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Sample records for plasma spots dps

  1. Simultaneous determination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in dried plasma and urine spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Melloni, Chiara; Poindexter, Brenda B; Yogev, Ram; Atz, Andrew M; Sullivan, Janice E; Mendley, Susan R; Delmore, Paula; Delinsky, Amy; Zimmerman, Kanecia; Lewandowski, Andrew; Harper, Barrie; Lewis, Kenneth C; Benjamin, Daniel K; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is an antimicrobial drug combination commonly prescribed in children and adults. The study objectives were to validate and apply an HPLC-MS/MS method to quantify TMP-SMX in dried plasma spots (DPS) and dried urine spots (DUS), and perform a comparability analysis with liquid matrices. For TMP the validated range was 100-50,000 ng/ml for DPS and 500-250,000 ng/ml for DUS; for SMX, the validated range was 1000-500,000 ng/ml for both DPS and DUS. Good agreement was noted between DPS/DUS and liquid plasma and urine samples for TMP, while only modest agreement was observed for SMX in both matrices. A precise, accurate and reproducible method was developed to quantify TMP-SMX in DPS and DUS samples.

  2. IP-10 can be measured in dried plasma spots in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2012-01-01

    The chemokine IP-10 (CXCL10) is a candidate marker for hepatitis C virus (HCV) fibrosis monitoring. The aim of this proof-of-concept study is to assess if IP-10 measurements from dried plasma spots (DPS) are accurate in HCV-infected patients with either minimal or significant fibrosis. We measured...... IP-10 levels in plasma and DPS of 21 HCV-infected patients with cirrhosis and 19 patients with no/little fibrosis (determined with FibroScan). Cirrhotic patients had significantly higher levels of IP-10 compared to patients with minimal fibrosis. DPS and plasma measurements of IP-10 are comparable...

  3. IP-10 measured by Dry Plasma Spots as biomarker for therapy responses in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonby, Kristian; Ruhwald, Morten; Kvale, Dag; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne Ma

    2015-03-18

    Tuberculosis (TB) has huge impact on human morbidity and mortality and biomarkers to support rapid TB diagnosis and ensure treatment initiation and cure are needed, especially in regions with high prevalence of multi-drug resistant TB. Soluble interferon gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10) analyzed from dry plasma spots (DPS) has potential as an immunodiagnostic marker in TB infection. We analyzed IP-10 levels in plasma directly and extracted from DPS in parallel by ELISA from 34 clinically well characterized patients with TB disease before and throughout 24 weeks of effective anti-TB chemotherapy. We detected a significant decline of IP-10 levels in both plasma and DPS already after two weeks of therapy with good correlation between the tests. This was observed both in pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. In conclusion, plasma IP-10 may serve as an early biomarker for anti-TB chemotherapy responses and the IP-10 DPS method has potential to be developed into a point-of care test for use in resource-limited settings. Further studies must be performed to validate the use of IP-10 DPS in TB high endemic countries.

  4. A simple method to quantitate IP-10 in dried blood and plasma spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine G Aabye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antigen specific release of IP-10 is an established marker for infection with M.tuberculosis. Compared to IFN-γ, IP-10 is released in 100-fold higher concentrations enabling the development of novel assays for detection. Dried blood spots are a convenient sample for high throughput newborn screening. AIM: To develop a robust and sensitive ELISA-based assay for IP-10 detection in plasma, dried blood spots (DBS and dried plasma spots (DPS; to validate the ELISA in clinically relevant samples; and to assess the performance of the assay for detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV and M.tuberculosis specific immune responses. METHOD: We raised mice and rat monoclonal antibodies against human IP-10 and developed an ELISA. The assay was validated and applied to the detection of CMV and M.tuberculosis specific responses in 18 patients with immune reactivity towards M.tuberculosis and 32 healthy controls of which 22 had immune reactivity towards CMV and none towards M.tuberculosis. We compared the performance of this new assay to IFN-γ. RESULTS: The ELISA was reliable for IP-10 detection in both plasma and filter paper samples. The linear range of the ELISA was 2.5-600 pg/ml. IFN-γ was not readily detectable in DPS samples. IP-10 was stabile in filter paper samples for at least 4 weeks at 37 °C. The correlation between IP-10 detected in plasma, DPS and DBS samples was excellent (r(2>0.97. CONCLUSIONS: This newly developed assay is reliable for IP-10 quantification in plasma, DBS and DPS samples from antigen stimulated and non-stimulated whole blood. The filter paper assays enable easy sample acquisition and transport at ambient temperature e.g. via the postal system. The system can potentially simplify diagnostic assays for M.tuberculosis and CMV infection.

  5. Quantitation of pregabalin in dried blood spots and dried plasma spots by validated LC-MS/MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Nađa; Dotsikas, Yannis; Jović, Nebojša; Stevanović, Galina; Malenović, Anđelija; Medenica, Mirjana

    2015-05-10

    In this paper, novel LC-MS/MS methods for the determination of antiepileptic drug pregabalin in dried matrix spots (DMS) are presented. This attractive technique of sample collection in micro amount was utilized in the form of dried blood spots (DBS) and dried plasma spots (DPS). Following a pre-column derivatization procedure, using n-propyl chloroformate in the presence of n-propanol, and consecutive liquid-liquid extraction, derivatized pregabalin and its internal standard, 4-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid, were detected in positive ion mode by applying two SRM transitions per analyte. A YMC-Pack Octyl column (50mm×4.0mm, 3μm particle size) maintained at 30°C, was utilized with running mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: 0.15% formic acid (85:15, v/v). Flow rate was 550μL/min and total run time 2min. Established methods were fully validated over the concentration range of 0.200-20.0μg/mL for DBS and 0.400-40.0μg/mL for DPS, respectively, while specificity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix-effect, stability, dilution integrity and spot homogeneity were found within acceptance criteria. Validated methods were applied for the determination of pregabalin levels in dried blood and plasma samples obtained from patients with epilepsy, after per os administration of commercial capsules. Comparison of drug level in blood and plasma, as well as correction steps undertaken in order to overcome hematocrit issue, when analyzing DBS, are also given. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnjak, A.; Tusek, J.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  7. Evaluation of the performance of Abbott m2000 and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman assays for HIV-1 viral load determination using dried blood spots and dried plasma spots in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Clement; Ndiege, Kenneth; Inzaule, Seth; Achieng, Rebecca; Williamson, John; Chih-Wei Chang, Joy; Ellenberger, Dennis; Nkengasong, John

    2017-01-01

    Routine HIV viral load testing is not widely accessible in most resource-limited settings, including Kenya. To increase access to viral load testing, alternative sample types like dried blood spots (DBS), which overcome the logistic barriers associated with plasma separation and cold chain shipment need to be considered and evaluated. The current study evaluated matched dried blood spots (DBS) and dried plasma spots (DPS) against plasma using the Abbott M 2000 (Abbott) and Roche Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) quantitative viral load assays in western Kenya. Matched plasma DBS and DPS were obtained from 200 HIV-1 infected antiretroviral treatment (ART)-experienced patients attending patient support centers in Western Kenya. Standard quantitative assay performance parameters with accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CI) were assessed at the assays lower detection limit (400cps/ml for CAP/CTM and 550cps/ml for Abbott) using SAS version 9.2. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were further used to assess viral-load thresholds with best assay performance (reference assay CAP/CTM plasma). Using the Abbott test, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for DPS were (97.3%, [95%CI: 93.2-99.2] and 98.1% [95%CI: 89.7-100]) and those for DBS (93.9% [95%CI: 88.8-97.2] and 88.0% [95%CI: 82.2-92.4]). The correlation and agreement using paired plasma and DPS/DBS were strong, with r2 = 90.5 and rc = 68.1. The Bland-Altman relative percent change was 95.3 for DPS, (95%CI: 90.4-97.7) and 73.6 (95%CI: 51.6-86.5) for DBS. Using the CAP/CTM assay, the sensitivity for DBS was significantly higher compared to DPS (100.0% [95% CI: 97.6-100.0] vs. 94.7% [95%CI: 89.8-97.7]), while the specificity for DBS was lower: 4%, [95% CI: 0.4-13.7] compared to DPS: 94.0%, [95% CI: 83.5-98.7]. When compared under different clinical relevant thresholds, the accuracy for the Abbott assay was 95% at the 1000cps/ml cut-off with a sensitivity and specificity of 96.6% [95% CI 91.8-98.7] and 90

  8. A simple, rapid and stability indicating validated method for quantification of lamotrigine in human plasma and dry plasma spot using LC-ESI-MS/MS: Application in clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdev, Kuldeep Kumar; Dwivedi, Jaya; Chilkoti, Deepak Chandra; Sharma, Swapnil

    2018-01-01

    Lamotrigine (LTZ) is a phenyltriazine derivative which belongs to anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) class and prescribed as mono- or adjunctive-therapy in treatment of epilepsy. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of AEDs provides a valid clinical tool in optimization of overall therapy. However, TDM is challenging due to the high biological samples (plasma/blood) storage/shipment costs and the limited availability of laboratories providing TDM services. Sampling in the form of dry plasma spot (DPS) or dry blood spot (DBS) are suitable alternative to overcome these issues. We developed and validated a new method for quantification of LTZ in human plasma and DPS. The extraction of LTZ from plasma and DPS was performed using liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether and an extraction solution composed of diethyl ether- methyl tert-butyl ether- acetone (50:30:20, v/v/v), respectively. Lamotrigine- 13C3, d3 was used as internal standard (ISTD) and the chromatographic separation was achieved on Hypurity Advance C18 column (150×4.6mm, 5μm). Quantitative estimation of LTZ and ISTD was performed on a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometer coupled with electrospray ionization interface operated under positive mode of ionization. Calibration curves were linear (r 2 >0.99) over the concentration range of 10-3020ng/mL for both plasma and DPS. Statistical analysis provides insignificant difference between LTZ concentration extracted from plasma and DPS samples. The method is found suitable for application in clinical study and in therapeutic monitoring of LTZ. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report which describing a validated stability indicating assay for quantification of LTZ in dry plasma spot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešnjak, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels is studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shielding gases and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared. Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas, i.e., a 98 % Ar/2 % H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joints was compared to that of resistance-spot welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a larger weld spot diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same.

    El artículo describe el proceso de soldeo de aceros inoxidables ferríticos por puntos con plasma. La investigación se centró en el establecimiento de los parámetros óptimos de la soldadura, la definición del gas de plasma y de protección más adecuado, así como del equipo óptimo para la realización de la soldadura. Las uniones de láminas de aceros inoxidables ferríticos de 0,8 mm de espesor, soldadas a solape por puntos con plasma, se inspeccionaron visualmente y se ensayaron mecánicamente mediante el ensayo de cizalladura por tracción. Se realizaron macro pulidos. Los resultados de la investigación demostraron que la solución más adecuada para el soldeo por puntos con plasma es elegir el mismo gas de plasma que de protección. Es decir, una mezcla de 98 % de argón y 2 % de hidrógeno. La resistencia a la cizalladura por tracción de las uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma fue comparada con la resistencia de las uniones soldadas por resistencia por puntos. Se llegó a la conclusión de que las uniones soldadas por resistencia soportan una carga algo mayor que la uniones

  10. Delayed hot spots in a low energy plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, R.K.; Shyam, A.

    1991-01-01

    In a low energy Mather-type plasma focus device, hot spots having temperature in the range of few keV have been observed even 1 μs after the pinch disintegration and in regions away from the pinch area. These hot spots are perhaps created by the thermal runaway due to temperature fluctuations in the background gas. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs

  11. Hot spots and dark current in advanced plasma wakefield accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Manahan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dark current can spoil witness bunch beam quality and acceleration efficiency in particle beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators. In advanced schemes, hot spots generated by the drive beam or the wakefield can release electrons from higher ionization threshold levels in the plasma media. These electrons may be trapped inside the plasma wake and will then accumulate dark current, which is generally detrimental for a clear and unspoiled plasma acceleration process. Strategies for generating clean and robust, dark current free plasma wake cavities are devised and analyzed, and crucial aspects for experimental realization of such optimized scenarios are discussed.

  12. Vigabatrin in dried plasma spots: validation of a novel LC-MS/MS method and application to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Nađa; Dotsikas, Yannis; Jović, Nebojša; Stevanović, Galina; Malenović, Anđelija; Medenica, Mirjana

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a LC-MS/MS method for the determination of antiepileptic drug vigabatrin in dried plasma spots (DPS). Due to its zwitterionic chemical structure, a pre-column derivatization procedure was performed, aiming to yield enhanced ionization efficiency and improved chromatographic behaviour. Propyl chloroformate, in the presence of propanol, was selected as the best derivatization reagent, providing a strong signal along with reasonable run time. A relatively novel sample collection technique, DPS, was utilized, offering easy sample handling and analysis, using a sample in micro amount (∼5μL). Derivatized vigabatrin and its internal standard, 4-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid, were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and determined in positive ion mode by applying two SRM transitions per analyte. A Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 column (150×4.6mm, 5μm particle size) maintained at 30°C, was utilized with running mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: 0.15% formic acid (85:15, v/v). Flow rate was 550μL/min and total run time 4.5min. The assay exhibited excellent linearity over the concentration range of 0.500-50.0μg/mL, which is suitable for the determination of vigabatrin level after per os administration in children and youths with epilepsy, who were on vigabatrin therapy, with or without co-medication. Specificity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix-effect and stability were also estimated and assessed within acceptance criteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid in Dried Blood Spots and Dried Plasma Spots by Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kopp

    Full Text Available Because of minimal data available on folate analysis in dried matrix spots (DMSs, we combined the advantages of stable isotope dilution assays followed by LC-MS/MS analysis with DMS sampling to develop a reliable method for the quantitation of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in dried blood spots (DBSs and dried plasma spots (DPSs as well as for the quantitation of whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs. We focused on two diagnostically conclusive parameters exhibited by the plasma and whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid levels that reflect both temporary and long-term folate status. The method is performed using the [2H4]-labeled isotopologue of the vitamin as the internal standard, and three steps are required for the extraction procedure. Elution of the punched out matrix spots was performed using stabilization buffer including Triton X-100 in a standardized ultrasonication treatment followed by enzymatic digestion (whole blood only and solid-phase extraction with SAX cartridges. This method is sensitive enough to quantify 27 nmol/L whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and 6.3 and 4.4 nmol/L plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and DPSs, respectively. The unprecedented accurate quantification of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs was achieved by thermal treatment prior to ultrasonication, inhibiting plasma conjugase activity. Mass screenings are more feasible and easier to facilitate for this method in terms of sample collection and storage compared with conventional clinical sampling for the assessment of folate status.

  14. Effect of laser spot size on energy balance in laser induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.C.; Sharma, S.; Bhawalkar, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the laser spot size on laser light absorption in laser induced plasmas from solid targets was studied. It was found that at a constant laser intensity on the target, reduction in the laser spot size enhances the net laser energy absorption. It was also observed that the laser light reflection from the target becomes more diffused when the focal spot size is reduced

  15. NVO combineert beste van DPS, DPST en PBI tot nieuwe totaalindex. DPS verdwijnt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    De duurzameprestatiesom, DPS, gaat mogelijk nog dit jaar verdwijnen. Ervoor in de plaats komt een nieuwe totaalindex, waarin ook functioneel exterieur een onderdeel zal zijn. Fokkerijprofessor Johan van Arendonk licht de achtergronden toe van de nieuwe totaalindex

  16. Electron depletion via cathode spot dispersion of dielectric powder into an overhead plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Foster, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of cathode spot delivered dielectric particles for the purpose of plasma depletion is investigated. Here, cathode spot flows kinetically entrain and accelerate dielectric particles originally at rest into a background plasma. The time variation of the background plasma density is tracked using a cylindrical Langmuir probe biased approximately at electron saturation. As inferred from changes in the electron saturation current, depletion fractions of up to 95% are observed. This method could be exploited as a means of communications blackout mitigation for manned and unmanned reentering spacecraft as well as any high speed vehicle enveloped by a dense plasma layer

  17. X-ray polarization studies of plasma focus experiments with a single hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M.J.; Baronova, E.O.

    2004-01-01

    In high current pulse discharges of the plasma focus (PF) type, inside the collapsing pinch column, there are formed local micro-regions of high-density and high-temperature plasma, so-called hot spots. Individual hot spots are separated in space and time. Each hot spot is characterized by its specific electron concentration and temperature, as well as by the emission of x-ray lines with different polarization. When numerous hot spots are produced it is impossible to determine local plasma parameters and to interpret the polarization effects. To eliminate this problem this study was devoted to the realization of PF-type discharges with single hot spot only. It has been achieved by a choice of the electrode configuration, which facilitated the formation of a single hot spot emitting intense x-ray lines. At the chosen experimental conditions it was possible to determine local plasma parameters and to demonstrate evident differences in the polarization of the observed x-ray lines. (author)

  18. Ion distribution in the hot spot of an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianzhu; Guo, Zehua; Berk, Herb

    2012-10-01

    Maximizing the fusion gain of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for inertial fusion energy (IFE) applications leads to the standard scenario of central hot spot ignition followed by propagating burn wave through the cold/dense assembled fuel. The fact that the hot spot is surrounded by cold but dense fuel layer introduces subtle plasma physics which requires a kinetic description. Here we perform Fokker-Planck calculations and kinetic PIC simulations for an ICF plasma initially in pressure balance but having large temperature gradient over a narrow transition layer. The loss of the fast ion tail from the hot spot, which is important for fusion reactivity, is quantified by Fokker-Planck models. The role of electron energy transport and the ambipolar electric field is investigated via kinetic simulations and the fluid moment models. The net effect on both hot spot ion temperature and the ion tail distribution, and hence the fusion reactivity, is elucidated.

  19. Numerical studies of third-harmonic generation in laser filament in air perturbed by plasma spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Liubin; Lu Xin; Liu Xiaolong; Li Yutong; Chen Liming; Ma Jinglong; Dong Quanli; Wang Weimin; Xi Tingting; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; He Duanwei

    2012-01-01

    Third-harmonic emission from laser filament intercepted by plasma spot is studied by numerical simulations. Significant enhancement of the third-harmonic generation is obtained due to the disturbance of the additional plasma. The contribution of the pure plasma effect and the possible plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility on the third-harmonic generation enhancement are compared. It is shown that the plasma induced cancellation of destructive interference [Y. Liu et al., Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011)] of two-colored filament is the dominant mechanism of the enhancement of third-harmonic generation.

  20. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Park, Man-Jin; Moon, Dae Won

    2012-01-01

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m 2 SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  1. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Jae [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Man-Jin [Research Institute of Nano Manufacturing System, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Won [Nanobio Fusion Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m{sup 2} SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  2. Determination of Efavirenz in Human Dried Blood Spots by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Justin T; Rossi, Steven S; Espina-Quinto, Rowena; Letendre, Scott; Capparelli, Edmund V

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously published methods for determination of efavirenz (EFV) in human dried blood spots (DBS) employ costly and complex liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We describe the validation and evaluation of a simple and inexpensive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for EFV quantification in human DBS and dried plasma spots (DPS), using ultraviolet (UV) detection appropriate for resource-limited settings. Methods 100μl of heparinized whole blood or plasma were spotted onto blood collection cards, dried, punched, and eluted. Eluates are injected onto a C-18 reversed phase HPLC column. EFV is separated isocratically using a potassium phosphate and ACN mobile phase. UV detection is at 245nm. Quantitation is by use of external calibration standards. Following validation, the method was evaluated using whole blood and plasma from HIV-positive patients undergoing EFV therapy. Results Mean recovery of drug from dried blood spots is 91.5%. The method is linear over the validated concentration range of 0.3125 – 20.0μg/mL. A good correlation (Spearman r=0.96) between paired plasma and DBS EFV concentrations from the clinical samples was observed, and hematocrit level was not found to be a significant determinant of the EFV DBS level. The mean observed CDBS/Cplasma ratio was 0.68. A good correlation (Spearman r=0.96) between paired plasma and DPS EFV concentrations from the clinical samples was observed. The mean percent deviation of DPS samples from plasma samples is 1.68%. Conclusions Dried whole blood spot or dried plasma spot sampling is well suited for monitoring EFV therapy in resource limited settings, particularly when high sensitivity is not essential. PMID:23503446

  3. Dependence of high order harmonics intensity on laser focal spot position in preformed plasma plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, H.; Ganeev, R.; Naik, P. A.; Arora, V.; Chakravarty, U.; Gupta, P. D.

    2008-01-01

    The dependence of the high-order harmonic intensity on the laser focal spot position in laser produced plasma plumes is experimentally studied. High order harmonics up to the 59th order (λ∼13.5 nm) were generated by focusing 48 fs laser pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser system in silver plasma plume produced using 300 ps uncompressed laser radiation as the prepulse. The intensity of harmonics nearly vanished when the best focus was located in the plume center, whereas it peaked on either side with unequal intensity. The focal spot position corresponding to the peak harmonic intensity moved away from the plume center for higher order harmonics. The results are explained in terms of the variation of phase mismatch between the driving laser beam and harmonics radiation produced, relativistic drift of electrons, and defocusing effect due to radial ionization gradient in the plasma for different focal spot positions

  4. Plasma androgen concentrations in initial samples from spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-01-31

    Jan 31, 1990 ... initial samples, the immobilization stress response and the response to exogenous GnRH administration, for ... the sex-specific differences in plasma androgens is confounded by other variables such as the reproductive.

  5. Hot spots and filaments in the pinch of a plasma focus: a unified approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vita, A.

    2009-01-01

    To date, no MHD-based complete description of the tiny, relatively stable, well-ordered structures (hot spots, filaments) observed in the pinch of a plasma focus seems to be feasible. Indeed, the large value of electron density suggests that a classification of such structures which is based on the approximation of local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) is possible. Starting from an often overlooked, far-reaching result of LTE, we derive a purely analytical description of both hot spots and filaments. In spite of their quite different topology, both configurations are extrema of the same variational principle. Well-known results of conventional MHD are retrieved as benchmark cases. It turns out that hot spots satisfy Taylor's principle of constrained minimum of magnetic energy, the constraint being given by fixed magnetic helicity. Filaments are similar to the filaments of a superconductor and form a plasma with β equals 0.11 and energy diffusion coefficient equals 0.88*D(Bohm). Any process - like e.g. radiative collapse - which raises particle density while reducing radial size may transform filaments into hot spots. A well-known scaling law is retrieved - the collisional Vlasov high beta scaling. A link between dissipation and topology is highlighted. Accordingly, a large-current pinch may give birth to tiny hot spots with large electron density and magnetic field. (author)

  6. Diffusion in plasma: The Hall effect, compositional waves, and chemical spots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urpin, V., E-mail: Vadim.urpin@uv.es [Ioffe Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Diffusion caused by a combined influence of the electric current and Hall effect is considered, and it is argued that such diffusion can form inhomogeneities of a chemical composition in plasma. The considered mechanism can be responsible for the formation of element spots in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. This current-driven diffusion can be accompanied by propagation of a particular type of waves in which the impurity number density oscillates alone. These compositional waves exist if the magnetic pressure in plasma is much greater than the gas pressure.

  7. The Potomac Experience - a forerunner of DPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty years ago, dramatic events were about to begin in Potomac River basin with the publication of a report of study recommending 16 major reservoirs and hundreds of small ones to solve the foreseeable water supply problems in the basin, especially those of the Washington metropolitan area. The proposed solution was confounded by its shear size, the emergence of an era of more critical thinking, and the growing development of more sophisticated analytical tools. When viewed from the perspective of the current Drought Preparedness Studies, the Potomac Experience does seem in some senses to have been a forerunner. Among the greatest similarities is the simultaneous consideration of demands and resource availability on an operational time step with the aid of computer modelling. Other contributions to the success on the Potomac which are hoped to be included in the DPS include: involvement of local elected officials and citizens groups, technical input from the affected water utilities, creative use of analytical techniques, and the dedicated commitment of the project leadership

  8. Time and space resolved observation of hot spots in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, P.; Aliaga, R.; Herold, H.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report some recent results on the time and space evolution of hot spots on the DPF-78 plasma focus at the University of Stuttgart. The experiments were carried out in mixtures of deuterium and krypton at a bank voltage of 60 kV and a stored energy of 28 kJ. A modification of the ADRRM streak technique carried out in the soft x-ray region allowed us to directly examine some characteristics of the hot spots. Simultaneous measurements were carried out on the hard x-ray radiation (80 keV), the spatially resolved optical emissions, the neutron yield rate with TOF information and the plasma and bank currents

  9. Determination of plasma spot current and arc discharge plasma current on the system of plasma cathode electron sources using Rogowski coil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirjoadi; Bambang Siswanto; Lely Susita RM; Agus Purwadi; Sudjatmoko

    2015-01-01

    It has been done the function test experiments of ignitor electrode system and the plasma generator electrode system to determine the current spot plasma and arc discharge plasma current with Rogowski coil technique. Ignitor electrode system that gets power supply from IDPS system can generate the plasma spot current of 11.68 ampere to the pulse width of about 33 μs, this value is greater than the design probably because of electronic components used in the IDPS system was not as planned. For the plasma generator electrode system that gets power from ADPS system capable of producing an arc discharge plasma current around 103.15 amperes with a pulse width of about 96 μs, and this value as planned. Based on the value of the arc discharge plasma current can be determined plasma electron density, which is about 10.12 10"1"9 electrons/m"3, and with this electron density value, an ignitor electrode system and a plasma generator system is quite good if used as a plasma cathode electron source system. (author)

  10. The Influence of spot size on the expansion dynamics of nanosecond-laser-produced copper plasmas in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xingwen; Wei, Wenfu; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2013-01-01

    Laser produced copper plasmas of different spot sizes in air were investigated using fast photography and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The laser energy was 33 mJ. There were dramatic changes in the plasma plume expansion into the ambient air when spot sizes changed from ∼0.1 mm to ∼0.6 mm. A stream-like structure and a hemispherical structure were, respectively, observed. It appeared that the same spot size resulted in similar expansion dynamics no matter whether the target was located in the front of or behind the focal point, although laser-induced air breakdown sometimes occurred in the latter case. Plasma plume front positions agree well with the classic blast wave model for the large spot-size cases, while an unexpected stagnation of ∼80 ns occurred after the laser pulse ends for the small spot size cases. This stagnation can be understood in terms of the evolution of enhanced plasma shielding effects near the plasma front. Axial distributions of plasma components by OES revealed a good confinement effect. Electron number densities were estimated and interpreted using the recorded Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) images.

  11. HIV diversity and drug resistance from plasma and non-plasma analytes in a large treatment programme in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Rami; DeLong, Allison; Balamane, Maya; Schreier, Leeann; Lloyd, Robert M; Injera, Wilfred; Kamle, Lydia; Mambo, Fidelis; Muyonga, Sarah; Katzenstein, David; Hogan, Joseph; Buziba, Nathan; Diero, Lameck

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral resistance leads to treatment failure and resistance transmission. Resistance data in western Kenya are limited. Collection of non-plasma analytes may provide additional resistance information. We assessed HIV diversity using the REGA tool, transmitted resistance by the WHO mutation list and acquired resistance upon first-line failure by the IAS-USA mutation list, at the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH), a major treatment programme in western Kenya. Plasma and four non-plasma analytes, dried blood-spots (DBS), dried plasma-spots (DPS), ViveST(TM)-plasma (STP) and ViveST-blood (STB), were compared to identify diversity and evaluate sequence concordance. Among 122 patients, 62 were treatment-naïve and 60 treatment-experienced; 61% were female, median age 35 years, median CD4 182 cells/µL, median viral-load 4.6 log10 copies/mL. One hundred and ninety-six sequences were available for 107/122 (88%) patients, 58/62 (94%) treatment-naïve and 49/60 (82%) treated; 100/122 (82%) plasma, 37/78 (47%) attempted DBS, 16/45 (36%) attempted DPS, 14/44 (32%) attempted STP from fresh plasma and 23/34 (68%) from frozen plasma, and 5/42 (12%) attempted STB. Plasma and DBS genotyping success increased at higher VL and shorter shipment-to-genotyping time. Main subtypes were A (62%), D (15%) and C (6%). Transmitted resistance was found in 1.8% of plasma sequences, and 7% combining analytes. Plasma resistance mutations were identified in 91% of treated patients, 76% NRTI, 91% NNRTI; 76% dual-class; 60% with intermediate-high predicted resistance to future treatment options; with novel mutation co-occurrence patterns. Nearly 88% of plasma mutations were identified in DBS, 89% in DPS and 94% in STP. Of 23 discordant mutations, 92% in plasma and 60% in non-plasma analytes were mixtures. Mean whole-sequence discordance from frozen plasma reference was 1.1% for plasma-DBS, 1.2% plasma-DPS, 2.0% plasma-STP and 2.3% plasma-STB. Of 23 plasma

  12. The two Dps proteins, NpDps2 and NpDps5, are involved in light-induced oxidative stress tolerance in the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moparthi, Vamsi K; Li, Xin; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Dzhygyr, Ievgen; Sandh, Gustaf; Magnuson, Ann; Stensjö, Karin

    2016-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that are considered biotechnologically prominent organisms for production of high-value compounds. Cyanobacteria are subject to high-light intensities, which is a challenge that needs to be addressed in design of efficient bio-engineered photosynthetic organisms. Dps proteins are members of the ferritin superfamily and are omnipresent in prokaryotes. They play a major role in oxidative stress protection and iron homeostasis. The filamentous, heterocyst-forming Nostoc punctiforme, has five Dps proteins. In this study we elucidated the role of these Dps proteins in acclimation to high light intensity, the gene loci organization and the transcriptional regulation of all five dps genes in N. punctiforme was revealed, and dps-deletion mutant strains were used in physiological characterization. Two mutants defective in Dps2 and Dps5 activity displayed a reduced fitness under increased illumination, as well as a differential Photosystem (PS) stoichiometry, with an elevated Photosystem II to Photosystem I ratio in the dps5 deletion strain. This work establishes a Dps-mediated link between light tolerance, H 2 O 2 detoxification, and iron homeostasis, and provides further evidence on the non-redundant role of multiple Dps proteins in this multicellular cyanobacterium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurements of plasma mirror reflectivity and focal spot quality for tens of picosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier-Colleoni, Pierre; Williams, Jackson; Scott, Graeme; Mariscal, Dereck. A.; McGuffey, Christopher; Beg, Farhat N.; Chen, Hui; Neely, David; Ma, Tammy

    2017-10-01

    The Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) laser at the NIF (LLNL) is high-energy ( 4 kJ) with a pulse length of 30ps, and is capable of focusing to an intensity of 1018W/cm2 with a 100 μm focal spot. The ARC laser is at an intensity which can be used to produce proton beams. However, for applications such as radiography and warm dense matter creation, a higher laser intensity may be desired to generate more energetic proton beams. One possibility to increase the intensity is to decrease the focused spot size by employing a smaller f-number optic. But it is difficult to implement such an optic or to bring the final focusing parabola closer to the target within the complicated NIF chamber geometry. A proposal is to use ellipsoidal plasma mirrors (PM) for fast focusing of the ARC laser light, thereby increasing the peak intensity. There is uncertainty, however, in the survivability and reflectivity of PM at such long pulse durations. Here, we show experimental results from the Titan laser to study the reflectivity of flat PM as a function of laser pulse length. A calorimeter was used to measure the PM reflectivity. We also observed degradation of the far and near field energy distribution of the laser after the reflection by the PM for pulse-lengths beyond 10ps. Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funded by the LLNL LDRD program: tracking code 17-ERD-039.

  14. 77 FR 23209 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... of these fisheries are not likely to cause the eastern DPS to become in danger of extinction in the... coastal habitats is likely to cause the eastern DPS of Steller sea lion to become in danger of extinction... likely to cause the eastern DPS of Steller sea lions to become in danger of extinction in the foreseeable...

  15. Initial development of ponderomotive filaments in plasma from intense hot spots produced by a random phase plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.A.; DuBois, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Local intensity peaks, hot spots, in laser beams may initiate self-focusing, in lieu of linear instabilities. If the hot spot power, P, contains several times the critical power, P c , and if the plasma density, n, is small compared to the critical density, n c , then on a time scale less than an acoustic transit time across the hot spot radius, τ ia , the hot spot collapses, capturing order unity of the initial hot spot power. The collapse time is determined as a universal function of P/P c and τ ia . The focal region moves towards the laser with an initially supersonic speed, and decelerates as it propagates. The power of this back propagating focus decreases monotonically until the critical power is reached. This limiting, shallowest, focus develops on a time scale long compared to τ ia and corresponds to the focus obtained in a model with adiabatically responding ions. For low-density plasma nonlinear ion effects terminate collapse and a bound on the transient intensity amplification is obtained as a universal function of the optics f/number, F, and n/n c . The boundary between thermal and ponderomotive regimes depends upon F and not the laser intensity

  16. Gyrocenter Shift of Low-Temperature Plasmas and the Retrograde Motion of Cathode Spots in Arc Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. C.

    2007-01-01

    The gyrocenter shift phenomenon explained the mechanism of radial electric field formation at the high confinement mode transition in fusion devices. This Letter reports that the theory of gyrocenter shift is also applicable to low temperature high collisional plasmas such as arc discharges by the generalization of the theory resulting from a short mean free path compared with the gyroradius. The retrograde motion of cathode spots in the arc discharge is investigated through a model with the expanded formula of gyrocenter shift. It is found that a reversed electric field is formed in front of the cathode spots when they are under a magnetic field, and this reversed electric field generates a rotation of cathode spots opposite to the Amperian direction. The ion drift velocity profiles calculated from the model are in agreement with the experimental results as functions of magnetic flux density and gas pressure

  17. Comparison of Proteins in Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples by LC/MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Andrew G.; Percy, Andrew J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2013-09-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling methods are desirable for population-wide biomarker screening programs because of their ease of collection, transportation, and storage. Immunoassays are traditionally used to quantify endogenous proteins in these samples but require a separate assay for each protein. Recently, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed for generating highly-multiplexed assays for biomarker proteins in DBS samples. In this work, we report the first comparison of proteins in whole blood and DBS samples using an untargeted MS approach. The average number of proteins identified in undepleted whole blood and DBS samples by liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS was 223 and 253, respectively. Protein identification repeatability was between 77 %-92 % within replicates and the majority of these repeated proteins (70 %) were observed in both sample formats. Proteins exclusively identified in the liquid or dried fluid spot format were unbiased based on their molecular weight, isoelectric point, aliphatic index, and grand average hydrophobicity. In addition, we extended this comparison to include proteins in matching plasma and serum samples with their dried fluid spot equivalents, dried plasma spot (DPS), and dried serum spot (DSS). This work begins to define the accessibility of endogenous proteins in dried fluid spot samples for analysis by MS and is useful in evaluating the scope of this new approach.

  18. The nucleoid protein Dps binds genomic DNA of Escherichia coli in a non-random manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, F. A.; Toshchakov, S. V.; Dominova, I.; Shvyreva, U. S.; Vrublevskaya, V. V.; Morenkov, O. S.; Panyukov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Dps is a multifunctional homododecameric protein that oxidizes Fe2+ ions accumulating them in the form of Fe2O3 within its protein cavity, interacts with DNA tightly condensing bacterial nucleoid upon starvation and performs some other functions. During the last two decades from discovery of this protein, its ferroxidase activity became rather well studied, but the mechanism of Dps interaction with DNA still remains enigmatic. The crucial role of lysine residues in the unstructured N-terminal tails led to the conventional point of view that Dps binds DNA without sequence or structural specificity. However, deletion of dps changed the profile of proteins in starved cells, SELEX screen revealed genomic regions preferentially bound in vitro and certain affinity of Dps for artificial branched molecules was detected by atomic force microscopy. Here we report a non-random distribution of Dps binding sites across the bacterial chromosome in exponentially growing cells and show their enrichment with inverted repeats prone to form secondary structures. We found that the Dps-bound regions overlap with sites occupied by other nucleoid proteins, and contain overrepresented motifs typical for their consensus sequences. Of the two types of genomic domains with extensive protein occupancy, which can be highly expressed or transcriptionally silent only those that are enriched with RNA polymerase molecules were preferentially occupied by Dps. In the dps-null mutant we, therefore, observed a differentially altered expression of several targeted genes and found suppressed transcription from the dps promoter. In most cases this can be explained by the relieved interference with Dps for nucleoid proteins exploiting sequence-specific modes of DNA binding. Thus, protecting bacterial cells from different stresses during exponential growth, Dps can modulate transcriptional integrity of the bacterial chromosome hampering RNA biosynthesis from some genes via competition with RNA polymerase

  19. Scanning vs. single spot laser ablation (λ=213 nm) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Jhanis J.; Fernandez, Alberto; Mao Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Sampling strategy is defined in this work as the interaction of a repetitively pulsed laser beam with a fixed position on a sample (single spot) or with a moving sample (scan). Analytical performance of these sampling strategies was compared by using 213 nm laser ablation ICP-MS. A geological rock (Tuff) was quantitatively analyzed based on NIST series 610-616 glass standard reference materials. Laser ablation data were compared to ICP-MS analysis of the dissolved samples. The scan strategy (50 μm/s) produced a flat, steady temporal ICP-MS response whereas the single spot strategy produced a signal that decayed with time (after 60 s). Single-spot sampling provided better accuracy and precision than the scan strategy when the first 15 s of the sampling time was eliminated from the data analysis. In addition, the single spot strategy showed less matrix dependence among the four NIST glasses

  20. Discovery of the Electronic Spectra of Hps and Dps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimminger, Robert A.; Wei, Jie; Ellis, Blaine; Clouthier, Dennis J.; Wang, Zhong; Sears, Trevor

    2009-06-01

    The hitherto unknown electronic spectrum of the closed shell transient molecule HPS has been observed in the 685 - 846 nm region by laser-induced fluorescence and single vibronic level emission techniques. HPS (and DPS) were produced in a pulsed electric discharge jet using a precursor mixture of 3% PH_3 and 1% H_2S (or PD_3 and D_2S) in high pressure argon. The weak set of observed bands are assigned to the à ^1A^''-X˜ ^1A^' electronic transition on the basis of chemical evidence, isotope shifts and the correspondence of the vibrational frequencies, excitation energy, and band contours with predictions based on our own high level ab initio calculations. Theory predicts that the HPS bond angle decreases on electronic excitation, contrary to expectations based on Walsh diagrams.

  1. DPS Planetary Science Graduate Programs Database for Students and Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, David R.; Roman, Anthony; Meinke, Bonnie K.

    2017-10-01

    Planetary science is a topic that covers an extremely diverse set of disciplines; planetary scientists are typically housed in a departments spanning a wide range of disciplines. As such it is difficult for undergraduate students to find programs that will give them a degree and research experience in our field as Department of Planetary Science is a rare sighting, indeed. Not only can this overwhelm even the most determined student, it can even be difficult for many undergraduate advisers.Because of this, the DPS Education committee decided several years ago that it should have an online resource that could help undergraduate students find graduate programs that could lead to a PhD with a focus in planetary science. It began in 2013 as a static page of information and evolved from there to a database-driven web site. Visitors can browse the entire list of programs or create a subset listing based on several filters. The site should be of use not only to undergraduates looking for programs, but also for advisers looking to help their students decide on their future plans. We present here a walk-through of the basic features as well as some usage statistics from the collected web site analytics. We ask for community feedback on additional features to make the system more usable for them. We also call upon those mentoring and advising undergraduates to use this resource, and for program admission chairs to continue to review their entry and provide us with the most up-to-date information.The URL for our site is http://dps.aas.org/education/graduate-schools.

  2. Experimental investigation of cathode spots and plasma jets behavior subjected to two kinds of axial magnetic field electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Xin; Jia, Shenli; Qian, Zhonghao; Shi, Zongqian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, cathode spot plasma jet (CSPJ) rotation and cathode spots behavior subjected to two kinds of large diameter axial magnetic field (AMF) electrode (cup-shaped and coil-shaped) are studied and analyzed based on experiments. The influence of gap distances on the CSPJ rotational behavior is analyzed. Experimental results show that CSPJ rotational phenomena extensively exist in the vacuum interrupters, and CSPJ rotational direction is along the direction of composite magnetic field (mainly the combination of the axial and azimuthal components). For coil-shaped and cup-shaped AMF electrodes, the rotational or inclination phenomena before the current peak value are much more significant than that after current peak value (for the same arc current), which is related to the larger ratio of azimuthal magnetic field B_t and AMF B_z (B_t/B_z). With the increase of the gap distance, the AMF strength decreases, when the arc current is kept as constant, the azimuthal magnetic field is kept invariable, the ratio between azimuthal magnetic field and AMF is increased, which results in the increase of rotational effect. For cathode spots motion, compared with cup-shaped electrode, coil-shaped electrode has the inverse AMF direction. The Robson drift direction of cathode spots of coil-shaped electrode is opposite to that of cup-shaped electrode. With the increase of gap distance, the Robson angle is decreased, which is associated with the reduced AMF strength. Erosion imprints of anode and cathode are also related to the CSPJ rotational phenomena and cathode spots behavior. The noise of arc voltage in the initial arcing stage is related to the weaker AMF.

  3. Experimental investigation of cathode spots and plasma jets behavior subjected to two kinds of axial magnetic field electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Xin; Jia, Shenli; Qian, Zhonghao; Shi, Zongqian [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, cathode spot plasma jet (CSPJ) rotation and cathode spots behavior subjected to two kinds of large diameter axial magnetic field (AMF) electrode (cup-shaped and coil-shaped) are studied and analyzed based on experiments. The influence of gap distances on the CSPJ rotational behavior is analyzed. Experimental results show that CSPJ rotational phenomena extensively exist in the vacuum interrupters, and CSPJ rotational direction is along the direction of composite magnetic field (mainly the combination of the axial and azimuthal components). For coil-shaped and cup-shaped AMF electrodes, the rotational or inclination phenomena before the current peak value are much more significant than that after current peak value (for the same arc current), which is related to the larger ratio of azimuthal magnetic field B{sub t} and AMF B{sub z} (B{sub t}/B{sub z}). With the increase of the gap distance, the AMF strength decreases, when the arc current is kept as constant, the azimuthal magnetic field is kept invariable, the ratio between azimuthal magnetic field and AMF is increased, which results in the increase of rotational effect. For cathode spots motion, compared with cup-shaped electrode, coil-shaped electrode has the inverse AMF direction. The Robson drift direction of cathode spots of coil-shaped electrode is opposite to that of cup-shaped electrode. With the increase of gap distance, the Robson angle is decreased, which is associated with the reduced AMF strength. Erosion imprints of anode and cathode are also related to the CSPJ rotational phenomena and cathode spots behavior. The noise of arc voltage in the initial arcing stage is related to the weaker AMF.

  4. Purification, gene cloning, gene expression, and mutants of Dps from the obligate anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueshima, Junichi; Shoji, Mikio; Ratnayake, Dinath B; Abe, Kihachiro; Yoshida, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Koji

    2003-03-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis is an obligate anaerobe that is devoid of catalase but exhibits a relatively high degree of resistance to peroxide stress. In the present study, we demonstrate that P. gingivalis contains a Dps homologue that plays an important role in the protection of cells from peroxide stress. The Dps protein isolated from P. gingivalis displayed a ferritin-like spherical polymer consisting of 19-kDa subunits. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding this protein revealed that it had a high similarity in nucleotide and amino acid sequences to Dps proteins from other species. The expression of Dps was significantly increased by exposure of P. gingivalis to atmospheric oxygen in an OxyR-dependent manner, indicating that it is regulated by the reactive oxygen species-regulating gene oxyR. The Dps-deficient mutants, including the dps single mutant and the ftn dps double mutant, showed no viability loss upon exposure to atmospheric oxygen for 6 h. In contrast to the wild type, however, these mutants exhibited the high susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide, thereby disrupting the viability. On the other hand, no significant difference in sensitivity to mitomycin C and metronidazole was observed between the wild type and the mutants. Furthermore, the dps single mutant, compared with the wild type, showed a lower viability in infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  5. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    of whole blood samples at low temperatures and rapid isolation of plasma and serum. Effects of different handling procedures for all markers studied are given. DBSS proved to be a robust and convenient way to handle samples for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory markers in whole blood Udgivelsesdato......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7...

  6. A simple method to quantitate IP-10 in dried blood and plasma spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabye, Martine G; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Werlinrud, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Antigen specific release of IP-10 is an established marker for infection with M.tuberculosis. Compared to IFN-γ, IP-10 is released in 100-fold higher concentrations enabling the development of novel assays for detection. Dried blood spots are a convenient sample for high throughput newborn...

  7. Green Clustering Implementation Based on DPS-MOPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A green clustering implementation is proposed to be as the first method in the framework of an energy-efficient strategy for centralized enterprise high-density WLANs. Traditionally, to maintain the network coverage, all of the APs within the WLAN have to be powered on. Nevertheless, the new algorithm can power off a large proportion of APs while the coverage is maintained as the always-on counterpart. The proposed algorithm is composed of two parallel and concurrent procedures, which are the faster procedure based on K-means and the more accurate procedure based on Dynamic Population Size Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (DPS-MOPSO. To implement green clustering efficiently and accurately, dynamic population size and mutational operators are introduced as complements for the classical MOPSO. In addition to the function of AP selection, the new green clustering algorithm has another new function as the reference and guidance for AP deployment. This paper also presents simulations in scenarios modeled with ray-tracing method and FDTD technique, and the results show that about 67% up to 90% of energy consumption can be saved while the original network coverage is maintained during periods when few users are online or when the traffic load is low.

  8. Dynamics of hot spots in the DPF-78 plasma focus from x-ray spectra and REB emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Wang, X.X.

    1995-01-01

    The X-ray emission from hot spots in the plasma focus DPF-78 was investigated with the help of two X-ray quartz crystal spectrometers of the Johann type and a 4 fold magnifying X-ray pinhole camera. In the experiments the working gas was chosen to be 300 Pa deuterium with 20 Pa argon admixture. X-ray spectra in the wavelength range from 3.55 angstrom to 4.0 angstrom, including H-like and He-like Argon lines, were recorded on Kodak DEF-2 film. From the spatially resolved spectra recorded side-on, a relative spectral shift between different hot spots of the same shot was often observed. The shift could be attributed to the Doppler shift. From spectral characteristics such as intensities and FWHM of Ar resonant and intercombination lines electron densities of up to 3 x 10 27 m -3 were determined. Radial dimensions of the hot spots ranging from about 140 microm to 300 microm were found from pinhole pictures applying the penumbra method. Usually two pulses of relativistic electron beams were observed using Cherenkov detectors in a magnetic spectrometer. The energy of the first pulse, which was emitted at the time of maximum compression, was higher than that of the second pulse. The measured FWHM of the REB pulses ranges from 3 ns to about 10 ns. The characteristics of the time-integrated X-ray spectra and the time resolved REB spectra and their dependence on the composition of the filling gas are discussed

  9. Modes of Escherichia coli Dps Interaction with DNA as Revealed by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V Melekhov

    Full Text Available Multifunctional protein Dps plays an important role in iron assimilation and a crucial role in bacterial genome packaging. Its monomers form dodecameric spherical particles accumulating ~400 molecules of oxidized iron ions within the protein cavity and applying a flexible N-terminal ends of each subunit for interaction with DNA. Deposition of iron is a well-studied process by which cells remove toxic Fe2+ ions from the genetic material and store them in an easily accessible form. However, the mode of interaction with linear DNA remained mysterious and binary complexes with Dps have not been characterized so far. It is widely believed that Dps binds DNA without any sequence or structural preferences but several lines of evidence have demonstrated its ability to differentiate gene expression, which assumes certain specificity. Here we show that Dps has a different affinity for the two DNA fragments taken from the dps gene regulatory region. We found by atomic force microscopy that Dps predominantly occupies thermodynamically unstable ends of linear double-stranded DNA fragments and has high affinity to the central part of the branched DNA molecule self-assembled from three single-stranded oligonucleotides. It was proposed that Dps prefers binding to those regions in DNA that provide more contact pads for the triad of its DNA-binding bundle associated with one vertex of the protein globule. To our knowledge, this is the first study revealed the nucleoid protein with an affinity to branched DNA typical for genomic regions with direct and inverted repeats. As a ubiquitous feature of bacterial and eukaryotic genomes, such structural elements should be of particular care, but the protein system evolutionarily adapted for this function is not yet known, and we suggest Dps as a putative component of this system.

  10. Hot spots effect on infrared spectral luminance emitted by carbon under plasma particles impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchambre, E.; Reichle, R.; Mitteau, R.; Missirlian, M.; Gobin, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the last Tore Supra campaigns, an anomalous deformation in the near infrared spectrum of radiation has been observed on neutralizer underneath the Toroidal Pumped Limiter (TPL) on which we observed the growth of carbon layer. The consequence is the difficulty to asses the surface temperature of the components and the power loaded. Laboratory experiment has been performed, using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ions source, to reproduce, characterize and explain this phenomenon. The luminance emitted by Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) and pyrolytic graphite, have been observed under 95 keV of H+ bombardments. The amplitude of the deformation was found to depend on the type of material used and the power density of the incident power loaded. This paper presents the possible hot spots explanation. The experimental luminance deformation is reproduced and these results are validated using a thermal model of dust in radiate equilibrium. (authors)

  11. Plasma parameters of the cathode spot explosive electron emission cell obtained from the model of liquid-metal jet tearing and electrical explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsventoukh, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    A model has been developed for the explosive electron emission cell pulse of a vacuum discharge cathode spot that describes the ignition and extinction of the explosive pulse. The pulse is initiated due to hydrodynamic tearing of a liquid-metal jet which propagates from the preceding cell crater boundary and draws the ion current from the plasma produced by the preceding explosion. Once the jet neck has been resistively heated to a critical temperature (˜1 eV), the plasma starts expanding and decreasing in density, which corresponds to the extinction phase. Numerical and analytical solutions have been obtained that describe both the time behavior of the pulse plasma parameters and their average values. For the cell plasma, the momentum per transferred charge has been estimated to be some tens of g cm/(s C), which is consistent with the known measurements of ion velocity, ion erosion rate, and specific recoil force. This supports the model of the pressure-gradient-driven plasma acceleration mechanism for the explosive cathode spot cells. The ohmic electric field within the explosive current-carrying plasma has been estimated to be some tens of kV/cm, which is consistent with the known experimental data on cathode potential fall and explosive cell plasma size. This supports the model that assumes the ohmic nature of the cathode potential fall in a vacuum discharge.

  12. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  13. Expansion of the cathode spot and generation of shock waves in the plasma of a volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omarov, O. A.; Kurbanismailov, V. S.; Arslanbekov, M. A.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh.; Ragimkhanov, G. B.; Al-Shatravi, Ali J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of the cathode spot and the generation of shock waves during the formation and development of a pulsed volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium were studied by analyzing the emission spectra of the cathode plasma and the spatiotemporal behavior of the plasma glow. The transition of a diffuse volume discharge in a centimeter-long gap into a high-current diffuse mode when the gas pressure increased from 1 to 5 atm and the applied voltage rose from the statistical breakdown voltage to a 100% overvoltage was investigated. Analytical expressions for the radius of the cathode spot and its expansion velocity obtained in the framework of a spherically symmetric model agree satisfactorily with the experimental data.

  14. Quantification of underivatised amino acids on dry blood spot, plasma, and urine by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Giuseppe; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme deficiencies in amino acid (AA) metabolism affecting the levels of amino acids and their derivatives in physiological fluids may serve as diagnostically significant biomarkers for one or a group of metabolic disorders. Therefore, it is important to monitor a wide range of free amino acids simultaneously and to quantify them. This is time consuming if we use the classical methods and more than ever now that many laboratories have introduced Newborn Screening Programs for the semiquantitative analysis, detection, and quantification of some amino acids needed to be performed in a short time to reduce the rate of false positives.We have modified the stable isotope dilution HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS method previously described by Qu et al. (Anal Chem 74: 2034-2040, 2002) for a more rapid, robust, sensitive, and specific detection and quantification of underivatised amino acids. The modified method reduces the time of analysis to 10 min with very good reproducibility of retention times and a better separation of the metabolites and their isomers.The omission of the derivatization step allowed us to achieve some important advantages: fast and simple sample preparation and exclusion of artefacts and interferences. The use of this technique is highly sensitive, specific, and allows monitoring of 40 underivatized amino acids, including the key isomers and quantification of some of them, in order to cover many diagnostically important intermediates of metabolic pathways.We propose this HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for underivatized amino acids as a support for the Newborn Screening as secondary test using the same dried blood spots for a more accurate and specific examination in case of suspected metabolic diseases. In this way, we avoid plasma collection from the patient as it normally occurs, reducing anxiety for the parents and further costs for analysis.The same method was validated and applied also to plasma and urine samples with good reproducibility

  15. Generation of a single hot spot by use of a deformable mirror and study of its propagation in an underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattellier, Benoit; Fuchs, Julien; Zou Jiping; Chanteloup, Jean-Christophe; Bandulet, Heidi; Michel, Pierre; Labaune, Christine; Depierreux, Sylvie; Kudryashov, Alexis; Aleksandrov, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive optics systems offer the prospect of significantly increasing the capabilities of high-power laser focusability, which is currently limited by thermal distortions. Using novel wave-front measurement techniques that improve the stability of such systems and a downstream large-aperture deformable mirror that does not bear the usual limitations associated with precompensation, we have improved the focusability of a high-power (6x100-J, 1-ns) Nd:glass laser facility by a factor of 6. Measuring the wave front and the on-target focal spot at full power, we obtained after correction focal spots with a best Strehl ratio of 0.6. The pulse peak intensity could thus be increased to ∼2x10 16 W/cm 2 , a level beyond reach of the usual focal spot shaping techniques. We then used the near-diffraction-limited focal spots produced by this system to measure the laser-plasma coupling for a single, controlled filament of light and to underline the importance of the coupling among the numerous speckles within conventional multispeckled beams

  16. OxyR-activated expression of Dps is important for Vibrio cholerae oxidative stress resistance and pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Xia

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, a dehydrating diarrheal disease. This Gram-negative pathogen is able to modulate its gene expression in order to combat stresses encountered in both aquatic and host environments, including stress posed by reactive oxygen species (ROS. In order to further the understanding of V. cholerae's transcriptional response to ROS, we performed an RNA sequencing analysis to determine the transcriptional profile of V. cholerae when exposed to hydrogen hydroperoxide. Of 135 differentially expressed genes, VC0139 was amongst the genes with the largest induction. VC0139 encodes a protein homologous to the DPS (DNA-binding protein from starved cells protein family, which are widely conserved and are implicated in ROS resistance in other bacteria. Using a promoter reporter assay, we show that during exponential growth, dps is induced by H2O2 in a manner dependent on the ROS-sensing transcriptional regulator, OxyR. Upon entry into stationary phase, the major stationary phase regulator RpoS is required to transcribe dps. Deletion of dps impaired V. cholerae resistance to both inorganic and organic hydroperoxides. Furthermore, we show that Dps is involved in resistance to multiple environmental stresses. Finally, we found that Dps is important for V. cholerae adult mouse colonization, but becomes dispensable in the presence of antioxidants. Taken together, our results suggest that Dps plays vital roles in both V. cholerae stress resistance and pathogenesis.

  17. Dps promotes survival of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in biofilm communities in vitro and resistance to clearance in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bing; Hong, Wenzhou; Kock, Nancy D; Swords, W Edward

    2012-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common airway commensal and opportunistic pathogen that persists within surface-attached biofilm communities. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bacterial stress-responses are activated within biofilms. Transcripts for several factors associated with bacterial resistance to environmental stress were increased in biofilm cultures as compared to planktonic cultures. Among these, a homolog of the DNA-binding protein from starved cells (dps) was chosen for further study. An isogenic NTHi 86-028NP dps mutant was generated and tested for resistance to environmental stress, revealing a significant survival defects in high-iron conditions, which was mediated by oxidative stress and was restored by genetic complementation. As expected, NTHi 86-028NP dps had a general stress-response defect, exhibiting decreased resistance to many types of environmental stress. While no differences were observed in density and structure of NTHi 86-028NP and NTHi 86-028NP dps biofilms, bacterial survival was decreased in NTHi 86-028NP dps biofilms as compared to the parental strain. The role of dps persistence in vivo was tested in animal infection studies. NTHi 86-028NP dps had decreased resistance to clearance after pulmonary infection of elastase-treated mice as compared to NTHi 86-028NP, whereas minimal differences were observed in clearance from mock-treated mice. Similarly, lower numbers of NTHi 86-028NP dps were recovered from middle-ear effusions and bullar homogenates in the chinchilla model for otitis media (OM). Therefore, we conclude that Dps promotes bacterial survival within NTHi biofilm communities both in vitro and in chronic infections in vivo.

  18. Dps promotes survival of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in biofilm communities in vitro and resistance to clearance in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing ePang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi is a common airway commensal and opportunistic pathogen that persists within surface-attached biofilm communities. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bacterial stress-responses are activated within biofilms. Transcripts for several factors associated with bacterial resistance to environmental stress were increased in biofilm cultures as compared to planktonic cultures. Among these, a homolog of the DNA-binding protein from starved cells (dps was chosen for further study. An isogenic NTHi 86-028NP dps mutant was generated and tested for resistance to environmental stress, revealing a significant survival defects in high-iron conditions, which was mediated by oxidative stress and was restored by genetic complementation. As expected, NTHi 86-028NP dps had a general stress-response defect, exhibiting decreased resistance to many types of environmental stress. While no differences were observed in density and structure of NTHi 86-028NP and NTHi 86-028NP dps biofilms, bacterial survival was decreased in NTHi 86-028NP dps biofilms as compared to the parental strain. The role of dps persistence in vivo was tested in animal infection studies. NTHi 86-028NP dps had decreased resistance to clearance after pulmonary infection of elastase-treated mice as compared to NTHi 86-028NP, whereas minimal differences were observed in clearance from mock-treated mice. Similarly, lower numbers of NTHi 86-028NP dps were recovered from middle-ear effusions and bullar homogenates in the chinchilla model for otitis media. Therefore, we conclude that Dps promotes bacterial survival within NTHi biofilm communities both in vitro and in chronic infections in vivo.

  19. How NASA's Space Science Support Network Can Assist DPS Members in Their Public Engagement Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, E. D.; Lowes, L. L.

    2003-12-01

    In her Carl Sagan Medal lecture last year, Heidi Hammel talked of the dos and don'ts of education and public outreach efforts by DPS members. She pointed out a number of misconceptions about what does and does not constitute "good EPO" and encouraged members to consult with "the experts" if they would like to improve their EPO effectiveness and reach. She named the DPS Education and Public Outreach Officer, Larry Lebofsky, his Deputy, Lou Mayo, and the DPS Press Officer, Ellis Miner, who also co-directs NASA's Solar System Exploration EPO Forum with Leslie Lowes. NASA's Space Science Support Network has been in existence for about six years. It has been directed by DPS member Jeff Rosendhal and is now serving as a model for NASA's new Education Enterprise. Members of the Support Network are prepared to assist (and haves been assisting) space scientists throughout the US and abroad in deciding where to spend their EPO efforts most effectively. The service is provided free of cost and includes, among other services, the following: (1) helping to establish partnerships between educators and scientists, (2) helping to link scientists and professional EPO organizations, (3) helping to link scientists to national youth and community groups, (4) providing ready access to EPO electronic and hardcopy products, (5) providing advice and direction in the preparation of EPO proposals to NASA, (6) helping to maintain several national networks of EPO volunteers, (7) encouraging (at home institutions) the broadening of scientist EPO efforts, (8) maintaining self-help websites for scientists interested in EPO.

  20. Plasma immune protein analysis in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides: Evidence for altered expressions of immune factors associated with a choline-supplemented diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ya-Li; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Huynh, Truong-Giang; Liu, Ping-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to unravel the regulatory roles of choline in activating immune responses and disease resistance of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. Fish were fed a choline-supplemented diet at 1 g kg -1 of feed for 30 days. Fish fed a fish meal basal diet without choline-supplement served as controls. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus. Meanwhile, plasma proteomics of fish in each group were also evaluated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrophotometry (MS/MS), then a Western blot analysis or real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm differential expressions of immune-enhancing proteins. Results showed that choline significantly increased survival of E. coioides 48 days after being injected with V. alginolyticus. From maps of plasma proteins, a comparative analysis between the control and choline groups revealed that 111 spots matched, with 26 altered expression spots in the choline group. Of these 26 spots, 16 were upregulated and 10 downregulated. After protein identification by reverse-phase nano-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization MS/MS analysis, eight of 26 proteins were found to be immune-related proteins, all of which were upregulated, including complement 3 (C3), alpha-2-macroglobulin-P-like isoform (A2M), fibrinogen beta chain precursor (FBG), and immunoglobulin heavy constant mu (Ighm) proteins. Expression of the A2M protein and A2M enzyme activity in plasma of fish fed choline significantly increased compared to the control group. Additionally, A2M messenger (m)RNA transcripts were also upregulated in the liver and kidneys. Significantly higher C3 expressions at both the mRNA and protein levels were detected in the liver of fish in the choline group. Moreover, FBG gene expressions in the liver and kidneys significantly increased, while Ighm increased in the

  1. Data verification of a hardware-software complex of sounding an ionosphere and ionosonde DPS-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Vladimir; Ruzhin, Yuri; Smirnova, Elena; Skobelkin, Vladimir; Tynyankin, Sergey

    Appeared in recent years, opportunities to use as a source of signals used to determine the parameters of the ionosphere, the spacecraft global navigation satellite systems GLONASS and GPS are not currently in widespread use practices ionospheric wave frequency and radio centers and dispatch services. Given the urgency of the discussed areas of research, long experiment whose purpose is to conduct a comparative analysis of the results of determining the critical frequency of F2-layer of the ionosphere in two ways - vertical sounding (ionosonde DPS-4) and radio translucence track "satellite-the Earth" with signals using GLONASS satellites and GPS was started in 2013. For a comparative analysis of the results the hardware-software complex ionospheric soundings (HSCIS) was located at territory of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences. HSCIS product includes a personal computer with it specialized software, a dual-frequency navigation receiver and small receiving antenna. Used in the product receiver developed by NovAtel allows us to receive the signals of the navigation systems GPS/GLONASS and maintain their processing in real time. Location receiver determined autonomously: antenna position - 55.76o N, 37.94o E, coordinates ionosonde DPS-4 - 55.5o N, 37.3o E. In fact, both devices were in close proximity, which it allows for the identity conditions of observation. Both devices operate in real time. Ionosonde DPS- 4 gave the ionosphere parameters every 15 minutes, HSCIS - every minute. Information from both instruments displayed on the screen monitors, and recorded in the memory used by computers. Along with the numerical parameters on the monitor products HSCIS displayed time course of the critical frequency F2- layer of the ionosphere obtained from observations of the nearest navigation satellite. When limiting elevation observations 15o simultaneous use of navigation satellites can

  2. Comparison of the quantification of acetaminophen in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and dried blood spots using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel R; Hoffman, Keith L; Schniedewind, Björn; Clavijo, Claudia; Galinkin, Jeffrey L; Christians, Uwe

    2013-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide) is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for the management of pain in children. Quantification of acetaminophen in pre-term and term neonates and small children requires the availability of highly sensitive assays in small volume blood samples. We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of acetaminophen in human plasma, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and dried blood spots (DBS). Reconstitution in water (DBS only) and addition of a protein precipitation solution containing the deuterated internal standard were the only manual steps. Extracted samples were analyzed on a Kinetex 2.6 μm PFP column using an acetonitrile/formic acid gradient. The analytes were detected in the positive multiple reaction mode. Alternatively, DBS were automatically processed using direct desorption in a sample card and preparation (SCAP) robotic autosampler in combination with online extraction. The range of reliable response in plasma and CSF was 3.05-20,000 ng/ml (r(2)>0.99) and 27.4-20,000 ng/ml (r(2)>0.99) for DBS (manual extraction and automated direct desorption). Inter-day accuracy was always within 85-115% and inter-day precision for plasma, CSF and manually extracted DBS were less than 15%. Deming regression analysis comparing 167 matching pairs of plasma and DBS samples showed a correlation coefficient of 0.98. Bland Altman analysis indicated a 26.6% positive bias in DBS, most likely reflecting the blood: plasma distribution ratio of acetaminophen. DBS are a valid matrix for acetaminophen pharmacokinetic studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. VIABILITY AND PLASMA MEMBRANE INTEGRITY OF THE SPOTTED BUFFALO EPIDIDYMAL SPERMATOZOA AFTER THAWING WITH THE ADDITION OF DEXTROSE INTO THE EXTENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RIZAL

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available h e objective of this study was to obtain the viability and plasma membrane integrity of the spotted buff alo epididymal sperm after addition of dextrose into Andromed® extender. Spermatozoa that have been collected from cauda epididymis were diluted with Andromed® extender as control (K and Andromed® + 0.2% dextrose (P1 and Andromed® + 0.4% dextrose (P2 as treatments. h e results showed that the quality of epididymal spermatozoa decreased during cryopreservation process. h e percentage of motility after thawing in P1 (46% and P2 (46.67% were signifi cantly higher (P<0.05 compared to K (41% as well as the percentage of live sperm in P1 (58.8% and P2 (60% compared to K (52.2%. h e percentage of membrane integrity in P1, P2 and K were 67.4; 66.8 and 68 %, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of 0.2 and 0.4% of dextrose into Andromed® acted as an extra cellular cryoprotectant and could maintain the viability and membrane integrity of the spotted buff alo epididymal spermatozoa after thawing.

  4. Using penumbral imaging to measure micrometer size plasma hot spots in Gbar equation of state experiments on the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B; Kritcher, A L; Benedetti, L R; Falcone, R W; Glenn, S; Hawreliak, J; Izumi, N; Kraus, D; Landen, O L; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; Pérez, F; Swift, D; Döppner, T

    2014-11-01

    We have developed an experimental platform for absolute equation of state measurements up to Gbar pressures on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) within the Fundamental Science Program. We use a symmetry-tuned hohlraum drive to launch a spherical shock wave into a solid CH sphere. Streaked radiography is the primary diagnostic to measure the density change at the shock front as the pressure increases towards smaller radii. At shock stagnation in the center of the capsule, we observe a short and bright x-ray self emission from high density (∼50 g/cm(3)) plasma at ∼1 keV. Here, we present results obtained with penumbral imaging which has been carried out to characterize the size of the hot spot emission. This allows extending existing NIF diagnostic capabilities for spatial resolution (currently ∼10 μm) at higher sensitivity. At peak emission we find the hot spot radius to be as small as 5.8 +/- 1 μm, corresponding to a convergence ratio of 200.

  5. Using penumbral imaging to measure micrometer size plasma hot spots in Gbar equation of state experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, B., E-mail: bachmann2@llnl.gov; Kritcher, A. L.; Benedetti, L. R.; Glenn, S.; Hawreliak, J.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Pérez, F.; Swift, D.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Falcone, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kraus, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We have developed an experimental platform for absolute equation of state measurements up to Gbar pressures on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) within the Fundamental Science Program. We use a symmetry-tuned hohlraum drive to launch a spherical shock wave into a solid CH sphere. Streaked radiography is the primary diagnostic to measure the density change at the shock front as the pressure increases towards smaller radii. At shock stagnation in the center of the capsule, we observe a short and bright x-ray self emission from high density (∼50 g/cm{sup 3}) plasma at ∼1 keV. Here, we present results obtained with penumbral imaging which has been carried out to characterize the size of the hot spot emission. This allows extending existing NIF diagnostic capabilities for spatial resolution (currently ∼10 μm) at higher sensitivity. At peak emission we find the hot spot radius to be as small as 5.8 +/− 1 μm, corresponding to a convergence ratio of 200.

  6. Using penumbral imaging to measure micrometer size plasma hot spots in Gbar equation of state experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, B.; Kritcher, A. L.; Benedetti, L. R.; Glenn, S.; Hawreliak, J.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Pérez, F.; Swift, D.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Kraus, D.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an experimental platform for absolute equation of state measurements up to Gbar pressures on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) within the Fundamental Science Program. We use a symmetry-tuned hohlraum drive to launch a spherical shock wave into a solid CH sphere. Streaked radiography is the primary diagnostic to measure the density change at the shock front as the pressure increases towards smaller radii. At shock stagnation in the center of the capsule, we observe a short and bright x-ray self emission from high density (∼50 g/cm 3 ) plasma at ∼1 keV. Here, we present results obtained with penumbral imaging which has been carried out to characterize the size of the hot spot emission. This allows extending existing NIF diagnostic capabilities for spatial resolution (currently ∼10 μm) at higher sensitivity. At peak emission we find the hot spot radius to be as small as 5.8 +/− 1 μm, corresponding to a convergence ratio of 200

  7. Bier spots

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Yorulmaz,; Seray Kulcu Cakmak; Esra Ar?; Ferda Artuz

    2015-01-01

    Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elu...

  8. Spread F in the Midlatitude Ionosphere According to DPS-4 Ionosonde Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, V. A.; Telegin, V. A.; Vorob'ev, V. G.; Zhbankov, G. A.; Yagodkina, O. I.; Rozhdestvenskaya, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The results of studying spread F obtained from the DPS-4 ionosonde data at the observatory of the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation (Moscow) are presented. The methodical questions that arise during the study of a spread F phenomenon in the ionosphere are considered; the current results of terrestrial observations are compared with previously published data and the results of sounding onboard an Earth-satellite vehicle. The automated algorithm for estimation of the intensity of frequency spread F, which was developed by the authors and was successfully verified via comparison of the data of the digisonde DPS-4 and the results of manual processing, is described. The algorithm makes it possible to quantify the intensity of spread F in megahertz (the dFs parameter) and in the number of points (0, 1, 2, 3). The strongest spread (3 points) is shown to be most likely around midnight, while the weakest spread (0 points) is highly likely to occur during the daytime. The diurnal distribution of a 1-2 point spread F in the winter indicates the presence of additional maxima at 0300-0600 UT and 1400-1700 UT, which may appear due to the terminator. Despite the large volume of processed data, we can not definitively state that the appearance of spread F depends on the magnetic activity indices Kp, Dst, and AL, although the values of the dFs frequency spread interval strongly increased both at day and night during the magnetic storm of March 17-22, 2015, especially in the phase of storm recovery on March 20-22.

  9. Bier spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Yorulmaz,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elucidated, Bier spots have been suggested to be a vascular anomaly caused by vasoconstriction of small vessels. In addition, several diseases have been proposed to be associated with Bier spots, including scleroderma renal crisis, cryoglobulinemia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, alopecia areata and hypoplasia of the aorta, although it has not been shown whether these associations are casual or coincidental. The clinical presentation of Bier spots is quite typical. These tiny whitish macules easily become prominent when the affected limb is placed in a dependent position and fade away when the limb is raised. Here we report a case of Bier spots in a 32-year-old male patient with characteristical clinical manifestations.

  10. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  11. Spotted inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions

  12. Plasma and breast milk pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine, tenofovir and lamivudine using dried blood and breast milk spots in nursing African mother–infant pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, Catriona; Olagunju, Adeniyi; Nakalema, Shadia; Kyohaire, Isabella; Owen, Andrew; Lamorde, Mohammed; Khoo, Saye

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast milk transfer of first-line ART from mother to infant is not fully understood. Objectives To determine the concentrations of lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir in maternal blood, breast milk and infant blood from breastfeeding mother–infant pairs. Methods Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling of maternal dried blood spots (DBS), dried breast milk spots (DBMS) and infant DBS from 30 Ugandan and 29 Nigerian mothers receiving first-line ART and their infants was conducted. DBS and DBMS were collected pre-dose and at 5–6 timepoints up to 12 h following observed dosing. Infant DBS were sampled twice during this period. Lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir were quantified using LC-MS/MS, with non-compartmental analysis to calculate key pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Peak concentrations in breast milk from women taking lamivudine and emtricitabine occurred later than in plasma (4–8 h compared with 2 h for lamivudine and 2–4 h for emtricitabine). Consequently, the milk-to-plasma (M:P) ratio of lamivudine taken once daily was 0.95 (0.82–1.15) for AUC0–12, whereas for AUC12–20 this was 3.04 (2.87–4.16). Lamivudine was detectable in 36% (14/39) of infants [median 17.7 (16.3–22.7) ng/mL]. For 200 mg of emtricitabine once daily, the median M:P ratio was 3.01 (2.06–3.38). Three infants (19%) had measurable emtricitabine [median 18.5 (17.6–20.8) ng/mL]. For 300 mg of tenofovir once daily, the median M:P ratio was 0.015 (0–0.03) and no infant had measurable tenofovir concentrations. Conclusions Emtricitabine and lamivudine accumulate in breast milk and were detected in breastfeeding infants. In contrast, tenofovir penetrates the breast milk to a small degree, but is undetectable in breastfeeding infants. PMID:29309634

  13. Plasma and breast milk pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine, tenofovir and lamivudine using dried blood and breast milk spots in nursing African mother-infant pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, Catriona; Olagunju, Adeniyi; Nakalema, Shadia; Kyohaire, Isabella; Owen, Andrew; Lamorde, Mohammed; Khoo, Saye

    2018-04-01

    Breast milk transfer of first-line ART from mother to infant is not fully understood. To determine the concentrations of lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir in maternal blood, breast milk and infant blood from breastfeeding mother-infant pairs. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling of maternal dried blood spots (DBS), dried breast milk spots (DBMS) and infant DBS from 30 Ugandan and 29 Nigerian mothers receiving first-line ART and their infants was conducted. DBS and DBMS were collected pre-dose and at 5-6 timepoints up to 12 h following observed dosing. Infant DBS were sampled twice during this period. Lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir were quantified using LC-MS/MS, with non-compartmental analysis to calculate key pharmacokinetic parameters. Peak concentrations in breast milk from women taking lamivudine and emtricitabine occurred later than in plasma (4-8 h compared with 2 h for lamivudine and 2-4 h for emtricitabine). Consequently, the milk-to-plasma (M:P) ratio of lamivudine taken once daily was 0.95 (0.82-1.15) for AUC0-12, whereas for AUC12-20 this was 3.04 (2.87-4.16). Lamivudine was detectable in 36% (14/39) of infants [median 17.7 (16.3-22.7) ng/mL]. For 200 mg of emtricitabine once daily, the median M:P ratio was 3.01 (2.06-3.38). Three infants (19%) had measurable emtricitabine [median 18.5 (17.6-20.8) ng/mL]. For 300 mg of tenofovir once daily, the median M:P ratio was 0.015 (0-0.03) and no infant had measurable tenofovir concentrations. Emtricitabine and lamivudine accumulate in breast milk and were detected in breastfeeding infants. In contrast, tenofovir penetrates the breast milk to a small degree, but is undetectable in breastfeeding infants.

  14. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  15. Dynamic Positioning System (DPS) Risk Analysis Using Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Eric B.; Boyer, Roger L.; Stewart, Michael A.; Fougere, Pete

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) directorate at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) has applied its knowledge and experience with Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to projects in industries ranging from spacecraft to nuclear power plants. PRA is a comprehensive and structured process for analyzing risk in complex engineered systems and/or processes. The PRA process enables the user to identify potential risk contributors such as, hardware and software failure, human error, and external events. Recent developments in the oil and gas industry have presented opportunities for NASA to lend their PRA expertise to both ongoing and developmental projects within the industry. This paper provides an overview of the PRA process and demonstrates how this process was applied in estimating the probability that a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) operating in the Gulf of Mexico and equipped with a generically configured Dynamic Positioning System (DPS) loses location and needs to initiate an emergency disconnect. The PRA described in this paper is intended to be generic such that the vessel meets the general requirements of an International Maritime Organization (IMO) Maritime Safety Committee (MSC)/Circ. 645 Class 3 dynamically positioned vessel. The results of this analysis are not intended to be applied to any specific drilling vessel, although provisions were made to allow the analysis to be configured to a specific vessel if required.

  16. Coevolution of aah: A dps-Like Gene with the Host Bacterium Revealed by Comparative Genomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Ping

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A protein named AAH was isolated from the bacterium Microbacterium arborescens SE14, a gut commensal of the lepidopteran larvae. It showed not only a high sequence similarity to Dps-like proteins (DNA-binding proteins from starved cell but also reversible hydrolase activity. A comparative genomic analysis was performed to gain more insights into its evolution. The GC profile of the aah gene indicated that it was evolved from a low GC ancestor. Its stop codon usage was also different from the general pattern of Actinobacterial genomes. The phylogeny of dps-like proteins showed strong correlation with the phylogeny of host bacteria. A conserved genomic synteny was identified in some taxonomically related Actinobacteria, suggesting that the ancestor genes had incorporated into the genome before the divergence of Micrococcineae from other families. The aah gene had evolved new function but still retained the typical dodecameric structure.

  17. Models of spots and flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in recent years have shown that there are many more ways to drive a plasma out of equilibrium than to preserve equilibrium. In that sense, it is perhaps easier to understand why flares should occur in a stellar atmosphere than why a long-lived feature such as a dark spot should persist. The author summarizes work on the equilibrium structure of cool spots in the sun and stars. Since spots involve complex interactions between convective flows and magnetic fields, he needs to refer to observations for help in identifying the dominant processes which should enter into the modelling. His summary therefore begins by discussing certain relevant properties of spots in the solar atmosphere. The next sections deal with the magnetic fields in spots, the stability of spots, spot cooling and missing flux. The author concludes that spots should be viewed not simply as cool areas, but rather as engines which do the work of converting the energy of convective flows into flare-compatible form. (Auth.)

  18. Preliminary Results from a Survey of DPS Scientist’s Attitudes, Activities and Needs in Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Jennifer A.; Buxner, Sanlyn; Schneider, Nick

    2014-11-01

    The NASA SMD Planetary Sciences Forum, in partnership with the AAS DPS Education officer has conducted a semi-structured series of interviews with two-dozen DPS members to ascertain: the nature E/PO activities pursued by scientists, what resources and professional development opportunities are needed by scientists, how to increase the impact of scientists’ E/PO efforts, scientists’ concerns and questions regarding E/PO, and what we can do to identify opportunities to address these issues, both from the SMD and DPS perspectives. Members were contacted by phone, and responded to a loose script of questions over a time span of 20 to 90 minutes, depending on the individual. Members were chosen to represent a variety of career experience, home institutions and affiliations, and level of involvement with E/PO. Questions included: What is your level of involvement in E/PO? What sort of professional development or resources would you like to have to increase the efficiency of your E/PO efforts? What barriers to E/PO involvement have you encountered? How do you use social media in your E/PO efforts, if at all? What are your motivations for involvement in E/PO? etc. Our results are consistent with previous research conducted regarding this issue, but they do offer insight specific to the nature of DPS members and their views about E/PO. We will present a subset of these results, the opportunities they present, and the responses of both the PS Forum and the DPS. Based on this survey, the SMD PS Forum was able to identify specific new resources needed by scientists, and therefore developed the brief-one page guides, “The Quick Introduction to Education and Public Outreach,” and “Making the Most of Your E/PO Time - Increasing Your Efficiency and Impact.” Further resources and professional development opportunities will be developed as the data continue to be reviewed. This data collection effort is ongoing. If you would like to become involved, contact Jennifer

  19. Reply to the ''Comment on 'The significance of the distribution of hot spots on the interpretation of laser-produced plasma experiments' ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arad, B.; Eliezer, S.

    1979-01-01

    We disagree with the conclusion reached by Goel, Gupta, and Bhatnagar that the effect of hot spots is not significant in analyzing scaling laws using transformed variables. We believe they have overlooked the main points of our analysis

  20. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY 3nd QUARTER 2009 MILESTONE REPORT: Upgrade plasma source configuration and carry out initial experiments. Characterize improvements in focal spot beam intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, S.; Anders, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Dorf, M.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.; Greenway, W.; Grote, D.; Jung, J.Y.; Katayanagi, T.; Logan, B.G.; Lee, C.W.; Leitner, M.; Ni, P.; Pekedis, A.; Regis, M. J.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W.

    2009-01-01

    Simulations suggest that the plasma density must exceed the beam density throughout the drift compression and focusing section in order to inhibit the space charge forces that would limit the spot size and beam intensity on the target. WDM experiments will therefore require plasma densities up to 10 14 /cm 3 , with the highest density in the last few centimeters before the target. This work was guided by the simulations performed for the FY09 Q1 milestone. This milestone has been met and we report results of modifications made to the NDCX beamline to improve the longitudinal and radial distribution of the neutralizing plasma in the region near the target plane. In Section 2, we review pertinent simulation results from the FY09 Q1 milestone. Section 3 describes the design, and beam measurements following installation, of a biased, self-supporting metal grid that produces neutralizing electrons from glancing interception of beam ions. Section 4 describes the design and initial testing of a compact Ferro-Electric Plasma Source (FEPS) that will remove the remaining 'exclusion zone' in the neutralizing plasma close to the target plane. Section 5 describes the modification of the beamline to decrease the gap between the FEPS section exit and the final focus solenoid (FFS). Section 6 presents a summary and conclusions.

  1. Periplasmic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase and cytoplasmic Dps concur in protecting Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from extracellular reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacello, Francesca; Ceci, Pierpaolo; Ammendola, Serena; Pasquali, Paolo; Chiancone, Emilia; Battistoni, Andrea

    2008-02-01

    Several bacteria possess periplasmic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases which can confer protection from extracellular reactive oxygen species. Thus, deletion of the sodC1 gene reduces Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ability to colonize the spleens of wild type mice, but enhances virulence in p47phox mutant mice. To look into the role of periplamic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase and into possible additive effects of the ferritin-like Dps protein involved in hydrogen peroxide detoxification, we have analyzed bacterial survival in response to extracellular sources of superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide. Exposure to extracellular superoxide of Salmonella Typhimurium mutant strains lacking the sodC1 and sodC2 genes and/or the dps gene does not cause direct killing of bacteria, indicating that extracellular superoxide is poorly bactericidal. In contrast, all mutant strains display a sharp hydrogen peroxide-dependent loss of viability, the dps,sodC1,sodC2 mutant being less resistant than the dps or the sodC1,sodC2 mutants. These findings suggest that the role of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase in bacteria is to remove rapidly superoxide from the periplasm to prevent its reaction with other reactive molecules. Moreover, the nearly additive effect of the sodC and dps mutations suggests that localization of antioxidant enzymes in different cellular compartments is required for bacterial resistance to extracytoplasmic oxidative attack.

  2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  3. A method for the direct injection and analysis of small volume human blood spots and plasma extracts containing high concentrations of organic solvents using revered-phase 2D UPLC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Paul D; Simeone, Jennifer L; Root, Dan S; Mallet, Claude R; Wilson, Ian D; Plumb, Robert S

    2015-03-21

    The emergence of micro sampling techniques holds great potential to improve pharmacokinetic data quality, reduce animal usage, and save costs in safety assessment studies. The analysis of these samples presents new challenges for bioanalytical scientists, both in terms of sample processing and analytical sensitivity. The use of two dimensional LC/MS with, at-column-dilution for the direct analysis of highly organic extracts prepared from biological fluids such as dried blood spots and plasma is demonstrated. This technique negated the need to dry down and reconstitute, or dilute samples with water/aqueous buffer solutions, prior to injection onto a reversed-phase LC system. A mixture of model drugs, including bromhexine, triprolidine, enrofloxacin, and procaine were used to test the feasibility of the method. Finally an LC/MS assay for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin was developed from dried blood spots and protein-precipitated plasma. The assays showed acceptable recovery, accuracy and precision according to US FDA guidelines. The resulting analytical method showed an increase in assay sensitivity of up to forty fold as compared to conventional methods by maximizing the amount loaded onto the system and the MS response for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin from small volume samples.

  4. Ionospheric hot spot at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, R.W.; Sojka, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    A hot spot (or spots) can occur in the high-latitude ionosphere depending on the plasma convection pattern. The hot spot corresponds to a small magnetic local time-magnetic latitude region of elevated ion temperatures located near the dusk and/or dawn meridians. For asymmetric convection electric field patterns, with enhanced flow in either the dusk or dawn sector of the polar cap, a single hot spot should occur in association with the strong convection cell. However, on geomagnetically disturbed days, two strong convection cells can occur, and hence, two hot spots should exist. The hot spot should be detectable when the electric field in the strong convection cell exceeds about 40 mV m -1 . For electric fields of the order of 100 mV m -1 in the convection cell, the ion temperature in the hot spot is greatest at low altitudes, reaching 4000 0 K at 160 km, and decreases with altitude in the F-region. An ionospheric hot spot (or spots) can be expected at all seasons and for a wide range of solar cycle conditions

  5. Correlation between dried blood spot thin layer chromatography and plasma high performance liquid chromatography of leucine/isoleucine levels among Filipino patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) seen at the Institute of Human Genetics, National Institutes of Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Chiong, Mary Anne D.; Rana, Michelle D.; Rama, Kahlil Izza D.; David-Padilla, Carmencita; Cavan, Barbra Charina; Cordero, Cynthia P.

    2008-01-01

    Management of patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) includes a low protein diet, supplemented with special formulas and constant monitoring of branched chain amino acids (BCAA). The gold standard for monitoring BCAA is plasma amino acid analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In a developing country like the Philippines, however, the cost of this test is prohibitive to the majority of the patients. In our center, dried blood spot leucine/isoleucine (leu/ile) levels analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) is often used to diagnose and monitor these patients. This study was done to determine the correlation of leu/ile levels using the two methods (TLC and HPLC). A total of 46 MSUD patients were referred to the Biochemical Genetics Laboratory of the Institute of Human Genetics (IHG) from July 2001 to January 2004. Thirty five samples were obtained from 18 of these patients (some patients were seen at IHG more than once), and paired determinations of plasma amino acid using TLC and HPLC were made. The remaining samples were either hemolyzed or were not analyzed. The correlation coefficient [rho denoted as ρ] was estimated at a 95% confidence level using the Fisher's Z transformation. Of the 18 patients, 12 were males. The youngest was 1 day old and the oldest was 5 years old. The majority had the classical type of MSUD and dietary protein was restricted to between 0.6 gram/kg/day to 1 gram/kg/day of natural protein. Using the first pairs of observation for these 18 patients, the correlation coefficient was 0.76 (95% C1:0.462 to 0.907). This suggest a strong correlation between the two methods. It is recommended that further studies be done to determine the potential of the dried blood spot leu/ile level by TLC as an alternative method that can be used in the diagnosis and monitoring of MSUD patients especially in a developing country. (Author)

  6. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... of typical analytical workloads and real spot price traces. SpotADAPT's suggested deployments are comparable to the theoretically optimal ones, and in particular, it shows good cost benefits for the budget optimization -- on average SpotADAPT is at most 0.3% more expensive than the theoretically optimal...

  7. The efficiency of microbial protein production from tropical forages and its measurement using spot samples of urine and CrEDTA clearance from the plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.; Poppi, D.P.; McLennan, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    The efficiency of microbial crude protein production (MCP) expressed as g MCP/kg digestible organic matter (DOM) was much lower (P 0.75 /d). The fractional disappearance rate of CrEDTA from the plasma was similar for cattle consuming either hay (1.26-1.54%/min). The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated from urinary creatinine excretion was significantly different (289 L/d vs 793 L/d, P vs R respectively). The ratio of predicted allantoin clearance determined by reference to plasma volume and FDR of CrEDTA to the actual urinary excretion was 6.7 and 9.6 for R and P respectively. This difference meant that clearance of CrEDTA could not be used as a technique in association with plasma concentration of allantoin to estimate urinary excretion of allantoin. (author)

  8. Study on pulsed-discharge devices with high current rising rate for point spot short-wavelength source in dense plasma observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachinami, Fumitaka; Anzai, Nobuyuki; Sasaki, Toru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Harada, Nob.

    2014-01-01

    A pulsed-power generator with high current rise based on a pulse-forming-network was studied toward generating intense point-spot X-ray source. To obtain the high rate of current rise, we have designed the compact discharge device with low circuit inductance. The results indicate that the inductance of the compact discharge device was dominated by a gap switch inductance. To reduce the gap switch inductance and operation voltage, the feasible gap switch inductance in the vacuum chamber has been estimated by the circuit simulation. The gap switch inductance can be reduced by the lower pressure operation. It means that the designed discharge device achieves the rate of current rise of 10 12 A/s

  9. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Credit: CDC A male cayenne tick, Amblyomma cajennense, ... and New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases are becoming ...

  10. Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles in Listeria innocua Dps (DNA-binding protein from starved cells): a study with the wild-type protein and a catalytic centre mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Pierpaolo; Chiancone, Emilia; Kasyutich, Oksana; Bellapadrona, Giuliano; Castelli, Lisa; Fittipaldi, Maria; Gatteschi, Dante; Innocenti, Claudia; Sangregorio, Claudio

    2010-01-11

    A comparative analysis of the magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles grown in the cavity of the DNA-binding protein from starved cells of the bacterium Listeria innocua, LiDps, and of its triple-mutant lacking the catalytic ferroxidase centre, LiDps-tm, is presented. TEM images and static and dynamic magnetic and electron magnetic resonance (EMR) measurements reveal that, under the applied preparation conditions, namely alkaline pH, high temperature (65 degrees C), exclusion of oxygen, and the presence of hydrogen peroxide, maghemite and/or magnetite nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 3 nm are mineralised inside the cavities of both LiDps and LiDps-tm. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) thus formed show similar magnetic properties, with superparamagnetic behaviour above 4.5 K and a large magnetic anisotropy. Interestingly, in the EMR spectra an absorption at half-field is observed, which can be considered as a manifestation of the quantum behaviour of the MNPs. These results indicate that Dps proteins can be advantageously used for the production of nanomagnets at the interface between molecular clusters and traditional MNPs and that the presence of the ferroxidase centre, though increasing the efficiency of nanoparticle formation, does not affect the nature and fine structure of the MNPs. Importantly, the self-organisation of MNP-containing Dps on HRTEM grids suggests that Dps-enclosed MNPs can be deposited on surfaces in an ordered fashion.

  11. Kineococcus radiotolerans Dps forms a heteronuclear Mn-Fe ferroxidase center that may explain the Mn-dependent protection against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardini, Matteo; Fiorillo, Annarita; Fittipaldi, Maria; Stefanini, Simonetta; Gatteschi, Dante; Ilari, Andrea; Chiancone, Emilia

    2013-06-01

    The ferroxidase center of DNA-binding protein from starved cells (Dps) is a major player in the iron oxidation/detoxification process that leads to a decreased reactive oxygen species production. The possible Mn(II) participation in this process has been studied in Dps from Kineococcus radiotolerans, a radiation-resistant bacterium with a high cytosolic Mn/Fe ratio and a high capacity to survive ionizing and stress conditions. The X-ray structure of recombinant K. radiotolerans Dps loaded with Mn(II) has been solved at 2.0Å resolution. Mn(II) binding to K. radiotolerans Dps and its effect on Fe(II) oxidation have been characterized in spectroscopic measurements. In K. radiotolerans Dps, the Fe-Fe ferroxidase center can have a Mn-Fe composition. Mn(II) binds only at the high affinity, so-called A site, whereas Fe(II) binds also at the low affinity, so-called B site. The Mn-Fe and Fe-Fe centers behave distinctly upon iron oxidation by O2. A site-bound Mn(II) or Fe(II) plays a catalytic role, while B site-bound Fe(II) behaves like a substrate and can be replaced by another Fe(II) after oxidation. When H2O2 is the Fe(II) oxidant, single electrons are transferred to aromatic residues near the ferroxidase center and give rise to intra-protein radicals thereby limiting OH release in solution. The presence of the Mn-Fe center results in significant differences in the development of such intra-protein radicals. Mn(II) bound at the Dps ferroxidase center A site undergoes redox cycling provided the B site contains Fe. The results provide a likely molecular mechanism for the protective role of Mn(II) under oxidative stress conditions as it participates in redox cycling in the hetero-binuclear ferroxidase center. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of kinematic demixing of polymer blend deuterated polystyrene (d-PS) and polyvinylmethylether (PVME) with neutron small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee Madeira, H.T.

    1989-03-01

    The scope of this work is the investigation of the system PV ME/d-PS by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements were done with a pinhole-camera and a high resolution double crystal diffractometer and covered the resolution range from 10 -3 to 3x10 -2 A -1 and 2x10 -5 to 6x10 -4 A -1 respectively. As a basis for these investigations the phase diagram of a PVME/d-PS mixture was measured with SANS. The spinodal for different curve between stable and demixing region was obtained. For PVME with molecular weights M ω =60000 and d-PS with M ω =215103 the critical point is at the concentration Φ=0.2. From the spinodal and the structure factor the Flory-Huggins parameter Χ could be extracted as a function of temperature. It was found that Χ=0 for T comp =135 0 C and Χ is independent of the molecular weight within the accuracy of the data, thus Χ may be associated with a local interaction parameter. The scattering experiments for the determination of the spinodal confirmed the mean-field behaviour of the critical scattering which was earlier found by Herkt-Maetzky and Schelten. Further, the time dependence of the structure factor in the miscibility gap was investigated. From the structure factors, specially from the position Q max of their maxima, a characteristic length was extracted. (orig./RB) [de

  13. Eksistensi DPS dalam Memoderasi Pengaruh Pembiayaan, Kinerja Keuangan dan Pengungkapan CSR pada Bank Umum Syariah di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Masykuroh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted as motivated by previous research related to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Previous researchfound mixed results seen from factors that influence the level of disclosure of CSR such as size, leverage, profitability (financial performance, board composition and ownership structure. The results of these findings is the space to do the test again to make the development or change in methodology. While the results of related research in Islamic banks are financing gap (lack. To the researchers intend to analyze whether the financial effect on the financial performance of Islamic banks as well as the extent to which the existence of the Syaria Supervisory Board moderating relationship. After that study also examines whether financial performance (profitability affect the disclosure of CSR by entering the variable composition of the Council to moderate the relationship. Methodology that differentiates it from previous research, the supervisory board who previously used as a moderating variable became an independent variable by using Islamicity Disclosure Index and analysis tool using the Moderation Regression Analysis. The results showed no significant effect of financing, profitability and CSR Disclosure, and the role of DPS was also moderate the influence of the relationship between financing and profitability, but the Board of Commissioners did not moderate the influence of the relationship between profitability and CSR disclosure

  14. Hot spot formation on different tokamak wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedospasov, A.V.; Bezlyudny, I.V.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal contraction phenomenon and generation of 'hot spots' due to thermoemission were described. The paper consider non-linear stages of heat contraction on the graphite, beryllium, tungsten and vanadium wall. It is shown that on the beryllium surface hot spot can't appear due to strong cooling by sublimation. For other materials the conditions of hot spot appearance due to local superheating of the wall have been calculated and their parameters were found: critical surface temperature, size of spots and their temperature profiles, heat fluxes from plasma to the spots. It have been calculated fluxes of sublimating materials from spots to the plasma. It is noticed that nominal temperature of the grafite divertor plate, accepted in ITER's project to being equal 1500 C, is lower then critical temperature of the development heat contraction due to thermoemission. (orig.)

  15. Effects of small, intense laser spots on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, K.

    1986-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations show that small diameter laser spots burn through flat foils considerably faster than larger spots. The physical mechanisms are (1) more nearly spherical divergence from the smaller spots which allows the debris to rapidly convect radially away from the small volume of laser heated plasma and (2) a variation on thermal self-focusing in which light is refracted into this volume, increasing the local heating rate

  16. Assessing the combined influence of TOC and black carbon in soil–air partitioning of PBDEs and DPs from the Indus River Basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C.; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-01-01

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs and ∑DPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002–0.53 ng g −1 in the surface soils while 1.43–22.1 and 0.19–7.59 pg m −3 in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (f BC ) and total organic carbon (f TOC ) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04–0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of f BC than f TOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta–bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil–air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (K OA ) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (K BC−A ). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area. - Highlights: • Model based calculations of black carbon-air partition coefficients for PBDEs. • Soil and air levels of PBDEs and DPs reported first time for ecologically important sites of the Indus River Basin, Pakistan. • Both, f BC and f TOC showed combined influence on soil–air partitioning of PBDEs in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan. - BC and TOC showed combined influence on soil–air partitioning of POPs i-e., PBDEs in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan

  17. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor Structure and Uniform Differential Item Functioning Across Gender and Three Racial/Ethnic Groups for ADHD, Conduct Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesner, Margit; Kanouse, David E.; Elliott, Marc N.; Windle, Michael; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM–IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 chi...

  18. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  19. [Study on Hexagonal Super-Lattice Pattern with Light Spot and Dim Spot in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Dong, Li-fang; Niu, Xue-jiao; Zhang, Chao

    2016-02-01

    The hexagonal super-lattice pattern composed of the light spot and the dim spot is firstly observed and investigated in the discharge of gas mixture of air and argon by using the dielectric barrier discharge device with double water electrodes. It is found that the dim spot is located at the center of its surrounding three light spots by observing the discharge image. Obviously, the brightness of the light spot and the dim spot are different, which indicates that the plasma states of the light spot and the dim spot may be different. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the light spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the light spot and the dim spot are calculated. Based on the relative intensity ratio of the line at 391.4 nm and the N₂ line at 394.1 nm, the average electron energies of the light spot and the dim spot are investigated. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the light spot and the dim spot. The experiment shows that the molecule vibration temperature, average electron energy and the electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the light spot in the same argon content. The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the light spot and dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 70% to 95%, while average electron energies of the light spot and dim spot decrease gradually. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the decisive effect on the formation of the dim spot. The experiment above plays an important role in studying the formation mechanism of the hexagonal super-lattice pattern with light spot and

  20. Estimation method for volumes of hot spots created by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Kajii, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    As a ratio of volumes of hot spots to cones, which have the same lengths and bottom radii with the ones of hot spots, a simple and convenient method for estimating the volumes of hot spots is described. This calculation method is useful for the study of damage producing mechanism in hot spots, and is also convenient for the estimation of the electron-hole densities in plasma columns created by heavy ions in semiconductor detectors. (author)

  1. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  2. Arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrade, H.O.

    1989-01-01

    Arc spots are usually highly unstable and jump statistically over the cathode surface. In a magnetic field parallel to the surface, preferably they move in the retrograde direction; i.e., opposite to the Lorentzian rule. If the field is inclined with respect to the surface, the spots drift away at a certain angle with respect to the proper retrograde direction (Robson drift motion). These well-known phenomena are explained by one stability theory

  3. Laser spot detection based on reaction diffusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Dormido, R.; Duro, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2016), s. 1-11, č. článku 315. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser spot detection * laser beam detection * reaction diffusion models * Fitzhugh-Nagumo model * reaction diffusion computation * Turing patterns Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  4. CD and MCD spectroscopic studies of the two Dps miniferritin proteins from Bacillus anthracis: role of O2 and H2O2 substrates in reactivity of the diiron catalytic centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jennifer K; Liu, Xiaofeng S; Tosha, Takehiko; Diebold, Adrienne; Theil, Elizabeth C; Solomon, Edward I

    2010-12-14

    DNA protection during starvation (Dps) proteins are miniferritins found in bacteria and archaea that provide protection from uncontrolled Fe(II)/O radical chemistry; thus the catalytic sites are targets for antibiotics against pathogens, such as anthrax. Ferritin protein cages synthesize ferric oxymineral from Fe(II) and O(2)/H(2)O(2), which accumulates in the large central cavity; for Dps, H(2)O(2) is the more common Fe(II) oxidant contrasting with eukaryotic maxiferritins that often prefer dioxygen. To better understand the differences in the catalytic sites of maxi- versus miniferritins, we used a combination of NIR circular dichroism (CD), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and variable-temperature, variable-field MCD (VTVH MCD) to study Fe(II) binding to the catalytic sites of the two Bacillus anthracis miniferritins: one in which two Fe(II) react with O(2) exclusively (Dps1) and a second in which both O(2) or H(2)O(2) can react with two Fe(II) (Dps2). Both result in the formation of iron oxybiomineral. The data show a single 5- or 6-coordinate Fe(II) in the absence of oxidant; Fe(II) binding to Dps2 is 30× more stable than Dps1; and the lower limit of K(D) for binding a second Fe(II), in the absence of oxidant, is 2-3 orders of magnitude weaker than for the binding of the single Fe(II). The data fit an equilibrium model where binding of oxidant facilitates formation of the catalytic site, in sharp contrast to eukaryotic M-ferritins where the binuclear Fe(II) centers are preformed before binding of O(2). The two different binding sequences illustrate the mechanistic range possible for catalytic sites of the family of ferritins.

  5. The design of LMJ focal spots for indirect drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Garrec, B J; Sajer, J M

    2008-01-01

    LMJ is a 240 high power laser beam facility for achieving laser matter interaction experiments, high energy density science, including the demonstration of fusion ignition through Inertial Confinement. The Laser Integration Line (LIL) facility is currently a 4-beam prototype for LMJ. The intensity I 0 at the focal spot centre drives hydrodynamic and plasma instabilities and the intensity in the wings must be low to go through the laser entrance Hohlraum. A simple model has been developed to compute the LMJ focal spot. The model gives the intensity at the centre as a function of the focal spot area at 3% of the maximum

  6. Random phase plate hot spots and their effect on stimulated Brillouin backscatter and self-focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Laser hot spots, as determined by Random Phase Plate (RPP) hot spots, control the critical value of the average intensity, I c , at which there is a rapid onset of stimulated scatter in the strongly damped convective regime of three wave parametric instabilities. For the case of stimulated Brillouin backscatter in a long scale length plasma, nascent hot spot ponderomotive self-focusing is shown to reduce the value of I c in the regime of very strongly damped acoustic waves. RPP hot spots have two, intrinsically nonlinear, thresholds for ponderomotive self-focusing. Large intensity amplifications occur in the hot spot neighborhood when the hot spot power exceeds a certain critical power, P c , which is independent of the optic's f number, F. When the second, F-dependent, hot spot power threshold is exceeded, a filament emerges from the far side of the hot spot, whose extent grows erratically in time

  7. TV spots' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-bakly, S

    1994-09-01

    The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates.

  8. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-01-01

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The author...

  9. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  10. Studies of Hot Spots in Imploding Wire Arrays at 1 MA on COBRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikuz, Sergey A.; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; McBride, Ryan D.; Hammer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We present recent results from hot spot investigations in imploding Al wire array z-pinches on the COBRA generator at Cornell University using x-ray diagnostics. Measurements of the temporal and spatial distribution of hot spots in stagnating plasmas by an x-ray streak-camera are included. Experiments show that hot spots have nanosecond lifetime and appear randomly along the array axis after plasma stagnation in secondary pinches in 8 mm diameter and during plasma stagnation in the arrays with 4 mm diameter.

  11. On the Spot: Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Male, Alan; Butterfield, Moira

    2000-01-01

    This a children's non-fiction, knowledge bearing picture book that is part of a Reader's Digest series called 'On the Spot'. The series deals with a range of topics related to the natural world and this one introduces its young audience to the ecosystems of the oceans. \\ud The publication was illustrated and designed by the author (Alan Male) and is technically described as a board book with interactive 'pop up' features, specifically conceived to engage children's discovery and learning thro...

  12. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  13. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-04-19

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B(12) injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The authors hope to alert clinicians to think of various differentials of Roth spots, and initiate prompt investigation and management.

  14. Relation between surface roughness and number of cathode spots of a low-pressure arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Iwao, Toru; Yumoto, Motoshige

    2008-01-01

    A remarkable characteristic of the cathode spot of a low-pressure arc is that it can remove an oxide layer preferentially. Recently, cathode spots of a low-pressure arc have been used for cleaning metal oxide surfaces before thermal spraying or surface modification. Nevertheless, few reports have described the cathode spot movement or the oxide removal process. This experiment was carried out using a Fe+C cathode workpiece and a cylindrical copper anode. The cathode spot movement was recorded using a high-speed video camera. The images were later analysed using plasma image processing. The workpiece surface, which was covered with a 9.67 μm thick oxide, was analysed using laser microscopy after processing. The surface roughness and the number of cathode spots showed no direct relation because the current density per cathode spot did not change according to the number of cathode spots.

  15. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  16. Statistical analysis of the sizes and velocities of laser hot spots of smoothed beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.; Videau, L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a precise description of the characteristics of the hot spots of a partially coherent laser pulse. The average values of the sizes and velocities of the hot spots are computed, as well as the corresponding probability density functions. Applications to the speckle patterns generated by optical smoothing techniques for uniform irradiation in plasma physics are discussed

  17. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  18. Cathodic Arcs From Fractal Spots to Energetic Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Emphasizes the fractal character of cathode spots, and describes strongly fluctuating plasma properties such as the presence of multiply charged ions that move with supersonic velocity. This book also deals with issues, such as arc source construction, and macroparticle removal. It is intended for scientists, practitioners, and students alike

  19. Performance of the biomerieux DBS puncher and dried blood spots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The latest World Health Organization recommendations request viral load (VL) testing, if possible, for monitoring HIV-1 infections. However, the use of plasma is an obstacle to realize this test in sub-Saharan Africa. In this context, the dried blood spot (DBS) is an interesting tool for sample collections.

  20. Dried blood spots as a source of anti-malarial antibodies for epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corran, Patrick H; Cook, Jackie; Lynch, Caroline; Leendertse, Heleen; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Griffin, Jamie; Cox, Jonathan; Abeku, Tarekegn; Bousema, Teun; Ghani, Azra C; Drakeley, Chris; Riley, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    Background Blood spots collected onto filter paper are an established and convenient source of antibodies for serological diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. Although recommendations for the storage and analysis of small molecule analytes in blood spots exist, there are no published systematic studies of the stability of antibodies under different storage conditions. Methods Blood spots, on filter paper or glass fibre mats and containing malaria-endemic plasma, were desiccated and stored at various temperatures for different times. Eluates of these spots were assayed for antibodies against two Plasmodium falciparum antigens, MSP-119 and MSP2, and calculated titres used to fit an exponential (first order kinetic) decay model. The first order rate constants (k) for each spot storage temperature were used to fit an Arrhenius equation, in order to estimate the thermal and temporal stability of antibodies in dried blood spots. The utility of blood spots for serological assays was confirmed by comparing antibodies eluted from blood spots with the equivalent plasma values in a series of samples from North Eastern Tanzania and by using blood spot-derived antibodies to estimate malaria transmission intensity in this site and for two localities in Uganda. Results Antibodies in spots on filter paper and glass fibre paper had similar stabilities but blood was more easily absorbed onto filter papers than glass fibre, spots were more regular and spot size was more closely correlated with blood volume for filter paper spots. Desiccated spots could be stored at or below 4°C for extended periods, but were stable for only very limited periods at ambient temperature. When desiccated, recoveries of antibodies that are predominantly of IgG1 or IgG3 subclasses were similar. Recoveries of antibodies from paired samples of serum and of blood spots from Tanzania which had been suitably stored showed similar recoveries of antibodies, but spots which had been stored for extended periods

  1. Heterologous expression of Anabaena PCC 7120 all3940 (a Dps family gene) protects Escherichia coli from nutrient limitation and abiotic stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Om Prakash; Kumari, Nidhi; Rai, Lal Chand

    2010-01-01

    This study presents first hand data on the cloning and heterologous expression of Anabaena PCC 7120 all3940 (a dps family gene) in combating nutrients limitation and multiple abiotic stresses. The Escherichia coli transformed with pGEX-5X-2-all3940 construct when subjected to iron, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus limitation and carbofuron, copper, UV-B, heat, salt and cadmium stress registered significant increase in growth over the cells transformed with empty vector under iron (0%), carbon (0.05%), nitrogen (3.7 mM) and phosphorus (2 mM) limitation and carbofuron (0.025 mg ml -1 ), CuCl 2 (1 mM), UV-B (10 min), heat (47 o C), NaCl (6% w/v) and CdCl 2 (4 mM) stress. Enhanced expression of all3940 gene measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different time points under above mentioned treatments clearly demonstrates its role in tolerance against aforesaid abiotic stresses. This study opens the gate for developing transgenic cyanobacteria capable of growing successfully under above mentioned stresses.

  2. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor structure and uniform differential item functioning across gender and three racial/ethnic groups for ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Kanouse, David E; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM-IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 children from three geographical regions who took part in the Healthy Passages study (mean age = 12.60 years, SD = 0.66). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the expected 3-factor structure was tenable for the data. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling revealed uniform DIF for three ADHD and 9 ODD item scores, but not for any of the CD item scores. Uniform DIF was observed predominantly as a function of child race/ethnicity, but minimally as a function of child gender. On the positive side, uniform DIF had little impact on latent mean differences of ADHD, CD, and ODD symptomatology among gender and racial/ethnic groups. Implications of the findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Characterization of LIL laser UV focal spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangeant, M.; Dubois, J.L.; Behar, G.; Arroyo, P.; Durand, V.; Lahonde, C.

    2006-01-01

    One way to get the fusion of hydrogen in laboratory consists in heating and compressing a DT fuel capsule by using a laser. To reach this aim requires a new generation of high power laser facility. Cea (French board for atomic energy) is developing for this purpose a new 240 laser line facility, the LMJ facility. The LIL which is the prototype of four LMJ laser lines is operational now. In order to confirm the technical choices, a systematic characterization of LIL was carried out. A particular effort has been provided to measure the 3ω high energy focal spot (1.5 kJ/700 ps and 5 ns for one beam) and the synchronization of laser beams onto the target, which are key issues for the plasma production. An experimental device, SAT-3ω (a 3ω laser focal spot analysis) has been designed to perform these measures. That diagnostic which is located at the end of the laser lines delivered its first results during the 2004 quadruplet qualification campaigns. The near field imaging showed no diaphony and vignetting. Low power spots allowed us to control we had no ghost. The energy measurement quality showed the photometric transfer function was perfectly known. Our caustic image are given with an average dynamic range of 800, a spatial resolution of 10 μm and diameter accuracy about 1% for 50% and 3% for 90% of encircled energy. The high energy focal spot diameters are in agreement with low and very low energy diameters. The phase plate and 14 GHz effects are similar to what we had expected. For a laser shot completed with a continuous phase plate at 14 GHz, and for an energy level of 1.5 kJ per beam at 351 nm, the focal beam diameter at 3% of the peak level is (875 ± 45) μm

  4. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  6. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  7. Simulations of Electron Transport in Laser Hot Spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, S.; Valeo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Simulations of electron transport are carried out by solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the diffusive approximation. The system of a single laser hot spot, with open boundary conditions, is systematically studied by performing a scan over a wide range of the two relevant parameters: (1) Ratio of the stopping length over the width of the hot spot. (2) Relative importance of the heating through inverse Bremsstrahlung compared to the thermalization through self-collisions. As for uniform illumination [J.P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30 (1988) 1665], the bulk of the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) present a super-Gaussian dependence. However, as a result of spatial transport, the tails are observed to be well represented by a Maxwellian. A similar dependence of the distributions is also found for multiple hot spot systems. For its relevance with respect to stimulated Raman scattering, the linear Landau damping of the electron plasma wave is estimated for such VD Fs. Finally, the nonlinear Fokker-Planck simulations of the single laser hot spot system are also compared to the results obtained with the linear non-local hydrodynamic approach [A.V. Brantov et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 2742], thus providing a quantitative limit to the latter method: The hydrodynamic approach presents more than 10% inaccuracy in the presence of temperature variations of the order delta T/T greater than or equal to 1%, and similar levels of deformation of the Gaussian shape of the Maxwellian background

  8. Statistical properties of laser hot spots produced by a random phase plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.A.; DuBois, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    A quantitative theory of laser hot spots, which control plasma instabilities in real laser--plasma interactions, is presented in the case of random phase plate (RPP) optics. It is shown that the probability density of intense hot spots with intensity I, P hot (I), is given by P hot (I)∼(I/I 0 2 )exp(-I/I 0 ) where I 0 is the average intensity, and that the detailed amplitude and phase variation of the laser field in the vicinity of an intense hot spot is uniquely specified by the optics and is deterministic. These hot spots may be the source of below threshold stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and its variation with I 0 is shown to be super exponential. A brief preview of a quantitative nonlinear theory of hot-spot-induced laser filamentation is presented

  9. Suspected hypoglycaemia in out patient practice: accuracy of dried blood spot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D R; Bargiota, A; Cowan, F J; Corrall, R J

    1997-12-01

    The assay of dried blood spots on filter paper to determine blood glucose concentration has been used to detect hypoglycaemia in out patients. We assessed the accuracy of this approach in assaying blood glucose concentrations in the hypoglycaemic range. Volunteers were rendered hypoglycaemic by intravenous infusion of insulin. The glucose concentration in simultaneously taken blood samples was measured either fresh or after drying on filter paper. Twenty-four healthy young volunteers and 9 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes were studied. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured using a standard auto analyser glucose oxidase method. Whole blood taken simultaneously was placed on prepared filter paper and allowed to dry; glucose concentration was then measured using a well-established technique. A correction factor was applied to convert the glucose concentration of plasma to that of whole blood. The relationship between glucose concentrations measured by the two methods was determined by regression coefficient. In the unequivocally hypoglycaemic range (plasma dried blood spot glucose concentrations significantly correlated with standard plasma glucose concentrations (r = 0.81; P dried blood spot method had a sensitivity of 91%. In the range designated probable hypoglycaemia (plasma dried blood spot method was 100% in both ranges. Measurement of glucose concentrations in dried blood spots is specific and sensitive in the hypoglycaemic range. The present study indicates that hypoglycaemia may be excluded or confirmed respectively when levels in excess of 3.7 or below 2.8 mmol/l are found in uncorrected dried blood spot analysis.

  10. Spotting psychopaths using technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Sarah; Adeli, Hojjat

    2015-01-01

    For the past three and a half decades, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the self-report Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) have been the standard measures for the diagnosis of psychopathy. Technological approaches can enhance these diagnostic methodologies. The purpose of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art review of various technological approaches for spotting psychopathy, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and other measures. Results of EEG event-related potential (ERP) experiments support the theory that impaired amygdala function may be responsible for abnormal fear processing in psychopathy, which can ultimately manifest as psychopathic traits, as outlined by the PCL-R or PPI-R. Imaging studies, in general, point to reduced fear processing capabilities in psychopathic individuals. While the human element, introduced through researcher/participant interactions, can be argued as unequivocally necessary for diagnosis, these purely objective technological approaches have proven to be useful in conjunction with the subjective interviewing and questionnaire methods for differentiating psychopaths from non-psychopaths. Furthermore, these technologies are more robust than behavioral measures, which have been shown to fail.

  11. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  12. Hot spots on the neutralizer plates of a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of hot spots on the neutralizing surfaces of tokamaks may be one of the reasons for the entry of large impurity fluxes into the plasmas of TFTR and JET (the so-called carbon catastrophe or carbon bloom) with high auxiliary heating powers. At this time it is unclear whether these hot spots are caused just by nonuniformities on the neutralizer surface or whether their appearance is the result of some more general behavior, with the surface nonuniformities only showing up as seed perturbations. In this paper it is shown that hot spots can also develop on smooth surfaces of carbon neutralizer plates as a result of the contraction of a heat flux incident on the plates

  13. Measurements of hot spots and electron beams in Z-pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.

    1988-04-01

    Hot spots and Electron Beams have been observed in different types of Z-pinches. There is, however, no conclusive evidence on how either are formed although there has been much theoretical interest in both these phenomena. In this thesis, nanosecond time resolved and time correlated, X-ray and optical diagnostics, are performed on two different types of Z-pinch: a 4 kJ, 30 kV Gas Puff Z-pinch and a 28 kJ, 60 kV Plasma Focus. The aim being to study hot spots and electron beams, as well as characterise the plasma, two different Z-pinch devices. Computer codes are developed to analyse the energy and time resolved data obtained in this work. These codes model both, X-ray emission from a plasma and X-ray emission due to electron beam bombardment of a metal surface. The hot spot and electron beam parameters are measured, from the time correlated X-ray data using these computer codes. The electron beams and the hot spots are also correlated to the plasma behaviour and to each other. The results from both devices are compared with each other and with the theoretical work on hot spot and electron beam formation. A previously unreported 3-5 keV electron temperature plasma is identified, in the gas puff Z-pinch plasma, prior to the formation of the hot spots. it is shown, therefore, that the hot spots are more dense but not hotter than the surrounding plasma. Two distinct periods of electron beam generation are identified in both devices. (author)

  14. Effect of the small accessary laser spots on the harmonic emission stimulated by self-focusing of a 10-micrometer scale laser spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zunqi; Zhang Huihuang; He Xingfa

    1992-01-01

    A novel group of experiments has shown that single 10-micrometer-radius-scale laser spot is not able to produce the 90 deg side emitted three half harmonic efficiently in a preformed laser plasmas. However, with the help of one or two accessory laser spots with the size similar to the main one, the side emitted three half can easily built up when some position and angle conditions for the accessory spots are fulfilled. The origin of these phenomena have been analyzed in terms of the two plasmon decay theory and dynamic self-focusing model

  15. Numerical optimisation in spot detector design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Apperloo, W.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    1997-01-01

    Spots are image details resulting from objects, the projections of which are so small that the inner structure of these objects cannot be resolved from their image. Spot detectors are image operators aiming at the detection and localisation of spots in the image. Most spot detectors can be tuned

  16. Managing emerging threats to spotted owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Yi Wan; Joseph L. Ganey; Christina D. Vojta; Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-01-01

    The 3 spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies in North America (i.e., northern spotted owl [S. o. caurina], California spotted owl [S. o. occidentalis], Mexican spotted owl [S. o. lucida]) have all experienced population declines over the past century due to habitat loss and fragmentation from logging. Now, the emerging influences of climate change, high-severity...

  17. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random spot...

  18. A comparative study of x-ray emission from laser spots in laser-heated hohlraums relative to spots on simple disk targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ze, F.; Langer, S.H.; Kauffman, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Landen, O.; Ress, D.; Rosen, M.D.; Suter, L.J.; Wallace, R.J.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of experiments that compare the x-ray emission from a laser spot in a radiation-filled hohlraum to that from a similar laser spot on a simple disk target. The studies were done using the Nova laser facility [J. D. Lindl, Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)] in its 0.35 μm wavelength, 1 ns square pulse configuration. Focal spot intensities were 2 endash 3.5x10 15 W/cm 2 . X-ray images measured x-ray conversion in a hohlraum and from an isolated disk simultaneously. A laser spot inside a hohlraum emitted more x rays, after subtracting the background emission from the hohlraum walls, than a spot on a disk. Numerical models suggest the enhanced spot emission inside the hohlraum is due to an increase in lateral transport relative to the disk. Filamentation in the hohlraum will also increase the spot size. The models agree fairly well with the results on spot spreading but do not explain the overall increase in conversion efficiency. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  20. Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z.; Berk, H. L.

    2014-10-01

    The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  1. Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Berk, H. L. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  2. Hot spots in Ar and Ne gas puff Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, A.; Krousky, E.; Renner, O.

    1989-02-01

    The hot spots in Ar and Ne pinch plasma were investigated. Two pinhole cameras with entrance diameter 13 to 250 μm and flat crystal spectrographs with Si and KAP crystals were used for spatially and spectrally resolved soft X-ray diagnostics. The diameters of Ar (25 to 30 μm) and Ne (40 μm) hot spots were found. From X-ray spectrum of Ar spots the following plasma parameters were determined: T e =1.0 to 1.1 keV and n e =(1.8 to 4.0)x10 27 m -3 . The validity of the Bennett equilibrium for unstable hot spots is discussed. (author). 1 fig., 11 refs

  3. Morphological changes in ultrafast laser ablation plumes with varying spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harilal, S S; Diwakar, P K; Polek, M P; Phillips, M C

    2015-06-15

    We investigated the role of spot size on plume morphology during ultrafast laser ablation of metal targets. Our results show that the spatial features of fs LA plumes are strongly dependent on the focal spot size. Two-dimensional self-emission images showed that the shape of the ultrafast laser ablation plumes changes from spherical to cylindrical with an increasing spot size from 100 to 600 μm. The changes in plume morphology and internal structures are related to ion emission dynamics from the plasma, where broader angular ion distribution and faster ions are noticed for the smallest spot size used. The present results clearly show that the morphological changes in the plume with spot size are independent of laser pulse width.

  4. Poisson's spot and Gouy phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, I. G.; Soldati, Rodolfo; Cabral, L. A.; de Oliveira, J. G. G.; Sampaio, Marcos

    2016-12-01

    Recently there have been experimental results on Poisson spot matter-wave interferometry followed by theoretical models describing the relative importance of the wave and particle behaviors for the phenomenon. We propose an analytical theoretical model for Poisson's spot with matter waves based on the Babinet principle, in which we use the results for free propagation and single-slit diffraction. We take into account effects of loss of coherence and finite detection area using the propagator for a quantum particle interacting with an environment. We observe that the matter-wave Gouy phase plays a role in the existence of the central peak and thus corroborates the predominantly wavelike character of the Poisson's spot. Our model shows remarkable agreement with the experimental data for deuterium (D2) molecules.

  5. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  6. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  7. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  8. Statistical hot spot analysis of reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1974-05-01

    This report is an introduction into statistical hot spot analysis. After the definition of the term 'hot spot' a statistical analysis is outlined. The mathematical method is presented, especially the formula concerning the probability of no hot spots in a reactor core is evaluated. A discussion with the boundary conditions of a statistical hot spot analysis is given (technological limits, nominal situation, uncertainties). The application of the hot spot analysis to the linear power of pellets and the temperature rise in cooling channels is demonstrated with respect to the test zone of KNK II. Basic values, such as probability of no hot spots, hot spot potential, expected hot spot diagram and cumulative distribution function of hot spots, are discussed. It is shown, that the risk of hot channels can be dispersed equally over all subassemblies by an adequate choice of the nominal temperature distribution in the core

  9. Effect of the small-scale auxiliary laser spots on the 3ω0/2 harmonic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Zhang, H.; He, X.; Lin, K.; Wang, X.; Zhuang, Y.; Wang, L.; Wei, X.; Lu, Q.; Shi, A.; Dai, M.; Tian, L.; Fan, G.; Li, J.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have shown that a single 10-μm-radius laser spot is not able to produce the 90 degree side-emitted 3/2 harmonic efficiently in a preformed laser plasma. However, with the help of one or two auxiliary laser spots with a size similar to that of the main spot, the side-emitted 3/2 harmonic can frequently be detected when some positional and angular conditions for the auxiliary spots are met. The origin of these phenomena has been analyzed in terms of a proposed reflected laser photon-coupling model

  10. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  11. The spot market and the spot price: applicability and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of spot prices and their relationship to long-term contracting is addressed. The author is associated with Nuexco, which originally was called the Nuclear Exchange Corporation. They use the term Exchange Value which originated in the idea that Nuexco operated an exchange 'bank' - those with too much uranium could 'bank it', those with short-term needs could borrow from the 'bank'. If the borrower repaid slightly more or less the difference was settled using the 'exchange value'. This became used for longer-term transactions and now settling the monthly value is an important part of Nuexco's activities. The exact nature of the Exchange Value is defined. Now more and more buyers are insisting on spot market related pricing even where this is not meaningfully related to uranium production costs. (U.K.)

  12. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  13. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero; Danila Khikhlukha; J. M. Solano-Altamirano; Raquel Dormido; Natividad Duro

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presente...

  14. 7 CFR 1421.11 - Spot checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot checks. 1421.11 Section 1421.11 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.11 Spot checks. (a) CCC... CCC access to the farm and storage facility as necessary to conduct collateral inspections, or “spot...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1435 - Maxwell spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maxwell spot. 886.1435 Section 886.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1435 Maxwell spot. (a) Identification. A Maxwell spot is an AC...

  16. Spot på samtalen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneris, Sophie; Jensen, Tanja Dall; Caswell, Dorte

    Spot på samtalen sætter fokus på det, der konkret foregår i samtaler mellem borgere og de beskæftigelsesfaglige medarbejdere i jobcentrene. Da de udsatte grupper i mange tilfælde er langt fra arbejdsmarkedet, er interessen rettet mod, hvilke forhold i kontakten med beskæftigelsessystemet, der...... har betydning hvilke indsatser ledige modtager, men også hvordan de modtager dem. Her rettes blikket mod den centrale del af den beskæftigelsespolitiske indsats som samtalerne udgør. I Spot på samtalen er blikket rettet mod de dynamikker, mønstre og mekanismer, der kommer i spil i samtalerne i...

  17. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  19. Measurement of laser spot quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, T. D.; Treptau, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several ways of measuring spot quality are compared. We examine in detail various figures of merit such as full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at 1/(e exp 2) maximum, Strehl ratio, and encircled energy. Our application is optical data storage, but results can be applied to other areas like space communications and high energy lasers. We found that the optimum figure of merit in many cases is Strehl ratio.

  20. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  1. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuan Fang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index is also necessary since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemo...

  2. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  4. High specificity of spot urinary free metanephrines in diagnosis and prognosis of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas by HPLC with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ming; Zhen, Qianna; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zou, Wenbi; Yang, Xiangchun; Tian, Gang; Shi, Zhenghu; Li, Qifu; Ding, Min

    2018-03-01

    The metanephrines (MNs) in plasma and urine were proposed as biomarkers for the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs). However, plasma free MNs and 24h urinary fractionated MNs were not satisfactory enough in specificity for the diagnosis of PPGLs. Moreover, the collection of 24h urine was inconvenient. This work examined the diagnostic and prognostic efficiency of free MNs in spot urine for PPGLs. We measured free MNs concentration in spot urine and plasma of 28 PPGLs patients and 155 control subjects by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Postoperative free MNs levels in spot urine and plasma of 14 PPGLs patients were also determined. Creatinine (Cr) concentration was used for the correction of urine volume. The specificity of spot urinary free MNs/Cr in the diagnosis of PPGLs was significantly higher than that of plasma free MNs [normetanephrine (NMN), 98.7% (95.4%-99.8%) vs 93.0% (87.4%-96.6%); metanephrine (MN), 93.6% (88.5%-96.9%) vs 84.5% (77.5%-90.0%)]. Meanwhile, the positive likelihood ratios for spot urinary free NMN/Cr and MN/Cr were 69.21 and 13.29, compared with 12.68 and 5.30 for plasma free NMN and MN, respectively. For the PPGLs patients underwent surgery, the plasma free MNs level appeared an abnormal elevation and yielded false-positive results for some patients. Our findings were validated in an independent cohort, resulting in the specificity of 100% for both urinary free NMN/Cr and MN/Cr, and 97.3% and 83.8% for plasma free NMN and MN, respectively. Spot urinary free MNs/Cr, superior to plasma free MNs, presented a promising biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of PPGLs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spot formation of radiation particles by electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Tetsuya

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical etching (ECE) spot formation from the top of chemical etching (CE) spot was confirmed by a series of experiments. One of polycarbonate (Iupilon) could not make the spot, because ECE spot had grown up before the microscope confirming the CE spot. Clear CEC spots by α-ray and neutron were found on Harzlas and Baryotrak, both improvements of CR-39. Under the same etching conditions, the growth of ECE spot on Harzlas was more rapid than Baryotrak, but both spots were almost the same. All CE spot by α-ray produced the CEC spots, but a part of CE circle spot by neutron formed them. (S.Y.)

  6. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  7. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  8. Validation and Application of a Dried Blood Spot Ceftriaxone Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Sharp, Madhu; Nunn, Troy; Salman, Sam; Moore, Brioni R.; Batty, Kevin T.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) antibiotic assays can facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies in situations where venous blood sampling is logistically and/or ethically problematic. In this study, we aimed to develop, validate, and apply a DBS ceftriaxone assay. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) DBS ceftriaxone assay was assessed for matrix effects, process efficiency, recovery, variability, and limits of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD). The effects of hematocrit, protein binding, red cell partitioning, and chad positioning were evaluated, and thermal stability was assessed. Plasma, DBS, and cell pellet ceftriaxone concentrations in 10 healthy adults were compared, and plasma concentration-time profiles of DBS and plasma ceftriaxone were incorporated into population PK models. The LOQ and LOD for ceftriaxone in DBS were 0.14 mg/liter and 0.05 mg/liter, respectively. Adjusting for hematocrit, red cell partitioning, and relative recovery, DBS-predicted plasma concentrations were comparable to measured plasma concentrations (r > 0.95, P 95% initial concentrations in DBS for 14 h, 35 h, 30 days, 21 weeks, and >11 months, respectively. The present DBS ceftriaxone assay is robust and can be used as a surrogate for plasma concentrations to provide valid PK and PK/PD data in a variety of clinical situations, including in studies of young children and of those in remote or resource-poor settings. PMID:26438505

  9. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  10. Effects of Hot-Spot Geometry on Backscattering and Down-Scattering Neutron Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Z. L.; Mannion, O. M.; Forrest, C. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, K. S.; Radha, P. B.

    2017-10-01

    The measured neutron spectrum produced by a fusion experiment plays a key role in inferring observable quantities. One important observable is the areal density of an implosion, which is inferred by measuring the scattering of neutrons. This project seeks to use particle-transport simulations to model the effects of hot-spot geometry on backscattering and down-scattering neutron spectra along different lines of sight. Implosions similar to those conducted at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics are modeled by neutron transport through a DT plasma and a DT ice shell using the particle transport codes MCNP and IRIS. Effects of hot-spot geometry are obtained by ``detecting'' scattered neutrons along different lines of sight. This process is repeated for various hot-spot geometries representing known shape distortions between the hot spot and the shell. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  11. Effect of vacuum arc cathode spot distribution on breaking capacity of the arc-extinguishing chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Can; Yuan, Zhao; He, Junjia

    2017-10-01

    A DC circuit breaker performs a key function in breaking an intermediate-frequency (IF) current since breaking a pure IF current is equivalent to breaking a very small DC with a reverse IF current. In this study, it is found that cathode spots show a ring-shaped distribution at 2000 Hz. An arc with an uneven distribution of cathode spots has been simulated. The simulation results show that the distribution of cathode spots significantly affect the microparameter distribution of arc plasma. The current distribution on the anode side differs from that on the cathode side under the total radial electric field. Specifically, the anode current distribution is both uneven and concentrated. The applied axial magnetic field, which cannot reduce the concentrated anode current distribution effectively, might increase the concentration of the anode current. Finally, the uneven distribution of cathode spots reduces the breaking capacity of the arc-extinguishing chamber.

  12. Energy transport in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.

    1989-06-01

    The study of energy transport in laser produced plasmas is of great interest both because it tests and develops understanding of several aspects of basic plasma physics and also because it is of central importance in major applications of laser produced plasmas including laser fusion, the production of intense X-ray sources, and X-ray lasers. The three sections cover thermal electrons (energy transport in one dimension, plane targets and lateral transport from a focal spot, thermal smoothing, thermal instabilities), hot electrons (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport from a focal spot) and radiation (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport and smoothing, instabilities). (author)

  13. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  14. Collaboration spotting for dental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, E; Agocs, A; Fragkiskos, S; Kasfikis, N; Le Goff, J M; Cristalli, M P; Luzzi, V; Polimeni, A

    2014-10-06

    The goal of the Collaboration Spotting project is to create an automatic system to collect information about publications and patents related to a given technology, to identify the key players involved, and to highlight collaborations and related technologies. The collected information can be visualized in a web browser as interactive graphical maps showing in an intuitive way the players and their collaborations (Sociogram) and the relations among the technologies (Technogram). We propose to use the system to study technologies related to Dental Science. In order to create a Sociogram, we create a logical filter based on a set of keywords related to the technology under study. This filter is used to extract a list of publications from the Web of Science™ database. The list is validated by an expert in the technology and sent to CERN where it is inserted in the Collaboration Spotting database. Here, an automatic software system uses the data to generate the final maps. We studied a set of recent technologies related to bone regeneration procedures of oro--maxillo--facial critical size defects, namely the use of Porous HydroxyApatite (HA) as a bone substitute alone (bone graft) or as a tridimensional support (scaffold) for insemination and differentiation ex--vivo of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. We produced the Sociograms for these technologies and the resulting maps are now accessible on--line. The Collaboration Spotting system allows the automatic creation of interactive maps to show the current and historical state of research on a specific technology. These maps are an ideal tool both for researchers who want to assess the state--of--the--art in a given technology, and for research organizations who want to evaluate their contribution to the technological development in a given field. We demonstrated that the system can be used for Dental Science and produced the maps for an initial set of technologies in this field. We now plan to enlarge the set of mapped

  15. Collaboration Spotting for oral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, E; Agocs, A; Fragkiskos, S; Kasfikis, N; Le Goff, J M; Cristalli, M P; Luzzi, V; Polimeni, A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the Collaboration Spotting project is to create an automatic system to collect information about publications and patents related to a given technology, to identify the key players involved, and to highlight collaborations and related technologies. The collected information can be visualized in a web browser as interactive graphical maps showing in an intuitive way the players and their collaborations (Sociogram) and the relations among the technologies (Technogram). We propose to use the system to study technologies related to oral medicine. In order to create a sociogram, we create a logical filter based on a set of keywords related to the technology under study. This filter is used to extract a list of publications from the Web of Science™ database. The list is validated by an expert in the technology and sent to CERN where it is inserted in the Collaboration Spotting database. Here, an automatic software system uses the data to generate the final maps. We studied a set of recent technologies related to bone regeneration procedures of oro-maxillo-facial critical size defects, namely the use of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) as a bone substitute alone (bone graft) or as a tridimensional support (scaffold) for insemination and differentiation ex vivo of mesenchymal stem cells. We produced the sociograms for these technologies and the resulting maps are now accessible on-line. The Collaboration Spotting system allows the automatic creation of interactive maps to show the current and historical state of research on a specific technology. These maps are an ideal tool both for researchers who want to assess the state-of-the-art in a given technology, and for research organizations who want to evaluate their contribution to the technological development in a given field. We demonstrated that the system can be used in oral medicine as is produced the maps for an initial set of technologies in this field. We now plan to enlarge the set of mapped technologies in

  16. Energy is not Coffee. An assessment of blind spots on energy spot-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepma, C.J.; Spijker, E.; Van der Gaast, W.; De Jong, F.; Overmars, P.

    2006-01-01

    This study was to be the first in a series of studies on the title subject. It specifically focuses on the differences and similarities with a number of other spot-markets and aims to frame the energy spot markets and their potential development into a broader perspective. Main conclusion is that energy spot-markets differ from several other physical and non-physical spot-markets in many ways. This implies that 'perfect' energy spot-markets may inherently be (much) less perfect than other spot-markets that have approximated the stage of theoretical perfection

  17. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  18. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  19. Solar hot spots are still hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22. 14 refs

  20. Dried plasma spots in the diagnosis of tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabye, Martine G; Latorre, Irene; Diaz, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-γ release assays (IGRA) are probably the most accurate tests for detection of latent M.tuberculosis infection, but IGRAs are labour intensive and transport of samples over longer distances is difficult. IP-10 is expressed at 100-fold higher levels than IFN-γ, and IP-10 release assays...

  1. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a research prototype of a decision support tool for ATC tower controllers to assist in manging and controlling traffic on the surface of an airport. SARDA employs a scheduler to generate an optimal runway schedule and gate push-back - spot release sequence and schedule that improves efficiency of surface operations. The advisories for ATC tower controllers are displayed on an Electronic Flight Strip (EFS) system. The human-in-the-loop simulation of the SARDA tool was conducted for east operations of Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) to evaluate performance of the SARDA tool and human factors, such as situational awareness and workload. The results indicates noticeable taxi delay reduction and fuel savings by using the SARDA tool. Reduction in controller workload were also observed throughout the scenario runs. The future plan includes modeling and simulation of the ramp operations of the Charlotte International Airport, and develop a decision support tool for the ramp controllers.

  2. X-ray spot filmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray apparatus is described which includes a spot filmer for feeding sheets of unexposed film one at a time into a vacuum evacuable cassette for exposure, and for returning exposed film sheets to an exposed film magazine. The spot filmer has a housing defining a light-tight enclosure. The film magazines are insertable through a door into the housing and into a film feed mechanism. The film feed mechanism unlatches, opens and positions the magazines; it then feeds a sheet of unexposed film into the vacuum evacuable cassette, releases the film sheet so the cassette can position the film sheet for exposure, and closes the film magazines. An orthogonal drive system positions the vacuum evacuable cassette to expose selected film sheet portions and returns the cassette to a retracted position. The film feed mechanism opens the magazines, feeds the exposed film sheet into the exposed film magazine, and closes the magazines. A film identification system is provided for forming an identifying image on a marginal portion of each film sheet

  3. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuanfang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2007-06-01

    The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index would be also interesting since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry which uses two large beams. In this case, the images of the particle formed by the reflected and refracted light, known as glare spots, are separated in space. When a particle passes in the probe volume, the two parts in a signal obtained by a detector in forward direction are then separated in time. If two detectors are used the phase differences between two signals, the distance and the intensity ratio of reflected and refracted parts can be obtained and they provide rich information about the particle diameter and its refractive index, as well as its velocity. This paper is devoted to the numerical study of such a configuration with two theoretical models: geometrical optics and rigorous electromagnetism solution.

  4. Oil futures and spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samii, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade, the oil futures market has risen to prominence and has become a major factor in influencing oil market psychology and the crude oil market. On a normal day, over 92 thousand contracts, the equivalent of 92 million barrels per day, change hands on the New York Mercantile Exchange, NYMEX. This market has provided a vehicle for hedging against risk. At the same time, it has also created opportunities for speculation. Those who previously were unable to participate in oil market transactions can now become involved through the futures market. The large number of participants in the future market and the availability of information has made this market more efficient and transparent, relative to the crude oil market. While there has been considerable in-depth analysis of other future markets, relatively little theoretical attention has focused on that of oil. This paper looks at the following issues. First, what is the relationship between futures and spot oil prices? And secondly, are futures prices a good predictor of spot crude prices in the future? (author)

  5. Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation symptoms of metal fumes exposure on automobile spot welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Shen, Wu-Shiun

    2006-06-01

    Spot or resistance welding has been considered less hazardous than other types of welding. Automobile manufacturing is a major industry in Taiwan. Spot and arc welding are common processes in this industry. The respiratory effects on automobile spot welders exposed to metal fumes are investigated. The cohort consisted of 41 male auto-body spot welders, 76 male arc welders, 71 male office workers, and 59 assemblers without welding exposure. Inductivity Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) was applied to detect metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in the post-shift urine samples. Demographic data, work history, smoking status, and respiratory tract irritation symptoms were gathered by a standard self-administered questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also performed. There were significantly higher values for average urine metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in spot welders and arc welders than in the non-welding controls. There were 4 out of 23 (17.4%) abnormal forced vital capacity (FVC) among the high-exposed spot welders, 2 out of 18 (11.1%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 6 out of 130 (4.6%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of restrictive airway abnormalities (P = 0.036) after adjusting for other factors. There were 9 out of 23 (39.1%) abnormal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) among high-exposed spot welders, 5 out of 18 (27.8%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 28 out of 130 (21.5%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a borderline significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of obstructive lung function abnormalities (P = 0.084) after adjusting for other factors. There was also a significant dose-response relationship of airway irritation symptoms (cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis) among the spot welders. Arc welders with high exposure status also had a significant risk of obstructive lung abnormalities (PEFR

  6. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  7. SU-E-T-510: Interplay Between Spots Sizes, Spot / Line Spacing and Motion in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, TK

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In proton beam configuration for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT), one can define the spacing between spots and lines of scanning as a ratio of given spot size. If the spacing increases, the number of spots decreases which can potentially decrease scan time, and so can whole treatment time, and vice versa. However, if the spacing is too large, the uniformity of scanned field decreases. Also, the field uniformity can be affected by motion during SSPT beam delivery. In the present study, the interplay between spot/ line spacing and motion is investigated. Methods We used four Gaussian-shape spot sizes with 0.5cm, 1.0cm, 1.5cm, and 2.0cm FWHM, three spot/line spacing that creates uniform field profile which are 1/3*FWHM, σ/3*FWHM and 2/3*FWHM, and three random motion amplitudes within, +/−0.3mm, +/−0.5mm, and +/−1.0mm. We planned with 2Gy uniform single layer of 10×10cm2 and 20×20cm2 fields. Then, mean dose within 80% area of given field size, contrubuting MU per each spot assuming 1cGy/MU calibration for all spot sizes, number of spots and uniformity were calculated. Results The plans with spot/line spacing equal to or smaller than 2/3*FWHM without motion create ∼100% uniformity. However, it was found that the uniformity decreases with increased spacing, and it is more pronounced with smaller spot sizes, but is not affected by scanned field sizes. Conclusion It was found that the motion during proton beam delivery can alter the dose uniformity and the amount of alteration changes with spot size which changes with energy and spot/line spacing. Currently, robust evaluation in TPS (e.g. Eclipse system) performs range uncertainty evaluation using isocenter shift and CT calibration error. Based on presented study, it is recommended to add interplay effect evaluation to robust evaluation process. For future study, the additional interplay between the energy layers and motion is expected to present volumetric effect

  8. Particle-in-cell studies of laser-driven hot spots and a statistical model for mesoscopic properties of Raman backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, B.J.; Yin, L.; Bowers, K.J.; Kline, J.L.; Montgomery, D.S.; Fernandez, J.C.; Daughton, W.

    2006-01-01

    The authors use explicit particle-in-cell simulations to model stimulated scattering processes in media with both solitary and multiple laser hot spots. These simulations indicate coupling among hot spots, whereby scattered light, plasma waves, and hot electrons generated in one laser hot spot may propagate to neighboring hot spots, which can be destabilized to enhanced backscatter. A nonlinear statistical model of a stochastic beam exhibiting this coupled behavior is described here. Calibration of the model using particle-in-cell simulations is performed, and a threshold is derived for 'detonation' of the beam to high reflectivity. (authors)

  9. Cosmicflows-3: Cold Spot Repeller?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Hélène M.; Graziani, Romain; Dupuy, Alexandra [University of Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN, Lyon (France); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Pomarède, Daniel [Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l’Univers, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-09-20

    The three-dimensional gravitational velocity field within z ∼ 0.1 has been modeled with the Wiener filter methodology applied to the Cosmicflows-3 compilation of galaxy distances. The dominant features are a basin of attraction and two basins of repulsion. The major basin of attraction is an extension of the Shapley concentration of galaxies. One basin of repulsion, the Dipole Repeller, is located near the anti-apex of the cosmic microwave background dipole. The other basin of repulsion is in the proximate direction toward the “Cold Spot” irregularity in the cosmic microwave background. It has been speculated that a vast void might contribute to the amplitude of the Cold Spot from the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect.

  10. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  11. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color. ...

  12. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color. ...

  13. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color. ...

  14. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Transmission Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis and Testing ...

  17. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  18. Crack imaging by pulsed laser spot thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T; Almond, D P; Rees, D A S; Weekes, B

    2010-01-01

    A surface crack close to a spot heated by a laser beam impedes lateral heat flow and produces alterations to the shape of the thermal image of the spot that can be monitored by thermography. A full 3D simulation has been developed to simulate heat flow from a laser heated spot in the proximity of a crack. The modelling provided an understanding of the ways that different parameters affect the thermal images of laser heated spots. It also assisted in the development of an efficient image processing strategy for extracting the scanned cracks. Experimental results show that scanning pulsed laser spot thermography has considerable potential as a remote, non-contact crack imaging technique.

  19. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J M; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-03-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  20. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses.

  2. Powerful Radio Galaxies with Simbol-X: Lobes and Hot Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, G.; Grandi, P.; Angelini, L.; Raimondi, L.; Torresi, E.; Palumbo, G. G. C.

    2009-05-01

    We present here the first Simbol-X simulations of the extended components, lobes and hot spots, of the radio galaxies. We use the paradigmatic case of Pictor A to test the capabilities of Simbol-X in this field of studies. Simulations demonstrate that Simbol-X will be able not only to perform spatially resolved studies on the lobes of radio galaxies below 10 keV but also to observe, for the first time, hard X-ray emission from the hot spots. These extremely promising results show the considerable potentiality of Simbol-X in studying interaction phenomena between relativistic plasma and surrounding environment.

  3. Powerful Radio Galaxies with Simbol-X: Lobes and Hot Spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliori, G.; Grandi, P.; Raimondi, L.; Torresi, E.; Angelini, L.; Palumbo, G. G. C.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the first Simbol-X simulations of the extended components, lobes and hot spots, of the radio galaxies. We use the paradigmatic case of Pictor A to test the capabilities of Simbol-X in this field of studies. Simulations demonstrate that Simbol-X will be able not only to perform spatially resolved studies on the lobes of radio galaxies below 10 keV but also to observe, for the first time, hard X-ray emission from the hot spots. These extremely promising results show the considerable potentiality of Simbol-X in studying interaction phenomena between relativistic plasma and surrounding environment.

  4. Retinol analysis in dried blood spots by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, N E; Haitema, T; Brindle, L K; Yamini, S; Humphrey, J H; West, K P

    2000-04-01

    There are many advantages to measuring vitamin A in dried blood spots (DBS) from a finger prick as compared to plasma collected by venipuncture. The advantages include easier collection, transport and storage; accessibility to younger and more remote populations; and decreased risk of disease transmission. We describe a method for the extraction of retinol from DBS for analysis by HPLC and initial comparison to plasma retinol. The effects of various buffers, detergents, antioxidants and chelators were evaluated to establish the most effective approach to elute the retinol: retinol binding protein (holo-RBP) complex from the blood collection cards. The process involves ultrasonic agitation to elute holo-RBP into a phosphate buffer containing an antioxidant and metal chelator. The holo-RBP complex was denatured by the addition of ethanol containing additional antioxidants permitting the extraction of free retinol into hexane. Following solvent evaporation, the extract was dissolved in methanol for HPLC analysis. The initial measured retinol levels in freshly collected DBS declined for 6-10 d whether stored at 25, 4 or -20 degrees C, but remained consistent thereafter (homeostatic). By incorporating a "recovery/volume adjustment" factor, measured retinol values in homeostatic DBS were adjusted to the equivalent of plasma retinol. For 17 normal adults, the correlation coefficient was 0.90 between plasma retinol and adjusted DBS retinol in samples that had been stored at -70 degrees C for < 9 mo. The use of this new sample matrix for vitamin A assessment will allow access to previously unavailable populations.

  5. Dusty-Plasma Particle Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John E.

    2005-01-01

    initiation of a low-current, high-voltage cathode spot. Plasma pressure associated with the cathode spot as well as the large voltage drop at the cathode spot accelerates the charged particles toward the substrate. The ultimate kinetic energy attained by particles exiting the particle holder depends in part on the magnitude of the cathode spot sheath potential difference, which is proportional to the magnitude of the voltage pulse, and the on the electric charge on the dust. The magnitude of the voltage pulse can be controlled directly, whereas the particle s electric charge can be controlled indirectly by controlling the operating parameters of the plasma apparatus.

  6. A matching approach to communicate through the plasma sheath surrounding a hypersonic vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiaotian; Jiang, Binhao

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the communication blackout problem suffered by hypersonic vehicles, a matching approach has been proposed for the first time in this paper. It utilizes a double-positive (DPS) material layer surrounding a hypersonic vehicle antenna to match with the plasma sheath enclosing the vehicle. Analytical analysis and numerical results indicate a resonance between the matched layer and the plasma sheath will be formed to mitigate the blackout problem in some conditions. The calculated results present a perfect radiated performance of the antenna, when the match is exactly built between these two layers. The effects of the parameters of the plasma sheath have been researched by numerical methods. Based on these results, the proposed approach is easier to realize and more flexible to the varying radiated conditions in hypersonic flight comparing with other methods

  7. Volume higher; spot price ranges widen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the October 1994 uranium market summary. During this reporting period, volume on the spot concentrates market doubled. Twelve deals took place: three in the spot concentrates market, one in the medium and long-term market, four in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. The restricted price range widened due to higher prices at the top end of the range, while the unrestricted price range widened because of lower prices at the bottom end. Spot conversion prices were higher, and enrichment prices were unchanged

  8. Finding your innovation sweet spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Jacob; Horowitz, Roni; Levav, Amnon; Mazursky, David

    2003-03-01

    Most new product ideas are either uninspired or impractical. So how can developers hit the innovation sweet spot--far enough from existing products to attract real interest but close enough that they are feasible to make and market? They can apply five innovation patterns that manipulate existing components of a product and its immediate environment to come up with something both ingenious and viable, say the authors. The subtraction pattern works by removing product components, particularly those that seem desirable or indispensable. Think of the legless high chair that attaches to the kitchen table. The multiplication pattern makes one or more copies of an existing component, then alters those copies in some important way. For example, the Gillette double-bladed razor features a second blade that cuts whiskers at a slightly different angle. By dividing an existing product into its component parts--the division pattern--you can see something that was an integrated whole in an entirely different light. Think of the modern home stereo--it has modular speakers, tuners, and CD and tape players, which allow users to customize their sound systems. The task unification pattern involves assigning a new task to an existing product element or environmental attribute, thereby unifying two tasks in a single component. An example is the defrosting filament in an automobile windshield that also serves as a radio antenna. Finally, the attribute dependency pattern alters or creates the dependent relationships between a product and its environment. For example, by creating a dependent relationship between lens color and external lighting conditions, eyeglass developers came up with a lens that changes color when exposed to sunlight.

  9. A telemetry experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated fish in South Africa was investigated by conducting a tracking experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii in the East Kleinemonde Estuary. The telemetry equipment comprised two VEMCO V8 transmitters and a ...

  10. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  11. Detecting Blind Spot By Using Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ajay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Safety remains a top concern for automobile industries and new-car shoppers. Detection of Blind Spots is a major concern for safety issues. So automobiles have been constantly updating their products with new technologies to detect blind spots so that they can add more safety to the vehicle and also reduce the road accidents. Almost 1.5 million people die in road accidents each year. Blind spot of an automobile is the region of the vehicle which cannot be observed properly while looking either through side or rear mirror view. To meet the above requirements this paper describes detecting blind spot by using ultrasonic sensor and controlling the direction of car by automatic steering. The technology embedded in the system is capable of automatically steer the vehicle away from an obstacle if the system determines that a collision is impending or if the vehicle is in the vicinity of our car.

  12. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kristine M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  13. White-centred retinal haemorrhages (Roth spots).

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, R.; James, B.

    1998-01-01

    Roth spots (white-centred retinal haemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli lodged in the retina of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Indeed many have considered Roth spots pathognomonic for this condition. More recent histological evidence suggests, however, that they are not foci of bacterial abscess. Instead, they are nonspecific and may be found in many other diseases. A review of the histology and the pathogenesis of these white-centred haemorrhages will be p...

  14. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  15. Modeling deflagration waves out of hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives comes about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping through an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step, deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in the cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighboring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration waves may depend on both pressure and temperature. It depends on pressure for quasistatic loading near ambient temperature, and on temperature at high temperatures resulting from shock loading. From the simulation we obtain deflagration fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For 8 to 13 GPa shocks, the emanating fronts propagate as deflagration waves to consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels deflagration waves may interact with the sweeping shock to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds.

  16. Unblinding the dark matter blind spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tao; Kling, Felix

    2017-01-01

    The dark matter (DM) blind spots in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) refer to the parameter regions where the couplings of the DM particles to the Z-boson or the Higgs boson are almost zero, leading to vanishingly small signals for the DM direct detections. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive analyses for the DM searches under the blind-spot scenarios in MSSM. Guided by the requirement of acceptable DM relic abundance, we explore the complementary coverage for the theory parameters at the LHC, the projection for the future underground DM direct searches, and the indirect searches from the relic DM annihilation into photons and neutrinos. We find that (i) the spin-independent (SI) blind spots may be rescued by the spin-dependent (SD) direct detection in the future underground experiments, and possibly by the indirect DM detections from IceCube and SuperK neutrino experiments; (ii) the detection of gamma rays from Fermi-LAT may not reach the desirable sensitivity for searching for the DM blind-spot regions; (iii) the SUSY searches at the LHC will substantially extend the discovery region for the blind-spot parameters. As a result, the dark matter blind spots thus may be unblinded with the collective efforts in future DM searches.

  17. Spot weld arrangement effects on the fatigue behavior of multi-spot welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanifard, Soran; Zehsaz, Mohammad; Esmaeili, Firooz

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of spot weld arrangements in multi-spot welded joints on the fatigue behavior of the joints are studied. Three different four-spot welded joints are considered: one-row four-spot parallel to the loading direction, one-row four-spot perpendicular to the loading direction and two-row four-spot weld specimens. The experimental fatigue test results reveal that the differences between the fatigue lives of three spot welded types in the low cycle regime are more considerable than those in the high cycle regime. However, all kinds of spot weld specimens have similar fatigue strength when approaching a million cycles. A non-linear finite element analysis is performed to obtain the relative stress gradients, effective distances and notch strength reduction factors based on the volumetric approach. The work here shows that the volumetric approach does a very good job in predicting the fatigue life of the multi-spot welded joints

  18. Non-equilibrium between ions and electrons inside hot spots from National Ignition Facility experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-equilibrium between ions and electrons in the hot spot can relax the ignition conditions in inertial confinement fusion [Fan et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 010703 (2016], and obvious ion-electron non-equilibrium could be observed by our simulations of high-foot implosions when the ion-electron relaxation is enlarged by a factor of 2. On the other hand, in many shots of high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility, the observed X-ray enhancement factors due to ablator mixing into the hot spot are less than unity assuming electrons and ions have the same temperature [Meezan et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 062703 (2015], which is not self-consistent because it can lead to negative ablator mixing into the hot spot. Actually, this non-consistency implies ion-electron non-equilibrium within the hot spot. From our study, we can infer that ion-electron non-equilibrium exists in high-foot implosions and the ion temperature could be ∼9% larger than the equilibrium temperature in some NIF shots.

  19. Bulk hydrodynamic stability and turbulent saturation in compressing hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2018-04-01

    For hot spots compressed at constant velocity, we give a hydrodynamic stability criterion that describes the expected energy behavior of non-radial hydrodynamic motion for different classes of trajectories (in ρR — T space). For a given compression velocity, this criterion depends on ρR, T, and d T /d (ρR ) (the trajectory slope) and applies point-wise so that the expected behavior can be determined instantaneously along the trajectory. Among the classes of trajectories are those where the hydromotion is guaranteed to decrease and those where the hydromotion is bounded by a saturated value. We calculate this saturated value and find the compression velocities for which hydromotion may be a substantial fraction of hot-spot energy at burn time. The Lindl (Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933 (1995)] "attractor" trajectory is shown to experience non-radial hydrodynamic energy that grows towards this saturated state. Comparing the saturation value with the available detailed 3D simulation results, we find that the fluctuating velocities in these simulations reach substantial fractions of the saturated value.

  20. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  1. Relationship between hot spot residues and ligand binding hot spots in protein-protein interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Brandon S; Hall, David R; Vajda, Sandor; Whitty, Adrian; Kozakov, Dima

    2012-08-27

    In the context of protein-protein interactions, the term "hot spot" refers to a residue or cluster of residues that makes a major contribution to the binding free energy, as determined by alanine scanning mutagenesis. In contrast, in pharmaceutical research, a hot spot is a site on a target protein that has high propensity for ligand binding and hence is potentially important for drug discovery. Here we examine the relationship between these two hot spot concepts by comparing alanine scanning data for a set of 15 proteins with results from mapping the protein surfaces for sites that can bind fragment-sized small molecules. We find the two types of hot spots are largely complementary; the residues protruding into hot spot regions identified by computational mapping or experimental fragment screening are almost always themselves hot spot residues as defined by alanine scanning experiments. Conversely, a residue that is found by alanine scanning to contribute little to binding rarely interacts with hot spot regions on the partner protein identified by fragment mapping. In spite of the strong correlation between the two hot spot concepts, they fundamentally differ, however. In particular, while identification of a hot spot by alanine scanning establishes the potential to generate substantial interaction energy with a binding partner, there are additional topological requirements to be a hot spot for small molecule binding. Hence, only a minority of hot spots identified by alanine scanning represent sites that are potentially useful for small inhibitor binding, and it is this subset that is identified by experimental or computational fragment screening.

  2. SPOTTED STAR LIGHT CURVES WITH ENHANCED PRECISION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    The nearly continuous timewise coverage of recent photometric surveys is free of the large gaps that compromise attempts to follow starspot growth and decay as well as motions, thereby giving incentive to improve computational precision for modeled spots. Due to the wide variety of star systems in the surveys, such improvement should apply to light/velocity curve models that accurately include all the main phenomena of close binaries and rotating single stars. The vector fractional area (VFA) algorithm that is introduced here represents surface elements by small sets of position vectors so as to allow accurate computation of circle-triangle overlap by spherical geometry. When computed by VFA, spots introduce essentially no noticeable scatter in light curves at the level of one part in 10,000. VFA has been put into the Wilson-Devinney light/velocity curve program and all logic and mathematics are given so as to facilitate entry into other such programs. Advantages of precise spot computation include improved statistics of spot motions and aging, reduced computation time (intrinsic precision relaxes needs for grid fineness), noise-free illustration of spot effects in figures, and help in guarding against false positives in exoplanet searches, where spots could approximately mimic transiting planets in unusual circumstances. A simple spot growth and decay template quantifies time profiles, and specifics of its utilization in differential corrections solutions are given. Computational strategies are discussed, the overall process is tested in simulations via solutions of synthetic light curve data, and essential simulation results are described. An efficient time smearing facility by Gaussian quadrature can deal with Kepler mission data that are in 30 minute time bins.

  3. Study on Laser Induced Plasma Produced in Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, N.; Yamada, J.

    2003-01-01

    When an intense laser light is focused in liquid, a hot plasma is produced at the focal spot. The breakdown threshold and the transmittance of sodium choroids solution are observed using excimer laser or YAG laser. The breakdown threshold decreases with increasing NaCl concentration. Threshold intensity of plasma produced by YAG laser is lower than excimer laser. The behavior of plasma development is observed by a streak camera. The plasma produced by a YAG laser develops only backward. However, the plasma produced by excimer laser develops not only backward but also forward same as the plasma development in high-pressure gases

  4. Beam and hot spot formation in a low impedance driven vacuum spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui, H.; Favre, M.; Soto, L.; Wyndham, E.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of a vacuum spark discharge plasma when driven by a 1.5 ω, 120 ns switched coaxial line at 60 kV open circuit voltage are made. A comparison of behaviour is made when a Nd: YAG laser over a range of energies is focussed either onto the anode or onto the cathode surface. A significantly different behaviour is seen if the line gap is shorted out allowing the sinusoidal voltage from the Marx to be applied to the electrodes. Hot spot formation with associated anode plasma are seen in this last case. (Author)

  5. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  6. Molecular and histological characterization of age spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonseon; Yin, Lanlan; Smuda, Christoph; Batzer, Jan; Hearing, Vincent J.; Kolbe, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Age spots, also called solar lentigines and lentigo senilis, are light brown to black pigmented lesions of various sizes that typically develop in chronically sun-exposed skin. It is well known that age spots are strongly related to chronic sun exposure and are associated with photodamage and an increased risk for skin cancer, however, the mechanism(s) underlying their development remain poorly understood. We used immunohistochemical analysis and microarray analysis to investigate the processes involved in their formation, focusing on specific markers associated with the functions and proliferation of melanocytes and keratinocytes. A total of 193 genes were differentially expressed in age spots but melanocyte pigment genes were not among them. The increased expression of keratins 5 and 10, markers of basal and suprabasal keratinocytes, respectively, in age spots suggests that the increased proliferation of basal keratinocytes combined with the decreased turnover of suprabasal keratinocytes leads to the exaggerated formation of rete ridges in lesional epidermis which in turn disrupts the normal processing of melanin upwards from the basal layer. Based on our results, we propose a model for the development of age spots that explains the accumulation of melanin and the development of extensive rete ridges in those hyperpigmented lesions. PMID:27621222

  7. Plutonium spot of mixed oxide fuel, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yukio; Maruishi, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Masaichi; Aoki, Toshimasa; Muto, Tadashi

    1974-01-01

    In a fast reactor, the specification for the homogeneity of plutonium in plutonium-uranium mixed-oxide fuel is mainly dependent on the nuclear characteristics, whereas in a thermal reactor, on thermal characteristics. This homogeneity is measured by autoradiography as the plutonium spot size of the specimens which are arbitrarily chosen fuel pellets from a lot. Although this is a kind of random sampling, it is difficult to apply this method to conventional digital standards including JIS standards. So a special sampling inspection method was studied. First, it is assumed that the shape of plutonium spots is spherical, the size distribution is logarithmic normal, and the standard deviation is constant. Then, if standard deviation and mean spot size are given, the logarithmic normal distribution is decided unitarily, and further if the total weight of plutonium spots for a lot of pellets is known, the number of the spots (No) which does not conform to the specification can be obtained. Then, the fraction defective is defined as No devided by the number of pellets per lot. As to the lot with such fraction defective, the acceptance coefficient of the lot was obtained through calculation, in which the number of sampling, acceptable diameter limit observed and acceptable conditions were used as parameters. (Tai, I.)

  8. Use of Dried Blood Spots to Elucidate Full-Length Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus F. Salazar-Gonzalez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identification of HIV-1 genomes responsible for establishing clinical infection in newly infected individuals is fundamental to prevention and pathogenesis research. Processing, storage, and transportation of the clinical samples required to perform these virologic assays in resource-limited settings requires challenging venipuncture and cold chain logistics. Here, we validate the use of dried-blood spots (DBS as a simple and convenient alternative to collecting and storing frozen plasma. Methods: We performed parallel nucleic acid extraction, single genome amplification (SGA, next generation sequencing (NGS, and phylogenetic analyses on plasma and DBS. Results: We demonstrated the capacity to extract viral RNA from DBS and perform SGA to infer the complete nucleotide sequence of the transmitted/founder (TF HIV-1 envelope gene and full-length genome in two acutely infected individuals. Using both SGA and NGS methodologies, we showed that sequences generated from DBS and plasma display comparable phylogenetic patterns in both acute and chronic infection. SGA was successful on samples with a range of plasma viremia, including samples as low as 1,700 copies/ml and an estimated ~50 viral copies per blood spot. Further, we demonstrated reproducible efficiency in gp160 env sequencing in DBS stored at ambient temperature for up to three weeks or at -20ºC for up to five months. Conclusions: These findings support the use of DBS as a practical and cost-effective alternative to frozen plasma for clinical trials and translational research conducted in resource-limited settings.

  9. Atmospheric cold plasma jet for plant disease treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Zhou, Renwu; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue; Zhang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Fan, Hongyu; Yang, Si-ze

    2014-01-01

    This study shows that the atmospheric cold plasma jet is capable of curing the fungus-infected plant leaves and controlling the spread of infection as an attractive tool for plant disease management. The healing effect was significantly dependent on the size of the black spots infected with fungal cells and the leaf age. The leaves with the diameter of black spots of plasma-generated species passing through the microns-sized stomas in a leaf can weaken the function of the oil vacuoles and cell membrane of fungal cells, resulting in plasma-induced inactivation.

  10. Laser treatment of plasma sprayed HA coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khor, KA; Vreeling, A; Dong, ZL; Cheang, P

    1999-01-01

    Laser treatment was conducted on plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings using a Nd-YAG pulse laser. Various laser parameters were investigated. The results showed that the HA surface melted when an energy level of greater than or equal to 2 J and a spot size of 2 mm was employed during

  11. Spots on AG Virginis - paradigm or panacea?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, S.A.; Rainger, P.P.; Hilditch, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the eclipsing binary AG Vir are presented. Medium-resolution spectroscopy has allowed the measurement of velocities for the secondary component for the first time. The V light curve shows many of the features seen in previous studies of this system. A full analysis of the spectroscopic and photometric data has been made which suggests that the system is either in a marginal state of contact or a deep-contact configuration depending on the type of spot model invoked. AG Vir constitutes an excellent example of the expected manifestations of spot activity on a light curve. It also demonstrates the ease with which the spot phenomenon can be invoked to explain the appearance of a light curve and to provide conflicting results. (author)

  12. How much extra spot gas is there?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, Th.

    2007-01-01

    With the increase of European gas demand and the sharp decrease of local supply, security of supply is becoming an ever greater issue. However, liberalization tilts the traditional equilibrium based on long term 'take or pay' contracts between big suppliers and national distribution companies. Today, buying gas on the spot market is becoming more and more important to balance supply portfolio with a fast moving market share. But the way gas spot markets are operating is not well documented. It is very difficult to assess its impact on the European security of supply. Therefore, the aim of this article is to evaluate the amount of 'spot' liquefied natural gas (LNG) that could be found in case of a major supply disruption in pipe gas delivered to Europe

  13. Laser Spot Center Detection and Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Xu, Zhengjie; Fu, Deli; Hu, Cong

    2018-04-01

    High efficiency and precision of the pot center detection are the foundations of avionics instrument navigation and optics measurement basis for many applications. It has noticeable impact on overall system performance. Among them, laser spot detection is very important in the optical measurement technology. In order to improve the low accuracy of the spot center position, the algorithm is improved on the basis of the circle fitting. The pretreatment is used by circle fitting, and the improved adaptive denoising filter for TV repair technology can effectively improves the accuracy of the spot center position. At the same time, the pretreatment and de-noising can effectively reduce the influence of Gaussian white noise, which enhances the anti-jamming capability.

  14. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  15. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Sá DelFiol, Fernando; Junqueira, Fábio Miranda; da Rocha, Maria Carolina Pereira; de Toledo, Maria Inês; Filho, Silvio Barberato

    2010-06-01

    Although the number of confirmed cases of spotted fever has been declining in Brazil since 2005, the mortality rate (20% to 30%) is still high in comparison to other countries. This high mortality rate is closely related to the difficulty in making the diagnosis and starting the correct treatment. Only two groups of antibiotics have proven clinical effectiveness against spotted fever: chloramphenicol and tetracyclines. Until recently, the use of tetracyclines was restricted to adults because of the associated bone and tooth changes in children. Recently, however, the American Academy of Pediatrics and various researchers have recommended the use of doxycycline in children. In more severe cases, chloramphenicol injections are often preferred in Brazil because of the lack of experience with injectable tetracycline. Since early diagnosis and the adequate drug treatment are key to a good prognosis, health care professionals must be better prepared to recognize and treat spotted fever.

  16. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  17. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  18. Humoral immune response of the small-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Kathryn; Smith, Lauren E; Williams, Rebecca; Cao, Wei; Lee, Mike; Jensen, Allan; Dooley, Helen

    2013-05-01

    Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest group in which an adaptive immune system based on immunoglobulin-superfamily members is found. This manuscript compares humoral immune function in small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) with that described for spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), another member of the Squalomorphi superorder, and nurse shark, the model for humoral immunity in elasmobranchs and a member of the Galeomorphi superorder. Although small-spotted catshark and nurse shark are separated by over 200 million years we found that immunoglobulin isoforms are well conserved between the two species. However, the plasma protein profile of small-spotted catshark was most similar to that of spiny dogfish, with low levels of pentameric IgM, and IgNAR present as a multimer in plasma rather than a monomer. We show that an antigen-specific monomeric IgM response, with a profile similar to that described previously for nurse sharks, can be raised in small-spotted catshark. Lacking polyclonal or monoclonal antibody reagents for detecting catshark IgNAR we investigated phage-display and recombinant Fc-fusion protein expression as alternative methods to look for an antigen-specific response for this isotype. However, we could find no evidence of an antigen-specific IgNAR in the animals tested using either of these techniques. Thus, unlike nurse sharks where antigen-specific monomeric IgM and IgNAR appear together, it seems there may be a temporal or complete 'uncoupling' of these isotypes during a humoral response in the small-spotted catshark. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Volume dips; spot price ranges narrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the September 1994 uranium market summary. Volume in the spot concentrates market fell below 1 million lbs U3O8. In total, twelve deals took place compared to 28 deals in August. Of the twelve deals, three took place in the spot concentrates market, two took place in the medium and long-term market, three in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. Restricted prices weakened, but unrestricted prices firmed slightly. The enrichment price range narrowed a bit

  20. White-centred retinal haemorrhages (Roth spots).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, R; James, B

    1998-10-01

    Roth spots (white-centred retinal haemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli lodged in the retina of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Indeed many have considered Roth spots pathognomonic for this condition. More recent histological evidence suggests, however, that they are not foci of bacterial abscess. Instead, they are nonspecific and may be found in many other diseases. A review of the histology and the pathogenesis of these white-centred haemorrhages will be provided, along with the work-up of the differential diagnosis.

  1. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10 5 GeV ∼ mess ∼ 10 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N mess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group

  2. Observations spotted solar type stars in Pleiades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnitskij, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    The september - october 1986 observations discovered periodic light variations in three solar type stars in the Pleiades cluster: Hz 296 (0.8 M Sun ), Hz152(0.91 M Sun ) and Hz739(1.15 M Sun ). Periods and amplitudes are accordingly 2 d and 0 m .11, 4 d .12 and 0 m .07, 2 d .70 and 0 m .05. Considerable light variations of these stars in Pleiades are due to the rotation of spotted stars. Contrast spots of solar type stars likely exist when stars are young and rapidly rotate

  3. Newborn screening blood spot analysis in the UK: influence of spot size, punch location and haematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, A J; Bernstone, L; Hall, S K

    2016-03-01

    In dried blood spot analysis, punch location and variations in applied sample volume and haematocrit can produce different measured concentrations of analytes. We investigated the magnitude of these effects in newborn screening in the UK. Heparinized blood spiked with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, methionine, octanoyl carnitine (C8), and immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) was spotted onto filter paper: (i) at a constant haematocrit of 50% at various volumes, and (ii) at a range of haematocrits using a constant volume. Subpunches (3.2 mm) of the dried blood spots were then analysed. Compared with a central punch from a 50 µL blood spot with 50% haematocrit, 10 µL spots can have significantly lower measured concentrations of all analytes, with decreases of 15% or more observed for leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Punching at the edge of a spot can increase measured concentrations up to 35%. Higher haematocrit decreased measured TSH and C8 yet increased amino acids and IRT by 15% compared with 50% haematocrit. Lower haematocrits had the opposite effect, but only with higher concentrations of some analytes. Differences in blood spot size, haematocrit and punch location substantially affect measured concentrations for analytes used in the UK newborn screening programme, and this could affect false positive and negative rates. To minimize analytical bias, these variables should be controlled or adjusted for where possible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Transitional–turbulent spots and turbulent–turbulent spots in boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional–turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a Λ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional–turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional–turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional–turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent–turbulent spots. These turbulent–turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional–turbulent spots, these turbulent–turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent–turbulent spots. PMID:28630304

  5. Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-03

    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.

  6. Advantages and Challenges of Dried Blood Spot Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Across the Total Testing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Rosita; Allen, Katrina J.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Roche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Through the introduction of advanced analytical techniques and improved throughput, the scope of dried blood spot testing utilising mass spectrometric methods, has broadly expanded. Clinicians and researchers have become very enthusiastic about the potential applications of dried blood spot based mass spectrometric applications. Analysts on the other hand face challenges of sensitivity, reproducibility and overall accuracy of dried blood spot quantification. In this review, we aim to bring together these two facets to discuss the advantages and current challenges of non-newborn screening applications of dried blood spot quantification by mass spectrometry. Methods To address these aims we performed a key word search of the PubMed and MEDLINE online databases in conjunction with individual manual searches to gather information. Keywords for the initial search included; “blood spot” and “mass spectrometry”; while excluding “newborn”; and “neonate”. In addition, databases were restricted to English language and human specific. There was no time period limit applied. Results As a result of these selection criteria, 194 references were identified for review. For presentation, this information is divided into: 1) clinical applications; and 2) analytical considerations across the total testing process; being pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical considerations. Conclusions DBS analysis using MS applications is now broadly applied, with drug monitoring for both therapeutic and toxicological analysis being the most extensively reported. Several parameters can affect the accuracy of DBS measurement and further bridge experiments are required to develop adjustment rules for comparability between dried blood spot measures and the equivalent serum/plasma values. Likewise, the establishment of independent reference intervals for dried blood spot sample matrix is required. PMID:28149263

  7. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Paul; Wu, Xiaodong; Blin, Guillaume; Vialette, Stéphane; Flynn, Ryan; Hyer, Daniel; Wang, Dongxu

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU) of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot; it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot that a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D) CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight [Monitor Unit (MU)] for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated. For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm), D95% to the planning target volume (PTV) was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX) dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7% RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm), without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7% RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3 mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  8. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. Materials and Methods: The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight (MU for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated.Results: For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm, D95% to the planning target volume (PTV was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm, without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. Conclusion: The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  9. Variation of hmF2 and NmF2 deduced from DPS-4 over Multan (Pakistan) and their comparisons with IRI-2012 & IRI-2016 during the deep solar minimum between cycles 23 & 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Muhammad Ayyaz; Khursheed, Haqqa; Jabbar, Mehak Abdul; Ali, Muneeza Salman; Chishtie, Farrukh

    2018-04-01

    We report the results of ionospheric measurements from DPS-4 installed at Multan (Geog coord. 30.18°N, 71.48°E, dip 47.4°). The variations in F2-layer maximum electron density NmF2 and its peak height hmF2 are studied during the deep solar minimum between cycles 23 & 24 i.e 2008-2009 with comparisons conducted with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) versions 2012 & 2016. We find that the hmF2 observations peak around the pre-sunrise and sunrise hours depending on the month. Seasonally, the daytime variation of NmF2 is higher in the Equinox and Summer, while daytime hmF2 are slightly higher in the Equinox and Winter. High values of hmF2 around midnight are caused by an increase of upward drifts produced by meridional winds. The ionosphere over Multan, which lies at the verge of low and mid latitude, is affected by both E × B drifts and thermospheric winds as evident from mid-night peaks and near-sunrise dips in hmF2. The results of the comparison of the observed NmF2 and hmF2 for the year 2008-2009 with the IRI-2012 (both NmF2 and hmF2) and IRI-2016 (only hmF2) estimates indicate that for NmF2, IRI-2012 with Consultative Committee International Radio (CCIR) option produces values in better agreement with observed data. Whereas, for hmF2, IRI-2016 with both International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and CCIR SHU-2015 options, predicts well for nighttime hours throughout the year. However, the IRI-2012 with CCIR option produces better agreement with data during daytime hours. Furthermore, IRI-2012 with CCIR option gives better results during Equinox months, whereas, IRI-2016 with both URSI and CCIR SHU-2015 options predict well for Winter and Summer.

  10. The effect of laser spot shapes on polar-direct-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weilacher, F.; Radha, P. B.; Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl and E. I. Moses, Phys. Plasmas 18, 050901 (2011)] use existing NIF hardware, including indirect-drive phase plates. This limits the performance achievable in these implosions. Spot shapes are identified that significantly improve the uniformity of PDD NIF implosions; outer surface deviation is reduced by a factor of 7 at the end of the laser pulse and hot-spot distortion is reduced by a factor of 2 when the shell has converged by a factor of ∼10. As a result, the neutron yield increases by approximately a factor of 2. This set of laser spot shapes is a combination of circular and elliptical spots, along with elliptical spot shapes modulated by an additional higher-intensity ellipse offset from the center of the beam. This combination is motivated in this paper. It is also found that this improved implosion uniformity is obtained independent of the heat conduction model. This work indicates that significant improvement in performance can be obtained robustly with the proposed spot shapes

  11. The effect of laser spot shapes on polar-direct-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilacher, F.; Radha, P. B., E-mail: rbah@lle.rochester.edu; Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Ongoing polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl and E. I. Moses, Phys. Plasmas 18, 050901 (2011)] use existing NIF hardware, including indirect-drive phase plates. This limits the performance achievable in these implosions. Spot shapes are identified that significantly improve the uniformity of PDD NIF implosions; outer surface deviation is reduced by a factor of 7 at the end of the laser pulse and hot-spot distortion is reduced by a factor of 2 when the shell has converged by a factor of ∼10. As a result, the neutron yield increases by approximately a factor of 2. This set of laser spot shapes is a combination of circular and elliptical spots, along with elliptical spot shapes modulated by an additional higher-intensity ellipse offset from the center of the beam. This combination is motivated in this paper. It is also found that this improved implosion uniformity is obtained independent of the heat conduction model. This work indicates that significant improvement in performance can be obtained robustly with the proposed spot shapes.

  12. Sustainable control of white spot disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems...

  13. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  14. Easy Demonstration of the Poisson Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Many physics teachers have a set of slides of single, double and multiple slits to show their students the phenomena of interference and diffraction. Thomas Young's historic experiments with double slits were indeed a milestone in proving the wave nature of light. But another experiment, namely the Poisson spot, was also important historically and…

  15. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  16. Electricity spot price dynamics: Beyond financial models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, Graeme; Videbeck, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We reveal properties of electricity spot prices that cannot be captured by the statistical models, commonly used to model financial asset prices, that are increasingly used to model electricity prices. Using more than eight years of half-hourly spot price data from the New Zealand Electricity Market, we find that the half-hourly trading periods fall naturally into five groups corresponding to the overnight off-peak, the morning peak, daytime off-peak, evening peak, and evening off-peak. The prices in different trading periods within each group are highly correlated with each other, yet the correlations between prices in different groups are lower. Models, adopted from the modeling of security prices, that are currently applied to electricity spot prices are incapable of capturing this behavior. We use a periodic autoregression to model prices instead, showing that shocks in the peak periods are larger and less persistent than those in off-peak periods, and that they often reappear in the following peak period. In contrast, shocks in the off-peak periods are smaller, more persistent, and die out (perhaps temporarily) during the peak periods. Current approaches to modeling spot prices cannot capture this behavior either. (author)

  17. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  18. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  19. The sweet spots in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Philip

    2011-07-01

    In baseball, the sweet spot is a special place on a bat where the batter can hit the ball with the most power. It is the place where the performances of the batter and pitcher collide with maximum effect. It is the place where the dynamic tension between opponents leads to transformation. The dynamic tension in all living systems is between similarity and difference. Chaos and complexity scholars recognized this tension as amounts of information. When the amounts of information were high, but not too high, the system moved to the edge of chaos, to the complexity regime, to strange attractors, or to chaos, depending on the model. The sweet spot is that range of relative variety, just the proper mix of similarity and difference, leading to transformation. This essay contains a model of human communication as an emergent social process with its own sweet spots. The essay also includes a description of current literature highlighting tensions between similarity and difference, and there is an exploration of the potential to move from one basin of attraction to another. The primary constraints on finding communication sweet spots are paradigmatic - adopting a process orientation, discovering the proper parameters, bracketing sequences to define initial conditions, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of various modeling techniques.

  20. TSH IRMA of dried blood spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tojinda, N.; Pattanachak, C.; Chongchirasiri, S.; Pattanachak, S.; Putrasreni, N.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.

    1990-01-01

    TSH determination is most useful for screening of neonatal hypothyroid in the population in iodine deficient areas. The NETRIA IRMA method for serum TSH was applied for blood-spot TSH. Cord blood on SS No. 903 filter paper was left dry overnight. The spot of 6 mm diameter, one/tube, was mixed with an assay buffer, diluted labelled m-anti-TSH, and diluted anti-TSH-solid phase. The mixture was rotated for 22-24 hours. After washing twice with wash buffer, it was counted for 1 minute. The standard curve with 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mIU/L whole blood was obtained with the maximum binding of 25%. The precision profile was satisfactory with %CV of 0 C) or 4 0 C or -20 0 C. The correlation between serum and blood-spot TSH values (n=120) showed r of 0.9541 and y=1.6123 (BS-TSH) +1.382. The mean of normal cord blood spot TSH (n=142) was 5.27 mIU/L. The technique was found to be precise, sensitive and easy to perform. Mass screening with this developed method is underway

  1. Evaluation of actual vs expected photodynamic therapy spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchod, Tushar M; Brucker, Alexander J; Liu, Chengcheng; Cukras, Catherine A; Hopkins, Tim B; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2009-05-01

    To determine the accuracy of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) laser spot size on the retina as generated by 2 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lasers. Prospective observational case series. Fundus photographs were taken of 1 eye of each of 10 subjects with the WinStation 4000 fundus photography system (OIS; Ophthalmic Imaging Systems, Sacramento, California, USA); disc size was calculated using OIS software. Slit-lamp photographs were taken of the PDT laser spot focused on the retina adjacent to the optic disc, using various spot sizes in combination with 3 different contact lenses and 2 different lasers. Spot size at the retina was determined by measuring the ratio of disc diameter to spot diameter in Adobe Photoshop (San Jose, California, USA) and applying this ratio to the OIS disc measurements. Spot size at the retina averaged 87% of expected spot size for the Coherent Opal laser (Coherent Inc, Santa Clara, California, USA) and 104% of expected spot size for the Zeiss Visulas laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, California, USA)(P = .002). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that percentage of expected spot size decreased with larger spot diameter (P = .01 for Coherent laser; P = .02 for Zeiss laser). PDT spot size at the retina appears to be consistently smaller than expected for the Coherent laser while the spot size was consistently within 10% of expected size for the Zeiss laser. The deviation from expected size increased with larger spot size using the Coherent laser.

  2. Validation and clinical application of a method to quantify nevirapine in dried blood spots and dried breast-milk spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagunju, Adeniyi; Amara, Alieu; Waitt, Catriona; Else, Laura; Penchala, Sujan D; Bolaji, Oluseye; Soyinka, Julius; Siccardi, Marco; Back, David; Owen, Andrew; Khoo, Saye

    2015-10-01

    The validation and clinical application of an LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of nevirapine in dried blood spots (DBS) and dried breast-milk spots (DBMS) are presented. DBS and DBMS were prepared from 50 and 30 μL of nevirapine-spiked whole blood and human breast milk, respectively. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reverse-phase C18 column with 0.1% formic acid in water/acetonitrile using a solvent gradient programme at a flow rate of 400 μL/min, and detection was by a TSQ Quantum Access triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The clinical application was evaluated in HIV-positive nursing mothers and their breastfed infants. The assay was validated over the concentration range 50-10,000 ng/mL. Accuracy ranged from 93.3% to 113.4% and precision ranged from 1.9% to 12.0%. The mean (percentage coefficient of variation) recovery of nevirapine from DBS and DBMS was ≥ 70.7% (≤ 8.2) and the matrix effect was ≤ 1.04 (≤ 6.1). Nevirapine was stable in DBS and DBMS for ≥ 15 months at room temperature and -80°C. Mean (SD) AUC0-12, Cmax and Cmin in maternal plasma versus breast milk were 57,808 ng · h/mL (24,315) versus 55,817 ng · h/mL (22,368), 6140 ng/mL (2605) versus 5231 ng/mL (2215) and 4334 ng/mL (1880) versus 4342 ng/mL (2245), respectively. The milk-to-plasma concentration ratio over the dosing interval was 0.94 (0.15). Infant plasma concentrations 2 and 8 h after maternal dosing were 580.6 ng/mL (464.7-1607) and 584.1 ng/mL (381.5-1570), respectively. These methods further extend opportunities for conducting clinical pharmacokinetic studies in nursing mother-infant pairs, especially in resource-limited settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  4. Effect of the laser spot shape on spatial distribution of the ion bunch accelerated in a superstrong field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific research Institute for Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering, Leningrad region (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Public Limited Company Scientific research Institute for Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering, Leningrad region (Russian Federation))" >Komarov, V M; Scientific research Institute for Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering, Leningrad region (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Public Limited Company Scientific research Institute for Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering, Leningrad region (Russian Federation))" >Charukhchev, A V; S.I.Vavilov State Optical Institute (FSUE GOI), St.Petersburg (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Scientific Center S.I.Vavilov State Optical Institute (FSUE GOI), St.Petersburg (Russian Federation))" >Andreev, A A; S.I.Vavilov State Optical Institute (FSUE GOI), St.Petersburg (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Scientific Center S.I.Vavilov State Optical Institute (FSUE GOI), St.Petersburg (Russian Federation))" >Platonov, K Yu

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of the laser spot shape on the spatial distribution of accelerated ions on the front and back sides of a thin target irradiated by a picosecond laser pulse having the intensity of (3 – 4) × 10 18 W cm -2 . Experimental data are compared with numerical calculations. It is shown that the spatial structure of the ion bunch on the front side of the target resembles the laser spot structure rotated by 90°. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  5. Effect of the laser spot shape on spatial distribution of the ion bunch accelerated in a superstrong field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarov, V M; Charukhchev, A V [Public Limited Company " Scientific research Institute for Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering" , Leningrad region (Russian Federation); Andreev, A A; Platonov, K Yu [Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Scientific Center " S.I.Vavilov State Optical Institute" (FSUE GOI), St.Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    We have investigated the effect of the laser spot shape on the spatial distribution of accelerated ions on the front and back sides of a thin target irradiated by a picosecond laser pulse having the intensity of (3 – 4) × 10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2}. Experimental data are compared with numerical calculations. It is shown that the spatial structure of the ion bunch on the front side of the target resembles the laser spot structure rotated by 90°. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  6. SpotCaliper: fast wavelet-based spot detection with accurate size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püspöki, Zsuzsanna; Sage, Daniel; Ward, John Paul; Unser, Michael

    2016-04-15

    SpotCaliper is a novel wavelet-based image-analysis software providing a fast automatic detection scheme for circular patterns (spots), combined with the precise estimation of their size. It is implemented as an ImageJ plugin with a friendly user interface. The user is allowed to edit the results by modifying the measurements (in a semi-automated way), extract data for further analysis. The fine tuning of the detections includes the possibility of adjusting or removing the original detections, as well as adding further spots. The main advantage of the software is its ability to capture the size of spots in a fast and accurate way. http://bigwww.epfl.ch/algorithms/spotcaliper/ zsuzsanna.puspoki@epfl.ch Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  8. Photoelectric method for determination of the moment of formation of an anodic spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, V.N.; Goncharov, V.K.; Smirnov, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    In studying the problem of the effect of the amplitude and form of discharge current pulses on the time for transition from a diffuse discharge form to a contracted one and on the value of the threshold current I /SUB As/ for formation of an anodic spot, the authors used a photoelectric method for determination of the moment of appearance of the anodic spot based on determination of the spectral composition of the plasma at different moments of time after the beginning of discharge initiation. The photoelectric method can be used in studying emission processes on a cathode and also in those cases where both electrodes are made of the same material. An example shows synchronous oscillograms of I /SUB p/ (tau) and J /SUB i/ (tau) for copper electrodes. It is evident that during transition of the discharge to a contracted form with an anodic spot there was a sharp increase of the intensity of deexcitation of the ionic copper line. At the moment of extinction of the anodic spot, the amplitude values of J /SUB i/ (tau) corresponded to a level characteristic of the diffuse form of arc burning

  9. Material influence on hot spot distribution in the nanoparticle heterodimer on film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Huang, Yingzhou; Wei, Hua; Wang, Shuxia; Zeng, Xiping; Cao, Wenbin; Wen, Weijia

    2018-04-01

    The metal nanoparticle aggregated on film, as an effective plasma enhancement pathway, has been widely used in various surface plasmon-related fields. In this study, the hot spots on the metal nanoparticle dimer composed of different materials (Agsbnd Au, Agsbnd Pd, and Agsbnd Cu) on metal (Au) film were investigated with finite element method. Based on the results, the hot spot distribution affected by the material can be confirmed by the electric field distribution of the metal nanoparticle dimer on the film. The aggregation effects of Au and Ag nanoparticles in Ausbnd Ag dimer system are not significant. However, for the Pdsbnd Ag dimer system, the hot spot aggregation effect is slightly larger than that of the Pd nanoparticle under the Ag nanoparticle. Besides, the non-uniform hot spots would bring about the light focusing phenomenon that the light intensity under Ag nanoparticle is almost 100 times greater than that under Cu nanoparticle in Agsbnd Cu dimer system. These results were further confirmed by the surface charge distribution, and analyzed based on the plasmonic hybridization theory. The data about the nanoparticle dimer on the dielectric (Si) film demonstrate the importance of induced image charges on the film surface in such a light focusing phenomenon. Our findings can enhance the understanding of the surface plasmon coupling in different materials, which may have great application prospects in surface plasmon-related fields, such as SERS, plasmonic enhanced solar cell, and plasmonic sensoring, etc.

  10. The rise and fall of a human recombination hot spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, Alec J; Neumann, Rita

    2009-05-01

    Human meiotic crossovers mainly cluster into narrow hot spots that profoundly influence patterns of haplotype diversity and that may also affect genome instability and sequence evolution. Hot spots also seem to be ephemeral, but processes of hot-spot activation and their subsequent evolutionary dynamics remain unknown. We now analyze the life cycle of a recombination hot spot. Sperm typing revealed a polymorphic hot spot that was activated in cis by a single base change, providing evidence for a primary sequence determinant necessary, though not sufficient, to activate recombination. This activating mutation occurred roughly 70,000 y ago and has persisted to the present, most likely fortuitously through genetic drift despite its systematic elimination by biased gene conversion. Nonetheless, this self-destructive conversion will eventually lead to hot-spot extinction. These findings define a subclass of highly transient hot spots and highlight the importance of understanding hot-spot turnover and how it influences haplotype diversity.

  11. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B.; Hilsabeck, T.; Field, J.; Masters, N.; Reed, C.; Pardini, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Alexander, N.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Forsman, A.; Izumi, N.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S.; Patel, P.; Spears, B.; Landen, O. L.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  12. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, B., E-mail: bachmann2@llnl.gov; Field, J.; Masters, N.; Pardini, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Izumi, N.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S.; Patel, P.; Spears, B.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T.; Reed, C.; Alexander, N.; Forsman, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  13. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B; Hilsabeck, T; Field, J; Masters, N; Reed, C; Pardini, T; Rygg, J R; Alexander, N; Benedetti, L R; Döppner, T; Forsman, A; Izumi, N; LePape, S; Ma, T; MacPhee, A G; Nagel, S; Patel, P; Spears, B; Landen, O L

    2016-11-01

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  14. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, B.; Field, J.; Masters, N.; Pardini, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Izumi, N.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S.; Patel, P.; Spears, B.; Landen, O. L.; Hilsabeck, T.; Reed, C.; Alexander, N.; Forsman, A.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  15. Coupling of laser energy into plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, D. A.; Giacone, R. E.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Busby, R.; Cary, J. R.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2007-01-01

    Diffractive spreading of a laser pulse imposes severe limitations on the acceleration length and maximum electron energy in the laser wake field accelerator (LWFA). Optical guiding of a laser pulse via plasma channels can extend the laser-plasma interaction distance over many Rayleigh lengths. Energy efficient coupling of laser pulses into and through plasma channels is very important for optimal LWFA performance. Results from simulation parameter studies on channel guiding using the particle-in-cell (PIC) code VORPAL [C. Nieter and J. R. Cary, J. Comput. Phys. 196, 448 (2004)] are presented and discussed. The effects that density ramp length and the position of the laser pulse focus have on coupling into channels are considered. Moreover, the effect of laser energy leakage out of the channel domain and the effects of tunneling ionization of a neutral gas on the guided laser pulse are also investigated. Power spectral diagnostics were developed and used to separate pump depletion from energy leakage. The results of these simulations show that increasing the density ramp length decreases the efficiency of coupling a laser pulse to a channel and increases the energy loss when the pulse is vacuum focused at the channel entrance. Then, large spot size oscillations result in increased energy leakage. To further analyze the coupling, a differential equation is derived for the laser spot size evolution in the plasma density ramp and channel profiles are simulated. From the numerical solution of this equation, the optimal spot size and location for coupling into a plasma channel with a density ramp are determined. This result is confirmed by the PIC simulations. They show that specifying a vacuum focus location of the pulse in front of the top of the density ramp leads to an actual focus at the top of the ramp due to plasma focusing, resulting in reduced spot size oscillations. In this case, the leakage is significantly reduced and is negligibly affected by ramp length

  16. Pooled HIV-1 viral load testing using dried blood spots to reduce the cost of monitoring antiretroviral treatment in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannus, Pieter; Fajardo, Emmanuel; Metcalf, Carol; Coulborn, Rebecca M; Durán, Laura T; Bygrave, Helen; Ellman, Tom; Garone, Daniela; Murowa, Michael; Mwenda, Reuben; Reid, Tony; Preiser, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Rollout of routine HIV-1 viral load monitoring is hampered by high costs and logistical difficulties associated with sample collection and transport. New strategies are needed to overcome these constraints. Dried blood spots from finger pricks have been shown to be more practical than the use of plasma specimens, and pooling strategies using plasma specimens have been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce costs. This study found that combination of finger-prick dried blood spots and a pooling strategy is a feasible and efficient option to reduce costs, while maintaining accuracy in the context of a district hospital in Malawi.

  17. SPOT: How good for geology? A comparison with LANDSAT MSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesoeren, A.

    1986-12-01

    Geological interpretation possibilities of SPOT MSS and LANDSAT MSS positive prints enlarged to the same scale were compared, using as a test area part of the Jebel Amour (Algeria). The SPOT imagery offers many advantages, filling the gap between remote sensing from space and aerial photography. The best results by visual interpretation are obtained in combining SPOT for the required details with LANDSAT for the synoptic veiw. Further improvements are expected from the use of SPOT stereo-pairs.

  18. Hot spot manifestation in eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cassiopeiae

    OpenAIRE

    Bakowska, K.; Olech, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of the hot spot in light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cassiopeiae during its superoutburst in 2010 November. Analysis of eight reconstructed light curves of the hot spot eclipses showed directly that the brightness of the hot spot was changing significantly during the superoutburst. Thereby, detected hot spot manifestation in HT Cas is the newest observational evidence for the EMT model for dwarf novae.

  19. Investigation of arcing on fiber-formed nanostructured tungsten by pulsed plasma during steady state plasma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, M., E-mail: yajima.miyuki@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, 509-5292 Japan (Japan); Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kajita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); De Temmerman, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046-13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S.; Morgan, T.W. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Masuzaki, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, 509-5292 Japan (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Arcing on fiber-formed nanostructured tungsten samples during ELM-like pulses was investigated using the superimposition of high power pulsed plasma on a steady state plasma with hydrogen gas in the linear plasma device Pilot-PSI. The ignition of arcing was observed when the floating potential of the samples was less than −75 V with sufficient heat flux. The surface observation showed that the arc spots were not in the center, but in the peripheral area of the plasma column. Considering the plasma potential profile in the Pilot-PSI, the arcing occurred at the position where the heat flux and the sheath potential drop are sufficiently large.

  20. Spot table - RPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...d_spot.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rpd/LATEST/rpd_spot.zip F... cDNA. (multiple entries) About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Spot table - RPD | LSDB Archive ...

  1. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  2. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  3. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  4. Sowing rates for reforestation by the seed-spotting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert H. Schubert; Harry A. Fowells

    1964-01-01

    Presents guides to determine the number of seeds to sow per spot and the number of spots required per acre to obtain acceptable stocking. Based on theoretical probabilities, these guides were found to be reasonably close to actual field results When the probability-of-success was at least 55 percent. To compensate for lower actual stocking, increase the number of spots...

  5. Spot Size Limited Carbon Propellant Characterization for Efficient High Isp Laser Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeaki; Shimada, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Kazuhisa; Yamaura, Michiteru; Birou, Tomoya; Yoshida, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    Laser propulsion has very unique advantage of producing exhausting gas (ions) of very high velocity. Specific impulse from laser plasma could easily exceed 10,000 seconds that reduce the current propellant consumption rate on space born thrusters significantly. For efficient propellant usage, it is desirable that the exhaust plasma has rather narrow velocity distribution of fast ions. In order to accomplish the requirements, thermal conduction and neutral particle losses at and vicinity of the laser heated region have to be eliminated. A concept of spot size limited propellant shape has been proposed and tested in terms of the effects of the loss reduction. Ion and neutral particle measurements from laser plasmas produced on the above mentioned carbon targets are used to characterize the performance of the propellant

  6. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  7. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  8. Spot på interaktive teknologier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Spot på interaktive teknologier Af Anthony Lewis Brooks, PhD Associate Professor, Aalborg University & Director SensoramaLab Den verdensomspændende paraplyorganisation for it-foreninger IFIP har netop afholdt sin årlige ”International Conference on Entertainment Computing”. Se her, hvad tre af top...... fra hele verden for at sætte fokus på, hvordan de nyeste teknologier inden for digital underholdning, kan bruges i forskellige sammenhænge. Bag begivenheden står IFIP, som DANSK IT er repræsenteret i. I år var der blandt andet spot på wearables og andre interaktive teknologier. Leila Alem fra den...

  9. SPOT: the door to digital innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    AREVA NP has opened in Lyon a small department, named SPOT, whose aim is to develop innovative digital technologies such as CAVE and MODOP'3D. CAVE, that is the acronym of Cave Automatic Virtual Environment, is a large screen that splits the room in half and shows the virtual copy of the Astrid reactor. Viewers can wander inside the reactor and its building through the screen and sees all the details of the design. CAVE represents a complete virtual 3-dimension prototype of the Astrid reactor whose aim is to help assessing any change in the design. MODOP'3D is a virtual maintenance tool that allows the operator to simulate reactor maintenance operations in a 3-dimensional way in order to assess their feasibility and optimize them. Exoskeletons whose purpose is to help operators to handle heavy loads are also tested at SPOT. (A.C.)

  10. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  11. spots de campaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Juárez Gámiz

    2007-01-01

    publicidad política en televisión. Ilustrado por los spots televisivos, el debate se ha centrado en el alto costo que representa para los contribuyentes, a través de los partidos políticos, la producción y transmisión de estos mensajes. El presente trabajo consiste en un análisis de contenido de una muestra de spots transmitidos por las tres principales fuerzas electorales en México durante la campaña presidencial de 2006. El objetivo es identificar, de manera sistemática, características particulares en el formato y contenido de estos mensajes a la luz de su función persuasiva e informativa.

  12. Mutagenicity studies with the mouse spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocke, E.; Wild, D.; Eckhardt, K.; King, M.T.

    1983-04-01

    The mammalian spot test, which detects somatic gene mutations in mouse embryos, was investigated with selected chemicals to (a) further validate this test system ethylnitrosourea, ethyl methanesulfonate, 2-acetylaminofluorene and colchicine (ENU, EMS, 2AAF), and (b) evaluate the mutagenic potential, in a whole-mammal system, of environmental compounds that had been previously recognized as mutagens in other mammalian or submammalian test systems (1,2-dichloroethane, hydroquinone, nitrofurantoin, o-phenylenediamine, fried sausage extract). Of these substances, ENU, EMS and 2AAF were significantly mutagenic, 1,2-dichloroethane was probably weakly mutagenic. The ENU data were used to estimate the number of pigment precursor cells present at the time of treatment (day 9.25). We also describe in this report the use of a fluorescence microscope for classification of hairs from spots on the coat of C57BL/6JHan X T hybrids.

  13. Copying of holograms by spot scanning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, Makoto; Wakunami, Koki; Oi, Ryutaro; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2018-05-20

    To replicate holograms, contact copying has conventionally been used. In this approach, a photosensitive material is fixed together with a master hologram and illuminated with a coherent beam. This method is simple and enables high-quality copies; however, it requires a large optical setup for large-area holograms. In this paper, we present a new method of replicating holograms that uses a relatively compact optical system even for the replication of large holograms. A small laser spot that irradiates only part of the hologram is used to reproduce the hologram by scanning the spot over the whole area of the hologram. We report on the results of experiments carried out to confirm the copy quality, along with a guide to design scanning conditions. The results show the potential effectiveness of the large-area hologram replication technology using a relatively compact apparatus.

  14. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a clinician's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Edwin J; Olson, Gary S; Weiner, Scott J; Paddock, Christopher D

    2003-04-14

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is still the most lethal tick-vectored illness in the United States. We examine the dilemmas facing the clinician who is evaluating the patient with possible Rocky Mountain spotted fever, with particular attention to the following 8 pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment: (1) waiting for a petechial rash to develop before diagnosis; (2) misdiagnosing as gastroenteritis; (3) discounting a diagnosis when there is no history of a tick bite; (4) using an inappropriate geographic exclusion; (5) using an inappropriate seasonal exclusion; (6) failing to treat on clinical suspicion; (7) failing to elicit an appropriate history; and (8) failing to treat with doxycycline. Early diagnosis and proper treatment save lives.

  16. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  17. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  18. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  19. Effect of diffraction on stimulated Brillouin scattering from a single laser hot spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, V.V.; Rozmus, W.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Capjack, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    A single laser hot spot in an underdense plasma is represented as a focused Gaussian laser beam. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from such a Gaussian beam with small f/numbers 2-4 has been studied in a three-dimensional slab geometry. It is shown that the SBS reflectivity from a single laser hot spot is much lower than that predicted by a simple three wave coupling model because of the diffraction of the scattered light from the spatially localized ion acoustic wave. SBS gain per one Rayleigh length of the incident laser beam is proposed as a quantitative measure of this effect. Diffraction-limited SBS from a randomized laser beam is also discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. RECURRENT SOLAR JETS INDUCED BY A SATELLITE SPOT AND MOVING MAGNETIC FEATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jie; Su, Jiangtao; Yin, Zhiqiang; Priya, T. G.; Zhang, Hongqi; Xu, Haiqing; Yu, Sijie [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Jihong, E-mail: chenjie@bao.ac.cn [Shi Jiazhuang University, Shi Jiazhuang, 050035 (China)

    2015-12-10

    Recurrent and homologous jets were observed to the west edge of active region NOAA 11513 at the boundary of a coronal hole. We find two kinds of cancellations between opposite polarity magnetic fluxes, inducing the generation of recurrent jets. First, a satellite spot continuously collides with a pre-existing opposite polarity magnetic field and causes recurrent solar jets. Second, moving magnetic features, which emerge near the sunspot penumbra, pass through the ambient plasma and eventually collide with the opposite polarity magnetic field. Among these recurrent jets, a blowout jet that occurred around 21:10 UT is investigated. The rotation of the pre-existing magnetic field and the shear motion of the satellite spot accumulate magnetic energy, which creates the possibility for the jet to experience blowout right from the standard.

  1. Spot på fysisk aktivitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Børge; Bertelsen, Katrine; Sørensen, Karsten

    Bogen henvender sig primært til det pædagogiske personale i skolen, som ønsker inspiration og viden til, hvordan man aktivt kan inddrage eleverne i en bevægelsesorden, som lægger op til, at eleverne lærer at forholde sig til deres forskellige bevægelsesareaner der fylder deres hverdag. "PlaySpot...

  2. Forecasting European thermal coal spot prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Krzemień

    2015-01-01

    Finally, in order to analyse the time series model performance a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN was used and its performance compared against the whole AR(2 process. Empirical results obtained confirmed that there is no statistically significant difference between both methods. The GRNN analysis also allowed pointing out the main drivers that move the European Thermal Coal Spot prices: crude oil, USD/CNY change and supply side drivers.

  3. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jwad, Tahseen, E-mail: taj355@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  4. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jwad, Tahseen; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  5. A novel approach for quantitation of glucosylceramide in human dried blood spot using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Allena Ji; Wang, Haixing; Ziso-Qejvanaj, Enida; Zheng, Kefei; Chung, Lee Lee; Foley, Timothy; Chuang, Wei-Lien; Richards, Susan; Sung, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    Glucosylceramide, an efficacy biomarker for Gaucher Type 1 disease, exhibits poor solubility in polar solvents and whole blood which makes it difficult to prepare a homogenous blood standard. We developed a novel method using standard addition approach by spiking a small volume of analyte solution on the surface of prespotted dried blood spot. The whole spots were punched out for subsequent extraction and LC-MS/MS analysis. The assay performance met all validation acceptance criteria. Glucosylceramide concentrations in 50 paired plasma and dry blood spot samples obtained from Gaucher Type 1 patients were tested and the results demonstrated the feasibility of using the DBS method for clinical biomarker monitoring. The new approach greatly improves assay precision and accuracy.

  6. Time Resolved X-Ray Spot Size Diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Roger; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Weir, John

    2005-01-01

    A diagnostic was developed for the determination of temporal history of an X-ray spot. A pair of thin (0.5 mm) slits image the x-ray spot to a fast scintillator which is coupled to a fast detector, thus sampling a slice of the X-Ray spot. Two other scintillator/detectors are used to determine the position of the spot and total forward dose. The slit signal is normalized to the dose and the resulting signal is analyzed to get the spot size. The position information is used to compensate for small changes due to spot motion and misalignment. The time resolution of the diagnostic is about 1 ns and measures spots from 0.5 mm to over 3 mm. The theory and equations used to calculate spot size and position are presented, as well as data. The calculations assume a symmetric, Gaussian spot. The spot data is generated by the ETA II accelerator, a 2kA, 5.5 MeV, 60ns electron beam focused on a Tantalum target. The spot generated is typically about 1 mm FWHM. Comparisons are made to an X-ray pinhole camera which images th...

  7. A novel word spotting method based on recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinken, Volkmar; Fischer, Andreas; Manmatha, R; Bunke, Horst

    2012-02-01

    Keyword spotting refers to the process of retrieving all instances of a given keyword from a document. In the present paper, a novel keyword spotting method for handwritten documents is described. It is derived from a neural network-based system for unconstrained handwriting recognition. As such it performs template-free spotting, i.e., it is not necessary for a keyword to appear in the training set. The keyword spotting is done using a modification of the CTC Token Passing algorithm in conjunction with a recurrent neural network. We demonstrate that the proposed systems outperform not only a classical dynamic time warping-based approach but also a modern keyword spotting system, based on hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we analyze the performance of the underlying neural networks when using them in a recognition task followed by keyword spotting on the produced transcription. We point out the advantages of keyword spotting when compared to classic text line recognition.

  8. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  9. Improved simulation method of automotive spot weld failure with an account of the mechanical properties of spot welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Meng, X. M.; Fang, R.; Huang, Y. F.; Zhan, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the microstructure and mechanical properties of spot weld were studied, the hardness of nugget and heat affected zone (HAZ) were also tested by metallographic microscope and microhardness tester. The strength of the spot weld with the different parts' area has been characterized. According to the experiments result, CAE model of spot weld with HAZ structure was established, and simulation results of different lap-shear CAE models were analyzed. The results show that the spot weld model which contained the HAZ has good performance and more suitable for engineering application in spot weld simulation.

  10. Space and time resolved observations of hot spots dynamics in a vacuum spark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui, H.; Favre, M.; Saavedra, R.; Wyndham, E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental observations of the plasma formations in a vacuum spark discharge are presented. A low power Nd:YAG laser pulse incident onto a titanium cathode initiates the discharge. The evolution of the titanium plasma electron density and temperature is followed both in the visible and the soft X-ray part of the spectrum. The former uses a novel micro holographic interferometric technique permitting a spatial resolution better than 20 μm. The probing beam is a 6 ns frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. The latter emission is resolved using a number of different methods. The spatial information is derived from a 1 ns multi framing camera X-ray camera which projects the plasma image using four different slit wire pinhole images and six pinhole images, each aperture being filtered differently. The temporal evolution of the emission of each discharge is followed using several silicon PIN diodes. The x-ray spectrum is unfolded from the filter and detector response and interpreted using a collisional radiative package. The hot spots are seen to form in a submillimeter pinch stemming from the incident laser focus which has a life time about 20 ns. The hot spots are much shorter events, reaching substantially higher densities, but involve only part of the line density of the pinch column. (author). 4 figs., 8 refs

  11. Space and time resolved observations of hot spots dynamics in a vacuum spark discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuaqui, H; Favre, M; Saavedra, R; Wyndham, E [Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Choi, P; Dumitrescu-Zoita, C [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises; Soto, L [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1997-12-31

    Experimental observations of the plasma formations in a vacuum spark discharge are presented. A low power Nd:YAG laser pulse incident onto a titanium cathode initiates the discharge. The evolution of the titanium plasma electron density and temperature is followed both in the visible and the soft X-ray part of the spectrum. The former uses a novel micro holographic interferometric technique permitting a spatial resolution better than 20 {mu}m. The probing beam is a 6 ns frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. The latter emission is resolved using a number of different methods. The spatial information is derived from a 1 ns multi framing camera X-ray camera which projects the plasma image using four different slit wire pinhole images and six pinhole images, each aperture being filtered differently. The temporal evolution of the emission of each discharge is followed using several silicon PIN diodes. The x-ray spectrum is unfolded from the filter and detector response and interpreted using a collisional radiative package. The hot spots are seen to form in a submillimeter pinch stemming from the incident laser focus which has a life time about 20 ns. The hot spots are much shorter events, reaching substantially higher densities, but involve only part of the line density of the pinch column. (author). 4 figs., 8 refs.

  12. Validation of the Use of Dried Blood Spot (DBS) Method to Assess Vitamin A Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Elham; Peighambardoust, Seyed Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency is an important dietary deficiency in the world. Thus, the ne¬cessity of screening for deficient populations is obvious. This paper introduces a fast, cheap and relatively reliable method called “dried blood spot” (DBS) method in screening the deficient populations. The validity of this method for retinol measurement was investigated. Method: The “precision” and “agreement” criteria of the DBS method were assessed. The preci¬sion was calculated and compared with those of plasma using F-test. The agreement was eva¬luated using Bland-Altman plot. Results: The imprecision of retinol measurements in dried spots was not significantly different from those of the control (plasma). A good correlation coefficient (r2=0.78) was obtained for dried spots’ retinol measurements versus plasma’s retinol analysis (P dried spots was stable for 90 days. Overall, the DBS method provided a precise measurement of retinol, showing results that were comparable with the measurement of retinol in plasma. PMID:24688932

  13. Laser-produced dense plasma in extremely high pressure gas and its application to a plasma-bridged gap switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, J.; Okuda, A.

    1989-01-01

    When an extremely high pressure gas is irradiated by an intense laser light, a dense plasma produced at the focal spot moves towards the focusing lens with a high velocity. Making use of this phenomenon, a new plasma-bridged gap switch is proposed and its switching characteristics is experimentally examined. From the experiments, it is confirmed that the switching time is almost constant with the applied voltage only when the focal spot is just on the positive electrode, indicating that the bridging of gap is caused by the laser light. (author)

  14. Characterisation of Plasma Filled Rod Pinch electron beam diode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Bland, Simon; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    The plasma filled rod pinch diode (aka PFRP) offers a small radiographic spot size and a high brightness source. It operates in a very similar to plasma opening switches and dense plasma focus devices - with a plasma prefill, supplied via a number of simple coaxial plasma guns, being snowploughed along a thin rod cathode, before detaching at the end. The aim of this study is to model the PFRP and understand the factors that affect its performance, potentially improving future output. Given the dependence on the PFRP on the prefill, we are making detailed measurements of the density (1015-1018 cm-3), velocity, ionisation and temperature of the plasma emitted from a plasma gun/set of plasma guns. This will then be used to provide initial conditions to the Gorgon 3D MHD code, and the dynamics of the entire rod pinch process studied.

  15. Plasma lenses for focusing relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, R.; Wheeler, S.; Leemans, W.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation of colliders require tightly focused beams with high luminosity. To focus charged particle beams for such applications, a plasma focusing scheme has been proposed. Plasma lenses can be overdense (plasma density, n p much greater than electron beam density, n b ) or underdense (n p less than 2 n b ). In overdense lenses the space-charge force of the electron beam is canceled by the plasma and the remaining magnetic force causes the electron beam to self-pinch. The focusing gradient is nonlinear, resulting in spherical aberrations. In underdense lenses, the self-forces of the electron beam cancel, allowing the plasma ions to focus the beam. Although for a given beam density, a uniform underdense lens produces smaller focusing gradients than an overdense lens, it produces better beam quality since the focusing is done by plasma ions. The underdense lens can be improved by tapering the density of the plasma for optimal focusing. The underdense lens performance can be enhanced further by producing adiabatic plasma lenses to avoid the Oide limit on spot size due to synchrotron radiation by the electron beam. The plasma lens experiment at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) is designed to study the properties of plasma lenses in both overdense and underdense regimes. In particular, important issues such as electron beam matching, time response of the lens, lens aberrations and shot-to-shot reproducibility are being investigated

  16. Protein expression profiling by antibody array analysis with use of dried blood spot samples on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weidong; Mao, Ying Qing; Huang, Ruochun; Duan, Chaohui; Xi, Yun; Yang, Kai; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2014-01-31

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper offer several advantages compared to conventional serum/plasma samples: they do not require any phlebotomy or separation of blood by centrifugation; they are less invasive; they allow sample stability and shipment at room temperature; and they pose a negligible risk of infection with blood-borne viruses, such as HIV, HBV and HCV, to those who handle them. Therefore dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper can be a quick, convenient and inexpensive means of obtaining blood samples for biomarker discovery, disease screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-hospitalized, public health settings. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential application of dried blood spot samples (DBSS) in protein expression profiling using antibody array technology. First, optimal conditions for array assay performance using dried blood spot samples (DBSS) was established, including sample elution buffer, elution time, elution temperature and assay blocking buffer. Second, we analyzed dried blood spot samples (DBSS) using three distinct antibody array platforms, including sandwich-based antibody arrays, quantitative antibody arrays and biotin-label-based antibody arrays. In comparison with paired serum samples, detection of circulating proteins in dried blood spot samples (DBSS) correlated well for both low- and high-abundance proteins on all three antibody array platforms. In conclusion, our study strongly indicates the novel application of multiplex antibody array platforms to analyze dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper represents a viable, cost-effective method for protein profiling, biomarker discovery and disease screening in a large, population-based survey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vacuum arc anode plasma. I. Spectroscopic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, F.M.

    1975-01-01

    A spectroscopic investigation was made of the anode plasma of a pulsed vacuum arc with an aluminum anode and a molybdenum cathode. The arc was triggered by a third trigger electrode and was driven by a 150-A 10-μs current pulse. The average current density at the anode was sufficiently high that anode spots were formed; these spots are believed to be the source of the aluminum in the plasma investigated in this experiment. By simultaneously measuring spectral emission lines of Al I, Al II, and Al III, the plasma electron temperature was shown to decrease sequentially through the norm temperatures of Al III, Al II, and Al I as the arc was extinguished. The Boltzmann distribution temperature T/subD/ of four Al III excited levels was shown to be kT/subD//e=2.0plus-or-minus0.5 V, and the peak Al III 4D excited state density was shown to be about 5times10 17 m -3 . These data suggest a non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (non-LTE) model of the anode plasma when compared with the Al 3+ production in the plasma. The plasma was theoretically shown to be optically thin to the observed Al III spectral lines

  18. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  19. Plasma chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the fundamental theory and various applications of ion mobility spectroscopy. Plasma chromatography developed from research on the diffusion and mobility of ions. Topics considered include instrument design and description (e.g., performance, spectral interpretation, sample handling, mass spectrometry), the role of ion mobility in plasma chromatography (e.g., kinetic theory of ion transport), atmospheric pressure ionization (e.g., rate equations), the characterization of isomers by plasma chromatography (e.g., molecular ion characteristics, polynuclear aromatics), plasma chromatography as a gas chromatographic detection method (e.g., qualitative analysis, continuous mobility monitoring, quantitative analysis), the analysis of toxic vapors by plasma chromatography (e.g., plasma chromatograph calibration, instrument control and data processing), the analysis of semiconductor devices and microelectronic packages by plasma chromatography/mass spectroscopy (e.g., analysis of organic surface contaminants, analysis of water in sealed electronic packages), and instrument design and automation (hardware, software)

  20. Dried Blood Spot Methodology in Combination With Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Facilitates the Monitoring of Teriflunomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunven, Catherine; Turpault, Sandrine; Beyer, Yann-Joel; O'Brien, Amy; Delfolie, Astrid; Boyanova, Neli; Sanderink, Ger-Jan; Baldinetti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teriflunomide, a once-daily oral immunomodulator approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, is eliminated slowly from plasma. If necessary to rapidly lower plasma concentrations of teriflunomide, an accelerated elimination procedure using cholestyramine or activated charcoal may be used. The current bioanalytical assay for determination of plasma teriflunomide concentration requires laboratory facilities for blood centrifugation and plasma storage. An alternative method, with potential for greater convenience, is dried blood spot (DBS) methodology. Analytical and clinical validations are required to switch from plasma to DBS (finger-prick sampling) methodology. Methods: Using blood samples from healthy subjects, an LC-MS/MS assay method for quantification of teriflunomide in DBS over a range of 0.01–10 mcg/mL was developed and validated for specificity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and stability. Results were compared with those from the current plasma assay for determination of plasma teriflunomide concentration. Results: Method was specific and selective relative to endogenous compounds, with process efficiency ∼88%, and no matrix effect. Inaccuracy and imprecision for intraday and interday analyses were blood deposit volume and punch position within spot, and hematocrit level had a limited but acceptable effect on measurement accuracy. Teriflunomide was stable for at least 4 months at room temperature, and for at least 24 hours at 37°C with and without 95% relative humidity, to cover sampling, drying, and shipment conditions in the field. The correlation between DBS and plasma concentrations (R2 = 0.97), with an average blood to plasma ratio of 0.59, was concentration independent and constant over time. Conclusions: DBS sampling is a simple and practical method for monitoring teriflunomide concentrations. PMID:27015245

  1. The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f 2 , where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion

  2. Splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2017-11-01

    Recent study (Wu et al., PNAS, 1509451112, 2015) demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of direct computation of the Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition problem without the unphysical, axially periodic boundary condition. Here we use this approach to study the splitting of turbulent spot in transitional pipe flow, a feature first discovered by E.R. Lindgren (Arkiv Fysik 15, 1959). It has been widely believed that spot splitting is a mysterious stochastic process that has general implications on the lifetime and sustainability of wall turbulence. We address the following two questions: (1) What is the dynamics of turbulent spot splitting in pipe transition? Specifically, we look into any possible connection between the instantaneous strain rate field and the spot splitting. (2) How does the passive scalar field behave during the process of pipe spot splitting. In this study, the turbulent spot is introduced at the inlet plane through a sixty degree wide numerical wedge within which fully-developed turbulent profiles are assigned over a short time interval; and the simulation Reynolds numbers are 2400 for a 500 radii long pipe, and 2300 for a 1000 radii long pipe, respectively. Numerical dye is tagged on the imposed turbulent spot at the inlet. Splitting of the imposed turbulent spot is detected very easily. Preliminary analysis of the DNS results seems to suggest that turbulent spot slitting can be easily understood based on instantaneous strain rate field, and such spot splitting may not be relevant in external flows such as the flat-plate boundary layer.

  3. Non-equilibrium between ions and electrons inside hot spots from National Ignition Facility experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengfeng Fan; Yuanyuan Liu; Bin Liu; Chengxin Yu; Ke Lan; Jie Liu

    2017-01-01

    The non-equilibrium between ions and electrons in the hot spot can relax the ignition conditions in inertial confinement fusion [Fan et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 010703 (2016)], and obvious ion-electron non-equilibrium could be observed by our simulations of high-foot implosions when the ion-electron relaxation is enlarged by a factor of 2. On the other hand, in many shots of high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility, the observed X-ray enhancement factors due to ablator mixing into...

  4. Advanced spot quality analysis in two-colour microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetter Guillaume

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image analysis of microarrays and, in particular, spot quantification and spot quality control, is one of the most important steps in statistical analysis of microarray data. Recent methods of spot quality control are still in early age of development, often leading to underestimation of true positive microarray features and, consequently, to loss of important biological information. Therefore, improving and standardizing the statistical approaches of spot quality control are essential to facilitate the overall analysis of microarray data and subsequent extraction of biological information. Findings We evaluated the performance of two image analysis packages MAIA and GenePix (GP using two complementary experimental approaches with a focus on the statistical analysis of spot quality factors. First, we developed control microarrays with a priori known fluorescence ratios to verify the accuracy and precision of the ratio estimation of signal intensities. Next, we developed advanced semi-automatic protocols of spot quality evaluation in MAIA and GP and compared their performance with available facilities of spot quantitative filtering in GP. We evaluated these algorithms for standardised spot quality analysis in a whole-genome microarray experiment assessing well-characterised transcriptional modifications induced by the transcription regulator SNAI1. Using a set of RT-PCR or qRT-PCR validated microarray data, we found that the semi-automatic protocol of spot quality control we developed with MAIA allowed recovering approximately 13% more spots and 38% more differentially expressed genes (at FDR = 5% than GP with default spot filtering conditions. Conclusion Careful control of spot quality characteristics with advanced spot quality evaluation can significantly increase the amount of confident and accurate data resulting in more meaningful biological conclusions.

  5. Effects of spot size and spot spacing on lateral penumbra reduction when using a dynamic collimation system for spot scanning proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyer, Daniel E; Hill, Patrick M; Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake R; Flynn, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the reduction in lateral dose penumbra that can be achieved when using a dynamic collimation system (DCS) for spot scanning proton therapy as a function of two beam parameters: spot size and spot spacing. This is an important investigation as both values impact the achievable dose distribution and a wide range of values currently exist depending on delivery hardware. Treatment plans were created both with and without the DCS for in-air spot sizes (σ air ) of 3, 5, 7, and 9 mm as well as spot spacing intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 8 mm. Compared to un-collimated treatment plans, the plans created with the DCS yielded a reduction in the mean dose to normal tissue surrounding the target of 26.2–40.6% for spot sizes of 3–9 mm, respectively. Increasing the spot spacing resulted in a decrease in the time penalty associated with using the DCS that was approximately proportional to the reduction in the number of rows in the raster delivery pattern. We conclude that dose distributions achievable when using the DCS are comparable to those only attainable with much smaller initial spot sizes, suggesting that the goal of improving high dose conformity may be achieved by either utilizing a DCS or by improving beam line optics. (note)

  6. On cold spots in tumor subvolumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Wolfgang A.; Fowler, Jack F.

    2002-01-01

    Losses in tumor control are estimated for cold spots of various 'sizes' and degrees of 'cold dose'. This question is important in the context of intensity modulated radiotherapy where differential dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for targets that abut a critical structure often exhibit a cold dose tail. This can be detrimental to tumor control probability (TCP) for fractions of cold volumes even as small as 1%, if the cold dose is lower than the prescribed dose by substantially more than 10%. The Niemierko-Goitein linear-quadratic algorithm with γ 50 slope 1-3 was used to study the effect of cold spots of various degrees (dose deficit below the prescription dose) and size (fractional volume of the cold dose). A two-bin model DVH has been constructed in which the cold dose bin is allowed to vary from a dose deficit of 1%-50% below prescription dose and to have volumes varying from 1% to 90%. In order to study and quantify the effect of a small volume of cold dose on TCP and effective uniform dose (EUD), a four-bin DVH model has been constructed in which the lowest dose bin, which has a fractional volume of 1%, is allowed to vary from 10% to 45% dose deficit below prescription dose. The highest dose bin represents a simultaneous boost. For fixed size of the cold spot the calculated values of TCP decreased rapidly with increasing degrees of cold dose for any size of the cold spot, even as small as 1% fractional volume. For the four-subvolume model, in which the highest dose bin has a fractional volume of 80% and is set at a boost dose of 10% above prescription dose, it is found that the loss in TCP and EUD is moderate as long as the cold 1% subvolume has a deficit less than approximately 20%. However, as the dose deficit in the 1% subvolume bin increases further it drives TCP and EUD rapidly down and can lead to a serious loss in TCP and EUD. Since a dose deficit to a 1% volume of the target that is larger than 20% of the prescription dose may lead to serious loss of

  7. Spot Welding Characterizations With Time Variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Hafid; Pinitoyo, A.; History; Paidjo, Andryansyah; Sagino, Sudarmin; Tamzil, M.

    2001-01-01

    For obtain spot welding used effective data, this research is made, so that time operational of machine increasing. Welding parameters are material classification, electrical current, and weld time. All of the factors are determined welding quality. If the plate more thick, the time must be longer when the current constant. Another factor as determined welding quality are surface condition of electrode, surface condition of weld material, and material classifications. In this research, the weld machine type IP32A2 VI (110 V), Rivoira trademark is characterized

  8. What's new in Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J

    2008-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) remains an important illness despite an effective therapy because it is difficult to diagnose and is capable of producing a fatal outcome. The pathogenesis of RMSF remains, in large part, an enigma. However, recent research has helped shed light on this mystery. Importantly, the diagnosis of RMSF must be considered in all febrile patients who have known or possible exposure to ticks, especially if they live in or have traveled to endemic regions during warmer months. Decisions about giving empiric therapy to such patients are difficult and require skill and careful judgement.

  9. Performance of an app measuring spot quality in dried blood spot sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Dried Blood Spot sampling (DBS) method gives patients and health care workers the opportunity for remote sampling using a drop of blood from a fingerprick on a sampling card which can be send to the laboratory by mail. Laboratory analysts frequently reject DBS samples because of

  10. PENGARUH KURS SPOT DAN KURS FORWARD DALAM MEMPREDIKSI FUTURE SPOT PADA PASAR VALAS KAWASAN ASIA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Kade Diana Yanthi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the activity in foreign exchange occur as the result of the development of international trading and increased international money and capital movement. The vast development of international economic  caused  economic relationship  among  countries  will  be  linked  to  each other  and  subsequently improve trading activities in their goods, money and capital flows. The variables used in this study are spot, forward  and future  spot. Based  on  the result  of Regression  Estimation  applied in  hypothesis on foreign currencies exchange which done simultaneously are proven able to predict future spot. The investor and international economic  actor could use spot  exchange rate and forward  exchange rate as a  short terms predictor for the next trimester in 2011.

  11. Crude oil spot market pricing: Pearsonian analysis of crude oil spot market prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinnusi, Ayo

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of crude oil pricing before describing a study of sets of 1991 spot market prices, and examining Pearson's model. Empirical distribution characteristics for 14 crude oils are tabulated, and skewness-kurtosis relationship and implication are considered. (UK)

  12. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  13. A new index for electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falbo, Paolo; Fattore, Marco; Stefani, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Different indexes are used in electricity markets worldwide to represent the daily behavior of spot prices. However, the peculiarities of these markets require a careful choice of the index, based on mathematical formulation and its statistical properties. Choosing a bad index may influence the financial policies of market players, since derivative pricing and hedging performance can be deeply affected. In this paper with an initial theoretical analysis, we intend to show that the most widely used indexes (simple arithmetic average and weighted average with current volumes) are poor representatives of the spot market. We will then perform an analysis of the hedging strategy on a derivative instrument (an Asian option) written on a reference index. The resulting simulations, applied to OMEL (Spain) and EEX (Germany), are sufficiently clear cut to suggest that the decision to adopt an index to represent properly a market must be taken very carefully. Finally we will propose a new index (FAST index) and, after comparing it with the previous indexes, will show that both theoretically and practically this index can be taken as a good electricity market synthetic indicator.

  14. Hot spot exercise: 1975 (HSX-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trolan, R.T.; Wilson, R.L.; Jessen, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A special unannounced exercise, called HOT SPOT Exercise--1975 (HSX-75), was prepared to test the general capability of the LLL ALERT Program to activate and deploy the LLL and Sandia Laboratory, Livermore (SLL) component of the ERDA/ARG. The exercise activities were limited to the LLL facilities in Livermore and the Site 300 explosive test facility located approximately 15 miles southeast of Livermore. The exercise simulated an accident at a U.S. Army storage facility (Site 300). The simulated accident involved two LLL designed weapons (W-70). One weapon was dropped during unloading operations and ignited the gas tank of the weapon transporter. The subsequent fire caused a low-order detonation of the high explosive component. The fire caused dispersal of fissile material downwind from the site. A second weapon was damaged in the explosion by fragments from the first weapon. The extent of damage to the second weapon was initially unknown. The exercise was conducted on September 23, 1975. A complete description of the specific nature of the simulated accident is contained in the scenario. Umpires were assigned to evaluate and subsequently report on the effectiveness of the response. All test objectives were accomplished. The following appendices are included: operational safety procedures, photographs and site map, HOT SPOT equipment, atmospheric release advisory capability, personnel list, chronology of events, and critique comments

  15. Method for laser spot welding monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassero, Giorgio

    1994-09-01

    As more powerful solid state laser sources appear on the market, new applications become technically possible and important from the economical point of view. For every process a preliminary optimization phase is necessary. The main parameters, used for a welding application by a high power Nd-YAG laser, are: pulse energy, pulse width, repetition rate and process duration or speed. In this paper an experimental methodology, for the development of an electrooptical laser spot welding monitoring system, is presented. The electromagnetic emission from the molten pool was observed and measured with appropriate sensors. The statistical method `Parameter Design' was used to obtain an accurate analysis of the process parameter that influence process results. A laser station with a solid state laser coupled to an optical fiber (1 mm in diameter) was utilized for the welding tests. The main material used for the experimental plan was zinc coated steel sheet 0.8 mm thick. This material and the related spot welding technique are extensively used in the automotive industry, therefore, the introduction of laser technology in production line will improve the quality of the final product. A correlation, between sensor signals and `through or not through' welds, was assessed. The investigation has furthermore shown the necessity, for the modern laser production systems, to use multisensor heads for process monitoring or control with more advanced signal elaboration procedures.

  16. Insights from ecological niche modeling on the taxonomic distinction and niche differentiation between the black-spotted and red-spotted tokay geckoes (Gekko gecko)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yueyun; Chen, Chongtao; Li, Li; Zhao, Chengjian; Chen, Weicai; Huang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The black-spotted tokay and the red-spotted tokay are morphologically distinct and have largely allopatric distributions. The black-spotted tokay is characterized by a small body size and dark skin with sundry spots, while the red-spotted tokay has a relatively large body size and red spots. Based on morphological, karyotypic, genetic, and distribution differences, recent studies suggested their species status; however, their classifications remain controversial, and additional data such as e...

  17. Brillouin scatter in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillion, D.W.; Kruer, W.L.; Rupert, V.C.

    1977-01-01

    The absorption of intense laser light is found to be reduced when targets are irradiated by 1.06 μm light with long pulse widths (150-400 psec) and large focal spots (100-250 μm). Estimates of Brillouin scatter which account for the finite heat capacity of the underdense plasma predict this reduction. Spectra of the back reflected light show red shifts indicative of Brillouin scattering

  18. Spot Ignition of Natural Fuels by Hot Metal Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, James Linwood

    2017-01-01

    The spot ignition of combustible material by hot metal particles is an important pathway by which wildland and urban spot fires and smolders are started. Upon impact with a fuel, such as dry grass, duff, or saw dust, these particles can initiate spot fires by direct flaming or smoldering which can transition to a flame. These particles can be produced by processes such as welding, powerline interactions, fragments from bullet impacts, abrasive cutting, and pyrotechnics. There is little publi...

  19. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  20. Rapid DNA extraction from dried blood spots on filter paper: potential applications in biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Hye; Lee, Sang Kwang; Ihm, Chunhwa; Sohn, Young-Hak

    2014-12-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) technology is a microsampling alternative to traditional plasma or serum sampling for pharmaco- or toxicokinetic evaluation. DBS technology has been applied to diagnostic screening in drug discovery, nonclinical, and clinical settings. We have developed an improved elution protocol involving boiling of blood spots dried on Whatman filter paper. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality, purity, and quantity of DNA isolated from frozen blood samples and DBSs. We optimized a method for extraction and estimation of DNA from blood spots dried on filter paper (3-mm FTA card). A single DBS containing 40 μL blood was used. DNA was efficiently extracted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer by incubation at 37°C overnight. DNA was stable in DBSs that were stored at room temperature or frozen. The housekeeping genes GAPDH and beta-actin were used as positive standards for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) validation of general diagnostic screening. Our simple and convenient DBS storage and extraction methods are suitable for diagnostic screening by using very small volumes of blood collected on filter paper, and can be used in biobanks for blood sample storage.

  1. Spot Pricing When Lagrange Multipliers Are Not Unique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Zhong, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Classical spot pricing theory is based on multipliers of the primal problem of an optimal market dispatch, i.e., the solution of the dual problem. However, the dual problem of market dispatch may yield multiple solutions. In these circumstances, spot pricing or any standard pricing practice based...... on a strict extension of the principles of spot pricing and surplus allocation, we propose a new pricing methodology that can yield unique, impartial, and robust solution. The new method has been analyzed and compared with other pricing approaches in accordance with spot pricing theory. Case studies support...

  2. Cellular localization of the Escherichia coli SpoT protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, D R; Cashel, M

    1995-01-01

    The SpoT protein of Escherichia coli serves as a source of degradation as well as an apparent source of synthesis of (p)ppGpp. Since the subcellular localization of SpoT might be a clue to its function, we have used SpoT-specific antisera to analyze cell extracts fractionated on sucrose gradients. We find that the SpoT protein is not bound to ribosomes or to either inner or outer membrane fractions. Although the SpoT protein is found in large aggregates, its localization is probably cytosolic.

  3. Impact of spot charge inaccuracies in IMPT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke C; Depauw, Nicolas; Clasie, Ben; Giunta, Marina; Madden, Tom; Kooy, Hanne M

    2017-08-01

    Spot charge is one parameter of pencil-beam scanning dose delivery system whose accuracy is typically high but whose required value has not been investigated. In this work we quantify the dose impact of spot charge inaccuracies on the dose distribution in patients. Knowing the effect of charge errors is relevant for conventional proton machines, as well as for new generation proton machines, where ensuring accurate charge may be challenging. Through perturbation of spot charge in treatment plans for seven patients and a phantom, we evaluated the dose impact of absolute (up to 5× 10 6 protons) and relative (up to 30%) charge errors. We investigated the dependence on beam width by studying scenarios with small, medium and large beam sizes. Treatment plan statistics included the Γ passing rate, dose-volume-histograms and dose differences. The allowable absolute charge error for small spot plans was about 2× 10 6 protons. Larger limits would be allowed if larger spots were used. For relative errors, the maximum allowable error size for small, medium and large spots was about 13%, 8% and 6% for small, medium and large spots, respectively. Dose distributions turned out to be surprisingly robust against random spot charge perturbation. Our study suggests that ensuring spot charge errors as small as 1-2% as is commonly aimed at in conventional proton therapy machines, is clinically not strictly needed. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Acute infectious purpura fulminans due to probable spotted fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kundavaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpura fulminans (PF is associated with several infections, most notably with meningococcus, staphylococcus, and streptococcus infections. However, there are few reports of association of this entity with spotted fever from India. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with fever, headache, and myalgia. On the seventh day of fever he developed nonblanching purple hemorrhagic purpura on the trunk and most prominently on the extremities consistent with purpura fulminans. Immunofluorescent assay confirmed the diagnosis of spotted fever. PF though common with rocky mountain spotted fever (RMSF is rarely seen in association with Indian tick typhus, the usual cause of spotted fever in India.

  5. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  6. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  7. Measurement of lower hybrid hot spots using a retarding field analyzer in Tore Supra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunn, J. P.; Petržílka, Václav; Ekedahl, A.; Fuchs, Vladimír; Gauthier, E.; Goniche, M.; Kočan, M.; Pascal, J.Y.; Saint Laurent, F.

    390-391, č. 1 (2009), s. 904-906 ISSN 0022-3115. [International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices/18th./. Toledo, 26.05.2008-30.5.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Lower Hybrid * hot spots * ELECTRONS * POWER Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.933, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TXN-4VG7MW6-7&_user=6542793&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000070123&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6542793&md5=944ed4d95df86a149fa36439db6215db

  8. Effect of ambient humidity on the rate at which blood spots dry and the size of the spot produced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniff, Philip; Woodford, Lynsey; Spooner, Neil

    2013-08-01

    For shipping and storage, dried blood spot (DBS) samples must be sufficiently dry to protect the integrity of the sample. When the blood is spotted the humidity has the potential to affect the size of the spot created and the speed at which it dries. The area of DBS produced on three types of substrates were not affected by the humidity under which they were generated. DBS samples reached a steady moisture content 150 min after spotting and 90 min for humidities less than 60% relative humidity. All packaging materials examined provided some degree of protection from external extreme conditions. However, none of the packaging examined provided a total moisture barrier to extreme environmental conditions. Humidity was shown not to affect the spot area and DBS samples were ready for shipping and storage 2 h after spotting. The packing solutions examined all provided good protection from external high humidity conditions.

  9. Stimulated Brillouin backscattering and magnetic field generation in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bawa'aneh, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with aspects of laser-plasma interactions related to fusion reactions; in particular thermoelectric magnetic field generation around a hole dug in plasma by intense laser beams, and stimulated Brillouin back scattering (SBBS) from plasmas containing hot spots. A hole, of the size of the laser focal spot, is dug in the plasma when illuminated by intense laser if the laser pressure exceeds the plasma thermal pressure. This hole is found to have steep, radial density gradients. My first concern arose from the prediction that magnetic fields might be generated around the hole-plasma interface in places where the steep density gradients overlap with the non-aligned temperature gradients. When a high-power laser beam is focused on a solid pellet, plasma is formed at the surface. In order to create conditions for thermonuclear reactions in the interior of the pellet, an effective deposition of the laser energy to thermal energy of the pellet via laser-plasma coupling is necessary. When light irradiates a plasma collective processes occur, which can either enhance or reduce the light absorption. For a better understanding of the fusion problem a knowledge of the nature of these collective processes and of the fraction of light reflected from the plasma modes is required. Local hot spots seen experimentally lead to higher gain levels of scattered light. These local temperature inhomogeneities could lead to non-equilibrium distributions, which result in a free energy leading to some interesting phenomena in plasma. In the second part of the thesis stimulated Brillouin back scattering from an ion acoustic mode in a hot spot is studied. Temperature inhomogeneities lead to an ion acoustic instability, and to higher levels of SBBS gain, which leads to lower thresholds for the same electron to ion temperature ratios. This could be the answer for the observed high levels of scattering from hot spots. (author)

  10. Staging of laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinke, S., E-mail: ssteinke@lbl.gov; Tilborg, J. van; Benedetti, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Daniels, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Swanson, K. K.; Shaw, B. H.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We present results of an experiment where two laser-plasma-accelerator stages are coupled at a short distance by a plasma mirror. Stable electron beams from the first stage were used to longitudinally probe the dark-current-free, quasi-linear wakefield excited by the laser of the second stage. Changing the arrival time of the electron beam with respect to the second stage laser pulse allowed reconstruction of the temporal wakefield structure, determination of the plasma density, and inference of the length of the electron beam. The first stage electron beam could be focused by an active plasma lens to a spot size smaller than the transverse wake size at the entrance of the second stage. This permitted electron beam trapping, verified by a 100 MeV energy gain.

  11. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  12. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF THE HIGH SURFACE BRIGHTNESS HOT SPOT IN PKS 1421-490

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, L. E. H.; Bicknell, G. V.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Jauncey, D. L.; Gelbord, J.; Schwartz, D. A.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.; Marshall, H. L.; Georganopoulos, M.; Perlman, E. S.; Murphy, D. W.

    2009-01-01

    Long Baseline Array imaging of the z = 0.663 broadline radio galaxy PKS 1421-490 reveals a 400 pc diameter high surface brightness hot spot at a projected distance of ∼40 kpc from the active galactic nucleus. The isotropic X-ray luminosity of the hot spot, L 2-10keV = 3 x 10 44 ergs s -1 , is comparable to the isotropic X-ray luminosity of the entire X-ray jet of PKS 0637-752, and the peak radio surface brightness is hundreds of times greater than that of the brightest hot spot in Cygnus A. We model the radio to X-ray spectral energy distribution using a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model with a near equipartition magnetic field strength of 3 mG. There is a strong brightness asymmetry between the approaching and receding hotspots and the hot spot spectrum remains flat (α ∼ 0.5) well beyond the predicted cooling break for a 3 mG magnetic field, indicating that the hotspot emission may be Doppler beamed. A high plasma velocity beyond the terminal jet shock could be the result of a dynamically important magnetic field in the jet. There is a change in the slope of the hotspot radio spectrum at GHz frequencies, which we model by incorporating a cutoff in the electron energy distribution at γ min ∼ 650, with higher values implied if the hotspot emission is Doppler beamed. We show that a sharp decrease in the electron number density below a Lorentz factor of 650 would arise from the dissipation of bulk kinetic energy in an electron/proton jet with a Lorentz factor Γ jet ∼> 5.

  13. Numerical studies on the ramped density plasma lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Katsouleas, T.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the so-called adiabatic plasma lens when the plasma density is ramped too quickly to be considered adiabatic. The lens length can be much shorter in such a case, but the final spot size is shown to be larger by a factor of √1+α 2 than for a slowly ramped plasma lens with the same initial and final density (where α=-β'/2 is proportional to the plasma density gradient). We find that the final spot size is the same whether or not the Courant-Snyder parameters of the beam (α and β) are matched to the lens. However, matched beams allow the plasma density to be lower while unmatched beams allow the lens to be shorter (for the same α and for the same final to initial plasma density ratio). Finally, we find that a smaller spot size can be obtained for a given lens length and density ratio by starting at smaller α and increasing α along the lens

  14. Technical Note: Spot characteristic stability for proton pencil beam scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Cheng; Chang, Chang; Moyers, Michael F; Gao, Mingcheng; Mah, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    The spot characteristics for proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) were measured and analyzed over a 16 month period, which included one major site configuration update and six cyclotron interventions. The results provide a reference to establish the quality assurance (QA) frequency and tolerance for proton pencil beam scanning. A simple treatment plan was generated to produce an asymmetric 9-spot pattern distributed throughout a field of 16 × 18 cm for each of 18 proton energies (100.0-226.0 MeV). The delivered fluence distribution in air was measured using a phosphor screen based CCD camera at three planes perpendicular to the beam line axis (x-ray imaging isocenter and up/down stream 15.0 cm). The measured fluence distributions for each energy were analyzed using in-house programs which calculated the spot sizes and positional deviations of the Gaussian shaped spots. Compared to the spot characteristic data installed into the treatment planning system, the 16-month averaged deviations of the measured spot sizes at the isocenter plane were 2.30% and 1.38% in the IEC gantry x and y directions, respectively. The maximum deviation was 12.87% while the minimum deviation was 0.003%, both at the upstream plane. After the collinearity of the proton and x-ray imaging system isocenters was optimized, the positional deviations of the spots were all within 1.5 mm for all three planes. During the site configuration update, spot positions were found to deviate by 6 mm until the tuning parameters file was properly restored. For this beam delivery system, it is recommended to perform a spot size and position check at least monthly and any time after a database update or cyclotron intervention occurs. A spot size deviation tolerance of spot positions were <2 mm at any plane up/down stream 15 cm from the isocenter.

  15. Demography of Northern Spotted Owls in southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Cynthia J.; Salmons, Susan E.; Forsman, Eric D.; DeStefano, Stephen; Raphael, Martin G.; Gutierrez, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) are associated with lower elevation, commercially valuable, late-successional coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest. Meta-analyses of demographic parameters indicate that Northern Spotted Owl populations are declining throughout their range (Anderson and Burnham 1992, Burnham et al. this volume). Recent research has attempted to determine whether management activities have affected the viability of Spotted Owl populations, and results have led to development of conservation plans for the species (Dawson et al. 1987, Thomas et al. 1990, Murphy and Noon 1992, USDI 1992, Thomas et al. 1993b).In the Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (USDI 1992b) threats to the species were identified as small population sizes, declining populations, limited amounts of habitat, continued loss and fragmentation of habitat, geographically isolated populations, and predation and competition from other avian species. Weather and fire are natural processes that also may affect reproductive success of Spotted Owls. Weather may be a factor in the high annual variability in fecundity of Spotted Owls, as has been suggested for other predatory bird species (Newton, 1979, 1986). However, these factors have not been addressed in previous studies of Spotted Owls.Our objectives were to estimate survival, fecundity, and annual rates of population change (l) for resident, territorial female Spotted Owls at two study areas in the coastal mountains of southwestern Oregon. We tested if the amount of rainfall was correlated with reproduction of Spotted Owls. While surveying for Spotted Owls, we documented the increased presence of Barred Owls (Strix varia), a potential competitor of Spotted Owls.

  16. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  17. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1991-06-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division continues to study a broad range of problems originating in plasma physics. Its principal focus is fusion plasma physics, and most particularly topics of particular significance for the world magnetic fusion program. During the calendar year 1990 we explored a wide range of topics including RF-induced transport as a plasma control mechanism, edge plasma modelling, further statistical analysis of L and H mode tokamak plasmas, antenna design, simulation of the edge of a tokamak plasma and the L-H transition, interpretation of the CCT experimental results at UCLA, turbulent transport, studies in chaos, the validity of moment approximations to kinetic equations and improved neoclassical modelling. In more basic studies we examined the statistical mechanisms of Coulomb systems and applied plasma ballooning mode theory to conventional fluids in order to obtain novel fluid dynamics stability results. In space plasma physics we examined the problem of reconnection, the effect of Alfven waves in space environments, and correct formulation of boundary conditions of the Earth for waves in the ionosphere

  18. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a decision support tool to assist airline ramp controllers and ATC tower controllers to manage traffic on the airport surface to significantly improve efficiency and predictability in surface operations. The core function of the tool is the runway scheduler which generates an optimal solution for runway sequence and schedule of departure aircraft, which would minimize system delay and maximize runway throughput. The presentation also discusses the latest status of NASA's current surface research through a collaboration with an airline partner, where a tool is developed for airline ramp operators to assist departure pushback operations. The presentation describes the concept of the SARDA tool and results from human-in-the-loop simulations conducted in 2012 for Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport and 2014 for Charlotte airport ramp tower.

  20. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  1. Qualitative research ethics on the spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nelli Øvre; Øye, Christine; Glasdam, Stinne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The increase in medical ethical regulations and bureaucracy handled by institutional review boards and healthcare institutions puts the researchers using qualitative methods in a challenging position. Method: Based on three different cases from three different research studies...... research ethical guidelines related to informed consent and doing no harm. Third, the article argues for the importance of having research ethical guidelines and review boards to question and discuss the possible ethical dilemmas that occur in qualitative research. Discussion and conclusion: Research...... ethics must be understood in qualitative research as relational, situational, and emerging. That is, that focus on ethical issues and dilemmas has to be paid attention on the spot and not only at the desktop....

  2. Assessing Statistically Significant Heavy-Metal Concentrations in Abandoned Mine Areas via Hot Spot Analysis of Portable XRF Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-06-18

    To develop appropriate measures to prevent soil contamination in abandoned mining areas, an understanding of the spatial variation of the potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in the soil is necessary. For the purpose of effective soil sampling, this study uses hot spot analysis, which calculates a z -score based on the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic to identify a statistically significant hot spot sample. To constitute a statistically significant hot spot, a feature with a high value should also be surrounded by other features with high values. Using relatively cost- and time-effective portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) analysis, sufficient input data are acquired from the Busan abandoned mine and used for hot spot analysis. To calibrate the PXRF data, which have a relatively low accuracy, the PXRF analysis data are transformed using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) data. The transformed PXRF data of the Busan abandoned mine are classified into four groups according to their normalized content and z -scores: high content with a high z -score (HH), high content with a low z -score (HL), low content with a high z -score (LH), and low content with a low z -score (LL). The HL and LH cases may be due to measurement errors. Additional or complementary surveys are required for the areas surrounding these suspect samples or for significant hot spot areas. The soil sampling is conducted according to a four-phase procedure in which the hot spot analysis and proposed group classification method are employed to support the development of a sampling plan for the following phase. Overall, 30, 50, 80, and 100 samples are investigated and analyzed in phases 1-4, respectively. The method implemented in this case study may be utilized in the field for the assessment of statistically significant soil contamination and the identification of areas for which an additional survey is required.

  3. Assessing Statistically Significant Heavy-Metal Concentrations in Abandoned Mine Areas via Hot Spot Analysis of Portable XRF Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To develop appropriate measures to prevent soil contamination in abandoned mining areas, an understanding of the spatial variation of the potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs in the soil is necessary. For the purpose of effective soil sampling, this study uses hot spot analysis, which calculates a z-score based on the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic to identify a statistically significant hot spot sample. To constitute a statistically significant hot spot, a feature with a high value should also be surrounded by other features with high values. Using relatively cost- and time-effective portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF analysis, sufficient input data are acquired from the Busan abandoned mine and used for hot spot analysis. To calibrate the PXRF data, which have a relatively low accuracy, the PXRF analysis data are transformed using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES data. The transformed PXRF data of the Busan abandoned mine are classified into four groups according to their normalized content and z-scores: high content with a high z-score (HH, high content with a low z-score (HL, low content with a high z-score (LH, and low content with a low z-score (LL. The HL and LH cases may be due to measurement errors. Additional or complementary surveys are required for the areas surrounding these suspect samples or for significant hot spot areas. The soil sampling is conducted according to a four-phase procedure in which the hot spot analysis and proposed group classification method are employed to support the development of a sampling plan for the following phase. Overall, 30, 50, 80, and 100 samples are investigated and analyzed in phases 1–4, respectively. The method implemented in this case study may be utilized in the field for the assessment of statistically significant soil contamination and the identification of areas for which an additional survey is required.

  4. Cosmic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)

    1981-01-01

    The properties of space plasmas are analyzed, based on laboratory results and data obtained by in situ measurements in the magnetosphere (including the heliosphere). Attention is given to the question of how much knowledge can be gained by a systematic comparison of different regions of plasma, and plasmas are considered with linear dimensions varying from laboratory size up to the Hubble distance. The traditional magnetic field description of plasmas is supplemented by an electric current description and it is demonstrated that many problems are easier to understand with a dualistic approach. Using the general plasma properties obtained, the origin and evolution of the solar system is summarized and the evolution and present structure of the universe (cosmology) is discussed.

  5. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam which is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10 17 to 10 20 electrons per cubic centimeter. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. The high-temperature plasma can be used to heat a high Z material to generate radiation. Alternatively, a tunable radiation source is produced by using a moderate Z gas or a mixture of high Z and low Z gas as the target plasma. (author)

  6. A hybrid model for electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity prices were highly regulated prior to the deregulation of the electric power industry. Prices were predictable, allowing generators and wholesalers to calculate their production costs and revenues. With deregulation, electricity has become the most volatile of all commodities. Electricity must be consumed as soon as it is generated due to the inability to store it in any sufficient quantity. Economic uncertainty exists because the supply of electricity cannot shift as quickly as the demand, which is highly variable. When demand increases quickly, the price must respond. Therefore, price spikes occur that are orders of magnitude higher than the base electricity price. This paper presents a robust and realistic model for spot market electricity prices used to manage risk in volatile markets. The model is a hybrid of a top down data driven method commonly used for financial applications, and a bottom up system driven method commonly used in regulated electricity markets. The advantage of the model is that it incorporates primary system drivers and demonstrates their effects on final prices. The 4 primary modules of the model are: (1) a model for forced outages, (2) a model for maintenance outages, (3) an electrical load model, and (4) a price model which combines the results of the previous 3 models. The performance of each model was tested. The forced outage model is the first of its kind to simulate the system on an aggregate basis using Weibull distributions. The overall spot price model was calibrated to, and tested with, data from the electricity market in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The model performed well in simulated market prices and adapted readily to changing system conditions and new electricity markets. This study examined the pricing of derivative contracts on electrical power. It also compared a range of portfolio scenarios using a Cash Flow at Risk approach

  7. A hybrid model for electricity spot prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.L.D.

    2004-07-01

    Electricity prices were highly regulated prior to the deregulation of the electric power industry. Prices were predictable, allowing generators and wholesalers to calculate their production costs and revenues. With deregulation, electricity has become the most volatile of all commodities. Electricity must be consumed as soon as it is generated due to the inability to store it in any sufficient quantity. Economic uncertainty exists because the supply of electricity cannot shift as quickly as the demand, which is highly variable. When demand increases quickly, the price must respond. Therefore, price spikes occur that are orders of magnitude higher than the base electricity price. This paper presents a robust and realistic model for spot market electricity prices used to manage risk in volatile markets. The model is a hybrid of a top down data driven method commonly used for financial applications, and a bottom up system driven method commonly used in regulated electricity markets. The advantage of the model is that it incorporates primary system drivers and demonstrates their effects on final prices. The 4 primary modules of the model are: (1) a model for forced outages, (2) a model for maintenance outages, (3) an electrical load model, and (4) a price model which combines the results of the previous 3 models. The performance of each model was tested. The forced outage model is the first of its kind to simulate the system on an aggregate basis using Weibull distributions. The overall spot price model was calibrated to, and tested with, data from the electricity market in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland. The model performed well in simulated market prices and adapted readily to changing system conditions and new electricity markets. This study examined the pricing of derivative contracts on electrical power. It also compared a range of portfolio scenarios using a Cash Flow at Risk approach.

  8. Polarization of X-ray lines emitted from plasma-focus discharges; Problems of interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, L.

    2002-01-01

    In high current pulse discharges of the Plasma Focus (PF) type, inside the collapsing pinch column, there are formed local micro-regions of high-density and high-temperature plasma, so-called hot spots. Individual hot spots are separated in space and time. Each hot spot is characterized by its specific electron concentration and temperature, as well as by the emission of X-ray lines with different polarization. When numerous hot spots are produced it is impossible to determine local plasma parameters and to interpret the polarization effects. To eliminate this problem this study was devoted to the realization of PF-type discharges with single hot spot only. It has been achieved by a choice of the electrode configuration, which facilitated the formation of a single hot spot emitting intense X-ray lines. At the chosen experimental conditions it was possible to determine local plasma parameters and to demonstrate evident differences in the polarization of the observed X-ray lines. (author)

  9. Polarization of x-ray lines emitted from plasma-focus discharges; Problems of interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M.J.; Baronova, E.O.

    2003-01-01

    In high current pulse discharges of the Plasma Focus (PF) type, inside the collapsing pinch column, there are formed local micro-regions of high-density and high-temperature plasma, so-called hot spots. Individual hot spots are separated in space and time. Each hot spot is characterized by its specific electron concentration and temperature, as well as by the emission of X-ray lines with different polarization. When numerous hot spots are produced it is impossible to determine local plasma parameters and to interpretate the polarization effects. To eliminate this problem this study was devoted to the realization of PF-type discharges with single hot spot only. It has been achieved by a choice of the electrode configuration, which facilitated the formation of a single hot spot emitting intense X-ray lines. At the chosen experimental conditions it was possible to determine local plasma parameters and to demonstrate evident differences in the polarization of the observed X-ray lines. (author)

  10. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  11. Tuning temperature and size of hot spots and hot-spot arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïdi, Elika; Babinet, Nicolas; Lalouat, Loïc; Lesueur, Jérôme; Aigouy, Lionel; Volz, Sébastian; Labéguerie-Egéa, Jessica; Mortier, Michel

    2011-01-17

    By using scanning thermal microscopy, it is shown that nanoscale constrictions in metallic microwires deposited on an oxidized silicon substrate can be tuned in terms of temperature and confinement size. High-resolution temperature maps indeed show that submicrometer hot spots and hot-spot arrays are obtained when the SiO(2) layer thickness decreases below 100 nm. When the SiO(2) thickness becomes larger, heat is less confined in the vicinity of the constrictions and laterally spreads all along the microwire. These results are in good agreement with numerical simulations, which provide dependences between silica-layer thickness and nanodot shape and temperature. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. MASCEM: EPEX SPOT Day-Ahead market integration and simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Fernandes, Ricardo; Pinto, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    . It is crucial to MASCEM to have the ability to simulate as many market models and player types as possible, thus enhancing the ability to recreate the electricity markets reality in its maximum possible extent. This paper presents the EPEX Spot Day-Ahead market integration in MASCEM. EPEX Spot SE's mission...

  13. Blind spot detection & passive lane change assist systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surovtcev, I.

    2015-01-01

    The project goal was design and implementation of proof-of-concept for two systems that aim to tackle the blind spot problem of for the commercial vehicles: Blind Spot Detection and Passive Lane Change Assist functions. The system implementation was done using Rapid Control Prototype (RCP) hardware.

  14. Spot On! Engelske plakater fra mellemkrigsårene - genstandstekster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    genstandstekster til udstillingen Spot On! Engelske plakater fra mellemkrigsårene. alle tekster oversat til engelsk, men postes her i den danske udgave......genstandstekster til udstillingen Spot On! Engelske plakater fra mellemkrigsårene. alle tekster oversat til engelsk, men postes her i den danske udgave...

  15. Laser Beam Caustic Measurement with Focal Spot Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Gong, Hui; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    In industrial applications of high power CO2-lasers the caustic characteristics of the laser beam have great effects on the performance of the lasers. A welldefined high intense focused spot is essential for reliable production results. This paper presents a focal spot analyser that is developed...

  16. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation ...

  17. Characterizing and identifying black spot resistance genes in polyploid roses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ornamental quality of outdoor grown roses (Rosa hybrida) is under constant threat from foliar diseases, such as black spot caused by Diplocarpon rosae. Fungicides are primarily used to manage black spot; however, there is a high consumer demand for disease resistant roses which eliminate the nee...

  18. Dissecting black spot resistance in polyploid hybrid roses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devastating foliar diseases, such as black spot caused by Diplocarpon rosae, pose constant threats to the ornamental quality of outdoor grown roses. Black spot is primarily managed though the use of fungicides, however, there is a high demand for resistant roses which require low chemical inputs. To...

  19. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  20. 7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in...

  1. Risks versus savings in the international spot market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karalus, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the international spot market, some of its risks and difficulties, and examples of the ways potential savings can be realized. Fuel cycle goods and services available in the international spot market include uranium as U 3 O 8 , natural UF 6 , enriched UF 6 , conversion services, and enriching services

  2. Spotted owl roost and nest site selection in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Blakesley; A.B. Franklin; R.J. Gutierrez

    1992-01-01

    We directly observed roost and nest site selection in a population of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in northwestern California during 1985-89. Because of potential biases caused by use of radio telemetry in previous studies, we examined habitat use relative to habitat availability at a level not previously reported for spotted...

  3. Food habits of Mexican Spotted Owls in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey

    1992-01-01

    The Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis) is most common in mature and old-growth coniferous forests throughout much of its range (Forsman et al. 1984, Laymon 1988, Ganey and Balda 1989a, Thomas et al. 1990). Proximate factors underlying habitat selection in Spotted Owls are understood poorly. Abundance and availability of food, however, may be a key...

  4. Lago Agrio (Nueva Loja), Ecuador: A Strategic Black Spot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Lago Agrio (Nueva Loja ), Ecuador : A Strategic Black Spot? by Colonel John A. Conway United States Army...REPORT TYPE STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lago Agrio (Nueva Loja ), Ecuador : A...Agrio (Nueva Loja ), Ecuador : A Strategic Black Spot? by Colonel John A. Conway United States Army Colonel Juan C

  5. Parameter estimation of electricity spot models from futures prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aihara, ShinIchi; Bagchi, Arunabha; Imreizeeq, E.S.N.; Walter, E.

    We consider a slight perturbation of the Schwartz-Smith model for the electricity futures prices and the resulting modified spot model. Using the martingale property of the modified price under the risk neutral measure, we derive the arbitrage free model for the spot and futures prices. We estimate

  6. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Suppression of Shrimp Melanization during White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-01-01

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. PMID:25572398

  8. Suppression of shrimp melanization during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-03-06

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Space-time modeling of electricity spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Girum Dagnachew; Haldrup, Niels

    In this paper we derive a space-time model for electricity spot prices. A general spatial Durbin model that incorporates the temporal as well as spatial lags of spot prices is presented. Joint modeling of space-time effects is necessarily important when prices and loads are determined in a network...... in the spot price dynamics. Estimation of the spatial Durbin model show that the spatial lag variable is as important as the temporal lag variable in describing the spot price dynamics. We use the partial derivatives impact approach to decompose the price impacts into direct and indirect effects and we show...... that price effects transmit to neighboring markets and decline with distance. In order to examine the evolution of the spatial correlation over time, a time varying parameters spot price spatial Durbin model is estimated using recursive estimation. It is found that the spatial correlation within the Nord...

  10. KFC Server: interactive forecasting of protein interaction hot spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Steven J; LeGault, Laura; Mitchell, Julie C

    2008-07-01

    The KFC Server is a web-based implementation of the KFC (Knowledge-based FADE and Contacts) model-a machine learning approach for the prediction of binding hot spots, or the subset of residues that account for most of a protein interface's; binding free energy. The server facilitates the automated analysis of a user submitted protein-protein or protein-DNA interface and the visualization of its hot spot predictions. For each residue in the interface, the KFC Server characterizes its local structural environment, compares that environment to the environments of experimentally determined hot spots and predicts if the interface residue is a hot spot. After the computational analysis, the user can visualize the results using an interactive job viewer able to quickly highlight predicted hot spots and surrounding structural features within the protein structure. The KFC Server is accessible at http://kfc.mitchell-lab.org.

  11. Intraday price dynamics in spot and derivatives markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Sik; Ryu, Doojin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines intraday relationships among the spot index, index futures, and the implied volatility index based on the VAR(1)-asymmetric BEKK-MGARCH model. Analysis of a high-frequency dataset from the Korean financial market confirms that there is a strong intraday market linkage between the spot index, KOSPI200 futures, and VKOSPI and that asymmetric volatility behaviour is clearly present in the Korean market. The empirical results indicate that the futures return shock affects the spot market more severely than the spot return shock affects the futures market, though there is a bi-directional causal relationship between the spot and futures markets. Our results, based on a high-quality intraday dataset, satisfy both the positive risk-return relationship and asymmetric volatility effect, which are not reconciled in the frameworks of previous studies.

  12. Detecting hot spots at hazardous-waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirschky, J.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluating the need for remedial cleanup at a waste site involves both finding the average contaminant concentration and identifying highly contaminated areas, or hot spots. A nomographic procedure to determine the sample configuration needed to locate a hot spot is presented. The technique can be used to develop a waste-site sampling plant - to determine either the grid spacing required to detect a hot spot at a given level of confidence, or the probability of finding a hot spot of a certain size, given a particular grid spacing. The method and computer program (ELIPGRID) were developed for locating geologic deposits, but the basic procedure can also be used to detect hot spots at chemical- or nuclear-waste disposal sites. Nomographs based on the original program are presented for three sampling-grid configurations - square, rectangular and triangular

  13. Reliability of copper based alloys for electric resistance spot welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovicj, M.; Mihajlovicj, A.; Sherbedzhija, B.

    1977-01-01

    Durability of copper based alloys (B-5 and B-6) for electric resistance spot-welding was examined. The total amount of Be, Ni and Zr was up to 2 and 1 wt.% respectively. Good durability and satisfactory quality of welded spots were obtained in previous laboratory experiments carried out on the fixed spot-welding machine of an industrial type (only B-5 alloy was examined). Electrodes made of both B-5 and B-6 alloy were tested on spot-welding grips and fixed spot-welding machines in Tvornica automobila Sarajevo (TAS). The obtained results suggest that the durability of electrodes made of B-5 and B-6 alloys is more than twice better than of that used in TAS

  14. Plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  15. Note: implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S

    2013-02-01

    In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy.

  16. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  17. Plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the AEB - Natal University summer school on plasma physics held in Durban during January 1979. The following topics were discussed: Tokamak devices; MHD stability; trapped particles in tori; Tokamak results and experiments; operating regime of the AEB Tokamak; Tokamak equilibrium; high beta Tokamak equilibria; ideal Tokamak stability; resistive MHD instabilities; Tokamak diagnostics; Tokamak control and data acquisition; feedback control of Tokamaks; heating and refuelling; neutral beam injection; radio frequency heating; nonlinear drift wave induced plasma transport; toroidal plasma boundary layers; microinstabilities and injected beams and quasilinear theory of the ion acoustic instability

  18. Plasma centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, Takashi; Mase, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    The plasma centrifuge is one of statistical isotope separation processes which uses the centrifugal force of a J x B driven rotating plasma in a magnetic field to give rise to the mass-dependent radial transport of isotopic ions. The system has been developed as an alternative to the gas centrifuge because a much higher rotational velocity and separation factor have been achieved. In this review, the physical aspects of the plasma centrifuge followed by the recent experimental achievements are described, especially in comparison with the gas centrifuge. (author)

  19. Wood ant nests as hot spots of carbon dioxide production and cold spots of methane oxidation in temperate forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Veronika; Picek, T.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Frouz, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, April (2016), EGU2016-4634 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. 17.04.2016-22.04.2016, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : wood ant nests * hot spots of carbon dioxide production * cold spots of methane oxidation * temperate forests Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  20. Effects of spot parameters in pencil beam scanning treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke Christine; Depauw, Nicolas; Clasie, Ben; Giunta, Marina; Madden, Tom; Kooy, Hanne M

    2018-01-01

    Spot size σ (in air at isocenter), interspot spacing d, and spot charge q influence dose delivery efficiency and plan quality in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) treatment planning. The choice and range of parameters varies among different manufacturers. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the influence of the spot parameters on dose quality and delivery in IMPT treatment plans, to show their interdependence, and to make practitioners aware of the spot parameter values for a certain facility. Our study could help as a guideline to make the trade-off between treatment quality and time in existing PBS centers and in future systems. We created plans for seven patients and a phantom, with different tumor sites and volumes, and compared the effect of small-, medium-, and large-spot widths (σ = 2.5, 5, and 10 mm) and interspot distances (1σ, 1.5σ, and 1.75σ) on dose, spot charge, and treatment time. Moreover, we quantified how postplanning charge threshold cuts affect plan quality and the total number of spots to deliver, for different spot widths and interspot distances. We show the effect of a minimum charge (or MU) cutoff value for a given proton delivery system. Spot size had a strong influence on dose: larger spots resulted in more protons delivered outside the target region. We observed dose differences of 2-13 Gy (RBE) between 2.5 mm and 10 mm spots, where the amount of extra dose was due to dose penumbra around the target region. Interspot distance had little influence on dose quality for our patient group. Both parameters strongly influence spot charge in the plans and thus the possible impact of postplanning charge threshold cuts. If such charge thresholds are not included in the treatment planning system (TPS), it is important that the practitioner validates that a given combination of lower charge threshold, interspot spacing, and spot size does not result in a plan degradation. Low average spot charge occurs for small spots, small interspot

  1. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  2. Laser Plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -focusing in a plasma ... Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India; Tata Consultancy Services, Gurgaon, India; Ideal Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India; Center for Research in Cognitive, ...

  3. Plasma will…

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 3 (2016), s. 486-487 ISSN 0007-0963 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma * ionized gas Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  4. Plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    IREQ was contracted by the Canadian Electrical Association to review plasma technology and assess the potential for application of this technology in Canada. A team of experts in the various aspects of this technology was assembled and each team member was asked to contribute to this report on the applications of plasma pertinent to his or her particular field of expertise. The following areas were examined in detail: iron, steel and strategic-metals production; surface treatment by spraying; welding and cutting; chemical processing; drying; and low-temperature treatment. A large market for the penetration of electricity has been identified. To build up confidence in the technology, support should be provided for selected R and D projects, plasma torch demonstrations at full power, and large-scale plasma process testing

  5. Features of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This montage features activity in the turbulent region of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS). Four sets of images of the GRS were taken through various filters of the Galileo imaging system over an 11.5 hour period on 26 June, 1996 Universal Time. The sequence was designed to reveal cloud motions. The top and bottom frames on the left are of the same area, northeast of the GRS, viewed through the methane (732 nm) filter but about 70 minutes apart. The top left and top middle frames are of the same area and at the same time, but the top middle frame is taken at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane absorbs more strongly. (Only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength.) Brightness differences are caused by the different depths of features in the two images. The bottom middle frame shows reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere. The white spot is to the northwest of the GRS; its appearance at different wavelengths suggests that the brightest elements are 30 km higher than the surrounding clouds. The top and bottom frames on the right, taken nine hours apart and in the violet (415 nm) filter, show the time evolution of an atmospheric wave northeast of the GRS. Visible crests in the top right frame are much less apparent 9 hours later in the bottom right frame. The misalignment of the north-south wave crests with the observed northwestward local wind may indicate a shift in wind direction (wind shear) with height. The areas within the dark lines are 'truth windows' or sections of the images which were transmitted to Earth using less data compression. Each of the six squares covers 4.8 degrees of latitude and longitude (about 6000 square kilometers). North is at the top of each frame.Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The

  6. Observations of solar flare transition zone plasmas from the Solar Maximum Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C.-C.; Bruner, E. C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Woodgate, B. E.; Shine, R. A.; Kenny, P. J.; Henze, W.; Poletto, G.

    1982-01-01

    The spatial and temporal evolution of the Si IV and O IV intensity, density and mass motions in preflare and flare transition zone plasmas are studied for the case of the April 8, 1980 flare. It is found that: (1) the UV flare observed in the Si IV and O IV lines is unambiguously identified as occurring in a low-lying, preexisting transition zone loop which spanned the magnetic neutral line separating a larger leader spot and a newly emerged, isolated spot of opposite polarity; (2) at the onset of the flare, the easternmost footpoint, which was anchored in an isolated spot region of high longitudinal magnetic field gradient, showed sudden, impulsive brightening with large intensity increases; and (3) the release flare energy was transported by way of large-scale connecting field lines to other parts of the active region, producing the hot plasma and H-alpha kernels observed near the trailing spot.

  7. Plasma metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  8. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  9. Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  10. Observations of dense plasma formation in the vacuum spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Aliaga R, R.; Choi, P.; Dumitrescu-Zoita, C.

    1994-01-01

    A series of experimental observations have been performed on the dense plasma formations or Hot Spots generated in the Vacuum Spark. The plasma discharges are driven by a 1.5 Ohm, 120 ns line at currents up to 100 KA. The line may be used to deliver a rectangular current pulse when the line gap is used. Alternatively when the line gap is shorted, the Vacuum Spark itself switches the line. A Nd: Yag Laser, with an energy of 0.5 J in an 8 ns pulse, is used to pre ionizing the discharge. The formation of Hot Spots is studied under a range of different conditions. These include the pre ionizing conditions, as well as the Anode shape and the Anode Cathode separation. The optimization of these parameters permit very reproducible shot to shot behaviour. Of particular interest is the Hot Spot size dependence as a function of its temperature and of time. The use of a new variant on the Pin Hole Camera, the Slit Wire Camera provides a new method of measuring with precision the Hot Spot dimensions in different X-ray emission energy ranges. A quadruple hole Camera is used to measure the temperature of the Hot Spots. The temporal and spatial evolution of the X-ray emission is measured using using a Slit Wire, Scintillator, Fibre Optic, Photomultiplier array. The temporal emission of the X-rays is also observed using an array of PIN X-ray diodes. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs

  11. Single-shot and single-spot measurement of laser ablation threshold for carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Lednev, Vasily N.; Pershin, Sergey M.; Obraztsova, Elena D.; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Bunkin, Alexey F.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and convenient procedure for single-shot, single-spot ablation threshold measurement has been developed. It is based on the employment of cylindrical lens to obtain elliptical Gaussian laser spot. The ablated spot chords which are parallel to the minor axis were measured across the spot major axis which is proportional to the fluence cross-section thus providing wide range dependence of damaged spot size versus fluence in one spot measurement. For both conventional and new-developed ...

  12. Hot spots on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2001-01-01

    A 61 year-old woman underwent perfusion and inhalation lung scan for the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan showed multiple round hot spots in both lung fields. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scan and chest radiography taken at the same time showed normal findings. A repeated perfusion lung scan taken 24 hours later demonstrated no abnormalities. Hot spots on perfusion lung scan can be caused by microsphere clumping due to faulty injection technique by radioactive embolization from upper extremity thrombophlebitis after injection. Focal hot spots can signify zones of atelectasis, where the hot spots probably represent a failure of hypoxic vasoconstriction. Artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping usually appear to be round and in peripheral location, and the lesions due to a loss of hypoxic vasoconstriction usually appear to be hot uptakes having linear borders. Although these artifactual hot spots have been well-known, we rarely encounter them. This report presents a case with artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

  13. Finite Cosmology and a CMB Cold Spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, R.J.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Bjorken, J.D.; /SLAC; Overduin, J.M.; /Stanford U., HEPL

    2006-03-20

    The standard cosmological model posits a spatially flat universe of infinite extent. However, no observation, even in principle, could verify that the matter extends to infinity. In this work we model the universe as a finite spherical ball of dust and dark energy, and obtain a lower limit estimate of its mass and present size: the mass is at least 5 x 10{sup 23}M{sub {circle_dot}} and the present radius is at least 50 Gly. If we are not too far from the dust-ball edge we might expect to see a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background, and there might be suppression of the low multipoles in the angular power spectrum. Thus the model may be testable, at least in principle. We also obtain and discuss the geometry exterior to the dust ball; it is Schwarzschild-de Sitter with a naked singularity, and provides an interesting picture of cosmogenesis. Finally we briefly sketch how radiation and inflation eras may be incorporated into the model.

  14. Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.

  15. Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kayoko; Wanigatunga, Amal A.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M., E-mail: acalafat@cdc.gov [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-12-10

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS ({approx}75 {mu}L of blood) were <0.5 ng mL{sup -1}. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL{sup -1} range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

  16. Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

  17. Feast or famine: 1992 spot market review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    There was nothing temperate about the uranium spot market in 1992. It was a year of extremes. Demand took off at a brisk pace early in the year as utilities, enticed by low U3O8 prices and interest rates, stepped up their discretionary purchases. With the NUKEM price range sinking to an all-time low of US$6.75-7.70 in November 1991, utilities reckoned that prices had bottomed out and decided to buy and hold material. Indeed, the upper end of NUKEM's range remained below $8.00 per lb for much of the first half of 1992. The main cause of low prices was the flood of imports from the crumbling Soviet Union and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. The CIS republics quickly embraced a free-market philosophy to boost their faltering economies, and several hoped to use uranium as a source of badly-needed hard currency. But they were about to get a harsh introduction to capitalism. It came in the form of government intervention, in both the US and Europe. In May, the US Department of Commerce made its preliminary determination that the uranium-producing republics of the CIS were selling material in the US at less than fair market value. The antidumping case was eventually settled in October when the CIS republics [Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan] signed suspension agreements subjecting CIS origin uranium to price and quantity quotas in the US

  18. On the relationships between electron spot size, focal spot size, and virtual source position in Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E.; Chen, Y.; Lu, W.; Mackie, T. R.; Olivera, G. H.; Vynckier, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Every year, new radiotherapy techniques including stereotactic radiosurgery using linear accelerators give rise to new applications of Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. Accurate modeling requires knowing the size of the electron spot, one of the few parameters to tune in MC models. The resolution of integrated megavoltage imaging systems, such as the tomotherapy system, strongly depends on the photon spot size which is closely related to the electron spot. The aim of this article is to clarify the relationship between the electron spot size and the photon spot size (i.e., the focal spot size) for typical incident electron beam energies and target thicknesses. Methods: Three electron energies (3, 5.5, and 18 MeV), four electron spot sizes (FWHM=0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mm), and two tungsten target thicknesses (0.15 and 1 cm) were considered. The formation of the photon beam within the target was analyzed through electron energy deposition with depth, as well as photon production at several phase-space planes placed perpendicular to the beam axis, where only photons recorded for the first time were accounted for. Photon production was considered for ''newborn'' photons intersecting a 45x45 cm 2 plane at the isocenter (85 cm from source). Finally, virtual source position and ''effective'' focal spot size were computed by backprojecting all the photons from the bottom of the target intersecting a 45x45 cm 2 plane. The virtual source position and focal spot size were estimated at the plane position where the latter is minimal. Results: In the relevant case of considering only photons intersecting the 45x45 cm 2 plane, the results unambiguously showed that the effective photon spot is created within the first 0.25 mm of the target and that electron and focal spots may be assumed to be equal within 3-4%. Conclusions: In a good approximation photon spot size equals electron spot size for high energy X-ray treatments delivered by linear accelerators.

  19. Comparison of outcomes between overlapping-spot and single-spot photodynamic therapy for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-An Su

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy (PDT with overlapping multiple spots and single spot for treating circumscribed choroidal hemangioma.METHODS:Twenty-two patients (22 eyes with symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangioma received PDT treatment. Fourteen patients received overlapping spots (two to three spots PDT, whereas eight patients received single-spot PDT. Laser was used at 50J/cm2 for 83s in the overlapping-spot group and 50J/cm2 for 166s in the single-spot group. Clinical examination, funduscopy, fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography were performed at baseline and after treatment.RESULTS:The mean follow-up time was 28.5±8.0 months in the overlapping-spot group and 27.0±5.0 months in the single-spot group. Nine patients (64.2% had their vision improved over two lines on the Snellen chart, and five patients showed stable visual acuity in the overlapping-spot group. The mean thickness of tumor decreased from 2.7±0.8mm to 1.2±0.9mm, and the mean greatest tumor linear dimension decreased from 7.4±1.5mm to 4.5±3.5mm after treatment. In the single-spot group, two patients (25% had their vision improved over two lines on the Snellen chart, and six patients had unchanged stable vision. The mean tumor thickness in this group decreased from 2.5±0.7mm to 1.4±1.0mm, and the mean greatest tumor linear dimension decreased from 7.2±1.3mm to 4.7±3.6mm. No significant differences in visual improvement and tumor regression were found between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Overlapping-spot PDT under appropriate treatment parameters and strategies is as effective and safe as single-spot PDT for treating symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangioma. Improved or stabilized visual acuity was achieved as a result of tumor regression.

  20. Hydrodynamic optical-field-ionized plasma channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalloo, R. J.; Arran, C.; Corner, L.; Holloway, J.; Jonnerby, J.; Walczak, R.; Milchberg, H. M.; Hooker, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present experiments and numerical simulations which demonstrate that fully ionized, low-density plasma channels could be formed by hydrodynamic expansion of plasma columns produced by optical field ionization. Simulations of the hydrodynamic expansion of plasma columns formed in hydrogen by an axicon lens show the generation of 200 mm long plasma channels with axial densities of order ne(0 ) =1 ×1017cm-3 and lowest-order modes of spot size WM≈40 μ m . These simulations show that the laser energy required to generate the channels is modest: of order 1 mJ per centimeter of channel. The simulations are confirmed by experiments with a spherical lens which show the formation of short plasma channels with 1.5 ×1017cm-3≲ne(0 ) ≲1 ×1018cm-3 and 61 μ m ≳WM≳33 μ m . Low-density plasma channels of this type would appear to be well suited as multi-GeV laser-plasma accelerator stages capable of long-term operation at high pulse repetition rates.

  1. c-DNA of HIV-1 detection on spot of Buffy-Coat of leukocytes (DBCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rossi de Gasperis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The elective way for the diagnosis of HIV-1-infection in the window period and in children under the age of 16-18 months is to search virus integrated in leukocytes. Aim of the study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of extraction from Buffy-Dried Coat Spot (DBCS in leukocyte to detect c-DNA with nested-PCR in HIV-1-infected individuals compared to Dried Blood Spot (DBS both extracted by automated instrument EZ1 (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany. Both DBCS and both DBS were compared with those tests from whole blood by conventional DNA-extraction Methods: Five ml of whole blood from 50 HIV-infected individuals were collected. 40 μl of each sample were spotted on “FTA ELUTE Micro Card” (Whatman, Inc., Clifton, NJ, 200 μl were extracted according to the manual procedure (QIAGEN “QIAamp DNA minikit and the remaining sample was incubated at 37 °C for 120 minutes. Plasma was centrifuged at 1000 rcf/1g for 10 minutes at room temperature. Forty μl of the obtained buffy-coat was spotted. Both DBCS and both DBS were dried at room temperature for 24 hours.Two of 5 punch from each spot were extracted with TISSUE DNA kit (Biorobot EZ1 DSP “Qiagen” and eluted in 50 μl of buffer.The recovery of genomic DNA was measured amplifying the ß-globin gene by Real-Time “SybrGreen I”.The DNA was amplified for the “pol” gene of HIV-1 by nested PCR and revealed in “SYBR-green I”. Eight HIV-antibody-negative samples were used as internal control. Results:The experimental protocol adopted for the DBCS showed high sensitivity and specificity.The extracted DNA from DBS and DBCS was characterized by excellent quality and without any inhibitory agents. The amount of proviral DNA extracted from DBCS is similar to that obtained by conventional extraction, while the DBS test was significantly less sensitive. Conclusion:These preliminary data suggest that the amount of c-DNA obtained with DBS technique is often not enough for the

  2. Ignition target and laser-plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffite, S.; Loiseau, P.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time indirect drive ignition targets have been designed with the constraint of limiting laser-plasma instabilities. The amplification of these instabilities is directly proportional to the luminous flux density, it means to the sizes of the focal spots too. This study shows that increasing the sizes of the focal spots does not reduce linear amplification gains in a proportional way because the global optimization of the target implies changes in hydrodynamical conditions that in turn have an impact on the value of the amplification gain. The design of the target is a 2-step approach: the first step aims at assuring a uniform irradiation and compression of the target. The first step requires information concerning the laser focusing spots, the dimensions of the hohlraum, the inert gas contained in it, the materials of the wall. The second step is an optimization approach whose aim is to reduce the risk of laser-plasmas instabilities. This optimization is made through simulations of the amplification gains of stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscattering. This method has allowed us to design an optimized target for a rugby-shaped hohlraum. (A.C.)

  3. Modelling energy spot prices by Lévy semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Benth, Fred Espen; Veraart, Almut

    This paper introduces a new modelling framework for energy spot prices based on Lévy semistationary processes. Lévy semistationary processes are special cases of the general class of ambit processes. We provide a detailed analysis of the probabilistic properties of such models and we show how...... they are able to capture many of the stylised facts observed in energy markets. Furthermore, we derive forward prices based on our spot price model. As it turns out, many of the classical spot models can be embedded into our novel modelling framework....

  4. Design of a cost-effective laser spot tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, Göktuǧ Gencehan; Sari, Hüseyin

    2017-05-01

    One of the most important aspects of guided systems is detection. The most convenient detection in the sense of precision can be achieved with a laser spot tracker. This study deals with a military grade, high performance and cost-effective laser spot tracker for a guided system. The aim is to develop a high field of view system that will detect a laser spot from a distance of 3 kilometers in which the target is designated from 3 kilometers with a laser. The study basically consists of the system design, modeling, producing and the conducting performance tests of the whole system.

  5. Spot: a new Monte Carlo solver for fast alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Eriksson, L.G.; Basiuk, V.; Imbeaux, F.

    2004-01-01

    The predictive transport code CRONOS has been augmented by an orbit following Monte Carlo code, SPOT (Simulation of Particle Orbits in a Tokamak). The SPOT code simulates the dynamics of nonthermal particles, and takes into account effects of finite orbit width and collisional transport of fast ions. Recent developments indicate that it might be difficult to avoid, at least transiently, current holes in a reactor. They occur already on existing tokamaks during advanced tokamak scenarios. The SPOT code has been used to study the alpha particle behaviour in the presence of current holes for both JET and ITER relevant parameters. (authors)

  6. Reflections on the reporting of the uranium spot price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    Reporting of the Spot Uranium Price does not represent the uranium market, but actually represents the extremities of a market. The Spot Prices tend to cause instabilities in the market if relied upon too heavily and an excessive use will actually support a questionable transition from a fuel supply industry to a commodities industry. Utility fuel buyers and uranium sellers must be careful how they use the Spot Price, or they will continue to create an unstable supply/demand relationship. But, since we all rely upon statistics for the illusion of independence, we may get the commodities market, assisted along by the information people, whether we want it or not

  7. Ignition of a reactive solid by an inert hot spot

    OpenAIRE

    Liñán Martínez, Amable; Kindelan Gómez, Manuel

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for the description of the ignition of a reactive media by inert hot bodies of finite size, when the activation energy of the reaction is large. The analysis leads to closed-form relations for the minimum "critical" size of the hot spot resulting in ignition and for the ignition time by hot spots of supercritical size. The analysis is carried out, first, for inert spots with heat conductivities and diff usivities of the order of those of the reactive media,...

  8. Spotted fever rickettsiosis in Coronel Fabriciano, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Márcio Antônio Moreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Coronel Fabriciano Municipality of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The cases occurred in May and June of 2000. During this period there were two deaths among children from an area named Pedreira in a periurban area of this municipality. In a boy who died with clinical manifestations of Brazilian spotted fever, a necropsy revealed the presence of a spotted fever group Rickettsia. The serological results confirm the difficulty in the differential diagnosis of patients with symptoms of rickettsial diseases.

  9. Spots educativos : un modelo de evaluación creativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Montalvo-Castro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se precisan las semejanzas y diferencias entre los spots comerciales, sociales y educativos. Se analizan el problema de la eficacia de los spots y el papel de la creatividad. Además, se plantea la necesidad de contar con un modelo apropiado de evaluación de spots educativos que tome en cuenta ciertos principios de la teoría del aprendizaje significativo de David Ausubel. Finalmente, se diseña y propone un modelo de evaluación creativa —tipo lista de cotejo— que es sometido a una prueba experimental y cuyos resultados apoyan el planteamiento.

  10. Coherent control of plasma dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaohan

    2014-10-01

    The concept of coherent control - precise measurement or determination of a process through control of the phase of an applied oscillating field - has been applied to numerous systems with great success. Here, we demonstrate the use of coherent control on plasma dynamics in a laser wakefield electron acceleration experiment. A tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse (10 mJ, 35 fs) was used to generate electron beams by plasma wakefield acceleration in the density down ramp. The technique is based on optimization of the electron beam using a deformable mirror adaptive optical system with an iterative evolutionary genetic algorithm. The image of the electrons on a scintillator screen was processed and used in a fitness function as direct feedback for the optimization algorithm. This coherent manipulation of the laser wavefront leads to orders of magnitude improvement to the electron beam properties such as the peak charge and beam divergence. The laser beam optimized to generate the best electron beam was not the one with the ``best'' focal spot. When a particular wavefront of laser light interacts with plasma, it can affect the plasma wave structures and trapping conditions of the electrons in a complex way. For example, Raman forward scattering, envelope self-modulation, relativistic self-focusing, and relativistic self-phase modulation and many other nonlinear interactions modify both the pulse envelope and phase as the pulse propagates, in a way that cannot be easily predicted and that subsequently dictates the formation of plasma waves. The optimal wavefront could be successfully determined via the heuristic search under laser-plasma conditions that were not known a priori. Control and shaping of the electron energy distribution was found to be less effective, but was still possible. Particle-in-cell simulations were performed to show that the mode structure of the laser beam can affect the plasma wave structure and trapping conditions of electrons, which

  11. New photoionization lasers pumped by laser-induced plasma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hube, M.; Dieckmann, M.; Beigang, R.; Welling, H.; Wellegehausen, B.

    1988-01-01

    Innershell photoionization of atomic gases and vapors by soft x rays from a laser-produced plasma is a potential method for making lasers at short wavelengths. Normally, in such experiments only a single plasma spot or plasma line is created for the excitation. This gives high excitation rates but only a short excitation length. At high excitation rates detrimental influences, such as amplified spontaneous emission, optical saturation, or quenching processes, may decrease or even destroy a possible inversion. Therefore, it seems to be more favorable to use a number of separated plasma spots with smaller excitation rates and larger excitation lengths. As a test, a three-plasma spot device was constructed and used in the well-known Cd-photoionization laser at 442 nm. With a 600-mJ Nd:YAH laser (pulse length, 8 ns) for plasma production, output energies up to 300 μJ have been measured, which is more than a doubling of so far obtained data. On innershell excitation, levels may be populated that allow direct lasers as in the case of Cd or that are metastable and cannot be directly coupled to lower levels. In this case modifications in the excitation process are necessary. Such modifications may be an optical pump process in the atom prior to the innershell photoionization or an optical pump process (population transfer process) after the innershell ionization, leading to Raman or anti-Stokes Raman-type laser emissions. With these techniques and the developed multiplasma spot excitation device a variety of new laser emissions in K and Cs ions have been achieved which are indicated in the level schemes

  12. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  13. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Metallography of Battery Resistance Spot Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. E.; Johannes, L. B.; Gonzalez, D.; Yayathi, S.; Figuered, J. M.; Darcy, E. C.; Bilc, Z. M.

    2015-01-01

    Li-ion cells provide an energy dense solution for systems that require rechargeable electrical power. However, these cells can undergo thermal runaway, the point at which the cell becomes thermally unstable and results in hot gas, flame, electrolyte leakage, and in some cases explosion. The heat and fire associated with this type of event is generally violent and can subsequently cause damage to the surrounding system or present a dangerous risk to the personnel nearby. The space flight environment is especially sensitive to risks particularly when it involves potential for fire within the habitable volume of the International Space Station (ISS). In larger battery packs such as Robonaut 2 (R2), numerous Li-ion cells are placed in parallel-series configurations to obtain the required stack voltage and desired run-time or to meet specific power requirements. This raises a second and less obvious concern for batteries that undergo certification for space flight use: the joining quality at the resistance spot weld of battery cells to component wires/leads and battery tabs, bus bars or other electronic components and assemblies. Resistance spot welds undergo materials evaluation, visual inspection, conductivity (resistivity) testing, destructive peel testing, and metallurgical examination in accordance with applicable NASA Process Specifications. Welded components are cross-sectioned to ensure they are free of cracks or voids open to any exterior surface. Pore and voids contained within the weld zone but not open to an exterior surface, and are not determined to have sharp notch like characteristics, shall be acceptable. Depending on requirements, some battery cells are constructed of aluminum canisters while others are constructed of steel. Process specific weld schedules must be developed and certified for each possible joining combination. The aluminum canisters' positive terminals were particularly difficult to weld due to a bi-metal strip that comes ultrasonically

  15. Scattering of traveling spots in dissipative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Yasumasa; Teramoto, Takashi; Ueda, Kei-Ichi

    2005-12-01

    One of the fundamental questions for self-organization in pattern formation is how spatial periodic structure is spontaneously formed starting from a localized fluctuation. It is known in dissipative systems that splitting dynamics is one of the driving forces to create many particle-like patterns from a single seed. On the way to final state there occur many collisions among them and its scattering manner is crucial to predict whether periodic structure is realized or not. We focus on the colliding dynamics of traveling spots arising in a three-component system and study how the transition of scattering dynamics is brought about. It has been clarified that hidden unstable patterns called "scattors" and their stable and unstable manifolds direct the traffic flow of orbits before and after collisions. The collision process in general can be decomposed into several steps and each step is controlled by such a scattor, in other words, a network among scattors forms the backbone for scattering dynamics. A variety of input-output relations comes from the complexity of the network as well as high Morse indices of the scattor. The change of transition manners is caused by the switching of the network from one structure to another, and such a change is caused by the singularities of scattors. We illustrate a typical example of the change of transition caused by the destabilization of the scattor. A new instability of the scattor brings a new destination for the orbit resulting in a new input-output relation, for instance, Hopf instability for the scattor of peanut type brings an annihilation.

  16. TEVA-SPOT-GUI - Containing Preliminary Flow Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ZIP file contains the developmental, test version of TEVA-SPOT-GUI's Flow Model. The Flow Model is a new, event based water quality algorithm for EPANET. The...

  17. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight....... fulvum-tomato and S. tritici-wheat in order to find modelsystems to enhance interpretation of results from R. collo-cygni-barley interaction. Results from the mapping showed that resistance to Ramularia leaf spot is controlled by a number of QTL’s, some of which co-locate with other physiological traits....... The populations further segregated for physiological leaf spots, a phenomenon related to the leaf damage imposed by Rubellin, although, resistance to physiological leafspots appeared to come from the Ramularia leaf spot susceptible parent. The toxin assay further supported this result as the genotypes susceptible...

  18. Hot spots and heavily dislocated regions in multicrystalling silicon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Martinuzzi, S.

    1990-01-01

    The formation mechanism and the electrical consequences of hot spots have been investigated in multicrystalline solar cells. The hot spots were revealed by means of an infrared camera when the cells are reverse biassed in the dark. The minority carrier diffusion length (L n ), the photovoltage (V oc ) and the photocurrent (J sc ) were measured in the hot spot area and far from this zone thanks to mesa diodes. Dark forward I-V curves lead to values of ideality factor (M) and reverse saturation current (J o ). It is found that J o and M are higher in the hot spot area, while J sc , V oc and at a less extent L n are smaller. Large densities of dislocations and lineages structures are revealed in the abnormally heated regions

  19. The four spot time-of-flight laser anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1985-01-01

    The newly constructed, four-spot anemometer was shown to perform as predicted. The new anemometer's measurement region has the required characteristics: wide acceptance angle and high spatial selectivity to permit measurements in turbulent, hostile environments.

  20. Blind spot monitoring in light vehicles -- system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report summarizes findings of a small population study of blind spot monitoring systems (BSM) installed by : original vehicle manufacturers on standard production vehicles. The primary goals of these tests were to simulate real-world driving sce...

  1. A keyword spotting model using perceptually significant energy features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Padmalochini

    The task of a keyword recognition system is to detect the presence of certain words in a conversation based on the linguistic information present in human speech. Such keyword spotting systems have applications in homeland security, telephone surveillance and human-computer interfacing. General procedure of a keyword spotting system involves feature generation and matching. In this work, new set of features that are based on the psycho-acoustic masking nature of human speech are proposed. After developing these features a time aligned pattern matching process was implemented to locate the words in a set of unknown words. A word boundary detection technique based on frame classification using the nonlinear characteristics of speech is also addressed in this work. Validation of this keyword spotting model was done using widely acclaimed Cepstral features. The experimental results indicate the viability of using these perceptually significant features as an augmented feature set in keyword spotting.

  2. Genetic characterization of angular leaf spot resistance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Tryphone

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... Angular leaf spot disease (ALS) caused by Pseudocercospora griseola is one ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms ... that results in shrivelled seeds of reduced size and quality.

  3. prevalence of angular leaf spot disease and sources of resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-02-17

    Feb 17, 2017 ... Angular leaf spot (Pseudocercospora griseola Crous U, Brown) is one of the ..... Incidence of six foliar bean diseases in two agro ecological zones of eastern Democratic Republic of .... use of poor quality farmer-saved seed.

  4. IMRT fluence map editing to control hot and cold spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor Cook, J.; Tobler, Matt; Leavitt, Dennis D.; Watson, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Manually editing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fluence maps effectively controls hot and cold spots that the IMRT optimization cannot control. Many times, re-optimizing does not reduce the hot spots or increase the cold spots. In fact, re-optimizing only places the hot and cold spots in different locations. Fluence-map editing provides manual control of dose delivery and provides the best treatment plan possible. Several IMRT treatments were planned using the Varian Eclipse planning system. We compare the effects on dose distributions between fluence-map editing and re-optimization, discuss techniques for fluence-map editing, and analyze differences between fluence editing on one beam vs. multiple beams. When editing a beam's fluence map, it is essential to choose a beam that least affects dose to the tumor and critical structures. Editing fluence maps gives an advantage in treatment planning and provides controlled delivery of IMRT dose

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  6. Experimental Study of Tensile Test in Resistance Spot Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebbal Habib

    Full Text Available Abstract Resistance spot welding (RSW is a widely used joining process for fabricating sheet metal assemblies in automobile industry .In comparison with other welding processes the RSW is faster and easier for automation. This process involves electrical, thermal and mechanical interactions. Resistance spot welding primarily takes place by localized melting spot at the interface of the sheets followed by its quick solidification under sequential control of pressure water-cooled electrode and flow of required electric current for certain duration. In this work the tensile tests were studied, the results obtained show that the type material, the overlap length, the angle of the rolling direction and the thickness of the sheet have an influence in resistance spot welding process.

  7. Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index (WSI) and ... pedestrians avoiding the use of pedestrian bridges/aid even when they are available. ..... not minding an unforeseen obstruction, miscalculations and wrong break.

  8. Generation and characterization of mutants of tomato spotted wilt virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Resende, de R.

    1993-01-01

    In nature, tospoviruses like tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) are exclusively transmitted by thrips species (Sakimura, 1962) producing numerous enveloped virions during infection, which accumulate in the cisternae of the endoplasmatic. reticulum. system (Kitajima, 1965; Milne, 1970; Ie,

  9. Retrieving handwriting by combining word spotting and manifold ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Saldarriaga, Sebastián; Morin, Emmanuel; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Online handwritten data, produced with Tablet PCs or digital pens, consists in a sequence of points (x, y). As the amount of data available in this form increases, algorithms for retrieval of online data are needed. Word spotting is a common approach used for the retrieval of handwriting. However, from an information retrieval (IR) perspective, word spotting is a primitive keyword based matching and retrieval strategy. We propose a framework for handwriting retrieval where an arbitrary word spotting method is used, and then a manifold ranking algorithm is applied on the initial retrieval scores. Experimental results on a database of more than 2,000 handwritten newswires show that our method can improve the performances of a state-of-the-art word spotting system by more than 10%.

  10. Nucleus geometry and mechanical properties of resistance spot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Automotive steels; resistance spot welding; mechanical properties; nucleus geometry. 1. .... High va- lues of hardness can be explained with martensitic forma- ... interface of DP450–DP600 steels may have stainless steel properties.

  11. Analysis and validation of laser spot weld-induced distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorovsky, G.A.; Kanouff, M.P.; Maccallum, D.O.; Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1999-12-09

    Laser spot welding is an ideal process for joining small parts with tight tolerances on weld size, location, and distortion, particularly those with near-by heat sensitive features. It is also key to understanding the overlapping laser spot seam welding process. Rather than attempting to simulate the laser beam-to-part coupling (particularly if a keyhole occurs), it was measured by calorimetry. This data was then used to calculate the thermal and structural response of a laser spot welded SS304 disk using the finite element method. Five combinations of process parameter values were studied. Calculations were compared to experimental data for temperature and distortion profiles measured by thermocouples and surface profiling. Results are discussed in terms of experimental and modeling factors. The authors then suggest appropriate parameters for laser spot welding.

  12. Spot-Welding Gun With Adjustable Pneumatic Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed spot-welding gun equipped with pneumatic spring, which could be bellows or piston and cylinder, exerts force independent of position along stroke. Applies accurate controlled force to joint welded, without precise positioning at critical position within stroke.

  13. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  14. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  15. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  16. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-02-18

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  17. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  18. Ongoing Cerebral Vasculitis During Treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lisa R; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Yeshokumar, Anusha K; Johnston, Michael V

    2015-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tickborne infection that produces a systemic small-vessel vasculitis; its prognosis is excellent if appropriate treatment is initiated early. Because the advent of effective antirickettsial therapies predates the widespread use of brain magnetic resonance imaging, there are limited data on the effect of untreated Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection on neuroimaging studies. We describe a 7-year-old girl with delayed treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever who suffered severe neurological impairment. Serial brain magnetic resonance images revealed a progressive "starry sky appearance," which is proposed to result from the same small vessel vasculitis that causes the characteristic skin rash of this infection. Neurological injury can continue to occur despite specific antirickettsial therapy in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This child's clinical features raise questions about the optimal management of this infection, particularly the utility of immune modulating therapies in cases of delayed treatment and neurological involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated Spot Mammography for Improved Imaging of Dense Breasts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M

    2004-01-01

    ... image that better distinguishes masses from overlapping tissues. Preliminary studies with a prototype device and breast simulating test objects showed promise, but spot compression didn't always separate the tissues as much as desired...

  20. White spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp-a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sangamaheswaran, A.P.; Jeyaseelan, M.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The white spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp affects the development of the global shrimp industry. This paper reviews the viruses that cause the disease, the transmission of the virus, diagnosis and preventive measures.

  1. Stress hot spots in viscoplastic deformation of polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollett, A D; Li, J; Rohrer, G S; Lebensohn, R A; Groeber, M; Choi, Y

    2010-01-01

    The viscoplastic deformation of polycrystals under uniaxial loading is investigated to determine the relationship between hot spots in stress and their location in relation to the microstructure. A 3D full-field formulation based on fast Fourier transforms for the prediction of the viscoplastic deformation of poly-crystals is used with rate-sensitive crystal plasticity. Two measured polycrystalline structures are used to instantiate the simulations, as well as a fully periodic synthetic polycrystal adapted from a simulation of grain growth. Application of (Euclidean) distance maps shows that hot spots in stress tend to occur close to grain boundaries. It is also found that low stress regions lie close to boundaries. The radial distribution function of the hot spots indicates clustering. Despite the lack of texture in the polycrystals, the hot spots are strongly concentrated in (1 1 0) orientations, which can account for the observed clustering. All three microstructures yield similar results despite significant differences in topology

  2. Performance evaluation of micro thermoelectric module for hot spot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ook Joong; Lee, Kong Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The experimental and numerical study is carried out to investigate the availability of micro TEM for hot spot cooling of an IC chip. It is found that an acrylic plate integrating with copper plate and imbedded micro TEM represents good hot spot cooling of the IC chip when CO2 laser is used to hot spot heating. Effective active local cooling phenomena by the TEM are well investigated by experiment. The measured temperature drop in the hot spot point is compared to numerical result using the TAS program for every case. Numerical result shows good agreement with experiment using some appropriate thermal and thermoelectric properties of TEM and TIM obtained by trial and error. Measurement of thermo-physical properties such as contact thermal resistance and thickness of liquid TIM is difficult but can be estimated by numerical analysis

  3. HotRegion: a database of predicted hot spot clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukuroglu, Engin; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Hot spots are energetically important residues at protein interfaces and they are not randomly distributed across the interface but rather clustered. These clustered hot spots form hot regions. Hot regions are important for the stability of protein complexes, as well as providing specificity to binding sites. We propose a database called HotRegion, which provides the hot region information of the interfaces by using predicted hot spot residues, and structural properties of these interface residues such as pair potentials of interface residues, accessible surface area (ASA) and relative ASA values of interface residues of both monomer and complex forms of proteins. Also, the 3D visualization of the interface and interactions among hot spot residues are provided. HotRegion is accessible at http://prism.ccbb.ku.edu.tr/hotregion.

  4. Use of roadway attributes in hot spot identification and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This research focuses on the addition of roadway attributes in the selection and analysis of hot spots. This : is in conjunction with the framework for highway safety mitigation in Utah with its six primary steps: network : screening, diagnosis...

  5. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  6. Developing markers for Sigatoka leaf spot disease (Mycosphaerella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... Developing markers for Sigatoka leaf spot disease ... OPERON primer pairs were used to screen genomic DNA from two resistant cultivars: Calcutta 4 ( ..... Blomme G, Eden-Green S, Mustaffa M, Nwauzoma B, Thangavelu R.

  7. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... β-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was examined. The results showed ... Introduction. White spot ... denatured conditions and renatured by successive 12 h incu- bations with 6, 4, ...

  8. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  9. Technical Note: Spot characteristic stability for proton pencil beam scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-Cheng; Chang, Chang; Mah, Dennis; Moyers, Michael F.; Gao, Mingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The spot characteristics for proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) were measured and analyzed over a 16 month period, which included one major site configuration update and six cyclotron interventions. The results provide a reference to establish the quality assurance (QA) frequency and tolerance for proton pencil beam scanning. Methods: A simple treatment plan was generated to produce an asymmetric 9-spot pattern distributed throughout a field of 16 × 18 cm for each of 18 proton energies (100.0–226.0 MeV). The delivered fluence distribution in air was measured using a phosphor screen based CCD camera at three planes perpendicular to the beam line axis (x-ray imaging isocenter and up/down stream 15.0 cm). The measured fluence distributions for each energy were analyzed using in-house programs which calculated the spot sizes and positional deviations of the Gaussian shaped spots. Results: Compared to the spot characteristic data installed into the treatment planning system, the 16-month averaged deviations of the measured spot sizes at the isocenter plane were 2.30% and 1.38% in the IEC gantry x and y directions, respectively. The maximum deviation was 12.87% while the minimum deviation was 0.003%, both at the upstream plane. After the collinearity of the proton and x-ray imaging system isocenters was optimized, the positional deviations of the spots were all within 1.5 mm for all three planes. During the site configuration update, spot positions were found to deviate by 6 mm until the tuning parameters file was properly restored. Conclusions: For this beam delivery system, it is recommended to perform a spot size and position check at least monthly and any time after a database update or cyclotron intervention occurs. A spot size deviation tolerance of <15% can be easily met with this delivery system. Deviations of spot positions were <2 mm at any plane up/down stream 15 cm from the isocenter

  10. Technical Note: Spot characteristic stability for proton pencil beam scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chin-Cheng, E-mail: chen.ccc@gmail.com; Chang, Chang; Mah, Dennis [ProCure Treatment Center, Somerset, New Jersey 08873 (United States); Moyers, Michael F. [ProCure Treatment Center, Somerset, New Jersey 08873 and Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center, Shanghai 201321 (China); Gao, Mingcheng [CDH Proton Center, Warrenville, Illinois 60555 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: The spot characteristics for proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) were measured and analyzed over a 16 month period, which included one major site configuration update and six cyclotron interventions. The results provide a reference to establish the quality assurance (QA) frequency and tolerance for proton pencil beam scanning. Methods: A simple treatment plan was generated to produce an asymmetric 9-spot pattern distributed throughout a field of 16 × 18 cm for each of 18 proton energies (100.0–226.0 MeV). The delivered fluence distribution in air was measured using a phosphor screen based CCD camera at three planes perpendicular to the beam line axis (x-ray imaging isocenter and up/down stream 15.0 cm). The measured fluence distributions for each energy were analyzed using in-house programs which calculated the spot sizes and positional deviations of the Gaussian shaped spots. Results: Compared to the spot characteristic data installed into the treatment planning system, the 16-month averaged deviations of the measured spot sizes at the isocenter plane were 2.30% and 1.38% in the IEC gantry x and y directions, respectively. The maximum deviation was 12.87% while the minimum deviation was 0.003%, both at the upstream plane. After the collinearity of the proton and x-ray imaging system isocenters was optimized, the positional deviations of the spots were all within 1.5 mm for all three planes. During the site configuration update, spot positions were found to deviate by 6 mm until the tuning parameters file was properly restored. Conclusions: For this beam delivery system, it is recommended to perform a spot size and position check at least monthly and any time after a database update or cyclotron intervention occurs. A spot size deviation tolerance of <15% can be easily met with this delivery system. Deviations of spot positions were <2 mm at any plane up/down stream 15 cm from the isocenter.

  11. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Dugger, Katie M.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  12. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1989-08-01

    A cursory examination of the research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division for the calendar year 1988 shows the effects of the gradual transformation of the group. Although our principal activity, fusion plasma physics research, is unchanged, the work shows closer ties to problems relevant to present experiments than previously. Most notable is the concentrated effort on tokamak equilibrium and transport. We are exploring the implication of turbulence induced transport, resistive MHD effects, neoclassical transport, and possible interpretations of transport based on classical phenomena. In addition, one of our members has chosen to focus on problems of enhanced statistical methods for interpretation of experiments. All of this activity preceded the Tokamak Transport Initiative and reflects our active involvement and concern with the world-wide tokamak program. Since equilibrium and transport are by no means the only theoretical plasma physics problems affecting fusion devices we continue substantial efforts in wave propagation and heating, particle simulation of plasmas, stability theory, enhancement of numerical algorithms, and general plasma physics. We are attempting to develop effective numerical schemes for the Boltzmann equation, adaptive grid methods for MHD, and particle simulation of boundary and antenna effects. Many of these topics reflect our continuing concern to maintain a modest effort in the development of theoretical models and tools for problems of real significance to fusion, but not necessarily of immediate highest priority. We select problems which we expect to become extremely important in the future. Our space plasma physics activities, funded by agencies other than DOE, transfers knowledge learned in fusion plasma physics to another area and conversely stimulates work also relevant to fusion problems

  13. Resistance Spot Welding with Middelfrequency-Inverter Weling Gun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun......The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun...

  14. Management of post-orthodontic white spot lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonesson, Mikael; Bergstrand, Fredrik; Gizani, Sotiria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The management of post-orthodontic white spot lesions is based on remineralization strategies or a minimal-invasive camouflage of the lesions. AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to identify and assess the quality of evidence for the various clinical technologies......-orthodontic white spot lesions. Further well-performed controlled clinical trials with long-term follow-up are needed to establish best clinical practice....

  15. SPOT-A SENSOR PLACEMENT OPTIMIZATION TOOL FOR ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    journal article This paper presents SPOT, a Sensor Placement Optimization Tool. SPOT provides a toolkit that facilitates research in sensor placement optimization and enables the practical application of sensor placement solvers to real-world CWS design applications. This paper provides an overview of SPOT’s key features, and then illustrates how this tool can be flexibly applied to solve a variety of different types of sensor placement problems.

  16. DETECTING LASER SPOT IN SHOOTING SIMULATOR USING AN EMBEDDED CAMERA

    OpenAIRE

    Soetedjo, Aryuanto; Mahmudi, Ali; Ibrahim Ashari, M.; Ismail Nakhoda, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the application of an embedded camera system for detecting laser spot in the shooting simulator. The proposed shooting simulator uses a specific target box, where the circular pattern target is mounted. The embedded camera is installed inside the box to capture the circular pattern target and laser spot image. To localize the circular pattern automatically, two colored solid circles are painted on the target. This technique allows the simple and fast color tracking to trac...

  17. Investigation of Thermal Stress Distribution in Laser Spot Welding Process

    OpenAIRE

    Osamah F. Abdulateef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the laser spot welding process of low carbon steel sheet. The investigations were based on analytical and finite element analyses. The analytical analysis was focused on a consistent set of equations representing interaction of the laser beam with materials. The numerical analysis based on 3-D finite element analysis of heat flow during laser spot welding taken into account the temperature dependence of the physical properties and latent heat of transf...

  18. Subtle Motion Analysis and Spotting using the Riesz Pyramid

    OpenAIRE

    Arango , Carlos ,; Alata , Olivier; Emonet , Rémi; Legrand , Anne-Claire; Konik , Hubert

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Analyzing and temporally spotting motions which are almost invisible to the human eye might reveal interesting information about the world. However, detecting these events is difficult due to their short duration and low intensities. Taking inspiration from video magnification techniques, we design a workflow for analyzing and temporally spotting subtle motions based on the Riesz pyramid. In addition, we propose a filtering and masking scheme that segments motions of i...

  19. Fungicide efficacy in peach rusty spot control in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Dolovac Nenad; Miletić Novica; Aleksić Goran; Savić Dušan; Živković Svetlana; Trkulja Nenad; Bulajić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry) caused significant yield losses in Serbia. Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. Ho...

  20. Cover of tall trees best predicts California spotted owl habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm P. North; Jonathan T. Kane; Van R. Kane; Gregory P. Asner; William Berigan; Derek J. Churchill; Scott Conway; R.J. Gutiérrez; Sean Jeronimo; John Keane; Alexander Koltunov; Tina Mark; Monika Moskal; Thomas Munton; Zachary Peery; Carlos Ramirez; Rahel Sollmann; Angela White; Sheila Whitmore

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of western dry forests in the USA often focuses on reducing fuel loads. In the range of the spotted owl, these treatments may reduce canopy cover and tree density, which could reduce preferred habitat conditions for the owl and other sensitive species. In particular, high canopy cover (≥70%) has been widely reported to be an important feature of spotted owl...

  1. Seasonality in cocoa spot and forward markets: empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sarfo, S.; Geman, Hélyette

    2012-01-01

    This paper first describes the main features of supply and demand in cocoa spot markets. A state- variable model is proposed to describe the random evolution of cocoa forward curves over time, which essentially adapts to agricultural commodities, introduced by Borovkova and Geman (2006) for energy. In contrast to most of the literature on the subject, the first state variable is not the spot price, as it combines seasonal and stochastic features and may not be observable, instead, the average...

  2. Electron plasma waves and plasma resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R N; Braithwaite, N St J

    2009-01-01

    In 1929 Tonks and Langmuir predicted of the existence of electron plasma waves in an infinite, uniform plasma. The more realistic laboratory environment of non-uniform and bounded plasmas frustrated early experiments. Meanwhile Landau predicted that electron plasma waves in a uniform collisionless plasma would appear to be damped. Subsequent experimental work verified this and revealed the curious phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. Electron plasma wave theory, extended to finite plasmas, has been confirmed by various experiments. Nonlinear phenomena, such as particle trapping, emerge at large amplitude. The use of electron plasma waves to determine electron density and electron temperature has not proved as convenient as other methods.

  3. ''Dusty plasmas''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de

    1989-09-01

    The field of ''dusty plasmas'' promises to be a very rewarding topic of research for the next decade or so, not only from the academic point of view where the emphasis is on developing the theory of the often complex collective and non-linear processes, but also from the point of view of applications in astrophysics, space physics, environmental and energy research. In this ''comment'' we should like to sketch the current development of this fast growing and potentially very important research area. We will discuss the new features of ''dusty'' plasmas in the most general terms and then briefly mention some successful applications and effects which have already been examined. (author)

  4. The effect of low-temperature plasma on model organism Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maronek, M.; Mentelova, L.; Kyzek, S.; Kovacik, D.

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of various chemicals in our life creates a need to evaluate whether they pose a threat to human body. There are many methods capable of detecting potential mutagenic or genotoxic effect. The Smart test was chosen to test mutagenic effect of low-temperature plasma, which is nowadays used in medicine, material decontamination and degradation of pharmaceuticals. When a mutational event during larval development occurs, spots on the wings are being formed. The frequency and size of the spots reveals the mutagenic potency of the tested substance. To evaluate the mutagenic effect of low-temperature plasma, larvae were treated with multiple doses. Our results show that plasma did not exhibit any mutagenic effect in all of the tested doses. Next we studied if it could work as an antimutagenic agent. Experiments with plasma along with ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), a known mutagen, suggest that plasma treatment did reduce the negative effect of EMS, thus this agents could possess antimutagenic effect. (authors)

  5. Duodenal White Spots Mimicking Intestinal Candidiasis: Report of Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Turk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal white spots are mentioned in these nonspecific lesions until recently. Although there is not enough studies about duedonal white spots yet; these lesions described in a separate syndrome. Here now we reported a case that we diagnosed multiple Duodenal white spots mimicking intestinal candidiasis. Clinical manifestation and endoscopic appearance of lesions gave rise to thought intestinal candidiasis histopathological examination revealed us several duodenitis. There was no evidence of fungal infection in PAS staining. Early after endoscopy patient took treatment of Lansoprozole at the 30 mg dose and bismuth salicylate. Patients compliant declined and control endoscopy exposed white duodenal spots cleared away three months later. Duodenal white spots are becoming to be designated as a separate disease even a syndrome. Etiology of duodenal white spots must be determined carefully during endoscopy. Sometimes it is difficult to make the correct diagnosis by appearance of lesion; in such cases histopathological examination can be useful both differential diagnosis of disease and determination of etiological factor. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 249-252

  6. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October's total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels

  7. Damage tolerance reliability analysis of automotive spot-welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Ni Kan

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a damage tolerance reliability analysis methodology for automotive spot-welded joints under multi-axial and variable amplitude loading history. The total fatigue life of a spot weld is divided into two parts, crack initiation and crack propagation. The multi-axial loading history is obtained from transient response finite element analysis of a vehicle model. A three-dimensional finite element model of a simplified joint with four spot welds is developed for static stress/strain analysis. A probabilistic Miner's rule is combined with a randomized strain-life curve family and the stress/strain analysis result to develop a strain-based probabilistic fatigue crack initiation life prediction for spot welds. Afterwards, the fatigue crack inside the base material sheet is modeled as a surface crack. Then a probabilistic crack growth model is combined with the stress analysis result to develop a probabilistic fatigue crack growth life prediction for spot welds. Both methods are implemented with MSC/NASTRAN and MSC/FATIGUE software, and are useful for reliability assessment of automotive spot-welded joints against fatigue and fracture

  8. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V.; Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J.; Antila, E.

    1998-01-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  9. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreneff, G; Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M; Kekkonen, V [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, E; Haekli, J [Vaasa Univ. (Finland); Antila, E [ABB Transmit Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  10. A measurement concept for hot-spot BRDFs from space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    Several concepts for canopy hot-spot measurements from space have been investigated. The most promising involves active illumination and bistatic detection that would allow hot-spot angular distribution (BRDF) measurements from space in a search-light mode. The concept includes a pointable illumination source, such as a laser operating at an atmospheric window wavelength, coupled with a number of high spatial-resolution detectors that are clustered around the illumination source in space, receiving photons nearly coaxial with the reto-reflection direction. Microwave control and command among the satellite cluster would allow orienting the direction of the laser beam as well as the focusing detectors simultaneously so that the coupled system can function like a search light with almost unlimited pointing capabilities. The concept is called the Hot-Spot Search-Light (HSSL) satellite. A nominal satellite altitude of 600 km will allow hot-spot BRDF measurements out to about 18 degrees phase angle. The distributed are taking radiometric measurements of the intensity wings of the hot-spot angular distribution without the need for complex imaging detectors. The system can be operated at night for increased signal-to-noise ratio. This way the hot-spot angular signatures can be quantified and parameterized in sufficient detail to extract the biophysical information content of plant architectures.

  11. A measurement concept for hot-spot BRDFs from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-01-01

    Several concepts for canopy hot-spot measurements from space have been investigated. The most promising involves active illumination and bistatic detection that would allow hot-spot angular distribution (BRDF) measurements from space in a search-light mode. The concept includes a pointable illumination source, such as a laser operating at an atmospheric window wavelength, coupled with a number of high spatial-resolution detectors that are clustered around the illumination source in space, receiving photons nearly coaxial with the reto-reflection direction. Microwave control and command among the satellite cluster would allow orienting the direction of the laser beam as well as the focusing detectors simultaneously so that the coupled system can function like a search light with almost unlimited pointing capabilities. The concept is called the Hot-Spot Search-Light (HSSL) satellite. A nominal satellite altitude of 600 km will allow hot-spot BRDF measurements out to about 18 degrees phase angle. The distributed are taking radiometric measurements of the intensity wings of the hot-spot angular distribution without the need for complex imaging detectors. The system can be operated at night for increased signal-to-noise ratio. This way the hot-spot angular signatures can be quantified and parameterized in sufficient detail to extract the biophysical information content of plant architectures.

  12. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  13. Model for calculation of spot prices and uncertainties integration; Modelo de calculo de precos spot e integracao de incertezas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraiva, J. Tome [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal). E-mail: jsaraiva@inescn.pt

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a model for systematic and structured impact evaluation of the uncertainties existent in the load powers, on the spot prices on the various bars of a electric power system. The application developed allows the specification of load power as inaccurate trapezoidal numbers and adopts the DC model for the representation of system exploration conditions. Considering the influence of the loss power on the formulation of a spot prices spatial distribution, the model allows the inclusion of transmission network loss estimation. The results correspond to appurtenance functions of spot prices in each barm, consisting of a discrete set of ordered pais which integrates the spot price values and the appurtenance or compatibility level, in accordance with Fuzzy Sets.

  14. The use of mass spectrometry to analyze dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michel; Tonoli, David; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) typically consist in the deposition of small volumes of capillary blood onto dedicated paper cards. Comparatively to whole blood or plasma samples, their benefits rely in the fact that sample collection is easier and that logistic aspects related to sample storage and shipment can be relatively limited, respectively, without the need of a refrigerator or dry ice. Originally, this approach has been developed in the sixties to support the analysis of phenylalanine for the detection of phenylketonuria in newborns using bacterial inhibition test. In the nineties tandem mass spectrometry was established as the detection technique for phenylalanine and tyrosine. DBS became rapidly recognized for their clinical value: they were widely implemented in pediatric settings with mass spectrometric detection, and were closely associated to the debut of newborn screening (NBS) programs, as a part of public health policies. Since then, sample collection on paper cards has been explored with various analytical techniques in other areas more or less successfully regarding large-scale applications. Moreover, in the last 5 years a regain of interest for DBS was observed and originated from the bioanalytical community to support drug development (e.g., PK studies) or therapeutic drug monitoring mainly. Those recent applications were essentially driven by improved sensitivity of triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. This review presents an overall view of all instrumental and methodological developments for DBS analysis with mass spectrometric detection, with and without separation techniques. A general introduction to DBS will describe their advantages and historical aspects of their emergence. A second section will focus on blood collection, with a strong emphasis on specific parameters that can impact quantitative analysis, including chromatographic effects, hematocrit effects, blood effects, and analyte stability. A third part of the review is dedicated to

  15. Dried blood spot analysis of (+) and (-) darunavir enantiomers on immobilized amylose tris-(3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) LC and its application to pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisetti, Nageswara Rao; Arnipalli, Manikanta Swamy; Nimmu, Narendra Varma

    2015-12-01

    Dried blood spot analysis is an innovative novel blood sampling technique gaining interest in drug discovery and development processes owing to its inherent advantages over the conventional whole blood, plasma or serum sample collection. The present manuscript describes the development and validation of a highly sensitive and precise method of evaluation of pharmacokinetics of (+) and (-) darunavir enantiomers on rat dried blood spots. The enantiomers on rat dried blood spots were extracted into methanol and separated by LC on a Chiralpak IA column using hexane and ethanol containing 0.1% DEA (75:25, v/v) as a mobile phase at 20°C; both the enantiomers were detected at 266 nm using a photodiode array detector. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and stability as per the US Food and Drug and Administration guidelines. The hematocrit effect on extraction recovery was evaluated and the mean recoveries of (-) and (+) enantiomers of darunavir from dried blood spots were found to be 85.76 and 88.91% respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were 3.1-8.4 and 0.8-4.8% respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of (+) and (-) enantiomers of darunavir on rat dried blood spots. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years...

  17. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  18. Judging a salmon by its spots: environmental variation is the primary determinant of spot patterns in Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Katarina M; Solberg, Monica F; Besnier, Francois; Thorsen, Anders; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Skaala, Øystein; Malde, Ketil; Glover, Kevin A

    2018-04-12

    In fish, morphological colour changes occur from variations in pigment concentrations and in the morphology, density, and distribution of chromatophores in the skin. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved in most species. Here, we describe the first investigation into the genetic and environmental basis of spot pattern development in one of the world's most studied fishes, the Atlantic salmon. We reared 920 salmon from 64 families of domesticated, F1-hybrid and wild origin in two contrasting environments (Hatchery; tanks for the freshwater stage and sea cages for the marine stage, and River; a natural river for the freshwater stage and tanks for the marine stage). Fish were measured, photographed and spot patterns evaluated. In the Hatchery experiment, significant but modest differences in spot density were observed among domesticated, F1-hybrid (1.4-fold spottier than domesticated) and wild salmon (1.7-fold spottier than domesticated). A heritability of 6% was calculated for spot density, and a significant QTL on linkage group SSA014 was detected. In the River experiment, significant but modest differences in spot density were also observed among domesticated, F1-hybrid (1.2-fold spottier than domesticated) and wild salmon (1.8-fold spottier than domesticated). Domesticated salmon were sevenfold spottier in the Hatchery vs. River experiment. While different wild populations were used for the two experiments, on average, these were 6.2-fold spottier in the Hatchery vs. River experiment. Fish in the Hatchery experiment displayed scattered to random spot patterns while fish in the River experiment displayed clustered spot patterns. These data demonstrate that while genetics plays an underlying role, environmental variation represents the primary determinant of spot pattern development in Atlantic salmon.

  19. Motion Interplay as a Function of Patient Parameters and Spot Size in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, Clemens; Dowdell, Stephen; Lomax, Antony; Sharp, Greg; Shackleford, James; Choi, Noah; Willers, Henning; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Quantify the impact of respiratory motion on the treatment of lung tumors with spot scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials 4D Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the interplay effect, which results from relative motion of the tumor and the proton beam, on the dose distribution in the patient. Ten patients with varying tumor sizes (2.6-82.3cc) and motion amplitudes (3-30mm) were included in the study. We investigated the impact of the spot size, which varies between proton facilities, and studied single fractions and conventionally fractionated treatments. The following metrics were used in the analysis: minimum/maximum/mean dose, target dose homogeneity and 2-year local control rate (2y-LC). Results Respiratory motion reduces the target dose homogeneity, with the largest effects observed for the highest motion amplitudes. Smaller spot sizes (σ≈3mm) are inherently more sensitive to motion, decreasing target dose homogeneity on average by a factor ~2.8 compared to a larger spot size (σ≈13mm). Using a smaller spot size to treat a tumor with 30mm motion amplitude reduces the minimum dose to 44.7% of the prescribed dose, decreasing modeled 2y-LC from 87.0% to 2.7%, assuming a single fraction. Conventional fractionation partly mitigates this reduction, yielding a 2y-LC of 71.6%. For the large spot size, conventional fractionation increases target dose homogeneity and prevents a deterioration of 2y-LC for all patients. No correlation with tumor volume is observed. The effect on the normal lung dose distribution is minimal: observed changes in mean lung dose and lung V20 are interplay using a large spot size and conventional fractionation. For treatments employing smaller spot sizes and/or in the delivery of single fractions, interplay effects can lead to significant deterioration of the dose distribution and lower 2y-LC. PMID:23462423

  20. Impact of spot size on plan quality of spot scanning proton radiosurgery for peripheral brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongxu, E-mail: dongxu-wang@uiowa.edu; Dirksen, Blake; Hyer, Daniel E.; Buatti, John M.; Sheybani, Arshin; Dinges, Eric; Felderman, Nicole; TenNapel, Mindi; Bayouth, John E.; Flynn, Ryan T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To determine the plan quality of proton spot scanning (SS) radiosurgery as a function of spot size (in-air sigma) in comparison to x-ray radiosurgery for treating peripheral brain lesions. Methods: Single-field optimized (SFO) proton SS plans with sigma ranging from 1 to 8 mm, cone-based x-ray radiosurgery (Cone), and x-ray volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated for 11 patients. Plans were evaluated using secondary cancer risk and brain necrosis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: For all patients, secondary cancer is a negligible risk compared to brain necrosis NTCP. Secondary cancer risk was lower in proton SS plans than in photon plans regardless of spot size (p = 0.001). Brain necrosis NTCP increased monotonically from an average of 2.34/100 (range 0.42/100–4.49/100) to 6.05/100 (range 1.38/100–11.6/100) as sigma increased from 1 to 8 mm, compared to the average of 6.01/100 (range 0.82/100–11.5/100) for Cone and 5.22/100 (range 1.37/100–8.00/100) for VMAT. An in-air sigma less than 4.3 mm was required for proton SS plans to reduce NTCP over photon techniques for the cohort of patients studied with statistical significance (p = 0.0186). Proton SS plans with in-air sigma larger than 7.1 mm had significantly greater brain necrosis NTCP than photon techniques (p = 0.0322). Conclusions: For treating peripheral brain lesions—where proton therapy would be expected to have the greatest depth-dose advantage over photon therapy—the lateral penumbra strongly impacts the SS plan quality relative to photon techniques: proton beamlet sigma at patient surface must be small (<7.1 mm for three-beam single-field optimized SS plans) in order to achieve comparable or smaller brain necrosis NTCP relative to photon radiosurgery techniques. Achieving such small in-air sigma values at low energy (<70 MeV) is a major technological challenge in commercially available proton therapy systems.