultaneous analysis of plasma E2 and its metabolites: 2-methoxy-E2, 4-methoxy-E2, 16α-hydroxy-E2, estrone (E1), 2-methoxy-E1, 4-methoxy-EI, and 16α-hydroxy-E1 from 5 pg/mL to 2,000 pg/mL. Our LC-MS methods have sufficient sensitivity to detect steroid hormone levels in prostate and breast tumors and should aid their molecular diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20083198

  14. Neuroactive steroid levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of male multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Donatella; Melis, Marta; Fenu, Giuseppe; Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Grimoldi, Maria; Crippa, Donatella; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Cavaletti, Guido; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2014-08-01

    Neuroactive steroid family includes molecules synthesized in peripheral glands (i.e., hormonal steroids) and directly in the nervous system (i.e., neurosteroids) which are key regulators of the nervous function. As already reported in clinical and experimental studies, neurodegenerative diseases affect the levels of neuroactive steroids. However, a careful analysis comparing the levels of these molecules in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in plasma of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is still missing. To this aim, the levels of neuroactive steroids were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in CSF and plasma of male adults affected by Relapsing-Remitting MS and compared with those collected in control patients. An increase in pregnenolone and isopregnanolone levels associated with a decrease in progesterone metabolites, dihydroprogesterone, and tetrahydroprogesterone was observed in CSF of MS patients. Moreover, an increase of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and of 17β-estradiol levels associated with a decrease of dihydrotestosterone also occurred. In plasma, an increase in pregnenolone, progesterone, and dihydrotestosterone and a decrease in dihydroprogesterone and tetrahydroprogesterone levels were reported. This study shows for the first time that the levels of several neuroactive steroids, and particularly those of progesterone and testosterone metabolites, are deeply affected in CSF of relapsing-remitting MS male patients. We here demonstrated that, the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma levels of several neuroactive steroids are modified in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis male patients. Interestingly, we reported for the first time that, the levels of progesterone and testosterone metabolites are deeply affected in cerebrospinal fluid. These findings may have an important relevance in therapeutic and/or diagnostic field of multiple sclerosis. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  16. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Romano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include establishment of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that have only one host reciprocal intricate interactions occur. A bulk of evidence indicates that steroid hormones influence the development and course of parasitic infections, the host gender susceptibility to the infection and the associate differences in immunological response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In many but not all parasitosis the host hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activate immune responses that finally affect the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones like ecdysteroids and sex steroids and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium and tapeworms and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. Deeper knowledge of the endocrine properties of parasites will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and also may contribute to design tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations.

  17. The organizing actions of adolescent gonadal steroid hormones on brain and behavioral development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kalynn M.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by dramatic changes in cognition, risk-taking and social behavior. Although gonadal steroid hormones are well-known mediators of these behaviors in adulthood, the role gonadal steroid hormones play in shaping the adolescent brain and behavioral development has only come to light in recent years. Here we discuss the sex-specific impact of gonadal steroid hormones on the developing adolescent brain. Indeed, the effects of gonadal steroid hormones during adolescence on brain structure and behavioral outcomes differs markedly between the sexes. Research findings suggest that adolescence, like the perinatal period, is a sensitive period for the sex-specific effects of gonadal steroid hormones on brain and behavioral development. Furthermore, evidence from studies on male sexual behavior suggests that adolescence is part of a protracted postnatal sensitive period that begins perinatally and ends following adolescence. As such, the perinatal and peripubertal periods of brain and behavioral organization likely do not represent two discrete sensitive periods, but instead are the consequence of normative developmental timing of gonadal hormone secretions in males and females. PMID:27497718

  18. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-01

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600 ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390 ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  19. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-25

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro binding of steroid hormones by natural and purified fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, T.D.; Howie, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The in vitro binding of estrone, estradiol-17β, estriol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estrone-3-glucuronide by wheat, oat and corn brans, oat hulls, cellulose, lignin, and cholestyramine resin was measured. Steroid binding was carried out by mixing 50 mg of binding substance with varying substrate quantities (0.037 μCi; 0.50-2.51 pmol/incubation) of 3 H-estrone, 3 H-estradiol-17β, 3 H-estriol, 3 H-estrone-3-glucuronide, 4 H-testosterone, and 370 C for 1 hr with shaking. Following centrifugation of the reaction mixture, a 1 ml aliquot was analyzed for radioactivity. The extent of steroid sequestration was characteristic and reproducible for each hormone. Cholestyramine bound an average of 90% of all the steroids tested, whereas cellulose bound the least (12%). Of the other substances tested, lignin bound 87%; wheat and oat grans, 45% each; corn bran, 44%; and oat hulls, 32% of the unconjugated hormones. The conjugated steroid was less likely to bind than the unconjugated steroids. Lignin appeared to be an important component in the interaction with steroid hormones. The results support the hydrophobic of nature of adsorption and suggest that the components of the fiber in diet should be considered separately when evaluating in vivo metabolic effects. Implications include the possible modification of hormone-dependent cancer risk through dietary intervention

  1. The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Erkander Mullen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormonal contraceptives were used by 32 % of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17.Subjects using hormonal contraceptives excreted 40 % less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005 but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio was 29 % higher in the hormonal contraceptives group (p = 0.016. In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of hormonal contraceptives on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of hormonal contraceptives should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.

  2. Effects of PBDE-47 on thyroid and steroid hormone status in juvenile turbot (Schophtalamus maximus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, G.; Tyrhaug, I.B.; Sormo, E.G. [Dept. of Biology, Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Andersen, O.K. [Rogaland Research Akvamiljo, Mekjarvik (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Many of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) chemicals, and particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), has become of increasing concern to scientists over the past decade. Many of the PBDEs are persistent and lipophilic and have been shown to bioaccumulate. The levels of PBDEs in biota seem to be increasing, and several trends, including in humans, indicate that this increase may be rapid1. In general, BFRs have a low acute toxicity, but there is concern about their long-term toxic effects. Exposure studies have revealed a range of subtle biochemical, cellular and physiological effects following low-dose exposure, and many BFRs have been reported to have endocrine disruptive properties. Thus, there is concern about their potential to affect organisms and populations. Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in organism's development, metabolism, growth and behavior. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) including BFRs may affect the thyroid system through several mechanisms. They may directly affect the thyroid gland function, the peripheral metabolism of THs and/or the binding of THs to plasma transport proteins. Effects of PHAHs on TH homeostasis have been documented in a number of species, including fish. Du to its persistence against degradation PBDE-47 is among the most abundant PBDE congener in biota, and there is a great concern about its ecotoxicological effects on organisms and populations. The aim of the present study was to examine if PBDE-47 may affect levels of circulating steroid and thyroid hormones in juvenile turbot (Scophtalamus maximus). The turbot is a benthic living flatfish that can be exposed to PHAHs via the sediment living organisms. Thus, plasma levels of T, E, and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were determined in juvenile turbot that had been continuously exposed to PBDE-47 via water for 3 weeks.

  3. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g −1 dry weight or 22.5 mg kg −1 N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. -- Eight steroid hormones were found in biogas digestate byproduct in the ng g −1 dm levels. Anaerobic digestion processes do not completely remove steroid hormones from organic waste residues

  4. Comparative study between phenol and imidazole derivatives in radiolabeling of some steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Kh.M.

    2010-01-01

    A phenol or imidazole ring is rarely present in steroid hormones, So, the molecule of steroid hormone requires chemical modification by addition of an iodinable residue like phenol or imedazole. So that the comparative study between phenol derivatives, include tyrosine methyl ester (TME) and tyramine, and imidazole derivatives, like histamine and histedine methyl ester (HME), for radiolabeling of some steroid hormones include estradiol and testosterone is the aim of the present study. The conjugation step was carried using mixed anhydride method and followed by radioiodination using iodogen as an oxidizing agent. Purification step was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Optimization and validation of the tracer were carried out. Immunoreactivity of the all obtained tracers was check by using specific polyclonal antibodies. The results indicated that imidazols derivatives are more suitable from immunoreactivity view and storage period.

  5. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  6. Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohammad A. Jalil; Begum, D.; Islam, F.

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)

  7. Hormonally-mediated Epigenetic Changes to Steroid Receptors in the Developing Brain: Implications for Sexual Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of sex-specific neural morphology, which underlies sex-specific behaviors, occurs during a perinatal sensitive window in which brief exposure to gonadal steroid hormones produces permanent masculinization of the brain. In the rodent, estradiol derived from testicular androgens is a principle organizational hormone. The mechanism by which transient estradiol exposure induces permanent differences in neuronal anatomy has been widely investigated, but remains elusive. Epigeneti...

  8. The Role of Steroid Hormones on the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos; João Victor eCabral-Costa; Caio Henrique Mazucanti; Cristoforo eScavone; Elisa Mitiko Kawamoto

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain.The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role ...

  9. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  10. Mass spectrometry and immunoassay: how to measure steroid hormones today and tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela E; Keevil, Brian; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T

    2015-08-01

    The recent onslaught of mass spectrometry (MS) to measurements of steroid hormones, including demands that they should be the only acceptable method, has confused clinicians and scientists who have relied for more than 40 years on a variety of immunoassay (IA) methods in steroid hormone measurements. There is little doubt that MS methods with their superior specificity will be the future method of choice in many clinical and research applications of steroid hormone measurement. However, the majority of steroid measurements are currently, and will continue to be, carried out using various types of IAs for several reasons, including their technical ease, cost and availability of commercial reagents. Speedy replacement of all IAs with MS is an unrealistic and unnecessary goal, because the availability of MS measurements is limited by cost, need of expensive equipment, technical demands and lack of commercial applications. Furthermore, IAs have multiple well-known advantages that vindicate their continuing use. The purpose of this article is to elucidate the advantages and limitations of the MS and IA techniques from two angles, i.e. promotion of MS and defence of IA. The purpose of the text is to give the reader an unbiased view about the current state and future trends of steroid analysis and to help him/her choose the correct assay method to serve his/her diagnostic and research needs. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Sex steroid hormone determination of the maternal brain: effects beyond reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsley, C H; Meyer, E; Rafferty, K A

    2012-10-01

    Herein we discuss the effects of hormones on reproduction, but with a focus on the ripples that emanate from the main effects. That is, the role of hormones in reproductive events is both well-known and well accepted; less studied and understood are effects that appear to be ancillary to the primary objectives of the hormonal effects, which support, complement and extend their primary effects. We present evidence for how the hormonal stimulation of pregnancy constructs the maternal brain; makes it more efficient; enhances cognition; regulates stress responsiveness; modifies sensory systems (we discuss mainly olfaction); neurogenesis; and learning. Thus, steroid and other hormones and neuropeptides restructure the nervous system, particularly of females, to produce and regulate maternal behavior as well as behaviors and physiological systems that contribute to and support what is arguably the primary function of the hormones: survival and effective nurturance of the female's metabolic and genetic investment.

  12. Expression of sex steroid hormone-related genes in the embryo of the leopard gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daisuke; Kanaho, Yoh-Ichiro; Park, Min Kyun

    2008-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones are known to play a central role in vertebrate sex determination and differentiation. However, the tissues in which they are produced or received during development, especially around the period of sex determination of the gonads, have rarely been investigated. In this study, we identified the cDNA sequence, including the full-length of the coding region of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), from the leopard gecko; a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination. Embryonic expression analysis of two steroidogenic enzymes, P450scc and P450 aromatase (P450arom), and four sex steroid hormone receptors, androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and beta, and progesterone receptor, was subsequently conducted. mRNA expression of both steroidogenic enzymes was observed in the brain and gonads prior to the temperature-sensitive period of sex determination. The mRNAs of the four sex steroid hormone receptors were also detected in the brain and gonads at all stages examined. These results suggest the existence of a gonad-independent sex steroid hormone signaling system in the developing leopard gecko brain.

  13. Steroid Hormone (20-Hydroxyecdysone) Modulates the Acquisition of Aversive Olfactory Memories in Pollen Forager Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Lisa H.; McQuillan, H. James; Aiken, Alastair; Vergoz, Vanina; Mercer, Alison R.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we examine effects of the steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E), on associative olfactory learning in the honeybee, "Apis mellifera." 20-E impaired the bees' ability to associate odors with punishment during aversive conditioning, but did not interfere with their ability to associate odors with a food reward (appetitive…

  14. Redistribution and persistence of microorganisms and steroid hormones after soil-injection of swine slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, Tina B.; Forslund, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B (phage 28B), Escherichia coli, steroid hormones and other slurry components (water, volatile solids, chloride and mineral N) determined in and around the injection slit. The two experiments at Silstrup and Estrup differed with respect to slurry solid content (6.3 vs. 0...

  15. Influence of disease activity on steroid hormone levels in peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H. R.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Koppeschaar, H. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The steroid hormone status of 27 female patients (15 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal) and 11 male patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated before and after a clinically significant deterioration in disease activity. In postmenopausal patients the serum level of cortisol decreased

  16. Investigating effects of steroid hormones on lateralization of brain and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, Tess; Geuze, Reint; Groothuis, Ton; Rogers, Lesley; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    Steroid hormones have been proposed to influence the development of lateralisation of brain and behaviour. We briefly describe the available hypotheses explaining this influence. These are all based on human data. However, experimental testing is almost exclusively limited to other animal models. As

  17. Quantification of steroid hormones in human serum by liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysik, Silke; Liebisch, Gerhard

    2017-12-01

    A limited specificity is inherent to immunoassays for steroid hormone analysis. To improve selectivity mass spectrometric analysis of steroid hormones by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been introduced in the clinical laboratory over the past years usually with low mass resolution triple-quadrupole instruments or more recently by high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Here we introduce liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/HR-MS) to further increase selectivity of steroid hormone quantification. Application of HR-MS demonstrates an enhanced selectivity compared to low mass resolution. Separation of isobaric interferences reduces background noise and avoids overestimation. Samples were prepared by automated liquid-liquid extraction with MTBE. The LC-MS/HR-MS method using a quadrupole-Orbitrap analyzer includes eight steroid hormones i.e. androstenedione, corticosterone, cortisol, cortisone, 11-deoxycortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone, and testosterone. It has a run-time of 5.3min and was validated according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines. For most of the analytes coefficient of variation were 10% or lower and LOQs were determined significantly below 1ng/ml. Full product ion spectra including accurate masses substantiate compound identification by matching their masses and ratios with authentic standards. In summary, quantification of steroid hormones by LC-MS/HR-MS is applicable for clinical diagnostics and holds also promise for highly selective quantification of other small molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  19. Transport of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity across a swine lagoon/sprayfield system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Williams, C Michael; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

    2014-10-07

    The inflow, transformation, and attenuation of natural steroid hormones and phytoestrogens and estrogenic activity were assessed across the lagoon/sprayfield system of a prototypical commercial swine sow operation. Free and conjugated steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone) were detected in urine and feces of sows across reproductive stages, with progesterone being the most abundant steroid hormone. Excreta also contained phytoestrogens indicative of a soy-based diet, particularly, daidzein, genistein, and equol. During storage in barn pits and the anaerobic lagoon, conjugated hormones dissipated, and androgens and progesterone were attenuated. Estrone and equol persisted along the waste disposal route. Following application of lagoon slurry to agricultural soils, all analytes exhibited attenuation within 2 days. However, analytes including estrone, androstenedione, progesterone, and equol remained detectable in soil at 2 months postapplication. Estrogenic activity in the yeast estrogen screen and T47D-KBluc in vitro bioassays generally tracked well with analyte concentrations. Estrone was found to be the greatest contributor to estrogenic activity across all sample types. This investigation encompasses the most comprehensive suite of natural hormone and phytoestrogen analytes examined to date across a livestock lagoon/sprayfield and provides global insight into the fate of these analytes in this widely used waste management system.

  20. Acute effects of sex steroid hormones on susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute effects of sex steroid hormones likely contribute to the observation that post-pubescent males have shorter QT intervals than females. However, the specific role for hormones in modulating cardiac electrophysiological parameters and arrhythmia vulnerability is unclear. Here we use a computational modeling approach to incorporate experimentally measured effects of physiological concentrations of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone on cardiac ion channel targets. We then study the hormone effects on ventricular cell and tissue dynamics comprised of Faber-Rudy computational models. The "female" model predicts changes in action potential duration (APD at different stages of the menstrual cycle that are consistent with clinically observed QT interval fluctuations. The "male" model predicts shortening of APD and QT interval at physiological testosterone concentrations. The model suggests increased susceptibility to drug-induced arrhythmia when estradiol levels are high, while testosterone and progesterone are apparently protective. Simulations predict the effects of sex steroid hormones on clinically observed QT intervals and reveal mechanisms of estrogen-mediated susceptibility to prolongation of QT interval. The simulations also indicate that acute effects of estrogen are not alone sufficient to cause arrhythmia triggers and explain the increased risk of females to Torsades de Pointes. Our results suggest that acute effects of sex steroid hormones on cardiac ion channels are sufficient to account for some aspects of gender specific susceptibility to long-QT linked arrhythmias.

  1. The Role of Steroid Hormones on the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain.The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, whilst metabolic syndromes, like diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact on the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, like calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes.

  2. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels....... Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate......In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites...

  3. Elevated Steroid Hormone Production in the db/db Mouse Model of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Anja; Peitzsch, Mirko; Brunssen, Coy; Mittag, Jennifer; Jannasch, Annett; Frenzel, Annika; Brown, Nicholas; Weldon, Steven M; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Bornstein, Stefan R; Morawietz, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes have become a major public health problem worldwide. Steroid hormone dysfunction appears to be linked to development of obesity and type 2 diabetes and correction of steroid abnormalities may offer new approaches to therapy. We therefore analyzed plasma steroids in 15-16 week old obese and diabetic db/db mice using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Lean db/+ served as controls. Db/db mice developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, and hyperlipidemia. Hepatic triglyceride storage was increased and adiponectin and pancreatic insulin were lowered. Aldosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and progesterone were respectively increased by 3.6-, 2.9-, 3.4, and 1.7-fold in db/db mice compared to controls. Ratios of aldosterone-to-progesterone and corticosterone-to-progesterone were respectively 2.0- and 1.5-fold higher in db/db mice. Genes associated with steroidogenesis were quantified in the adrenal glands and gonadal adipose tissues. In adrenals, Cyp11b2 , Cyp11b1 , Cyp21a1 , Hsd3b1 , Cyp11a1 , and StAR were all significantly increased in db/db mice compared with db/+ controls. In adipose tissue, no Cyp11b2 or Cyp11b1 transcripts were detected and no differences in Cyp21a1 , Hsd3b1 , Cyp11a1 , or StAR expression were found between db/+ and db/db mice. In conclusion, the present study showed an elevated steroid hormone production and adrenal steroidogenesis in the db/db model of obesity and type 2 diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Salivary steroid hormone response to whole-body cryotherapy in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, D; Lanteri, P; Di Bernardo, C; Mauri, C; Porcelli, S; Colombini, A; Zani, V; Bonomi, F G; Melegati, G; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G

    2014-01-01

    Saliva represents a low stress, not-invasively collected matrix that allows steroid hormone monitoring in athletes by reflecting type, intensity and duration of exercise. Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of short whole-body exposures to extremely cold air (-110° to -140°C) which, despite being initially used to treat inflammatory diseases, is currently acquiring increasing popularity in sports medicine. Cryostimulation practice is now widely accepted as an effective treatment to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this work was to study the changes of steroid hormones in saliva of rugby players after both 2 and 14 consecutive WBC sessions, in order to investigate the effects of the treatment on their salivary steroid hormonal profile. Twenty-five professional rugby players, belonging to the Italian National Team, underwent a 7-day cryotherapy protocol consisting of 2 daily sessions. Saliva samples were taken in the morning prior to the start of the WBC, in the evening after the end of the second WBC, and in the morning of the day after the last WBC session. The samples were analyzed for cortisol, DHEA, testosterone and estradiol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cortisol and DHEA showed a reduction already after the 2 WBC sessions of the first day; after 14 consecutive WBC sessions cortisol, DHEA, and estradiol levels decreased, while testosterone increased as did the testosterone to cortisol ratio. These results were confirmed by the fact that the majority of subjects showed variations exceeding the critical difference (CD). In conclusion, we found that WBC acutely affects the salivary steroid hormone profile, and the results are evident already after only one twice-daily session. Most significantly, after one-week of consecutive twice-daily WBC sessions, all the hormones were modified. This is the first experimental report that links changes in the hormonal asset to WBC.

  5. The relation among steroid hormone levels, lipid profile and menopausal symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cihan; Cengiz, Hüseyin; Yeşil, Ali; Ekin, Murat; Yaşar, Levent

    2017-12-01

    Many postmenopausal women experience hot flashes, night sweats, non-specific emotional and psychological distresses. Our aim was to investigate the relation among steroid hormone levels, lipid profile and menopausal symptom severity using the menopause rating scale (MRS). A cross-sectional study was performed at our outpatient clinic with natural postmenopausal women. A total of 444 women were included in this study. The basic characteristics of the study population, such as age, gravidity, parity, time to menopause onset and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Venous blood samples were collected from subjects after overnight fasting. The levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, estradiol (E2), progesterone, testosterone and dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEA-S) were analyzed. The MRS questionnaire validated for the Turkish population was used to assess the menopausal symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference between mild and severe total symptom scores for TG, and elevated TG levels were observed in the severe group (p = 0.04). Elevated testosterone levels were observed with severe psychological symptom and total symptom scores. There were significant differences in progesterone level in psychological, urogenital, and total scores and lower levels were seen in severe symptom groups. There was a significant negative correlation between urogenital symptom scores and progesterone levels (p symptom and total menopausal symptom scores. A decrease in progesterone levels was related to high psychological, urogenital and total menopausal symptom scores. Elevated TG levels were also related to the total severe symptom scores.

  6. Analysis of the hormone-binding domain of steroid receptors using chimeras generated by homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Elisabeth D.; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Danielsen, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor and the mineralocorticoid receptor are members of the steroid receptor family that exhibit ligand cross-reactivity. Specificity of steroid receptor action is investigated in the present work by the construction and characterization of chimeras between the glucocorticoid receptor and the mineralocorticoid receptor. We used an innovative approach to make novel steroid receptor proteins in vivo that in general, contrary to our expectations, show increased ligand specificity compared to the parental receptors. We describe a receptor that is specific for the potent synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone acetonide and does not bind aldosterone. A further set of chimeras has an increased ability to discriminate between ligands, responding potently to mineralocorticoids and only very weakly to synthetic glucocorticoids. A chimera with the fusion site in the hinge highlights the importance of the region between the DNA-binding and the hormone-binding domains since, unlike both the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, it only responds to mineralocorticoids. One chimera has reduced specificity in that it acts as a general corticoid receptor, responding to glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids with similar potency and efficacy. Our data suggest that regions of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor hormone-binding domains are functionally non-reciprocal. We present transcriptional, hormone-binding, and structure-modeling evidence that suggests that receptor-specific interactions within and across domains mediate aspects of specificity in transcriptional responses to steroids

  7. Variations in steroid hormone receptor content throughout age and menopausal periods, and menstrual cycle in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic-Vukosavljevic, D.; Vasiljevic, N.; Brankovic-Magic, M.; Polic, D.

    1996-01-01

    Variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout age and menopausal periods define three breast carcinoma groups: younger pre-menopausal carcinomas (aged up to 45), middle-aged carcinomas (aged up to 45), middle-aged carcinomas (pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal aged 45-59) and older postmenopausal carcinomas (aged over 59). Age-related steroid hormone receptor contents within pre-menopausal and postmenopausal carcinoma groups are characterized by the important increase of both receptor contents, while menopausal-related steroid hormone receptor contents within middle-aged carcinoma group (aged 45-59) are characterized by the important decrease of progesterone receptor content and estrogen receptor functionality. No variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout menstrual cycle within the follicular and the luteal phases were obtained. The important cycle within the follicular and the luteal phases were obtained. The important decrease of estrogen receptor content in the mid-cycle phase versus the peri-menstrual phase was found. Variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout age and menopausal periods, as well as throughout menstrual cycle could nod be associated with variations in the blood steroid hormone concentrations. However, important association between steroid hormone receptor contents and the blood steroid hormone concentrations was found within the luteal phase carcinoma group and within older postmenopausal carcinoma group. It is interesting that within carcinoma group with the highest concentration of progesterone, progesterone receptor content increases with an increase of the ration of estradiol and progesterone blood concentrations, while within carcinoma group with the lowest steroid hormone concentration and the highest content of estrogen receptor content, estrogen receptor content decreases with an increase of either the blood estradiol concentration or the ratio of the blood estradiol and progesterone blood

  8. Gonadal Steroid Hormones and the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, Robert J.; Weiser, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents a complex neuroendocrine feedback loop controlling the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Central to its function is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) where neurons expressing corticotropin releasing factor reside. These HPA motor neurons are a primary site of integration leading to graded endocrine responses to physical and psychological stressors. An important regulatory factor that must be considered, pr...

  9. The Interaction of Steroid Hormones and Oncogene in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    fragment [3] at the 5’ end of our regulator under the control of the MMTV promoter and the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation signal (Figure 6A...appeared swollen exhibiting a classic case of mastitis due to the failure to release milk that is produced. A couple of unique wart-like structures... mastitis ). As previously mentioned, it was most likely that the levels of int- 2/fgf-3 expression are enormously higher than that needed for

  10. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.P.; Bhojwani, A.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)] can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 μCi Na 2 51 CrO 4 ), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones

  11. Over-the-Counter "Adrenal Support" Supplements Contain Thyroid and Steroid-Based Adrenal Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Chindris, Ana Maria; Hines, Jolaine M; Singh, Ravinder J; Bernet, Victor J

    2018-03-01

    To assess whether dietary supplements that are herbal and/or animal-derived products, marketed for enhancing metabolism or promoting energy, "adrenal fatigue," or "adrenal support," contain thyroid or steroid hormones. Twelve dietary adrenal support supplements were purchased. Pregnenolone, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, cortisone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, synthetic glucocorticoids (betamethasone, dexamethasone, fludrocortisone, megestrol acetate, methylprednisolone, prednisolone, prednisone, budesonide, and triamcinolone acetonide) levels were measured twice in samples in a blinded fashion. This study was conducted between February 1, 2016, and November 1, 2016. Among steroids, pregnenolone was the most common hormone in the samples. Budesonide, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, cortisol, and cortisone were the others in order of prevalence. All the supplements revealed a detectable amount of triiodothyronine (T3) (63-394.9 ng/tablet), 42% contained pregnenolone (66.12-205.2 ng/tablet), 25% contained budesonide (119.5-610 ng/tablet), 17% contained androstenedione (1.27-7.25 ng/tablet), 8% contained 17-OH progesterone (30.09 ng/tablet), 8% contained cortisone (79.66 ng/tablet), and 8% contained cortisol (138.5 ng/tablet). Per label recommended doses daily exposure was up to 1322 ng for T3, 1231.2 ng for pregnenolone, 1276.4 ng for budesonide, 29 ng for androstenedione, 60.18 ng for 17-OH progesterone, 277 ng for cortisol, and 159.32 ng for cortisone. All the supplements studied contained a small amount of thyroid hormone and most contained at least 1 steroid hormone. This is the first study that measured thyroid and steroid hormones in over-the-counter dietary "adrenal support" supplements in the United States. These results may highlight potential risks of hidden ingredients in unregulated supplements. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2010-01-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function. PMID:10903527

  13. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2000-06-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function.

  14. Radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shiro; Musa, Kimitaka; Oshima, Ichiyo; Yamamoto, Suzuyo; Funato, Toyohiko

    1975-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed capable of measuring LH-RH in extracted human plasma. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, lysine vasopressin and most of LH-RH analogues did not appear to affect the assay. Hypothalamic extract and some of the LH-RH analogues produced displacement curves which were parallel to the curve obtained with the synthetic LH-RH. Sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay was about 3 pg per assay tube. The coefficient of variation of intraassays was 6.4%, while that of interassays was 9.6%. Exogenous LH-RH could be quantitatively extracted by acidic ethanol when varying amounts of synthetic LH-RH were added to the plasma. Immunoreactivity of LH-RH was preserved in plasma for 2 hrs in the cold but was gradually reduced thereafter. The plasma levels of LH-RH were 20 pg/ml or less in normal adults and not detectable in children. Aged males over 60 yr and postmenopausal women showed a tendency to have higher levels of plasma LH-RH. The plasma LH-RH level was significantly higher in midcycle than in the follicular or luteal stages. The disappearance rate of LH-RH from the circulation after intravenous injection could be represented as half-times of 4-6 min. Between 0.2-0.4% of the injected dose was excreted into urine within 1 hr. These results indicate that the determination of LH-RH might be a useful tool for elucidating hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad interactions. (auth.)

  15. The influence of a steroid hormone and of physical exercise on protein metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menschikowski, M.; Jung, K.; Junghans, P.; Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Potsdam

    1989-01-01

    The influence of an anabolic steroid hormone preparation and of a physical exercise training program was studied on the nitrogen and protein metabolism in rats with the help of the 15 N tracer technique and the emission spectrometric 15 N isotope analysis. For the determination of the dynamic parameters of the protein metabolism graphic (stochastic) and computer-aided compartmental methods wer compared. Using the area method as a stochastic approach the animals showed significant differences in the protein turnover parameters under the influence of hormone treatment and (or) physical stress by swimming exercise in comparison to the controls. (author)

  16. Steroid hormone profiling in obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Yuying; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Shengxian; Zhou, Wenzhong; Ye, Lei; Wang, Lihua; Tao, Tao; Gu, Junjie; Yang, Zuwei; Zhao, Dandan; Gu, Weiqiong; Hong, Jie; Ning, Guang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Weiqing

    2017-01-01

    The study explored differences in the steroidogenic pathway between obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 1044 women with PCOS (including 350 lean, 312 overweight and 382 obese) and 366 control women without PCOS (including 203 lean, 32 overweight and 131 obese) were enrolled. The differences in steroid hormones were amplified in lean PCOS versus lean controls compared with obese PCOS versus obese contro...

  17. Steroid hormones in blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen polutted minke whale (Balanenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Letcher, J.

    2014-01-01

    , respectively, for 321–576 days. In the exposed group, this constituted a mean daily intake of 128 μg ∑PCBs (5 μg/kg/day). At the end of the study, organohalogen contaminant (OHC) were measured in adipose tissue and hormone levels in blood of sledge dogs. The hormones included 11 products of the steroidogenesis......, which were ∑Androgen (dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and dehydrotestosterone), ∑Estrogen (estrone, 17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol), and ∑Progestagen (pregnenolone, progesterone, 17-OH-pregnenolone, and 17-OH-progesterone) concentrations. This allowed us to study the mechanisms...

  18. Steroid hormone excretion is enhanced by sucrose feeding to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, T.C.; Hsu, H.; Saunders, J.P.; Kim, S.S.; Given-Proctor, J.; Ahrens, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that feeding rats sucrose rather than invert sugar (50:50 mixture of glucose and fructose) or cornstarch would result in a more rapid excretion of intravenously injected 1,2- 3 H aldosterone or 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol. The three carbohydrate sources provided 45% of dietary energy when fed, respectively, to one of three groups of 10 male, Sprague Dawley rats. After 4 or 8 weeks of ad lib feeding of the three diets 5 μCI of 3 H-labeled hormones were injected intravenously and % recovery in urine and feces was measured for 4 days by liquid scintillation counting. Nearly 90% of the 3 H injected as 1,2- 3 H aldosterone was recovered over 4 days in the excreta of the sucrose fed rats. This recovery of 3 H from aldosterone was significantly greater (P 3 H from intravenously injected 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol followed a similar pattern. The authors anticipate that the excretion of all metabolic end products and xenobiotics excreted as glucuronides would be enhanced by sucrose feeding. Oxocarbonium ions from the glucose portion of sucrose digestion in the mammalian small intestine are thought to compete with oxocarbonium ions from the glucuronic acid portion of glucuronide hydrolysis. Such competition may slow glucuronide hydrolysis and promote glucuronide excretion, including the glucuronides derived from aldosterone and cortisol

  19. Steroid hormone receptors: long- and short-term integrators of the internal milieu and the external environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, J D

    2012-07-01

    Many of the influences of estrogens and progestins on the brain and behavior are mediated by estrogen receptors and progestin receptors, acting as transcriptional regulators. The homologous and heterologous regulation of the concentrations of these receptors by cognate hormones is well established. However, although they were discovered and characterized based on their binding to cognate hormone and their role in transcriptional regulation, steroid hormone receptors have a more complex role and serve many more functions than originally suspected. First, besides being regulated by steroid hormones, the intracellular concentrations of brain steroid hormone receptors are regulated by neurotransmitters, a pathway by which stimuli from the environment, including from conspecific animals, can modulate the concentration of particular steroid hormone receptors in subsets of cells. Further, besides being activated by cognate steroid hormones, the receptors can be activated by a variety of neurotransmitters and phosphorylation pathways, providing a route through which environmental stimulation can activate steroid-receptor-dependent functions in specific cells. In addition, the transcription factor, estrogen receptor-α, produced from the estrogen receptor-α gene, can be modified to be targeted to membranes, where it can signal via kinase pathways. Finally, developmental experiences, such as particular stressors during the pubertal period, can permanently remodel the brain's response to ovarian hormones, most likely by long-term changes in regulation of the receptors mediating those responses. In addition to their function in responding to cognate ligand, it is now more appropriate to think of steroid hormone receptors as integrators of a wide variety of signaling pathways. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? Part I: Critical appraisal of the evidence for the presence, biosynthesis and uptake of steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander P

    2012-11-01

    The consensus view is that vertebrate-type steroids are present in mollusks and perform hormonal roles which are similar to those that they play in vertebrates. Although vertebrate steroids can be measured in molluscan tissues, a key question is 'Are they formed endogenously or they are picked up from their environment?'. The present review concludes that there is no convincing evidence for biosynthesis of vertebrate steroids by mollusks. Furthermore, the 'mollusk' genome does not contain the genes for key enzymes that are necessary to transform cholesterol in progressive steps into vertebrate-type steroids; nor does the mollusk genome contain genes for functioning classical nuclear steroid receptors. On the other hand, there is very strong evidence that mollusks are able to absorb vertebrate steroids from the environment; and are able to store some of them (by conjugating them to fatty acids) for weeks to months. It is notable that the three steroids that have been proposed as functional hormones in mollusks (i.e. progesterone, testosterone and 17β-estradiol) are the same as those of humans. Since humans (and indeed all vertebrates) continuously excrete steroids not just via urine and feces, but via their body surface (and, in fish, via the gills), it is impossible to rule out contamination as the sole reason for the presence of vertebrate steroids in mollusks (even in animals kept under supposedly 'clean laboratory conditions'). Essentially, the presence of vertebrate steroids in mollusks cannot be taken as reliable evidence of either endogenous biosynthesis or of an endocrine role. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  2. Model approach for stress induced steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volko, Claus D; Regidor, Pedro A; Rohr, Uwe D

    2016-03-01

    Stress was described by Cushing and Selye as an adaptation to a foreign stressor by the anterior pituitary increasing ACTH, which stimulates the release of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. The question is raised whether stress can induce additional steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases (SMD), since stress is the common denominator. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed, where the steroidal hormone cascade of patients with SMD was compared to the impact of increasing stress on the steroidal hormone cascade (a) in healthy amateur marathon runners with no overtraining; (b) in healthy well-trained elite soldiers of a ranger training unit in North Norway, who were under extreme physical and mental stress, sleep deprivation, and insufficient calories for 1 week; and, (c) in soldiers suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia (SI), and bipolar disorders (BD). (a) When physical stress is exposed moderately to healthy men and women for 3-5 days, as in the case of amateur marathon runners, only few steroidal hormones are altered. A mild reduction in testosterone, cholesterol and triglycerides is detected in blood and in saliva, but there was no decrease in estradiol. Conversely, there is an increase of the glucocorticoids, aldosterone and cortisol. Cellular immunity, but not specific immunity, is reduced for a short time in these subjects. (b) These changes are also seen in healthy elite soldiers exposed to extreme physical and mental stress but to a somewhat greater extent. For instance, the aldosterone is increased by a factor of three. (c) In SMD, an irreversible effect on the entire steroidal hormone cascade is detected. Hormones at the top of the cascade, such as cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), aldosterone and other glucocorticoids, are increased. However, testosterone and estradiol and their metabolites, and other hormones at the lower end of the cascade, seem to be reduced. 1

  3. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... return of symptoms and sometimes joint pain. SIDE EFFECTS Steroids can cause a wide range of unwanted effects. ... please talk with your doctor. MANAGING COMMON SIDE EFFECTS WEIGHT GAIN AND INCREASED BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS Steroids increase the appetite and often cause weight gain. ...

  4. Hormonally-mediated Epigenetic Changes to Steroid Receptors in the Developing Brain: Implications for Sexual Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of sex-specific neural morphology, which underlies sex-specific behaviors, occurs during a perinatal sensitive window in which brief exposure to gonadal steroid hormones produces permanent masculinization of the brain. In the rodent, estradiol derived from testicular androgens is a principle organizational hormone. The mechanism by which transient estradiol exposure induces permanent differences in neuronal anatomy has been widely investigated, but remains elusive. Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, allow environmental influences to alter long-term gene expression patterns and therefore may be a potential mediator of estradiol-induced organization of the neonatal brain. Here we review data that demonstrate sex and estradiol-induced differences in DNA methylation on the estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and progesterone receptor (PR) promoters in sexually dimorphic brain regions across development. Contrary to the overarching view of DNA methylation as a permanent modification directly tied to gene expression, these data demonstrate that methylation patterns on steroid hormone receptors change across the life span and do not necessarily predict expression. Although further exploration into the mechanism and significance of estradiol-induced alterations in DNA methylation patterns in the neonatal brain is necessary, these results provide preliminary evidence that epigenetic alterations can occur in response to early hormone exposure and may mediate estradiol-induced organization of sex differences in the neonatal brain. PMID:20800064

  5. Accumulation of steroid hormones in soil and its adjacent aquatic environment from a typical intensive vegetable cultivation of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Song; Xie, Yun-Feng; Li, Xue-Wen; Wang, Dai-Yi; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Nie, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-12-15

    Steroid hormones released from manure agricultural application are a matter of global concern. The residual levels of steroid hormones were studied in a typical intensive vegetable cultivation area in northeast China, with a long history of heavy manure application. Seven steroids (estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol, testosterone, androstendione and progesterone) were analyzed from soil sampled from vegetable greenhouses, from sediments and water from the adjacent drainage ditch and from the groundwater. The results showed that target steroids were detected in the soil samples, with detection frequencies varying from 3.13 to 100%. The steroid concentrations varied substantially in soils, ranging from below the detection limit to 109.7μg·kg(-1). Three steroids-progesterone, androstendione and estrone-were found to have relatively high residue concentrations in soil, with maximum concentrations of 109.7, 9.83 and 13.30μg·kg(-1), respectively. In adjacent groundwater, all the steroids, with the exception of estrone, were detected in one or more of the 13 groundwater samples. The concentrations of steroids in groundwater ranged from below the method detection limit to 2.38ng·L(-1). Six of the seven (excluding androstendione) were detected in drainage ditch water samples, with concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 14ng·L(-1). Progesterone, androstendione and estrone accumulated relatively easily in soils; their concentrations in groundwater were lower than those of other steroids. The concentrations of testosterone and estriol were relatively low in soil, while in groundwater were higher than those of other steroids. The residual levels of steroids in soil and groundwater showed a clear spatial variation in the study area. The residual levels of steroid hormones in soil varied substantially between differently planted greenhouses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Method for the quantitation of steroids in umbilical cord plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, A.E.; Sparke, H.

    1975-01-01

    A method for simultaneous quantitation of nine steroids in cord plasma is described which consisted of Amberlite XAD-2 column chromatography at constant temperature of 45 degC, enzyme hydrolysis with β-glucoronidase/aryl sulfatase, addition of five radioactive internal standards, ethyl acetate extraction, thin-layer chromatography and quantitation by gas-liquid chromatography after trimethylsilyl ether derivative formation. Reliability criteria were established and the following steroid concentrations found: progesterone, 132.1+-102.5 μg/100 ml; pregnenolone, 57.3+-45.7 μg/100 ml; dehydroepiandrosterone, 46.5+-29.4 μg/100 ml; pregnanediol, 67.5+-46.6 μg/100 ml; 16-ketoandrostenediol, 19.8+-13.7 μg/100 ml; 16 α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone, 126.3+-86.9 μg/100 ml; 16 α-hydroxypregnenolone, 78.2+-56.5 μg/100 ml; androstenetriol, 22.2+-17.5 μg/100 ml and oestriol, 127.7+-116.9 μg/100 ml. (author)

  7. Simultaneous analysis of fourteen endogenous steroid hormones by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product Description: To understand how some chemicals affect the endocrine system, controlled lab experiments often monitor how chemicals impact natural steroid hormones in fish. Current methods can target only one or two hormones in a single sample, limiting the information that...

  8. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  9. Radioisotope studies of steroid hormone levels of plasma in indigenous subjects living at high altitude and submitted to a low calorie diet. Final report for the period of 1 April 1971--30 June 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, I

    1975-08-01

    Radioimmunological techniques were applied to the evaluation of TSH and ACTH in the four groups of Ecuadorian subjects under investigation at Tocachi, Malchingui, Quito and Portoviejo, the first three populations living at a high altitude and the fourth at sea-level. This evaluation was of interest since previous studies had indicated that there were thyroid and adrenal hormone deficiency levels in individuals from Tocachi and Malchingui or, in other words, in populations from a high-altitude region, and also endemic goitre and caloric-protein malnutrition. Furthermore, the Tocachi group was composed of subjects suffering from chronic ''stress''. Parallel to the analysis of TSH and pituitary ACTH levels, the circadian rhythm in the production of these hormones in these subjects was studied. The basal values of TSH and ACHT for the studied groups were found to lie within the normal range. /sup 131/I-TSH and /sup 125/I-ACTH were used. As far as the nycthemeral TSH rhythm is concerned, the values tended to be lowest for the high-altitude populations, while for the groups living at sea-level, where there is also circadian variation, the higher values are found in the morning. Similarly, the circadian rhythm for ACTH was established, with a predominance of diurnal values at Tocachi, Malchingui and Portoviejo.

  10. Steroid hormone signaling during development has a latent effect on adult male sexual behavior in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Ashley; Prudic, Kathleen L; Monteiro, Antónia

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that steroid hormones regulate sexual behavior in vertebrates via organizational and activational effects. However, whether the organizational/activational paradigm applies more broadly to the sexual behavior of other animals such as insects is not well established. Here we describe the hormonal regulation of a sexual behavior in the seasonally polyphenic butterfly Bicyclus anynana is consistent with the characteristics of an organizational effect. By measuring hormone titer levels, quantifying hormone receptor gene expression in the brain, and performing hormone manipulations, we demonstrate steroid hormone signaling early in pupal development has a latent effect on adult male sexual behavior in B. anynana. These findings suggest the organizational/activational paradigm may be more highly conserved across animal taxa than previously thought.

  11. A Simple Thin Layer Chromatography Method for Separation of Selected Natural Steroid Hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowska, J.; Rudnicka-Litka, K.; Ciura, K.; Pikul, P.; Piotrowicz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatographic properties of seven steroids: estrogens (β-estradiol and estrone), androgens (testosterone, methyltestosterone, trans-androsterone), progesterone and cholesterol have been studied by planar chromatography with usage of High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) plates. Normal, reversed and cyano-bonded silica stationary phases were tested with five binary mobile phases (acetonitrile-water, acetonitrile-DMSO, acetonitrile-methanol, acetone-petroleum ether, acetone-water) in which the concentration of organic modifier varied from 0 to 100 % (v/v). This study reports the optimization of steroid hormones separation. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on calculated molecular descriptors quantitatively differentiating solutes was performed in order to investigate the similarity and dissimilarity between tested compounds. The separation abilities of mobile and stationary phases were compared based on separation factor α. Chromatographic retention data and possible retention mechanisms also were discussed. (author)

  12. A Drosophila Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Regulators of Steroid Hormone Production and Developmental Timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas Danielsen, E.; E. Møller, Morten; Yamanaka, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones control important developmental processes and are linked to many diseases. To systematically identify genes and pathways required for steroid production, we performed a Drosophila genome-wide in vivo RNAi screen and identified 1,906 genes with potential roles in steroidogenesis...... and developmental timing. Here, we use our screen as a resource to identify mechanisms regulating intracellular levels of cholesterol, a substrate for steroidogenesis. We identify a conserved fatty acid elongase that underlies a mechanism that adjusts cholesterol trafficking and steroidogenesis with nutrition...... and developmental programs. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of an autophagosomal cholesterol mobilization mechanism and show that activation of this system rescues Niemann-Pick type C1 deficiency that causes a disorder characterized by cholesterol accumulation. These cholesterol-trafficking mechanisms...

  13. Steroid hormones in biosolids and poultry litter: a comparison of potential environmental inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Christine E; Rice, Clifford P; Torrents, Alba; Ramirez, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Steroid hormones can act as potent endocrine disruptors when released into the environment. The main sources of these chemicals are thought to be wastewater treatment plant discharges and waste from animal feeding operations. While these compounds have frequently been found in wastewater effluents, few studies have investigated biosolids or manure, which are routinely land applied, as potential sources. This study assessed the potential environmental contribution of steroid hormones from biosolids and chicken litter. Hormone concentrations in samples of limed biosolids collected at a waste treatment plant over a four year period ranged from farms had averages of 41.4ng/g dry weight E1, 63.4ng/g dry weight progesterone, and 19.2ng/g dry weight E1-sulfate (E1-S). Other analytes studied were 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, E2-3-sulfate (E2-3-S), and E2-17-sulfate (E2-17-3). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Requirement for specific gravity and creatinine adjustments for urinary steroids and luteinizing hormone concentrations in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Balzer, Ben W R; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Handelsman, David J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary hormone concentrations are often adjusted to correct for hydration status. We aimed to determine whether first morning void urine hormones in growing adolescents require adjustments and, if so, whether urinary creatinine or specific gravity are better adjustments. The study population was adolescents aged 10.1 to 14.3 years initially who provided fasting morning blood samples at 0 and 12 months (n = 343) and first morning urine every three months (n = 644). Unadjusted, creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted hormonal concentrations were compared by Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis and grouped according to self-rated Tanner stage or chronological age. F-ratios for self-rated Tanner stages and age groups were used to compare unadjusted and adjusted hormonal changes in growing young adolescents. Correlations of paired serum and urinary hormonal concentration of unadjusted and creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted were also compared. Fasting first morning void hormone concentrations correlated well and were unbiased between unadjusted or adjusted by either creatinine or specific gravity. Urine creatinine concentration increases with Tanner stages, age and male gender whereas urine specific gravity was not influenced by Tanner stage, age or gender. Adjustment by creatinine or specific gravity of urinary luteinizing hormone, estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations did not improve correlation with paired serum concentrations. Urine steroid and luteinizing hormone concentrations in first morning void samples of adolescents are not significantly influenced by hydration status and may not require adjustments; however, if desired, both creatinine and specific gravity adjustments are equally suitable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin(®)) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal height gain from onset of puberty till adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (ppenis and pubic hair is promoted by the anabolic steroid hormone, no psychosocial problems arose because of delayed puberty. No clinically significant adverse events appeared. Combined treatment with GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone significantly increased height gain during puberty and adult height in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone.

  16. Occurrence and distribution of steroids, hormones and selected pharmaceuticals in South Florida coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simrat P; Azua, Arlette; Chaudhary, Amit; Khan, Shabana; Willett, Kristine L; Gardinali, Piero R

    2010-02-01

    The common occurrence of human derived contaminants like pharmaceuticals, steroids and hormones in surface waters has raised the awareness of the role played by the release of treated or untreated sewage in the water quality along sensitive coastal ecosystems. South Florida is home of many important protected environments ranging from wetlands to coral reefs which are in close proximity to large metropolitan cities. Because, large portions of South Florida and most of the Florida Keys population are not served by modern sewage treatment plants and rely heavily on the use of septic systems, a comprehensive survey of selected human waste contamination markers was conducted in three areas to assess water quality with respect to non-traditional micro-constituents. This study documents the occurrence and distribution of fifteen hormones and steroids and five commonly detected pharmaceuticals in surface water samples collected from different near shore environments along South Florida between 2004 and 2006. The compounds most frequently detected were: cholesterol, caffeine, estrone, DEET, coprostanol, biphenol-A, beta-estradiol, and triclosan. The concentration detected for estrone and beta-estradiol were up to 5.2 and 1.8 ng/L, respectively. Concentrations of caffeine (5.5-68 ng/L) and DEET (4.8-49 ng/L) were generally higher and more prevalent than were the steroids. Distribution of microconstituents was site specific likely reflecting a diversity of sources. In addition to chemical analysis, the yeast estrogen screen assay was used to screen the samples for estrogen equivalency. Overall, the results show that water collected from inland canals and restricted circulation water bodies adjacent to heavily populated areas had high concentrations of multiple steroids, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products while open bay waters were largely devoid of the target analytes.

  17. Towards an understanding of the evolution of the chorioallantoic placenta: steroid biosynthesis and steroid hormone signaling in the chorioallantoic membrane of an oviparous reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruze, Lori; Kohno, Satomi; McCoy, Michael W; Guillette, Louis J

    2012-09-01

    Amniotes, mammals, reptiles, and birds form common extraembryonic membranes during development to perform essential functions, such as protection, nutrient transfer, gas exchange, and waste removal. Together with the maternal uterus, extraembryonic membranes of viviparous (live-bearing) amniotes develop as an endocrine placenta that synthesizes and responds to steroid hormones critical for development. The ability of these membranes to synthesize and respond to steroid hormone signaling has traditionally been considered an innovation of placental amniotes. However, our laboratory recently demonstrated that this ability extends to the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of an oviparous (egg-laying) amniote, the domestic chicken, and we hypothesized that steroidogenic extraembryonic membranes could be an evolutionarily conserved characteristic of all amniotes because of similarities in basic structure, function, and shared evolutionary ancestry. In this study, we examined steroid hormone synthesis and signaling in the CAM of another oviparous amniote, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We quantified mRNA expression of a steroidogenic factor involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis (NR5A1), the key steroidogenic enzymes involved in the synthesis of progestins (HSD3B1), androgens (CYP17A1), and estrogens (CYP19A1), and the receptors involved in the signaling of progestins (PR), androgens (AR), estrogens (ESR1 and ESR2), and glucocorticoids (GR). Furthermore, we performed protein immunolocalization for PR and ESR1. Collectively, our findings indicate that the alligator CAM has the capability to regulate, synthesize, and respond to steroid hormone signaling, thus, supporting our hypothesis that the extraembryonic membranes of Amniota share a unifying characteristic, that is, the ability to synthesize and respond to steroid hormones.

  18. Different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses by male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Andersen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since both paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and stress alter male reproductive function, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of PSD and other stressors (restraint, electrical footshock, cold and forced swimming, N = 10 per group on steroid hormones in adult Wistar male rats. Rats were submitted to chronic stress for four days. The stressors (footshock, cold and forced swimming were applied twice a day, for periods of 1 h at 9:00 and 16:00 h. Restrained animals were maintained in plastic cylinders for 22 h/day whereas PSD was continuous. Hormone determination was measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (testosterone, competitive immunoassay (progesterone and by radioimmunoassay (corticosterone, estradiol, estrone. The findings indicate that PSD (13.7 ng/dl, footshock (31.7 ng/dl and cold (35.2 ng/dl led to lower testosterone levels compared to the swimming (370.4 ng/dl and control (371.4 ng/dl groups. However, progesterone levels were elevated in the footshock (4.5 ng/ml and PSD (5.4 ng/ml groups compared to control (1.6 ng/ml, swimming (1.1 ng/ml, cold (2.3 ng/ml, and restrained (1.2 ng/ml animals. Estrone and estradiol levels were reduced in the PSD, footshock and restraint groups compared to the control, swimming and cold groups. A significant increase in corticosterone levels was found only in the PSD (299.8 ng/ml and footshock (169.6 ng/ml groups. These changes may be thought to be the full steroidal response to stress of significant intensity. Thus, the data suggest that different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses, with PSD and footshock being the most similar.

  19. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiarowska, Małgorzata; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Bialecka, Monika; Koziołek, Monika; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2014-02-06

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN). 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient's alcohol or drug abuse. The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  20. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śmiarowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN. Material and Methods: 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. Results: The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient’s alcohol or drug abuse. Discussion: The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  1. Flow cytometric measurement of DNA level and steroid hormone receptor assay in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrikhina, G.N.; Kuz'mina, Eh.V.; Bassalyk, L.S.; Murav'eva, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    DNA level measured by flow cytometry and estrogen and progesteron receptors assayed in tissue samples obtained from 85 malignant and 16 benign lesions of the breast. All the benign tumors revealed 2c DNA content and most of them were receptor-negative, while 74.1% of breast carcinomas displayed aneuploidy. Three patients (3.5%) had two lines of aneuploid cells. Many aneuploid tumors were receptor-negative. Preoperative radiation treatmet (14-20 Gy) did not significantly influence the level of steroid hormone receptors in tumors. Estrogen receptor level was higher in menopausal patients than in premenopausal ones

  2. Changes in the Plasma Sex Hormone Profile in Males with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N Yezhova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of typical plasma sex hormone changes and their functional significance in males with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. Fifty-nine males aged 18—49 years who had SCI were enrolled in the study. The admission severity was an APACHE II score of 18.6±2.4. According to the outcome of the disease, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased persons. A control comprised 12 healthy male donors aged 19-36 years, in whom the levels of 8 sex steroids were measured. The standard procedures were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of pituitary reproductive hormones and aldosterone. Hormonal concentrations were studied over time on posttraumatic days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15. The plasma hormone profile was examined by test kits (BSL, USA on a Stat Fax 2100 device (Awareness Technology Inc., USA for enzyme immunoassay. Prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, progesterone (P, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH-P, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estrone (E1, estradiol (E2, and aldosterone were determined. Results. The complex study of phasic changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in males in the posttraumatic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels and their phasic variations, normal LH and FSH levels with a tendency for further phasic LH changes and FSH reduction. After the injury, the plasma concentration of P was increased and that of 17-OH-P was decreased. The levels of A and DHEA-S varied in the normal range with a tendency for DHEA-S to be lower during the process. In the posttraumatic period, the plasma content of T and DHT was substantially reduced and that of E1 and E2 was increased. The deceased patients generally showed higher levels of A, DHEA-S, and estrogens as a reflection of

  3. Enrichment of steroid hormones in water with porous and hydrophobic polymer-based SPE followed by HPLC-UV determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinfen; Zhang, Man; Tong, Changlun; Wu, Jianmin; Liu, Weiping

    2013-10-01

    There have been great concerns about the persistence of steroid hormones in surface water. Since the concentrations of these compounds in water samples are usually at a trace level, the efficient enrichment of steroid hormones is vital for further analysis. In this work, a porous and hydrophobic polymer was synthesized and characterized. The composition of solvent used as porogen in the synthetic process was shown to have an effect on the morphology of the polymer, which was successfully used as an SPE sorbent for simultaneously enriching steroid hormones in surface water samples. The recoveries of the steroid hormones on the custom-made polymer ranged from 93.4 to 106.2%, whereas those on commercialized ENVI-18, LC-18, and Oasis HLB ranged from 54.8 to 104.9, 66 to 93.6, and 77.2 to 106%, respectively. Five types of steroid hormones were simultaneously measured using HPLC-UV after they were enriched by the custom-made sorbent. Based on these findings, the SPE-HPLC method was developed. The LODs of this method for estriol, estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, progesterone were 0.07, 0.43, 0.61, 0.27, and 0.42 μg/L, respectively, while precision and reproducibility RSDs were <6.40 and 7.49%, respectively. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. [FEMALE STEROID HORMONES - MODULATORS OF IMMUNE RESPONSE TO GENITAL CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, E; Ivanov, S; Bechev, B; Angelova, M; Grueva, E; Kolev, N; Ivanova, V

    In the recent years according to WHO, genital chlamydia is the mos't common sexually transmitted infection. Chlamydia Trachomatis is an intracellular parasite which target are the tubular epithelial cells of the urethra, endocervix, endometrium, endosalpinx, conjunctiva, synovial lining of the joints, Glisson's capsule of the liver Our study, as well as some international researches, shows that in the cases of genital chlamydia there are changes in the ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), their impact on the immune system and their importance for the development and the complications of the infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. The physiological level of the steroid hormones in its turn contributes for the normalization of the local immunity and reduces the possibility of recurrences.

  5. Embryonic treatment with xenobiotics disrupts steroid hormone profiles in hatchling red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, E; Rhen, T; Sakata, J T; Crews, D

    2000-01-01

    Many compounds in the environment capable of acting as endocrine disruptors have been assayed for their developmental effects on morphogenesis; however, few studies have addressed how such xenobiotics affect physiology. In the current study we examine the effects of three endocrine-disrupting compounds, chlordane, trans-nonachlor, and the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1242, on the steroid hormone concentrations of red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) hatchlings treated in ovo. Basal steroid concentrations and steroid concentrations in response to follicle-stimulating hormone were examined in both male and female turtles treated with each of the three compounds. Treated male turtles exposed to Aroclor 1242 or chlordane exhibited significantly lower testosterone concentrations than controls, whereas chlordane-treated females had significantly lower progesterone, testosterone, and 5[alpha]-dihydrotestosterone concentrations relative to controls. The effects of these endocrine disruptors extend beyond embryonic development, altering sex-steroid physiology in exposed animals. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753091

  6. Changes in plasma steroids and cytokines levels in betel chewing patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sindy; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Hwang, Guey-Shyang; Chen, Szu-Tah; Kuo, Song-Bor; Chen, Yifen; Idova, Galina; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    /ml, and 97.77pg/ml in young males (aged 20-22), respectively. Also, significantly elevated plasma cortisol concentration was noted in betel nut-chewing (median 727.2ng/ml) and oral cancer patients (561.9ng/ml) compared to the mid-aged (176.8ng/ml) and young males (173.4ng/ml), respectively. In addition, lower plasma testosterone concentrations were found in betel nut-chewing subjects compared with young males (2.6±3.3ng/ml vs 6.2±2.9ng/ml). To summarize, the inflammatory cytokines and steroid hormones may reflect the degree of inflammation in betel nut-chewing males and the oral cancer subjects. The above findings suggest that betel nut-chewing or oral cancer inhibits plasma cytokines and regulates steroid hormones concentrations compared to mid-aged or young normal subjects. It is also indicated that betel nut-chewing causes decreased inflammatory cytokines as the same levels as in oral cancer subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of ovarian steroid feedback upon radioimmunoreactive luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in the hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanaihara, Takumi; Arai, Kiyoshi; Kanazawa, Motomi; Okinaga, Shoichi; Yanaihara, Noboru

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for luteinizing hormone (LH) releasing hormone (RH) utilizing rabbit antiserum against synthetic (Glu 1 )-LH-RH coupled with human serum albumin at the N-terminus, is described. This assay system for LH-RH also cross-reacted with several LH-RH analogues or fragments, but not with pituitary trophic hormones. The assay was performed on the hypothalamic extracts of adult ovariectomized rats and female immature rats which had been treated with estradiol. The FSH and LH levels in the pituitary gland and serum of the same animals were determined by RIA. The radioimmunoreactive LH-RH content of the stalk median eminence markedly increased seven days after ovariectomy. The serum levels and the pituitary contents of FSH and LH of the same rats were also significantly augmented. In immature rats, the hypothalamic content of LH-RH, as measured by RIA, was significantly increased one hour after the injection of estradiol. The FSH and LH levels in the pituitary showed a significant rise after 7 hours. (auth.)

  8. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Steroids KidsHealth ... athletes, and why not? It's fun to think about being the very best in your favorite sport, not to mention earning a big salary. But ...

  9. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of aggression and hostility Increased risk of heart disease, liver damage Addiction Read More about Steroids Be Informed. Search for information about a drug View Popular Searches: POT , HEROIN , METH Previous Pause Next Marijuana Featured Articles What You Should Know About Marijuana ...

  10. Cellular localization of steroid hormone-regulated proteins during sexual development in achlya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunt, S.A.; Silver, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In the fungus Achlya ambisexualis sexual development in the male strain E87 is controlled by the steroid hormone antheridiol. To investigate the effects of antheridiol on the synthesis and/or accumulation of specific cellular proteins we have analyzed [ 35 S]methionine-labeled proteins from control and hormone-treated cells using both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) PAGE. The addition of the hormone antheridiol to vegetatively growing cells of Achlya E87 was found to result in changes in the synthesis and/or accumulation of at least 16 specific proteins, which could be localized to the cytoplasmic, nuclear or cell was/cell membrane fractions. The most prominent changes observed in the hormone-treated cells included the appearance in the cytoplasmic fraction of labeled proteins at 28.4 and 24.3kD which were not detectable in control cells, and a significant enrichment in the labeling of a 24.3kD protein in the cell wall/cell membrane fraction. Quantitative changes in the [ 35 S]methionine labeling of several other proteins were noted in all three cell fractions

  11. Pigments, parasites and personalitiy: towards a unifying role for steroid hormones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Kittilsen

    Full Text Available A surging interest in the evolution of consistent trait correlations has inspired research on pigment patterns as a correlate of behavioural syndromes, or "animal personalities". Associations between pigmentation, physiology and health status are less investigated as potentially conserved trait clusters. In the current study, lice counts performed on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar naturally infected with ectoparasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis showed that individual fish with high incidence of black melanin-based skin spots harboured fewer female sea lice carrying egg sacs, compared to less pigmented fish. There was no significant association between pigmentation and lice at other developmental stages, suggesting that host factors associated with melanin-based pigmentation may modify ectoparasite development to a larger degree than settlement. In a subsequent laboratory experiment a strong negative correlation between skin spots and post-stress cortisol levels was revealed, with less pigmented individuals showing a more pronounced cortisol response to acute stress. The observation that lice prevalence was strongly increased on a fraction of sexually mature male salmon which occurred among the farmed fish further supports a role for steroid hormones as mediators of reduced parasite resistance. The data presented here propose steroid hormones as a proximate cause for the association between melanin-based pigmentation and parasites. Possible fundamental and applied implications are discussed.

  12. Effect of Immunoactive Drugs on Postresuscitation Processes in the Brain and Steroid Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Zarzhetsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effects of the immunostimulants panavir and derinate on a postresuscitation process in animals of different sexes.Material and methods. The investigation was made on 200—250-g albino rats of both sexes in winter. Circulation  was  stopped  by  intrathoracic  ligation  of  the  cardiac  vascular  bundle  in  ethersteroid hormones were assessed in the postresuscitation period. The investigation used two immunoactive drugs: panavir 0.02 mg/kg and derinate 150 μg/kg. Either agent was intramuscularly injected twice: at 3 0 minutes after resuscitation and on the following day.Results. The injected drugs were ascertained to have a positive effect on functional recovery of the brain. Their use was shown to modify the sex steroid hormone  profiles  in  both  males  and  females  in  the  early postresuscitation period.Conclusion. The findings suggest that the immunoactive agents are able to affect the nervous and  endocrine  systems  in  critical  conditions.

  13. Steroid hormones as regulators of the proliferative activity of normal and neoplastic intestinal epithelial cells (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1988-01-01

    Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are present in normal epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine and there have also been contentious reports of androgen, oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the epithelium of the normal large intestine. The majority of reports suggest that stimulation of the intestinal glucocorticoid receptors results in increased proliferation of epithelial cells in the small bowel, as does stimulation of androgen receptors and possibly mineralocorticoid receptors. The proliferative response of the normal intestine to oestrogens is difficult to evaluate and that to progestigens appears not to have been reported. Epidemiological studies reveal a higher incidence of bowel cancer in premenopausal women than in men of the same age and yet there is a lower incidence of these tumors in women of higher parity. These findings have been atributted to a variety of non-epithelial gender characteristic such as differences in bile metabolism, colonic bacterial and fecal transit times. In experimental animals, androgens have also been shown to influence carcinogenesis and this could well be attributed to changes in food intake etc. However, many studies have now revealed steroid hormone receptors on colorectal tumor cells and thus a direct effect of the steroid hormones on the epithelium during and after malignant transformation must now be considered.

  14. Studies on the steroid hormone precursors of two tropical wild yams (Dioscorea bulbifera and Dioscorea manganotiana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.; Ekperigin, M.M.; Akindahunsi, A.A.

    2001-09-01

    Dioscorea bulbifera and Dioscorea manganotiana were evaluated for their potential as a source of saponin and sapogenin. The levels of these steroid hormone precursors were determined by solvent extraction and characterized by froth test, haemolytic test, colour, taste and TLC analysis. The saponin content of both yams were 1.04±0.08% (dioscorea bulbifera) and 1.58±0.26% (Dioscorea manganotiana). The sapogenin content of Dioscorea manganotiana was 6.04±0.06mg/g, while that of dioscerea bulbifera was 3.36±0.37mg/g. The saponin had a dark-brown colour, bitter taste, frothing ability and haemolysed blood. TLC analysis gave a purple spot with R f ranging from 0.55 to 0.56. Since the wild yams used for the present study are neither consumed by man nor used for livestock feeding, coupled with their relative abundance and low cost, they hold a good promise with respect to sourcing precursors for commercial production of steroid hormones. (author)

  15. DAF as a therapeutic target for steroid hormones: implications for host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Bogdan; Nowicki, Stella

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a concise historic prospective and a summary of accumulated knowledge on steroid hormones, DAF expression, and therapeutic implication of steroid hormone treatment on multiple pathologies, including infection and the host-pathogen interactions. DAF/CD55 plays multiple physiologic functions including tissue protection from the cytotoxic complement injury, an anti-inflammatory function due to its anti-adherence properties which enhance transmigration of monocytes and macrophages and reduce tissue injury. DAF physiologic functions are essential in many organ systems including pregnancy for protection of the semiallogeneic fetus or for preventing uncontrolled infiltration by white cells in their pro- and/or anti-inflammatory functions. DAF expression appears to have multiple regulatory tissue-specific and/or menstrual cycle-specific mechanisms, which involve complex signaling mechanisms. Regulation of DAF expression may involve a direct or an indirect effect of at least the estrogen, progesterone, and corticosteroid regulatory pathways. DAF is exploited in multiple pathologic conditions by pathogens and viruses in chronic tissue infection processes. The binding of Escherichia coli bearing Dr adhesins to the DAF/CD55 receptor is DAF density dependent and triggers internalization of E. coli via an endocytic pathway involving CD55, lipid rafts, and microtubules. Dr+ E. coli or Dr antigen may persist in vivo in the interstitium for several months. Further understanding of such processes should be instrumental in designing therapeutic strategies for multiple conditions involving DAF's protective or pathologic functions and tailoring host expression of DAF.

  16. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on sexual maturation, sex steroids and thyroid hormone levels in Caspian lamprey (Caspiomyzon wagneri Kessler, 1870)

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, M.; Mojazi Amiri, B.; Abdoli, A.; Javanshir, A.; Benam, S.; Namdarian, A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on sexual maturation, plasma sex steroids [17β-estradiol, (E2) and 17α-hydroxy progesterone (17α_OHP)] and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3 and thyroxin, T4) levels in upstream - migrating Caspian lamprey. During the experiment, 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in spring 2013 and 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in fall 2013 were collected from the Shirud River estuary in Mazandaran Province,...

  17. Modulation by steroid hormones of a ''sexy'' acoustic signal in an Oscine species, the Common Canary Serinus canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybak Fanny

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The respective influence of testosterone and estradiol on the structure of the Common Canary Serinus canaria song was studied by experimentally controlling blood levels of steroid hormones in males and analyzing the consequent effects on acoustic parameters. A detailed acoustic analysis of the songs produced before and after hormonal manipulation revealed that testosterone and estradiol seem to control distinct song parameters independently. The presence of receptors for testosterone and estradiol in the brain neural pathway controlling song production strongly suggests that the observed effects are mediated by a steroid action at the neuronal level.

  18. Modulation by steroid hormones of a "sexy" acoustic signal in an Oscine species, the Common Canary Serinus canaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Fanny; Gahr, Manfred

    2004-06-01

    The respective influence of testosterone and estradiol on the structure of the Common Canary Serinus canaria song was studied by experimentally controlling blood levels of steroid hormones in males and analyzing the consequent effects on acoustic parameters. A detailed acoustic analysis of the songs produced before and after hormonal manipulation revealed that testosterone and estradiol seem to control distinct song parameters independently. The presence of receptors for testosterone and estradiol in the brain neural pathway controlling song production strongly suggests that the observed effects are mediated by a steroid action at the neuronal level.

  19. Postmenopausal Serum Sex Steroids and Risk of Hormone Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer : a Nested Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Rebecca E.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Dossus, Laure; Becker, Susen; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Engel, Pierre; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Boeing, Heiner; Schuetze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Rodriguez, Laudina; Buckland, Genevieve; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Ros, Martine M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Romieu, Isabelle; Siddiq, Afshan; Cox, David; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  20. Postmenopausal serum sex steroids and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, R.E.; Lukanova, A.; Dossus, L.; Becker, S.; Rinaldi, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Mesrine, S.; Engel, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Chang-Claude, J.; Vrieling, A.; Boeing, H.; Schutze, M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Palli, D.; Krogh, V.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Sacerdote, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Buckland, G.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Ardanaz, E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Ros, M.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Key, T.J.; Allen, N.E.; Romieu, I.; Siddiq, A.; Cox, D.; Riboli, E.; Kaaks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Prediagnostic endogenous sex steroid hormone levels have well established associations with overall risk of breast cancer. While evidence toward the existence of distinct subtypes of breast cancer accumulates, few studies have investigated the associations of sex steroid hormone levels with risk of

  1. The Somatic Reproductive Tissues of C. elegans Promote Longevity through Steroid Hormone Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Tracy M.; Berman, Jennifer R.; Suchanek-Kavipurapu, Monika; McCormick, Mark; Gaglia, Marta Maria; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, removing the germline precursor cells increases lifespan. In worms, and possibly also in flies, this lifespan extension requires the presence of somatic reproductive tissues. How the somatic gonad signals other tissues to increase lifespan is not known. The lifespan increase triggered by loss of the germ cells is known to require sterol hormone signaling, as reducing the activity of the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, or genes required for synthesis of the DAF-12 ligand dafachronic acid, prevents germline loss from extending lifespan. In addition to sterol signaling, the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is required to extend lifespan in animals that lack germ cells. DAF-12/NHR is known to assist with the nuclear accumulation of DAF-16/FOXO in these animals, yet we find that loss of DAF-12/NHR has little or no effect on the expression of at least some DAF-16/FOXO target genes. In this study, we show that the DAF-12-sterol signaling pathway has a second function to activate a distinct set of genes and extend lifespan in response to the somatic reproductive tissues. When germline-deficient animals lacking somatic reproductive tissues are given dafachronic acid, their expression of DAF-12/NHR-dependent target genes is restored and their lifespan is increased. Together, our findings indicate that in C. elegans lacking germ cells, the somatic reproductive tissues promote longevity via steroid hormone signaling to DAF-12. PMID:20824162

  2. The somatic reproductive tissues of C. elegans promote longevity through steroid hormone signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy M Yamawaki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, removing the germline precursor cells increases lifespan. In worms, and possibly also in flies, this lifespan extension requires the presence of somatic reproductive tissues. How the somatic gonad signals other tissues to increase lifespan is not known. The lifespan increase triggered by loss of the germ cells is known to require sterol hormone signaling, as reducing the activity of the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, or genes required for synthesis of the DAF-12 ligand dafachronic acid, prevents germline loss from extending lifespan. In addition to sterol signaling, the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is required to extend lifespan in animals that lack germ cells. DAF-12/NHR is known to assist with the nuclear accumulation of DAF-16/FOXO in these animals, yet we find that loss of DAF-12/NHR has little or no effect on the expression of at least some DAF-16/FOXO target genes. In this study, we show that the DAF-12-sterol signaling pathway has a second function to activate a distinct set of genes and extend lifespan in response to the somatic reproductive tissues. When germline-deficient animals lacking somatic reproductive tissues are given dafachronic acid, their expression of DAF-12/NHR-dependent target genes is restored and their lifespan is increased. Together, our findings indicate that in C. elegans lacking germ cells, the somatic reproductive tissues promote longevity via steroid hormone signaling to DAF-12.

  3. Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey H.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Barber, Larry B.

    2011-01-01

    Stream biofilms play an important role in geochemical processing of organic matter and nutrients, however, the significance of this matrix in sorbing trace organic contaminants is less understood. This study focused on the role of stream biofilms in sorbing steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from surface waters using biofilms colonized in situ on artificial substrata and subsequently transferred to the laboratory for controlled batch sorption experiments. Steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds readily sorb to stream biofilms as indicated by organic matter partition coefficients (Kom, L kg–1) for 17β-estradiol (102.5–2.8 L kg–1), 17α-ethynylestradiol (102.5–2.9 L kg–1), 4-nonylphenol (103.4–4.6 L kg–1), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (103.5–4.0 L kg–1), and 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate (103.9–4.3 L kg–1). Experiments using water quality differences to induce changes in the relative composition of periphyton and heterotrophic bacteria in the stream biofilm did not significantly affect the sorptive properties of the stream biofilm, providing additional evidence that stream biofilms will sorb trace organic compounds under of variety of environmental conditions. Because sorption of the target compounds to stream biofilms was linearly correlated with organic matter content, hydrophobic partition into organic matter appears to be the dominant mechanism. An analysis of 17β-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol hydrophobic partition into water, biofilm, sediment, and dissolved organic matter matrices at mass/volume ratios typical of smaller rivers showed that the relative importance of the stream biofilm as a sorptive matrix was comparable to bed sediments. Therefore, stream biofilms play a primary role in attenuating these compounds in surface waters. Because the stream biofilm represents the base of the stream ecosystem, accumulation of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds in the stream biofilm may be an exposure pathway for

  4. Comprehensive Analysis of Hormone and Genetic Variation in 36 Genes Related to Steroid Hormone Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, L.; Husing, A.; Setiawan, V. W.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Sex steroids play a central role in breast cancer development.Objective: This study aimed to relate polymorphic variants in 36 candidate genes in the sex steroid pathway to serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones and SHBG.Design: Data on 700 genetic polymorphisms were combined...

  5. Development of statistical and analytical techniques for use in national quality control schemes for steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.W.; Gaskell, S.J.; Fahmy, D.R.; Joyce, B.G.; Groom, G.V.; Griffiths, K.; Kemp, K.W.; Nix, A.B.J.; Rowlands, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Adopting the rationale that the improvement of intra-laboratory performance of immunometric assays will enable the assessment of national QC schemes to become more meaningful, the group of participating laboratories has developed statistical and analytical techniques for the improvement of accuracy, precision and monitoring of error for the determination of steroid hormones. These developments are now described and their relevance to NQC schemes discussed. Attention has been focussed on some of the factors necessary for improving standards of quality in immunometric assays and their relevance to laboratories participating in NQC schemes as described. These have included the 'accuracy', precision and robustness of assay procedures as well as improved methods for internal quality control. (Auth.)

  6. Steroid hormones content and proteomic analysis of canine follicular fluid during the preovulatory period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaud Karine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicular fluid contains substances involved in follicle activity, cell differentiation and oocyte maturation. Studies of its components may contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms underlying follicular development and oocyte quality. The canine species is characterized by several ovarian activity features that are not extensively described such as preovulatory luteinization, oocyte ovulated at the GV stage (prophase 1 and poly-oocytic follicles. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that the preovulatory LH surge is associated with changes in steroid and protein content of canine follicular fluid prior to ovulation. Methods Follicular fluid samples were collected from canine ovaries during the preovulatory phase, before (pre-LH; n = 16 bitches and after (post-LH; n = 16 the LH surge. Blood was simultaneously collected. Steroids were assayed by radioimmunoassay and proteomic analyses were carried out by 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Results The concentrations of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone at the pre-LH stage were 737.2 +/- 43.5 ng/ml and 2630.1 +/- 287.2 ng/ml in follicular fluid vs. 53 +/- 4.1 pg/ml and 3.9 +/- 0.3 ng/ml in plasma, respectively. At that stage, significant positive correlations between follicular size and intra-follicular steroid concentrations were recorded. After the LH peak, the intrafollicular concentration of 17beta-estradiol decreased significantly (48.3 +/- 4.4 ng/ml; p Proteomic analysis of canine follicular fluid identified 38 protein spots, corresponding to 21 proteins, some of which are known to play roles in the ovarian physiology. The comparison of 2D-PAGE patterns of follicular fluids from the pre- and post-LH stages demonstrated 3 differentially stained single spot or groups of spots. One of them was identified as complement factor B. A comparison of follicular fluid and plasma protein patterns demonstrated a group of 4 spots that were more concentrated in plasma than

  7. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  8. The corpus luteum of the dog: source and target of steroid hormones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, P C; Hoffmann, B

    2011-08-01

    Aim of this paper is to review our present understanding on the endocrine control of luteal function in the bitch and to add some new data generated in our laboratories in support of the hypothesis of a paracrine/autocrine role of corpus luteum (CL) derived steroid hormones. Luteal lifespan in non-pregnant dogs often exceeds that of pregnant dogs, where luteal regression terminates in a rapid luteolysis, immediately prior to parturition. In non-pregnant dogs, luteal regression occurs independently of a uterine luteolysin and in spite of increased gonadotropic support during the last third of dioestrus. The CL is the only source of progesterone (P(4)) maintaining pregnancy, and they have the capacity to synthesize oestrogens as substantiated by expression of the CYP19 (aromatase) gene observed in this study. Our data demonstrated that lutein and non-lutein cells of the canine CL express in a rather constant manner the progesterone receptor (PR) and the oestrogen receptor, classifying them as targets for an autocrine/paracrine activity of CL-derived steroids. Therefore, a functional role of P(4) within a positive loop feedback system, including StAR and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, has been postulated. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Modulation of HIV replication in monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) by steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Dayton, Andrew; Hewlett, Indira

    2018-01-01

    Significant sex specific differences in the progression of HIV/AIDS have been reported. Several studies have implicated steroid hormones in regulating host factor expression and modulating HIV transmission and replication. However, the exact mechanism exerted by steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone in the regulation of HIV-1 replication is still unclear. Results from the current study indicated a dose dependent down regulation of HIV-1 replication in monocyte derived macrophages pre-treated with high concentrations of estrogen or progesterone. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms associated with the down regulation of HIV-1 replication by estrogen and progesterone we used PCR arrays to analyze the expression profile of host genes involved in antiviral responses. Several chemokines, cytokines, transcription factors, interferon stimulated genes and genes involved in type-1 interferon signaling were down regulated in cells infected with HIV-1 pre-treated with high concentrations of estrogen or progesterone compared to untreated HIV-1 infected cells or HIV-1 infected cells treated with low concentrations of estrogen or progesterone. The down regulation of CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 chemokines and IL-1β, IL-6 cytokines in response to high concentrations of estrogen and progesterone pre-treatment in HIV-1 infected cells was confirmed at the protein level by quantitating chemokine and cytokine concentrations in the culture supernatant. These results demonstrate that a potent anti-inflammatory response is mediated by pre-treatment with high concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. Thus, our study suggests a strong correlation between the down-modulation of anti-viral and pro-inflammatory responses mediated by estrogen and progesterone pre-treatment and the down regulation of HIV-1 replication. These findings may be relevant to clinical observations of sex specific differences in patient populations and point to the need for further investigation.

  10. Rapid determination of natural steroidal hormones in saliva for the clinical diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jin-Aa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saliva samples are easily collectable and non-invasive, and the monitoring of natural steroidal hormones, such as estrone (E1, 17β-estradiol (E2, estriol (E3, progesterone (P, and testosterone (T, in saliva has attracted much attention due to its numerous potential clinical and health-related applications. Because E1, E2, E3, P and T are useful indicators in numerous clinical and health-related diagnoses, there is a need for simultaneous determination. Results A gas chromatography-mass spectrometric assay was developed for rapid simultaneous determination of E1, E2, E3, P and T in saliva for clinical diagnoses. Extraction was achieved with a liquid extraction using 3.0 mL of pentane. The extract was dried and silylated with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide/NH4I (100:2 under a catalysis of 1.5% dithioerythritol for 10 min at 90°C. The accuracy of the analytes was in the range of 96% to 112% at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.10 μg/L (5.0 and 10.0 μg/L for E3, respectively, with relative standard deviations of less than 11%. The lowest quantification limits were from 0.002 to 0.6 μg/L for 1.0 mL of saliva. Conclusion Natural steroidal hormones were detected in the concentration ranges of nd to 0.2 μg/L in human saliva. The salivary testosterone values in the patients with prostatic carcinoma were significantly lower than in normal males. The method may useful in numerous clinical and health-related diagnoses.

  11. The neurobiology and addiction potential of anabolic androgenic steroids and the effects of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Nylander, Erik; Hallberg, Mathias

    2016-09-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are substances that mimic the hormone testosterone, and primarily act via the androgen receptor. In addition to their physiological effect on muscle tissue and growth, research from the last decade has shown that AAS have a pronounced impact on the central nervous system. A large number of studies have demonstrated that AAS affect the mesolimbic reward system in the brain. However, whether the direct effects of AAS on endorphins, dopamine, serotonin and GABA etc. and on the corresponding and related systems lead to dependence needs to be further elucidated. According to recent studies, the prevalence of AAS dependence among AAS users has been estimated to be approximately 30%, and polysubstance use, of both pharmaceutical drugs and narcotics, within this group is common. The present review primarily discusses AAS in the context of addiction and dependence, and further addresses the issue of using multiple substances, i.e. stimulants and opiates in combination with AAS. In addition, aspects of the treatment of AAS dependence, the connection between AAS abuse and cognition, and AAS-induced neurotoxicity are presented. Currently, performance enhancing drugs are frequently used in combination with AAS. Therefore, a large section on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor is also included. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Persistent organic contaminants and steroid hormones levels in Morelet's crocodiles from the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Jauregui, Mauricio; Valdespino, Carolina; Salame-Méndez, Arturo; Aguirre-León, Gustavo; Rendón-Vonosten, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    Effects of endocrine disruptors on reproductive variables of top predators, such as alligators and crocodiles, have long been cited. Due to their long life span, these predators provide us with historic contaminant annals. In this study we tried to test whether lifestyle (free-ranging vs. farm animals) and reproductive age of Morelet's crocodiles in Campeche, Mexico, affect the bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Subsequently, we tested to see whether their concentration was related to steroid hormones (testosterone and estradiol-17β) levels once normal cyclic hormone variation and reproductive age had been taken into account. From the group of contaminants considered (analyzed as families), only frequency of hexachlorocyclohexanes (∑HCH) and ∑PCB permitted analyses. Whereas there was a greater concentration of ∑HCH bioaccumulated by free-ranging crocodiles, ∑PCB was found in equal quantities in free-ranging and farm animals. No difference was observed in relation to reproductive age for any of the contaminants. However, ∑PCB concentrations were related to testosterone levels among female crocodiles. This androgenic effect of ∑PCB has not been reported previously. Because testosterone promotes aggressive behavior in vertebrates, excessive aggression during the estrous season, or when female crocodiles should be caring for their young, could result in reproductive failure in Morelet's crocodiles and potential long-term decline of the population.

  13. Steroid hormones level in milk of non-pregnant and pregnant river buffalos at various gestational trimesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Shahbazi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is a valuable sources of nutrition in the human diet however; there are reports on safety of milk steroid hormones contain. This study designed to determine the level of steroid hormones including estrone (E1, 17β-estradiol (E2, and estriol (E3 in raw and pasteurized milk from non-pregnant and pregnant buffalos.Methods: Steroids was extracted using liquid extraction, enzymatical deconjugation, and C18 solid-phase extraction from collected milk samples. Estrogens were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped by fluorescence detector.Results: Free E1 (554.1±77.0 ng/L and deconjugated E1 (701.6±44.7 ng/L was found highest level estrogen followed by E2, while E3 level was under the detection limit (10 ng/L. The lowest E1: 554.1±77.0 and E2: 28.1±4.4ng/L estrogens level were determined in raw milk from non-pregnant and highest E1: 1014.7±123.8 and E2: 108.2±9.1 ng/L estrogens were found in milk of animals in the third trimester of gestation. The estrogens concentration in pasteurized milk did not show significant (P>0.05 differences with those in raw milk.Conclusion: As buffalo milk poses more fat than cow's milk, it may contain higher level of steroid hormones. Since consumption of buffalo's milk with higher amount of steroidal hormones could be considered one of the potential risk factors for carcinogenesis.

  14. Proteoglycans in Leiomyoma and Normal Myometrium: Abundance, Steroid Hormone Control, and Implications for Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Nichole M; Carrino, David A; Caplan, Arnold I; Hurd, William W; Liu, James H; Tan, Huiqing; Mesiano, Sam

    2016-03-01

    Uterine leiomyoma are a common benign pelvic tumors composed of modified smooth muscle cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM). The proteoglycan composition of the leiomyoma ECM is thought to affect pathophysiology of the disease. To test this hypothesis, we examined the abundance (by immunoblotting) and expression (by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) of the proteoglycans biglycan, decorin, and versican in leiomyoma and normal myometrium and determined whether expression is affected by steroid hormones and menstrual phase. Leiomyoma and normal myometrium were collected from women (n = 17) undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy. In vitro studies were performed on immortalized leiomyoma (UtLM) and normal myometrial (hTERT-HM) cells with and without exposure to estradiol and progesterone. In leiomyoma tissue, abundance of decorin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were 2.6-fold and 1.4-fold lower, respectively, compared with normal myometrium. Abundance of versican mRNA was not different between matched samples, whereas versican protein was increased 1.8-fold in leiomyoma compared with myometrium. Decorin mRNA was 2.4-fold lower in secretory phase leiomyoma compared with proliferative phase tissue. In UtLM cells, progesterone decreased the abundance of decorin mRNA by 1.3-fold. Lower decorin expression in leiomyoma compared with myometrium may contribute to disease growth and progression. As decorin inhibits the activity of specific growth factors, its reduced level in the leiomyoma cell microenvironment may promote cell proliferation and ECM deposition. Our data suggest that decorin expression in leiomyoma is inhibited by progesterone, which may be a mechanism by which the ovarian steroids affect leiomyoma growth and disease progression. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Hsp70 cochaperones HspBP1 and BAG-1M differentially regulate steroid hormone receptor function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina T Knapp

    Full Text Available Hsp70 binding protein 1 (HspBP1 and Bcl2-associated athanogene 1 (BAG-1, the functional orthologous nucleotide exchange factors of the heat shock protein 70 kilodalton (Hsc70/Hsp70 chaperones, catalyze the release of ADP from Hsp70 while inducing different conformational changes of the ATPase domain of Hsp70. An appropriate exchange rate of ADP/ATP is crucial for chaperone-dependent protein folding processes. Among Hsp70 client proteins are steroid receptors such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, and the androgen receptor (AR. BAG-1 diversely affects steroid receptor activity, while to date the influence of HspBP1 on steroid receptor function is mostly unknown. Here, we compared the influence of HspBP1 and BAG-1M on Hsp70-mediated steroid receptor folding complexes and steroid receptor activity. Coimmunoprecipitation studies indicated preferential binding of Hsp40 and the steroid receptors to BAG-1M as compared to HspBP1. Furthermore, Hsp70 binding to the ligand-binding domain of GR was reduced in the presence of HspBP1 but not in the presence of BAG-1M as shown by pull-down assays. Reporter gene experiments revealed an inhibitory effect on GR, MR, and AR at a wide range of HspBP1 protein levels and at hormone concentrations at or approaching saturation. BAG-1M exhibited a transition from stimulatory effects at low BAG-1M levels to inhibitory effects at higher BAG-1M levels. Overall, BAG-1M and HspBP1 had differential impacts on the dynamic composition of steroid receptor folding complexes and on receptor function with important implications for steroid receptor physiology.

  16. Building a better hormone therapy?: How understanding the rapid effects of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of data collected in recent decades has demonstrated that ovarian sex-steroid hormones, particularly 17β-estradiol (E2), are important trophic factors that regulate the function of cognitive regions of the brain such as the hippocampus. The loss of hormone cycling at menopause is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in women, and the onset of memory decline in animal models. However, hormone therapy is not currently recommended to prevent or treat cognitive decline, in part because of its detrimental side effects. In this article, it is proposed that investigations of the rapid effects of E2 on hippocampal function be used to further the design of new drugs that mimic the beneficial effects of E2 on memory without the side effects of current therapies. A conceptual model is presented for elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms through which sex-steroid hormones modulate memory, and a specific hypothesis is proposed to account for the rapid memory-enhancing effects of E2. Empirical support for this hypothesis is discussed as a means of stimulating the consideration of new directions for the development of hormone-based therapies to preserve memory function in menopausal women. PMID:22289043

  17. Plasma Steroid Metabolome Profiling for Diagnosis and Subtyping Patients with Cushing Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhofer, Graeme; Masjkur, Jimmy; Peitzsch, Mirko; Di Dalmazi, Guido; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Grüber, Matthias; Fazel, Julia; Osswald, Andrea; Beuschlein, Felix; Reincke, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Diagnosis of Cushing syndrome requires a multistep process that includes verification of hypercortisolism followed by identification of the cause of adrenocortical hyperfunction. This study assessed whether pituitary, ectopic, and adrenal subtypes of Cushing syndrome were characterized by distinct plasma steroid profiles that might assist diagnosis. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, mass spectrometric measurements of a panel of 15 plasma steroids were applied to 222 patient samples tested for Cushing syndrome. Disease was excluded in 138 and confirmed in 51 patients with pituitary Cushing syndrome, 12 with ectopic adrenocorticotropin secretion, and 21 with adrenal disease. Another 277 age- and sex-matched hypertensive and normotensive volunteers were included for comparison. Compared with patients without disease, the largest increases in plasma steroids among patients with Cushing syndrome were observed for 11-deoxycortisol (289%), 21-deoxycortisol (150%), 11-deoxycorticosterone (133%), corticosterone (124%), and cortisol (122%). Patients with ectopic disease showed the most prominent increases, but there was considerable variation for other steroids according to subtype. Patients with adrenal disease had the lowest concentrations of androgens, whereas those with ectopic and pituitary disease showed the lowest concentrations of aldosterone. Plasma 18-oxocortisol was particularly low in ectopic disease. With the use of 10 selected steroids, subjects with and without different Cushing syndrome subtypes could be discriminated nearly as closely as with the use of salivary and urinary free cortisol, dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol, and plasma adrenocorticotropin (9.5% vs 5.8% misclassification). Patients with different subtypes of Cushing syndrome show distinctive plasma steroid profiles that may offer a supplementary single-test alternative for screening purposes. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  18. Steroid hormones and aggression in female Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Dustin R; Wikelski, Martin

    2005-09-01

    We studied steroid hormone patterns and aggression during breeding in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Females display vigorously towards courting males after copulating (female-male aggression), as well as fight for and defend nest sites against other females (female-female aggression). To understand the neuroendocrine basis of this aggressive behavior, we examined changes in testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), corticosterone (CORT), and progesterone (P4) during the mating and nesting periods, and then measured levels in nesting females captured during aggressive interactions. Testosterone reached maximal levels during the mating stage when female-male aggression was most common, and increased slightly, but significantly, during the nesting stage when female-female aggression was most common. However, fighting females had significantly lower T, but higher E2 and P4, than non-fighting females. It remains unclear whether these changes in hormone levels during aggressive interactions are a cause or a consequence of a change in behavior. Our results support the "challenge hypothesis", but suggest that E2 and/or P4 may increase in response to aggressive challenges in females just as T does in males. Females may be rapidly aromatizing T to elevate circulating levels of E2 during aggressive interactions. This hypothesis could explain why non-fighting females had slightly elevated baseline T, but extremely low E2, during stages when aggressive interactions were most common. Although P4 increased rapidly during aggressive encounters, it is unclear whether it acts directly to affect behavior, or indirectly via conversion to E2. The rapid production and conversion of E2 and P4 may be an important mechanism underlying female aggression in vertebrates.

  19. Regulation of steroid hormones and energy status with cysteamine and its effect on spermatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yandi; Zhao, Yong; Yu, Shuai; Feng, Yanni; Zhang, Hongfu; Kou, Xin; Chu, Meiqiang; Cui, Liantao; Li, Lan; Zhang, Pengfei; Shen, Wei; Min, Lingjiang

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known that cysteamine is a potent chemical for treating many diseases including cystinosis and it has many adverse effects, the effect of cysteamine on spermatogenesis is as yet unknown. Therefore the objective of this investigation was to explore the effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Sheep were treated with vehicle control, 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg cysteamine for six months. After that, the semen samples were collected to determine the spermatozoa motility by computer-assisted sperm assay method. Blood samples were collected to detect the levels of hormones and the activity of enzymes. Spermatozoa and testis samples were collected to study the mechanism of cysteamine's actions. It was found that the effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis were dose dependent. A low dose (10 mg/kg) cysteamine treatment increased ovine spermatozoa motility; however, a higher dose (20 mg/kg) decreased both spermatozoa concentration and motility. This decrease might be due to a reduction in steroid hormone production by the testis, a reduction in energy in the testis and spermatozoa, a disruption in the blood-testis barrier, or a breakdown in the vital signaling pathways involved in spermatogenesis. The inhibitory effects of cysteamine on sheep spermatogenesis may be used to model its effects on young male patients with cystinosis or other diseases that are treated with this drug. Further studies on spermatogenesis that focus on patients treated with cysteamine during the peripubertal stage are warranted. - Highlights: • Dose dependent effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis • A low dose (10 mg/kg) increased spermatozoa motility. • A higher dose (20 mg/kg) decreased both concentration and motility of spermatozoa. • Disruption in the blood-testis barrier caused reduction in concentration and motility.

  20. Regulation of steroid hormones and energy status with cysteamine and its effect on spermatogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yandi [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); Zhao, Yong [Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Yu, Shuai; Feng, Yanni [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); Zhang, Hongfu [State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China); Kou, Xin [Shouguang Hongde Farmer Co., Weifang 262700 (China); Chu, Meiqiang; Cui, Liantao; Li, Lan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); Zhang, Pengfei [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Shen, Wei [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); Min, Lingjiang, E-mail: mlj020963@hotmail.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Although it is well known that cysteamine is a potent chemical for treating many diseases including cystinosis and it has many adverse effects, the effect of cysteamine on spermatogenesis is as yet unknown. Therefore the objective of this investigation was to explore the effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Sheep were treated with vehicle control, 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg cysteamine for six months. After that, the semen samples were collected to determine the spermatozoa motility by computer-assisted sperm assay method. Blood samples were collected to detect the levels of hormones and the activity of enzymes. Spermatozoa and testis samples were collected to study the mechanism of cysteamine's actions. It was found that the effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis were dose dependent. A low dose (10 mg/kg) cysteamine treatment increased ovine spermatozoa motility; however, a higher dose (20 mg/kg) decreased both spermatozoa concentration and motility. This decrease might be due to a reduction in steroid hormone production by the testis, a reduction in energy in the testis and spermatozoa, a disruption in the blood-testis barrier, or a breakdown in the vital signaling pathways involved in spermatogenesis. The inhibitory effects of cysteamine on sheep spermatogenesis may be used to model its effects on young male patients with cystinosis or other diseases that are treated with this drug. Further studies on spermatogenesis that focus on patients treated with cysteamine during the peripubertal stage are warranted. - Highlights: • Dose dependent effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis • A low dose (10 mg/kg) increased spermatozoa motility. • A higher dose (20 mg/kg) decreased both concentration and motility of spermatozoa. • Disruption in the blood-testis barrier caused reduction in concentration and motility.

  1. Expression of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Vagal Motor Neurons Innervating the Trachea and Esophagus in Mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Ichi Matsuda, Ken; Bando, Hideki; Takanami, Keiko; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The medullary vagal motor nuclei, the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), innervate the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis of expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα), in relation to innervation of the trachea and esophagus via vagal motor nuclei in mice. AR and ERα were expressed in the rostral NA and in part of the DMV. Tracing experiments using cholera toxin B subunit demonstrated that neurons of vagal motor nuclei that innervate the trachea and esophagus express AR and ERα. There was no difference in expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between trachea- and esophagus-innervating neurons. These results suggest that sex steroid hormones may act on vagal motor nuclei via their receptors, thereby regulating functions of the trachea and esophagus

  2. Binding domain-driven intracellular trafficking of sterols for synthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids and oxysterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midzak, Andrew; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-09-01

    Steroid hormones, bioactive oxysterols and bile acids are all derived from the biological metabolism of lipid cholesterol. The enzymatic pathways generating these compounds have been an area of intense research for almost a century, as cholesterol and its metabolites have substantial impacts on human health. Owing to its high degree of hydrophobicity and the chemical properties that it confers to biological membranes, the distribution of cholesterol in cells is tightly controlled, with subcellular organelles exhibiting highly divergent levels of cholesterol. The manners in which cells maintain such sterol distributions are of great interest in the study of steroid and bile acid synthesis, as limiting cholesterol substrate to the enzymatic pathways is the principal mechanism by which production of steroids and bile acids is regulated. The mechanisms by which cholesterol moves within cells, however, remain poorly understood. In this review, we examine the subcellular machinery involved in cholesterol metabolism to steroid hormones and bile acid, relating it to both lipid- and protein-based mechanisms facilitating intracellular and intraorganellar cholesterol movement and delivery to these pathways. In particular, we examine evidence for the involvement of specific protein domains involved in cholesterol binding, which impact cholesterol movement and metabolism in steroidogenesis and bile acid synthesis. A better understanding of the physical mechanisms by which these protein- and lipid-based systems function is of fundamental importance to understanding physiological homeostasis and its perturbation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Steroid hormone profiling in obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuying; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Shengxian; Zhou, Wenzhong; Ye, Lei; Wang, Lihua; Tao, Tao; Gu, Junjie; Yang, Zuwei; Zhao, Dandan; Gu, Weiqiong; Hong, Jie; Ning, Guang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Weiqing

    2017-10-26

    The study explored differences in the steroidogenic pathway between obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 1044 women with PCOS (including 350 lean, 312 overweight and 382 obese) and 366 control women without PCOS (including 203 lean, 32 overweight and 131 obese) were enrolled. The differences in steroid hormones were amplified in lean PCOS versus lean controls compared with obese PCOS versus obese controls. Compared with obese PCOS, lean PCOS demonstrated increased dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (P = 0.015), 17-hydropregnenolone (P = 0.003), 17-hydroprogesterone (17-OHP) (P lean PCOS had increased activity of P450c17 (17-hydropregnenolone/pregnenolone, P  G (p. D184E) in lean PCOS compared with obese PCOS patients (P = 0.006). In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that the adrenal-specific enzyme P450c21 showed decreased activity in lean PCOS patients, and that the adrenal androgen excess may play different roles in lean and obese PCOS patients, which represents as different enzyme activity in the steroidogenic pathway.

  4. The fate of pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, UV-filters and pesticides during MBR treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekoon, Kaushalya C; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Nghiem, Long D

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between molecular properties and the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in the aqueous and solid phases during wastewater treatment by MBR. A set of 29 TrOCs was selected to represent pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, UV-filters and pesticides that occur ubiquitously in municipal wastewater. Both adsorption and biodegradation/transformation were found responsible for the removal of TrOCs by MBR treatment. A connection between biodegradation and molecular structure could be observed while adsorption was the dominant removal mechanism for the hydrophobic (logD>3.2) compounds. Highly hydrophobic (logD>3.2) but readily biodegradable compounds did not accumulate in sludge. In contrast, recalcitrant compounds with a moderate hydrophobicity, such as carbamazepine, accumulated significantly in the solid phase. The results provide a framework to predict the removal and fate of TrOCs by MBR treatment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of connexin26 and connexin43 expression in rat endometrium by ovarian steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grümmer, R; Chwalisz, K; Mulholland, J; Traub, O; Winterhager, E

    1994-12-01

    A distinct spatial and temporal pattern of connexin26 and connexin43 (cx26 and cx43) expression was observed in the rat endometrium in response to embryo implantation; however, connexin expression was suppressed during the preimplantation period. Pseudopregnant rats did not show connexin mRNA, while artificial decidualization induced by a scratch led to a strong expression of cx26 and cx43 in the endometrium of these animals. In order to examine the regulatory effects of ovarian steroid hormones on connexin expression, ovariectomized rats were treated with progesterone (P) and/or estradiol-17 beta (E2). Untreated, ovariectomized animals expressed mRNA for cx43, but not for cx26. Endometrial expression of mRNA for both connexins was strongly enhanced by E2 treatment; immunolabeling revealed protein for cx26 in the uterine luminal epithelial cells and for cx43 in the uterine stromal cells. P treatment, either alone or in combination with E2, suppressed expression of connexin mRNA. P suppression in the presence of E2 was reversible when P was withdrawn. When administered on Days 0-2 of pregnancy, the antiprogestin onapristone inhibited the effect of P and gave rise to strong expression of both connexin transcripts. These results demonstrate that expression of cx26 and cx43 in the rat uterine endometrium is differentially regulated by E2 and P during early pregnancy.

  6. Serum lipid levels and steroidal hormones in women runners with irregular menses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D L; Snead, D B; Seip, R L; Weltman, J Y; Rogol, A D; Weltman, A

    1997-02-01

    This study compared the lipid profile of women runners with menstrual cycle irregularities with their normally menstruating counterparts. Relationships among selected steroid hormones and serum lipid levels in 10 eumenorrheic (EU) and 8 oligo-/amenorrheic (O/A) women runners and 6 eumenorrheic controls (CON) were examined. Serum 17 beta-estradiol (E2), progesterone (Prog), and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations were determined in daily blood samples for 21 days, and integrated concentrations were calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2, HDL3, triglycerides (Trig), and apolipoproteins A-1, A-II, and B. The O/A group had significantly lower E2 and Prog than EU or CON groups. Women in the CON group had lower HDL-C and HDL3 than the runners. With all women grouped together, E2 was not significantly correlated with any measured blood lipid parameters. On the other hand, DHEAS was significantly correlated with HDL-C, HDL2, and apolipoprotein A-I. These data demonstrate that women runners, regardless of menstrual cycle status, exhibit higher HDL-C concentrations than CON and supports previous research reporting a positive association between DHEAS and HDL-C.

  7. Serotonergic outcome, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in a South American cichlid fish fed with an L-tryptophan enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radioreceptor assay for evaluation of the plasma glucocorticoid activity of natural and synthetic steroids in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, P.L.; Carter, J.P.; Graham, B.S.; Baxter, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    An assay for plasma glucocorticoid activity has been developed using specific glucocorticoid receptors. Unlike other assays for cortisol and certain synthetic corticosteroids, this radioreceptor assay measures the glucocorticoid activity of all natural and synthetic steroids. Steroids extracted from as little as 0.05 ml of plasma are incubated with 3 H-dexamethasone and cytosol receptors from cultured rat hepatoma cells. From 0.5 to 50 ng of cortisol are accurately detected. Glucocorticoid activities of adult plasmas determined by the assay correlate closely with corticoid levels obtained in the CBG-isotope and fluorometric assays. Other steroids are measured in proportion to both concentration and potency as glucocorticoids. Relative activities include: cortisol 100, dexamethasone 940, prednisolone 230, prednisone 3, estradiol 1 and androstenedione 1. A similar ranking of steroids was found using receptors from a human source (fetal lung). The assay has been useful in detecting glucocorticoid activity in unidentified medications and in measuring plasma glucocorticoid levels after administration of synthetic corticosteroids. (auth)

  9. Profiles of Steroid Hormones in Canine X-Linked Muscular Dystrophy via Stable Isotope Dilution LC-MS/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio A Martins-Júnior

    Full Text Available Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD provides the best animal model for characterizing the disease progress of the human disorder, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. The purpose of this study was to determine steroid hormone concentration profiles in healthy golden retriever dogs (control group - CtGR versus GRMD-gene carrier (CaGR and affected female dogs (AfCR. Therefore, a sensitive and specific analytical method was developed and validated to determine the estradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone levels in the canine serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. To more accurately understand the dynamic nature of the serum steroid profile, the fluctuating levels of these four steroid hormones over the estrous cycle were compared across the three experimental groups using a multivariate statistical analysis. The concentration profiles of estradiol, cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone revealed a characteristic pattern for each studied group at each specific estrous phase. Additionally, several important changes in the serum concentrations of cortisol and estradiol in the CaGR and AfCR groups seem to be correlated with the status and progression of the muscular dystrophy. A comprehensive and quantitative monitoring of steroid profiles throughout the estrous cycle of normal and GRMD dogs were achieved. Significant differences in these profiles were observed between GRMD and healthy animals, most notably for estradiol. These findings contribute to a better understanding of both dog reproduction and the muscular dystrophy pathology. Our data open new venues for hormonal behavior studies in dystrophinopathies and that may affect the quality of life of DMD patients.

  10. Removal of reproductive suppression reveals latent sex differences in brain steroid hormone receptors in naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Mo, Kaiguo; Peragine, Deane E; Monks, D Ashley; Holmes, Melissa M

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial mammals, living in large colonies with a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males. Breeders are socially dominant, and only the breeders exhibit traditional sex differences in circulating gonadal steroid hormones and reproductive behaviors. Non-reproductive subordinates also fail to show sex differences in overall body size, external genital morphology, and non-reproductive behaviors. However, subordinates can transition to breeding status if removed from their colony and housed with an opposite-sex conspecific, suggesting the presence of latent sex differences. Here, we assessed the expression of steroid hormone receptor and aromatase messenger RNA (mRNA) in the brains of males and females as they transitioned in social and reproductive status. We compared in-colony subordinates to opposite-sex subordinate pairs that were removed from their colony for either 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, or until they became breeders (i.e., produced a litter). Diencephalic tissue was collected and mRNA of androgen receptor (Ar), estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1), progesterone receptor (Pgr), and aromatase (Cyp19a1) was measured using qPCR. Testosterone, 17β-estradiol, and progesterone from serum were also measured. As early as 1 week post-removal, males exhibited increased diencephalic Ar mRNA and circulating testosterone, whereas females had increased Cyp19a1 mRNA in the diencephalon. At 1 month post-removal, females exhibited increased 17β-estradiol and progesterone. The largest changes in steroid hormone receptors were observed in breeders. Breeding females had a threefold increase in Cyp19a1 and fivefold increases in Esr1 and Pgr, whereas breeding males had reduced Pgr and increased Ar. These data demonstrate that sex differences in circulating gonadal steroids and hypothalamic gene expression emerge weeks to months after subordinate animals are removed from reproductive suppression in their home colony.

  11. An isotope-dilution standard GC/MS/MS method for steroid hormones in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Lindley, Chris E.; Losche, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    An isotope-dilution quantification method was developed for 20 natural and synthetic steroid hormones and additional compounds in filtered and unfiltered water. Deuterium- or carbon-13-labeled isotope-dilution standards (IDSs) are added to the water sample, which is passed through an octadecylsilyl solid-phase extraction (SPE) disk. Following extract cleanup using Florisil SPE, method compounds are converted to trimethylsilyl derivatives and analyzed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Validation matrices included reagent water, wastewater-affected surface water, and primary (no biological treatment) and secondary wastewater effluent. Overall method recovery for all analytes in these matrices averaged 100%; with overall relative standard deviation of 28%. Mean recoveries of the 20 individual analytes for spiked reagent-water samples prepared along with field samples analyzed in 2009–2010 ranged from 84–104%, with relative standard deviations of 6–36%. Detection levels estimated using ASTM International’s D6091–07 procedure range from 0.4 to 4 ng/L for 17 analytes. Higher censoring levels of 100 ng/L for bisphenol A and 200 ng/L for cholesterol and 3-beta-coprostanol are used to prevent bias and false positives associated with the presence of these analytes in blanks. Absolute method recoveries of the IDSs provide sample-specific performance information and guide data reporting. Careful selection of labeled compounds for use as IDSs is important because both inexact IDS-analyte matches and deuterium label loss affect an IDS’s ability to emulate analyte performance. Six IDS compounds initially tested and applied in this method exhibited deuterium loss and are not used in the final method.

  12. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  13. Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-04-01

    Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of 3H-labelled silation reagents to determine the kinetic and equilibrium constants of the silylation reactions for mass spectrometry of steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    Using the 3 H-labelled silation agents hexamethyl disilazane, trimethyl chlorosilane, and bis-(trimethylsilyl-) acetamide, the silation rate and efficiency of the silation of hydroxyl-substituted steroids was controlled. To determine the reactivity and specificity, 5d-androstane derivatives with defined keto- and hydroxyl groups were used. It was found that the silation process is best reproducible at room temperature. Steroid hormone silation is quantitative and reproducible with BSA, but less reproducible with HMDS with TMCS additives. The reaction rate increases with increasing amounts of TMCS, but a decomposition of the steroid hormones is observed at the same time. At a reaction temperature of 22 0 C, the experiment proceeds optimally with regard to reaction rate and steroid loss due to decomposition. The silated steroids are stable. (AJ) [de

  15. Two simple cleanup methods combined with LC-MS/MS for quantification of steroid hormones in in vivo and in vitro assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisser, Johan Juhl; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Poulsen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    Measuring both progestagens, androgens, corticosteroids as well as estrogens with a single method makes it possible to investigate the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the main pathways in the mammalian steroidogenesis. This paper presents two simple methods for the determination...... of the major steroid hormones in biological matrixes using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)). A novel method was developed for the determination of 14 steroids in the H295R in vitro assay without the need for solid phase extraction (SPE) purification prior to LC-MS(2) analysis....... The in vitro assay was validated by exposing H295R cells to prochloraz for inhibiting steroid hormone secretion and by exposing cells to forskolin for inducing steroid hormone secretion. The developed method fulfills the recommendations for the H295R assay suggested by the OECD. Furthermore, a simple off...

  16. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin releasing hormone in plasma and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shiro; Musa, Kimitaka; Yamamoto, Suzuyo; Oshima, Ichiyo; Funato, Toyohiko

    1975-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay has been developed capable of measuring thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in extracted human plasma and urine. All of three TRH analogues tested had little cross-reactivity to antibody. Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, lysine vasopressin, rat growth hormone and bovine albumin were without effect, but rat hypothalamic extract produced a displacement curve which was parallel to that obtained with the synthetic TRH. Sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay was 4 pg per tube with intraassay coefficient of variation of 6.2-9.7%. Synthetic TRH could be quantitatively extracted by methanol when added to human plasma in concentration of 25, 50 and 100 pg/ml. TRH immunoreactivity was rapidly reduced in plasma at 20 0 C than at 0 0 C, but addition of peptidase inhibitors, FOY-007 and BAL, prevented the inactivation of TRH for 3 hr at 0 0 C. The TRH in urine was more stable at 0 0 C than 20 0 C, and recovered 75+-4.6% at 24 hr after being added. The plasma levels of TRH were 19 pg/ml or less in normal adults and no sex difference was observed. The rate of disappearance of TRH administered i.v. from the blood could be represented as half-times of 4-12 min. Between 5.3-12.3% of the injected dose was excreted into urine within 1 hr as an immunoreactive TRH. These results indicate the usefulness of TRH radioimmunoassay for clinical investigation. (auth.)

  17. Molecular characterization of a genetic variant of the steroid hormone-binding globulin gene in heterozygous subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D.O.; Catterall, J.F. [Population Council, New York, NY (United States); Carino, C. [Instituto National de la Nutricion, Mexico City, MX (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Steroid hormone-binding globulin in human serum displays different isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns among individuals, suggesting genetic variation in the gene for this extracellular steroid carrier protein. Analysis of allele frequencies and family studies suggested the existence of two codominant alleles of the gene. Subsequent determination of the molecular basis of a variant of the gene was carried out using DNA from homozygous individuals from a single Belgian family. It was of interest to characterize other variant individuals to determine whether all variants identified by IEF phenotyping were caused by the same mutation or whether other mutations occurred in the gene in different populations. Previous studies identified Mexican subjects who were heterozygous for the variant IEF phenotype. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to localize the mutation in these subjects and to purify the variant allele for DNA sequence analysis. The results show that the mutation in this population is identical to that identified in the Belgian family, and no other mutations were detected in the gene. These data represent the first analysis of steroid hormone-binding globulin gene variation in heterozygous subjects and further support the conclusion of biallelism of the gene worldwide. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Characterization of seasonal reproductive and stress steroid hormones in wild Radiated Tortoises, Astrochelys radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currylow, Andrea F T; Rafeliarisoa, Tsilavo H; Louis, Edward E; Stanford, Craig B; Randrianjafizanaka, Soary T; Chinn, Sarah M; Crocker, Daniel E

    2017-11-01

    The critically endangered Radiated Tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) is endemic to the southern coastlines of Madagascar. Once common, wild populations of this tortoise have undergone dramatic declines in recent years. Although there have been studies documenting reproductive activities, reproductive physiological parameters are unknown yet may be crucial in the recovery of the species. Over four research seasons in remote field locations native to A. radiata, we surveyed for, radio-tracked, and sampled wild, free ranging tortoises. We sampled and measured stress and reproductive parameters (corticosterone [CORT], testosterone [T], estradiol-17β [E2], and progesterone [P]) in 311 plasma samples from 203 wild A. radiata, capturing their active period. Generally, hormone concentrations were associated with body condition, temperature, and humidity. There was wide variation in CORT that varied monthly and by group. Juvenile tortoises maintained more than twice the mean basal CORT concentrations than either adult sex, with the most dramatic distinctions in the middle of the wet season. For adult sex hormones, the last months of the dry season and into the wet season when ground humidities are low and just begin to rise prior to temperature declines, male T concentrations gradually increased to a peak before returning to near undetectable values into the dry season. We had limited data for T concentrations in females, but found average T concentrations were much lower than in males and positively correlated with larger female home range sizes. For female hormone cycles, E2 also peaked in the early 1/3 of the wet season along with male T, and was followed by an uptick in P which correlates to the putative ovulatory cycle. Females tracked over four years showed variation in patterns of P, indicating that number and frequency of clutches vary. Our results suggest that 1) there is high species plasticity in response to stress; 2) A. radiata reproductive cycling is somewhat

  19. Brain and gonadal aromatase activity and steroid hormone levels in female and polymorphic males of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, David; Teles, Magda; Alpedrinha, João; Oliveira, Rui F

    2008-11-01

    In the peacock blenny Salaria pavo large males with well-developed secondary sexual characters establish nests and attract females while small "sneaker" males mimic female sexual displays in order to approach the nests of larger males and parasitically fertilize eggs. These alternative reproductive tactics are sequential, as sneakers irreversibly switch into nesting males. This transition involves major morphologic and behavioral changes and is likely to be mediated by hormones. This study focuses on the role of aromatase, an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens into estrogens, in the regulation of male sexual polymorphism in S. pavo. For this, sex steroid plasma levels and aromatase activity (AA) in gonads, whole brain and brain macroareas were determined in sneakers, transitional males (i.e. sneakers undergoing the transition into nesting males), nesting males and females collected in the field. AA was much higher in ovarian tissue than in testicular tissue and accordingly circulating estradiol levels were highest in females. This supports the view that elevated AA and estradiol levels are associated with the development of a functional ovary. Transitional males are in a non-reproductive phase and had underdeveloped testes when compared with sneakers and nesting males. Testicular AA was approximately 10 times higher in transitional males when compared with sneakers and nesting males, suggesting high AA has a suppressive effect on testicular development. Nesting males had significantly higher plasma levels of both testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone when compared with the other male morphs and previous studies demonstrated that these androgens suppress female-like displays in sneakers. In the brain, AA was highest in macroareas presumably containing hypothalamic nuclei traditionally associated with the regulation of reproductive behaviors. Overall, females presented the highest levels of brain AA. In male morphs AA increased from sneakers, to

  20. Steroid hormone release as well as renal water and electrolyte excretion of mice expressing PKB/SGK-resistant GSK3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boini, Krishna M; Bhandaru, Madhuri; Mack, Andreas; Lang, Florian

    2008-09-01

    activity in the regulation of steroid hormone release, renal water and electrolyte excretion and blood pressure control.

  1. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin?) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean d...

  2. Glue protein production can be triggered by steroid hormone signaling independent of the developmental program in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaieda, Yuya; Masuda, Ryota; Nishida, Ritsuo; Shimell, MaryJane; O'Connor, Michael B; Ono, Hajime

    2017-10-01

    Steroid hormones regulate life stage transitions, allowing animals to appropriately follow a developmental timeline. During insect development, the steroid hormone ecdysone is synthesized and released in a regulated manner by the prothoracic gland (PG) and then hydroxylated to the active molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in peripheral tissues. We manipulated ecdysteroid titers, through temporally controlled over-expression of the ecdysteroid-inactivating enzyme, CYP18A1, in the PG using the GeneSwitch-GAL4 system in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We monitored expression of a 20E-inducible glue protein gene, Salivary gland secretion 3 (Sgs3), using a Sgs3:GFP fusion transgene. In wild type larvae, Sgs3-GFP expression is activated at the midpoint of the third larval instar stage in response to the rising endogenous level of 20E. By first knocking down endogenous 20E levels during larval development and then feeding 20E to these larvae at various stages, we found that Sgs3-GFP expression could be triggered at an inappropriate developmental stage after a certain time lag. This stage-precocious activation of Sgs3 required expression of the Broad-complex, similar to normal Sgs3 developmental regulation, and a small level of nutritional input. We suggest that these studies provide evidence for a tissue-autonomic regulatory system for a metamorphic event independent from the primary 20E driven developmental progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of gender on the correlation between plasma growth hormone profiles and urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jansson, C; Skakkebak, N

    1997-01-01

    A lot of interest has been directed towards the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion instead of plasma GH profiles or provocation tests. We investigated the factors influencing the relationship between 24- and 3-hour plasma GH profiles and urinary GH excretion in a cohort of 113...... than spontaneous GH peaks. The difference in cross-reactivities of molecular GH forms in polyclonal assays may have an impact on the correlation between plasma and urinary GH. Thus, the diagnostic value of urinary GH measurement as compared to serum GH profiles needs to be further evaluated....

  4. Effect of Combined Oral Contraceptive Steroids on Plasma Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio were taken as atherogenic markers. Results showed that LDL-cholesterol LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio were significantly higher in OC-treated rat while OC treatment caused significant decreases in plasma HDL-cholesterol and urinary NO2/NO3 levels. However, no significant ...

  5. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  6. Influence of music on steroid hormones and the relationship between receptor polymorphisms and musical ability: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females) were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1) music they preferred (chill-inducing music) and (2) music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor (AR) and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA) was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T) levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability.

  7. Strategies for the Assessment of Metabolic Profiles of Steroid Hormones in View of Diagnostics and Drug Monitoring: Analytical Problems and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenis, Alina; Oledzka, Ilona; Kowalski, Piotr; Baczek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years there has been a growing interest in research focused on the metabolism of steroid hormones despite that the study of metabolic hormone pathways is still a difficult and demanding task because of low steroid concentrations and a complexity of the analysed matrices. Thus, there has been an increasing interest in the development of new, more selective and sensitive methods for monitoring these compounds in biological samples. A lot of bibliographic databases for world research literature were structurally searched using selected review question and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Next, the reports of the highest quality were selected using standard tools (181) and they were described to evaluate the advantages and limitations of different approaches in the measurements of the steroids and their metabolites. The overview of the analytical challenges, development of methods used in the assessment of the metabolic pathways of steroid hormones, and the priorities for future research with a special consideration for liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques have been presented. Moreover, many LC and CE applications in pharmacological and psychological studies as well as endocrinology and sports medicine, taking into account the recent progress in the area of the metabolic profiling of steroids, have been critically discussed. The latest reports show that LC systems coupled with mass spectrometry have the predominant position in the research of steroid profiles. Moreover, CE techniques are going to gain a prominent position in the diagnosis of hormone levels in the near future.

  8. Identification of hormone-interacting amino acid residues within the steroid-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor in relation to other steroid hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstedt-Duke, J.; Stroemstedt, P.E.; Persson, B.; Cederlund, E.; Gustafsson, J.A.; Joernvall, H.

    1988-01-01

    Purified rat liver glucocorticoid receptor was covalently charged with [ 3 H]glucocorticoid by photoaffinity labeling (UV irradiation of [ 3 H]triamcinolone acetonide-glucocorticoid receptor) or affinity labeling (incubation with [ 3 H]dexamethasone mesylate). After labeling, separate samples of the denatured receptor were cleaved with trypsin (directly or after prior succinylation), chymotrypsin, and cyanogen bromide. Labeled residues in the peptides obtained were identified by radiosequence analysis. The peaks of radioactivity corresponded to Met-622 and Cys-754 after photoaffinity labeling with [ 3 H]triamcinolone acetonide and Cys-656 after affinity labeling with [ 3 H]dexamethasone mesylate. The labeled residues are all positioned within hydrophobic segments of the steroid-binding domain. The patterns of hydropathy and secondary structure for the glucocorticoid receptor are highly similar to those for the progestin receptor and similar but less so to those for the estrogen receptor and to those for c-erb A

  9. Sex steroid hormones matter for learning and memory: estrogenic regulation of hippocampal function in male and female rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes the effects of E2 on hippocampal spinogenesis, neurogenesis, physiology, and memory, with particular attention paid to the effects of E2 in male rodents. The estrogen receptors, cell-signaling pathways, and epigenetic processes necessary for E2 to enhance memory in female rodents are also discussed in detail. Finally, practical considerations for working with female rodents are described for those investigators thinking of adding females to their experimental designs. PMID:26286657

  10. Do differences in age specific androgenic steroid hormone levels account for differing prostate cancer rates between Arabs and Caucasians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, Elijah O; Akanji, Abayomi O; Al-Hunayan, Adel; Memon, Anjum; Luqmani, Yunus; Al-Awadi, Khaleel A; Varghese, Ramani; Bashir, Abdul Aziz; Daar, Abdallah S

    2006-04-01

    Factors responsible for the low incidence of clinical prostate cancer in the Arab population remain unclear, but may be related to differences in androgenic steroid hormone metabolism between Arabs and other populations, especially as prostate cancer is believed to be androgen dependent. We therefore measured the levels of serum androgenic steroids and their binding proteins in Arab men and compared results obtained with values reported for Caucasian populations to determine if any differences could at least partially account for differences in incidence of prostate cancer rates between the two populations. Venous blood samples were obtained from 327 unselected apparently healthy indigenous Arab men (Kuwaitis and Omanis) aged 15-79 years. Samples were also obtained from 30 Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), derived free androgen index (FAI); adrenal C19 -steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (ADT) were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Age specific reference intervals, mean and median for each analyte were determined. Frequency distribution pattern for each hormone was plotted. The reference range for hormones with normal distribution was mean +/- 2SD and 2.5-97.5% for those with non-normal distribution. The mean serum levels of the hormones in Arab men with prostate cancer were compared with values in healthy age-matched Arab men. There was a significant decrease between the 21-29 years age group and the 70-79 years age group for TT (-38.77%), DHEAS (-70%), ADT (-36%) and FAI (-63.25%), and an increase for SHBG (+64%). The calculated reference ranges are TT (2.73-30.45 nmol/L), SHBG (6.45-65.67 nmol/L), FAI (14.51-180.34), DHEAS (0.9-11.0 micromol/L) and ADT (0.54-4.26 ng/mL). The mean TT, SHBG, DHEAS and ADT in Arab men were significantly lower than those reported for Caucasians especially in the 21-29 years age group. Arab men with

  11. Gonad organochlorine concentrations and plasma steroid levels in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E.P.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Feist, G.W.; Schreck, C.B.; Yates, J.

    2001-01-01

    Sturgeon are an important fishery resource world-wide, providing food and income through commercial, sport, and tribal fisheries. However, sturgeon populations are imperiled in many areas due to overharvest, habitat loss, and pollution. White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are found along the west coast of North America from San Francisco Bay, USA to British Columbia, Canada. The Columbia River, located in the Pacific Northwest USA, supports active commercial, sport, and tribal white sturgeon fisheries. The white sturgeon fishery in the Columbia River estuary is one of the most productive sturgeon fisheries in the World. Despite the success of the Columbia River estuary white sturgeon fishery, the populations within the impounded sections (i.e. behind the hydroelectric dams) of the Columbia River experience poor reproductive success (Beamesderfer et al. 1995). This poor reproductive success has been attributed to hydroelectric development, but water pollution could also be a significant factor. The bottom dwelling life history and late maturing reproductive strategy for this species may make it particularly sensitive to the adverse effects of bioaccumulative pollutants.The Columbia River receives effluent from bleached-kraft pulp mills, aluminum smelters, municipal sewage treatment plants and runoff from agricultural. industrial, and urban areas. Bioaccumulative contaminants that have the potential for endocrine disruption have been detected in fish and sediments from the Columbia River (Foster et al. 1999). An integrated system of hormones control reproduction in vertebrates. Plasma steroids direct developmental events essential for reproduction. Disruption of endocrine control by contaminants has been linked to reproductive anomalies and failure in a number of vertebrate species (Guillette et al. 1996; Jobling et al. 1996). Because of this, it is important to understand if organochlorine compounds are accumulating in Columbia River white sturgeon and having

  12. Reproduction in female copperhead snakes (Agkistrodon contortrix): plasma steroid profiles during gestation and post-birth periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles F; Schuett, Gordon W; Hoss, Shannon K

    2012-04-01

    We investigated levels of plasma progesterone (P4), 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and corticosterone (CORT) during gestation and post-birth periods in wild-collected female copperhead snakes (Viperidae; Agkistrodon contortrix). We also sought to determine whether CORT levels at (or near) birth dramatically increase and were correlated with duration of labor and litter size. Specifically, pregnant subjects (N = 14) were collected during early- to mid-gestation, held in the laboratory, and repeatedly bled to obtain plasma for steroid analyses. Progesterone showed significant changes during gestation, with the highest levels at the onset of sampling (circa 50 days prior to birth); P4 progressively declined up to parturition, and basal levels were observed thereafter. At the onset of sampling, E2 was at peak levels and fell sharply at circa 30 days prior to birth, a trend observed throughout the post-birth sampling period. Throughout the entire sampling period, T was undetectable. Although CORT showed no significant changes during gestation and several days following parturition, there was a highly significant peak at the time of birth. Our findings mirror the results of previous studies on pregnancy and steroid hormones of other live-bearing snakes, lizards, and mammals. As expected, there was a significant relationship between duration of labor and litter size; however, although levels of CORT did not achieve significance, there was a positive trend with litter size. We suggest that elevation of CORT at birth is involved in the mobilization and regulation of energy stores necessary for the physiological process of parturition and as a possible mechanism to trigger birth.

  13. Effects of sex steroid hormones, thyroid hormone levels, and insulin regulation on thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in Chinese men

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wang; Changsheng, Chen; Jiangfang, Fu; Bin, Gao; Nanyan, Zhang; Xiaomiao, Li; Deqiang, Li; Ying, Xing; Wensong, Zai; Qiuhe, Ji

    2010-01-01

    Our study is to determine the expression of thyroid hormone, sex hormone, insulin, and C-peptide in Chinese male patients with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP). This study covered 102 patients with hyperthyroidism from Xijing Hospital. According to whether occurrence of TPP or not, patients were divided into two groups (those that were hyperthyroid with and without TPP) that were, matched with age, blood pressure, urea, and creatinine. We found the body mass index (BMI) in patients with TP...

  14. Radioimmunossay of hormones and metabolites in blood serum and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    Hormones or metabolites which are capable of producing antibodies can be detected and precisely quantitated by this method. Antibodies, to various hormones or metabolites whose assay is desired, are adsorbed onto commercially available imitation or cultured pearls. These pearls coated with antibody are contacted with a buffered reaction mixture containing blood serum or plasma specimen and respective radioactive antigen. The entire reaction is allowed to proceed for a time sufficient to form antigen (radioactive or non-radioactive)-antibody complex. These complexes on the pearls are washed and the total amount of radioactivity emanating from the complex is measured. This is indicative of the extent of binding of radioactive antigen and provides an indirect correlation of the amount of non-radioactive antigen present in the serum or plasma sample

  15. Supercritical fluid chromatography applied to the highly selective isolation of urinary steroid hormones prior to GC/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doué, Mickael; West, Caroline; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Le Bizec, Bruno; Lesellier, Eric

    2018-06-01

    To assess the presence of prohibited anabolic substances used to promote growth in livestock, calf urine is the most relevant matrix. However, the sample preparation methods (required to remove unwanted matrix components and fractionate isobaric species that may be unresolved by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry GC/MS) are long and complex. In this context, semi-preparative supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was considered to possibly simplify the sample preparation in reducing the number of procedures. Fifteen stationary phases were screened with SFC combined with UV and evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD), among which two columns (Cosmosil π-NAP and Princeton DIOL) were retained for their ability to isolate steroid hormones from other matrix components and, for the second column, for the additional possibility to fractionate steroid hormones into different families (estrogens, mono-hydroxylated and di-hydroxylated androgens). The fractions were further analysed with GC/MS showing the benefit of class fractionation. The final method allows for significant time, solvent and money savings compared to the previously widely used method (solid-phase extraction combined with semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  17. Novel effects of hormonal contraceptive use on the plasma proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R Josse

    Full Text Available Hormonal contraceptive (HC use may increase cardiometabolic risk; however, the effect of HC on emerging cardiometabolic and other disease risk factors is not clear.To determine the association between HC use and plasma proteins involved in established and emerging disease risk pathways.Concentrations of 54 high-abundance plasma proteins were measured simultaneously by LC-MRM/MS in 783 women from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. C-reactive protein (CRP was measured separately. ANCOVA was used to test differences in protein concentrations between users and non-users, and among HC users depending on total hormone dose. Linear regression was used to test the association between duration (years of HC use and plasma protein concentrations. Principal components analysis (PCA was used to identify plasma proteomic profiles in users and non-users.After Bonferroni correction, 19 proteins involved in inflammation, innate immunity, coagulation and blood pressure regulation were significantly different between users and non-users (P<0.0009. These differences were replicated across three distinct ethnocultural groups. Traditional markers of glucose and lipid metabolism were also significantly higher among HC users. Neither hormone dose nor duration of use affected protein concentrations. PCA identified 4 distinct proteomic profiles in users and 3 in non-users.HC use was associated with different concentrations of plasma proteins along various disease-related pathways, and these differences were present across different ethnicities. Aside from the known effect of HC on traditional biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, HC use also affects numerous proteins that may be biomarkers of dysregulation in inflammation, coagulation and blood pressure.

  18. Steroid hormones modulate galectin-1 in the trophoblast HTR-8/SVneocell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić-Trbojević Žanka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of steroids on galectin-1 (gal-1 were studied in HTR-8/SVneo cells by immunocytochemistry, cell-based ELISA, the MTT proliferation test and the Matrigel TM invasion test. Dexamethasone (DEX, progesterone (PRG, and mifepristone (RU486 were used. Gal-1 was modulated in a steroid- and dose-dependent manner by DEX, which mildly but significantly stimulated production at low concentrations (0.1-10 nM, and inhibited it at 100 nM, while the effects of PRG and RU486 were opposite. HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion of Matrigel was significantly decreased in the presence of DEX and lactose. The obtained data support the proposed regulatory role of steroids in trophoblast gal-1 production.

  19. In situ relationship between energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller) from clean and contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouneyrac, C; Pellerin, J; Moukrim, A; Ait Alla, A; Durou, C; Viault, N

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in situ, the temporal effects of urban effluent discharge on energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor. Results have shown no differences in energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) in organisms originating from a contaminated site (Oued Souss) and a comparatively clean site (Oualidia). Both sites are located on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. In contrast, steroid hormone (progesterone, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol) levels were significantly decreased in animals from Oued Souss. The differences in the responses suggest that organisms from the polluted site have been exposed to endocrine disruptors.

  20. Vestigialization of an allosteric switch: genetic and structural mechanisms for the evolution of constitutive activity in a steroid hormone receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie T Bridgham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important goal in molecular evolution is to understand the genetic and physical mechanisms by which protein functions evolve and, in turn, to characterize how a protein's physical architecture influences its evolution. Here we dissect the mechanisms for an evolutionary shift in function in the mollusk ortholog of the steroid hormone receptors (SRs, a family of biologically essential transcription factors. In vertebrates, the activity of SRs allosterically depends on binding a hormonal ligand; in mollusks, however, the SR ortholog (called ER, because of high sequence similarity to vertebrate estrogen receptors activates transcription in the absence of ligand and does not respond to steroid hormones. To understand how this shift in regulation evolved, we combined evolutionary, structural, and functional analyses. We first determined the X-ray crystal structure of the ER of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (CgER, and found that its ligand pocket is filled with bulky residues that prevent ligand occupancy. To understand the genetic basis for the evolution of mollusk ERs' unique functions, we resurrected an ancient SR progenitor and characterized the effect of historical amino acid replacements on its functions. We found that reintroducing just two ancient replacements from the lineage leading to mollusk ERs recapitulates the evolution of full constitutive activity and the loss of ligand activation. These substitutions stabilize interactions among key helices, causing the allosteric switch to become "stuck" in the active conformation and making activation independent of ligand binding. Subsequent changes filled the ligand pocket without further affecting activity; by degrading the allosteric switch, these substitutions vestigialized elements of the protein's architecture required for ligand regulation and made reversal to the ancestral function more complex. These findings show how the physical architecture of allostery enabled a few large

  1. Vestigialization of an Allosteric Switch: Genetic and Structural Mechanisms for the Evolution of Constitutive Activity in a Steroid Hormone Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgham, Jamie T.; Keay, June; Ortlund, Eric A.; Thornton, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    An important goal in molecular evolution is to understand the genetic and physical mechanisms by which protein functions evolve and, in turn, to characterize how a protein's physical architecture influences its evolution. Here we dissect the mechanisms for an evolutionary shift in function in the mollusk ortholog of the steroid hormone receptors (SRs), a family of biologically essential transcription factors. In vertebrates, the activity of SRs allosterically depends on binding a hormonal ligand; in mollusks, however, the SR ortholog (called ER, because of high sequence similarity to vertebrate estrogen receptors) activates transcription in the absence of ligand and does not respond to steroid hormones. To understand how this shift in regulation evolved, we combined evolutionary, structural, and functional analyses. We first determined the X-ray crystal structure of the ER of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (CgER), and found that its ligand pocket is filled with bulky residues that prevent ligand occupancy. To understand the genetic basis for the evolution of mollusk ERs' unique functions, we resurrected an ancient SR progenitor and characterized the effect of historical amino acid replacements on its functions. We found that reintroducing just two ancient replacements from the lineage leading to mollusk ERs recapitulates the evolution of full constitutive activity and the loss of ligand activation. These substitutions stabilize interactions among key helices, causing the allosteric switch to become “stuck” in the active conformation and making activation independent of ligand binding. Subsequent changes filled the ligand pocket without further affecting activity; by degrading the allosteric switch, these substitutions vestigialized elements of the protein's architecture required for ligand regulation and made reversal to the ancestral function more complex. These findings show how the physical architecture of allostery enabled a few large-effect mutations

  2. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPOUNDS ON STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN H295R CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    H295R cells constitute a pluripotent cell line that has retained the enzymatic ability to produce steroids along the entire steroidogenic pathway, including C19 androgens and C18 estrogens. For this reason, they have been a valued research tool, and have been employed in an ever...

  3. Rapid and sensitive analysis of phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, and endogenous steroid hormones in human urine by mixed-mode solid-phase extraction, dansylation, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-xing; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2013-05-01

    Steroid hormone levels in human urine are convenient and sensitive indicators for the impact of phthalates and/or bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on the human steroid hormone endocrine system. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method for determination of 14 phthalate metabolites, BPA, and ten endogenous steroid hormones in urine was developed and validated on the basis of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The optimized mixed-mode solid phase-extraction separated the weakly acidic or neutral BPA and steroid hormones from acidic phthalate metabolites in urine: the former were determined in positive ion mode with a methanol/water mobile phase containing 10 mM ammonium formate; the latter were determined in negative ion mode with a acetonitrile/water mobile phase containing 0.1 % acetic acid, which significantly alleviated matrix effects for the analysis of BPA and steroid hormones. Dansylation of estrogens and BPA realized simultaneous and sensitive analysis of the endogenous steroid hormones and BPA in a single chromatographic run. The limits of detection were less than 0.84 ng/mL for phthalate metabolites and less than 0.22 ng/mL for endogenous steroid hormones and BPA. This proposed method had satisfactory precision and accuracy, and was successfully applied to the analyses of human urine samples. This method could be valuable when investigating the associations among endocrine-disrupting chemicals, endogenous steroid hormones, and relevant adverse outcomes in epidemiological studies.

  4. Sex hormone binding globulin and sex steroids among premenopausal women in the diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Stentz, Frankie B; Murphy, Mary Beth; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Kitabchi, Abbas E

    2013-07-01

    It is unknown whether intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin changes sex steroids among premenopausal women without a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We examined 1-year intervention impact on sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione [A4]) and SHBG and differences by race/ethnicity. A subgroup of Diabetes Prevention Program participants who were premenopausal, not using estrogen, without a history of PCOS or irregular menses, and who reported non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, or African-American race/ethnicity (n = 301). Randomization arms were 1) ILS with the goals of weight reduction of 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, 2) metformin 850 mg twice a day, or 3) placebo. Neither intervention changed sex steroids compared to placebo. ILS, but not metformin, increased median SHBG by 3.1 nmol/L (~11%) compared to decreases of 1.1 nmol/L in the placebo arm (P < .05). This comparison remained significant after adjustment for changes in covariates including waist circumference. However, associations with glucose were not significant. Median baseline A4 was lower in Hispanics compared to NHWs (5.7 nmol/L vs 6.5 nmol/L, P < .05) and increases in A4 were greater in Hispanics compared to NHWs (3.0 nmol/ vs 1.2 nmol/L, P < .05), and these differences did not differ significantly by intervention arm. No other racial/ethnic differences were significant. Among premenopausal glucose-intolerant women, no intervention changed sex steroids. ILS increased SHBG, although associations with glucose were not significant. SHBG and sex steroids were similar by race/ethnicity, with the possible exception of lower baseline A4 levels in Hispanics compared to NHWs.

  5. Effects of night shift on the cognitive load of physicians and urinary steroid hormone profiles - a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterode, Wolf; Schranz, Sandra; Jordakieva, Galateja

    2018-03-21

    Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2). In both conditions, physicians collected a 24 h urine sample for steroid hormone concentration analysis and further completed psychological tests, including the sleep questionnaire (SF-A), the questionnaire for mental state (MDBF) and the computer-assisted visual memory test (FVW) before and at the end of their shifts, respectively. Although mean sleep deprivation during night shift was relatively small (~1.5 h) the impairment in participants' mental state was high in all three dimensions (mood, vigilance and agitation, p ≤ 0.001). Sleep quality (SQ), feeling of being recovered after sleep and mental balance decreased (p ≤ 0.001), whereas mental exhaustion increased (p night shift (p = 0.011), however, mostly in incorrectly identified items and not in correctly identified ones (FVW). SQ and false identified items were negatively correlated, whereas SQ and time of reaction were positively associated. It is assumed that after night shift, a tendency exists to make faster wrong decisions. SQ did not influence correctly identified items in FVW. In contrast to previous investigations, we found that only excretion rates for pregnanetriol and androsterone/etiocholanolone ratios (p night shift. A considerable stimulation of the

  6. Fecal steroid hormones reveal reproductive state in female blue whales sampled in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Molina, Marcia; Atkinson, Shannon; Mashburn, Kendall; Gendron, Diane; Brownell, Robert L

    2018-05-15

    Steroid hormone assessment using non-invasive sample collection techniques can reveal the reproductive status of aquatic mammals and the physiological mechanisms by which they respond to changes in their environment. A portion of the eastern North Pacific blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) population that seasonally visits the Gulf of California, Mexico has been monitored using photo-identified individuals for over 30 years. The whales use the area in winter-early spring for nursing their calves and feeding and it therefore is well suited for fecal sample collection. Using radioimmunoassays in 25 fecal samples collected between 2009 and 2012 to determine reproductive state and stress, we validated three steroid hormones (progesterone, corticosterone and cortisol) in adult female blue whales. Females that were categorized as pregnant had higher mean fecal progesterone metabolite concentrations (1292.6 ± 415.6 ng·g -1 ) than resting and lactating females (14.0 ± 3.7 ng·g -1 ; 23.0 ± 5.4 ng·g -1 , respectively). Females classified as pregnant also had higher concentrations of corticosterone metabolites (37.5 ± 9.9 ng·g -1 ) than resting and lactating females (17.4 ± 2.0 ng·g -1 ; 16.8 ± 2.8 ng·g -1 , respectively). In contrast, cortisol metabolite concentrations showed high variability between groups and no significant relationship to reproductive state. We successfully determined preliminary baseline parameters of key steroid hormones by reproductive state in adult female blue whales. The presence of pregnant or with luteal activity and known lactating females confirms that the Gulf of California is an important winter-spring area for the reproductive phase of these blue whales. The baseline corticosterone levels we are developing will be useful for assessing the impact of the increasing coastal development and whale-watching activities on the whales in the Gulf of California. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Steroid hormones affect binding of the sigma ligand 11C-SA4503 in tumour cells and tumour-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W.; Jong, Johan R. de; Vries, Erik F. de; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Waarde, Aren van; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2009-01-01

    Sigma receptors are implicated in memory and cognitive functions, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. In addition, sigma receptors are strongly overexpressed in many tumours. Although the natural ligands are still unknown, steroid hormones are potential candidates. Here, we examined changes in binding of the sigma-1 agonist 11 C-SA4503 in C6 glioma cells and in living rats after modification of endogenous steroid levels. 11 C-SA4503 binding was assessed in C6 monolayers by gamma counting and in anaesthetized rats by microPET scanning. C6 cells were either repeatedly washed and incubated in steroid-free medium or exposed to five kinds of exogenous steroids (1 h or 5 min before tracer addition, respectively). Tumour-bearing male rats were repeatedly treated with pentobarbital (a condition known to result in reduction of endogenous steroid levels) or injected with progesterone. Binding of 11 C-SA4503 to C6 cells was increased (∝50%) upon removal and decreased (∝60%) upon addition of steroid hormones (rank order of potency: progesterone > allopregnanolone = testosterone = androstanolone > dehydroepiandrosterone-3-sulphate, IC 50 progesterone 33 nM). Intraperitoneally administered progesterone reduced tumour uptake and tumour-to-muscle contrast (36%). Repeated treatment of animals with pentobarbital increased the PET standardized uptake value of 11 C-SA4503 in tumour (16%) and brain (27%), whereas the kinetics of blood pool radioactivity was unaffected. The binding of 11 C-SA4503 is sensitive to steroid competition. Since not only increases but also decreases of steroid levels affect ligand binding, a considerable fraction of the sigma-1 receptor population in cultured tumour cells or tumour-bearing animals is normally occupied by endogenous steroids. (orig.)

  8. Steroid hormones affect binding of the sigma ligand {sup 11}C-SA4503 in tumour cells and tumour-bearing rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W.; Jong, Johan R. de; Vries, Erik F. de; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Waarde, Aren van [University of Groningen, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands); Ishiwata, Kiichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Positron Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Sigma receptors are implicated in memory and cognitive functions, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. In addition, sigma receptors are strongly overexpressed in many tumours. Although the natural ligands are still unknown, steroid hormones are potential candidates. Here, we examined changes in binding of the sigma-1 agonist {sup 11}C-SA4503 in C6 glioma cells and in living rats after modification of endogenous steroid levels. {sup 11}C-SA4503 binding was assessed in C6 monolayers by gamma counting and in anaesthetized rats by microPET scanning. C6 cells were either repeatedly washed and incubated in steroid-free medium or exposed to five kinds of exogenous steroids (1 h or 5 min before tracer addition, respectively). Tumour-bearing male rats were repeatedly treated with pentobarbital (a condition known to result in reduction of endogenous steroid levels) or injected with progesterone. Binding of {sup 11}C-SA4503 to C6 cells was increased ({proportional_to}50%) upon removal and decreased ({proportional_to}60%) upon addition of steroid hormones (rank order of potency: progesterone > allopregnanolone = testosterone = androstanolone > dehydroepiandrosterone-3-sulphate, IC{sub 50} progesterone 33 nM). Intraperitoneally administered progesterone reduced tumour uptake and tumour-to-muscle contrast (36%). Repeated treatment of animals with pentobarbital increased the PET standardized uptake value of {sup 11}C-SA4503 in tumour (16%) and brain (27%), whereas the kinetics of blood pool radioactivity was unaffected. The binding of {sup 11}C-SA4503 is sensitive to steroid competition. Since not only increases but also decreases of steroid levels affect ligand binding, a considerable fraction of the sigma-1 receptor population in cultured tumour cells or tumour-bearing animals is normally occupied by endogenous steroids. (orig.)

  9. Steroid hormonal bioactivities, culprit natural and synthetic hormones and other emerging contaminants in waste water measured using bioassays and UPLC-tQ-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Ten Broek, Rob; Brouwer, Abraham

    2018-07-15

    Emission of compounds with biological activities from waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents into surface waters is a topic of concern for ecology and drinking water quality. We investigated the occurrence of hormone-like activities in waste water sample extracts from four Dutch WWTPs and pursued to identify compounds responsible for them. To this aim, in vitro reporter gene bioassays for androgenic, anti-androgenic, estrogenic, glucocorticoid and progestogenic activity and a UPLC-tQ-MS target analysis method for 25 steroid hormones used in high volumes in pharmacy were applied. Principal component analysis of the data was performed to further characterize the detected activities and compounds. All five types of activities tested were observed in the WWTP samples. Androgenic and estrogenic activities were almost completely removed during WW treatment, anti-androgenic activity was only found in treated WW. Glucocorticoid and progestogenic activities persisted throughout the treatment. The androgenic activity in both influent could predominantly be attributed to the presence of androstenedione and testosterone. Anti-androgenic activity was explained by the presence of cyproterone acetate. The glucocorticoid activity in influent was fully explained by prednicarbate, triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethasone and amcinonide. In effluent however, detected hormones could only explain 10-32% of the activity, indicating the presence of unknown glucocorticoids or their metabolites in effluent. Progesterone and levonorgestrel could explain the observed progestogenic activity. The principle component analysis confirmed the way in which hormones fit in the spectrum of other emerging contaminants concerning occurrence and fate in WWTPs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2015-01-01

    .6 ± 2.2) and at follow-up (16.2 ± 2.6 days after intervention start). RESULTS: Sex hormone manipulation with GnRHa significantly triggered subclinical depressive symptoms within-group (p = .003) and relative to placebo (p = .02), which were positively associated with net decreases in estradiol levels (p......BACKGROUND: An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised...... serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS...

  11. Urinary steroid hormone patterns: III. Effect of continuous daily administration of low dose megestrol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, G L; Roy, S; Allag, I S; Ghosal, J

    1975-12-01

    The effect of megestrol acetate, administered in daily doses of .5 mg, on urinary steroid levels was studied before, during, and after therapy in 4 women volunteers. In each case, pregnanediol levels were reduced, though ovulatory biphasic patterns, as reflected in basal body temperature patterns, were apparent in the majority of the cycles, which suggests that corpus luteum function, but not ovulation, was impaired. 17-ketosteroid levels were significantly (p less than .001) increased either during or after treatment, while 17-hydroxycorticoid levels were reduced in 3 of the women. 2 subjects showed a marked reduction in levels of 17-ketogenic steroids and corticoid levels. Total estrogen levels seemed to correlate with the levels of corticoid excretion.

  12. Identification and Quantification of Several Mammalian Steroid Hormones in Plants by UPLC-MS/MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simerský, Radim; Novák, Ondřej; Morris, David; Pouzar, Vladimír; Strnad, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2009), s. 125-136 ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) * Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) * Immunoaffinity purification * Steroids * Plant extracts * Digitalis purpurea * Nicotiana tabacum * Inula helenium Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.438, year: 2009

  13. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  14. Hormonal regulation of steroid receptor coactivator-1 mRNA in the male and female green anole brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerver, H N; Wade, J

    2015-03-01

    Green anole lizards are seasonal breeders, with male sexual behaviour primarily regulated by an annual increase in testosterone. Morphological, biochemical and behavioural changes associated with reproduction are activated by testosterone, generally with a greater effect in the breeding season (BS) than in the nonbreeding season (NBS). The present study investigates the possibility that differences in a steroid receptor coactivator may regulate this seasonal difference in responsiveness to testosterone. In situ hybridisation was used to examine the expression of steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) in the brains of gonadally intact male and female green anoles across breeding states. A second experiment examined gonadectomised animals with and without testosterone treatment. Gonadally intact males had more SRC-1 expressing cells in the preoptic area and larger volumes of this region as defined by these cells than females. Main effects of both sex and season (males > females and BS > NBS) were present in cell number and volume of the ventromedial hypothalamus. An interaction between sex and season suggested that high expression in BS males was driving these effects. In hormone-manipulated animals, testosterone treatment increased both the number of SRC-1 expressing cells in and volumes of the preoptic area and amygdala. These results suggest that testosterone selectively regulates SRC-1, and that this coactivator may play a role in facilitating reproductive behaviours across both sexes. However, changes in SRC-1 expression are not likely responsible for the seasonal change in responsiveness to testosterone. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  15. Effects of experimentally induced mild hyperthyroidism on growth hormone and insulin secretion and sex steroid levels in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, J C; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Veldhuis, J D; Rood, J C; Tulley, R

    1997-12-01

    Although triiodothyronine (T3) exerts major regulatory actions in both animals and humans, most clinical studies of T3 administration have been relatively short-term. The present study examined the effects of more than 2 months (63 days) of low-dose T3 treatment on overnight pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion, short-term insulin secretion, and of sex steroid levels in seven healthy, lean men studied at an inpatient metabolic unit. At baseline, there were strong correlations between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and several measures of GH production, including total GH production (r = .99), GH interburst interval (r = -.75), and GH mass (r = .82). SHBG was also inversely correlated with basal insulin secretion (r = -.74). There was a 42% increase in serum levels of total testosterone (18.5 +/- 1.3 to 26.3 +/- 1.8 nmol/L, P = .005) and a 150% increase in SHBG (18.0 +/- 2.2 to 44.9 +/- 7.0 nmol/L, P = .008) following T3 treatment. Estradiol and free testosterone levels were unchanged by treatment, although free testosterone decreased from 142.8 +/- 18.4 to 137.3 +/- 19.5 pmol/L. T3 treatment significantly reduced the GH interburst interval (P secretion. There were no statistically significant effects of T3 treatment on insulin secretion, although insulin peak amplitude, mass secreted per burst, and total production all decreased. We conclude that experimentally induced T3 excess in healthy men produces significant and sustained changes in sex hormone levels and GH secretion. Furthermore, there are strong associations between SHBG and both GH and insulin secretion independent of thyroid hormone excess that require additional study.

  16. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Julie; Mendrek, Adrianna; Germain, Martine; Hot, Pascal; Lavoie, Marc E

    2014-01-01

    Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200), which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms. The N200 and P300 amplitudes were positively

  17. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eChampagne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200, which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms.

  18. Circulating and intraprostatic sex steroid hormonal profiles in relation to male pattern baldness and chest hair density among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Hafi, Muhannad; Veneroso, Carmela C; Lynch, Barlow; Falk, Roni T; Niwa, Shelley; Emanuel, Eric; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hemstreet, George P; Zolfghari, Ladan; Carroll, Peter R; Manyak, Michael J; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Levine, Paul H; Hsing, Ann W; Cook, Michael B

    2017-12-01

    Prospective cohort studies of circulating sex steroid hormones and prostate cancer risk have not provided a consistent association, despite evidence from animal and clinical studies. However, studies using male pattern baldness as a proxy of early-life or cumulative androgen exposure have reported significant associations with aggressive and fatal prostate cancer risk. Given that androgens underlie the development of patterned hair loss and chest hair, we assessed whether these two dermatological characteristics were associated with circulating and intraprostatic concentrations of sex steroid hormones among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. We included 248 prostate cancer patients from the NCI Prostate Tissue Study, who answered surveys and provided a pre-treatment blood sample as well as fresh frozen adjacent normal prostate tissue. Male pattern baldness and chest hair density were assessed by trained nurses before surgery. General linear models estimated geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of each hormone variable by dermatological phenotype with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were performed by Gleason score (balding status with serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and a weak association with elevated intraprostatic testosterone. Conversely, neither circulating nor intraprostatic sex hormones were statistically significantly associated with chest hair density. Age-adjusted correlation between binary balding status and three-level chest hair density was weak (r = 0.05). There was little evidence to suggest that Gleason score or race modified these associations. This study provides evidence that balding status assessed at a mean age of 60 years may serve as a clinical marker for circulating sex hormone concentrations. The weak-to-null associations between balding status and intraprostatic sex hormones reaffirm differences in organ

  19. Group-level competition influences urinary steroid hormones among wild red-tailed monkeys, indicating energetic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian V; Trumble, Benjamin C; Brown, Michelle

    2018-04-10

    Various theories emphasize that intergroup competition should affect intragroup cooperation and social relationships, especially if the cost of intergroup competition outweighs that of intragroup competition. This cost of intergroup competition may be quantified by changes in physiological status, such as in the steroid hormones cortisol (C) and testosterone (T), which rise or are depressed during periods of energetic stress, respectively. Here we tested for changes in urinary C and T after intergroup encounters (IGEs) among wild red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius), a species that experiences frequent intergroup feeding competition, at the Ngogo station in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We assayed 108 urine samples, of which 36 were collected after IGEs, from 23 individuals in four social groups. Bayesian multilevel models controlling for various confounds revealed that IGEs increased C and decreased T relative to baseline, consistent with an energetic cost to IGEs. The C change was more apparent in samples collected early after IGEs, suggesting an anticipatory increase, whereas the T change was stronger in later samples, suggesting sustained energetic trade-offs. Hormone responses were not affected by the IGE outcome. This cost to intergroup competition, together with little evidence for intragroup competition in redtails and other guenons, establishes an interesting test case for theories emphasizing the effect of intergroup competition on intragroup cooperation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Altered plasma concentrations of sex hormones in cats infected by feline immunodeficiency virus or feline leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerizo, G; Doménech, A; Illera, J-C; Silván, G; Gómez-Lucía, E

    2012-02-01

    Gender differences may affect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans and may be related to fluctuations in sex hormone concentration. The different percentage of male and female cats observed to be infected by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has been traditionally explained through the transmission mechanisms of both viruses. However, sexual hormones may also play a role in this different distribution. To study this possibility, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations were analyzed using a competitive enzyme immunoassay in the plasma of 258 cats naturally infected by FIV (FIV(+)), FeLV (FeLV(+)), or FeLV and FIV (F(-)F(+)) or negative for both viruses, including both sick and clinically healthy animals. Results indicated that the concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone were significantly higher in animals infected with FIV or FeLV (P < 0.05) than in negative cats. Plasma concentrations of DHEA in cats infected by either retrovirus were lower than in negative animals (P < 0.05), and F(-)F(+) cats had significantly lower plasma values than monoinfected cats (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected in the plasma concentration of progesterone of the four groups. No relevant differences were detected in the hormone concentrations between animal genders, except that FIV(+) females had higher DHEA concentrations than the corresponding males (P < 0.05). In addition, no differences were observed in the hormone concentrations between retrovirus-infected and noninfected animals with and without clinical signs. These results suggest that FIV and FeLV infections are associated with an important deregulation of steroids, possibly from early in the infection process, which might have decisive consequences for disease progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Extracellular and intracellular steroid binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    Steroid hormone binding proteins can be measured, after the removal of endogenous steroids, as specific complexes with radio-labelled hormones. In this study all the requirements for a quantitative determination of steroid hormone binding proteins are defined. For different methods, agargel electrophoresis, density gradient centrifugation, equilibrium dialysis and polyacrylamide electrophoresis have been evaluated. Agar electrophoresis at low temperature was found to be the simplest and most useful procedure. With this method the dissociation rates of high affinity complexes can be assessed and absolute binding protein concentrations can be determined. The dissociation rates of the oestradiol-oestrogen receptor complex and the R-5020-progestin receptor complex are low (1-2% per h run time.) In contrast, that of complexes between androgen receptor and dihydrotestosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one (DHT), progestin receptor and progesterone, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and cortisol or progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and DHT were hign (16-27% per h run time). Target tissue extracts (cytosols) contain, besides soluble tissue proteins, large amounts of plasma proteins. The extent of this plasma contamination can be determined by measuring the albumin concentration in cytosols by immunodiffusion. In cytosols of 4 different human target tissues the albumin content varied from 20-30% corresponding to an even higher whole plasma concentration. Steroid binding plasma proteins, such as CBG and SHBG are constituents of this containment. (author)

  2. Effects of Evolocumab on Vitamin E and Steroid Hormone Levels: Results From the 52-Week, Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled DESCARTES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Dirk J; Djedjos, C Stephen; Monsalvo, Maria Laura; Bridges, Ian; Wasserman, Scott M; Scott, Rob; Roth, Eli

    2015-09-25

    Vitamin E transport and steroidogenesis are closely associated with low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) metabolism, and evolocumab can lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to low levels. To determine the effects of evolocumab on vitamin E and steroid hormone levels. After titration of background lipid-lowering therapy per cardiovascular risk, 901 patients with an LDL-C ≥2.0 mmol/L were randomized to 52 weeks of monthly, subcutaneous evolocumab, or placebo. Vitamin E, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and gonadal hormones were analyzed at baseline and week 52. In a substudy (n=100), vitamin E levels were also measured in serum, LDL, high-density lipoprotein, and red blood cell membranes at baseline and week 52. Absolute vitamin E decreased in evolocumab-treated patients from baseline to week 52 by 16% but increased by 19% when normalized for cholesterol. In the substudy, vitamin E level changes from baseline to week 52 mirrored the changes in the lipid fraction, and red blood cell membrane vitamin E levels did not change. Cortisol in evolocumab-treated patients increased slightly from baseline to week 52, but adrenocorticotropic hormone and the cortisol:adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio did not change. No patient had a cortisol:adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio <3.0 (nmol/pmol). Among evolocumab-treated patients, gonadal hormones did not change from baseline to week 52. Vitamin E and steroid changes were consistent across subgroups by minimum postbaseline LDL-C <0.4 and <0.6 mmol/L. As expected, vitamin E levels changed similarly to lipids among patients treated for 52 weeks with evolocumab. No adverse effects were observed in steroid or gonadal hormones, even at very low LDL-C levels. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01516879. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone receptor expression in the chicken pituitary gland: potential influence of sexual maturation and ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddineni, S; Ocón-Grove, O M; Krzysik-Walker, S M; Hendricks, G L; Proudman, J A; Ramachandran, R

    2008-09-01

    Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic RFamide, has been found to inhibit gonadotrophin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland originally in birds and, subsequently, in mammalian species. The gene encoding a transmembrane receptor for GnIH (GnIHR) was recently identified in the brain, pituitary gland and gonads of song bird, chicken and Japanese quail. The objectives of the present study are to characterise the expression of GnIHR mRNA and protein in the chicken pituitary gland, and to determine whether sexual maturation and gonadal steroids influence pituitary GnIHR mRNA abundance. GnIHR mRNA quantity was found to be significantly higher in diencephalon compared to either anterior pituitary gland or ovaries. GnIHR mRNA quantity was significantly higher in the pituitaries of sexually immature chickens relative to sexually mature chickens. Oestradiol or a combination of oestradiol and progesterone treatment caused a significant decrease in pituitary GnIHR mRNA quantity relative to vehicle controls. GnIHR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were identified in the chicken pituitary gland cephalic and caudal lobes. Furthermore, GnIHR-ir cells were found to be colocalised with luteinising hormone (LH)beta mRNA-, or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)beta mRNA-containing cells. GnIH treatment significantly decreased LH release from anterior pituitary gland slices collected from sexually immature, but not from sexually mature chickens. Taken together, GnIHR gene expression is possibly down regulated in response to a surge in circulating oestradiol and progesterone levels as the chicken undergoes sexual maturation to allow gonadotrophin secretion. Furthermore, GnIHR protein expressed in FSHbeta or LHbeta mRNA-containing cells is likely to mediate the inhibitory effect of GnIH on LH and FSH secretion.

  4. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, Patrick R., E-mail: phannon2@illinois.edu; Brannick, Katherine E., E-mail: kbran@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: Wei.Wang2@covance.com; Gupta, Rupesh K., E-mail: drrupesh@yahoo.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2015-04-01

    inhibits the production of antral follicle produced sex steroid hormones.

  5. Adrenal steroid hormone concentrations in dogs with hair cycle arrest (Alopecia X) before and during treatment with melatonin and mitotane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Linda A; Hnilica, Keith A; Oliver, Jack W

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate intermediate adrenal steroid hormones (ISH) in neutered dogs with hair cycle arrest (Alopecia X) during treatment with melatonin, and to see if hair re-growth is associated with sex hormone concentrations within the normal ranges. Twenty-nine neutered, euthyroid, and normo-cortisolemic dogs were enrolled in the study (23 Pomeranians, three keeshonds, two miniature poodles, and one Siberian husky). Coat assessment and an ACTH stimulation test were performed pre-treatment and approximately every 4 months for a year post treatment. Melatonin was administered initially at 3-6 mg, every 12 h. Based on clinical progression, each dog was continued on the current dose of melatonin, given an increased dose of melatonin or changed to mitotane. Partial to complete hair re-growth occurred in 14/23 Pomeranians, and partial re-growth in 3/3 keeshond and 1/2 poodle dogs. A Siberian husky dog failed to re-grow hair. Fifteen dogs had partial hair re-growth at the first re-evaluation. Melatonin dosage was increased in eight dogs but only one had improved hair re-growth. On mitotane treatment, partial to complete hair re-growth was seen in 4/6 dogs and no re-growth in 2/6 dogs. No significant decrease in sex hormone concentrations were seen during melatonin or mitotane treatment. Concentrations of ISH in dogs with hair re-growth did not differ significantly from pre-treatment values. At the completion of the study, androstenedione, progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were still above reference ranges in 21, 64 and 36%, respectively, of dogs with partial to complete hair re-growth. In conclusion, 62% of dogs had partial to complete hair re-growth. However, not all dogs with hair re-growth had concentrations of ISH within the normal range.

  6. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Brannick, Katherine E.; Wang, Wei; Gupta, Rupesh K.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    inhibits the production of antral follicle produced sex steroid hormones

  7. Platelet rich plasma versus steroid on lateral epicondylitis: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Bobin; Liu, Guohui; Zhou, Wu; Lv, Huijuan; Liu, Yi; Wu, Qipeng; Liu, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common tendinopathy for which an effective treatment is still unknown. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness of platelet rich plasma (PRP) vs steroid in reducing pain and improving function of the elbow in the treatment of LE. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify related articles published from January 1980 to September 2016 in Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and SpringerLink. All studies that compared PRP with steroid administration on LE were included. Main outcomes were collected and analyzed by the Review Manager 5.1. Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that involved 511 patients met the criteria. This meta-analysis showed that there was no significant difference in pain relief in the short-term (2 to 4 weeks: SMD = 1.02, P = .03; 6 to 8 weeks: SMD = .73, P = .24) and the intermediate-term (12 weeks: SMD = -0.28, P = .35). Steroid exhibited a better efficacy of function in the short-term (2 to 4 weeks: SMD = .61, P < .001; 6 to 8 weeks: SMD = .53, P < .001). However, PRP was superior to steroid for pain relief in the long-term (half year: SMD = -1.6, P < .001; one year: SMD = -1.45, P < .001), and also for function improving in the intermediate-term (12 weeks: SMD = -0.53, P < .001) and the long-term (half year: SMD = -0.56, P < .001; one year: SMD = -0.7, P < .001). No serious adverse effects of treatment were observed in the two groups. Treatment of patients with LE by steroid could slightly relieve pain and significantly improve function of elbow in the short-term (2 to 4 weeks, 6 to 8 weeks). PRP appears to be more effective in relieving pain and improving function in the intermediate-term (12 weeks) and long-term (half year and one year). Considering the long-term effectiveness of PRP, we recommend PRP as the preferred option for LE.

  8. Radioimmunological determination of plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone, folliculostimulating hormone and prolactin levels in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkov, V.; Maleeva, A.; Tsvetkov, M.; Visheva, N.

    1986-01-01

    The hormone levels were measured before and after hormonal therapy. Statistically significant changes in the levels of the hormones in this study were recognized (p<0,001) as a result of treatment with estrogen preparations. Plasma prolactin was raised before estrogen therapy (statistically significant rise, p<0,001), as compared to the levels in a control group of normal subjects. A mild tendency was observed toward its increase, depending on the duration of treatment. The results of this study show that control of the hormonal status of patients with prostate cancer may serve as reliable criterion in evaluating the effectiveness of hormonal therapy. The changes in prolactin levels are evidence of hormonal disbalance, which may be observed in these patients

  9. Steroidal compounds as carriers of juvenile hormone bioanalogues applicable in environmentally safe insect pest control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurček, Ondřej; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Bennettová, Blanka; Kuldová, Jelena; Hrdý, Ivan; Drašar, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, Suppl. 1 (2007), A131-A132 ISSN 1738-2297. [International Congress of Insect Biotechnology and Industry. 19.08.2007-24.08.2007, Daegu] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : juvenile hormone bioanalogues * juvenoid * juvenogen Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  10. pH dependence of steroid hormone-organic matter interactions at environmental concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neale, Peta A. [School of Engineering and Electronics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.neale@ed.ac.uk; Escher, Beate I. [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), 8600, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Schaefer, Andrea I. [School of Engineering and Electronics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    The interaction of estradiol, estrone, progesterone and testosterone with environmentally relevant concentrations of Aldrich humic acid, alginic acid and tannic acid was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Since bulk organic matter and certain hormones such as estradiol and estrone contain dissociable functional groups, the effect of pH on sorption was investigated as this will influence their fate and bioavailability. For humic acid and tannic acid, sorption was strongest at acidic pH when the bulk organic matter was in a non-dissociated form and decreased when they became partially negatively charged. At acidic and neutral pH the strength of partitioning was influenced by hormone functional groups content, with the strongest sorption observed for progesterone and estrone. At alkaline pH conditions, when the bulk organics were dissociated, sorption decreased considerably (up to a factor of 14), although the non-dissociated hormones testosterone and progesterone indicated greater sorption to humic acid at pH 10 compared to the partially deprotonated estradiol and estrone. This study demonstrates that SPME can be used to assess organic matter sorption behaviour of a selected range of micropollutants and at environmentally relevant organic matter concentrations.

  11. Investigating the Interactive Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor during Adolescence on Hippocampal NMDA Receptor Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cushla R. McCarthny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones have neuroprotective properties which may be mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. This study sought to determine the interactive effects of preadolescent hormone manipulation and BDNF heterozygosity (+/− on hippocampal NMDA-R expression. Wild-type and BDNF+/− mice were gonadectomised, and females received either 17β-estradiol or progesterone treatment, while males received either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT treatment. Dorsal (DHP and ventral hippocampus (VHP were dissected, and protein expression of GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD-95 was assessed by Western blot analysis. Significant genotype × OVX interactions were found for GluN1 and GluN2 expression within the DHP of female mice, suggesting modulation of select NMDA-R levels by female sex hormones is mediated by BDNF. Furthermore, within the DHP BDNF+/− mice show a hypersensitive response to hormone treatment on GluN2 expression which may result from upstream alterations in TrkB phosphorylation. In contrast to the DHP, the VHP showed no effects of hormone manipulation but significant effects of genotype on NMDA-R expression. Castration had no effect on NMDA-R expression; however, androgen treatment had selective effects on GluN2B. These data show case distinct, interactive roles for sex steroid hormones and BDNF in the regulation of NMDA-R expression that are dependent on dorsal versus ventral hippocampal region.

  12. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Coviello

    Full Text Available Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106, PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11, GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16, ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09, JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35, SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08, NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12, ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14, TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14, LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07, BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08, and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06. These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08, women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003. Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion

  13. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Rzasa, J. [Akademia Rolnicza, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10{sup -7} M or 2x10{sup -7} M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10{sup 5} cells, respectively), and E2 (272.5 pg/10{sup 5} cells, 10.6 pg/10{sup 5} cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10{sup 5} cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10{sup 5} cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle `in vivo`. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab.

  14. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J.; Rzasa, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10 -7 M or 2x10 -7 M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10 5 cells, respectively), and E2 272.5 pg/10 5 cells, 10.6 pg/10 5 cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10 5 cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10 5 cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle 'in vivo'. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  15. Effects on steroid hormones secretion resulting from the acute stimulation of sectioning the superior ovarian nerve to pre-pubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult rat, neural signals arriving to the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON modulate progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 secretion. The aims of the present study were to analyze if the SON in the pre-pubertal rat also modulates ovarian hormone secretion and the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing (LH hormone. P4, T, E2, FSH and LH serum levels were measured 30 or 60 minutes after sectioning the SON of pre-pubertal female rats. Our results indicate that the effects on hormone levels resulting from unilaterally or bilaterally sectioning the SON depends on the analyzed hormone, and the time lapse between surgery and autopsy, and that the treatment yielded asymmetric results. The results also suggest that in the pre-pubertal rat the neural signals arriving to the ovaries via the SON regulate the enzymes participating in P4, T and E2 synthesis in a non-parallel way, indicating that the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of each hormone are not regulated by the same signals. Also, that the changes in the steroids hormones are not explained exclusively by the modifications in gonadotropins secretion. The observed differences in hormone levels between rats sacrificed 30 and 60 min after surgery reflect the onset of the compensatory systems regulating hormones secretion.

  16. Lead (Pb) attenuation of plasma growth hormone output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, W.D.; Moriarty, C.M. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Lau, Y.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Edwards, G.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1996-03-08

    Lead (Pb) induced growth retardation may occur through disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone (GH) axis. Episodic GH secretion and GH response to exogenous growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) were measured in rats chronically exposed to Pb. Male rats received lead nitrate (1000 ppm) in their drinking water from 21 through 49 days of age gained less weight than non-Pb treated controls (242{plus_minus}3 g vs 309{plus_minus}8 g, P{le}0.01). Mean blood Pb was 40 {plus_minus} 5 ug/dl in Pb treated rats vs. nondetectable in controls. Total food intake was increased by Pb treatment (340 vs 260 g/rat). Mean plasma GH levels were significantly reduced by Pb treatment (40.21 {plus_minus} 7 vs 71.53 {plus_minus} 11 ng/mlP= 0.025). However, the temporal pattern of episodic GH release was maintained in the Pb-treated rats. This indicates that Pb does not disrupt the timing of GHRH and somatostatin (SS) release from the hypothalamus but may alter the relative levels of GHRH and SS released. Pb treated rats also retained the ability to secrete GH in response to exogenous GHRH. However, response to GHRH tended to be lower in the Pb treated rats. The greatest effect of Pb was seen at the highest dose of GHRH 5 {mu}g/kg GHRH dose (485.6 {plus_minus} 103 vs. 870.2 {plus_minus} 317 ng/ml; P =0.2). This suggests that Pb disrupts GH synthesis, signal transduction, or secretory mechanisms in the somatotrope.

  17. 17β-trenbolone, an anabolic–androgenic steroid as well as an environmental hormone, contributes to neurodegeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Fucui; Liu, Daicheng

    2015-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to neurodegenerative disorders. In a large number of neurodegenerative diseases (for example, Alzheimer's disease (AD)), patients do not carry the mutant genes. Other risk factors, for example the environmental factors, should be evaluated. 17β-trenbolone is a kind of environmental hormone as well as an anabolic–androgenic steroid. 17β-trenbolone is used as a growth promoter for livestock in the USA. Also, a large portion of recreational exercisers inject 17β-trenbolone in large doses and for very long time to increase muscle and strength. 17β-trenbolone is stable in the environment after being excreted. In the present study, 17β-trenbolone was administered to adult and pregnant rats and the primary hippocampal neurons. 17β-trenbolone's distribution and its effects on serum hormone levels and Aβ42 accumulation in vivo and its effects on AD related parameters in vitro were assessed. 17β-trenbolone accumulated in adult rat brain, especially in the hippocampus, and in the fetus brain. It altered Aβ42 accumulation. 17β-trenbolone induced apoptosis of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro and resisted neuroprotective function of testosterone. Presenilin-1 protein expression was down-regulated while β-amyloid peptide 42 (Aβ42) production and caspase-3 activities were increased. Both androgen and estrogen receptors mediated the processes. 17β-trenbolone played critical roles in neurodegeneration. Exercisers who inject large doses of trenbolone and common people who are exposed to 17β-trenbolone by various ways are all influenced chronically and continually. Identification of such environmental risk factors will help us take early prevention measure to slow down the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: • The widely used anabolic–androgenic steroid 17β-trenbolone has neurotoxicity. • 17β-trenbolone crosses the blood brain barrier and placental barrier. • Rat has high level of

  18. 17β-trenbolone, an anabolic–androgenic steroid as well as an environmental hormone, contributes to neurodegeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Fucui, E-mail: mafucui@hotmail.com [Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, No. 16 Xinshan Road, Hi-tech Industry Park, Wenzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Resistance, College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 East Wenhua Road, Jinan 250014 (China); Liu, Daicheng, E-mail: liudch@sdnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Resistance, College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 East Wenhua Road, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to neurodegenerative disorders. In a large number of neurodegenerative diseases (for example, Alzheimer's disease (AD)), patients do not carry the mutant genes. Other risk factors, for example the environmental factors, should be evaluated. 17β-trenbolone is a kind of environmental hormone as well as an anabolic–androgenic steroid. 17β-trenbolone is used as a growth promoter for livestock in the USA. Also, a large portion of recreational exercisers inject 17β-trenbolone in large doses and for very long time to increase muscle and strength. 17β-trenbolone is stable in the environment after being excreted. In the present study, 17β-trenbolone was administered to adult and pregnant rats and the primary hippocampal neurons. 17β-trenbolone's distribution and its effects on serum hormone levels and Aβ42 accumulation in vivo and its effects on AD related parameters in vitro were assessed. 17β-trenbolone accumulated in adult rat brain, especially in the hippocampus, and in the fetus brain. It altered Aβ42 accumulation. 17β-trenbolone induced apoptosis of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro and resisted neuroprotective function of testosterone. Presenilin-1 protein expression was down-regulated while β-amyloid peptide 42 (Aβ42) production and caspase-3 activities were increased. Both androgen and estrogen receptors mediated the processes. 17β-trenbolone played critical roles in neurodegeneration. Exercisers who inject large doses of trenbolone and common people who are exposed to 17β-trenbolone by various ways are all influenced chronically and continually. Identification of such environmental risk factors will help us take early prevention measure to slow down the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: • The widely used anabolic–androgenic steroid 17β-trenbolone has neurotoxicity. • 17β-trenbolone crosses the blood brain barrier and placental barrier. • Rat has high level of

  19. Preliminary studies of plasma growth hormone releasing activity during medical therapy of acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, T.C.; Lawrence, A.M.; Kirsteins, L.

    1978-01-01

    The in vitro growth hormone releasing activity of plasma obtained from six acromegalic subjects was measured before and during therapy. In five subjects, plasmas were obtained before and during successful medical therapy with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). The sixth subject was sampled before and after transphenoidal Sr 90 -induced hypopituitarism. All subjects had a decrement in fasting growth hormone levels with respective therapies (29-88%). The in vitro growth hormone released from Rhesus monkey anterior pituitaries was assessed after incubating one lateral half in control plasma (pre-therapy) and the contralateral pituitary half in plasma obtained during or after therapy. Studies with plasmas obtained from the five patients successfully treated with MPA showed a decrease in growth hormone releasing activity during therapy in all (18-57%). Plasma obtained after Sr 90 pituitary ablation in the sixth subject had 35% more growth hormone releasing activity than obtained before therapy. These results suggest that active acromegalics who respond to MPA with significantly lowered growth hormone levels may actually achieve this response because of a decrease in growth hormone releasing factor measured peripherally. The opposite response in one acromegalic subject, following Sr 90 pituitary ablation and hypopituitarism, suggests that growth hormone releasing factor secretion may increase when growth hormone levels are lowered by ablative therapy. (orig.) [de

  20. Steroid hormones in bluegill, a species with male alternative reproductive tactics including female mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Rosemary; Neff, Bryan D

    2007-12-22

    The proximate mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of within-sex variation in mating behaviour are still poorly understood. Species characterized by alternative reproductive tactics provide ideal opportunities to investigate such mechanisms. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) are noteworthy in this regard because they exhibit two distinct cuckolder (parasitic) morphs (called sneaker and satellite) in addition to the parental males that court females. Here we confirm previous findings that spawning cuckolder and parental males have significantly different levels of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. We also report, for the first time, that oestradiol and cortisol levels are higher in cuckolders than in parental males. The two cuckolder morphs did not differ in average levels of any of the four hormones. However, among satellite males which mimic females in appearance and behaviour, there was a strong negative relationship between oestradiol levels and body length, a surrogate for age. This finding suggests that for satellite males, oestradiol dependency of mating behaviour decreases with increasing mating experience. Although such decreased hormone dependence of mating behaviour has been reported in other taxa, our data represent the first suggestion of the relationship in fishes.

  1. Effect of aflatoxin-B1 doses simulating natural food contamination reproductive steroid hormones in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamal, M.H.; EL-Banna, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic metabolite synthesized by aspergillus flavus. The mycotoxins was found to be endemic contaminant in underdeveloped countries and in egypt was documented as a pollutant of a wide variety of products for human and animal nutrition. Carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of AFB1 has been investigated extensively, while very scare information is available about other possible endocrine effects of the toxin which might precedes carcinogenic effects. This study was performed to investigate the effects of in vivo administration of AFB1 via intraperitoneal injection (I.P) in adult male rats to show its effects on rat reproductive function and to illucidate the effects of acute, chronic and sub toxic (endimomemitic) AFB1 doses on male rat steroid function. Intraperitoneal injection (I.P) of AFB 1 doses in adult male rats revealed that AFB1 caused significant decrease in serum testosterone and cortisol (early), while a significant increase was observed in progesterone (P 4 ) and Estrodial (E 2 ) (late)

  2. Analytical method for the determination of trace levels of steroid hormones and corticosteroids in soil, based on PLE/SPE/LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineys, N; Giroud, B; Vulliet, E

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient, sensitive and reliable analytical method for the determination of traces of steroid hormones (including oestrogen, androgens and progestagens) and corticosteroids in soil. A method of sample preparation involving pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the determination of six steroids and five corticosteroids in soils, followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The conditions employed for PLE involved acetone/methanol (50:50) as the extracting solvent, a temperature of 80 degrees C, two cycles and a static time of 5 min. The extraction was followed by a SPE clean-up based on a polymeric phase. With use of protocol, a residual matrix effect was, however, highlighted. The limit of detection in soil was 0.08-0.89 ng/g for steroids and 0.09-2.84 ng/g for corticosteroids.

  3. Sex-dependent expression of caveolin 1 in response to sex steroid hormones is closely associated with development of obesity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (CAV1 is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 expression in adipose tissues of male and female rats. Results of animal experiments revealed that estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2 and androgen (dihydrotestosterone, DHT had opposite effects on body weight gain as well as on the regulation of CAV1, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in adipose tissues. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors and aromatase were differentially expressed in a sex-dependent manner in response to E2 and DHT treatments. In vivo data were confirmed using 3T3-L1 and HIB1B cell lines, where Cav1 knock down stimulated lipogenesis but suppressed sex hormone receptor signaling proteins. Most importantly, co-immunoprecipitation enabled the identification of previously unrecognized CAV1-interacting mitochondrial or lipid oxidative pathway proteins in adipose tissues. Taken together, current data showed that CAV1 may play important preventive role in the development of obesity, with more prominent effects in females, and proved to be an important target protein for the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue metabolism by manipulating sex hormone receptors and mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Therefore, we can report, for the first time, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of sex steroid hormones in the sex-dimorphic regulation of CAV1.

  4. Ovarian steroid hormones modulate the expression of progesterone receptors and histone acetylation patterns in uterine leiomyoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Gabriela Dos Santos; Brum, Ilma Simoni; Branchini, Gisele; Pizzolato, Lolita Schneider; Capp, Edison; Corleta, Helena von Eye

    2017-08-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign smooth muscle cell tumors in women. Estrogen (E2), progesterone (P4) and environmental factors play important roles in the development of these tumors. New treatments, such as mifepristone, have been proposed. We evaluated the gene expression of total (PRT) and B (PRB) progesterone receptors, and the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase (HDAC) activity after treatment with E2, P4 and mifepristone (RU486) in primary cell cultures from uterine leiomyoma and normal myometrium. Compared to myometrium, uterine leiomyoma cells showed an increase in PRT mRNA expression when treated with E2, and increase in PRB mRNA expression when treated with E2 and P4. Treatment with mifepristone had no significant impact on mRNA expression in these cells. The HDAC activity was higher in uterine leiomyoma compared to myometrial cells after treatment with E2 and E2 + P4 + mifepristone. HAT activity was barely detectable. Our results suggest that ovarian steroid hormones modulate PR, and mifepristone was unable to decrease PRT and PRB mRNA. The higher activity of HDAC leiomyoma cells could be involved in transcriptional repression of genes implicated in normal myometrium cell function, contributing to the maintenance and growth of uterine leiomyoma.

  5. Relationship between uterine morphology and peripheral concentrations of sex steroid hormone in wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Masako; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Osawa, Takeshi

    2009-07-01

    Developing a better understanding of the reproductive physiology and breeding condition peculiar to wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) is crucial for estimation of their habitat distribution. The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in morphology of the genital organs, cellular proliferation in the endometrium and sex steroid hormone concentrations along with the reproductive cycle in Japanese black bears. Samples were collected from a total of 24 female Japanese black bears (1-15 presumptive years old) that were caught in the wild in Iwate prefecture during the period between August 1999 and September 2005. Twenty-two out of the 24 animals were hunted from May to October. The ovaries from the 24 animals and the uteri from 23 animals were observed macroscopically and histologically to examine the relationship between morphology of the genital organs and the month of the year the animal was caught. The staining pattern of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the endometrium was characterised. Peripheral concentrations of oestradiol-17beta and progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. All the animals that had a corpus luteum (n=12) were captured from August to October. The thickness of the endometrium in the animals captured from August to October (n=16) was significantly greater than those in animals captured from May to July (n=5) (Pblack bears.

  6. Radioautography of the central nervous system and pituitary after 3H steroid hormones injection into different mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warembourg, M.

    1977-01-01

    The central nervous system and pituitary of various mammals were examined by radioautography after injection of different tritiated steroid hormones. After injection of 3 H estradiol into ovariectomized mice, radioautograms revealed a significant labelling in cells of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the nucleus preopticus medialis, the nuclei arcuatus and ventro-medialis. After injection of 3 H testosterone into castrated rats, the central nervous system and the anterior pituitary contained labelled cells. In the hypothalamus, the distribution pattern of androgen-neurons appears to be similar from the estrogen-neuron areas. After injection of 3 H progesterone into castrated estrogen-primed guinea-pigs, labelled neurons have been in the regions of nucleus arcuatus and nucleus preopticus suprachiasmaticus. After injection of 3 H corticosterone into adrenalectomized male rats, radioactivity was found to be selectively concentrated in neurons of septum, hippocampal complex indusium griseum, amygdala and in certain areas of the cortex. Most of the silver grains were localized in the nuclei of labelled cells. On the other hand, after injection of 3 H dexamethasone radioactivity concentration was high in the medial basal hypothalamus, in the anterior pituitary and in the pineal gland. Differences appear to exist in the topographic distribution of dexamethasone and corticosterone-concentrating cells [fr

  7. Effect of methomyl on sex steroid hormone and vitellogenin levels in serum of male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and recovery pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shun-Long; Qiu, Li-Ping; Hu, Geng-Dong; Fan, Li-Min; Song, Chao; Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Qu, Jian-Hong; Li, Dan-Dan; Chen, Jia-Zhang; Xu, Pao

    2017-07-01

    Tilapia were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 0, 0.2, 2, 20 or 200 μg/L for 30 days, then transferred to methomyl-free water for 18 days. E 2 , T, 11-KTand VTG in serum were examined. There were no significant changes in all the parameters in serum of tilapia exposed to 0.2 μg/L and 2 μg/L methomyl compared to the control. However, 20 μg/L and 200 μg/L have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system of male tilapia, as shown by its ability to increase VTG and E 2 and decrease T and 11-KT in serum. Thus it would appear the no observed adverse effect level for sexual steroid hormones of methomyl is lower than 2 μg/L. Recovery data showed that the effects produced by 20μg/L were reversible but not at 200μg/L. Furthermore, the sensitivity of above parameters to methomyl followed the order of VTG>E 2 >11-KT>T>GSI, suggesting VTG being the better biomarkers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The effect of Ligula intestinalis on blood sex steroid hormones, gonadal tissue and some other biological parameters changes of Chalcalburnus mossulensis in Vahdat dam of Kordestan-Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khanghah, Ali Parsa

    2010-01-01

    Chalcalburnus mossulensis from the cyprinidae family is one of the indigenous fish in Gheshlag Lake of Kordestan-Iran. Ligula intestinalis is one of the infective parasites of this fish. In this study, the effect of this parasite on some biological aspects of this fish like weight, length, PI, CF, GSR, blood sex steroid hormones and gonadal tissue, was investigated. During one year, by seasonal sampling, 144 fish sample from mentioned species were collected using trap net. By considering the ...

  9. Steroidal hormones and other endocrine active compounds in shallow groundwater in nonagricultural areas of Minnesota—Study design, methods, and data, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Melinda L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, completed a study on the occurrence of steroidal hormones and other endocrine active compounds in shallow groundwater in nonagricultural areas of Minnesota during 2009–10. This report describes the study design and methods, and presents the data collected on steroidal hormones and other related compounds. Environmental and quality-control samples were collected from 40 wells as part of this study. Samples were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory for 16 steroidal hormones and 4 other related compounds, of which all but 2 compounds are endocrine active compounds. Most of the water samples did not contain detectable concentrations of any of the 20 compounds analyzed. Water samples from three wells had detectable concentrations of one or more compounds. Bisphenol A was detected in samples from three wells, and trans-diethylstilbestrol was detected in one of the samples in which bisphenol A also was detected.

  10. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  11. Changes in Plasma Sex Hormone Levels in Women with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N Yezhova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of the plasma levels of 11 sex hormones and their functional values in women with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 16 women aged 18—45 years who had SCI. Admission APACHE II scores were 18.9±1.3. According to the outcome of a posttraumatic period, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased subjects. The normal values were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of reproductive hormones. The time course of changes in hormone concentration was studied on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7. The hormone profile was examined by BSL test kits (USA on a STAT Fax 2100 enzyme immunoanalyzer (Awareness Technology Inc., USA. The content of prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, and estradiol (E were measured. Results. The complex study of changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in women in the posttraumat-ic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels, a decrease in the concentrations of gonadotropins, and increases in some androgens, A, T, and E. The deceased women showed lower concentrations of DHEA-S and T. Analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the plasma concentration of DHEA-S and the injury severity. This change seems to suggest that an adrenal adaptation reaction is exhausted. The changes revealed in hormonal levels are of significance in understanding the pathogenesis of SCT. This may serve as a basis for the development of new therapy modalities using reproductive hormones in the postresuscitative period. Key words: severe concomitant injury, sex hormones, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androgens, estrogens.

  12. The current preference for the immuno-analytical ELISA method for quantitation of steroid hormones (endocrine disruptor compounds) in wastewater in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickum, Thavrin; John, Wilson

    2015-07-01

    The availability of national test centers to offer a routine service for analysis and quantitation of some selected steroid hormones [natural estrogens (17-β-estradiol, E2; estrone, E1; estriol, E3), synthetic estrogen (17-α-ethinylestradiol, EE2), androgen (testosterone), and progestogen (progesterone)] in wastewater matrix was investigated; corresponding internationally used chemical- and immuno-analytical test methods were reviewed. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (immuno-analytical technique) was also assessed for its suitability as a routine test method to quantitate the levels of these hormones at a sewage/wastewater treatment plant (WTP) (Darvill, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa), over a 2-year period. The method performance and other relevant characteristics of the immuno-analytical ELISA method were compared to the conventional chemical-analytical methodology, like gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/LC-MS), and GC-LC/tandem mass spectrometry (MSMS), for quantitation of the steroid hormones in wastewater and environmental waters. The national immuno-analytical ELISA technique was found to be sensitive (LOQ 5 ng/L, LOD 0.2-5 ng/L), accurate (mean recovery 96%), precise (RSD 7-10%), and cost-effective for screening and quantitation of these steroid hormones in wastewater and environmental water matrix. A survey of the most current international literature indicates a fairly equal use of the LC-MS/MS, GC-MS/MS (chemical-analytical), and ELISA (immuno-analytical) test methods for screening and quantitation of the target steroid hormones in both water and wastewater matrix. Internationally, the observed sensitivity, based on LOQ (ng/L), for the steroid estrogens E1, E2, EE2, is, in decreasing order: LC-MSMS (0.08-9.54) > GC-MS (1) > ELISA (5) (chemical-analytical > immuno-analytical). At the national level, the routine, unoptimized chemical-analytical LC-MSMS method was found to lack the required sensitivity for meeting environmental

  13. Effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention on serum concentrations of reproductive steroid hormones in women with a history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Stefanick, Marcia L; Newman, Vicky A; Jones, Lovell A; Natarajan, Loki; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hollenbach, Kathryn A; Pierce, John P; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-06-15

    Diet intervention trials are testing whether postdiagnosis dietary modification can influence breast cancer recurrence and survival. One possible mechanism is an effect on reproductive steroid hormones. Serum reproductive steroid hormones were measured at enrollment and 1 year in 291 women with a history of breast cancer who were enrolled onto a randomized, controlled diet intervention trial. Dietary goals for the intervention group were increased fiber, vegetable, and fruit intakes and reduced fat intake. Estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured. The intervention (but not the comparison) group reported a significantly lower intake of energy from fat (21% v 28%), and higher intake of fiber (29 g/d v 22 g/d), at 1-year follow-up (P <.001). Significant weight loss did not occur in either group. A significant difference in the change in bioavailable estradiol concentration from baseline to 1 year in the intervention (-13 pmol/L) versus the comparison (+3 pmol/L) group was observed (P <.05). Change in fiber (but not fat) intake was significantly and independently related to change in serum bioavailable estradiol (P <.01) and total estradiol (P <.05) concentrations. Results from this study indicate that a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention is associated with reduced serum bioavailable estradiol concentration in women diagnosed with breast cancer, the majority of whom did not exhibit weight loss. Increased fiber intake was independently related to the reduction in serum estradiol concentration.

  14. Innate immune performance and steroid hormone profiles of pregnant versus nonpregnant cottonmouth snakes (Agkistrodon piscivorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sean P; Earley, Ryan L; Guyer, Craig; Mendonça, Mary T

    2011-12-01

    Squamates (lizards and snakes) have independently evolved viviparity over 100 times, and exhibit a wide range of maternal investment in developing embryos from the extremes of lecithotrophic oviparity to matrotrophic viviparity. This group therefore provides excellent comparative opportunities for studying endocrine and immune involvement during pregnancy, and their possible interactions. We studied the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), since they exhibit limited placentation (e.g., ovoviviparity), allowing comparison with squamate species hypothesized to require considerable maternal immune modulation due to the presence of a more extensive placental connection. Furthermore, the cottonmouth's biennial reproductive cycle provides an opportunity for simultaneously comparing pregnant and non-pregnant females in the wild. We document significantly elevated concentrations of progesterone (P4) and significantly lower concentrations of estradiol (E2) in pregnant females relative to non-pregnant females. Pregnant females had lower plasma bacteria lysis capacity relative to non-pregnant females. This functional measure of innate immunity is a proxy for complement performance, and we also determined significant correlations between P4 and decreased complement performance in pregnant females. These findings are consistent with studies that have determined P4's role in complement modulation during pregnancy in mammals, and thus this study joins a growing number of studies that have demonstrated convergent and/or conserved physiological mechanisms regulating viviparous reproduction in vertebrates. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Long-term monitoring of fecal steroid hormones in female snow leopards (Panthera uncia during pregnancy or pseudopregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodzue Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the basic reproductive physiology of snow leopards is required urgently in order to develop a suitable management conditions under captivity. In this study, the long-term monitoring of concentrations of three steroid hormones in fecal matter of three female snow leopards was performed using enzyme immunoassays: (1 estradiol-17β, (2 progesterone and (3 cortisol metabolite. Two of the female animals were housed with a male during the winter breeding season, and copulated around the day the estradiol-17β metabolite peaked subsequently becoming pregnant. The other female was treated in two different ways: (1 first housed with a male in all year round and then (2 in the winter season only. She did not mate with him on the first occasion, but did so latter around when estradiol-17β metabolite peaked, and became pseudopregnant. During pregnancy, progesterone metabolite concentrations increased for 92 or 94 days, with this period being approximately twice as long as in the pseudopregnant case (31, 42, 49 and 53 days. The levels of cortisol metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (1.35 µg/g were significantly higher than in the pregnant females (0.33 and 0.24 µg/g (P<0.05. Similarly, during the breeding season, the levels of estradiol-17β metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (2.18 µg/g were significantly higher than those in the pregnant females (0.81 and 0.85 µg/g (P<0.05. Unlike cortisol the average levels of estradiol-17β during the breeding season were independent of reproductive success.The hormone levels may also be related to housing conditions and the resulting reproductive success in female leopards. The female housed with a male during the non-breeding season had high levels of cortisol metabolites and low levels of estradiol-17β in the breeding season, and failed to become pregnant. This indicates that housing conditions in snow leopards may be an important factor for normal endocrine secretion and resulting breeding

  16. Steroid hormones and psychological responses to soccer matches: Insights from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maamer Slimani

    Full Text Available The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the perturbations in hormonal and psychological homeostasis in response to soccer match-play. These perturbations were explored according to match outcome (i.e., win versus loss, gender, type of contest (i.e., competitive versus non-competitive fixtures and competitive level (i.e., novice versus high-level. The review was conducted according to the Population/Intervention or Exposure/Comparison/Outcome(s (PICO criteria and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Match outcome, type of contest and competitive levels were moderator variables in the examined steroid hormones responses to a soccer match-play. Different testosterone responses were seen between match winners (increase and losers (decrease when compared to pre-game or baseline values (p <0.05, whilst no changes could be detected for cortisol relative to match outcome in female soccer players. Males (Δ% = 6.26; ES = 0.28 demonstrated a marginally lower increase in testosterone levels when compared to females (Δ% = 49.16; ES = 1.00, though not statistically significant. Females (Δ% = 162.7; ES = 0.98 did not demonstrate elevated cortisol match response compared to males (Δ% = 34.60; ES = 1.20. Male novice soccer match-play increased cortisol levels compared to high-level soccer match-play (Q = 18.08, p<0.001. Competitive soccer matches increased cortisol levels compared to non-competitive fixtures (i.e., collegiate tournament. Additionally, competitive levels moderate the relationship between a soccer match and testosterone levels (p <0.001, regardless of gender differences. From the presented systematic review and meta-analysis it appears (1 cortisol changes are associated with cognitive anxiety in starter female soccer players, while (2 testosterone changes are associated with changes in mood state in females and social connectedness in male soccer players. This

  17. [3H]idazoxan binding to the ovine myometrium. Binding characteristics and changes due to steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass-Lopez, A.; Garcia-Villar, R.; Lafontan, M.; Toutain, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    [3H]idazoxan binding to myometrial membranes was investigated in four groups of ewes under different steroid hormone status: control, estradiol-treated and progesterone plus estradiol-treated ovariectomized ewes and pregnant ewes. [3H]idazoxan binding to myometrial membrane fractions was saturable, reversible, specific and of high affinity. The affinity did not vary significantly between the four groups of ewes (2.8 less than KD less than 4.7 nM). Maximal binding capacity varied significantly among groups: binding of [3H]idazoxan was lower in control ovariectomized ewes than in either estradiol or progestagen plus estrogen-treated ewes (maximal binding capacity, 73 +/- 11 fmol/mg of protein vs. 108 +/- 16 and 318 +/- 65, respectively). The highest [3H]idazoxan binding was measured in pregnant ewes (maximal binding capacity, 1302 +/- 256 fmol/mg of protein). Based on the saturation studies with accurate nonspecific binding definition (phentolamine vs. epinephrine), and on the relative order of potency for selected adrenergic drugs, it could be stated that the binding sites labeled by [3H]idazoxan in our study exhibited most of the alpha-2 adrenoceptor properties. Nevertheless, these alpha-2 adrenoceptors obviously differed from the standard alpha-2A-subtype based on Ki values obtained with yohimbine and prazosin in competition studies of [3H]idazoxan binding. The increase in the number of alpha-2 adrenoceptors under progesterone domination, and especially during gestation, supported the hypothesis that this adrenoceptor subtype could play a major role in the control of the motility pattern of the ovine pregnant uterus

  18. Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 expression in human breast and prostate cancer cases, and its regulation by sex steroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Jorge Maia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 is an interferon-induced protein characterised by its capacity to catalyse the synthesis of 2ʹ-5ʹ-linked oligomers of adenosine from adenosine triphosphate (2-5A. The 2-5A binds to a latent Ribonuclease L (RNase L, which subsequently dimerises into its active form and may play an important role in the control of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, our research group identified OAS1 as a differentially-expressed gene in breast and prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal cells. This study evaluates: i the expression of OAS1 in human breast and prostate cancer specimens; and ii the effect of sex steroid hormones in regulating the expression of OAS1 in breast (MCF-7 and prostate (LNCaP cancer cell lines. The obtained results showed that OAS1 expression was down-regulated in human infiltrative ductal carcinoma of breast, adenocarcinoma of prostate, and benign prostate hyperplasia, both at mRNA and protein level. In addition, OAS1 expression was negatively correlated with the progression of breast and prostate cancer. With regards to the regulation of OAS1 gene, it was demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E2 down-regulates OAS1 gene in MCF-7 cell lines, an effect that seems to be dependent on the activation of oestrogen receptor (ER. On the other hand, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT treatment showed no effect on the expression of OAS1 in LNCaP cell lines. The lower levels of OAS1 in breast and prostate cancer cases indicated that the OAS1/RNaseL apoptotic pathway may be compromised in breast and prostate tumours. Moreover, the present findings suggested that this effect may be enhanced by oestrogen in ER-positive breast cancers.

  19. Oleic acid induces specific alterations in the morphology, gene expression and steroid hormone production of cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Viergutz, Torsten; Vanselow, Jens

    2016-06-01

    After parturition, one of the major problems related to nutritional management that is faced by the majority of dairy cows is negative energy balance (NEB). During NEB, excessive lipid mobilization takes place and hence the levels of free fatty acids, among them oleic acid, increase in the blood, but also in the follicular fluid. This accumulation can be associated with serious metabolic and reproductive disorders. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of physiological concentrations of oleic acid on cell morphology, apoptosis, necrosis, proliferation and steroid production, and on the abundance of selected transcripts in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Increasing oleic acid concentrations induced intracellular lipid droplet accumulation, thus resulting in a foam cell-like morphology, but had no effects on apoptosis, necrosis or proliferation. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the transcript abundance of the gonadotropin hormone receptors, FSHR and LHCGR, steroidogenic genes STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B1 and CYP19A1, the cell cycle regulator CCND2, but not of the proliferation marker PCNA. In addition, treatment increased the transcript levels of the fatty acid transporters CD36 and SLC27A1, and decreased the production of 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone. From these data it can be concluded that oleic acid specifically affects morphological and physiological features and gene expression levels thus altering the functionality of granulosa cells. Suggestively, these effects might be partly due to the reduced expression of FSHR and thus the reduced responsiveness to FSH stimulation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Polymorphisms in steroid hormone biosynthesis genes and risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Lori C; Blackston, Christie; Doherty, Jennifer A; Ray, Roberta M; Lin, Ming Gang; Stalsberg, Helge; Gao, Dao Li; Feng, Ziding; Thomas, David B; Chen, Chu

    2008-05-01

    Common variants in genes encoding for key enzymes involved in steroidogenesis may alter sex steroid hormone levels, thereby influencing susceptibility to breast carcinoma and related conditions. In a case-control study of Chinese women, we examined genotypes of the CYP11A1 pentanucleotide [(TAAAA)n] repeat (D15S520), CYP17A1 rs743572, and HSD17B1 rs605059 polymorphisms in relation to the risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions, comparing 615 women with breast cancer and 467 women with fibrocystic breast conditions separately with 879 women without clinical breast disease. We also evaluated whether these relationships differed by the presence of proliferation in the extratumoral epithelium or fibrocystic lesions, menopausal status, or body mass index. Only CYP11A1 genotype was related to breast cancer risk, with women homozygous for the 4-repeat allele, relative to those homozygous for the 6-repeat allele, at reduced risk (age-adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.91). There was some suggestion of a stronger inverse association for breast cancer with evidence of proliferation in the extratumoral epithelium than for breast cancer without extratumoral proliferation. Breast cancer risk associated with CYP11A1 genotype did not differ by menopausal status or body mass index level. No associations between CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and HSD17B1 genotypes and risk of fibrocystic breast conditions were observed. Our findings support the possibility that common allelic variation at the CYP11A1 D15S520 locus alters breast cancer risk in Chinese women.

  1. Endogenous steroid hormone levels in early pregnancy and risk of testicular cancer in the offspring: a nested case-referent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Grankvist, Kjell; Koskela, Pentti; Dillner, Joakim; Hallmans, Göran; Wadell, Göran; Olafsdottir, Gudridur H; Ogmundsdottir, Helga M; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Stattin, Pär; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2009-06-15

    According to the leading hypothesis on testicular cancer (TC) etiology exposure to a specific pattern of steroid hormones in utero, in particular, to high levels of estrogens and low levels of androgens is the major determinant of TC risk in the offspring. We performed a case-referent study nested within Finnish, Swedish and Icelandic maternity cohorts exploiting early pregnancy serum samples to evaluate the role of maternal endogenous steroid hormones with regard to the risk of TC. TC cases and referents were aged between 0 and 25 years. For each case-index mother pair, three or four matched referent-referent mother pairs were identified using national population registries. First trimester or early second trimester sera were retrieved from the index mothers of 73 TC cases and 286 matched referent mothers, and were tested for dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Offspring of mothers with high DHEAS levels had a significantly decreased risk of TC (OR for highest vs. lowest DHEAS quartile, 0.18 (95% CI 0.06-0.58). In contrast, offspring of mothers with high androstenedione levels had an increased risk of TC (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.2-12.0). High maternal total estradiol level also tended to be associated with an increased risk of TC in the offspring (OR 32; 95% CI 0.98-1,090). We report the first direct evidence that interplay of maternal steroid hormones in the early pregnancy is important in the etiology of TC in the offspring. Copyright 2008 UICC.

  2. The effect of steroid hormones on the mRNA expression of oct4 and sox2 in uterine tissue of the ovariectomized mice model of menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Davoudi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The uterus is a dynamic tissue responding to hormonal changes during reproductive cycles. As such, uterine stem cells have been studied in recent years. Transcription factors oct4 and sox2 are critical for effective maintenance of pluripotent cell identity. Objective: The present research evaluated the mRNA expression of oct4 and sox2 in the uterine tissues of ovariectomized mice treated with steroid hormones. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, adult virgin female mice were ovariectomized and treated with estradiol 17β (E2, progesterone (P4, and a combination of E2 and P4 (E2 & P4 for 5 days. Uterine tissues were removed, and immunofluorescent (IF staining and quantitative real-time PCR of oct4 and sox2 markers were performed. Results: IF showed oct4 and sox2 expression in the uterine endometrium and myometrium among all groups. The mRNA expression of oct4 (p=0.022 and sox2 (p=0.042 in the E2-treated group significantly were decreased compared to that in the control group. By contrast, the mRNA expression of oct4 and sox2 in the P4 (p=0.641 and 0.489 respectively and E2 & P4-treated groups (p=0.267 and 0.264 respectively did not show significant differences compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results indicate ovarian steroid hormones change the expression of oct4 and sox2 in the mice uterine tissues, which suggest the involvement of steroid hormonal regulation in uterine stem cells.

  3. Effect of anticonvulsants on plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragry, J M; Makin, H L; Trafford, D J; Scott, D F

    1978-01-01

    Plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels were measured in 29 patients with epilepsy (16 men and 13 women), most of them on chronic therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in both sexes and testosterone levels in male patients. It is postulated that anticonvulsants may induce hepatic synthesis of SHBG. PMID:569688

  4. Development of a Multi-class Steroid Hormone Screening Method using Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Ashley S. P.; Bowden, John A.; Galligan, Thomas M.; Guillette, Louis J.; Kucklick, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring complex endocrine pathways is often limited by indirect measurement or measurement of a single hormone class per analysis. There is a burgeoning need to develop specific direct-detection methods capable of providing simultaneous measurement of biologically relevant concentrations of multiple classes of hormones (estrogens, androgens, progestogens, and corticosteroids). The objectives of this study were to develop a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for multi-class steroid hormone detection using biologically relevant concentrations, then test limits of detection (LOD) in a high-background matrix by spiking charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum (FBS) extract. Accuracy was tested with National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) with certified concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, and progesterone. 11-Deoxycorticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, adrenosterone, androstenedione, cortisol, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, estriol, estrone, equilin, pregnenolone, progesterone, and testosterone were also measured using isotopic dilution. Dansyl chloride (DC) derivatization was investigated maintaining the same method to improve and expedite estrogen analysis. Biologically relevant LODs were determined for 15 hormones. DC derivatization improved estrogen response two- to eight-fold, and improved chromatographic separation. All measurements had an accuracy ≤ 14 % difference from certified values (not accounting for uncertainty) and relative standard deviation ≤ 14 %. This method chromatographically separated and quantified biologically relevant concentrations of four hormone classes using highly specific fragmentation patterns and measured certified values of hormones that were previously split into three separate chromatographic methods. PMID:27039201

  5. New Insights on Steroid Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Cabezon, Lorena; Galán, Beatriz; García, José L.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays steroid manufacturing occupies a prominent place in the pharmaceutical industry with an annual global market over $10 billion. The synthesis of steroidal active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) such as sex hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progestogens) and corticosteroids is currentl...

  6. C-peptide, IGF-I, sex-steroid hormones and adiposity : a cross-sectional study in healthy women within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, ID; Rinaldi, S; Dossus, L; van Gils, CH; Peeters, PHM; Noord, PAH; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Johnsen, SP; Overvad, K; Olsen, A; Tjonneland, A; Boeing, H; Lahmann, PH; Linseisen, J; Nagel, G; Allen, N; Roddam, A; Bingham, S; Khaw, KT; Kesse, E; Tehard, B; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Agudo, A; Ardanaz, E; Quiros, [No Value; Amiano, P; Martinez-Garcia, C; Tormo, MJ; Pala, [No Value; Panico, S; Vineis, P; Palli, D; Tumino, R; Trichopoulou, A; Baibas, N; Zilis, D; Hemon, B; Norat, T; Riboli, E; Kaaks, R

    Objectives: The risk of some cancers is positively associated with body weight, which may influence circulating levels of sex-steroid hormones, insulin and IGF-I. Interrelationships between these hormones and the associations with adiposity were evaluated in healthy women participating in the

  7. Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-β-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account.

  8. Sex steroid hormones in natural populations of a sexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus inornatus, a direct evolutionary ancestor of a unisexual parthenogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Crews, D

    1986-09-01

    The lizard genus Cnemidophorus consists of both sexual species and unisexual, all-female species. We characterized changes in circulating levels of gonadal sex steroid hormones in males and females in one of the sexual species, C. inornatus, to compare them to previously measured levels in a unisexual, parthenogenetic species, C. uniparens. Reproductively active male C. inornatus have high levels of dihydrotestosterone and somewhat lower levels of testosterone. These levels are highest immediately after females become sexually receptive and decrease later at the onset of testicular regression. Female C. inornatus have high levels of estradiol and low levels of progesterone during the previtellogenic and vitellogenic phases of the ovarian cycle. During the postovulatory phase, they have low levels of estradiol and high levels of progesterone. We could not detect circulating levels of androgen at any phase of the ovarian cycle. The patterns of hormone secretion in the female C. inornatus are virtually identical to those of its direct evolutionary descendant, C. uniparens. This confirms our previous conclusion that the evolution of the parthenogenetic mode of reproduction and expression of male-like pseudosexual behavior that are characteristic of the unisexual C. uniparens has not been accomplished by evolutionary modifications in the pattern of sex steroid hormone secretion. Rather it is the response to this pattern of secretion that has been modified.

  9. Steroid signaling system responds differently to temperature and hormone manipulation in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M; Crews, D

    2007-01-01

    Many reptiles, including the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Temperature determines gonadal sex during the middle of embryogenesis, or the temperature-sensitive period (TSP), when gonadal sex is labile to both temperature and hormones--particularly estrogen. The biological actions of steroid hormones are mediated by their receptors as defined here as the classic transcriptional regulation of target genes. To elucidate estrogen action during sex determination, we examined estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1, hereafter referred to as ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2, hereafter referred to as ERbeta), and androgen receptor (Ar, hereafter referred to as AR) expression in slider turtle gonads before, during and after the TSP, as well as following sex reversal via temperature or steroid hormone manipulation. ERalpha and AR levels spike at the female-producing temperature while ovarian sex is determined, but none of the receptors exhibited sexually dimorphic localization within the gonad prior to morphological differentiation. All three receptors respond differentially to sex-reversing treatments. When shifted to female-producing temperatures, embryos maintain ERalpha and AR expression while ERbeta is reduced. When shifted to male-producing temperatures, medullary expression of all three receptors is reduced. Feminization via estradiol (E(2)) treatment at a male-producing temperature profoundly changed the expression patterns for all three receptors. ERalpha and ERbeta redirected to the cortex in E(2)-created ovaries, while AR medullary expression was transiently reduced. Although warmer incubation temperature and estrogen result in the same endpoint (ovarian development), our results indicate different steroid signaling patterns between temperature- and estrogen-induced feminization. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Prostate cancer risk: the significance of differences in age related changes in serum conjugated and unconjugated steroid hormone concentrations between Arab and Caucasian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, E O; Akanji, A O; Memon, A; Bashir, A A; Daar, A S; Al-Awadi, K A; Fatinikun, T

    2006-01-01

    Factors responsible for the low incidence of clinical prostate cancer (3-8/100,000 men/year) in the Arab population remain unclear, but may be related to changes in steroid hormone metabolism. We compared the levels of serum conjugated and unconjugated steroids between Arab and Caucasian populations, to determine if these can provide a rational explanation for differences in incidence of prostate cancer between the two populations. Venous blood samples were obtained from 329 unselected apparently healthy indigenous Arab men (Kuwaitis and Omanis) aged 15-80 years. Samples were also obtained from similar Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The samples were taken between 8:00 am and 12:00 noon. Serum levels of total testosterone, (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI); adrenal C19-steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (ADT) were determined using Immulite kits (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories Inc, Webster Texas, USA). The results obtained in Arab men were compared with those reported for similarly aged Chinese, German and White USA men. In all four ethnic groups, median TT and FAI declined with age, while SHBG increased with age. However, the mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower (p Arab men (p Arabs (p Arabs. There was no significant difference in mean serum levels of DHEAS between German and USA men. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the level of the hormones between Arab and Chinese men. Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer had high serum TT, SHBG and DHEAS compared to those without the disease. The mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower in Arab men compared to Caucasian men especially in early adulthood. Caucasians have significantly higher serum levels of the precursor androgens DHEAS and ADT especially in early adulthood compared to Arab men. These observations of low circulating androgens and their adrenal precursors in

  11. A radioimmunoassay of chicken growth hormone using growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology: validation and observations of plasma hormone variations in genetically fat and lean chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picaper, G.; Leclercq, B.; Saadoun, A.; Mongin, P.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) of chicken growth hormone (c-GH) has been developed using growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology. The best rabbit antiserum was used at 1/300,000 final dilution. Hormone labelling by iodine-125, achieved by chloramine T, allowed a specific activity of 3.7 MBq/μg. The equilibrium curves show that optimal conditions of incubation were reached at room temperature for 24h. This RIA used a second sheep antibody which precipitated the whole c-GH bound to the first antibody in the presence of polyethylene glycol solution (6%) at room temperature for 30 min. In our conditions, sensitivity was about 30 pg of c-GH per tube. Coefficient of variation was around 10%. No cross reaction was found with avian LH and prolactin. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) injection to young chickens induced 20-fold higher plasma c-GH concentrations. Simultaneous injection of somatostatin and TRH slightly reduced these concentrations. Hypoglycemia induced by insulin led to a drop of the plasma c-GH concentration. Conversely, refeeding or glucose load induced slight increases of the c-GH level. Genetically fat chickens tended to exhibit higher plasma c-GH concentrations than lean chickens

  12. Incorporation of (14)C-cholesterol in human adrenal corticocarcinoma H295R cell line and online-radiodetection of produced (14)C-steroid hormone metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Björklund, Erland; Nielsen, Frederik Knud

    2017-01-01

    in the steroidogenesis of H295R cells, radioactive cholesterol may potentially only need to be added just before the cells are incubated for 72h in well plates. Based on the obtained HPLC-FSA chromatograms, and confirmation of the observations by studies in the literature, a qualitative time profile for the production......, the concept of radiolabeling the steroidogenesis in H295R cells with (14)C-cholesterol and detecting the radiolabeled steroid hormones online was proved and may assist in further toxicological studies....

  13. Anticipation and consumption of food each increase the concentration of neuroactive steroids in rat brain and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Floris, Ivan; Maciocco, Elisabetta; Serra, Mariangela; Biggio, Giovanni

    2006-09-01

    Stressful stimuli and anxiogenic drugs increase the plasma and brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids. Moreover, in rats trained to consume their daily meal during a fixed period, the anticipation of food is associated with changes in the function of various neurotransmitter systems. We have now evaluated the effects of anticipation and consumption of food in such trained rats on the plasma and brain concentrations of 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG) and 3alpha,21-dihydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC), two potent endogenous positive modulators of type A receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The abundance of these neuroactive steroids was increased in both the cerebral cortex and plasma of the rats during both food anticipation and consumption. In contrast, the concentration of their precursor, progesterone, was increased in the brain only during food consumption, whereas it was increased in plasma only during food anticipation. Intraperitoneal administration of the selective agonist abecarnil (0.1 mg/kg) 40 min before food presentation prevented the increase in the brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG and 3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC during food anticipation but not that associated with consumption. The change in emotional state associated with food anticipation may thus result in an increase in the plasma and brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG and 3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC in a manner sensitive to the activation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated neurotransmission. A different mechanism, insensitive to activation of such transmission, may underlie the changes in the concentrations of these neuroactive steroids during food consumption.

  14. Effects of progesterone injection on performance, plasma hormones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... triggers gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release ... open period has been shown to have positive effect on inducing a preovulatory ..... release, injectable levonorgestrel and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on.

  15. Compensatory growth assessment by plasma IGF-I hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... feeding diets and regimes will be evaluated in future studies. Key words: Compensatory growth, food coefficient ratio, food intake, IGF-I, rainbow trout, special growth .... Blood was sampled for IGF-I hormone concentration.

  16. Radioreceptor assays: plasma membrane receptors and assays for polypeptide and glycoprotein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulster, D.

    1977-01-01

    Receptors for peptide, protein and glycoprotein hormones, and the catecholamines are located on the plasma membranes of their target cells. Preparations of the receptors may be used as specific, high-affinity binding agents for these hormones in assay methodology akin to that for radioimmunoassay. A particular advantage of the radioreceptor assay is that it has a specificity directed towards the biologically active region of the hormone, rather than to some immunologically active region that may have little (or no) involvement in the expression of hormonal activity. Methods for hormone receptor preparation vary greatly, and range from the use of intact cells (as the source of hormone receptor) to the use of purified or solubilized membrane receptors. Receptors isolated from plasma membranes have proved to be of variable stability, and may be damaged during preparation and/or storage. Moreover, since they are present in relatively low concentration in the cell, their preparation in sufficient quantity for use in a radioreceptor assay may present technical problems. In general, there is good correlation between radioreceptor assays and in-vitro bioassays; differences between results from radioreceptor assays and radioimmunoassays are similar to those noted between in-vitro bioassays and radioimmunoassays. The sensitivity of the method is such that normal plasma concentrations of various hormones have been assayed by this technique. (author)

  17. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current...

  18. Plasma levels of immune factors and sex steroids in the male seahorse Hippocampus erectus during a breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Liu, Xin; Xiao, Dongxue; Zhang, Dong

    2017-06-01

    To better understand the endocrine- and immune-response pattern during reproduction in a fish species having parental care behaviors and also to accumulate the endocrine- and immune-related data for future explanations of the low reproductive efficiency in seahorse species, the variations of immune factors and sex steroids in the plasma of the male lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus at different breeding stages, i.e., pre-pregnancy, pregnancy (early, middle, and late periods), and post-pregnancy, were investigated in the present study. The immune factors included monocytes/leucocytes (M/L), leucocyte phagocytic rate (LPR), immunoglobulin M (Ig M), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-α (IFN-α), and lysozyme (LZM). The sex steroids included testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 11β-hydroxytestosterone (11β-OHT), 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-MT), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-hydroxy-20β-dihydroprogesterone (17α-20β-P). Moreover, the immune metabolic activity of epithelium cells in the brood pouch at different breeding stages was also analyzed through ultrastructural observations of the abundance of cytoplasmic granules, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and exocytosis. The results show that a higher immune level was observed during pregnancy, particularly in the early and middle periods, and a lower immune level was noted during pre-pregnancy. Correspondingly, the epithelium cells in the brood pouch also showed a stronger immune metabolic activity during pregnancy and weaker activity during pre-pregnancy. Four sex steroids of T, 11β-OHT, 17α-MT, and E2 were higher during pre-pregnancy and lower during post-pregnancy, whereas 11-KT and 17α-20β-P, which were positively correlated with part immune factors, were higher during pregnancy. No negative correlations between sex steroids and immune factors were observed. In conclusion, the higher immune competence during pregnancy may indicate that parental care could improve immunity, which may

  19. Effect of long-term treatment with steroid hormones or tamoxifen on the progesterone receptor and androgen receptor in the endometrium of ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cline J Mark

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The progesterone receptor (PR and androgen receptor (AR belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Two isoforms of PR (A and B have been identified with different functions. The expression of AR, each isoform of PR and their involvement in long-term effects on the endometrium after hormonal replacement therapy (HRT or tamoxifen (TAM treatment is not known. The aims of this study were to determine PR(A+B, PRB and AR distribution by immunohistochemistry in the macaque (Macaca fascicularis endometrium. Ovariectomized (OVX animals were orally treated continuously for 35 months with either conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; the combination of CEE/MPA; or TAM. Treatment with CEE/MPA tended to down-regulate PR in the superficial glands, but increased it in the stroma. TAM treatment increased both the PR and PRB levels in the stroma. Overall, less than 20% of the cells were positive for the PRB isoform and less variation was observed after steroid treatment. AR was found in the stroma, mainly distributed in the basal layer of the endometrium in the OVX and steroid treated groups, but was absent in the TAM treated group. No AR was found in the glandular epithelium. The present data show that long-term hormone treatment affects the PR level, and also the ratio between PRA and PRB in the endometrium.

  20. Determination of steroid hormones in fish tissues by microwave-assisted extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes-Alonso, Rayco; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2017-12-15

    Steroid hormones produce adverse effects on biota as well as bioaccumulation in fish and seafood, making it necessary to develop methodologies to evaluate these compounds in samples related to the food chain. This work presents an analytical method for evaluating 15 steroid hormones in fish tissue. It is based on microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MAE-SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS). The proposed method shows appropriate detection limits (0.14-49.0ngg -1 ), recoveries in the range of 50% and good repeatability. After optimization, the method was applied to different tissues from two small fishes of the Canary Islands that constitute an important level of the food web (Boops boops and Sphoeroides marmoratus) and were exposed to the outfall of the Las Palmas de Gran Canaria wastewater treatment plant. The concentrations of eight detected compounds ranged from below the quantification limits to 3.95μgg -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Principles and clinical applications of liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of adrenal and gonadal steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulle, A E; Welzel, M; Holterhus, P-M; Riepe, F G

    2011-10-01

    Liquid-chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is becoming the method of choice for clinical steroid analysis. In most instances, it has the advantage of higher sensitivity, better reproducibility and greater specificity than commercial immunoassay techniques. The method requires only minimal sample preparation and a small sample volume. Furthermore, it has the potential to analyze multiple steroids simultaneously. Modern instruments guarantee high throughput, allowing an affordable price for the individual assay. All this makes LC-MS/MS an attractive method for use in a clinical setting. Reliable reference ranges for the detected analytes are the pre-requisite for their clinical use. If these are available, LC-MS/MS can find application in congenital disorders of steroid metabolism, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, disorders of sex development and disorders of salt homeostasis, as well as in acquired disorders of steroid metabolism, such as primary aldosteronism, Cushing's disease, Addison's disease, and hyperandrogenemia, as well as in psychiatric disease states such as depression or anxiety disorders. The principles of LC-MS/MS for steroid measurement, the pros and cons of LC-MS/MS compared with conventional immunoassays and the possible applications in clinical routine, with a special focus on pediatric endocrinology needs, are discussed here.

  2. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  3. Early changes in plasma glucagon and growth hormone response to oral glucose in experimental hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, F; Moghetti, P; Castello, R; Negri, C; Bonora, E; Muggeo, M

    1996-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying deterioration of glucose tolerance associated with hyperthyroidism are not completely understood. Increases in glucagon and growth hormone (GH) secretion have been previously found in hyperthyroid subjects, and could play a crucial role in this phenomenon. However, studies have not yet established the time sequence of changes in plasma glucose on the one hand and glucagon and GH on the other. To assess the early effects of thyroid hormone excess on glucose tolerance and plasma concentrations of the main glucoregulatory hormones, 12 nondiabetic euthyroid subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after triiodothyronine ([T3] 120 micrograms/d) was administered for 10 days. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and GH were determined at fasting and after the glucose load. T3 administration caused a marked increase in serum T3 (8.8 +/- 0.6 v 2.0 +/- 0.1 nmol/L), with clinical and biochemical signs of thyrotoxicosis. During the treatment, plasma glucose significantly increased both at fasting and after the glucose load (basal, 5.3 +/- 0.1 v 4.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/L, P hormone excess rapidly impairs glucose tolerance. Altered secretion of GH is an early event in thyrotoxicosis accompanying the onset of hyperglycemia, whereas plasma glucagon is appropriately suppressed by the increased plasma glucose levels. Thus, GH but not glucagon may contribute to the early hyperglycemic effect of thyrotoxicosis.

  4. A Pilot Study Exploring the Plasma Potassium Variation in Dogs Undergoing Steroid Therapy and Its Clinical Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltar, Marina; Costa, Alexandra; Carreira, L Miguel

    2016-06-01

    In most situations in veterinary medicine, glucocorticoids are the drugs of choice used, that is, to reduce the inflammatory response or limit an inappropriate immune response. Their use in long-term therapy may cause side effects that may weaken the patient. The aim of the study was to evaluate possible variations in the plasma potassium concentrations and their clinical relevance in dogs undergoing steroid therapy with methylprednisolone in anti-inflammatory doses. The study used a sample of 21 dogs (n = 21) presented for consultation, with a clinical condition requiring a corticosteroid therapeutic protocol with an anti-inflammatory dose of methylprednisolone. All the individuals were submitted to a corticosteroid therapeutic protocol administered orally during 18 days. During this period, 3 time points were considered: T0 (the day the prescription was first given), T1 (3 days later), and T2 (8 days later). Blood samples were collected from a peripheral vein to measure plasma potassium concentrations in T0, T1, and T2. Corticosteroid therapy on an outpatient basis statistically significantly decreased plasma potassium levels, especially between T1 and T2 (P = .03). The plasma potassium levels decreased in 12.5% of the males, compared with a decrease of 23.1% in the females. No statistically significant relationships were observe between the decreased plasma potassium levels and age, clinical condition, and patient׳s body weight. However, we found a statistically significant association between decreased plasma potassium levels and sex. The study results may justify the need for the systematic prescription of potassium supplements in patients undergoing steroid therapy, similar to what already occurs in human medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  6. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value.

  7. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Download PDF 830.69 KB Anabolic steroids are artificial versions of a hormone that's in all of us—testosterone. Some people take anabolic steroid pills or injections to try to build muscle faster. The Brain's Response to Anabolic Steroids Hi, ...

  8. PERCEPTION OF THE MOLTING HORMONE 20-HYDROXECDYSONE BY HOMARUS AMERICANUS: LOCALIZATION OF STEROID RECEPTORS AND EFFECT ON BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing evidence that hormones, when released from an animal into the environment, act as chemical signals to other organisms. There is also evidence to suggest that hormones are released by lobsters during sexual and agonistic encounters to signal conspecifics. The go...

  9. Clinical application of determination of plasma intact parathyroid hormone content in kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mei; Wang Zhaohui; Zhou Xiaoli; Ren Chunling; Chen Huaqian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe intact parathyroid hormone in kidney disease with clinical application. Methods: Plasma i-PTH level was measured in 46 patients with chronic renal insufficiency lose compensation stage, 39 patients with chronic renal failure, 35 patients with uremia. Besides, control group (n=41) was established. Results: Result shown that plasma i-PTH levels were experiment group and control group were obvious difference (P<0.01), among experiment group plasma i-PTH level was obvious difference (P<0.01). Conclusion: Results suggested along with renal function were worsen that plasma i-PTH level increasing gradually during renal insufficiency. (authors)

  10. Intracellular actions of steroid hormones and their therapeutic value, including the potential of radiohalosteroids against ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J.A. (Chicago Univ. (United States). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology); Scharl, A. (Koeln Univ., Cologne (Germany). Frauen-Klinik); Kullander, S. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Womens Hospital Malmoe); Beckmann, M.W. (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Zentrum fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe)

    1992-01-01

    With recombinant cDNA technology, yeast and cultured animal cells can be made to express mammalian cDNA steroid receptors from cDNA clones that contain deletions and substitutions. Among the leading problems addressed in these models is the characterization of sequences that promote association or interaction with other transcription regulating molecules, including oncogene products. Recently it has been found that heat shock proteins may serve not only to stabilize the receptor proteins but also to precondition the activation imparted by ligand binding. Aberrant receptor proteins can be found in ovarian cancer. Whether aberrant receptor proteins are associated with transformation in general or with a variable clinical response to steroidal or anti-steroidal therapy is not known. Even after chemotherapy, steroid receptors are expressed in the metastases of ovarian cancers seen clinically, and they may have potential use for localization and treatment of receptor-rich cancers. Radioligand pharmaceuticals appropriate for imaging or for site-directed radiocytotoxicity can be sequestered to the nuclei of receptor-rich cancers. Initial clinical imaging and therapy trials with such pharmaceuticals have been approved and begun. In the use of halogenated estrogen radiopharmaceuticals, liver metabolism and enterohepatic recirculation are important considerations. Ascites prolongs retention of radiohalogenated estrogen in the abdominal cavity. Distant metastases have been localized with [[sup 123]I]-estrogen in breast cancer patients in pre-operative procedures. Receptor-mediated cytotoxicity occurs when estrogen receptor radioligand pharmaceuticals that are Auger electron emitters are used in vitro. (au) (119 refs., 3 figs.).

  11. Sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin levels, CYP17 MSP AI (-34T:C) and CYP19 codon 39 (Trp:Arg) variants in children with developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hiwa; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Rahimi, Zohreh; Faghihi, Faezeh; Khazaie, Habibolah; Farhangdoost, Hashem; Mehrpour, Masoud

    2017-12-01

    Developmental stuttering is known to be a sexually dimorphic and male-biased speech motor control disorder. In the present case-control study, we investigated the relationship between developmental stuttering and steroid hormones. Serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the 2nd/4th digit ratio (2D:4D), an indicator of prenatal testosterone level, were compared between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Moreover, two SNPs (CYP17 -34 T:C (MSP AI) and CYP19 T:C (Trp:Arg)) of cytochrome P450, which is involved in steroid metabolism pathways, were analysed between the groups. Our results showed significantly higher levels of testosterone, DHT, and oestradiol in CWS in comparison with CWNS. The severity of stuttering was positively correlated with the serum levels of testosterone, DHEA, and cortisol, whereas no association was seen between the stuttering and digit ratio, progesterone, or SHBG. The CYP17CC genotype was significantly associated with the disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer protein activities in growth hormone-deficient adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Beentjes; A. van Tol (Arie); W.J. Sluiter (Wim); R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement on plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), factors involved in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, are

  13. Steroid metabolism in the hormone dependent MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line and its two hormone resistant subpopulations MCF-7/LCC1 and MCF-7/LCC2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L; Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    and 17beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase were investigated isolating the following steroids: estriol (E3), estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), 3alpha/beta-androstanediol (A-diol), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (AND), androstenedion (4-AD) and androstanedione (A-dion). For all......, and preincubation with cortisol had no effect on the enzyme activity. With [14C]T as the substrate, the metabolized level of DHT was very similar in the three cell lines, though MCF-7/LCC1 and MCF-7/LCC2 utilized the substrate to a much lesser extent. The amount of DHT and 4-AD produced were comparable in the two...... to the parent MCF-7. However, since treatment with DHT and T inhibited cell growth equally well in all three tumor cell lines, it is unlikely that the found differences in steroid metabolism was involved in the acquisition of the endocrine resistance of the two MCF-7 sublines....

  14. Sex Steroid Hormone Gene Variants, Pesticide Use and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study within the Agricultural Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol H Christensen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and epidemiologic investigations suggest that certain pesticides may alter sex steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation and the risk of hormone-related cancers. Here we evaluated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs involved in hormone homeostasis alter the effect of pesticide exposure on prostate cancer risk. We evaluated pesticide–SNP interactions between 39 pesticides and SNPs with respect to prostate cancer among 776 cases and 1444 controls nested in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. In these interactions, we included candidate SNPs involved in hormone synthesis, metabolism and regulation (N=1100, as well as SNPs associated with circulating sex steroid concentrations as identified by genome-wide association studies (N=17. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP–pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. We translated p-values for interaction into q-values, which reflected the false discovery rate, to account for multiple comparisons. We observed a significant interaction, which was robust to multiple comparison testing, between the herbicide dicamba and rs8192166 in the testosterone metabolizing gene SRD5A1 (p-interaction=4.0x10-5; q-value=0.03, such that men with two copies of the wild-type genotype CC had a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with low use of dicamba (OR=0.62 95% CI: 0.41, 0.93, and high use of dicamba (OR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68, compared to those who reported no use of dicamba; in contrast, there was no significant association between dicamba and prostate cancer among those carrying one or two copies of the variant T allele at rs8192166. In addition, interactions between two organophosphate insecticides and SNPs related to estradiol metabolism were observed to result in an increased risk of prostate cancer. While replication is needed, these data suggest both

  15. The sex difference of plasma homovanillic acid is unaffected by cross-sex hormone administration in transsexual subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Kho, K.H.; Blansjaar, B.A.; Verbeek, M.M.; Geurtz, P.B.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the brain and the endocrine system. The brain expresses receptors for sex steroids and is capable of metabolizing these hormones. We explored (1) sex differences in homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and (2) the effects of

  16. The sex difference of plasma homovanillic acid is unaffected by cross-sex hormone administration in transsexual subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Kho, King H.; Blansjaar, B.A.; Verbeek, M.M.; Geurtz, P.B.H.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    There is a close relationship between the brain and the endocrine system. The brain expresses receptors for sex steroids and is capable of metabolizing these hormones. We explored (1) sex differences in homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and (2) the effects of

  17. Plasma hormones facilitated the hypermotility of the colon in a chronic stress rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbai Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between brain-gut peptides, gastrointestinal hormones and altered motility in a rat model of repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS, which mimics the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted daily to 1-h of water avoidance stress (WAS or sham WAS (SWAS for 10 consecutive days. Plasma hormones were determined using Enzyme Immunoassay Kits. Proximal colonic smooth muscle (PCSM contractions were studied in an organ bath system. PCSM cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion and IKv and IBKca were recorded by the patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: The number of fecal pellets during 1 h of acute restraint stress and the plasma hormones levels of substance P (SP, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, motilin (MTL, and cholecystokinin (CCK in WAS rats were significantly increased compared with SWAS rats, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH in WAS rats were not significantly changed and peptide YY (PYY in WAS rats was significantly decreased. Likewise, the amplitudes of spontaneous contractions of PCSM in WAS rats were significantly increased comparing with SWAS rats. The plasma of WAS rats (100 µl decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of controls. The IKv and IBKCa of PCSMs were significantly decreased in WAS rats compared with SWAS rats and the plasma of WAS rats (100 µl increased the amplitude of IKv and IBKCa in normal rats. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that WAS leads to changes of plasma hormones levels and to disordered myogenic colonic motility in the short term, but that the colon rapidly establishes a new equilibrium to maintain the normal baseline functioning.

  18. The effects of social isolation on steroid hormone levels are modulated by previous social status and context in a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, L; Oliveira, R F

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major stressor which impacts the physiology, behaviour and health of individuals in gregarious species. However, depending on conditional and contextual factors, such as social status and group composition, social isolation may be perceived differently by different individuals or even by the same individuals at different times. Here we tested the effects of social status (territorial vs. non-territorial) and previous group composition (i.e. type of social group: mixed sex group with two territorial males, TT vs. mixed sex group with one territorial and one non-territorial male, TnT) on the hormonal response (androgens and cortisol) to social isolation in a cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). The different steroid hormones measured responded differentially to social isolation, and their response was modulated by social factors. Social isolation elicited a decrease of 11-keto formation only in territorial males, whereas non-territorial males present a non-significant trend for increasing KT levels. Testosterone did not respond to social isolation. Cortisol only increased in isolated individuals from TnT groups irrespective of social status (i.e. both in territorials and non-territorials). These results suggest that it is the perception of social isolation and not the objective structure of the situation that triggers the hormonal response to isolation. © 2013.

  19. Influence of Acidification on the Partitioning of Steroid Hormones among Filtrate, Filter Media, and Retained Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Sonya M; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn D C; Mieritz, Mark G; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J

    2016-09-01

    Hormone contamination of aquatic systems has been shown to have deleterious effects on aquatic biota. However, the assessment of hormone contamination of aquatic environments requires a quantitative evaluation of the potential effects of sample preservation on hormone concentrations. This study investigated the influence of acidification (pH 2) of surface water samples on the partitioning of hormones among filtrate, filter media, and filter-retained particulate matter. Hormones were spiked into unpreserved and sulfuric acid-preserved ultrapure water and surface water runoff samples. The samples were filtered, and hormones were extracted from the filter and filtrate and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Acidification did not influence the partitioning of hormones onto the filter media. For the majority of the hormones investigated in this study, the partitioning of hormones to the filter-retained particulate matter was not influenced by acidification. Acidification increased the partitioning of progesterone and melengestrol acetate onto the retained particulate matter (about 25% for both analytes). Incorporation of an isotopically labeled internal standard (ISTD) for progesterone accounted for the loss of progesterone to the filter-retained particulates and resulted in accurate concentrations of progesterone in the filtrate. The incorporation of an ISTD for melengestrol acetate, however, was unable to account for the loss of melengestrol acetate to the retained particulates and resulted in underestimations of melengestrol acetate in the filtrate. Our results indicate that the analysis of melengestrol acetate in acid preserved surface runoff samples should be conducted on the filter-retained particulates as well as the filtrate. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Plasma hormonal profiles and dendritic spine density and morphology in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum, evidenced by light microscopy, of virgin and postpartum female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Janaína; Wittmann, Raul; de Azevedo, Márcia S; Lucion, Aldo B; Franci, Celso R; Giovenardi, Márcia; Rasia-Filho, Alberto A

    2008-06-27

    Successful reproduction requires that changes in plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), oxytocin (OT), estrogen (E(2)) and progesterone (P(4)) occur together with the display of maternal behaviors. Ovarian steroids and environmental stimuli can affect the dendritic spines in the rat hippocampus. Here, studying Wistar rats, it is described: (a) the sequential and concomitant changes in the hormonal profile of females at postpartum days (PP) 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24, comparing to estrous cycle referential values; (b) the dendritic spine density in the stratum radiatum of CA1 (CA1-SR) Golgi-impregnated neurons in virgin females across the estrous cycle and in multiparous age-matched ones; and (c) the proportion of different types of spines in the CA1-SR of virgin and postpartum females, both in diestrus. Plasma levels of gonadotrophins and ovarian hormones remained low along PP while LH increased and PRL decreased near the end of the lactating period. The lowest dendritic spine density was found in virgin females in estrus when compared to diestrus and proestrus phases or to postpartum females in diestrus (p0.4). There were no differences in the proportions of the different spine types in nulliparous and postpartum females (p>0.2). Results suggest that medium layer CA1-SR spines undergo rapid modifications in Wistar females across the estrous cycle (not quite comparable to Sprague-Dawley data or to hormonal substitutive therapy following ovariectomy), but persistent effects of motherhood on dendritic spine density and morphology were not found in this area.

  1. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide plasma concentrations in patients on hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anders; Rix, M.; Olgaard, K.

    2014-01-01

    the same receptor, the PTH1R, and it has been shown experimentally that PTHrP enhances the PTH secretory response to hypocalcemia, indicating a link between the two hormones. METHODS: Together with a number of parameters involved in mineral homeostasis plasma PTHrP was measured before hemodialysis in 90...

  2. Evaluation of pulsatile plasma concentrations of growth hormone in healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerink, N.J.; Lee, W.M.; Stokhof, A.A.; Voorhout, G.; Mol, J.A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy dogs and large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ANIMALS: 8 dogs with DCM and 8 healthy control dogs of comparable age and body weight. PROCEDURES: Blood

  3. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone inactivation by purified pituitary plasma membranes: effects of receptor-binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R N; Shakespear, R A; Duncan, J A; Marshall, J C

    1979-05-01

    Inactivation of LHRH by purified bovine pituitary plasma membranes was studied in vitro. After incubation of [125I]iodo-LHRH with plasma membranes, the amount of tracer bound to the pellet was measured, and the integrity of the unbound tracer in the supernatant was assessed. Reduction in ability to bind to anti-LHRH serum and to rebind to plasma membranes together with altered electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gels showed that the unbound [125I]iodo-LHRH was inactivated. LHRH inactivation occurred rapidly and was dependent upon membrane concentration and incubation temperature. These results indicate that hormone inactivation must be taken into account in the interpretation of LHRH-receptor interactions. During 37 C incubations, the apparent absence of specific LHRH binding can be explained by inactivation of tracer hormone. Significant LHRH inactivation also occurred at 0 C, which in part explains the insensitivity of LHRH receptor assays. Assessment of LHRH inactivation by different particulate subcellular fractions of pituitary tissue showed that the inactivating enzyme was associated with the plasma membranes; other organelles did not alter LHRH. The enzyme appeared to be an integral part of the plasma membrane structure, since enzymic activity could not be removed by washing without reducing specific LHRH binding. Additionally, reduction of LHRH inactivation by the inhibitors Bacitracin and Trasylol and by magnesium was also accompanied by reduced LHRH binding. Previous studies have shown that the majority of LHRH binding to pituitary plasma membranes is to the low affinity site (approximately 10(-6) M), but the significance of this binding has been uncertain. Our findings indicate that low affinity binding probably represents binding of LHRH to the inactivating enzyme. The LHRH analog, D-Ser6(TBu), des Gly10, ethylamide, has greater biological activity than LHRH and is not inactivated to a significant extent by pituitary plasma membranes. The

  4. Determination of ten steroid hormones in animal waste manure and agricultural soil using inverse and integrated clean-up pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine Andersen; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2011-01-01

    ... Martin Hansen , Kristine A. Krogh , Bent Halling ... in a 22 mL PLE cell : firstly by flushing the sample with heptane to remove unwanted matrix components (inverse- PLE , i- PLE ) and secondly, performing internal clean-up (ic- PLE ) and eluting the steroid hormones by attaching an ...

  5. Characterizing the Duration and Severity of Fishing Gear Entanglement on a North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis Using Stable Isotopes, Steroid and Thyroid Hormones in Baleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine S. J. Lysiak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis are highly endangered and frequently exposed to a myriad of human activities and stressors in their industrialized habitat. Entanglements in fixed fishing gear represent a particularly pervasive and often drawn-out source of anthropogenic morbidity and mortality to the species. To better understand both the physiological response to entanglement, and to determine fundamental parameters such as acquisition, duration, and severity of entanglement, we measured a suite of biogeochemical markers in the baleen of an adult female that died from a well-documented chronic entanglement in 2005 (whale Eg2301. Steroid hormones (cortisol, corticosterone, estradiol, and progesterone, thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4, and stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N were all measured in a longitudinally sampled baleen plate. This yielded an 8-year profile of foraging and migration behavior, stress response, and reproduction. Stable isotopes cycled in annual patterns that reflect the animal's north-south migration behavior and seasonally abundant zooplankton diet. A progesterone peak, lasting approximately 23 months, was associated with the single known calving event (in 2002 for this female. Estradiol, cortisol, corticosterone, T3, and T4 were also elevated, although variably so, during the progesterone peak. This whale was initially sighted with a fishing gear entanglement in September 2004, but the hormone panel suggests that the animal first interacted with the gear as early as June 2004. Elevated δ15N, T3, and T4 indicate that Eg2301 potentially experienced increased energy expenditure, significant lipid catabolism, and thermal stress approximately 3 months before the initial sighting with fishing gear. All hormones in the panel (except cortisol were elevated above baseline by September 2004. This novel study illustrates the value of using baleen to reconstruct recent temporal profiles and as a

  6. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  7. Ouabain interactions with the α4 isoform of the sodium pump trigger non-classical steroid hormone signaling and integrin expression in spermatogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upmanyu, Neha; Dietze, Raimund; Kirch, Ulrike; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios

    2016-11-01

    In addition to the ubiquitous α1 isoform of the sodium pump, sperm cells also express a male-specific α4 isoform whose function has been associated with sperm motility, fertility, and capacitation. Here we investigate in the murine spermatogenic cell line GC-2 interactions of the α4 isoform with the cardiotonic steroid ouabain in signaling cascades involved in the non-classical action of steroid hormones. Exposure of GC-2 cells to low concentrations of ouabain stimulates the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and of the transcription factors CREB and ATF-1. As a consequence of this signaling cascade, ouabain stimulates on the mRNA level the expression of integrins αv, β3 and α5, whose expression is also modulated by the cAMP response element. Increased expression of integrins αv and β3 is also seen in cultures of seminiferous tubules exposed to 10nM ouabain. At the protein level we observed a significant stimulation of β3 integrin expression by ouabain. Abrogation of α4 isoform expression by siRNA leads to the complete suppression of all ouabain-induced signaling mentioned above, including its stimulatory effect on the expression of β3 integrin. The results presented here demonstrate for the first time the induction of signaling cascades through the interaction of ouabain with the α4 isoform in a germ-cell derived cell line. The novel finding that these interactions lead to increased expression of integrins in GC-2 cells and the confirmation of these results in the ex vivo experiments indicate that hormone/receptor-like interactions of ouabain with the α4 isoform might be of significance for male physiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considerations when your dosage changes. What about side effects and inhaled steroids? The most common side effects with inhaled steroids ... inhaled steroid has much less potential for side effects than steroid pills or syrups. There have been concerns regarding ...

  9. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement' eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  10. Administration of Bioflavonoides Improves Plasma Levels of Adipocyte Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boncheva M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial the fruits of aronia melanocarpa (rich of bioflavonoides have been known for their medicinal properties. Present-day research of the pharmacological effects of aronia melanocarpa juice and fruits intake indicates that their high contents of anthocyanins is closely related to the health enhancing properties of this plant. This is a key fact which can be used in the prevention of most commonly spread, socially significant diseases, reducing for instance the total risk of cardio-vascular diseases. The great molecular variety anthocyanins possess and the role they play in cell metabolism, are still being investigated. This gives grounds to study the effects of Aronia melanocarpa on human cells, tissues, and organs. The aim of this study is to trace the effect of 150-200 ml aronia melanokarpa juice daily oral intake on the adipocyte hormones leptin (Lp, resistine (Rs and adiponectin (Adn blood levels in 10 patients with high body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 and high waist circumference. We used ELISA methods for hormonal analyses. During the study-period of two months patients did not change anything in their lifestyle. In the study group, the levels of Rs, Lp and Adn changed significantly compared to their baseline levels (averages, ng/mL - 6.93 ± 0.137, 18.40 ±1.021 and 7.98 ± 0.077 vs. 5.06 ± 0.011, 15.23 ± 0.906 and 10.45 ± 0.103 at the end of the second month, respectively. Compared with the control group of 6 people, matched for BMI, not receiving aronia melanocarpa juice, these values were markedly different. Patients taking aronia melanokarpa juice report improvement in various conditions that have caused them discomfort before the research started: pain in the muscles and joints faded away and were replaced by a new feeling of strength, headache attacks disappeared, improvement in memory and sleep were reported, regular defecation, no signs of gastric discomfort, better vision, a quicker auditory reaction, motivation

  11. Steroid hormonal bioactivities, culprit natural and synthetic hormones and other emerging contaminants in waste water measured using bioassays and UPLC-tQ-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, Corine J.; ten Broek, Rob; Brouwer, Abraham

    2018-01-01

    Emission of compounds with biological activities from waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents into surface waters is a topic of concern for ecology and drinking water quality. We investigated the occurrence of hormone-like activities in waste water sample extracts from four Dutch WWTPs and

  12. Radioimmunological determination of apparent free progesterone concentration in plasma samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Strigini, F.; Melis, G.B.; Paoletti, A.M.; Mariani, G.; Fioretti, P.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of free steroids would be preferable with respect to total hormone plasma content, since it yields more reliable information about the most biologically active form of circulating steroids. The authors report a method for the determination of apparent free progesterone concentration (AFPC) in plasma, by means of direct radioimmunoassay of dialyzed progesterone after equilibrium dialysis. (Auth.)

  13. Operation Everest II. Plasma Lipid and Hormonal Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    ingestion of a hypocaloric diet , weight loss, and a decrement in maximal oxygen uptake. Also, fasting plasma TG accumulation was increased with a...in the hypobaric chamber, the subjects consumed an ad libitum diet . The menus, food preparation, and dietary data collection were supervised by a...approximately 3000 kcal/day distributed to provide 60% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 25% fat in the diet . A variety of foods and non-alcoholic beverages were

  14. Quantification of three steroid hormone receptors of the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: their tissue distributions and the effect of environmental change on their expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daisuke; Park, Min Kyun

    2003-12-01

    Sex steroid hormones play a central role in the reproduction of all vertebrates. These hormones function through their specific receptors, so the expression levels of the receptors may reflect the responsibility of target organs. However, there was no effective method to quantify the expression levels of these receptors in reptilian species. In this study, we established the competitive-PCR assay systems for the quantification of the mRNA expression levels of three sex steroid hormone receptors in the leopard gecko. These assay systems were successfully able to detect the mRNA expression level of each receptor in various organs of male adult leopard geckoes. The expression levels of mRNA of these receptors were highly various depending on the organs assayed. This is the first report regarding the tissue distributions of sex steroid hormone receptor expressions in reptile. The effects of environmental conditions on these hormone receptor expressions were also examined. After the low temperature and short photoperiod treatment for 6 weeks, only the androgen receptor expression was significantly increased in the testes. The competitive-PCR assay systems established in this report should be applicable for various studies of the molecular mechanism underlying the reproductive activity of the leopard gecko.

  15. Neuroactive steroid levels are modified in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of post-finasteride patients showing persistent sexual side effects and anxious/depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Caruso, Donatella; Abbiati, Federico; Giatti, Silvia; Calabrese, Donato; Piazza, Fabrizio; Cavaletti, Guido

    2013-10-01

    Observations performed in a subset of subjects treated with finasteride (an inhibitor of the enzyme 5α-reductase) for male pattern hair loss seem to indicate that sexual dysfunction as well as anxious/depressive symptomatology may occur at the end of the treatment and continue after discontinuation. A possible hypothesis to explain depression symptoms after finasteride treatment might be impairment in the levels of neuroactive steroids. Therefore, neuroactive steroid levels were evaluated in paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from male patients who received finasteride for the treatment of androgenic alopecia and who, after drug discontinuation, still show long-term sexual side effects as well as anxious/depressive symptomatology. The levels of neuroactive steroids were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in three postfinasteride patients and compared to those of five healthy controls. Neuroactive steroid levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of postfinasteride patients and healthy controls. At the examination, the three postfinasteride patients reported muscular stiffness, cramps, tremors, and chronic fatigue in the absence of clinical evidence of any muscular disorder or strength reduction. Severity and frequency of the anxious/depressive symptoms were quite variable; overall, all the subjects had a fairly complex and constant neuropsychiatric pattern. Assessment of neuroactive steroid levels in patients showed some interindividual differences. However, the most important finding was the comparison of their neuroactive steroid levels with those of healthy controls. Indeed, decreased levels of tetrahydroprogesterone, isopregnanolone and dihydrotestosterone and increased levels of testosterone and 17β-estradiol were reported in cerebrospinal fluid of postfinasteride patients. Moreover, decreased levels of dihydroprogesterone and increased levels of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and 17β-estradiol were observed in

  16. Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Peritoneal Fluid and Plasma From Women With and Without Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, Heather; Loucks, Tammy L; Nezhat, Ceana; Sidell, Neil; Session, Donna R

    2015-09-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) has potential local effects on ovarian function and endometrial tissue, including endometriosis, but its presence in peritoneal fluid is not fully understood. This is a cross-sectional study evaluating AMH in peritoneal fluid and plasma from women with endometriosis (N = 61) and from control women without endometriosis (N = 36). There was a significant correlation between AMH in plasma and peritoneal fluid from both patients with endometriosis (r(2) = .767 [P peritoneal fluid in women with and without endometriosis. There were no differences in the plasma or peritoneal fluid AMH in women with endometriosis versus control women. The strong relationship between plasma and peritoneal fluid may allow plasma AMH to be a marker for peritoneal AMH in studies evaluating the local effects of AMH. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  18. The effects of ozonation on select waterborne steroid hormones in recirculation aquaculture systems containing sexually mature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A controlled 3-month study was conducted in 6 replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) containing a mixture of sexually mature and immature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to determine whether water ozonation is associated with a reduction in waterborne hormones. Post-smolt Atlantic salm...

  19. Glucuronidation of antiepileptic drugs in women with epilepsy : on the role of age, steroid hormones and oral contraceptives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, I.

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with clinically important gender differences in both the expression and the impact of epilepsy. Understanding the complex interactions between sex hormones, epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can greatly improve the care for women with epilepsy. This

  20. Beyond the HPA-axis: The role of the gonadal steroid hormone receptors in modulating stress-related responses in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenchel, Daphna; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Vainer, Ella; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2015-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays a major role in the response to stress, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis are closely linked with the ability to inhibit the other. Testosterone, a product of the HPG, has many beneficial effects beyond its functions as a sex hormone including anti-anxiety properties. In this study we examined the effect of stress exposure on gonadal hormones, and their efficacy in modulating anxiety-like response in an animal model of PTSD. Male rats were exposed to predator scent stress, followed by analysis of brain expression of androgen receptor (AR) receptor and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The behavioral effects of immediate treatment with testosterone, testosterone receptor antagonist (flutamide) or vehicle were evaluated using the elevated plus-maze, acoustic startle response and trauma-cue response. Levels of circulating corticosterone and testosterone were also measured after treatment. The behavioral effects of delayed testosterone treatment were explored in the same manner. We report that animals whose behavior was extremely disrupted (EBR) selectively displayed significant down-regulation of AR and ERα in the hippocampus. Immediate treatment with flutamide or delayed treatment with testosterone significantly increased prevalence rates of minimal behavioral response (MBR) and decreased prevalence of EBR with favorable behavioral results. Testosterone levels were higher in control un-exposed animals, while corticosterone was higher in control exposed animals. This study suggests that gonadal steroid hormones are involved in the neurobiological response to predator scent stress and thus warrant further study as a potential therapeutic avenue for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  1. Rooibos Flavonoids Inhibit the Activity of Key Adrenal Steroidogenic Enzymes, Modulating Steroid Hormone Levels in H295R Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindie Schloms

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Major rooibos flavonoids—dihydrochalcones, aspalathin and nothofagin, flavones—orientin and vitexin, and a flavonol, rutin, were investigated to determine their influence on the activity of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD2 and cytochrome P450 (P450 enzymes, P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1, P450 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2 and P450 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1. All the flavonoids inhibited 3βHSD2 and CYP17A1 significantly, while the inhibition of downstream enzymes, CYP21A2 and CYP11B1, was both substrate and flavonoid specific. The dihydrochalcones inhibited the activity of CYP21A2, but not that of CYP11B1. Although rutin, orientin and vitexin inhibited deoxycortisol conversion by CYP11B1 significantly, inhibition of deoxycorticosterone was <20%. These three flavonoids were unable to inhibit CYP21A2, with negligible inhibition of deoxycortisol biosynthesis only. Rooibos inhibited substrate conversion by CYP17A1 and CYP21A2, while the inhibition of other enzyme activities was <20%. In H295R cells, rutin had the greatest inhibitory effect on steroid production upon forskolin stimulation, reducing total steroid output 2.3-fold, while no effect was detected under basal conditions. Nothofagin and vitexin had a greater inhibitory effect on overall steroid production compared to aspalathin and orientin, respectively. The latter compounds contain two hydroxyl groups on the B ring, while nothofagin and vitexin contain a single hydroxyl group. In addition, all of the flavonoids are glycosylated, albeit at different positions—dihydrochalcones at C3' and flavones at C8 on ring A, while rutin, a larger molecule, has a rutinosyl moiety at C3 on ring C. Structural differences regarding the number and position of hydroxyl and glucose moieties as well as structural flexibility could indicate different mechanisms by which these flavonoids influence the activity of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes.

  2. Growth hormone concentrations in mammary secretions and plasma of the periparturient bitch and in plasma of the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, I; Kooistra, H S; Okkens, A C; Hazewinkel, H A; Bevers, M M; Mol, J A

    1997-01-01

    The presence of growth hormone (GH) in mammary secretions of bitches was investigated in relation to plasma GH concentrations at about the time of parturition and during the first weeks of lactation. Plasma GH concentrations in neonates were measured during the first weeks of lactation, to determine whether GH in maternal milk contributes to plasma concentrations of GH in the neonate. Gastrointestinal uptake of GH was studied by measurement of plasma bovine GH (bGH) concentrations after intragastric administration of bGH. High concentrations of GH were found in the mammary secretions of the bitches, particularly before parturition and in colostrum, exceeding maternal plasma concentration up to 100-1000 times. GH concentrations in milk were not not significantly correlated with GH concentrations in plasma of bitches or neonates. Bovine GH could not be detected in neonatal plasma for 4 h after intragastric administration of bGH. The presence of high concentrations of canine GH (cGH) in ante-partum and colostral mammary secretions is consistent with the progesterone-induced mammary biosynthesis of GH. GH in milk is probably not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood circulation of the newborn in its intact form.

  3. [Effect of Transcutaneuos Acupoint Electrostimulation on Serum Sex Hormone Levels and Expression of Ovarian Steroid Hormone Metabolic Enzymes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-yong; Zhang, Xiao-yue; Yu, Mei-ling; Lu, Sheng-feng; Chen, Xia

    2016-02-01

    To observe the effect of transcutaneuos acupoint electrostimulation(TAES) on ovarian serum sex hormone levels and ovarian follicle granular cell aromatase cytochrome P 450 (P 450 arom) protein and follicle theca cell cytochrome P 450 17 α-hydroxylase/c 17-20 lyase cytochrome P 450 (P 450 c 17 α) protein expression in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of PCOS. METHODS Forty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model, medication and TAES (10 rats/group). The PCOS model was established by giving (gavage) the animals with letrozole solution (1.0 mg/kg, once daily for 21 consecutive days). Rats of the medication group were treated with Clomiphene (1 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days, and those of the TAES group were treated with electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 3 mA) of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) areas for 30 min, once daily for 7 consecutive days. The rats body weight and bilateral ovarian weight were detected, and the ovarian structure and follicular development degree were observed under light microscope after H. E. stain, and the serum testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), luteotrophic hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) contents were detected using radioimmunoassay. The expression of ovarian P 450 arom (for production of estrogen)protein and P 450 c 17 α (for production of androgen) protein was detected by using immunohistochemical stain and Western blot, respectively. The body weight, bilateral ovary weight, serum T and LH contents, and ratio of LH/FSH, and ovarian P 450 c 17 α immunoactivity and protein expression levels in the model group were all significantly increased compared with the normal control group (P ovarian P 450 arom immunoactivity and protein expression were significantly decreased after modeling (P ovarian P 450 c 17 α immunoactivity and protein expression levels, and the decreased ovarian P 450 arom immunoactivity and protein expression

  4. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-05-15

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  5. Obesity Related Alterations in Plasma Cytokines and Metabolic Hormones in Chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Nehete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and serves as a major risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type-2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in metabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines, and immune function, in lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees in a controlled environment. We observed increased plasma circulating levels of proinflammatory TH-1 cytokines, Interferon gamma, interleukin-6, interleukin-12p40, tumor necrosis factor, soluble CD40 ligand, and Interleukin-1β and anti-inflammatory TH-2 cytokines, Interleukin-4, Interleukin-RA, Interleukin-10, and Interleukin-13 in overweight and obese chimpanzees. We also observed increased levels of metabolic hormones glucagon-like-peptide-1, glucagon, connecting peptide, insulin, pancreatic peptide YY3–36, and leptin in the plasma of overweight and obese chimpanzees. Chemokine, eotaxin, fractalkine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were higher in lean compared to obese chimpanzees, while chemokine ligand 8 increased in plasma of obese chimpanzees. We also observed an obesity-related effect on immune function as demonstrated by lower mitogen induced proliferation, and natural killer activity and higher production of IFN-γ by PBMC in Elispot assay, These findings suggest that lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees share circulating inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormone levels with humans and that chimpanzees can serve as a useful animal model for human studies.

  6. Cinacalcet reduces plasma intact parathyroid hormone, serum phosphate and calcium levels in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism irrespective of its severity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) - defined in terms of baseline plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level - and the magnitude of response to cinacalcet.

  7. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in human ovarian follicles and its association with intrafollicular hormone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtkjær, Jane Alrø; Jeppesen, Janni Vikkelsø; Wissing, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate follicular fluid (FF) levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in relation to levels of intrafollicular hormones. Furthermore, immunostaining of human follicles of varying diameters was studied for PAPP-A, antimüllerian hormone (AMH), and aromatase, and the biological...... activity of PAPP-A in FF was evaluated....

  8. Successful Treatment of Plasma Cell-Rich Acute Rejection Using Pulse Steroid Therapy Alone: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Komatsuzaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent development of immunosuppressive agents, plasma cell-rich acute rejection (PCAR has remained refractory to treatment. Herein, we report an unusual case of PCAR that responded well to pulse steroid therapy alone. A 47-year-old man was admitted for a protocol biopsy three months after kidney transplantation, with a stable serum creatinine level of 1.6 mg/dL. Histological examination showed focal aggressive tubulointerstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of predominantly polyclonal mature plasma cells, leading to our diagnosis of PCAR. Three months following three consecutive days of high-dose methylprednisolone (mPSL therapy, an allograft biopsy performed for therapy evaluation showed persistent PCAR. We readministered mPSL therapy and successfully resolved the PCAR. Although PCAR generally develops more than six months after transplantation, we diagnosed this case early, at three months after transplantation, with focally infiltrated PCAR. This case demonstrates the importance of early diagnosis and prompt treatment of PCAR to manage the development and severity of allograft rejection.

  9. Determination of steroid hormones and their metabolite in several types of meat samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Marina; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2018-03-09

    A new analytical method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-HRMS) has been developed for the determination of steroid hormones (hydrocortisone, cortisone, progesterone, prednisone, prednisolone, testosterone, melengesterol acetate, hydrocortisone-21-acetate, cortisone-21-acetate, testosterone propionate, 17α-methyltestosterone, 6α-methylprednisolone and medroxyprogesterone) and their metabolite (17α-hydroxyprogesterone) in three meat samples (chicken, pork and beef). Two different extraction approaches were tested (QuEChERS "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" and "dilute and shoot"), observing that the QuEChERS method provided the best results in terms of recovery. A clean-up step was applied comparing several sorbents, obtaining the best results when florisil and aluminum oxide were used. The optimized method was validated, obtaining suitable results for all validation parameters in the three meat matrices evaluated. Recovery values ranged from 70% to 103% (except for prednisone in beef samples), meanwhile repeatability and reproducibility were obtained at values lower than 18% and 21%, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was established for most of the compounds at 1.0 μg/kg, except for testosterone in chicken and hydrocortisone-21-acetate and cortisone-21-acetate in pork at 2.0 μg/kg. Decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) values ranged from 1.0-2.7 μg/kg and 1.9-5.5 μg/kg, respectively, in the three matrices. Finally, thirty one meat samples were analyzed and two hormones, progesterone and hydrocortisone, were detected in a beef and pork sample at 1.7 and 2.8 μg/kg respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Concentration of steroid hormones in the follicular fluid of mature and immature ovarian follicles of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome submitted to in vitro fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Resende, Luciana Ochuiuto Teixeira; dos Reis, Rosana Maria; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Vireque, Alessandra Aparecida; Santana, Laura Ferreira; de Sá Rosa e Silva, Ana Carolina Japur; Martins, Wellington de Paula

    2010-09-01

    to evaluate the concentration of steroid hormones in follicular fluid (FF) of small (10-14 mm) and large (> 18 mm) follicles of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) submitted to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. a case-control study was conducted on 13 infertile women with PCOS (17 cycles) and 31 infertile women due to male factor - Control Group (31 cycles). FF was aspirated individually and divided into four groups: G1 (FF of small follicles of the Control Group), G2 (FF of small follicles of the PCOS group), G3 (FF of large follicles of the Control Group) and G4 (FF of large follicles of the PCOS group). Estrogen, progesterone and β-hCG were determined by chemiluminescence, and testosterone and androstenedione by radioimmunoassay. The unpaired t-test was used to compare the hormone determinations in the FF of the PCOS and Control Groups, and the four groups were compared by ANOVA. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the pregnancy rates. the small follicles of the two groups had lower progesterone levels (8,435 ± 3,305 ng/mL) than large follicles (10,280 ± 3,475 ng/mL), p-value Control (9,824 ± 3,128 ng/mL), p-value =0.03. Testosterone differed between G1 (326.6 ± 124.4 ng/dL) and G3 (205.8 ± 98.91 ng/dL), p-value Control groups (9/31, 40.9%), p-value =072. women with PCOS had high testosterone concentrations in the FF, regardless of the stage of follicle development, and reduced progesterone levels, suggesting that paracrine factors may inhibit the secretion of the latter by follicular cells. The pregnancy rates showed that treatment with COH and IVF is a good option for women with infertility secondary to PCOS.

  11. Performa dan Kandungan Hormon Triiodotironin Plasma Ayam Broiler Akibat Pengaruh Cekaman Panas di Daerah Tropis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kusnadi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available High environmental temperature may cause heat stress in poultry. This may increase water consumption, decrease feed intake and in turn, decrease production and triiodothyronine hormone level. The aim of the experiment was to study performance and plasma triiodothyronine hormone of broilers exposed to heat stress in tropical area. The study used 140 male broilers of 2 weeks of age. The treatment of environmental temperatures were S1A (28.551.53 oC with ad libitum of feeding, S1BT1 (S1 with pair feeding as S2A, S1BT2 (S1 with pair feeding as S3A, S2A (31.071.29 oC with ad libitum of feeding and S3A (33.501.17 oC with ad libitum of feeding. Variables measured were feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion and triiodothyronine hormone level of plasma. The experiment design used was a completely randomized design with 4 replications and continued to Duncan test when it was significantly different. The results indicated that feed consumption and body weight gain in S1A, higher than those in S2A and S3A. The body weight gain in S1BT1 higher than those in S2A, and in S1BT2 higher than those in S3A. The level of plasma triiodothyronine hormone in S1, S1BT1 and S1BT2 was higher than those in S2A and in S3A.

  12. Concentrations of steroid hormones, estrous, ovarian and reproductive responses in sheep estrous synchronized with different prostaglandin-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, S; Viñoles, C; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2016-04-01

    To determine estrous, ovarian and reproductive responses after different prostaglandin (PG)-based protocols, ewes were assigned to groups PG10, PG12, PG14 or PG16 (twoPG injections administered 10, 12, 14 or 16 days apart; respectively). Experiment I (n=132) was conducted to evaluate the estrous response, ovulation rate (OR), conception and fertility. Experiment II (n=24) was conducted to evaluate ovarian follicle growth, steroid concentrations and the interval from the second PG injection to estrus (PG-estrus) and ovulation (PG-ovulation). Estrous response was less with the PG16 (P0.05). From 8 to 4 days before estrus, progesterone (P4) concentrations were greater for the PG14 and PG16 than for the PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) groups. There were more days where concentrations of P4 were above 3.18 nmol/L with the PG14 and PG16 than PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) treatments. Use of the PG14 and PG16 treatments resulted in greater estradiol (E2) at estrus and 12h later than use of the PG10 and PG12 treatments. A positive correlation was observed between the duration of the luteal phase and maximum E2 concentrations, and between duration of the luteal phase and days with E2 concentrations above 10 pmol/L. Conception and fertility were greater with use of the PG14 compared with PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) treatments. The administration of two PG injections 10, 12, 14 or 16 days apart resulted in different durations of the luteal phase that were positively associated with E2 concentrations and the reproductive outcome. The shorter luteal phases were associated with greater synchrony in time of estrus. The intervals for the variables PG-estrus, PG-ovulation and OR were similar among groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental stress, TRH and lactation effects on plasma growth hormone of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.D.; DeDios, O.; Lippincott, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels of cattle are influenced by numerous environmental and metabolic factors. Acute heat stress increases GH threefold with maximum value at 30 minutes post-exposure. TRH infusion also shows a threefold increase as early as 2 minutes post-infusion but with a continual elevation for approximately 20 minutes. Longer-term environmental heat stress exposure, as occurs in tropics and the summer season, lowers plasma GH of cattle. GH levels in high-producing, lactating cows are greater than in low producers. In summary, plasma increases in levels of GH immediately reflect the stressor effects on cattle, presumably through involvement of TRH release. Long-term heat stressors, such as seasonal or tropic acclimatization, lowers GH of lactating cattle. (author)

  14. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian; Johansen, Marie Louise; Gustafsson, Finn; Frystyk, Jan; Dela, Flemming; Faber, Jens; Kistorp, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current and former AAS abusers compared with controls. Cross-sectional study among men involved in recreational strength training. Current and former AAS abusers (n=37 and n=33) and controls (n=30) volunteered from the community. We assessed insulin sensitivity by Matsuda index (oral glucose tolerance test). Using overnight fasting blood samples, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Body composition and fat distribution, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Current and former AAS abusers displayed lower Matsuda index than controls (%-difference (95%CI) from controls, -26% (-45; -1) and -39% (-55; -18)). Testosterone was markedly higher among current AAS abusers and subnormal among former AAS abusers compared with controls. Current AAS abusers displayed higher mean VAT than controls (388 (17) vs 293 (12) cm 3 , P<.001) whereas body fat %, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were lower. In contrast, former AAS abusers showed highest leptin concentrations and body fat %. Multivariate linear regressions identified VAT as independent predictor of lower Matsuda index among current AAS abusers compared with controls; while body fat % independently predicted lower Matsuda index among former AAS abusers. Both current and former AAS abusers displayed lower insulin sensitivity which could be mediated by higher VAT and total body fat %, respectively. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

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    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  16. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer protein activities in growth hormone-deficient adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, JAM; van Tol, A; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement on plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), factors involved in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, We unknown. We carried out a 6 mouths study in 24

  17. Limited Diagnostic Utility of Plasma Adrenocorticotropic Hormone for Differentiation between Adrenal Cushing Syndrome and Cushing Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, A Ram; Kim, Jung Hee; Hong, Eun Shil; Kim, I Kyeong; Park, Kyeong Seon; Ahn, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Wan; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of the plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level has been recommended as the first diagnostic test for differentiating between ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (CS) and ACTH-dependent CS. When plasma ACTH values are inconclusive, a differential diagnosis of CS can be made based upon measurement of the serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) level and results of the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDST). The aim of this study was to assess the utility of plasma ACTH to differentiate adrenal CS from Cushing' disease (CD) and compare it with that of the HDST results and serum DHEA-S level. We performed a retrospective, multicenter study from January 2000 to May 2012 involving 92 patients with endogenous CS. The levels of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) after the HDST, and serum DHEA-S were measured. Fifty-seven patients had adrenal CS and 35 patients had CD. The area under the curve of plasma ACTH, serum DHEA-S, percentage suppression of serum cortisol, and UFC after HDST were 0.954, 0.841, 0.950, and 0.997, respectively (all Pdisease, especially when the plasma ACTH level alone is not conclusive.

  18. Receptor localization of steroid hormones and drugs: discoveries through the use of thaw-mount and dry-mount autoradiography

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    Stumpf W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of receptor autoradiography, its development and applications, testify to the utility of this histochemical technique for localizing radiolabeled hormones and drugs at cellular and subcellular sites of action in intact tissues. Localization of diffusible compounds has been a challenge that was met through the introduction of the "thaw-mount" and "dry-mount" autoradiographic techniques thirty years ago. With this cellular receptor autoradiography, used alone or combined with other histochemical techniques, sites of specific binding and deposition in vivo and in vitro have been characterized. Numerous discoveries, some reviewed in this article, provided information that led to new concepts and opened new areas of research. As an example, in recent years more than fifty target tissues for vitamin D have been specified, challenging the conventional view about the main biological role of vitamin D. The functions of most of these vitamin D target tissues are unrelated to the regulation of systemic calcium homeostasis, but pertain to the (seasonal regulation of endo- and exocrine secretion, cell proliferation, reproduction, neural, immune and cardiovascular responses, and adaptation to stress. Receptor autoradiography with cellular resolution has become an indispensable tool in drug research and development, since information can be obtained that is difficult or impossible to gain otherwise

  19. Prenatal and childhood exposure to phthalate diesters and sex steroid hormones in 2-, 5-, 8-, and 11-year-old children: A pilot study of the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hui-Ju; Sie, Lillian; Su, Pen-Hua; Chuang, Chia-Jui; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Sun, Chien-Wen; Huang, Li-Hua; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Julie Wang, Shu-Li

    2017-11-01

    Phthalate diesters are commonly used and have been well established as environmental endocrine disruptors. However, few studies have examined their effects on sex steroid hormones in children. We followed children over time to examine the association between pre- and post-natal phthalate exposure and sex steroid hormone levels at 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. We recruited 430 pregnant women from central Taiwan from 2000 to 2001 and assessed their children at birth, 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. We studies children with at least one measurement for both phthalate and hormone levels during each any of the follow-up time point (n = 193). Estradiol, free testosterone, testosterone, and progesterone were measured from venous blood. Three monoesters of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate, and mono-methyl phthalate were measured in maternal urine collected during the 3rd trimester and child urine collected at each follow-up point. The sum of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (∑MEHP) was calculated by summing the concentrations of the three DEHP monoesters. Generalized estimating equation regression analysis with repeated measures was used to estimate associations between phthalate metabolites and hormone levels. After adjustment for potential confounders, maternal ∑MEHP level was associated with decreased levels of progesterone in girls (β = -0.309 p = 0.001). The child ∑MEHP concentration was associated with decreased levels of progesterone for girls (β = -0.194, p = 0.003) and with decreased levels of free testosterone for boys (β = -0.124, p = 0.004). Early-life DEHP exposure may alter sex steroid hormones of children over time, which may pose potential reproductive health risks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of testosterone and of sexual hormone-binding globulin in plasma of women with hirsutism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A.; Baron, J.; Chawlisz, K.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma-borne testosterone was determined in 176 women with hirsutism, and in 47 patients sexual hormone-binding globulin was determined as well. The highest average testosterone values were recorded from cases with congenital adrenogenital syndrome (AGS). In cases of postnatal AGS values were much lower, but they were clearly in excess of those recordable from Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Plasma borne testosterone in cases of hirsutism came very close to testosterone levels established in the context of Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Testosterone levels dropped with significance, following AGS treatment, using cortisol derivatives, and following wedge-shaped ovariectomy. Sexual hormone binding-globulin was found to be strongly reduced in almost all women with hirsutism. Such reduction seemed to suggest the presence of increased amounts of free active testosterone in the blood of those patients. Determination of plasma-borne testosterone in cases of hirsutism is considered to be essential to both diagnosis of the endocrinological syndromes and monitoring of therapy. (author)

  1. Sex steroids and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberden, Christine

    2017-10-01

    The brain has long been known as a dimorphic organ and as a target of sex steroids. It is also a site for their synthesis. Sex steroids in numerous ways can modify cerebral physiology, and along with many processes adult neurogenesis is also modulated by sex steroids. This review will focus on the effects of the main steroids, estrogens, androgens and progestogens, and unveil some aspects of their partly disclosed mechanisms of actions. Gonadal steroids act on different steps of neurogenesis: cell proliferation seems to be increased by estrogens only, while androgens and progestogens favor neuronal renewal by increasing cell survival; differentiation is a common target. Aging is characterized by a cognitive deficiency, paralleled by a decrease in the rate of neuronal renewal and in the levels of circulating gonadal hormones. Therefore, the effects of gonadal hormones on the aging brain are important to consider. The review will also be expanded to related molecules which are agonists to the nuclear receptors. Sex steroids can modify adult neuronal renewal and the extensive knowledge of their actions on neurogenesis is essential, as it can be a leading pathway to therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Steroids facing emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used

  3. Radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampl, R.; Stranska, I.; Starka, L.; Picha, J.; Chundela, B.

    1978-01-01

    Alternative antisera against 17 α-methyltestosterone and 19-nortestosterone were raised and used for radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids. Tritiated compounds were used as radioligands. The RIA method suitable for doping control is proposed for 17 α-alkylated anabolic steroids in both plasma and urine, using qoat antiserum against methyltestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-BSA. Sensitivity of the method was expressed as least amount of nonradioactive methandienone which, when added to normal urine or plasma, caused statistically significant decrease of measured supernatant radioactivity at 99% level. The amounts from 50 to 500 pg were tested, each in eight parallel determinations. The amounts of 100 pg for plasma and 200 pg for urine met these criteria. The respective coefficients of variation did not depend on the amount of steroid added in this range. They averaged 4.60% for plasma and 4.95% for urine, respectively. (T.I.)

  4. Effects on circulating steroid hormones and gene expression along the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis in adult Japanese quail exposed to 17β-trenbolone across multiple generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula F.; Maddox, Catherine M.; Sprague, Dan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17β-trenbolone (17βTB) on adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed across three generations. The F0 generation was exposed after sexual maturity to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm through feed. The F1 generation was exposed in ovo by maternal transfer and through feed at the same doses as their parents. The F2 generation was exposed in ovo only. Levels of plasma sex steroids, gonadal Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA and select brain neuroendocrine peptide mRNAs were measured. In males, testosterone levels did not differ in any generation from those in controls. Estradiol was significantly elevated in 17βTB treated F0 and F1 males. In F0 and F1 females, testosterone was suppressed by 17βTB, whereas estradiol was significantly higher at 40 ppm in F0 and at 10 ppm in F1 females. CYP19A1 expression in F1 males and females increased suggesting a compensatory response to the androgenic effects of 17βTB. Few significant effects were observed in the F2 birds indicating that in ovo exposure had limited effects on the monitored endpoints. Overall, our results confirmed endocrine disrupting effects of dietary 17βTB in Japanese quail but the response was dependent on sex, developmental stage at initiation of exposure, and dose.

  5. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone radioimmunoassay and its measurement in normal human plasma, secondary amenorrhea, and postmenopausal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, N.G.; Schlaff, S.

    1976-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been developed for measurement in ethanol extracts of human plasma. Iodinated hormone was prepared with the use of the chloramine-T method, and antibodies were developed in rabbits over a six-month period with a GnRH synthetic copolymer immunogen. A Scatchard plot revealed at least three species of antibody. The assay can measure conservatively at the 5 pg. per milliliter level and shows no cross-reactivity with other available hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. The releasing hormone was quantitatively recovered from human plasma with immunologic identity to native hormone. Unextracted plasma could not be used because of nonspecific displacement. The measurement of GnRH in individuals receiving 100 μg of intravenous bolus infusions of the synthetic decapeptide show extremely elevated values with two half-lives: one of two to four minutes and another of 35 to 40 minutes. In our experiments, we have found measurable GnRH in patients with secondary amenorrhea and at the midcycle in normal women. In the normal cycling woman during the follicular and luteal phases, GnRH was undetectable. In postmenopausal women with extreme hypoestrogenism and markedly elevated luteinizing hormone values, GnRH was also undetectable. No bursts of GnRH could be detected in normal men when sampled every ten minutes over a two-hour period and every two hours throughout the day

  7. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  8. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  9. Screening and association testing of common coding variation in steroid hormone receptor co-activator and co-repressor genes in relation to breast cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort

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    Stallcup Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a limited number of studies have performed comprehensive investigations of coding variation in relation to breast cancer risk. Given the established role of estrogens in breast cancer, we hypothesized that coding variation in steroid receptor coactivator and corepressor genes may alter inter-individual response to estrogen and serve as markers of breast cancer risk. Methods We sequenced the coding exons of 17 genes (EP300, CCND1, NME1, NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3, SMARCA4, SMARCA2, CARM1, FOXA1, MPG, NCOR1, NCOR2, CALCOCO1, PRMT1, PPARBP and CREBBP suggested to influence transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors in a multiethnic panel of women with advanced breast cancer (n = 95: African Americans, Latinos, Japanese, Native Hawaiians and European Americans. Association testing of validated coding variants was conducted in a breast cancer case-control study (1,612 invasive cases and 1,961 controls nested in the Multiethnic Cohort. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for allelic effects in ethnic-pooled analyses as well as in subgroups defined by disease stage and steroid hormone receptor status. We also investigated effect modification by established breast cancer risk factors that are associated with steroid hormone exposure. Results We identified 45 coding variants with frequencies ≥ 1% in any one ethnic group (43 non-synonymous variants. We observed nominally significant positive associations with two coding variants in ethnic-pooled analyses (NCOR2: His52Arg, OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.05–3.05; CALCOCO1: Arg12His, OR = 2.29; 95% CI, 1.00–5.26. A small number of variants were associated with risk in disease subgroup analyses and we observed no strong evidence of effect modification by breast cancer risk factors. Based on the large number of statistical tests conducted in this study, the nominally significant associations that we observed may be due to chance, and will need to be confirmed in other

  10. Screening and association testing of common coding variation in steroid hormone receptor co-activator and co-repressor genes in relation to breast cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiman, Christopher A; Stallcup, Michael R; Greene, Geoffrey L; Press, Michael F; Garcia, Rachel R; Hsu, Chris; Xia, Lucy; Ha, Helen; Sheng, Xin; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E

    2009-01-01

    Only a limited number of studies have performed comprehensive investigations of coding variation in relation to breast cancer risk. Given the established role of estrogens in breast cancer, we hypothesized that coding variation in steroid receptor coactivator and corepressor genes may alter inter-individual response to estrogen and serve as markers of breast cancer risk. We sequenced the coding exons of 17 genes (EP300, CCND1, NME1, NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3, SMARCA4, SMARCA2, CARM1, FOXA1, MPG, NCOR1, NCOR2, CALCOCO1, PRMT1, PPARBP and CREBBP) suggested to influence transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors in a multiethnic panel of women with advanced breast cancer (n = 95): African Americans, Latinos, Japanese, Native Hawaiians and European Americans. Association testing of validated coding variants was conducted in a breast cancer case-control study (1,612 invasive cases and 1,961 controls) nested in the Multiethnic Cohort. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for allelic effects in ethnic-pooled analyses as well as in subgroups defined by disease stage and steroid hormone receptor status. We also investigated effect modification by established breast cancer risk factors that are associated with steroid hormone exposure. We identified 45 coding variants with frequencies ≥ 1% in any one ethnic group (43 non-synonymous variants). We observed nominally significant positive associations with two coding variants in ethnic-pooled analyses (NCOR2: His52Arg, OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.05–3.05; CALCOCO1: Arg12His, OR = 2.29; 95% CI, 1.00–5.26). A small number of variants were associated with risk in disease subgroup analyses and we observed no strong evidence of effect modification by breast cancer risk factors. Based on the large number of statistical tests conducted in this study, the nominally significant associations that we observed may be due to chance, and will need to be confirmed in other studies. Our findings suggest that common coding

  11. Effects of thermal regime on ovarian maturation and plasma sex steroids in farmed white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.A.H.; Van Eenennaam, J. P.; Feist, G.W.; Linares-Casenave, J.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C.B.; Doroshov, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, commercial aquaculture farms in Northern California have exposed gravid, cultured white sturgeon females to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) throughout the late phase of vitellogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation resulting in improved ovulation rates and egg quality. However, the optimum timing for transfer of broodfish to the cold water and the capacity of transferred broodfish to maintain reproductive competence over an extended time in cold water had not been evaluated. Gravid white sturgeon females that have been raised at water temperatures of 16-20??C were transported to either cold water (12 ?? 1??C; Group 1) in November 1997 or maintained in ambient water temperatures (10-19??C; Group 2) until early spring. In March 1998, half of the fish in Group 2 had regressed ovaries, but the remaining females had intact ovarian follicles and were transported to the cold water. Ovarian follicles and blood were collected from females until they reached the stage of spawning readiness (determined by germinal vesicle position and an oocyte maturation assay) or underwent ovarian regression. Exposure of gravid sturgeon females to ambient water temperatures (14.5 ?? 2.3??C, mean ?? S.D.) from October to March led to a decrease in plasma sex steroids and a high incidence of ovarian regression in fish with a more advanced stage of oocyte development. Transfer of females with intact ovarian follicles to cold water (12 ?? 1??C) in the fall or early spring resulted in normal ovarian development in the majority of females. Holding females in cold water does not seem to override their endogenous reproductive rhythms but extends their capacity to maintain oocyte maturational competence over a longer period of time. A temperature-sensitive phase in ovarian development may occur during the transition from vitellogenic growth to oocyte maturation, and the degree and timing of sensitivity to environmental temperature are dependent on the female's endogenous reproductive rhythm

  12. The detection of ovulation with a two-hour radioimmunoassay for human plasma luteinizing hormone using the Centria Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, S.

    1980-01-01

    We describe a rapid (2-h) radioimmunoassay for human plasma luteinizing hormone which utilizes the reagents from a commercially available kit. Standardization of the assay was achieved using plasma standards instead of a buffer system and the Centria radioimmunoassay centrifugal analyzer which allowed simultaneous initiation and termination of reactions in all assay tubes. The specificity, precision, and accuracy of the assay were equal to or better than the conventional 24-h assay. Since this assay is designed to detect the mid-cycle surge of luteinizing hormone, its decreased sensitivity was small price to pay for the speed with which a result could be obtained. (orig.) [de

  13. Plasma growth hormone response to human growth hormone releasing factor in rats administered with chlorpromazine and antiserum against somatostatin. Effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, I; Tonegawa, Y; Ihara, T; Hattori, M; Shibasaki, T; Ling, N

    1985-10-01

    The effect of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the plasma growth hormone (GH) response to synthetic human growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) was determined in conscious, freely moving rats pretreated with chlorpromazine and antiserum against somatostatin. Chlorpromazine plus somatostatin antiserum pretreated rats gave consistent response to GRF which was not observed in untreated rats. Chlorpromazine alone has no effect on GH secretion induced by GRF in rat pituitary monolayer culture. In rats made hypothyroid by thyroidectomy, both basal and peak plasma GH responses to a small (0.25 microgram/kg bw) and a moderate dose of GRF (1 microgram/kg bw) were significantly reduced as compared to controls. In rats made hyperthyroid by the administration of thyroxine, basal and peak plasma GH responses to a small but not to a moderate dose of GRF were significantly reduced as compared to controls. A reduced plasma GH response to a small dose of GRF was observed 8 days after the cessation of thyroxine administration. The pituitary GH reserve was markedly reduced in hypothyroid but not in hyperthyroid rats as compared to their respective controls. These results indicate that plasma GH response to GRF is reduced both in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. The mechanism involved in the phenomenon appears to be different between the two conditions.

  14. Development of homologous radioimmunoassays for equine growth hormone and equine prolactin and their application to the detection of circulating levels of hormone in horse plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, C.M.; Hayden, T.J. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland); Ven der Kolk, H. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands); Goode, J.A. [Agricultural Research Council, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Animal Physiology

    1994-12-31

    Highly purified and well-characterized preparations of equine prolactin and growth hormone from equine pituitary glands were employed to set up highly sensitive and specific homologous radioimmunoassays (RIA) for the measurement of hormone in horse plasma. The limit of sensitivity of the GH RIA was 1.2 ng/ml with mean intra -and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) of 6.6 and 10%, respectively. The sensitivity of the equine prolactin (ePRL) RIA was 0.5 ng/ml with mean intra and inter-assay CV of 9.1 and 15.6%, respectively. Dose-response curves of a crude pituitary gland extract and plasma samples collected from a mare and foal were parallel to the standards and the PRL RIA was clinically validated by administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Plasma samples taken at 15 min intervals over 24 h from lactating mares gave 24 h mean GH values in the range 5.5 to 7.95 ng/ml. Large intermittent elevations of GH activity were detected. The mean 24 h PRL concentrations were between 3.2-10.4 ng/ml in the lactating animals, with higher concentrations earlier in lactation. Long episodic bursts of PRL were detected. (authors). 48 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Development of homologous radioimmunoassays for equine growth hormone and equine prolactin and their application to the detection of circulating levels of hormone in horse plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, C.M.; Hayden, T.J.; Ven der Kolk, H.; Goode, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Highly purified and well-characterized preparations of equine prolactin and growth hormone from equine pituitary glands were employed to set up highly sensitive and specific homologous radioimmunoassays (RIA) for the measurement of hormone in horse plasma. The limit of sensitivity of the GH RIA was 1.2 ng/ml with mean intra -and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) of 6.6 and 10%, respectively. The sensitivity of the equine prolactin (ePRL) RIA was 0.5 ng/ml with mean intra and inter-assay CV of 9.1 and 15.6%, respectively. Dose-response curves of a crude pituitary gland extract and plasma samples collected from a mare and foal were parallel to the standards and the PRL RIA was clinically validated by administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Plasma samples taken at 15 min intervals over 24 h from lactating mares gave 24 h mean GH values in the range 5.5 to 7.95 ng/ml. Large intermittent elevations of GH activity were detected. The mean 24 h PRL concentrations were between 3.2-10.4 ng/ml in the lactating animals, with higher concentrations earlier in lactation. Long episodic bursts of PRL were detected. (authors). 48 refs., 9 figs

  16. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawasumi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years and aged (11-18 years. They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 μg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 μg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses.

  17. Stress hormonal changes in the brain and plasma after acute noise exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Gyun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, So Young; Park, Shi Nae

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of acute noise stress on two amine stress hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the brain and plasma of mice after noise exposure. Mice were grouped into the control and noise groups. Mice in the noise group were exposed to white noise of 110dB sound pressure level for 60min. Auditory brainstem response thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the organ of Corti grading scores, western blots of NE/5-HIAA in the whole brain and hippocampus, and the plasma levels of NE/5-HIAA were compared between the two groups. Significant hearing loss and cochlear damage were demonstrated in the noise group. NE and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus were elevated in the noise group (p=0.019/0.022 for NE/5-HIAA vs. the control). Plasma levels of NE and 5-HIAA were not statistically different between the groups (p=0.052/0.671 for NE/5-HIAA). Hearing loss with outer hair cell dysfunction and morphological changes of the organ of Corti after noise exposure in C57BL/6 mice proved the reliability of our animal model as an acute noise stress model. NE and 5-HIAA are suggested to be the potential biomarkers for acute noise stress in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Incorporation of 14C-cholesterol in human adrenal corticocarcinoma H295R cell line and online-radiodetection of produced 14C-steroid hormone metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Björklund, Erland; Nielsen, Frederik Knud

    2017-01-01

    in the steroidogenesis of H295R cells, radioactive cholesterol may potentially only need to be added just before the cells are incubated for 72h in well plates. Based on the obtained HPLC-FSA chromatograms, and confirmation of the observations by studies in the literature, a qualitative time profile for the production......, the concept of radiolabeling the steroidogenesis in H295R cells with (14)C-cholesterol and detecting the radiolabeled steroid hormones online was proved and may assist in further toxicological studies....

  19. Steroidal Saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  20. Social environment during egg laying: Changes in plasma hormones with no consequences for yolk hormones or fecundity in female Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M A Langen

    Full Text Available The social environment can have profound effects on an individual's physiology and behaviour and on the transfer of resources to the next generation, with potential consequences for fecundity and reproduction. However, few studies investigate all of these aspects at once. The present study housed female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica in pairs or groups to examine the effects on hormone concentrations in plasma and yolk and on reproductive performance. Circulating levels of androgens (testosterone and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone and corticosterone were measured in baseline samples and after standardised challenges to assess the responsiveness of the females' endocrine axes. Effects of the social environment on female fecundity were analysed by measuring egg production, egg mass, fertilization rates, and number of hatched offspring. Counter to expectation, females housed in pairs had higher plasma androgen concentrations and slightly higher corticosterone concentrations than females housed in groups, although the latter was not statistically significant. Pair vs. group housing did not affect the females' hormonal response to standardised challenges or yolk testosterone levels. In contrast to previous studies, the females' androgen response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge was not related to yolk testosterone levels. Non-significant trends emerged for pair-housed females to have higher egg-laying rates and higher fertility, but no differences arose in egg weight or in the number, weight or size of hatchlings. We propose that our unexpected findings are due to differences in the adult sex ratio in our social treatments. In pairs, the male may stimulate female circulating hormone levels more strongly than in groups where effects are diluted due to the presence of several females. Future studies should vary both group size and sex composition to disentangle the significance of sexual, competitive and affiliative social interactions for

  1. Plasma concentrations of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone are elevated in patients on chronic haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaghi, L; Garofalo, L; Cutuli, M G; Delgado, R; Carlin, A; Demitri, M T; Badalamenti, S; Graziani, G; Lipton, J M; Catania, A

    2000-08-01

    Clinical and/or laboratory signs of systemic inflammation occur frequently in patients undergoing long-term haemodialysis. It is likely, therefore, that a compensatory release of endogenous anti-inflammatory molecules occurs to limit host reactions. The aim of the present research was to determine if the potent anti-inflammatory peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a pro-opiomelanocortin derivative, is increased in plasma of haemodialysis patients. Because endotoxin and cytokines induce alpha-MSH in vivo and in vitro, we also measured plasma concentrations of endotoxin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and the two circulating products of activated monocytes, nitric oxide (NO) and neopterin. Thirty-five chronic haemodialysis patients, 20 patients with chronic renal failure not yet on dialysis, and 35 normal controls were included in the study. In the haemodialysis group, blood samples were obtained before and at the end of a dialysis session. Plasma alpha-MSH was measured using a double antibody radioimmunoassay, and IL-6, TNF-alpha, and neopterin using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma nitrites were determined by a colorimetric method, and endotoxin with the quantitative chromogenic LAL (limulus amoebocyte lysate) method. Mean plasma alpha-MSH was higher in haemodialysis patients than in control subjects, with the peptide concentrations being particularly elevated in dialysed patients with detectable endotoxin. High alpha-MSH concentrations were observed in the pre-dialysis samples, with no substantial change at the end of the dialysis session. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, TNF-alpha, neopterin, and NO were generally elevated in chronic haemodialysis patients and there was a negative correlation between circulating alpha-MSH and IL-6. In patients with renal failure not yet on dialysis, mean plasma alpha-MSH was similar to that of normal subjects. alpha-MSH is increased in the circulation of

  2. Hormone levels in peripheral plasma of the Afrikaner cow: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzer, W.A.; Van Niekerk, C.H.; Morgenthal, J.C.; Van der Westhuizen, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Concentration of progesterone and luteinizing hormone were determined in peripheral blood plasma during the oestrus cycle of three non-lactating Afrikaner cows. Blood samples were drawn daily during the luteal phase (Day 3-16) and every 8 hours from Day 17 to 2 days after oestrus. Progesterone was measured by radioimmunoassay and LH by a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Progesterone levels increased gradually from Day 3, reaching maximum values of 6,3-13,3 ng/ml on Day 16-17. A temporary decrease in the progesterone concentration was found between Day 11 and 14 of the cycle. Progesterone levels dropped from peak values to less than 1 ng/ml within 48 hours and were followed by oestrus 50,7 hours later. Progesterone concentrations were lowest at oestrus ( [af

  3. Blood plasma sample preparation method to determine thyroid hormone-disrupting compounds in Effect-Directed Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Bytingsvik, J.; Jonker, W.; Leonards, P.E.G.; de Boer, J.; Jenssen, B.M.; Lie, E.; Aars, J.; Hamers, T.H.M.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    A sample preparation method combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was developed to be used in Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) of blood plasma. Until now such a method was not available. It can be used for extraction of a broad range of thyroid hormone

  4. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus): Effects of POPs and male quality signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V; Jensen, Henrik; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Polder, Anuschka; Rønning, Bernt; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2016-03-15

    At high trophic levels, environmental contaminants have been found to affect endocrinological processes. Less attention has been paid to species at lower trophic levels. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) may be a useful model for investigating effects of POPs in mid-range trophic level species. In male house sparrows, ornamental traits involved in male quality signalling are important for female selection. These traits are governed by endocrinological systems, and POPs may therefore interfere with male quality signalling. The aim of the present study was to use the house sparrow as a mid-range trophic level model species to study the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrinology and male quality signalling. We analysed the levels of selected PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs and investigated the possible effects of these contaminants on circulating levels of steroid hormones (4 progestagens, 4 androgens and 3 estrogens) in male and female adult house sparrows from a population on the island Leka, Norway. Plasma samples were analysed for steroid hormones by GC-MS and liver samples were analysed for environmental contaminants by GC-ECD and GC-MS. In males, we also quantified ornament traits. It was hypothesised that POPs may have endocrine disrupting effects on the local house sparrow population and can thus interfere with the steroid hormone homeostasis. Among female house sparrows, bivariate correlations revealed negative relationships between POPs and estrogens. Among male sparrows, positive relationships between dihydrotestosterone levels and PCBs were observed. In males, positive relationships were also found between steroids and beak length, and between steroids and ornamental traits such as total badge size. This was confirmed by a significant OPLS model between beak length and steroids. Although sparrows are in the mid-range trophic levels, the present study indicates that POPs may affect steroid homeostasis in house sparrows, in particular for females. For

  5. Relationship between plasma growth hormone concentration and cellular sodium transport in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlitz, H.; Jonsson, O.; Bengtsson, B.-Aa. (Departments of Nephrology, Urology and Endocrinology, University of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between mean plasma growth hormone (GH) concentration and cellular sodium transport in untreated and treated acromegaly. Seventeen patients (age 55 [+-] 3 years) with active acromegaly were studied with respect to plasma GH (mean of 24 h GH profile) and erythrocyte electrolyte content as well as transmembrane sodium transport. The patients were reinvestigated two weeks after successful surgery (N = 14) and again after one year (N = 13). Erythrocyte electrolytes were analyzed by flame photometry and sodium influx and efflux rate constant determined by in vitro incubation using a modified Keyne's formula. In patients with active acromegaly there was a significant positive correlation between IGF-1 and cellular sodium transport, while GH tended to show a negative relatonship to the same parameter. After successful treatment, both IGF-1 and GH disclosed a positive relationship to cellular sodium transport. After one year, a significant increase in erythrocyte sodium content was seen in the patients compared to the preoperative situation. In conclusion, if this is a generalized phenomonen the results are compatible with a sodium-retaining effect of GH via stimulation of transmembrane sodium transport. In active acromegaly this may be counteracted by a sodium transport inhibitor giving the reverse relationship between GH and cellular sodium transport. (au).

  6. The effect of diet and exercise on plasma metabolilte and hormone concentrations in horses measured before and after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Blache, D.; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2017-01-01

    :00), and plasma samples were analysed for relevant metabolites and hormones. Plasma leptin concentrations increased after exercise but were not affected by diet, whereas diet and exercise had no effect on the plasma concentrations of ghrelin and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Furthermore, diet influenced......Exercise influences different endocrine and metabolic parameters, and information in the literature is sparse for some of these hormones and metabolites in the exercising horse. The aim of the present experiment was to study the metabolic response to exercise when feeding diets with varying...... carbohydrate composition (fibre and starch) under experimental conditions where diet and exercise were standardised and controlled. The response was investigated in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment using four Norwegian Coldblooded trotter horses. The dietary treatments were two fibre based diets, hay only...

  7. Steroid osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  8. Steroid osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible

  9. Simultaneous quantification of five steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright in rat plasma by HPLC-MS/MS and its application to the pharmacokinetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Jing; Ito, Yoichiro; Sun, Wenji

    2014-01-01

    A simple, reliable and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS) was established for simultaneous analyses of the following 5 steroid saponins in rat plasma after the single dose administration of total steroid saponins extracted from the rhizome of Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H.Wright for the first time. Protodioscin, huangjiangsu A, zingiberensis new saponin, dioscin, and gracillin were quantified using ginsenoside Rb1 as the internal standard (IS). The plasma samples were pretreated by a single step acetonitrile-mediated protein precipitation. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Inersil ODS-3 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid under a gradient elution mode at 0.2 mL min−1 using a microsplit after the eluent from the HPLC apparatus. The quantification was accomplished on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in the positive ionization mode. The above five analytes were stable under sample storage and preparation conditions applied in the present study. The linearity, precision, accuracy, and recoveries of the analysis confirmed the requirements for quality-control purposes. After validation, this proposed method was successfully adopted to investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters of these five analytes. PMID:25201262

  10. Endogenous steroid profiling by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics for the detection of natural hormone abuse in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokland, M.H.; Tricht, van E.F.; Rossum, van H.J.; Sterk, S.S.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    For years it has been suspected that natural hormones are illegally used as growth promoters in cattle in the European Union. Unfortunately there is a lack of methods and criteria that can be used to detect the abuse of natural hormones and distinguish treated from non-treated animals. Pattern

  11. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... steroid bursts can cause a number of side effects. Steroid side effects usually occur after long-term use ... how the dosage of steroids is determined; side effects of inhaled steroids, and some recommendations to decrease or prevent side ...

  12. Determination of association constants between steroid compounds and albumins by partial-filling ACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Lotta K; Sirén, Heli

    2007-10-01

    ACE is a popular technique for evaluating association constants between drugs and proteins. However, ACE has not previously been applied to study the association between electrically neutral biomolecules and plasma proteins. We studied the affinity between human and bovine serum albumins (HSA and BSA, respectively) and three neutral endogenous steroid hormones (testosterone, epitestosterone and androstenedione) and two synthetic analogues (methyltestosterone and fluoxymesterone) by applying the partial-filling technique in ACE (PF-ACE). From the endocrinological point of view, the distribution of endogenous steroids among plasma components is of great interest. Strong interactions with albumins suppress the biological activity of steroids. Notable differences in the association constants were observed. In the case of the endogenous steroids, the interactions between testosterone and the albumins were strongest, and those between androstenedione and the albumins were substantially weaker. The association constants, K(b), for testosterone, epitestosterone and androstenedione and HSA at 37 degrees C were 32 100 +/- 3600, 21 600 +/- 1500 and 13 300 +/- 1300 M(-1), respectively, while the corresponding values for the steroids and BSA were 18 800 +/- 1500, 14 000 +/- 400 and 7800 +/- 900 M(-1). Methyltestosterone was bound even more strongly than testosterone, while fluoxymesterone was only weakly bound by the albumins. Finally, the steroids were separated by PF-ACE with HSA and BSA used as resolving components.

  13. Steroids and Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Amelia Chiara; Meroni, Marianna; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    From the middle of the 19th century, it is known that endocrine and immune systems interact bi-directionally in different processes that ensure organism homeostasis. Endocrine and nervous systems have a pivotal role in the balancing of pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of immune system, and constitute a complex circadian neuroendocrine network. Autoimmune diseases have in fact a complex pathogenic origin in which the importance of endocrine system was demonstrated. In this chapter, we will mention the structure and function of steroidal hormones involved in the neuroendocrine immune network and we will address the ways in which endocrine and immune systems influence each other, in a bi-directional fashion. Adrenal hormones, sex hormones, vitamin D, and melatonin and prolactin importantly all contribute to the homeostasis of the immune system. Indeed, some of the steroidal hormone activities determine inhibition or stimulation of immune system components, in both physiological (i.e. suppression of an unwanted response in pregnancy, or stimulation of a protective response in infections) and pathological conditions. We will finally mention the rationale for optimization of exogenous administration of glucocorticoids in chronic autoimmune diseases, and the latest developments concerning these drugs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Changes of plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, thyroid hormones, and testosterone concentrations in embryos and broiler chickens incubated under monochromatic green light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.

  15. Plasma cortisol and 11-ketotestosterone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit validation for three fish species: the orange clownfish Amphiprion percula, the orangefin anemonefish Amphiprion chrysopterus and the blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, S C; Mourier, J; Galzin, R

    2010-08-01

    Commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits were validated for measuring steroid hormone concentrations in blood plasma from three fish species: the orange clownfish Amphiprion percula, the orangefin anemonefish Amphiprion chrysopterus and the blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus. A minimum of 5 microl plasma was required to estimate hormone concentrations with both kits. These EIA kits are a simple method requiring minimal equipment, for measuring hormone profiles under field conditions.

  16. Effect of adiponectin and sex steroid hormones on bone mineral density and bone formation markers in postmenopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Hoon; Lee, Seung Hyeun; Park, Hyun Tae; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun Young; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sun Haeng

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between adiponectin and sex hormones with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone formation markers was investigated in postmenopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH). Seventy-five postmenopausal women were selected among the patients who participated in a health screening program in 2007. Thirty-seven control women with normal thyroid function were matched to 38 women with SCH by age, body mass index (BMI), and years since menopause (YSM). The associations between adiponectin and sex hormones with lumbar spine BMD and bone turnover markers were investigated. Adiponectin, testosterone (T; total and free forms), and thyroid-stimulating hormone were significantly different between the women with SCH and euthyroid. After adjusting for age, BMI, and YSM, free T (r = 0.351; P = 0.029) and estradiol (E2; r = -0.368; P = 0.024) had significant associations with bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP). Total T (r = 0.388; P = 0.021) and E2 (r = -0.376; P = 0.026) had significant associations with osteocalcin. However, there were no significant associations between adiponectin and sex hormones with the BMD levels in the SCH subjects. There were correlations between sex hormones with B-ALP and osteocalcin, but no associations between adiponectin and sex hormones with the lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal SCH patients.

  17. Plasma Growth Hormone and Prolactin Levels in Healthy Sedentary Young Men after Short-Term Endurance Training under Hot Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Cicioglu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary hormones play an important role energy expenditure and body temperature regulation during exercise. The aim of the stu¬dy was to investigate the effect of two different endurance training in ambient temperature (30.76 ± 1.71oC and 57.92 ± 5.80% r.h. on plasma growth hormone (GH and prolactin (PRL levels in non-trained healthy subjects. Twenty-four untrained healthy men participated in an 8-wk progressive two different endurance-training program. Subjects were divided into two groups: an in¬ter¬val running group (IR, and continuous running group (CR. Both groups were performed 3 days/wk. Growth hormone, PRL and VO2max levels were assessed at the beginning and the end of the training period. Body temperature (TB was also measured at the be¬ginning and immediately after each training. The exercise type affected plasma PRL (8.52 vs. 6.50 ng/ml IR and CT groups, P 0.38. Plasma GH level at the end of training pro¬gram increased from 0.42 to 1.48 ng/ml and 0.58 to 0.67 ng/ml for IR and CR groups. Expectedly, both training types increased TB, at a greater rate for IR group than CR group. In conclusion, an 8-wk regular exercise result in an increase in plasma PRL level, with¬out altering plasma GH level, which accompanied by elevated body temperature, regardless of the individual’s sporting rou¬ti¬ne. These suggest that untrained individuals could benefit from a regular exercise program as much as those doing the routine sport.

  18. Determination of steroid hormones and related compounds in filtered and unfiltered water by solid-phase extraction, derivatization, and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Lindley, Chris E.; Losche, Scott A.; Barber, Larry B.

    2012-01-01

    A new analytical method has been developed and implemented at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory that determines a suite of 20 steroid hormones and related compounds in filtered water (using laboratory schedule 2434) and in unfiltered water (using laboratory schedule 4434). This report documents the procedures and initial performance data for the method and provides guidance on application of the method and considerations of data quality in relation to data interpretation. The analytical method determines 6 natural and 3 synthetic estrogen compounds, 6 natural androgens, 1 natural and 1 synthetic progestin compound, and 2 sterols: cholesterol and 3--coprostanol. These two sterols have limited biological activity but typically are abundant in wastewater effluents and serve as useful tracers. Bisphenol A, an industrial chemical used primarily to produce polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins and that has been shown to have estrogenic activity, also is determined by the method. A technique referred to as isotope-dilution quantification is used to improve quantitative accuracy by accounting for sample-specific procedural losses in the determined analyte concentration. Briefly, deuterium- or carbon-13-labeled isotope-dilution standards (IDSs), all of which are direct or chemically similar isotopic analogs of the method analytes, are added to all environmental and quality-control and quality-assurance samples before extraction. Method analytes and IDS compounds are isolated from filtered or unfiltered water by solid-phase extraction onto an octadecylsilyl disk, overlain with a graded glass-fiber filter to facilitate extraction of unfiltered sample matrices. The disks are eluted with methanol, and the extract is evaporated to dryness, reconstituted in solvent, passed through a Florisil solid-phase extraction column to remove polar organic interferences, and again evaporated to dryness in a reaction vial. The method compounds are reacted with

  19. Determination of the total concentration of highly protein-bound drugs in plasma by on-line dialysis and column liquid chromatography: application to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herraez-Hernandez, R.; van de Merbel, N.C.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The potential of on-line dialysis as a sample preparation procedure for compounds highly bound to plasma proteins is evaluated, using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as model compounds and column liquid chromatography as the separation technique. Different strategies to reduce the degree of

  20. Determination of the total concentration of highly protein-bound drugs in plasma by on-line dialysis and column liquid chromatography : application to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herráez-Hernández, R; van de Merbel, N C; Brinkman, U A

    1995-01-01

    The potential of on-line dialysis as a sample preparation procedure for compounds highly bound to plasma proteins is evaluated, using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as model compounds and column liquid chromatography as the separation technique. Different strategies to reduce the degree of

  1. The effect of combined exercise training on plasma Leptin levels and hormonal factors in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed Emamdost

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a period of combined exercise training on the plasma leptin level and hormonal factors in overweight men.   Materials and Methods: The subjects of this research consisted of thirty males (22-42 years old, BMI ≥29 who randomly were divided into experimental (n=15 and control groups(n=15. The experimental group performed for 8 weeks aerobic and resistance training, 3 sessions per week and each session included 10-12 station strength training at 75-70% of One Repetition Maximum (1RM for the first 4 weeks and at 75-80% of 1RM for the second 4 weeks. At the end, 10 minutes aerobic runing training at 70-75% of MHR in the first 4 weeks and 13 minute at 75-80% of MHR in the second 4 weeks were conducted.   Results: Leptin, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and insulin significantly decreased after the training ((P<0.05. However, There were no significant differences in the serum levels of cortisol and testosteron after 8 weeks concurrent training. The ratio of testosteron to cortisol (T/C in the experimental group showed a slight increase.   Conclusion: Generally, it appears that decrease of leptin due to a period of combined exercise training is more associated with reduce of body fat, weight and BMI than the change of testosteron or cortisol. In contrast to most researches, it seems that combined exercise training is more effective.

  2. Sex differences, endogenous sex-hormone hormones, sex-hormone binding globulin, and exogenous disruptors in diabetes and related metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Simin; Sun, Qi

    2016-12-19

    In assessing clinical and pathophysiological development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), the critical role of the sex steroids axis is underappreciated, particularly concerning the sex-specific relationships with many relevant cardiometabolic outcomes. In this issue of the Journal of Diabetes, we provide a comprehensive overview of these significant associations of germline variants in the genes governing the sex steroid pathways, plasma levels of steroid hormones, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with T2D risk that have been observed in many clinical and high-quality large prospective cohorts of men and women across ethnic populations. Together, this body of evidence indicates that sex steroids and SHBG should be routinely incorporated into clinical characterization of T2D patients, particularly in screening prediabetic patients, such as those with metabolic syndrome, using plasma levels of SHBG. Given that several germline mutations in the SHBG gene have also been directly related to both plasma concentrations of SHBG and clinical manifestation of T2D, targeting signals in the sex steroid axis, particularly SHBG, may have significant utility in the prediction and treatment of T2D. Further, many of the environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals may exert their potential adverse effects on cardiometabolic outcomes via either estrogenic or androgenic signaling pathways, highlighting the importance of using the sex steroids and SHBG as important biochemical markers in both clinical and population studies in studying sex-specific mechanisms in the pathogenesis of T2D and its complications, as well as the need to equitably allocate resources in studying both men and women. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, J -P; Bucourt, R; Salmon, J

    1975-12-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone).

  4. Effects of itopride hydrochloride on plasma gut-regulatory peptide and stress-related hormone levels in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Shiga, Toru; Inoue, Shin; Sato, Yuhki; Itoh, Hiroki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    Itopride hydrochloride (itopride), a gastrokinetic drug, has recently been evaluated for its clinical usefulness in functional dyspepsia. We investigated effects of itopride on human plasma gastrin-, somatostatin-, motilin-, and cholecystokinin (CCK)-like immunoreactive substances (IS); adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-immunoreactive substances (IS), and cortisol under stress conditions in healthy subjects. A single administration of itopride caused significant increases in plasma somatostatin- and motilin-IS levels compared to placebo. Itopride significantly decreased plasma CCK-IS, and suppressed the ACTH-IS level compared to placebo. We hypothesize that itopride may have an accelerating gastric emptying effect, and a modulatory effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous functions. These effects might be beneficial in stress-related diseases, suggesting that itopride has clinicopharmacological activities.

  5. Routine ultramicro-measurement of human growth hormone in plasma by solid-phase radioimmunoassay and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Norio; Takahara, Jiro; Ofuji, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    The development and application of the method for the ultramicromeasurement of human growth hormone (HGH) in plasma based on the solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) by using antibody-coated disposable microtiter trays was reported. There was no statistical significance between the basal HGH level obtained from this method and that from the double-antibody RIA in normal subjects. On the other hand, the mean basal plasma HGH level after an overnight fasting in 21 hypopituitary patients was 484 pg/ml (+-282; 1 SD) by this method, and this was significantly lower (P<0.001) than 1376 pg/ml (+-498; 1 SD) by the double-antibody RIA. These data show that determination of basal plasma HGH levels by this method is of much value in the diagnosis of hypopituitarism. (JPN)

  6. Body fluids, circadian blood pressure and plasma renin during growth hormone administration: a placebo-controlled study with two growth hormone doses in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Frandsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Abstract Side effects that can be related to fluid retention are common during the initial phases of growth hormone (GH) administration. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in body fluid compartments, diurnal blood pressure and plasma renin concentration during GH administration......-2, 20.65 +/- 0.94; pbody water (l) increased significantly during GH administration (placebo, 50.8 +/- 2.6; 3 IU m-2, 52.6 +/- 2.3; 6 IU m-2, 53.9 +/- 1.8, p... of treatment a significant increase in renin (p = 0.03) was observed. Mean diurnal blood pressure levels remained unchanged, whereas mean diurnal heart rate (min-1) increased significantly (placebo, 75 +/- 3.6; 3 IU m-2, 79 +/- 3.2; 6 IU m-2, 79 +/- 3.7; p

  7. Simultaneous measurement of thirteen steroid hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and control women using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace C Keefe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The measurement of adrenal and ovarian androgens in women with PCOS has been difficult based on poor specificity and sensitivity of assays in the female range. METHODS: Women with PCOS (NIH criteria; n = 52 and control subjects with 25-35 day menstrual cycles, no evidence of hyperandrogenism and matched for BMI (n = 42 underwent morning blood sampling. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used to simultaneously measure 13 steroids from a single blood sample to measure adrenal and ovarian steroids. Androgen and progesterone results were compared in the same samples using RIA. RESULTS: Testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and 17OH progesterone levels were higher when measured using RIA compared to LC-MS/MS, although the testosterone RIA demonstrated the best agreement with the LC-MS/MS using a Bland-Altman analysis. Results using LC-MS/MS demonstrated that the concentration of androgens and their precursors were higher in women with PCOS than controls [median (2.5, 97.5th %ile; 1607 (638, 3085 vs. 1143 (511, 4784 ng/dL; p = 0.03]. Women with PCOS had higher testosterone [49 (16, 125 vs. 24 (10, 59 ng/dL], androstenedione [203 (98, 476 vs. 106 (69, 223 ng/dL] and 17OH progesterone levels [80 (17, 176 vs. 44 (17, 142 ng/dL] compared to controls (all P<0.02, but no differences in serum concentrations of the adrenal steroids DHEAS, cortisol, corticosterone and their 11 deoxy precursors. Women with PCOS also had an increase in the product:precursor ratio for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [22% (6, 92 vs. 20% (4, 43; p = 0.009]. CONCLUSION: LC-MS/MS was superior to RIA in measuring androstenedione, progesterone and 17OH progesterone levels, while testosterone measurements were better matched in the two assays. Androgen levels were higher in women with PCOS in the absence of a difference in adrenal-predominant steroids. These data support previous findings that the ovary is an important source

  8. Plasma thyroid hormone pattern in king penguin chicks: a semi-altricial bird with an extended posthatching developmental period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherel, Yves; Durant, Joël M; Lacroix, André

    2004-05-01

    Plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones (TH) were investigated during the extended posthatching developmental period (approximately 11 months) of a semi-altricial bird species, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). The first period of growth in summer was marked by a progressive rise in plasma T4 concentration that paralleled rapid increases in body mass and in structural and down growth. By contrast, plasma T3 concentration had already reached adult levels in newly hatched chicks and did not change thereafter. Circulating TH of king penguin chicks thus follow an original pattern when comparing to altricial and precocial species. During the austral winter, the long period of undernutrition of king penguin chicks was characterized by a decrease in circulating TH that can be related to a seasonal stop in growth and energy saving mechanisms. Plasma TH concentrations increased again during the second growth phase in spring, and they reached their highest levels at the end of the fledging period, slightly before juveniles initiated their first foraging trip at sea. As expected, plasma T4 levels were elevated when chicks moulted, developing a true-adult type waterproof plumage. The data also suggest that T4 plays a major role in skeletal development and pectoral muscle maturation in anticipation of marine life. Plasma T3 was at its highest during the period when juveniles improved resistance to cold waters by going back and forth to the sea, suggesting a role for circulating T3 in cold acclimatization occurring at that time.

  9. Persistence of a circadian rhythmicity for thyroid hormones in plasma and thyroid of hibernating male Rana ridibunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, E R; Delmotte, N M; Darras, V M

    1983-06-01

    The presence and circadian rhythmicity of thyroid hormones was studied in plasma and the thyroid gland of male Rana ridibunda before and during hibernation. Hibernating January frogs do have a lower T3 and T4 content of their thyroid gland whereas plasma levels of T3 are maintained and of T4 increased compared to fed September or October frogs. It seems likely that the increased photoperiod in January will be responsible for this increased T4 secretion, since controlled laboratory experiments performed in December did not reveal any influence of low temperature on circulating T3 or T4 levels. Also feeding does not influence circulating levels and thyroid content of thyroid hormones in frogs kept at room temperature during the month of January. A circadian rhythmicity of T3 and T4 in the thyroid gland is present in fed October frogs and in non fed December frogs acclimated at 5 degrees C for 12 days with an acrophase for T3 at approximately 1500 h and for T4 at around 1900 h, whereas in plasma only T3 does have circadian variations (acrophase about midnight) but not T4. When December frogs are acclimated to room temperature for 12 days, frogs are active again, but do not eat and have a lower body weight than frogs hibernating at 5 degrees C. Their T3 content of the thyroid gland has disappeared, but T4 thyroid content and plasma levels of T3 and T4 are maintained. As in hibernating frogs, no circadian variations in T4 plasma concentrations are present whereas the circadian thyroid T4 rhythm disappears. At the same time a dampening in rhythmicity for plasma T3 as judged by the significantly lower amplitude occurs. It is concluded that the persistence of circulating levels of thyroid hormones and of a circadian cyclicity for T3 in plasma in non feeding hibernating frogs may reflect the special metabolic state e.g. availability of food reserves in these animals.

  10. Concentration of anti-Mullerian hormone and inhibin-B in relation to steroids and age in follicular fluid from small antral human follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Rosendahl, M.; Byskov, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    measured hormone. CONCLUSIONS: This study was unable to confirm a stimulatory effect of androgens on AMH secretion but did enforce a close intimate correlation between AMH and estradiol expressions in the developing human follicle. The insignificant variation of the AMH concentration with age, even...

  11. Circadian variation in concentration of anti-Mullerian hormone in regularly menstruating females: relation to age, gonadotrophin and sex steroid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungum, Leif; Jacobsson, Anna-Karin; Rosén, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a promising marker of ovarian reserve. The aim of the study is to assess the circadian variation in AMH, and to evaluate its clinical relevance and biological aspects as an effect of age and other endocrine mechanisms involved in the regulation of AMH secretion....

  12. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  13. The effect of laparoscopic gastric banding surgery on plasma levels of appetite-control, insulinotropic, and digestive hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, Joshua R; Roper, Jatin; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Tseng, Chi-hong; Francois, Fritz; Gamagaris, Zoi; Patterson, Carlie; Weinshel, Elizabeth; Fielding, George A; Ren, Christine; Blaser, Martin J

    2008-09-01

    We hypothesized that laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) reduces weight and modulates ghrelin production, but largely spares gastrointestinal endocrine function. To examine this hypothesis, we determined plasma concentrations of appetite-control, insulinotropic, and digestive hormones in relation to LAGB. Twenty-four patients undergoing LAGB were prospectively enrolled. Body mass index (BMI) was measured and blood samples obtained at baseline and 6 and 12 months post-surgery. Plasma concentrations of leptin, acylated and total ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastrin, and pepsinogens I and II were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Median percent excess weight loss (%EWL) over 12 months was 45.7% with median BMI decreasing from 43.2 at baseline to 33.8 at 12 months post-surgery (p 0.05). Pepsinogen II levels were significantly lower 6 months after LAGB but returned to baseline levels by 12 months. LAGB yielded substantial %EWL and a proportional decrease in plasma leptin. Our results support the hypothesis that LAGB works in part by suppressing the rise in ghrelin that normally accompanies weight loss. Unchanged concentrations of insulinotropic and digestive hormones suggest that gastrointestinal endocrine function is largely maintained in the long term.

  14. Radiation and Heat Stress Impact on Plasma Levels of Thyroid Hormones, Lipid Fractions, Glucose and Liver Glycogen in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Abou-Safi, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Since Egypt is classified as a hot country, the present work has been directed to study the combined effect of heat stress and gamma radiation exposure on blood thyroid hormonal levels and some other parameters. Four groups of rats were served as: control, whole-body gamma irradiated (6Gy), exposed to ambient heat stress (38 C-40 C) and a group exposed to heat stress and irradiation. Four time intervals 1, 3, 5 and 7 days were determined for heat stress or exposure to heat followed by irradiation. Blood samples and liver specimens were taken at the end of each time interval in the third group and after one hour of irradiation in the second and fourth groups. To detect the radiation effects after the different periods of heat stress, plasma levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), lipid fractions (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol), glucose and liver glycogen content were determined. The results revealed that exposure to heat and ionizing radiation leads to a decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones, which was mostly pronounced in the T3 levels. Plasma glucose levels showed significant elevations in both, the heat-stressed group and the heat-treated then irradiated group. While, liver glycogen content exhibited similar elevations only during the 1st, 3 rd and 5 th days of heating followed by irradiation treatment as compared to the heat stressed group. Yet, it showed significant declines in comparison with both control and irradiated groups. Enormous increments in all determined plasma lipid fractions were induced by heat stress and / or gamma radiation

  15. Periconception endogenous and exogenous maternal sex steroid hormones and risk of asthma and allergy in offspring: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovic, Merhunisa; Sheikh, Aziz; McCleary, Nicola; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kaila, Minna; Virtanen, Suvi M; Nwaru, Bright I

    2017-07-12

    Pregnancy is associated with several hormonal changes which influence the developing fetus. Variations in maternal endogenous hormones and prepregnancy use of hormonal preparations have been linked to asthma and allergy in the offspring, but findings are inconsistent. We plan to undertake a systematic review to synthesise the evidence on the association between endogenous and exogenous maternal sex hormones and the risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring. We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Institute of Scientific Information Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, Scopus, Google Scholar, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Global Health, Psychological Information (PsycINFO), Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience (CAB) International and WHO Global Health Library from inception until 2016 to identify relevant studies on the topic. Additional studies will be identified by searching databases of proceedings of international conferences, contacting international experts in the field and searching the references cited in identified studies. We will include analytical epidemiological studies. Two researchers will independently screen identified studies, undertake data extraction and assess risk of bias in eligible studies, while a third reviewer will arbitrate any disagreement. We will use the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool to assess the risk of bias in the studies. We will perform a random-effects meta-analysis to synthesise the evidence. We will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to rate the strength and quality of the overall evidence with respect to each outcome. Ethical approval is not required since the study is a systematic review of published literature. Our findings will be reported in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. CRD42016048324. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  16. Sex steroid hormone levels and reproductive development of eight-year-old children following in utero and environmental exposure to phthalates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pen-Hua Su

    Full Text Available In utero exposure to phthalates may adversely affect reproductive development in children due to the anti-androgenic properties of the pthalates. Accordingly, we aimed to determine the effects of in utero and environmental phthalate exposure on the reproductive development of eight-year-old children. We recruited 180 children in central Taiwan during November 2001 and followed them until August 2009 when all children became eight years old. Birth outcomes were collected. Bone age, hormone concentrations, and reproductive developmental stages were determined. Phthalate metabolite levels, including mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP], mono-n-butyl phthalate [MnBP], and mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP], were assessed. No significant gender differences were found in in utero phthalate exposure. Maternal urinary levels of phthalate metabolites did not correlate significantly with birth outcomes, physical characteristics, and reproductive hormones of the eight-year-old children. Regarding the urinary phthalate metabolite levels of the eight-year-old children, MEHP correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MEHP levels in girls correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MnBP correlated significantly with serum FSH in all children. In girls, MnBP correlated with serum FSH, and MBzP correlated with serum progesterone and FSH levels. Urinary phthalate metabolite levels did not correlate with female developmental stages or the development of female reproductive organs. Phthalate metabolites did not correlate with the physical characteristics and reproductive hormones in boys. Therefore, environmental exposure to phthalates, as determined by urinary phthalate metabolite levels of eight-year-old children, may affect reproductive hormone levels in children, indicating that further studies on the environmental health effects of phthalates are warranted.

  17. Effect of two virus inactivation methods. Electron beam irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment on determination of reproductive hormones in equine plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Nansen, P. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Hoeier, R.; Brueck, I. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Clinical Studies, Section of Reproduction, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Ionizing irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment have previously been shown to be effective for in-vitro inactivation of virus in biological material. In the present study the 2 methods were tested for possible effects on measurable concentrations of reproductive hormones in equine plasma (luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (P{sub 4}), and oestradiol-17 {beta} (E{sub 2})). The inactivation methods were electron beam irradiation with a dose from 11 to 44 kGy or treatment with binary ethylenimine (BEI) in concentrations of 1 and 5 mmol/L. Generally, there was a close correlation (r>0.8, p<0.001) between pre- and post-treatment hormone levels. Thus, the different phases of the oestrous cycle could be distinguished on the basis of measured hormone concentrations of treated samples. However, both treatments significantly changed hormone concentrations of the plasma samples. For LH, FSH, and E{sub 2} the effect of irradiation and BEI treatment was depressive and dose-dependant. For P{sub 4} the effect of irradiation was also depressive and dose-dependant. However, the highest dose of BEI resulted in an increase of measured P{sub 4} concentration, which may be attributed to changes in the plasma matrix due to the treatment. Although the treatments affected measured hormone concentrations, the close correlation between pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements means that the diagnostic value will remain unchanged. (au). 17 refs.

  18. Transcriptional control of steroid biosynthesis genes in the Drosophila prothoracic gland by Ventral veins lacking and Knirps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Thomas; Møller, Morten Erik; Dorry, Elad

    2014-01-01

    Specialized endocrine cells produce and release steroid hormones that govern development, metabolism and reproduction. In order to synthesize steroids, all the genes in the biosynthetic pathway must be coordinately turned on in steroidogenic cells. In Drosophila, the steroid producing endocrine...

  19. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvar Theodorsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  20. The effect of eight weeks endurance training and high-fat diet on appetite-regulating hormones in rat plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Haghshenas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Consumption of high-fat foods is one of the major causes of obesity. Physical exercise is a strategy used to counteract obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks endurance training and high-fat diet (HFD on appetite-regulating hormones in rat plasma. Materials and Methods:Twenty eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group with standard diet (CSD, endurance training with a standard diet (ESD, control group with high-fat diet (CHFD and endurance training with high-fat diet (EHFD. Twenty-four hr after the last training session, the blood samples were obtained and analyzed for hormones levels. Results: The significant increased weight gain and food intake and decreased plasma nesfatin-1 and PYY3-36 levels were observed in CHFD group, while exercise under the HFD antagonized these effects. There were no significant changes in ghrelin, insulin and leptin levels in different groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that exercise can prevent fattening effect of HFD. Probably, performing exercise makes a reduction of food intake and weight gain in rat via the increase in nesfatin-1 and PYY levels. However, further studies are necessary to understand the exact mechanisms involved in this field.

  1. Fat oxidation, hormonal and plasma metabolite kinetics during a submaximal incremental test in lean and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Salvadori, Alberto; Brunani, Amelia; Malatesta, Davide

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare fat oxidation, hormonal and plasma metabolite kinetics during exercise in lean (L) and obese (O) men. Sixteen L and 16 O men [Body Mass Index (BMI): 22.9 ± 0.3 and 39.0 ± 1.4 kg · m(-2)] performed a submaximal incremental test (Incr) on a cycle-ergometer. Fat oxidation rates (FORs) were determined using indirect calorimetry. A sinusoidal model, including 3 independent variables (dilatation, symmetry, translation), was used to describe fat oxidation kinetics and determine the intensity (Fat(max)) eliciting maximal fat oxidation. Blood samples were drawn for the hormonal and plasma metabolite determination at each step of Incr. FORs (mg · FFM(-1) · min(-1)) were significantly higher from 20 to 30% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in O than in L and from 65 to 85% VO2peak in L than in O (p ≤ 0.05). FORs were similar in O and in L from 35 to 60% VO2peak. Fat max was 17% significantly lower in O than in L (poxidation kinetics were characterized by similar translation, significantly lower dilatation and left-shift symmetry in O compared with L (poxidation at high exercise intensities suggest that the difference in the fat oxidation kinetics is likely linked to impaired muscular capacity to oxidize NEFA in O. These results may have important implications for the appropriate exercise intensity prescription in training programs designed to optimize fat oxidation in O.

  2. Elevation of plasma gonadotropin concentration in response to mammalian gonadotropin releasing hormone (GRH) treatment of the male brown trout as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crim, L.W.; Cluett, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    Rapid increase of the plasma gonadotropin concentration as measured by radioimmunoassay has been demonstrated in response to GRH treatment of the sexually mature male brown trout. Peak gonadotropin values were observed within 15 minutes of GRH treatment, however, the return to baseline values was prolonged compared with the mammalian response. These data support the concept that the brain, operating via releasing hormones, plays a role in the control of pituitary hormone secretion in fish

  3. Hormone therapy affects plasma measures of factor VII-activating protease in younger postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Jørn Sidelmann; Skouby, S.O.; Vitzthum, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Current reviews indicate that hormone therapy (HT) has a protective role in coronary heart disease (CHD) in younger postmenopausal women, whereas HT contributes to CHD in older women Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is a serine protease that accumulates in unstable atherosclerotic...

  4. Processing-independent analysis of peptide hormones and prohormones in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter; Hunter, Ingrid; Lippert, Solvej Koelvraa

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones are post-translationally matured before they reach a structure in which they can fulfill their biological functions. The prohormone processing may encompass a variety of endoproteolytic cleavages, N- and C-terminal trimmings, and amino acid derivatizations. The same prohormone can...

  5. Effect of long-term Hormone Replacement Therapy on Plasma Homocysteine in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonna S; Kristensen, Søren R; Klitgaard, Niels A

    2002-01-01

    hormone replacement therapy had significantly lower total homocysteine concentrations than women in the control group; median total homocysteine values were 8.6 micromol/L and 9.7 micromol/L, respectively, in a per-protocol analysis (P =.02). The effect was comparable in all methylenetetrahydrofolate...

  6. Effect of ovariectomy on the levels of plasma sex hormones in albino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the levels of sex hormones (testosterone, progesterone & estradiol), six weeks post normal ovariectomy as against estimating the levels immediately or less 48 hours after operation. 28 adult female albino rats of Wistar strain were used. They were fed twice a day with Guinea pellets and ...

  7. Gonad development and plasma steroid profiles by HRGC/HRMS during one reproductive cycle in reference and leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaksson, Erik; Gustavsson, Bodil; Linderoth, Maria; Zebuehr, Yngve; Broman, Dag; Balk, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    Endocrine processes were studied in reference female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Djursjoen and in leachate-exposed females from Lake Molnbyggen during one reproductive cycle. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating sex steroids [progesterone (P), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17β-estradiol (E2)], the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-P), and glucocorticoids [11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol]. Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. High frequencies of body lesions and a low ratio of SM females were generally found in Molnbyggen. These females also had lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) in the early stages of vitellogenesis, indicating either a delayed onset of oogenesis or an impaired vitellogenesis. Non-reproducing females from both lakes showed a similar LSI cycle as SM females. Increasing T and A levels in SM females from Djursjoen coincided with the GSI peak at the time of spawning. These two androgens were on several occasions lower in SM females from Molnbyggen, possibly the result of a disrupted 17,20-lyase activity of the P450 17α enzyme because only minor effects were observed on circulating P and 17α-OHP levels. E2 and E1 levels increased during vitellogenesis in females from both lakes, with E1 levels more closely resembling the peaks of A and GSI. Peak levels of 17α,20β-P at the time of spawning confirmed its function as the MIH in perch, while the simultaneous peak of 11-DC suggests that it also may be involved in final maturation of the oocytes

  8. Plasma orexin A levels in recently menopausal women during and 3 years following use of hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron, Dahima; Beckman, John P; Bailey, Kent R; Lahr, Brian D; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Miller, Virginia M

    2017-05-01

    Alterations in sleep quality and metabolism during menopause are improved by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). The mechanisms mediating these effects remain unclear. Orexin A (OxA) is a neuro-peptide that regulates sleep/wakefulness, food intake and metabolism. This study examined changes in plasma OxA levels during and after treatment in women from the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). KEEPS randomized women within three years of menopause to: oral conjugated equine estrogen (o-CEE, 0.45mg/day), transdermal 17β estradiol (t-E2, 50μg/day), or placebo pills and patches for four years. Plasma OxA levels were measured by enzyme immunoassays in fasting blood samples collected annually from KEEPS participants at Mayo Clinic during and three years after MHT. Changes in menopausal symptoms and plasma OxA levels were assessed for treatment differences. During treatment, OxA levels increased more in women randomized to o-CEE compared with the other groups. Women randomized to either form of MHT demonstrated smaller increases in BMI than those on placebo. Insomnia severity decreased similarly among treatment groups. However, neither changes in sleep nor changes in BMI correlated with changes in plasma OxA levels. Changes in waist circumference correlated positively with changes in plasma OxA levels three years after discontinuation of study treatments. Although OxA levels increased only in women randomized to o-CEE, these changes did not correlate with changes in sleep quality or BMI. The modest correlation of OxA levels with waist circumference once study treatments were discontinued suggests that OxA may be modulated through multiple intermediary pathways affected by metabolites of 17β-estradiol. Clinical Trial Registration for KEEPS: NCT00154180. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effects of Sex Steroids in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif

    2017-11-01

    Sex steroids are thought to play a critical developmental role in shaping both cortical and subcortical structures in the human brain. Periods of profound changes in sex steroids invariably coincide with the onset of sex differences in mental health vulnerability, highlighting the importance of sex steroids in determining sexual differentiation of the brain. Yet, most of the evidence for the central effects of sex steroids relies on non-human studies, as several challenges have limited our understanding of these effects in humans: the lack of systematic assessment of the human sex steroid metabolome, the different developmental trajectories of specific sex steroids, the impact of genetic variation and epigenetic changes, and the plethora of interactions between sex steroids, sex chromosomes, neurotransmitters, and other hormonal systems. Here we review how multimodal strategies may be employed to bridge the gap between the basic and clinical understanding of sex steroid-related changes in the human brain.

  10. Fulvestrant plus anastrozole or placebo versus exemestane alone after progression on non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal patients with hormone-receptor-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (SoFEA): a composite, multicentre, phase 3 randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen Rd; Kilburn, Lucy S; Ellis, Paul; Dodwell, David; Cameron, David; Hayward, Larry; Im, Young-Hyuck; Braybrooke, Jeremy P; Brunt, A Murray; Cheung, Kwok-Leung; Jyothirmayi, Rema; Robinson, Anne; Wardley, Andrew M; Wheatley, Duncan; Howell, Anthony; Coombes, Gill; Sergenson, Nicole; Sin, Hui-Jung; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Dowsett, Mitch; Bliss, Judith M

    2013-09-01

    The optimum endocrine treatment for postmenopausal women with advanced hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer that has progressed on non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (NSAIs) is unclear. The aim of the SoFEA trial was to assess a maximum double endocrine targeting approach with the steroidal anti-oestrogen fulvestrant in combination with continued oestrogen deprivation. In a composite, multicentre, phase 3 randomised controlled trial done in the UK and South Korea, postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer (oestrogen receptor [ER] positive, progesterone receptor [PR] positive, or both) were eligible if they had relapsed or progressed with locally advanced or metastatic disease on an NSAI (given as adjuvant for at least 12 months or as first-line treatment for at least 6 months). Additionally, patients had to have adequate organ function and a WHO performance status of 0-2. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive fulvestrant (500 mg intramuscular injection on day 1, followed by 250 mg doses on days 15 and 29, and then every 28 days) plus daily oral anastrozole (1 mg); fulvestrant plus anastrozole-matched placebo; or daily oral exemestane (25 mg). Randomisation was done with computer-generated permuted blocks, and stratification was by centre and previous use of an NSAI as adjuvant treatment or for locally advanced or metastatic disease. Participants and investigators were aware of assignment to fulvestrant or exemestane, but not of assignment to anastrozole or placebo. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00253422 (UK) and NCT00944918 (South Korea). Between March 26, 2004, and Aug 6, 2010, 723 patients underwent randomisation: 243 were assigned to receive fulvestrant plus anastrozole, 231 to fulvestrant plus placebo, and 249 to exemestane. Median PFS was 4·4 months (95% CI 3·4-5·4) in patients assigned to

  11. Direct measurement of human plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone by two-site immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linton, E.A.; McLean, C.; Nieuwenhuyzen Kruseman, A.C.; Tilders, F.J.; Van der Veen, E.A.; Lowry, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A ''two-site'' immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) which allows the direct estimation of human CRH (hCRH) in plasma is described. Using this IRMA, basal levels of CRH in normal subjects ranged from 2-28 pg/mL [mean, 15 +/- 7 (+/- SD) pg/mL; n = 58]. Values in men and women were similar. Plasma CRH values within this range were also found in patients with Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and Nelson's syndrome, with no correlation between plasma CRH and ACTH levels in these patients. Elevated plasma CRH levels were found in pregnant women near term [1462 +/- 752 (+/- SD) pg/mL; n = 55], and the dilution curve of this CRH-like immunoreactivity paralleled the IRMA standard curve. After its immunoadsorption from maternal plasma, this CRH-like material eluted on reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with a retention time identical to that of synthetic CRH and had equipotent bioactivity with the synthetic peptide in the perfused anterior pituitary cell bioassay. Circulating CRH was not detected in Wistar rats, even after adrenalectomy and subsequent ether stress. Synthetic hCRH was degraded by fresh human plasma relatively slowly; 65% of added CRH remained after 1 h of incubation at 37 C. Degradation was inhibited by heat treatment (54 C; 1 h), cold treatment (4 C; 4 h), or freezing and thawing. Loss of synthetic rat CRH occurred more rapidly when fresh rat plasma was used; only 20% of added CRH remained under the same conditions. The inability to measure CRH in peripheral rat plasma may be due to the presence of active CRH-degrading enzymes which fragment the CRH molecule into forms not recognized by the CRH IRMA

  12. Circadian Clock genes Per2 and clock regulate steroid production, cell proliferation, and luteinizing hormone receptor transcription in ovarian granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Hirai, Yuko; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Koyomi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression. →Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom. → Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. →Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. → The expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. -- Abstract: Circadian Clock genes are associated with the estrous cycle in female animals. Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression in follicle-stimulating hormone FSH-treated granulosa cells. Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom, whereas Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. Similarly, expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. Our data provide a new insight that Per2 and Clock have different action on ovarian granulosa cell functions.

  13. Circadian Clock genes Per2 and clock regulate steroid production, cell proliferation, and luteinizing hormone receptor transcription in ovarian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takashi, E-mail: shimizut@obihiro.ac.jp [Graduate School of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan); Hirai, Yuko; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio [Graduate School of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan); Miyazaki, Hitoshi [Gene Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Miyazaki, Koyomi [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 6, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression. {yields}Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom. {yields} Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. {yields}Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. {yields} The expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. -- Abstract: Circadian Clock genes are associated with the estrous cycle in female animals. Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression in follicle-stimulating hormone FSH-treated granulosa cells. Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom, whereas Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. Similarly, expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. Our data provide a new insight that Per2 and Clock have different action on ovarian granulosa cell functions.

  14. Interactions between hormones and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubøll, Erik; Sveberg, Line; Svalheim, Sigrid

    2015-05-01

    There is a complex, bidirectional interdependence between sex steroid hormones and epilepsy; hormones affect seizures, while seizures affect hormones thereby disturbing reproductive endocrine function. Both female and male sex steroid hormones influence brain excitability. For the female sex steroid hormones, progesterone and its metabolites are anticonvulsant, while estrogens are mainly proconvulsant. The monthly fluctuations in hormone levels of estrogen and progesterone are the basis for catamenial epilepsy described elsewhere in this issue. Androgens are mainly anticonvulsant, but the effects are more varied, probably because of its metabolism to, among others, estradiol. The mechanisms for the effects of sex steroid hormones on brain excitability are related to both classical, intracellularly mediated effects, and non-classical membrane effects due to binding to membrane receptors. The latter are considered the most important in relation to epilepsy. The different sex steroids can also be further metabolized within the brain to different neurosteroids, which are even more potent with regard to their effect on excitability. Estrogens potentiate glutamate responses, primarily by potentiating NMDA receptor activity, but also by affecting GABA-ergic mechanisms and altering brain morphology by increasing dendritic spine density. Progesterone and its main metabolite 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α-5α-THP) act mainly to enhance postsynaptic GABA-ergic activity, while androgens enhance GABA-activated currents. Seizures and epileptic discharges also affect sex steroid hormones. There are close anatomical connections between the temporolimbic system and the hypothalamus controlling the endocrine system. Several studies have shown that epileptic activity, especially mediated through the amygdala, alters reproductive function, including reduced ovarian cyclicity in females and altered sex steroid hormone levels in both genders. Furthermore, there is an asymmetric

  15. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points could be included as recovery metrics with which to monitor seasonal trends and determine whether

  16. Observation on the changes of plasma neuroendocrine hormones levels in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui Shibao; Xia Chaohoung; Cheng Guanghua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma levels of endothelin (ET), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and adrenomedullin (ADM) both before and after treatment in patients with CHF. Methods: Plasma levels of ET, CGRP, NPY and ADM were determined with RIA both before and after treatment in 79 patients with CHF and once in 31 controls. The 79 patients were of two groups: Group A cardiac function Grade III or better, n=45, Group B, cardiac function Grade IV, n=34 with 3 deaths. Results: Before treatment, the plasma levels of ET and CGRP were significantly higher in both groups of patients than those in controls, with higher values in more severe cases. After treatment,the levels dropped markedly but remained significantly higher than those in controls. Most remarkably was that in the three deaths: the CGRP levels before treatment, though higher than those in the controls, were significantly lower than the mean value in Group B patients as a whole, and dropped furthur to below those in controls as the patients deteriorated. With NPY and ADM, before treatment the plasma levels in both groups of patients were also significantly higher than those in controls. The levels also dropped markedly after treatment, but still remained significantly higher than those in controls. Again, in the 3 deaths, the plasma levels of ADM were significantly lower than the mean value of Group B patients and were not much different from those in controls (P>0.05) and dropped furthur to even below the levels of controls as the patients deteriorated. Conclusion: Changes of plasma levels of ET and NPY might reflect the severity of the disease process of CHF while changes of plasma CGRP and ADM levels might even be of prognostic value. (authors)

  17. Aspectos reprodutivos e perfil hormonal dos esteróides sexuais do pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (SCHINZ,1822, em condições de cativeiro Reproductive aspects and sexual steroids hormonal profiles of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (SCHINZ,1822, in captivity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bruno Barbosa Monteiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo caracterizar a reprodução e o perfil hormonal dos esteróides sexuais do pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, além de validar um aspecto do dimorfismo sexual secundário. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Santo Antônio II, em Presidente Figueredo-AM, no período de fevereiro de 2004 a fevereiro de 2005. Foram selecionados 24 exemplares e divididos em três grupos de oito peixes (grupo "A", "B" e "C" com pirarucus de mais de quatro anos de idade, com três anos e dois anos, respectivamente. Os pirarucus foram estocados em três tanques de 400m², um para cada grupo. Aspectos comportamentais, como o interesse por alimento, brigas, formação de casais e presença de ninhos, foram observados ao longo de todo o experimento. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas mensalmente, de todos os peixes, observou-se a presença de uma mancha alaranjada no macho como uma característica sexual secundária. Foram mensurados os níveis de testosterona (T, 17beta-estradiol (E2 e 17alfa-hidroxi-progesterona (17aOHP através de radioimunoensaio (RIA de fase sólida. Todos os machos dos grupos "A" e "B" puderam ser identificados pela mancha alaranjada na região inferior da cabeça, corroborada pela concentração de testosterona, comprovando o conhecimento empírico dos ribeirinhos. Os níveis de T e E2 nos peixes do grupo "A" e "B" tiveram maiores picos no início do período de chuva, enquanto que o 17aOHP teve oscilações constantes e pequenos picos no final do período chuvoso, os peixes do grupo "C" acompanharam essa tendência em concentrações menores.The purpose of this study was to characterize the growth, reproduction and hormonal profile of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, and validate one sexual dimorphism characteristic. The experiment was carried in the fish farm Santo Antonio II, Presidente Figueredo city in the state of Amazonas Brazil, from February 2004 to February 2005. In the experiment, 24 fishes were selected and divided

  18. Effects of electromagnetic fields exposure on plasma hormonal and inflammatory pathway biomarkers in male workers of a power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaopin; Fei, Ying; Liu, Hui [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Epidemiology and Health Statistics; Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Chronic Disease Research Inst.; and others

    2016-01-15

    The potential health risks of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have currently raised considerable public concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of EMF exposure on levels of plasma hormonal and inflammatory pathway biomarkers in male workers of an electric power plant. Seventy-seven male workers with high occupational EMF exposure and 77 male controls with low exposure, matched by age, were selected from a cross-sectional study. Moreover, high EMF exposure group was with walkie-talkies usage and exposed to power frequency EMF at the work places for a longer duration than control group. A questionnaire was applied to obtain relevant information, including sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and EMF exposures. Plasma levels of testosterone, estradiol, melatonin, NF-KB, heat-shock protein (HSP) 70, HSP27, and TET1 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. EMF exposure group had statistically significantly lower levels of testosterone (β = -0.3 nmol/L, P = 0.015), testosterone/estradiol (T/E2) ratio (β = -15.6, P = 0.037), and NF-KB (β = -20.8 ng/L, P = 0.045) than control group. Moreover, joint effects between occupational EMF exposure and employment duration, mobile phone fees, years of mobile phone usage, and electric fees on levels of testosterone and T/E2 ratio were observed. Nevertheless, no statistically significant associations of EMF exposures with plasma estradiol, melatonin, HSP70, HSP27, and TET1 were found. The findings showed that chronic exposure to EMF could decrease male plasma testosterone and T/E2 ratio, and it might possibly affect reproductive functions in males. No significant associations of EMF exposure with inflammatory pathway biomarkers were found.

  19. Effects of dietary prebiotic GroBiotic®- A on growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel, M.; Nayak, S.; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Grobiotic®-A, a commercial prebiotics, when administered in feed on the growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon (Huso huso). The commercial prebiotic mixture was supplemented in the diets at four...... changes in growth performance parameters were observed, but only in those groups fed with 1% and 2% prebiotics. Specifically, marked improvements relative to the control group were observed in percentage weight gain, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate in prebiotic-fed fish....... The levels of plasma thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormones were significantly elevated in the group receiving 2% prebiotics. Activities of lysozyme and alkaline phosphatase in skin mucus were significantly enhanced in prebiotics-fed groups, particularly at an inclusion...

  20. Effect of therapeutic plasma concentrations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the production of reactive oxygen species by activated rat neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paino I.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The release of reactive oxygen specie (ROS by activated neutrophil is involved in both the antimicrobial and deleterious effects in chronic inflammation. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the effect of therapeutic plasma concentrations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs on the production of ROS by stimulated rat neutrophils. Diclofenac (3.6 µM, indomethacin (12 µM, naproxen (160 µM, piroxicam (13 µM, and tenoxicam (30 µM were incubated at 37ºC in PBS (10 mM, pH 7.4, for 30 min with rat neutrophils (1 x 10(6 cells/ml stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (100 nM. The ROS production was measured by luminol and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. Except for naproxen, NSAIDs reduced ROS production: 58 ± 2% diclofenac, 90 ± 2% indomethacin, 33 ± 3% piroxicam, and 45 ± 6% tenoxicam (N = 6. For the lucigenin assay, naproxen, piroxicam and tenoxicam were ineffective. For indomethacin the inhibition was 52 ± 5% and diclofenac showed amplification in the light emission of 181 ± 60% (N = 6. Using the myeloperoxidase (MPO/H2O2/luminol system, the effects of NSAIDs on MPO activity were also screened. We found that NSAIDs inhibited both the peroxidation and chlorinating activity of MPO as follows: diclofenac (36 ± 10, 45 ± 3%, indomethacin (97 ± 2, 100 ± 1%, naproxen (56 ± 8, 76 ± 3%, piroxicam (77 ± 5, 99 ± 1%, and tenoxicam (90 ± 2, 100 ± 1%, respectively (N = 3. These results show that therapeutic levels of NSAIDs are able to suppress the oxygen-dependent antimicrobial or oxidative functions of neutrophils by inhibiting the generation of hypochlorous acid.

  1. The effects of the pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, on steroid hormone levels and gonadal development of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under hypersaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Kristy L; Riar, Navneet; Schlenk, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    The San Francisco Bay Estuary and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Bay-Delta) is an important breeding and nursery ground for fish. Of particular interest are salmonids that migrate through fresh and saltwater areas polluted with various contaminants including bifenthrin, a widely used pyrethroid insecticide. Male steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to bifenthrin (0.1 and 1.5μg/L) for two weeks had a lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) in freshwater but were not affected by concurrent bifenthrin exposure and saltwater acclimation. Plasma estradiol-17β (E2) levels and ovarian follicle diameter of fish exposed to bifenthrin (0.1 and 1.5μg/L) in freshwater significantly increased. Under hypersaline conditions, fish exposed to bifenthrin had significantly reduced E2 levels and smaller follicles, and unhealthy ovarian follicles were observed. Given the occurrence of bifenthrin in surface waters of the Bay Delta, understanding the impact of bifenthrin on wildlife is necessary for improving risk assessments of pyrethroids in this important ecosystem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of D-thyroxine on plasma thyroid hormone levels and TSH secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gless, K.H.; Oster, P.; Huefner, M.; Heidelberg Univ.

    1977-01-01

    Triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ), basal TSH and TSH after stimulation with TRH were determined by labelling with Iodine 127 in healthy subjects and patients treated with D-thyroxine (DT 4 ). After a dosage of 6 mg DT 4 , the D/L T 4 plasma concentration rose about 4-fold 4 hours after application and was only moderately elevated 14 hours later. To achieve constantly elevated T 4 levels, 3 mg DT 4 were applied in the further experiment every 12 hours. The D/L T 4 plasma concentration rose 2.5-4-fold, and there was a small but significant increase of the D/L T 3 plasma concentration. 74 hours after onset of treatment basal TSH was below detecable limits and the increase of TSH 30 min after injection of 200 μg TRH (TRH test) was only about 15% compared to zero time. The time course of TSH suppression was investigated after treatment with DT 4 and LT 4 (single dosage of 3 mg). TRH-tests were performed before, 10, 26, 50 and 74 hours after the first dosage of D or LT 4 . There was no difference in the time course of basal TSH and TSH stimulated by TRH. In 10 patients on DT 4 longterm therapy, basal and stimulated TSH were found to be below the detectable limits of 0.4 μg/ml. Our results show that (1) plasma half-life of DT 4 is less than 1 day, (2) TSH suppression after D and LT 4 treatment is very similar, and (3) in patients on lang-term DT 4 treatment, TSH plasma concentration is below detectable limits even after stimulation with TRH. (orig.) [de

  3. Oxytocin, vasopressin, prostaglandin F(2alpha), luteinizing hormone, testosterone, estrone sulfate, and cortisol plasma concentrations after sexual stimulation in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Tosi, U; Villani, M; Govoni, N; Faustini, M; Kindahl, H; Madej, A; Carluccio, A

    2010-03-01

    This experiment was designed to determine the effects of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (VP), 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PG-metabolite), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), estrone sulfate (ES), and cortisol (C) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 14 light horse stallions (Equus caballus) of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. Blood samples were collected at 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 min before estrous mare exposure, at erection, at ejaculation, and at 3, 6, and 9 min after ejaculation. Afterwards, blood sampling was performed every 10 min for the following 60 min. Sexual activity determined an increase in plasma concentrations of OT, VP, C, PG-metabolite, and ES and caused no changes in LH and T concentrations. The finding of a negative correlation between C and VP at erection, and between C and T before erection and at the time of erection, could be explained by a possible inhibitory role exerted by C in the mechanism of sexual arousal described for men. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution of adrenal hormones to nicotine-induced inhibition of synovial plasma extravasation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, F J; Benowitz, N L; Heller, P H; Levine, J D

    1997-01-01

    1. In this study, we examined the mechanism(s) by which s.c. nicotine inhibits synovial plasma extravasation. We found that nicotine dose-dependently inhibited bradykinin (BK)- and platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced plasma extravasation. 2. The effect of nicotine on both BK- and PAF-induced plasma extravasation was attenuated by adrenal medullectomy. ICI-118,551 (a selective beta 2-adrenoceptor blocker) (30 micrograms ml-1, intra-articularly) significantly attenuated the inhibitory action of high-dose (1 mg kg-1) nicotine on BK-induced plasma extravasation without affecting the inhibition by low- (0.01 microgram kg-1) dose nicotine or that on PAF-induced plasma extravasation by nicotine at any dose. This suggested that beta 2-adrenoceptors mediate the inhibitory actions of high-dose, but not low-dose, nicotine. We also found that systemic naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) (two hourly injections of 1 mg kg-1, i.p.) attenuated the inhibitory action produced by all doses of nicotine on BK- or PAF-induced plasma extravasation, suggesting the contribution of endogenous opioids. 3. RU-38,486 (a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist) (30 mg kg-1, s.c.), and metyrapone (a glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor) (two hourly injections of 100 mg kg-1, i.p.) both attenuated the action of high-dose nicotine without affecting that of low-dose nicotine. 4. Spinal mecamylamine (a nicotinic receptor antagonist) (0.025 mg kg-1, intrathecally, i.t.) attenuated the action of high-dose, but not low-dose, nicotine, suggesting that part of the action of high-dose nicotine is mediated by spinal nicotinic receptors. 5. Combined treatment with ICI-118,551, naloxone and RU-38,486 attenuated the action of low-dose nicotine by an amount similar to that produced by naloxone alone but produced significantly greater attenuation of the effect of high-dose nicotine when compared to the action of any of the three antagonists alone.

  5. Increased plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and vitamin D binding protein in women using hormonal contraceptives: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liendgaard, Ulla Kristine Møller; við Streym, Susanna; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Use of hormonal contraceptives (HC) may influence total plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. A likely cause is an increased synthesis of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP). Discrepant results are reported on whether the use of HC affects free concentrations of vitamin D...... metabolites. AIM: In a cross-sectional study, plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, VDBP, and the calculated free vitamin D index in users and non-users of HC were compared and markers of calcium and bone metabolism investigated. RESULTS: 75 Caucasian women aged 25-35 years were included during......, parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin, p > 0.21) or bone metabolism (plasma bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and urinary NTX/creatinine ratio) between groups. IN CONCLUSION: Use of HC is associated with 13%-25% higher concentrations of total vitamin D metabolites and VDBP. This however...

  6. Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allera, A.; Lo, S.; King, I.; Steglich, F.; Klingmueller, D.

    2004-01-01

    Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening ED for a wide range of sex hormone-mimicking effects. These compounds are believed to exert influence on hormonal actions predominantly by (i) interfering with endogenous steroids in that they functionally interact with plasma membrane-located receptors as well as with nuclear receptors both for estrogens and androgens or (ii) affecting the levels of sex hormones as a result of their impact on steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Essential sex hormone-related enzymes within the endocrine system of humans are aromatase, 5α-reductase 2 as well as specific sulfotransferases and sulfatases (so-called phase I and phase II enzymes, respectively). Using suitable human tissues and human cancer cell lines (placenta, prostate, liver and JEG-3, lymph node carcinoma of prostate (LnCaP) cells) we investigated the impact of 10 widely used chemicals suspected of acting as ED with androgenic or antiandrogenic activity (so-called AAC) on the activity of these sex hormone metabolizing key enzymes in humans. In addition, the respective effects of six substances were also studied as positive controls due to their well-known specific hormonal agonistic/antagonistic activities. The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED

  7. Sex hormones affect acute and chronic stress responses in sexually dimorphic patterns: Consequences for depression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Chen, Yi-Xi; Hu, Yu-Ting; Wu, Xue-Yan; He, Yang; Wu, Juan-Li; Huang, Man-Li; Mason, Matthew; Bao, Ai-Min

    2018-05-21

    Alterations in peripheral sex hormones may play an important role in sex differences in terms of stress responses and mood disorders. It is not yet known whether and how stress-related brain systems and brain sex steroid levels fluctuate in relation to changes in peripheral sex hormone levels, or whether the different sexes show different patterns. We aimed to investigate systematically, in male and female rats, the effect of decreased circulating sex hormone levels following gonadectomy on acute and chronic stress responses, manifested as changes in plasma and hypothalamic sex steroids and hypothalamic stress-related molecules. Experiment (Exp)-1: Rats (14 males, 14 females) were gonadectomized or sham-operated (intact); Exp-2: gonadectomized and intact rats (28 males, 28 females) were exposed to acute foot shock or no stressor; and Exp-3: gonadectomized and intact rats (32 males, 32 females) were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) or no stressor. For all rats, plasma and hypothalamic testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and the expression of stress-related molecules were determined, including corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, oxytocin, aromatase, and the receptors for estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed in terms of plasma sex hormones, brain sex steroids, and hypothalamic stress-related molecule mRNAs (p > 0.113) in intact or gonadectomized, male or female, rats. Male and female rats, either intact or gonadectomized and exposed to acute or chronic stress, showed different patterns of stress-related molecule changes. Diminished peripheral sex hormone levels lead to different peripheral and central patterns of change in the stress response systems in male and female rats. This has implications for the choice of models for the study of the different types of mood disorders which also show sex differences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Rapid ELISA Method for 17, 20b-dihydroxy-4-pregenen-3-one (17,20bP Hormone Using Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme as Tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ebrahimi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past 15 years Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA has been described as an alternative to radioimmunoassay for steroid detection. In addition to gonads, sperm itself is capable of producing reduced progesterone metabolites. In this study we introduced a method to extend the applicability of previous measures by describing a general preparation procedure for the enzyme label which is applicable to any steroid hormone. Methods: A simple and rapid Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA is described and validated for 17,20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20βP. A general procedure for preparation of the acetylcholinesterase labelled steroid is described which is applicable to any steroid. Results: Use of acetylcholinesterase tracer increased the sensitivity of assay so that reliable measurements of each steroid could be achieved with only 10 µl of plasma. ELISA was applied to measure of 17,20βP steroid production by sperm of trout which has sufficient amount of potent and active 20βHSD enzyme to convert 17α-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17αP substrate to 17,20βP product. The results showed that a clear shift in 17,20βP production was found with increase in substrate concentration in all in vitro incubations. Conclusion: ELISA method presented in this study has greater sensitivity and accuracy compared to previously described method that uses radiolabelled substances. Keywords: Immunoassay, ELISA, Steroids, Hormone, Assay

  9. Thyroid stimulating hormone and serum, plasma, and platelet brain-derived neurotrophic factor during a 3-month follow-up in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kang, Eun-Suk; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Lee, Dongsoo; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2014-12-01

    Thyroid dysfunction and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are common in patients with depression. TSH might exert its function in the brain through blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF decreases during depressed states and normalize after treatment. The gap is that the association between TSH and BDNF in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is unknown. We studied 105 subjects ≥18 years of age with MDD and measured serum, plasma, and platelet BDNF at baseline, 1 month and 3 months during antidepressant treatment. Other baseline measurements included hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis hormones such as TSH, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4); hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormones and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis hormones and prolactin. Linear mixed model effect analyses revealed that baseline TSH level was negatively associated with changes of serum BDNF from baseline to 3 months (F=7.58, p=0.007) after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index, but was not associated with plasma and platelet BDNF. In contrast, T3 and T4, HPA axis hormones, HPG axis hormones, and prolactin were not associated with serum, plasma, or platelet BDNF levels. Patients in the highest quartile of TSH showed significantly lower serum BDNF than in the other quartiles (F=4.54, p=0.038), but no significant differences were found based on T3 and T4 levels. TSH was only measured at baseline. Higher TSH is associated with lower baseline and reduced the increase of serum BDNF levels during antidepressant treatment in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanized sephadex LH-20 multiple column chromatography as a prerequisite to automated multi-steroid radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sippell, W.G.; Bidlingmaier, F.; Knorr, D.

    1977-01-01

    In order to establish a procedure for the simultaneous determination of all major corticosteroid hormones and their immediate biological precursors in the same plasma sample, two different mechanized methods for the simultaneous isolation of aldosterone (A), corticosterone (B), 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), progesterone (P), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), 11-deoxycorticol (S), cortisol (F), and cortisone (E) from the methylene chloride extracts of 0.1 to 2.0 ml plasma samples have been developed. In both methods, eluate fractions of each of the isolated steroids are automatically pooled and collected from all parallel columns by one programmable linear fraction collector. Due to the high reproducibility of the elution patterns both between different parallel columns and between 30 to 40 consecutive elutions, mean recoveries of tritiated steroids including extraction are 60 to 84% after a single elution and still over 50% after an additional chromatography on 40cm LH-20 colums, with coefficients of variation below 15%. Thus, the eight steroids can be completely isolated from each of ten plasma extracts within 3 to 4 hours, yielding 80 samples readily prepared for subsequent quantitation by radioimmunoassay. (orig./AJ) [de

  11. Relationships between POPs, biometrics and circulating steroids in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Hansen, Ingunn Tjelta; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Hansen, Martin; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biometric variables on circulating levels of steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestagens) in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway (n = 23). Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma. Subsequently, associations between hormone concentrations (9 steroids), POPs (21 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 8 OH-PCBs, 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and OCP metabolites, and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) and biological variables (age, head length, body mass, girth, body condition index), capture date, location (latitude and longitude), lipid content and cholesterol levels were examined using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) modelling. Average concentrations of androgens, estrogens and progestagens were in the range of 0.57-83.7 (0.57-12.4 for subadults, 1.02-83.7 for adults), 0.09-2.69 and 0.57-2.44 nmol/L, respectively. The steroid profiles suggest that sex steroids were mainly synthesized through the Δ-4 pathway in male polar bears. The ratio between androgens and estrogens significantly depended on sexual maturity with androgen/estrogen ratios being approximately 60 times higher in adult males than in subadult males. PCA plots and OPLS models indicated that TS was positively related to biometrics, such as body condition index in male polar bears. A negative relationship was also observed between POPs and DHT. Consequently, POPs and body condition may potentially affect the endocrinological function of steroids, including development of reproductive tissues and sex organs and the

  12. Steroid radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Y.; Hacker, R.R.; Ntunde, B.; Smith, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    An estrogen radioimmunoassay was used to study the problem of blanks in steroid assays. Negligible binding (1.5 percent) in the non-antibody tubes prevailed throughout the study. The assay was validated using accepted procedures. Both water and solvent blanks had estrogen concentrations of 7-9 pg/tube. However, neither water nor solvent blanks showed a dose-related response, indicating that they were 'real' blanks. Exogenous estradiol, when added to water and solvent in quantities less than the estimated blank, was not quantitatively recovered. However, exogenous estradiol added to the water solvent in quantities greater than the blank estimate was quantitatively recovered. The sensitivity of the reference standard curve was 6-10 pg/tube, approximately the same as the blank estimate. These results indicated that the estimates of water and solvent blanks were measures of the assay sensitivity. In such circumstances, it is suggested that blank estimates should not be subtracted from sample values. If the blank estimates are high, attention should be directed towards improving the sensitivity of the assay

  13. The Effect of Geographic Location on Circannual Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Plasma Concentrations in Horses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secombe, C J; Tan, R H H; Perara, D I; Byrne, D P; Watts, S P; Wearn, J G

    2017-09-01

    Longitudinal evaluation of plasma endogenous ACTH concentration in clinically normal horses has not been investigated in the Southern Hemisphere. To longitudinally determine monthly upper reference limits for plasma ACTH in 2 disparate Australian geographic locations and to examine whether location affected the circannual rhythm of endogenous ACTH in the 2 groups of horses over a 12-month period. Clinically normal horses horses from Perth and ≤67 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Townsville, than at the acrophase, ≤94 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Perth, ≤101 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Townsville. Circannual rhythms of endogenous ACTH concentrations vary between geographic locations, this could be due to changes in photoperiod or other unknown factors, and upper reference limits should be determined for specific locations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Circulating growth hormone (GH)-binding protein complex: a major constituent of plasma GH in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, G.; Amburn, K.; Shaw, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The recent discovery of a specific binding protein for human GH (hGH) in human plasma suggests that hGH circulates in part as a complex in association with the binding protein(s). However, the magnitude of the complexed fraction prevailing under physiological conditions is unknown because of 1) dissociation of the complex during analysis and 2) potential differences in the binding characteristics of radiolabeled and native hGH. We conducted experiments designed to minimize dissociation during analysis (gel filtration in prelabeled columns, frontal analysis, and batch molecular sieving) with both native and radioiodinated hGH. All three methods yielded similar estimates for the complexed fraction. In normal plasma the bound fraction for 22 K hGH averaged 50.1% (range, 39-59%), that for 20 K hGH averaged 28.5% (range, 26-31%). Above a hGH level of about 20 ng/ml the bound fraction declines in concentration-dependent manner due to saturation of the binding protein. We conclude that a substantial part of circulating hGH is complexed with carrier proteins. This concept has important implications for the metabolism, distribution, and biological activity of hGH

  15. Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

    1988-01-01

    SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

  16. Elevated Plasma Corticosterone Decreases Yolk Testosterone and Progesterone in Chickens : Linking Maternal Stress and Hormone-Mediated Maternal Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, Rie; Groothuis, Ton G.; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Bartell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress

  17. Toxicokinetics of tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) and effects on plasma sex hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmill, Bonnie; Pleskach, Kerri; Peters, Lisa; Palace, Vince; Wautier, Kerry; Park, Brad; Darling, Colin; Rosenberg, Bruno; McCrindle, Robert; Tomy, Gregg T.

    2011-01-01

    Technical 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane or tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) used primarily as an additive flame retardant in polystyrene foams, contains two diastereoisomers, α- and β- present in equimolar amounts. At temperatures in excess of 125 o C, isomerization to two other isoforms, δ- and γ- is possible. The recent detection of TBECH in the environment and studies suggesting that isomers are androgenic prompted us to examine the toxicokinetics and biochemical effects of one of the isomers, β-, in a controlled laboratory environment. Juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to three different amounts of the β-isomer (low, medium and high) via the food followed by a period in which they were exposed to unfortified food. A fourth group of fish was exposed to unfortified food for the duration of the experiment. On days 0, 7, 14, 21, 35, 49, 56, 63, 77, 91, 105, and 133, eight fish from each treatment group were euthanized and liver, plasma, lower jaw (i.e., thyroid tissue) and gonad were collected and the remaining tissue ('whole-fish') was retained. β-Isomer content was measured in whole-fish and in liver while estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) were measured in plasma. Based on liver and gonad somatic indices, no apparent effects on liver or gonad development in fish from any of the treatment groups were observed. The bioaccumulation of β-isomer was similar in fish from all treatment groups with steady-state occurring before the end of the uptake phase. Depuration of the β-isomer from fish obeyed first order kinetics and there were no statistically significant differences in the depuration half life (t 1/2 ) among the treatment groups: 22.5 ± 10.4 (low), 13.5 ± 5.9 (med) and 13.8 ± 2.2 (high) days. Steady-state biomagnification factors were much smaller than 1 for fish in all treatment groups. Debrominated metabolites were not detected in composite liver or whole-fish extracts and there was no

  18. Toxicokinetics of tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) and effects on plasma sex hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmill, Bonnie [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Pleskach, Kerri [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Peters, Lisa [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Palace, Vince [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Wautier, Kerry; Park, Brad [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Darling, Colin; Rosenberg, Bruno [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); McCrindle, Robert [Wellington Laboratories Incorporated, Research Division, Guelph, ON N1G 3M5 (Canada); Tomy, Gregg T., E-mail: gregg.tomy@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Technical 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane or tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) used primarily as an additive flame retardant in polystyrene foams, contains two diastereoisomers, {alpha}- and {beta}- present in equimolar amounts. At temperatures in excess of 125 {sup o}C, isomerization to two other isoforms, {delta}- and {gamma}- is possible. The recent detection of TBECH in the environment and studies suggesting that isomers are androgenic prompted us to examine the toxicokinetics and biochemical effects of one of the isomers, {beta}-, in a controlled laboratory environment. Juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to three different amounts of the {beta}-isomer (low, medium and high) via the food followed by a period in which they were exposed to unfortified food. A fourth group of fish was exposed to unfortified food for the duration of the experiment. On days 0, 7, 14, 21, 35, 49, 56, 63, 77, 91, 105, and 133, eight fish from each treatment group were euthanized and liver, plasma, lower jaw (i.e., thyroid tissue) and gonad were collected and the remaining tissue ('whole-fish') was retained. {beta}-Isomer content was measured in whole-fish and in liver while estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) were measured in plasma. Based on liver and gonad somatic indices, no apparent effects on liver or gonad development in fish from any of the treatment groups were observed. The bioaccumulation of {beta}-isomer was similar in fish from all treatment groups with steady-state occurring before the end of the uptake phase. Depuration of the {beta}-isomer from fish obeyed first order kinetics and there were no statistically significant differences in the depuration half life (t{sub 1/2}) among the treatment groups: 22.5 {+-} 10.4 (low), 13.5 {+-} 5.9 (med) and 13.8 {+-} 2.2 (high) days. Steady-state biomagnification factors were much smaller than 1 for fish in all treatment groups. Debrominated metabolites were not

  19. Endogenous sex steroids and risk of cervical carcinoma: results from the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Plummer, Martyn; Biessy, Carine

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC).......Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC)....

  20. Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2012-12-01

    River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions.

  1. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, F.; Ayub, M.; Shaukat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significant rise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by lead treatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change. Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats by increasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic and antioxidant properties. (author)

  2. Molt-associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values and stress hormone levels in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Meegan, Jenny; Sarran, Delphine; Romano, Tracy A; Bonato, Vinicius; Deng, Shibing; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Handling, including blood collection, has often been discouraged in molting penguins because it is considered an additional stress imposed on birds already experiencing major physiologic stress associated with molting. To evaluate the degree of physiologic stress posed by molting, we compared the hematologic and plasma biochemical values and hormone levels of molting and nonmolting African penguins, Spheniscus demersus. Five male and 5 female penguins randomly chosen were given complete physical examinations, were weighed, and blood samples were taken at 7 time points before, during, and after the molt. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Throughout the study, behavior and appetite remained normal. Catecholamine levels were highly variable within and among subjects, whereas mean corticosterone levels were significantly different between baseline, molt, and postmolt values. Significant differences from baseline values were observed in many of the hematologic analytes; however, only decreases in hematocrit and red blood cell count values were considered clinically significant. Anemia due to experimentally induced blood loss as a possible cause of the significant hematologic changes was ruled out based on results of a follow-up control study during the nonmolt season, which showed no significant changes in hematocrit level or total red blood cell counts when using similar sampling protocols, which indicates that these changes were associated with molt.

  3. Mercury exposure associated with altered plasma thyroid hormones in the declining western pond turtle (Emys marmorata) from California mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erik; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Sparling, Donald; Blumenshine, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global threat to wildlife health that can impair many physiological processes. Mercury has well-documented endocrine activity; however, little work on the effects of Hg on the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in aquatic wildlife exists despite the fact that it is a sensitive endpoint of contaminant exposure. An emerging body of evidence points to the toxicological susceptibility of aquatic reptiles to Hg exposure. We examined the endocrine disrupting potential of Hg in the western pond turtle (Emys marmorata), a long-lived reptile that is in decline throughout California and the Pacific Northwest. We measured total Hg (THg) concentrations in red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma T3 and T4 of turtles from several locations in California that have been impacted by historic gold mining. Across all turtles from all sites, the geometric mean and standard error THg concentration was 0.805 ± 0.025 μg/g dry weight. Sampling region and mass were the strongest determinants of RBC THg. Relationships between RBC THg and T3 and T4 were consistent with Hg-induced disruption of T4 deiodination, a mechanism of toxicity that may cause excess T4 levels and depressed concentrations of biologically active T3.

  4. Mercury exposure associated with altered plasma thyroid hormones in the declining western pond turtle (Emys marmorata) from California mountain streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erik; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Sparling, Donald; Blumenshine, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global threat to wildlife health that can impair many physiological processes. Mercury has well-documented endocrine activity; however, little work on the effects of Hg on the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in aquatic wildlife exists despite the fact that it is a sensitive endpoint of contaminant exposure. An emerging body of evidence points to the toxicological susceptibility of aquatic reptiles to Hg exposure. We examined the endocrine disrupting potential of Hg in the western pond turtle (Emys marmorata), a long-lived reptile that is in decline throughout California and the Pacific Northwest. We measured total Hg (THg) concentrations in red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma T3 and T4 of turtles from several locations in California that have been impacted by historic gold mining. Across all turtles from all sites, the geometric mean and standard error THg concentration was 0.805 ± 0.025 μg/g dry weight. Sampling region and mass were the strongest determinants of RBC THg. Relationships between RBC THg and T3 and T4 were consistent with Hg-induced disruption of T4 deiodination, a mechanism of toxicity that may cause excess T4 levels and depressed concentrations of biologically active T3.

  5. Simultaneous analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and estrogenic hormones in water and wastewater samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with electron capture detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migowska, Natalia; Caban, Magda; Stepnowski, Piotr; Kumirska, Jolanta, E-mail: kumirska@chem.univ.gda.pl

    2012-12-15

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the group of pharmaceuticals that is most often found in the environment, whereas estrogenic hormones are considered to be potent endocrine disruptors. However, the fate and persistence of these compounds in the environment are still unclear. In this study we propose two approaches for determining these compounds in environmental water samples: GC-MS using time windows and operating in selected ion-monitoring mode (SIM) and, for the first time, gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The identification criteria of both methods fulfilled the requirements of Directive 2002/657/EC. The use of time windows improved the sensitivity of GC-MS measurements. In GC-MS analysis the pharmaceuticals were determined as trimethylsilyl, in GC-ECD as pentafluoropropionyl derivatives. The influence of such parameters as the type of reagent, type of solvent, reaction time, reaction temperature and microwave irradiation in a household microwave oven on the efficacy of silylation was investigated. Derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) in pyridine (1:1, v/v) for 30 min in 60 Degree-Sign C was found to be optimal. Optimization of the solid phase extraction procedure (SPE) confirmed that the application of Oasis HLB cartridges, the acidification of loading samples to pH 2 and the use of methanol as eluent gave the best absolute recoveries (ARs) of the target compounds. The following ARs of all the compounds were achieved: 58.2-106.8% in influent wastewater, 77.8-103.4% in effluent wastewater and 81.2-101.9% in surface water samples. Validation of the SPE-GC-MS method enables 13 pharmaceuticals to be determined with MDLs between 3.3 and 343.6 ng/L, depending on the analytes and matrices. GC-ECD analysis enables the determination of 6 pharmaceuticals in surface water samples with MDLs between 0.7 and 5.4 ng/L. The proposed methods were successfully used for

  6. Simultaneous analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and estrogenic hormones in water and wastewater samples using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with electron capture detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migowska, Natalia; Caban, Magda; Stepnowski, Piotr; Kumirska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the group of pharmaceuticals that is most often found in the environment, whereas estrogenic hormones are considered to be potent endocrine disruptors. However, the fate and persistence of these compounds in the environment are still unclear. In this study we propose two approaches for determining these compounds in environmental water samples: GC–MS using time windows and operating in selected ion-monitoring mode (SIM) and, for the first time, gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC–ECD). The identification criteria of both methods fulfilled the requirements of Directive 2002/657/EC. The use of time windows improved the sensitivity of GC–MS measurements. In GC–MS analysis the pharmaceuticals were determined as trimethylsilyl, in GC–ECD as pentafluoropropionyl derivatives. The influence of such parameters as the type of reagent, type of solvent, reaction time, reaction temperature and microwave irradiation in a household microwave oven on the efficacy of silylation was investigated. Derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) in pyridine (1:1, v/v) for 30 min in 60 °C was found to be optimal. Optimization of the solid phase extraction procedure (SPE) confirmed that the application of Oasis HLB cartridges, the acidification of loading samples to pH 2 and the use of methanol as eluent gave the best absolute recoveries (ARs) of the target compounds. The following ARs of all the compounds were achieved: 58.2–106.8% in influent wastewater, 77.8–103.4% in effluent wastewater and 81.2–101.9% in surface water samples. Validation of the SPE–GC–MS method enables 13 pharmaceuticals to be determined with MDLs between 3.3 and 343.6 ng/L, depending on the analytes and matrices. GC–ECD analysis enables the determination of 6 pharmaceuticals in surface water samples with MDLs between 0.7 and 5.4 ng/L. The proposed methods were successfully

  7. Differential regulation of human 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 for steroid hormone biosynthesis by starvation and cyclic AMP stimulation: studies in the human adrenal NCI-H295R cell model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Udhane

    Full Text Available Human steroid biosynthesis depends on a specifically regulated cascade of enzymes including 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD3Bs. Type 2 HSD3B catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone to progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione in the human adrenal cortex and the gonads but the exact regulation of this enzyme is unknown. Therefore, specific downregulation of HSD3B2 at adrenarche around age 6-8 years and characteristic upregulation of HSD3B2 in the ovaries of women suffering from the polycystic ovary syndrome remain unexplained prompting us to study the regulation of HSD3B2 in adrenal NCI-H295R cells. Our studies confirm that the HSD3B2 promoter is regulated by transcription factors GATA, Nur77 and SF1/LRH1 in concert and that the NBRE/Nur77 site is crucial for hormonal stimulation with cAMP. In fact, these three transcription factors together were able to transactivate the HSD3B2 promoter in placental JEG3 cells which normally do not express HSD3B2. By contrast, epigenetic mechanisms such as methylation and acetylation seem not involved in controlling HSD3B2 expression. Cyclic AMP was found to exert differential effects on HSD3B2 when comparing short (acute versus long-term (chronic stimulation. Short cAMP stimulation inhibited HSD3B2 activity directly possibly due to regulation at co-factor or substrate level or posttranslational modification of the protein. Long cAMP stimulation attenuated HSD3B2 inhibition and increased HSD3B2 expression through transcriptional regulation. Although PKA and MAPK pathways are obvious candidates for possibly transmitting the cAMP signal to HSD3B2, our studies using PKA and MEK1/2 inhibitors revealed no such downstream signaling of cAMP. However, both signaling pathways were clearly regulating HSD3B2 expression.

  8. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, hormonal contraceptive use, and cardiometabolic disease risk in an ethnically diverse population of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bailo, Bibiana; Karmali, Mohamed; Badawi, Alaa; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between vitamin D and cardiometabolic disease risk across ethnic groups is unclear, and it is not known whether the use of hormonal contraceptives (HCs), which affect vitamin D metabolism and are also associated with cardiometabolic disease risk, modifies this relationship. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] variation in concentrations of 25(OH)D, and to examine whether 25(OH)D is associated with cardiometabolic biomarkers across ethnic groups and across men, female HC nonusers, and female HC users in an ethnically diverse population of young adults living in Canada. The study population consisted of Caucasian, East Asian, and South Asian individuals (n = 1384, 69% female) aged 20-29 years. Participants provided overnight fasting blood samples, from which plasma 25(OH)D and cardiometabolic biomarkers were measured. Vitamin D status distributions were compared using χ(2) tests, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine seasonal variations in 25(OH)D, as well as the association between 25(OH)D and cardiometabolic biomarkers, across groups. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations fluctuated seasonally among Caucasians and East Asians and across men, female HC nonusers, and female HC users, but they remained low year-round in South Asians, half of whom were vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher insulin, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-beta among Caucasians and East Asians and among men and female HC nonusers and with higher triglycerides among men only. No biomarkers were associated with 25(OH)D among South Asians and female HC users, although nonsignificant trends were observed for higher markers of glycemic dysregulation in those who were vitamin D deficient in both groups. Vitamin D deficiency varies between ethnic groups and is particularly high among South Asians

  9. Growth hormone receptor deficiency in mice results in reduced systolic blood pressure and plasma renin, increased aortic eNOS expression, and altered cardiovascular structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egecioglu, E; Andersson, I J; Bollano, E

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in the development of cardiovascular structure and function, female GHR gene-disrupted or knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at age 18 wk were used. GHR KO mice had lower plasma renin levels (12 +/- 2 vs. 20 +/- 4 mGU/ml, P < 0.05) and inc....... These data suggest an important role for an intact GH/IGF-I axis in the maintenance of a normal cardiovascular system....

  10. The Effect of an Eight-Week Period of Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Concentration of Ghrelin and Growth Hormone in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidlamir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ghrelin is a peptide which is secreted from human stomach. It has an important role in the secretion of growth hormone, energy balance, obesity, food intake behavior, and some cardiovascular functions. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an eight-week of aerobic exercise on plasma concentration of ghrelin and GH in non-athletic young women. Methods: Twenty young non-athletic women with mean age of 22±2/1 years and mean BMI of 21±1/07 Kg/m2 voluntarily entered the study and they were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Experimental group conducted an aerobic exercise program three sessions each week and 60 minutes in each session with 70-80% of maximum heart rate for 8 weeks. Control group didn’t exercise. Blood samples were taken 48 hours before the first and after the last session of exercise. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin and growth hormone were measured by ELISA and radioimmunoassay methods, respectively. Data was analyzed by independent samples T test and Pearson correlation test by SPSS(version16. Results: The eight-week period of aerobic exercise caused a significant increase in plasma concentration of ghrelin and a significant decrease in plasma concentration of GH. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that exercise-induced increase in plasma ghrelin in response to negative energy balance didn’t stimulate GH secretion, so other mechanisms may be effective in this regard.

  11. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  12. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.deamicis@unical.it

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  13. A case of thyroid storm with multiple organ failure effectively treated with plasma exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuki; Yoshida, Akira; Nakata, Yukiko; Mizote, Isamu; Sakata, Yasushi; Komuro, Issei

    2011-01-01

    We describe a 48-year-old man with thyroid storm presenting with heart failure. He presented severely impaired left ventricular wall motion and a marked increase in the liver enzymes. He developed disseminated intravascular coagulation on day 2. Due to elevated serum thyroid hormone level, anti-thyroid hormone receptor antibody positivity, and his clinical symptoms, he was diagnosed as thyroid storm due to untreated Graves' disease. His condition did not improve even after 6 days of conventional therapy including steroids. After therapeutic plasma exchange was carried out, his thyroid hormone level decreased markedly. Consequently, his condition recovered gradually, and he was discharged at day 43.

  14. Prevention of adsorption losses during radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones: effectiveness of albumins, gelatin, caseins, Tween 20 and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.H.; Donald, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that polypeptide hormones adsorb to glass and plastic surfaces and that this adsorption may be reduced by adding a relatively large quantity of another protein. Consequently proteins (or sometimes detergents) are added almost universally to peptide hormone radioimmunassays to minimise loss of analyte by adsorption. This study was undertaken because there are few reports of the relative effectiveness of the proteins so used. The results suggest that moderate concentrations of the widely used albumins of Tween 20 do not always adequately prevent the adsorption of hormonal polypeptides to surfaces. Casein and alkali-treated casein appear to be more effective than the adsorption inhibitors in general use in radioimmunoassay for the range of hormones and adsorptive surfaces tested. They were also found to be very effective for preventing the adsorption of radio-labelled human luteinizing hormone, human growth hormone and Tyr-somatostatin. (Auth.)

  15. Plasma leptin and growth hormone levels in the fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) increase gradually during fasting and decline rapidly after refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Kling, Peter; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg Eir; Alvarez, Marco; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2012-05-15

    In fish, recent studies have indicated an anorexigenic role of leptin and thus its possible involvement in regulation of energy balance and growth. In the present study, the effects of fasting and refeeding periods on plasma leptin levels were studied in the fine flounder, a flatfish with remarkably slow growth. To further assess the endocrine status of the fish during periods of catabolism and anabolism, plasma growth hormone (GH) levels were also analyzed. Under normal feeding condition, plasma leptin and GH levels remained stable and relatively high in comparison with other teleost species. For the three separate groups of fish, fasted for 2, 3, and 4 weeks, respectively, plasma leptin levels increase gradually, becoming significantly elevated after 3 weeks, and reaching highest levels after 4-week fasting. Plasma GH levels were significantly elevated after 2-week fasting. At the onset of refeeding, following a single meal, leptin levels decline rapidly to lower than initial levels within 2 h, irrespective of the length of fasting. Plasma GH also decline, the decrease being significant after 4, 24 and 2 h for the 2, 3 and 4-week fasted groups, respectively. This study shows that plasma leptin levels in the fine flounder are strongly linked to nutritional status and suggests that leptin secretion is regulated by fast-acting mechanisms. Elevated leptin levels in fasted fish may contribute to a passive survival strategy of species which experience natural food shortage periods by lowering appetite and limiting physical foraging activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Survey of the Relationship Between Noised Pollution, Honey and Vitamin E and Plasma Level of Blood Sexual Hormones in Noise-Exposed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of honey and vitamin E on fertilization capacity of noise-exposed rats by assessing whether the plasma sexual hormones levels i.e. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone are altered in relation with noise stress. Objectives Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of honey and vitamin E on the levels of sex hormones and male fertilization capacity of noise-exposed rats. Materials and Methods This study targeted 24 male rats that were randomly divided into four equal groups including the control group that were not exposed to noise and experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 that were the untreated, honey treated and vitamin E treated groups, respectively; all of which were exposed to noise for 50 days. Next, in order to measure serum sexual hormones, blood samples of experimental and control groups were taken and analyzed. Also in order to investigate the fertility capacity of rats, the male rats of all groups were coupled with female rats. Results The results showed that in the male rats exposed to the noise stress, the levels of FSH and LH rose and the testosterone secretion fell sharply compared to not exposed rats. Additionally, the continuing effects of noise stress injury could reduce the weight of the fetus and the number of live fetuses and survival rate of the fetus. However, honey and vitamin E improved serum testosterone concentration, while declined plasma FSH and LH secretion in noise-exposed rats and enhanced fertility rate by increasing the rate of healthy alive fetuses. Conclusions It seems that noise pollution has harmful effects on the fertility of males. Also these findings may suggest the use of a natural curative approach rather than pharmaceutical drugs to optimize both neuroendocrine gonadal axis and testicular integrity induced by pathogenesis stress, and enhance fertility capacity in men.

  17. Mechanized Sephadex LH-20 multiple column chromatography as a prerequisite for automated multi-steroid radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sippell, W.G.; Bidlingmaier, F.; Knorr, D.

    1978-01-01

    To establish a procedure for the simultaneous determination of all major corticosteroid hormones and their immediate biological precursors in the same plasma sample, two different mechanized methods for the simultaneous isolation of aldosterone (A), corticosterone (B), 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), progesterone (P), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), 11-deoxycortisol (S), cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) from the methylene chloride extracts of 0.1 to 2.0ml plasma samples have been developed. In method I, steroids are separated with methylene chloride:methanol=98:2 as solvent system on 60-cm Sephadex LH-20 columns, up to eight of which are eluted in parallel using a multi-channel peristaltic pump and individual flow-rate control (40ml/h) by capillary valves and micro-flowmeters. Method II, on the other hand, utilizes the same solvent system on ten 75-cm LH-20 columns which are eluted in reversed flow simultaneously by a ten-channel, double-piston pump that precisely maintains an elution flow rate of 40ml/h in every column. In both methods, eluate fractions of each of the isolated steroids are automatically pooled and collected from all parallel columns by one programmable linear fraction collector. As a result of the high reproducibility of the elution patterns, both between different parallel columns and between 30 to 40 consecutive elutions, mean recoveries of tritiated steroids including extraction are 60 to 84% after a single separation and still over 50% after an additional separation on 40-cm LH-20 columns, with coefficients of variation below 15% (method II). Thus, the eight steroids can be completely isolated from each of ten plasma extracts within 3 to 4 hours, yielding 80 samples readily prepared for subsequent quantitation by radioimmunoassay. (author)

  18. The role of endogenous cardiotonic steroids in pathogenesis of cardiovascular and renal complications of arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Paczula

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS, also called digitalis-like factors, are a group of steroid hormones linking high salt intake and elevated blood pressure and in part responsible for target organ damage in arterial hypertension. CTS act primarily through their ability to inhibit the ubiquitous transport enzyme sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase. A portion of Na+/K+-ATPase does not seem to actively “pump” sodium and potassium but is closely associated with other key signaling proteins. Plasma concentration and urine excretion of CTS are increased in experimental models with volume expansion and on a high salt diet. Elevated plasma concentration of marinobufagenin has been shown in volume-expanded states such as essential hypertension, primary aldosteronism, chronic renal failure, congestive heart failure and pregnancy. In experimental models marinobufagenin induces heart and kidney fibrosis to the same extent as observed in uremia. Neutralization of marinobufagenin with antibodies prevents such heart remodeling. Expanding our understanding of this new class of hormones may lead to development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies in hypertensive patients with renal and cardiovascular complications.

  19. Steroids (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build muscle, steroids can have very serious side effects. Using steroids for a long time can harm the reproductive ... Teen girls and women risk these additional side effects: male-type facial and body ... risks, kids who use steroids without a prescription are breaking the law. Drug ...

  20. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  1. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A modulates the anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone in mouse bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Kari B; Conover, Cheryl A

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic therapy for bone, and several studies have implicated local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in mediating this effect. The IGF system is complex and includes ligands and receptors, as well as IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and IGFBP proteases. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metalloprotease expressed by osteoblasts in vitro that has been shown to enhance local IGF action through cleavage of inhibitory IGFBP-4. This study was set up to test two specific hypotheses: 1) Intermittent PTH treatment increases the expression of IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A in bone in vivo, thereby increasing local IGF activity. 2) In the absence of PAPP-A, local IGF activity and the anabolic effects of PTH on bone are reduced. Wild-type (WT) and PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice were treated with 80 μg/kg human PTH 1-34 or vehicle by subcutaneous injection five days per week for six weeks. IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A mRNA expression in bone were significantly increased in response to PTH treatment. PTH treatment of WT mice, but not PAPP-A KO mice, significantly increased expression of an IGF-responsive gene. Bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by DEXA, was significantly decreased in femurs of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. Volumetric BMD, as measured by pQCT, was significantly decreased in femoral midshaft (primarily cortical bone), but not metaphysis (primarily trabecular bone), of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. These data suggest that stimulation of PAPP-A expression by intermittent PTH treatment contributes to PTH bone anabolism in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.