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Sample records for plasma spectroscopy icp

  1. Complete chemical analysis of produced water by modern inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G M; Sorbie, K S; Johnston, A; Boak, L S

    1997-12-31

    ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectroscopy is recognised as a very effective tool for monitoring ion compositions in many different waters. It has also been used by a number of laboratories to determine residual levels of phosphonate (PH) scale inhibitors in produced waters, based on phosphorus content. Until recently, it had not been used effectively to monitor phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA) returns. Large errors had frequently been observed where it had been applied. The poor detection limits and accuracy obtained for PPCA inhibitors relates to much lower amount of phosphorus present when compared with a typical phosphonate inhibitor. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of IPC detection for PPCA and other phosphorus containing inhibitors by the use of modern instruments without the need of pre-treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Method validation in plasma source optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) - From samples to results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilon, Fabien; Vielle, Karine; Birolleau, Jean-Claude; Vigneau, Olivier; Labet, Alexandre; Arnal, Nadege; Adam, Christelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Amiel, Jeanine; Granier, Guy; Faure, Joel; Arnaud, Regine; Beres, Andre; Blanchard, Jean-Marc; Boyer-Deslys, Valerie; Broudic, Veronique; Marques, Caroline; Augeray, Celine; Bellefleur, Alexandre; Bienvenu, Philippe; Delteil, Nicole; Boulet, Beatrice; Bourgarit, David; Brennetot, Rene; Fichet, Pascal; Celier, Magali; Chevillotte, Rene; Klelifa, Aline; Fuchs, Gilbert; Le Coq, Gilles; Mermet, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Even though ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy) is now a routine analysis technique, requirements for measuring processes impose a complete control and mastering of the operating process and of the associated quality management system. The aim of this (collective) book is to guide the analyst during all the measurement validation procedure and to help him to guarantee the mastering of its different steps: administrative and physical management of samples in the laboratory, preparation and treatment of the samples before measuring, qualification and monitoring of the apparatus, instrument setting and calibration strategy, exploitation of results in terms of accuracy, reliability, data covariance (with the practical determination of the accuracy profile). The most recent terminology is used in the book, and numerous examples and illustrations are given in order to a better understanding and to help the elaboration of method validation documents

  3. Zinc, lead and copper in human teeth measured by induced coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, L.T.; Bradley, D.A. E-mail: D.A.Bradley@exeter.ac.uk; Mohd, Y.; Jamil, M

    2000-11-15

    Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) has been used to determine Pb, Zn and Cu levels in 47 exfoliated human teeth (all of which required extraction for orthodontic reasons). Lead concentrations for the group were 1.7 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1} to 40.5 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1}, with a median of 9.8 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1}. A median lead level in excess of the group value was found for the teeth of six lorry drivers who were included in the study. A more significant enhancement was found for the seven subjects whose age was in excess of 60 years. The median values for Zn and Cu were 123.0 and 0.6 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1} respectively. Present values for tooth-Zn are lower than published data for other ethnic groups.

  4. Determination of some inorganic metals in edible vegetable oils by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Özcan, M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen edible vegetable oils were analyzed spectrometrically for their metal (Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Zn contents. Toxic metals in edible vegetable oils were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The highest metal concentrations were measured as 0.0850, 0.0352, 0.0220, 0.0040, 0.0010, 0.0074, 0.0045, 0.0254 and 0.2870 mg/kg for copper in almond oil, for iron in corn oil-(c, for manganese in soybean oil, for cobalt in sunflower oil-(b and almond oil, for chromium in almond oil, for lead in virgin olive oil, for cadmium in sunflower oil-(e, for nickel almond oil and for zinc in almond oil respectively. The method for determining toxic metals in edible vegetable oils by using ICP-AES is discussed. The metals were extracted from low quantities of oil (2-3 g with a 10% nitric acid solution. The extracted metal in acid solution can be injected into the ICPAES. The proposed method is simple and allows the metals to be determined in edible vegetable oils with a precision estimated below 10% relative standard deviation (RSD for Cu, 5% for Fe, 15% for Mn, 8% for Co, 10% for Cr, 20% for Pb, 5% for Cd, 16% for Ni and 11% for Zn.En este estudio se analizó espectrométricamente el contenido en metales (Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Zn de 17 aceites vegetales comestibles mediante ICP-AES. Las concentaciones más elevadas se encontraron para el cobre en el aceite de almendra (0.0850 mg/kg, para el hierro en el aceite de maiz(c,(0.0352 mg/kg, para el manganeso en el aceite de soja (0.0220 mg/kg, para el cobalto en el aceite de girasol (b (0.0040 mg/kg, para el cromo en el aceite de almendra (0.0010 mg/kg, para el plomo en el aceite de oliva virgen (0.0074 mg/kg, para el cadmio en el aceite de girasol (e (0.0045 mg/kg, para el niquel en el aceite de almendra (0.0254 mg/kg y para el zincen el aceite de almendra (0.2870 mg/kg. Los metales se extrajeron a partir de bajas cantidades de aceite (2-3 g, con

  5. LLNL large-area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source: Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.A.; Egan, P.O.; Benjamin, R.D.

    1995-05-01

    We describe initial experiments with a large (76-cm diameter) plasma source chamber to explore the problems associated with large-area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources to produce high density plasmas useful for processing 400-mm semiconductor wafers. Our experiments typically use a 640-nun diameter planar ICP coil driven at 13.56 MHz. Plasma and system data are taken in Ar and N 2 over the pressure range 3-50 mtorr. RF inductive power was run up to 2000W, but typically data were taken over the range 100-1000W. Diagnostics include optical emission spectroscopy, Langmuir probes, and B probes as well as electrical circuit measurements. The B and E-M measurements are compared with models based on commercial E-M codes. Initial indications are that uniform plasmas suitable for 400-mm processing are attainable

  6. Comparison of digestion procedures used for the determination of boron in biological tissues by ICP-AES [inductively-coupled, plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.F.; Miller, D.L.; Steele, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was designed to identify the most accurate and reliable procedures for the digestion of biological tissues prior to the determination of boron by inductively-coupled, plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The four procedures used in this study were an acid bomb digestion and digestions performed in test tubes using perchloric acid and hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and nitric acid alone. Digestions using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid alone were performed in a manner analogous to the perchloric acid/hydrogen peroxide procedure. The tissues used in the study were from dogs that had been administered a boron compound (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH) and included two brain tissues, a liver and a tongue. These tissues were selected in order to eliminate results that may be due to surface spiking only. None of the test tube procedures were successful in completely dissolving the samples, as was evidenced by residual color and a coagulated precipitate. The amount of precipitate was much larger for the brain tissues in all cases. The acid bomb digestion and the perchloric acid/hydrogen peroxide procedures gave comparable boron concentrations for all of the tissues in this study. 2 refs., 1 tab

  7. Elemental analysis of soils using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with multivariate discrimination: tape mounting as an alternative to pellets for small forensic transfer specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2014-01-01

    Elemental analysis of soil is a useful application of both laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in geological, agricultural, environmental, archeological, planetary, and forensic sciences. In forensic science, the question to be answered is often whether soil specimens found on objects (e.g., shoes, tires, or tools) originated from the crime scene or other location of interest. Elemental analysis of the soil from the object and the locations of interest results in a characteristic elemental profile of each specimen, consisting of the amount of each element present. Because multiple elements are measured, multivariate statistics can be used to compare the elemental profiles in order to determine whether the specimen from the object is similar to one of the locations of interest. Previous work involved milling and pressing 0.5 g of soil into pellets before analysis using LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. However, forensic examiners prefer techniques that require smaller samples, are less time consuming, and are less destructive, allowing for future analysis by other techniques. An alternative sample introduction method was developed to meet these needs while still providing quantitative results suitable for multivariate comparisons. The tape-mounting method involved deposition of a thin layer of soil onto double-sided adhesive tape. A comparison of tape-mounting and pellet method performance is reported for both LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. Calibration standards and reference materials, prepared using the tape method, were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. As with the pellet method, linear calibration curves were achieved with the tape method, as well as good precision and low bias. Soil specimens from Miami-Dade County were prepared by both the pellet and tape methods and analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and LIBS. Principal components analysis and linear discriminant analysis were applied to the multivariate data

  8. Programs in Fortran language for reporting the results of the analyses by ICP emission spectroscopy; Programas en lenguaje Fortran para la informacion de los resultados de los analisis efectuados mediante Espectroscopia Optica de emision con fuente de plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M

    1985-07-01

    Three programs, written in FORTRAN IV language, for reporting the results of the analyses by ICP emission spectroscopy from data stored in files on floppy disks have been developed. They are intended, respectively, for the analyses of: 1) waters, 2) granites and slates, and 3) different kinds of geological materials. (Author) 8 refs.

  9. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Tadashi

    1997-01-01

    The period of investigation for the previous general remarks on the progress of ICP-MS was from January, 1991 to September, 1993. In the investigation of this time, for the object of the Chemical Abstracts from January, 1994 to September, 1996, retrieval was carried out by using the STN International. As the key words, ICP-MS, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry or Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer was used. The number of hit was 373 in 1994, 462 in 1995, and 356 as of September, 1996, 1191 in total. The cumulative number of the papers from 1980 to 1996 is shown. It is known how rapidly the ICP-MS has pervaded as the means of analysis. In order to cope with the enormous number of papers, this time, it was decided to do the review by limiting to the papers which were published in the main journals deeply related to analytical chemistry. As to the tendency in the last three years, it is summarized as how to overcome the spectrum interference and matrix effect in the ICP-MS and the trend of using the ICP-MS as the high sensitivity detector for separation techniques. The technical basic research of the ICP-MS on spectrum interference, sample introduction method and others and the analysis of living body samples are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Monitoring and assessment of heavy metal/metalloid concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) method in Gonyeli Lake, Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkas, Fehmi Burak; Shaban, Jehad Abdullah; Sukuroglu, Ayca Aktas; Kurt, Mehmet Ali; Battal, Dilek; Saygi, Sahan

    2017-09-22

    The presence of heavy metals/metalloids in the ecosystem has been an increasing ecological and global public health concern due to their potential to cause adverse health effects. For this reason, the accumulation of some heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Pb was assessed by way of ICP-MS in water, sediment and fish (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from Gonyeli Lake, North Cyprus. The results showed that these metals/metalloids are found widespread throughout the study area. In water, most concentrated element was manganese with 92.1 ppb and least concentrated was lead with 0.914 ppb. In sediment, copper had the highest concentration with 613 ppm, and cadmium the lowest with 1.57 ppm. In fish tissues (muscle and gills), the most concentrated element was manganese with 12.5 ppm and the least concentrated cadmium with 0.017 ppm. These results indicate that future remediation efforts are indispensable for the rehabilitation of the lake.

  11. Evaluation of conductive polymers as an adsorbent for eradication of As (III from aqueous solution using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Din

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 1024x768 The main focused of this research work is the preparation of conductive polymers like polypyrrole, polyaniline and polythiophene and their application as adsorbent materials for the removal of hyper toxic metal As (III from aqueous solution. The metal ions get attached on the π-electrons at the back bone of polymer that illustrate excellent affinity for metal ions. The adsorption of As (II ions was carried out on polythiophene due to its redox properties and the stronger interaction between sulfur atoms with arsenic atoms. To attain large surface area and for maximum interaction of As (III ions with polymers, the particle size of polymers was ranged in nano scale. As the surface area increases with decrease in particle size, the active sites for metal ions also increases. These polymers were characterized by FIIR spectroscopy and SEM analysis. Adsorption isothermal data was examined by two parameters (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich and three parameters Redlich-Petrson, Sips and Toth models. Experimental results showed that based on standard deviation (SD and Chi square test (χ2 the experimental data was best explained by Freundlich and Toth isotherm. Thermodynamics parameters such as free energy change (ΔG0, enthalpy change (ΔH0 and entropy change (ΔS0 have been calculated respectively, which revealed the spontaneous, endothermic and feasible nature of adsorption process.   Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  12. Extraction inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Determination of traces of phosphorus in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.; Wegscheider, W.; Mueller, K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the separation and preconcentration of traces of phosphorus from tungsten was developed. Solid phase extraction of the phosphovanadomolybdate complex performed on a micro-column was applied. Phosphorus was determined by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) excitation. A limit of detection of 0,4 μg/g P with respect to the solid phase is obtained. By directly coupling the extraction/elution step to the ICP instrument a detection limit of 0,06 μg/g P in W was achieved. Besides, the complexity of spectral evaluation in ICP-OES determinations of traces in spectralline-rich matrices is discussed. (Authors)

  13. The effect of dielectric top lids on materials processing in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma (LF-ICP) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.W.M.; Chan, C.S.; Xu, L.; Xu, S.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the plasma revolution began in the 1970's with the exploitation of plasma sources for anisotropic etching and processing of materials. In recent years, plasma processing has gained popularity, with research institutions adopting projects in the field and industries implementing dry processing in their production lines. The advantages of utilizing plasma sources would be uniform processing over a large exposed surface area, and the reduction of toxic emissions. This leads to reduced costs borne by manufacturers which could be passed down as consumer savings, and a reduction in negative environmental impacts. Yet, one constraint that plagues the industry would be the control of contaminants in a plasma reactor which becomes evident when reactions are conducted in a clean vacuum environment. In this work, amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films were grown on glass substrates in a low frequency inductively coupled plasma (LF-ICP) reactor with a top lid made of quartz. Even though the chamber was kept at high vacuum (~10 −4 Pa), it was evident through secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) that oxygen contaminants were present. With the aid of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) the contaminant species were identified. The design of the LF-ICP reactor was then modified to incorporate an Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) lid. Results indicate that there were reduced amounts of contaminants present in the reactor, and that an added benefit of increased power transfer to the plasma, improving deposition rate of thin films was realized. The results of this study is conclusive in showing that Al 2 O 3 is a good alternative as a top-lid of an LF-ICP reactor, and offers industries a solution in improving quality and rate of growth of thin films. (author)

  14. Programs in Fortran language for reporting the results of the analyses by ICP emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three programs, written in FORTRAN IV language, for reporting the results of the analyses by ICP emission spectroscopy from data stored in files on floppy disks have been developed. They are intended, respectively, for the analyses of: 1) waters, 2) granites and slates, and 3) different kinds of geological materials. (Author) 8 refs

  15. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  16. Introduction to Plasma Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, H-J

    2009-01-01

    Based on lectures given at the Ruhr-University of Bochum for graduate students and postgraduates starting in plasma physics as well as from low- to high-density hot plasmas, this book introduces basic ideas and fundamental concepts and typical instrumentation from the X-ray to the infrared spectral regions

  17. Quantification of pharmaceutical peptides in human plasma by LC-ICP-MS sulfur detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Laura Hyrup; Macherius, André; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj

    2016-01-01

    A method for quantification of a pharmaceutical peptide in human plasma was developed using gradient elution LC-ICP-MS. A membrane desolvation (MD) system was applied to remove organic solvents from the eluent prior to the detection as SO+ in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of the ICP-DRC-MS inst......A method for quantification of a pharmaceutical peptide in human plasma was developed using gradient elution LC-ICP-MS. A membrane desolvation (MD) system was applied to remove organic solvents from the eluent prior to the detection as SO+ in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of the ICP......-DRC-MS instrument and subsequent quantification by post-column isotope dilution (IDA). Plasma proteins were precipitated prior to analysis. Analytical figures of merit including linearity, precision, LOD, LOQ and accuracy were considered satisfactory for analysis of plasma samples. The selectivity of the developed...... method was demonstrated for five pharmaceutically relevant peptides: desmopressin, penetratin, substance P, PTH (1-34) and insulin. Preliminary experiments on an ICP-MS/MS system using oxygen to reduce the effect of organic solvents were also performed to compare sensitivity. The results of the study...

  18. Determination of hafnium with the inductively coupled plasma (ICP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuensch, G.; Pose, K.

    1985-01-01

    The relative intensities of 198 hafnium lines in the Ar-ICP are listed. Spectral interference tables are given for the 9 analytically best lines, covering the range of +-60 pm around the Hf-lines. They include measured (not calculated) data of the interferent equivalent concentrations (IEC) and the critical concentration ratios (CCR) for 115 lines of all 34 possibly interfering elements. In many cases, these IEC- or CCR-data differ by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude from those calculated from intensities observed in the NBS-copper arc. Since no intense Hf-line is free from spectral interferences, examples are given for the calculation of the most suitable line for a known matrix. (orig.) [de

  19. Plutonium bioassay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, E.J.; Fisher, D.R.

    1993-04-01

    The determination of plutonium in urine poses several analytical challenges, e.g., detectability, matrix, etc. We have investigated the feasibility of analyzing plutonium in processed urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). The urine samples are first spiked with 244 Pu as a tracer and internal standard, then processed by co-precipitation and column chromatography using TRU-Spec trademark, an extraction resin. By enhancing ICP/MS detection capabilities via improved sample introduction and data acquisition efficiencies, an instrumental detection limit of 5 to 50 fg (0.3 to 3 fCi for 239 pu) is typically obtained, depending on the desired degree of quantitation. A brief summary of the analytical method as well as the basis for measuring radionuclides by ICP/MS are submitted; the separation procedure, methods of sample introduction, and data acquisition techniques are then highlighted

  20. Study on the RF power necessary to ignite plasma for the ICP test facility at HUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Haikun [School of Electronic Information and Communications, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Li, Dong; Wang, Chenre; Li, Xiaofei; Chen, Dezhi; Liu, Kaifeng; Zhou, Chi; Pan, Ruimin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2015-10-15

    An Radio-Frequency (RF) Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) ion source test facility has been successfully developed at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). As part of a study on hydrogen plasma, the influence of three main operation parameters on the RF power necessary to ignite plasma was investigated. At 6 Pa, the RF power necessary to ignite plasma influenced little by the filament heating current from 5 A to 9 A. The RF power necessary to ignite plasma increased rapidly with the operation pressure decreasing from 8 Pa to 4 Pa. The RF power necessary to ignite plasma decreased with the number of coil turns from 6 to 10. During the experiments, plasma was produced with the electron density of the order of 10{sup 16}m{sup -3} and the electron temperature of around 4 eV. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy glovebox assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, J.H.; McCarthy, K.M.; Tamul, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    The inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) using the full-scale melter with ''cold'' (nonradioactive) testing campaigns. As a result, the need for another system was identified to allow for the analysis of radioactive samples. The Mass Spec (Spectrometry) Lab was established for the installation of the modified ICP system for handling radioactive samples. The conceptual setup of another ICP was predicated on the use of a hood to allow ease of accessibility of the torch, nebulizer, and spray chamber, and the minimization of air flow paths. However, reconsideration of the radioactive sample dose rate and contamination levels led to the configuration of the glovebox system with a common transfer interface box for the ICP and the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) glovebox assemblies. As a result, a simultaneous Model JY-50P ICP with glovebox was installed in 1990 as a first generation ICP glovebox system. This was one of the first ICP glovebox assemblies connected with an ICP-MS glovebox system. Since the economics of processing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) required the availability of an instrument to operate 24 hours a day throughout the year without any downtime, a second generation ICP glovebox assembly was designed, manufactured, and installed in 1995 using a Model JY-46P ICP. These two ICP glovebox systems continue to support vitrification of the HLW into canisters for storage. The ICP systems have been instrumental in monitoring vitrification batch processing. To date, remote sample preparation and

  2. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winge, R.K.; Fassel, V.A.; Peterson, V.J.; Floyd, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This atlas of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy records the spectra of the elements in a way that would reveal the general nature of the spectra, in all their simplicity or complexity; and offers a definitive summary of the most prominent spectral lines of the elements, i.e., those most likely to be useful for the determination of trace and ultratrace concentrations; it provides reliable estimates, based on the recorded experimental spectra, of the powers of detection of the listed prominent lines; and assesses the very important problem of spectral interferences. The atlas is composed of three main sections. Part I is concerned with the historical aspects of compilations of spectral information. Part II is based on 232 wavelength scans of 70 elements. Each of the wavelength scans covers an 80 nm spectral region. These scans allow a rapid comparison of the background and spectral line intensities emitted in the ICP and provide a ready means for identification of the most prominent lines of each element and for estimation of the trace element analytical capabilities of these lines. A listing of 973 prominent lines with associated detection limits is also presented. Part III addresses the problem of spectral interferences. On this topic a detailed collection of coincidence profiles is presented for 281 of the most prominent lines, each with profiles of ten of the most prevalent concomitants superimposed. (Auth.)

  3. Non equilibrium atomic processes and plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takako

    2003-01-01

    Along with the technical progress in plasma spectroscopy, non equilibrium ionization processes have been recently observed. We study non local thermodynamic equilibrium and non ionization equilibrium for various kinds of plasmas. Specifically we discuss non equilibrium atomic processes in magnetically confined plasmas, solar flares and laser produced plasmas using a collisional radiative model based on plasma spectroscopic data. (author)

  4. Applications of inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy to geochemical reconnaissance for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagle, G.W.; Butz, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of large numbers of natural groundwater and stream sediment samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy has been applied to a geochemical reconnaissance program as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Approximately 25 elements have been determined in over 60,000 samples by ICP analysis. These data are combined with additional measurements obtained by atomic absorption, colorimetry, neutron activation, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Results are presented and interpreted in terms of the uranium favorability of areas in Texas where this survey has been completed

  5. {sup 99}Tc bioassay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L.A.

    1998-05-01

    A means of analyzing {sup 99}Tc in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed. Historically, {sup 99}Tc analysis was based on the radiometric detection of the 293 keV E{sub Max} beta decay product by liquid scintillation or gas flow proportional counting. In a urine matrix, the analysis of{sup 99}Tc is plagued with many difficulties using conventional radiometric methods. Difficulties originate during chemical separation due to the volatile nature of Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} or during radiation detection due to color or chemical quenching. A separation scheme for {sup 99}Tc detection by ICP-MS is given and is proven to be a sensitive and robust analytical alternative. A comparison of methods using radiometric and mass quantitation of {sup 99}Tc has been conducted in water, artificial urine, and real urine matrices at activity levels between 700 and 2,200 dpm/L. Liquid scintillation results based on an external standard quench correction and a quench curve correction method are compared to results obtained by ICP-MS. Each method produced accurate results, however the precision of the ICP-MS results is superior to that of liquid scintillation results. Limits of detection (LOD) for ICP-MS and liquid scintillation detection are 14.67 and 203.4 dpm/L, respectively, in a real urine matrix. In order to determine the basis for the increased precision of the ICP-MS results, the detection sensitivity for each method is derived and measured. The detection sensitivity for the {sup 99}Tc isotope by ICP-MS is 2.175 x 10{sup {minus}7} {+-} 8.990 x 10{sup {minus}9} and by liquid scintillation is 7.434 x 10{sup {minus}14} {+-} 7.461 x 10{sup {minus}15}. A difference by seven orders of magnitude between the two detection systems allows ICP-MS samples to be analyzed for a period of 15 s compared to 3,600 s by liquid scintillation counting with a lower LOD.

  6. Study on water-sediment interaction in samples from Rio das Velhas - Minas Gerais State - Brazil using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and argon plasma coupled mass spectroscopy; Estudo da interacao agua-sedimento em amostras do Rio das Velhas - MG utilizando os metodos: analise por ativacao neutronica instrumental (INAA) e espectrometria de massa acoplada a um plasma de argonio (ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veado, Maria Adelaide R.V.; Oliveira, Arno H. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Revel, G.; Pinte, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Lab. d`Analyse par Activation Pierre Sue; Toulhoat, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Unite Mixte de Recherche Analyse et Environnement

    1999-11-01

    Sorption of the metallic elements in aqueous solutions in surface of the hydroxides affects the transport of heavy elements in the freshwaters. Sorption and the chemistry of the hydroxides are important studies for knowledge in geology, waters and waste treatment, and environment studies. In the industrial mining region areas, the river surface waters are subject to modifications in its physical and chemistries properties: pH, DBO, conductivity and alkalinity. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), have ben used for the determination of toxic heavy metals and others pollutants in the Das Velhas river in State of Minas Gerais, in south-east Brazil. Water samples were collected with acidification on site, which provoked a change of its natural pH. Consequently, metallic elements associated to hydroxides and to particles in suspension were liberated. The objective of this paper is to show the different behavior of any elements, in water of Das Velhas river, with relation of its chemical forms (cations or anions), the solubility degree, the pH and the presence of rare earth elements. (author) 11 refs., 10 figs.; e-mail: adelaide at nuclear.ufmg.br; heeren at nuclear.ufmg.br; grevel at drecam.cea.fr; pierre.toulhoat at cea.fr

  7. Impact of plasma tube wall thickness on power coupling in ICP sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Herdrich, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The inductively heated plasma source at the Institute of Space Systems was investigated with respect to the wall thickness of the plasma tube using an air plasma. For this, the wall thickness of the quartz tube was reduced in steps from 2.5 to 1.25 mm. The significance of reducing the wall thickness was analyzed with respect to both the maximum allowable tube cooling power and the coupling efficiency. While the former results from thermal stresses in the tube's wall, the latter results from a minimization of magnetic field losses near the coil turns of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. Analysis of the thermal stress could be validated by experimental data, i.e. the measurement of the tube cooling power when the respective tube structure failed. The coupling efficiency could be assessed qualitatively by simplified models, and the experimental data recorded show that coupling was improved far more than predicted.

  8. Inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Part II: applications and fundamentals. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boumans, P.W.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second part of the two-volume treatise by this well-known and respected author. This volume reviews applications of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), summarizes fundamental studies, and compares ICP-AES methods with other methods of analysis. The first six chapters are devoted to specific fields of application, including the following: metals and other industrial materials, geology, the environment, agriculture and food, biology and clinical analysis, and organic materials. The chapter on the analysis of organic materials also covers the special instrumental considerations required when organic solvents are introduced into an inductively coupled plasma. A chapter on the direct analysis of solids completes the first part of this volume. Each of the applications chapters begins with a summary of the types of samples that are encountered in that field, and the kinds of problems that an elemental analysis can help to solve. This is followed by a tutorial approach covering applicability, advantages, and limitations of the methods. The coverage is thorough, including sample handling, storage, and preparation, acid, and fusion dissolution, avoiding contamination, methods of preconcentration, the types of interferences that can be expected and ways to reduce them, and the types of ICP plasmas that are used. The second half of the volume covers fundamental studies of ICP-AES: basic processes of aerosol generation, plasma modeling and computer simulation, spectroscopic diagnostics, excitation mechanisms, and discharge characteristics. This section introduces the experimental and modeling methods that have been used to obtain fundamental information about ICPs

  9. Kinetics and spectroscopy of low temperature plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Loureiro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive textbook designed for graduate and advanced undergraduate students. Both authors rely on more than 20 years of teaching experience in renowned Physics Engineering courses to write this book addressing the students’ needs. Kinetics and Spectroscopy of Low Temperature Plasmas derives in a full self-consistent way the electron kinetic theory used to describe low temperature plasmas created in the laboratory with an electrical discharge, and presents the main optical spectroscopic diagnostics used to characterize such plasmas. The chapters with the theoretical contents make use of a deductive approach in which the electron kinetic theory applied to plasmas with basis on the electron Boltzmann equation is derived from the basic concepts of Statistical and Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the main optical spectroscopy diagnostics used to characterize experimentally such plasmas are presented and justified from the point of view of the Atomic and Molecular Physics. Low temperature plasmas...

  10. Optoelectronic properties of Black-Silicon generated through inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processing for crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Jens, E-mail: J.Hirsch@emw.hs-anhalt.de [Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, Faculty EMW, Bernburger Str. 55, DE-06366 Köthen (Germany); Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Otto-Eißfeldt-Str. 12, DE-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Gaudig, Maria; Bernhard, Norbert [Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, Faculty EMW, Bernburger Str. 55, DE-06366 Köthen (Germany); Lausch, Dominik [Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Otto-Eißfeldt-Str. 12, DE-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Fabrication of black silicon through inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processing. • Suppressed formation a self-bias and therefore a reduced ion bombardment of the silicon sample. • Reduction of the average hemispherical reflection between 300 and 1120 nm up to 8% within 5 min ICP process time. • Reflection is almost independent of the angle of incidence up to 60°. • 2.5 ms effective lifetime at 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} MCD after ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface passivation. - Abstract: The optoelectronic properties of maskless inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated black silicon through SF{sub 6} and O{sub 2} are analyzed by using reflection measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quasi steady state photoconductivity (QSSPC). The results are discussed and compared to capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and industrial standard wet chemical textures. The ICP process forms parabolic like surface structures in a scale of 500 nm. This surface structure reduces the average hemispherical reflection between 300 and 1120 nm up to 8%. Additionally, the ICP texture shows a weak increase of the hemispherical reflection under tilted angles of incidence up to 60°. Furthermore, we report that the ICP process is independent of the crystal orientation and the surface roughness. This allows the texturing of monocrystalline, multicrystalline and kerf-less wafers using the same parameter set. The ICP generation of black silicon does not apply a self-bias on the silicon sample. Therefore, the silicon sample is exposed to a reduced ion bombardment, which reduces the plasma induced surface damage. This leads to an enhancement of the effective charge carrier lifetime up to 2.5 ms at 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} minority carrier density (MCD) after an atomic layer deposition (ALD) with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Since excellent etch results were obtained already after 4 min process time, we conclude that the ICP generation of black silicon is a promising technique

  11. A validated inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for the quantification of total platinum content in plasma, plasma ultrafiltrate, urine and peritoneal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Lieselotte; Thijssen, Elsy; Noben, Jean-Paul; Adriaensens, Peter; Carleer, Robert; Speeten, Kurt Van der

    2018-04-15

    Oxaliplatin is a platinum (Pt) 1 containing antineoplastic agent that is applied in current clinical practice for the treatment of colon and appendiceal neoplasms. A fully validated, highly sensitive, high throughput inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method is provided to quantify the total Pt content in plasma, plasma ultrafiltrate, urine and peritoneal fluid. In this ICP-MS approach, the only step of sample preparation is a 1000-fold dilution in 0.5% nitric acid, allowing the analysis of 17 samples per hour. Detection of Pt was achieved over a linear range of 0.01-100 ng/mL. The limit of quantification was 18.0 ng/mL Pt in plasma, 8.0 ng/mL in ultrafiltrate and 6.1 ng/mL in urine and peritoneal fluid. The ICP-MS method was further validated for inter-and intraday precision and accuracy (≤15%), recovery, robustness and stability. Short-term storage of the biofluids, for 14 days, can be performed at -4 °C, -24 °C and -80 °C. As to long-term stability, up to 5 months, storage at -80 °C is encouraged. Furthermore, a timeline assessing the total and unbound Pt fraction in plasma and ultrafiltrate over a period of 45 h is provided. Following an incubation period of 5 h at 37 °C, 19-21% of Pt was recovered in the ultrafiltrate, emphasizing the extensive and rapid binding of oxaliplatin-derived Pt to plasma proteins. The described method can easily be implemented in a routine setting for pharmacokinetic studies in patients treated with oxaliplatin-based hyperthermic intraperitoneal perioperative chemotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-elemental analysis of aqueous geochemical samples by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Adams, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Typically, quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to determine as many as 57 major, minor, and trace elements in aqueous geochemical samples, including natural surface water and groundwater, acid mine drainage water, and extracts or leachates from geological samples. The sample solution is aspirated into the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) which is an electrodeless discharge of ionized argon gas at a temperature of approximately 6,000 degrees Celsius. The elements in the sample solution are subsequently volatilized, atomized, and ionized by the ICP. The ions generated are then focused and introduced into a quadrupole mass filter which only allows one mass to reach the detector at a given moment in time. As the settings of the mass analyzer change, subsequent masses are allowed to impact the detector. Although the typical quadrupole ICP-MS system is a sequential scanning instrument (determining each mass separately), the scan speed of modern instruments is on the order of several thousand masses per second. Consequently, typical total sample analysis times of 2–3 minutes are readily achievable for up to 57 elements.

  13. Workshop on Models for Plasma Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    A meeting was held at St. Johns College, Oxford from Monday 27th to Thursday 30th of September 1993 to bring together a group of physicists working on computational modelling of plasma spectroscopy. The group came from the UK, France, Israel and the USA. The meeting was organized by myself, Dr. Steven Rose of RAL and Dr. R.W. Lee of LLNL. It was funded by the U.S. European Office of Aerospace Research and Development and by LLNL. The meeting grew out of a wish by a group of core participants to make available to practicing plasma physicists (particularly those engaged in the design and analysis of experiments) sophisticated numerical models of plasma physics. Additional plasma physicists attended the meeting in Oxford by invitation. These were experimentalists and users of plasma physics simulation codes whose input to the meeting was to advise the core group as to what was really needed.

  14. Plasma polarization spectroscopy. History and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    An intuitive account is given of the polarized emission line of atoms and ions, both classically and quantum mechanically. Polarization is a result of the population imbalance among the magnetic sublevels, or of the alignment, in the upper level. The history of Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy (PPS) is reviewed. Various polarization phenomena are divided into three classes. For each of the classes, typical experiments undertaken so far are reviewed. The advantages, limitations, and challenges regarding PPS are discussed. (author)

  15. Sensitivities of selenite, selenate, selenomethionine and trimethylselenonium ion in aqueous solution and in blood plasma - ETAAS compared with ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, B.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    1998-01-01

    coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Using ETAAS, the sensitivities for Se(IV), SeMet and TMSe in aqueous solution were similar, whereas the sensitivity of Se(VI) was 63% of that value. In blood plasma, the ETAAS sensitivities of Se(IV) and Se(VI) were equal, whereas the sensitivities of Se......Met and TMSe were 87 and 56%, respectively, of that value. In contrast, the ICP-MS sensitivities obtained for Se(VI), TMSe and SeMet were between 96 and 98% of that obtained for Se(IV) in aqueous solution and in blood plasma. It is concluded, that ICP-MS is superior to ETAAS as the problem of differences...... in sensitivity of the selenium species when using ETAAS are not prevalent when using the ICP-MS technique....

  16. Analysis of bauxite by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ramon M.; Mahanti, Himansu S.

    Methods are described for the analysis of bauxite by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy. Bauxite samples were dissolved either in HCl, HNO 3, and HF at 160°C in all-PTFE bomb or fused with NaOH. Spectral lines were selected after examination of experimental wavelength scans at each potential analyte wavelength. Limits of detection, background equivalent concentration, and analytical figures of merit were established. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by determining 17 elements in NBS-SRM bauxite samples. Silicon in HF solutions was analyzed using a modified ICP torch with a graphite injector tube, an inert nebulizer using PTFE capillary tubes, and a PTFE spray chamber.

  17. Mineral distribution in rice: Measurement by Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (MP-AES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Nerissa C.; Ramos, R.G.A.; Quirit, L.L.; Arcilla, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (MP-AES) is a new technology with comparable performance and sensitivity to Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Both instrument use plasma as the energy source that produces atomic and ionic emission lines. However, MP-AES uses nitrogen as the plasma gas instead of argon which is an additional expense for ICP-OES. Thus, MP-AES is more economical. This study quantified six essential minerals (Se, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn and K) in rice using MP-AES. Hot plate digestion was used for sample extraction and the detection limit for each instrument was compared with respect to the requirement for routine analysis in rice. Black, red and non-pigmented rice samples were polished in various intervals to determine the concentration loss of minerals. The polishing time corresponds to the structure of the rice grains such as outer bran layer (0 to 15), inner bran layer (15 to 30), outer endosperm layer (30 to 45), and middle endosperm layer (45 to 60). Results of MP-AES analysis showed that black rice had all essential materials (except K) in high concentration at the outer bran layer. The red and non-pigmented rice samples on the other hand, contained high levels of Se, Zn, Fe, and Mn in the whole bran portion. After 25 seconds, the mineral concentrations remained constant. The concentration of Cu however, gave consistent value in all polishing intervals, hence Cu might be located in the inner endosperm layer. Results also showed that K was uniformly distributed in all samples where 5% loss was consistently observed for every polishing interval. Therefore, the concentration of K was also affected by polishing time. Thus, the new MP-AES technology with comparable performance to ICP-OES is a promising tool for routine analysis in rice. (author)

  18. Environmental samples analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, I.V.; Iordan, M.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Busuioc, G.; Dima, G.; Ciupina, V.; Belc, M.; Vlaicu, Gh.; Marian, R.

    2002-01-01

    Biological samples are interesting from many aspects of environmental monitoring. By analyzing tree leaves conclusions can be drown regarding the metal loading in the growth medium. So that, starting from assumption that the pollution factors from environmental medium can modify the normal concentration of elements, we decided to control the presence of toxic elements and the deviation from normal state of elements in leaves of different trees from areas situated at different distances of pollution source. The aim of this work is to determine the elemental composition of tree leaves using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) method and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) method. Using AAS spectrophotometer SHIMADZU we identified and determined the concentration of: Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Fe, Se, Pb with an instrumental error less than 1% for most of the elements analyzed. The same samples were analyzed by ICP-OES spectrometer, BAIRD ICP2070-Sequential Plasma spectrometer. We identified and determined in leaves of different trees the concentration of Mg, Ca, and Sr with a precision less than 6%. (authors)

  19. Isotopic analysis of calcium in blood plasma and bone from mouse samples by multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Takafumi; Tanoshima, Mina; Suga, Akinobu; Tanaka, Yu-ki; Nagata, Yuichi; Shinohara, Atsuko; Chiba, Momoko

    2008-01-01

    The biological processing of Ca produces significant stable isotope fractionation. The level of isotopic fractionation can provide key information about the variation in dietary consumption or Ca metabolism. To investigate this, we measured the 43 Ca/ 42 Ca and 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios for bone and blood plasma samples collected from mice of various ages using multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratio in bones was significantly (0.44 - 0.84 per mille) lower than the corresponding ratios in the diet, suggesting that Ca was isotopically fractionated during Ca metabolism for bone formation. The resulting 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios for blood plasma showed almost identical, or slightly higher, values (0.03 - 0.2 per mille) than found in a corresponding diet. This indicates that a significant amount of Ca in the blood plasma was from dietary sources. Unlike that discovered for Fe, there were not significant differences in the measured 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios between female and male specimens (for either bone or blood plasma samples). Similarity, the 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios suggests that there were no significant differences in Ca dietary consumption or Ca metabolism between female and male specimens. In contrast, the 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios of blood plasma from mother mice during the lactation period were significantly higher than those for all other adult specimens. This suggests that Ca supplied to infants through lactation was isotopically lighter, and the preferential supply of isotropically lighter Ca resulted in isotopically heavier Ca in blood plasma of mother mice during the lactation period. The data obtained here clearly demonstrate that the Ca isotopic ratio has a potential to become a new tool for evaluating changes in dietary consumption, or Ca metabolism of animals. (author)

  20. Atomic processes relevant to polarization plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, T.; Koike, F.; Sakimoto, K.; Okasaka, R.; Kawasaki, K.; Takiyama, K.; Oda, T.; Kato, T.

    1992-04-01

    When atoms (ions) are excited anisotropically, polarized excited atoms are produced and the radiation emitted by these atoms is polarized. From the standpoint of plasma spectroscopy research, we review the existing data for various atomic processes that are related to the polarization phenomena. These processes are: electron impact excitation, excitation by atomic and ionic collisions, photoexcitation, radiative recombination and bremsstrahlung. Collisional and radiative relaxation processes of atomic polarization follow. Other topics included are: electric-field measurement, self alignment, Lyman doublet intensity ratio, and magnetic-field measurement of the solar prominence. (author)

  1. Multichannel euv spectroscopy of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.

    1983-11-01

    Spectroscopy of magnetically confined high temperature plasmas in the visible through x-ray spectral ranges deals primarily with the study of impurity line radiation or continuum radiation. Detailed knowledge of absolute intensities, temporal behavior, and spatial distributions of the emitted radiation is desired. As tokamak facilities become more complex, larger, and less accessible, there has been an increased emphasis on developing new instrumentation to provide such information in a minimum number of discharges. The availability of spatially-imaging detectors for use in the vacuum ultraviolet region (especially the intensified photodiode array) has generated the development of a variety of multichannel spectrometers for applications on tokamak facilities

  2. Quantification of low molecular weight selenium metabolites in human plasma after treatment with selenite in pharmacological doses by LC-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flouda, Konstantina; Dersch, Julie Maria; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical method for quantification of low molecular weight (LMW) selenium compounds in human plasma based on liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) and post column isotope dilution-based quantification. Prior to analysis, samples were...

  3. Plasma polarization spectroscopy. Time resolved spectroscopy in soft x-ray region on recombining plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Hasuo, Masahiro; Atake, Makoto; Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental study of polarization of emission radiations from recombining plasmas generated by the interaction of 60 fs ultra-short laser pulses with a gas jet. Time-resolved spectroscopy with a temporal resolution of 5 ps with repetitive accumulation is used to follow the recombination time histories. (author)

  4. Analytical applications of atomic spectroscopy, with particular reference to inductively coupled plasma emission analysis of coal and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pougnet, M.A.B.

    1983-08-01

    This thesis outlines the analytical applications of atomic emission and absorption spectroscopy to a variety of materials. Special attention was directed to the analysis of coal and coal ashes. A simple slurry sampling technique was developed and used to determine V, Ni, Co, Mo and Mn in the National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials (NBS-SRM) coals 1632a and 1635 by furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). Coal and fly ash were analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The determination of B, Be, Li, C, K and other trace elements by ICP-AES was investigated. Analytical methods were developed for the analysis of coal, fly ash and water samples. Fusion with sodium carbonate and a digestion bomb dissolution method were compared for the determination of boron in a South African boron-rich mineral (Kornerupine). Eight elements were determined in 10 industrial water samples from a power plant. Ca, Mg, Si and B were determined by ICP-AES and V, Ni, Co and Mo by FAAS. Various problems encountered during the course of the work and interferences in ICP-AES analysis are discussed. Some recommendations concerning method development and routine analysis by this technique are suggested

  5. Comparison of standard and reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the determination of chromium and selenium species by HPLC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednar, A.J.; Kirgan, R.A.; Jones, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental speciation is becoming a common analytical procedure for geochemical investigations. The various redox species of environmentally relevant metals can have vastly different biogeochemical properties, including sorption, solubility, bioavailability, and toxicity. The use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to elemental specific detectors, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), has become one of the most important speciation methods employed. This is due to the separation versatility of HPLC and the sensitive and selective detection capabilities of ICP-MS. The current study compares standard mode ICP-MS to recently developed reaction cell (RC) ICP-MS, which has the ability to remove or reduce many common polyatomic interferences that can limit the ability of ICP-MS to quantitate certain analytes in complex matrices. Determination of chromium and selenium redox species is achieved using ion-exchange chromatography with elemental detection by standard and RC-ICP-MS, using various chromium and selenium isotopes. In this study, method performance and detection limits for the various permutations of the method (isotope monitored or ICP-MS detection mode) were found to be comparable and generally less than 1 μg L -1 . The method was tested on synthetic laboratory samples, surface water, groundwater, and municipal tap water matrices

  6. Inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy: an evaluation of the use of nitrogen--argon admixtures as plasma discharge atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalewski, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the use of nitrogen in either the plasma coolant or aerosol carrier gas flows on the physical and spectrochemical properties of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) were examined. While the plasma operated with nitrogen in the coolant flow exhibited a stability comparable to that of the argon plasma, the use of nitrogen in the aerosol carrier gas flow resulted in a plasma that was less stable. The detection limits obtained for the three plasmas exhibited a similar trend. In addition, the use of nitrogen--argon admixtures in the plasma coolant gas flow yielded an increase in both the net analyte and the background emission intensities when the corresponding argon and nitrogen--argon plasmas were operated under various conditions. Furthermore, the effect of aluminum on the Ca II (393.4 nm) spectral line was reported for the 1000/1 Al/Ca molar ratio. At an observation height of 15 mm, the signal depressions were 4 and 14% for the nitrogen--argon and the argon plasmas, respectively. The above experimental evidence suggested that the operation of the ICP with an Ar--N 2 coolant gas might be hotter than the argon plasma currently in use in this laboratory. The demountable plasma torch designed in collaboration with K. Olson yielded detection limits for 15 elements and 19 spectral lines that were approximately within a factor of two of those obtained with the torch of fused quartz design. The design also appeared to offer a more readily initiated plasma discharge. The experimental evidence presented supports the utilization of nitrogen--argon admixtures in the plasma coolant gas flow as alternate discharge atmospheres for inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy. In contrast, the experimental evidence shows that there is a deterioration in both physical and spectrochemical properties of plasmas operated with a nitrogen aerosol carrier gas

  7. Uranium spectra in the ICP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, A.A.; Qamar, S.; Atta, M.A. (Khan (A.Q.) Research Labs., Rawalpindi (Pakistan))

    1994-05-01

    Uranium spectra have been studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In total, 8361 uranium lines were observed in the wavelength range of 235-500 nm. This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hard copy text is accompanied by a disk with data files and test files for an IBM-compatible computer. The main article discusses the scientific aspects of the subject and explains the purpose of the data files. (Author).

  8. Uranium spectra in the ICP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, A.A.; Qamar, S.; Atta, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium spectra have been studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In total, 8361 uranium lines were observed in the wavelength range of 235-500 nm. This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hard copy text is accompanied by a disk with data files and test files for an IBM-compatible computer. The main article discusses the scientific aspects of the subject and explains the purpose of the data files. (Author)

  9. X-ray spectroscopy from fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenzer, S H.

    1998-01-01

    Our understanding of laser energy coupling into laser-driven inertial confinement fusion targets largely depends on our ability to accurately measure and simulate the plasma conditions in the underdense corona and in high density capsule implosions. X-ray spectroscopy is an important technique which has been applied to measure the total absorption of laser energy into the fusion target, the fraction of laser energy absorbed by hot electrons, and the conditions in the fusion capsule in terms of density and temperature. These parameters provide critical benchmarking data for performance studies of the fusion target and for radiation-hydrodynamic and laser-plasma interaction simulations. Using x-ray spectroscopic techniques for these tasks has required its application to non-standard conditions where kinetics models have not been extensively tested. In particular, for the conditions in high density implosions, where electron temperatures achieve 1 - 2 keV and electron densities reach 10 24 cm -3 evolving on time scales of 21 cm -3 and which am independently diagnosed with Thomson scattering and stimulated Raman scattering. We find that kinetics modeling is in good agreement with measured intensities of the dielectronic satellites of the He-β line (n= l-3) of Ar XVII. Applying these findings to the experimental results of capsule implosions provides additional evidence of temperature gradients at peak compression

  10. Construcción y caracterización de un nuevo nebulizador múltiple para técnicas analíticas basadas en plasma (ICP-OES, ICP-MS y MP-AES).

    OpenAIRE

    Lúñez Fernández, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    En la siguiente memoria, se presenta la metodología para la construcción de un nuevo nebulizador múltiple, resultado de una serie de nebulizadores anteriores, los cuales se han ido mejorando para optimizar las características del aerosol generado y con ello los parámetros analíticos de calidad en la espectrometría de emisión atómica con plasma de microondas (MP-AES) y espectrometría de emisión óptica con plasma de acoplamiento inductivo (ICP-OES). Este nuevo nebulizador multiconducto presenta...

  11. Spectrochemical pure cerium dioxide preparation and its quality control by inductively coupled plasma and mass spectrometry (ICP/MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva Queiroz, C.A.; De Souza, J.E.; Abrao, A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A simple and economic procedure for the purification until 500 g CeO 2 batch is presented. The purified material will be used as spectrochemical standard. It is obtained by association of the fractional precipitation technique in the system REC 3 /H 2 O 2 /NH 4 OH to enrich the cerium up to 90% and then refined by ion exchange up to 99.9% CeO2. The 99,9% CeO 2 warranty control of purity was accomplished by inductively coupled plasma and mass spectrometry (ICP/ MS) and compared with activation analysis data, exhibiting impurities traces of same values of the international spec pure standard. The following results (average values) for the contaminant rare earths are (ppm):La(36), Pr(19), Nd(161), Sm(11), Eu(5,3),Gd(113),Tb(89),Dy(2),Ho(0.05),Er(1), Tm(0), Yb(11), Lu (19) and Y(2.1), respectively

  12. Development of new applications of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) hyphenated with different sample introduction systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarte Baztán, Ana

    2014-01-01

    225 p. : il. Texto en español con conclusiones en inglés Hoy en día, la espectrometría de masas con plasma de acoplamiento inductivo (ICP-MS) es una de las técnicas más potentes y versátiles para el análisis de elementos traza dada su robustez y bajos límites de detección. En el presente trabajo se pretende ampliar el abanico de aplicaciones de esta técnica desarrollando nuevas combinaciones de la misma a distintos sistemas de introducción de muestra. En primera lugar, se presenta el a...

  13. High-resolution line-scan analysis of resin-embedded sediments using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, Rick; Jilbert, Tom; Mason, Paul R D; de Lange, Gert J.; Reichart, Gert Jan

    2015-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) line-scanning is a promising technique for producing high-resolution (μm-scale) geochemical records on resin-embedded sediments. However, this approach has not yet been thoroughly tested on sediment samples of known elemental

  14. High-resolution line-scan analysis of resin-embedded sediments using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R.; Jilbert, T.; de Lange, G.J.; Reichart, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) line-scanning is a promising technique for producing high-resolution (µm-scale) geochemical records on resin-embedded sediments. However, this approach has not yet been thoroughly tested on sediment samples of known elemental

  15. Leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.; Islam, M.

    2010-01-01

    The clean-up of soils contaminated with heavy metals is one of the most difficult tasks for environmental engineering. Heavy metals are highly persistent in soil and a number of techniques have been developed that aim to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil. A method has been adopted to evaluate dynamic leaching of metal contaminants from industrial soil samples obtained from textile industrial sites in Lahore, Pakistan. In the extraction procedures employed five different leaching liquors were used: 0.01 M CaCl/sub 2/, 1 M HNO/sub 3/, a 1:1 mixture of 0.1M HCl and 0.1M NaCl, 0.01 M EDTA and pH controlled 0.5 M acetic acid. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results indicate that Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe and As were extracted in the soil samples in varying concentration when using the different leach liquors. The predominant metals which were leached were As 78.7 ng/ml in 0.01 M EDTA; Zn 1.81 mu g/ml and Fe 898.96 macro g/ml in HNO/sub 3/. (author)

  16. Assessment of high precision, high accuracy Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy to obtain concentration uncertainties less than 0.2% with variable matrix concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabb, Savelas A.; Olesik, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to obtain high precision, high accuracy measurements in samples with complex matrices using High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (HP-ICP-OES) was investigated. The Common Analyte Internal Standard (CAIS) procedure was incorporated into the High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy method to correct for matrix-induced changes in emission intensity ratios. Matrix matching and standard addition approaches to minimize matrix-induced errors when using High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy were also assessed. The High Performance Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy method was tested with synthetic solutions in a variety of matrices, alloy standard reference materials and geological reference materials

  17. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.; Owens, J.W.; Seidel, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the installation, testing and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste samples in a hot cell environment. The 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method

  18. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.M.; Jain, J.; Owens, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method

  19. Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J. [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: kaiser@fme.vutbr.cz; Galiova, M.; Novotny, K.; Cervenka, R. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Reale, L. [Faculty of Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio (Coppito 1), 67010 L' Aquila (Italy); Novotny, J.; Liska, M.; Samek, O. [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, V.; Hrdlicka, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Stejskal, K.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2009-01-15

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized for mapping the accumulation of Pb, Mg and Cu with a resolution up to 200 {mu}m in a up to cm x cm area of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. The results obtained by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS are compared with the outcomes from Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC). It is shown that laser-ablation based analytical methods can substitute or supplement these techniques mainly in the cases when a fast multi-elemental mapping of a large sample area is needed.

  20. Determination of 241Am in sediments by isotope dilution high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID HR ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarande, M; Benzoubir, S; Bouisset, P; Calmet, D

    2001-08-01

    Trace levels (pg kg(-1)) of 241Am in sediments were determined by isotope dilution high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID HR ICP-MS) using a microconcentric nebulizer. 241Am was isolated from major elements like Ca and Fe by different selective precipitations. In further steps. Am was first separated from other transuranic elements and purified by anion exchange and extraction chromatography prior to the mass spectrometric measurements. The ID HR ICP-MS results are compared with isotope dilution alpha spectrometry.

  1. Imaging of Selenium by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in 2-D Electrophoresis Gels and Biological Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Elisa Castañeda Santa; Susanne Becker, J; Sabine Becker, J; Sussulini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Selenium and selenoproteins are important components of living organisms that play a role in different biological processes. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that has been employed to obtain distribution maps of selenium in biological tissues in a direct manner, as well as in selenoproteins, previously separated by their molecular masses and isoelectric points using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). In this chapter, we present the protocols to perform LA-ICP-MS imaging experiments, allowing the distribution visualization and determination of selenium and/or selenoproteins in biological systems.

  2. Determination of platinum drug release and liposome stability in human plasma by CE-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi Nhu Tam; Ostergaard, Jesper; Stürup, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro method for simultaneous assessment of platinum release and liposome stability of liposomal formulations in human plasma is demonstrated. The development and assessment of the method was performed on a PEGylated liposomal formulation containing cisplatin. Complete separation of free ci...

  3. Emission spectroscopy on a supersonically expanding argon/silane plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeusen, G.J.; Ershov-Pavlov, E.A.; Meulenbroeks, R.F.G.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Schram, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Results from emission spectroscopy measurements on an Ar/SiH/sub 4/ plasma jet which is used for fast deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon are presented. The jet is produced by allowing a thermal cascaded arc plasma in argon (I=60 A, V=80 V, Ar flow=60 scc/s and pressure 4*10/sup 4/ Pa) to

  4. A separation method to overcome the interference of aluminium on zinc determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, Djane S. de; Korn, Maria das Graças Andrade; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa; Carvalho, Marcelo Souza de

    2000-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p.389–394 The use of polyurethane foam (PUF) to separate zinc from large amounts of aluminium and its determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique (ICP-AES) in aluminium matrices is described. The proposed method is based on the solid-phase extraction of the zinc(II) cation as a thiocyanate complex. Parameters such as effect of pH on zinc sorption, zinc desorption from the foam and analytical features of the procedure w...

  5. Development of Exact Matrix-Matching Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy for the Analysis of Cu and K in Infant Formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Yim, Yong-Hyeon [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Sung Woo; Han, Myung-Sub; Lim, Youngran [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In the present study, we have developed an exact matrix-matching inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) as a low-cost alternative to the isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for accurate and precise measurements of nutrient elements K and Cu in infant formula. In spite of its high precision and accuracy, ICP-OES analysis of complex samples was not reliable due to biases originating from various matrix effects. The elaborated exact matrix-matching approach tested here demonstrated its potential to minimize biases due to matrix mismatch. The exact matrix-matching ICP-OES method was successfully validated by comparing the results with those from an isotope dilution ICP-M S method. Because the model provides reliable results without significant loss of precision, it will be an excellent choice for major element analysis in a complex sample, especially when isotope dilution is not applicable due to the l ck of alternative isotopes or the high cost of enriched isotopes.

  6. Proceedings of the Japan-US workshop on plasma polarization spectroscopy and the international seminar on plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takashi; Beiersdorfer, Peter [eds.

    1998-06-01

    The international meeting on Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy (PPS) was held in Kyoto during January 26-28, 1998. This Proceedings book includes the papers of the talks given at the meeting. These include: overviews of PPS from the aspects of atomic physics, and of plasma physics; several PPS and MSE (motional Stark effect) experiments on magnetically confined plasmas and a laser-produced plasma; polarized laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, several experiments on EBITs (electron beam ion trap) and their theoretical interpretations; polarized profiles of spectral lines, basic formulation of PPS; inelastic and elastic electron collisions leading to polarized atomic states; polarization in recombining plasma; relationship between the collisional polarization relaxation and the line broadening; and characteristics of the plasma produced by very short pulse and high power laser irradiation. The 19 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. PIXE analysis of human stones: comparison with data from ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pougnet, M.A.B.; Peisach, M.; Pineda, C.A.; Rodgers, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    25 human stone samples previously analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and the IAEA Animal Bone Standard Reference Material were used to evaluate trace element analysis by PIXE. Bombardment with 4 MeV protons was used for the determination of Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Br, Rb, Sr and Ca. PIXE and ICP-AES data gave correlation factors better than 0.97 for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn, Sr and Pb. (author) 9 refs.; 5 figs

  8. Comparative measurements of mineral elements in milk powders with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, W Q; El Haddad, J; Motto-Ros, V; Gilon-Delepine, N; Stankova, A; Ma, Q L; Bai, X S; Zheng, L J; Zeng, H P; Yu, J

    2011-07-01

    Mineral elements contained in commercially available milk powders, including seven infant formulae and one adult milk, were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The purpose of this work was, through a direct comparison of the analytical results, to provide an assessment of the performance of LIBS, and especially of the procedure of calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS), to deal with organic compounds such as milk powders. In our experiments, the matrix effect was clearly observed affecting the analytical results each time laser ablation was employed for sampling. Such effect was in addition directly observed by determining the physical parameters of the plasmas induced on the different samples. The CF-LIBS procedure was implemented to deduce the concentrations of Mg and K with Ca as the internal reference element. Quantitative analytical results with CF-LIBS were validated with ICP-AES measurements and nominal concentrations specified for commercial milks. The obtained good results with the CF-LIBS procedure demonstrate its capacity to take into account the difference in physical parameters of the plasma in the calculation of the concentrations of mineral elements, which allows a significant reduction of the matrix effect related to laser ablation. We finally discuss the way to optimize the implementation of the CF-LIBS procedure for the analysis of mineral elements in organic materials.

  9. Copper Determination in Gunshot Residue by Cyclic Voltammetric and Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hashim Nurul’Afiqah Hashimah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gunshot residue (GSR is a crucial evidences for a forensic analyst in the fastest way. GSR analysis insists a suitable method provides a relatively simple, rapid and precise information on the spot at the crime scene. Therefore, the analysis of Cu(II in GSR using cyclic voltammetry (CV on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE is a better choice compared to previous alternative methods such as Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES those required a long time for analysis. SPCE is specially designed to handle with microvolumes of sample such as GSR sample. It gives advantages for identification of copper in GSR on-site preliminary test to prevent the sample loss on the process to be analyzed in the laboratory. SPCE was swabbed directly on the shooter’s arm immediately after firing and acetate buffer was dropped on SPCE before CV analysis. For ICP-OES analysis, cotton that had been soaked in 0.5 M nitric acid was swabbed on the shooter’s arm immediately after firing and kept in a tightly closed sampling tube. Gold coated SPCE that had been through nanoparticles modification exhibits excellent performance on voltammograms. The calibration was linear from 1 to 50 ppm of copper, the limit of detection for copper was 0.3 ppm and a relative standard deviation was 6.1 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of copper in GSR. The Cu determination on SPCE was compared and validated by ICP-OES method with 94 % accuracy.

  10. Determination of the total drug-related chlorine and bromine contents in human blood plasma using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem ICP-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klencsár, Balázs; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Flórez, María R; Balcaen, Lieve; Cuyckens, Filip; Lynen, Frederic; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-05-30

    A fast, accurate and precise method for the separation and determination of the total contents of drug-related Cl and Br in human blood plasma, based on high performance liquid chromatography - inductively coupled plasma - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS/MS), has been developed. The novel approach was proved to be a suitable alternative to the presently used standard methodology (i.e. based on a radiolabelled version of the drug molecule and radiodetection), while eliminating the disadvantages of the latter. Interference-free determination of (35)Cl has been accomplished via ICP-MS/MS using H2 as reaction gas and monitoring the (35)ClH2(+) reaction product at mass-to-charge ratio of 37. Br could be measured "on mass" at a mass-to-charge of 79. HPLC was relied on for the separation of the drug-related entities from the substantial amount of inorganic Cl. The method developed was found to be sufficiently precise (repeatability 0.990) from the limit of quantification (0.05 and 0.01 mg/L for Cl and Br in blood plasma, respectively) to at least 5 and 1mg/L for Cl and Br, respectively. Quantification via either external or internal standard calibration provides reliable results for both elements. As a proof-of-concept, human blood plasma samples from a clinical study involving a newly developed Cl- and Br-containing active pharmaceutical ingredient were analysed and the total drug exposure was successfully described. Cross-validation was achieved by comparing the results obtained on Cl- and on Br-basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of the M3/M4 metastable defect detected in hydrogen and ICP Ar plasma treated n-GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamhere, C.; Venter, A.

    2012-01-01

    Defects created by a dc hydrogen plasma have been compared to those observed in n-GaAs exposed to an inductively coupled (ICP) Ar plasma. The reference sample (in the case of H-plasma treated material) contained two prominent native deep level electron traps, possibly M4 and E C −0.56 eV, which were both passivated by hydrogen. Plasma treatment also resulted in the formation of a defect observed at 0.58 eV (M3) below the conduction band. This defect transforms back into what is believed to be M4 when annealed at 350 K for 3 h under reverse bias. These two defects compare well with two similar defects observed in the Ar ICP treated samples also showing metastable behavior. Additionally, the electrical characterization of Schottky barrier diodes on n-GaAs, prior to and after hydrogen passivation shows that, depending on the plasma conditions, the plasma ions significantly damage the surface resulting in poor rectifying contacts. The damage is considerably reversed/repaired upon annealing between the room temperature and 573 K (300 °C).

  12. A comparison of the M3/M4 metastable defect detected in hydrogen and ICP Ar plasma treated n-GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamhere, C., E-mail: cloud.nyamhere@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Venter, A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Defects created by a dc hydrogen plasma have been compared to those observed in n-GaAs exposed to an inductively coupled (ICP) Ar plasma. The reference sample (in the case of H-plasma treated material) contained two prominent native deep level electron traps, possibly M4 and E{sub C}-0.56 eV, which were both passivated by hydrogen. Plasma treatment also resulted in the formation of a defect observed at 0.58 eV (M3) below the conduction band. This defect transforms back into what is believed to be M4 when annealed at 350 K for 3 h under reverse bias. These two defects compare well with two similar defects observed in the Ar ICP treated samples also showing metastable behavior. Additionally, the electrical characterization of Schottky barrier diodes on n-GaAs, prior to and after hydrogen passivation shows that, depending on the plasma conditions, the plasma ions significantly damage the surface resulting in poor rectifying contacts. The damage is considerably reversed/repaired upon annealing between the room temperature and 573 K (300 Degree-Sign C).

  13. Determination of total strontium in uruguayan rice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Rivero Huguet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Strontium (Sr is found naturally as a non-radioactive element and has 16 known isotopes. Naturally occurring Sr is found as four stable isotopes: Sr-84, -86, -87, and -88. Twelve other isotopes are radioactive. Sr-90 is the most important radioactive isotope in the environment, discovered mostly after the nuclear experiments conducted in the 1950s and 1960s. In the present work, 86 rice samples (Oryza saliva L. and 7 rice husk samples were digested by dry ashing for the purpose of determining the total Sr levels by ICP-OES. The mean concentrations found were: 0.281 µg g-1 for milled, 0.287 µg g-1 for parboiled milled, 0.564 µg g-1 for brown, 0.73 µg g-1 for parboiled brown, and 1.16 µg g-1 for paddy rice, and 3.44 µg g-1 for the rice husks. Validation of the method was conducted with a certified reference material, NIST CAM 8418 Wheat Gluten, and the recovery obtained ranged from 89-98%. As the outer layers (aleurone, pericarp of the grain are removed, the Sr concentration decreases. It can then be assumed that most of the Sr is stored in these layers. Although no extensive data exist for Sr levels in rice, the values obtained are in good agreement with the results reported for Sr in brown rice from Japan (0.25-0.72 µg g-1 and with non-contaminated foodstuffs from other parts of the world. Thus, the Uruguayan rice has Sr levels that match non-contaminated samples and its consumption presents no health threat.Publicado en: Atomic Spectroscopy.-- 2006, 27(3:80-85

  14. Spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is a well-known fact that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has emerged as one of the best analytical techniques for multi-elemental compositional analysis of samples. We report assembling and optimization of LIBS set up using high resolution and broad-range echelle spectrograph coupled to an intensified ...

  15. The influence of laser-particle interaction in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Helmut; Loper, Kristofer H.; Hahn, David W.; Niemax, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Particles produced by previous laser shots may have significant influence on the analytical signal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma (LA-ICP) spectrometry if they remain close to the position of laser sampling. The effects of these particles on the laser-induced breakdown event are demonstrated in several ways. LIBS-experiments were conducted in an ablation cell at atmospheric conditions in argon or air applying a dual-pulse arrangement with orthogonal pre-pulse, i.e., plasma breakdown in a gas generated by a focussed laser beam parallel and close to the sample surface followed by a delayed crossing laser pulse in orthogonal direction which actually ablates material from the sample and produces the LIBS plasma. The optical emission of the LIBS plasma as well as the absorption of the pre-pulse laser was measured. In the presence of particles in the focus of the pre-pulse laser, the plasma breakdown is affected and more energy of the pre-pulse laser is absorbed than without particles. As a result, the analyte line emission from the LIBS plasma of the second laser is enhanced. It is assumed that the enhancement is not only due to an increase of mass ablated by the second laser but also to better atomization and excitation conditions favored by a reduced gas density in the pre-pulse plasma. Higher laser pulse frequencies increase the probability of particle-laser interaction and, therefore, reduce the shot-to-shot line intensity variation as compared to lower particle loadings in the cell. Additional experiments using an aerosol chamber were performed to further quantify the laser absorption by the plasma in dependence on time both with and without the presence of particles. The overall implication of laser-particle interactions for LIBS and LA-ICP-MS/OES are discussed.

  16. The influence of laser-particle interaction in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Helmut; Loper, Kristofer H.; Hahn, David W.; Niemax, Kay

    2011-02-01

    Particles produced by previous laser shots may have significant influence on the analytical signal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma (LA-ICP) spectrometry if they remain close to the position of laser sampling. The effects of these particles on the laser-induced breakdown event are demonstrated in several ways. LIBS-experiments were conducted in an ablation cell at atmospheric conditions in argon or air applying a dual-pulse arrangement with orthogonal pre-pulse, i.e., plasma breakdown in a gas generated by a focussed laser beam parallel and close to the sample surface followed by a delayed crossing laser pulse in orthogonal direction which actually ablates material from the sample and produces the LIBS plasma. The optical emission of the LIBS plasma as well as the absorption of the pre-pulse laser was measured. In the presence of particles in the focus of the pre-pulse laser, the plasma breakdown is affected and more energy of the pre-pulse laser is absorbed than without particles. As a result, the analyte line emission from the LIBS plasma of the second laser is enhanced. It is assumed that the enhancement is not only due to an increase of mass ablated by the second laser but also to better atomization and excitation conditions favored by a reduced gas density in the pre-pulse plasma. Higher laser pulse frequencies increase the probability of particle-laser interaction and, therefore, reduce the shot-to-shot line intensity variation as compared to lower particle loadings in the cell. Additional experiments using an aerosol chamber were performed to further quantify the laser absorption by the plasma in dependence on time both with and without the presence of particles. The overall implication of laser-particle interactions for LIBS and LA-ICP-MS/OES are discussed.

  17. Artificial neural networks for plasma spectroscopy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.L.; Larsen, J.T.; Goldstein, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been applied to a variety of signal processing and image recognition problems. Of the several common neural models the feed-forward, back-propagation network is well suited for the analysis of scientific laboratory data, which can be viewed as a pattern recognition problem. The authors present a discussion of the basic neural network concepts and illustrate its potential for analysis of experiments by applying it to the spectra of laser produced plasmas in order to obtain estimates of electron temperatures and densities. Although these are high temperature and density plasmas, the neural network technique may be of interest in the analysis of the low temperature and density plasmas characteristic of experiments and devices in gaseous electronics

  18. Investigation of metal ions in fusion plasmas using emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tale, I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Latvian and Portugal Associations are performing development of advanced plasma - facing system using the liquid metal limiter. The objectives of this project require study of the influence of the liquid metal limiter on the main plasma parameters, including concentration of evaporated metal atoms in plasma. The fusion plasmas are related to the dense hot plasmas. The required average ion temperature according to the ITER project (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is 8,0 keV (9,3 x 10 7 0 K), the average electron temperature - 8,9 keV (1,04 x 10 8 0 K). Plasma temperature operated in the research tokamak ISSTOK, involved in testing of liquid metal limiter concept is considerably less, being of order of 10 50 K. The ionization degree of metal atoms considerably depends on the plasma ion temperature. Density of metal vapours in plasma can be estimated using the following two spectroscopic methods: The fluorescence of the multiple ionised metal ions in steady state concentration; The charge exchange emission during ionisation of evaporated metal ions. In the first step of development of testing system of metal vapours the equipment and instrumentation for charge exchange spectroscopy of Ga and In has been elaborated taking into account the following features of plasma emission. The Ga emission lines occur on the background high temperature plasma black body emission and stray light. Radial distribution of Ga in plasma in the facing plane of Ga flux is desirable

  19. Analysis of twenty five impurities in uranium matrix by ICP-MS with iron measurement optimized by using reaction collision cell, cold plasma or medium resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quemet, Alexandre; Brennetot, Rene; Chevalier, Emilie; Prian, Edwina; Laridon, Anne-Laure; Fichet, Pascal; Goutelard, Florence; Mariet, Clarisse; Laszak, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    An analytical procedure was developed to determine the concentration of 25 impurities (Li, Be, Ti, V. Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, W, Pb, Bi and Th) in a uranium matrix using the quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS). The dissolution of U 3 O 8 powder was made with a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. Then, a selective separation of uranium using the UTEVA column was used before measurement by Q-ICP-MS. The procedure developed was verified using the Certified Reference Material 'Morille'. The analytical results agree well except for 5 elements where values are underestimated (Li, Be, In, Pb and Bi). Among the list of impurities, iron was particularly investigated because it is well known that this element possesses a polyatomic interference that increases the detection limit. A comparison between iron detection limits obtained with different methods was performed. Iron polyatomic interference was at least reduced, or at best entirely resolved in some cases, by using the cold plasma or the collision/reaction cell with several gases (He, NH 3 and CH 4 ). High-resolution ICP-MS was used to compare the results obtained. A detection limit as low as 8 ng L -1 was achieved. (authors)

  20. Analysis of twenty five impurities in uranium matrix by ICP-MS with iron measurement optimized by using reaction collision cell, cold plasma or medium resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quemet, Alexandre; Brennetot, Rene; Chevalier, Emilie; Prian, Edwina; Laridon, Anne-Laure; Mariet, Clarisse; Fichet, Pascal; Laszak, Ivan; Goutelard, Florence

    2012-09-15

    An analytical procedure was developed to determine the concentration of 25 impurities (Li, Be, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, W, Pb, Bi and Th) in a uranium matrix using the quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS). The dissolution of U(3)O(8) powder was made with a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. Then, a selective separation of uranium using the UTEVA column was used before measurement by Q-ICP-MS. The procedure developed was verified using the Certified Reference Material "Morille". The analytical results agree well except for 5 elements where values are underestimated (Li, Be, In, Pb and Bi). Among the list of impurities, iron was particularly investigated because it is well known that this element possesses a polyatomic interference that increases the detection limit. A comparison between iron detection limits obtained with different methods was performed. Iron polyatomic interference was at least reduced, or at best entirely resolved in some cases, by using the cold plasma or the collision/reaction cell with several gases (He, NH(3) and CH(4)). High-resolution ICP-MS was used to compare the results obtained. A detection limit as low as 8 ng L(-1) was achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantification of trace amounts of rare earth elements in high purity gadolinium oxide by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedreira, W.R.; Silva Queiroz, C.A. da; Abrao, A.; Pimentel, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, rare earth elements (REEs) have received much attention in the fields of geochemistry and industry. Gadolinium oxide is used for many different high technology applications such as infrared absorbing automotive glass, petroleum cracking catalyst, gadolinium-yttrium garnets, microwave applications, and color TV tube phosphors. It can also be used in optical glass manufacturing and in the electronic industry. Rapid and accurate determinations of the rare earth elements are increasingly required as industrial demands expand. In general, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) presents some advantages for trace element analysis, due to high sensitivity and resolution, when compared with other analytical techniques. In this work, sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used. Sixteen elements (Sc, Y, and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the ICP-MS system using a concentration gradient method. The detection limits with the ICP-MS system were about 0.2-8 pg ml -1 . The recovery percentage ranged from 95 to 100% for different rare earth elements. The %R.S.D. of the methods varying between 1.5 and 2.5% for a set of five (n=5) replicates was found for the IPEN's material and for the certificate reference sample. Determination of trace REEs in two high pure gadolinium oxides samples (IPEN and JMC) was performed. IPEN's material is highly pure (>99.99%) and was successfully analyzed without spectral interference

  2. Combination of the ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios from two test elements for the diagnostic of plasma temperature and electron number density in Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognoni, E. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: tognoni@ipcf.cnr.it; Hidalgo, M.; Canals, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Salvetti, A.; Palleschi, V. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    In Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) spectrochemical analysis, the MgII(280.270 nm)/MgI(285.213 nm) ionic to atomic line intensity ratio is commonly used as a monitor of the robustness of operating conditions. This approach is based on the univocal relationship existing between intensity ratio and plasma temperature, for a pure argon atmospheric ICP in thermodynamic equilibrium. In a multi-elemental plasma in the lower temperature range, the measurement of the intensity ratio may not be sufficient to characterize temperature and electron density. In such a range, the correct relationship between intensity ratio and plasma temperature can be calculated only when the complete plasma composition is known. We propose the combination of the line intensity ratios of two test elements (double ratio) as an effective diagnostic tool for a multi-elemental low temperature LTE plasma of unknown composition. In particular, the variation of the double ratio allows us discriminating changes in the plasma temperature from changes in the electron density. Thus, the effects on plasma excitation and ionization possibly caused by introduction of different samples and matrices in non-robust conditions can be more accurately interpreted. The method is illustrated by the measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in a specific analytic case.

  3. Whispering Gallery Mode Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic for Dusty Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, G.; Basner, R.; Ehlbeck, J.; Roepcke, J.; Maurer, H.; Kersten, H.; Davies, P. B.

    2008-01-01

    Whispering-gallery-mode spectroscopy is being assessed as a diagnostic method for the characterisation of size and chemical composition of spherical particles levitated in a plasma. With a pulsed laser whispering gallery modes (cavity resonances) are excited in individual microspheres leading to enhanced Raman scattering or fluorescence at characteristic wavelengths. This method can be used to gain specific information from the particle surface and is thus of great interest for the characterisation of layers deposited on microparticles, e.g. in molecular plasmas. We present investigations of different microparticles in air and results from fluorescent particles levitated in an Argon rf plasma.

  4. Polarization plasma spectroscopy (PPS) viewed from plasma physics and fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    Recently the measurements of poloidal magnetic field become important in plasma physics and nuclear fusion research, since an improved confinement mode associating with a negative magnetic shear has been found. The polarization plasma spectroscopy is recognized to be a useful tool to measure poloidal magnetic field and pitch angle of magnetic field. (author)

  5. Plasma polarization spectroscopy: past, present, and future - a subjective view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csanak, G.

    2004-01-01

    I describe how I got into the field of plasma polarization spectroscopy (PPS), how the PPS Workshops started, and how the whole field got consolidated and strengthened. Subsequently I describe what kind of present theoretical and experimental activities I am aware of. Finally I explain why I think that the future of PPS is bright. (author)

  6. Electron cyclotron emission spectroscopy on thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubbing, B.J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) enables one to infer the radial profile of the electron temperature in tokamaks. The Dutch FOM institute for plasma physics has designed, built, installed and operated a grating polychromator for ECE measurements at JET. This thesis deals with a few instrumental aspects of this project and with applications of ECE measurements in tokamak physics studies. Ch. 3 and 4 deal with the wave transport in ECE systems. In Ch. 3 a method is developed to infer the mode conversion, which is a source for transmission losses, in a waveguide component from the antenna pattern of its exit aperture. In Ch. 4 the design and manufacture of the waveguide transition system to the grating polychromator are described. In Ch. 5 a method is reported for calibration of the spectrometers, based on the use of a microwave source which simulates a large area blackbody of very high temperature. The feasibility of the method is tested by applying it to two different ECE systems. In Ch. 6 a study of heat pulse propagation in tokamak plasma's, based on measurement of the electron temperature with the grating polychromator, is presented. 105 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  7. Proceedings of the Japan-US workshop on plasma polarization spectroscopy and the fourth international symposium on plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takashi; Beiersdorfer, Peter [eds.

    2004-07-01

    The international meeting on Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy (PPS) was held at Kyoto University during February 4-6, 2004. This Proceedings book includes the summaries of the talks given in that meeting. Starting with the Overview talk by Csanak, the subjects cover: x-ray polarization experiments on z-pinches (plasma foci), and an x-pinch, a laser-produced plasma in a gas atmosphere, an interpretation of the polarized 1<- 0 x-ray laser line, polarization observation from various laser-produced plasmas including a recombining phase plasma, a report on the on-going project of a laser facility, several polarization observations on magnetically confined plasmas including the Large Helical Device and an ECR plasma, a new laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic method. On atomic physics side given are: various polarization measurements on EBIT, precision spectroscopy on the TEXTOR, user-friendly atomic codes. Instrumentation is also a subject of this book. The 18 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Speciation of the oxidation states of plutonium in aqueous solutions by UV/Vis spectroscopy, CE-ICP-MS and CE-RIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, S.; Banik, N.L.; Buda, R.A.; Kratz, J.V.; Kuczewski, B.; Trautmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    For the speciation of the plutonium oxidation states in aqueous solutions, the online coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed. Depending on the radius/electrical charge ratio, the oxidation states III, IV, V, and VI of plutonium are separated by CE, based on the different migration times through the capillary and are detected by ICP-MS. The detection limit is 20 ppb, i.e. 10 9 -10 10 atoms (10 -12 -10 -13 g) for one oxidation state with an uncertainty of the reproducibility of the migration times of ≤ 1% and ≤ 5% for the peak area. The redox kinetics of the different plutonium oxidation states in the presence of humic substances (humic and fulvic acid) have been studied. A relatively rapid reduction of Pu(VI) (10 to 1000 h) in contact with Gorleben fulvic or Aldrich humic acid could be observed, depending on the pH of the solution. Furthermore, at pH=1, a reduction to Pu(III) and Pu(IV) in a mixture of all four oxidation states in contact with Gorleben fulvic acid after one month has been observed. In order to improve the sensitivity of the CE method, the offline coupling of CE to resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) has been explored. First applications of this new speciation method are presented. (orig.)

  9. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noël, Marie, E-mail: marie.noel@stantec.com [Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2042 Mills Road, Unit 11, Sidney BC V8L 4X2 (Canada); Christensen, Jennie R., E-mail: jennie.christensen@stantec.com [Stantec Consulting Ltd. 2042 Mills Road, Unit 11, Sidney BC V8L 4X2 (Canada); Spence, Jody, E-mail: jodys@uvic.ca [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Bob Wright Centre A405, University of Victoria, PO BOX 3065 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3V6 (Canada); Robbins, Charles T., E-mail: ctrobbins@wsu.edu [School of the Environment and School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4236 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size = 30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r{sup 2} = 0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. - Highlights: • LA-ICP-MS provides temporal trace metal exposure information for wild grizzly bears. • Cu and Zn temporal exposures provide

  10. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to characterize copper, zinc and mercury along grizzly bear hair providing estimate of diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noël, Marie; Christensen, Jennie R.; Spence, Jody; Robbins, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    We enhanced an existing technique, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to function as a non-lethal tool in the temporal characterization of trace element exposure in wild mammals. Mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed along the hair of captive and wild grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Laser parameters were optimized (consecutive 2000 μm line scans along the middle line of the hair at a speed of 50 μm/s; spot size = 30 μm) for consistent ablation of the hair. A pressed pellet of reference material DOLT-2 and sulfur were used as external and internal standards, respectively. Our newly adapted method passed the quality control tests with strong correlations between trace element concentrations obtained using LA-ICP-MS and those obtained with regular solution-ICP-MS (r 2 = 0.92, 0.98, 0.63, 0.57, 0.99 and 0.90 for Hg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, respectively). Cross-correlation analyses revealed good reproducibility between trace element patterns obtained from hair collected from the same bear. One exception was Cd for which external contamination was observed resulting in poor reproducibility. In order to validate the method, we used LA-ICP-MS on the hair of five captive grizzly bears fed known and varying amounts of cutthroat trout over a period of 33 days. Trace element patterns along the hair revealed strong Hg, Cu and Zn signals coinciding with fish consumption. Accordingly, significant correlations between Hg, Cu, and Zn in the hair and Hg, Cu, and Zn intake were evident and we were able to develop accumulation models for each of these elements. While the use of LA-ICP-MS for the monitoring of trace elements in wildlife is in its infancy, this study highlights the robustness and applicability of this newly adapted method. - Highlights: • LA-ICP-MS provides temporal trace metal exposure information for wild grizzly bears. • Cu and Zn temporal exposures provide

  11. Comparison of a neural network with multiple linear regression for quantitative analysis in ICP-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schierle, C.; Otto, M.

    1992-01-01

    A two layer perceptron with backpropagation of error is used for quantitative analysis in ICP-AES. The network was trained by emission spectra of two interfering lines of Cd and As and the concentrations of both elements were subsequently estimated from mixture spectra. The spectra of the Cd and As lines were also used to perform multiple linear regression (MLR) via the calculation of the pseudoinverse S + of the sensitivity matrix S. In the present paper it is shown that there exist close relations between the operation of the perceptron and the MLR procedure. These are most clearly apparent in the correlation between the weights of the backpropagation network and the elements of the pseudoinverse. Using MLR, the confidence intervals over the predictions are exploited to correct for the optical device of the wavelength shift. (orig.)

  12. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perring, Loic; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija [Department of Quality and Safety Assurance, Nestle Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, Vers chez-les-Blanc, 1000, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99{+-}5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of two-beam spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, B.D.

    1980-04-01

    A two-beam spectroscopy (TBS) system is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. This new spectroscopic technique uses correlations between components of emitted light separated by a small difference in angle of propagation. It is thus a non-perturbing plasma diagnostic which is shown to provide local (as opposed to line-of-sight averaged) information about fluctuations in the density of light sources within a plasma - information not obtainable by the usual spectroscopic methods. The present design is an improvement on earlier systems proposed in a thesis by Rostler

  14. Study of optical emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy is an excellent tool for quantitative multielement trace analysis. This paper describes the performance of a computer-controlled sequential measurement system. Chemical and ionization interferences are shown to be negligible due to the characteristics of the inductively coupled plasma, spectral interferences are eliminated by using a high-resolution monochromator and computer data handling. Good accuracy is achieved for most of the interesting elements, as is shown from both an interlaboratory test and from comparison of the results of water samples from the rivers Elbe and Weser with those achieved with neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis. (orig.) [de

  15. Spectroscopic analysis of high protein nigella seeds (Kalonji) using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, Imran; Khan, M. Zubair; Ali, Irfan; Rehan, Kamran; Sultana, Sabiha; Shah, Sher

    2018-03-01

    The spectroscopic analysis of high protein nigella seeds (also called Kalonji) was performed using pulsed nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) at 532 nm. The emission spectrum of Kalonji recorded with an LIBS spectrometer exposed the presence of various elements like Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cr, K, P, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, S, Si, Cu, Fe, Ti, Sn, Sr, and Zn. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and electron density) were estimated using Ca-I spectral lines and their behavior were studied against laser irradiance. The electron temperature and electron density was observed to show an increasing trend in the range of 5802-7849 K, and (1.2-3.9) × 1017 cm- 3, respectively, in the studied irradiance range of (1.2-12.6) × 109 W/cm2. Furthermore, the effect of varying laser energy on the integrated signal intensities was also studied. The quantitative analysis of the detected elements was performed via the calibration curves drawn for all the observed elements through typical samples made in the known concentration in the Kalonji matrix, and by setting the concentration of P as the calibration. The validity of our LIBS findings was verified via comparison of the results with the concentration of every element find in Kalonji using the standard analytical tool like ICP/OES. The results acquired using LIBS and ICP/OES were found in fine harmony. Moreover, limit of detection was measured for toxic metals only.

  16. Tissue gadolinium deposition in hepatorenally impaired rats exposed to Gd-EOB-DTPA: evaluation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Tamada, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Shigeru; Nishimura, Hirotake; Kanki, Akihiko; Noda, Yasufumi; Higaki, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Akira; Ito, Katsuyoshi

    2015-06-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify tissue gadolinium (Gd) deposition in hepatorenally impaired rats exposed to gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and to compare differences in Gd distribution among major organs as possible triggers for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Five hepatorenally impaired rats (5/6-nephrectomized, with carbon-tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis) were injected with Gd-EOB-DTPA. Histological assessment was conducted and Gd content of the skin, liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, spleen, diaphragm, and femoral muscle was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at 7 days after last injection. In addition, five renally impaired rats were injected with Gd-EOB-DTPA and the degree of tissue Gd deposition was compared with that in the hepatorenally impaired rats. ICP-MS analysis revealed significantly higher Gd deposition in the kidneys, spleen, and liver (p = 0.009-0.047) in the hepatorenally impaired group (42.6 ± 20.1, 17.2 ± 6.1, 8.4 ± 3.2 μg/g, respectively) than in the renally impaired group (17.2 ± 7.7, 5.4 ± 2.1, 2.8 ± 0.7 μg/g, respectively); no significant difference was found for other organs. In the hepatorenally impaired group, Gd was predominantly deposited in the kidneys, followed by the spleen, liver, lungs, skin, heart, diaphragm, and femoral muscle. Histopathological investigation revealed hepatic fibrosis in the hepatorenally impaired group. Compared with renally impaired rats, tissue Gd deposition in hepatorenally impaired rats exposed to Gd-EOB-DTPA was significantly increased in the kidneys, spleen, and liver, probably due to the impairment of the dual excretion pathways of the urinary and biliary systems.

  17. Effect of Cl2- and HBr-based inductively coupled plasma etching on InP surface composition analyzed using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchoule, S.; Vallier, L.; Patriarche, G.; Chevolleau, T.; Cardinaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    A Cl 2 -HBr-O 2 /Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching process has been adapted for the processing of InP-based heterostructures in a 300-mm diameter CMOS etching tool. Smooth and anisotropic InP etching is obtained at moderate etch rate (∼600 nm/min). Ex situ x-ray energy dispersive analysis of the etched sidewalls shows that the etching anisotropy is obtained through a SiO x passivation mechanism. The stoichiometry of the etched surface is analyzed in situ using angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is observed that Cl 2 -based ICP etching results in a significantly P-rich surface. The phosphorous layer identified on the top surface is estimated to be ∼1-1.3-nm thick. On the other hand InP etching in HBr/Ar plasma results in a more stoichiometric surface. In contrast to the etched sidewalls, the etched surface is free from oxides with negligible traces of silicon. Exposure to ambient air of the samples submitted to Cl 2 -based chemistry results in the complete oxidation of the P-rich top layer. It is concluded that a post-etch treatment or a pure HBr plasma step may be necessary after Cl 2 -based ICP etching for the recovery of the InP material.

  18. Hyphenation of ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for fast analysis of bromine containing preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, Lars; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2006-01-01

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for fast analysis of three bromine-containing preservatives, monitoring the 79Br and 81Br isotopes simultaneously. Due to the efficiency of the 1.7 microm column packing material, t...... analysis of bromine-containing preservatives in commercially available cosmetic products.......Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for fast analysis of three bromine-containing preservatives, monitoring the 79Br and 81Br isotopes simultaneously. Due to the efficiency of the 1.7 microm column packing material...... at an intermediate and at a high linear velocity. The precision was better than 2.2% R.S.D. and regression analysis showed that a linear response was achieved at both flow rates (R2 > 0.9993, n = 36). The analysis time was less than 4.5 min at a flow rate of 50 microL min(-1) and limits of detection...

  19. Ion-pair chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IPC-ICP-MS) as a method for thiomolybdate speciation in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmayer, Regina; Reithmaier, Gloria Maria Susanne; Bura-Nakić, Elvira; Planer-Friedrich, Britta

    2015-03-17

    Molybdenum precipitates preferentially under reducing conditions; therefore, its occurrence in sediment records is used as an indicator of paleoredox conditions. Although thiomolybdates (MoO4-xSx(2-) with x = 1-4) supposedly are necessary intermediates in the process of molybdenum precipitation under anoxic conditions, there is no information about their abundance in natural environments, because of a lack of element-specific methods with sufficiently low detection limits. Here, we optimized ion-pair chromatographic separation for coupling to an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry detector (IPC-ICP-MS). 2-Propanol (10%-25% gradient) replaced the previously used acetonitrile (25%-75%) as the solvent, to reduce the carbon load into the plasma. In synthetic solutions, formation of thiomolybdates was found to occur spontaneously in the presence of excess sulfide and the degree of thiolation was highest at pH 7. Excess hydroxyl led to a transformation of thiomolybdates to molybdate. Under acidic to neutral conditions, precipitation of molybdenum and hydrolysis of tetrathiomolybdate were observed. Flash-freezing was found to be suitable to stabilize tetrathiomolybdate, with 2 mM) negatively affected the detection of molybdate, which eluted mainly in the dead volume, but had no negative effect on higher thiolated molybdates. Detection limits were ∼10 nM. With the newly developed IPC-ICP-MS method, thiomolybdates were found to form spontaneously in euxinic marine waters after adding a molybdate spike and occur naturally in sulfidic geothermal waters.

  20. Measurement of isotopic composition of lanthanides in reprocessing process solutions by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Masanori; Jitsukata, Shu; Kuno, Takehiko; Yamada, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of fission products in process solutions and wastes in a reprocessing plant are valuable to proceed safety study of the solutions and research/development concerning treatment/disposal of the wastes. The amount of neodymium-148 is a reliable indication to evaluate irradiation history. The isotopic compositions of samarium and gadolinium in high radioactive wastes are referred to as essential data to evaluate environmental impact in geological repositories. However, pretreatment of analysis must be done with complicated chemical separation such as solvent extraction and ion exchange. The actual measurement data of isotopic compositions of lanthanides comparable to the one of actinides in spent fuel reprocessing process has not been obtained enough. Rapid and high sensitive analytical technique based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed for the measurement of isotopic compositions of lanthanides in spent fuel reprocessing solutions. HPLC/ICP-MS measurement system was customized for a glove-box to be applied to the radioactive solutions. The cation exchange chromatographic columns (Shim-pack IC-C1) and injection valve (20μL) were located inside of the glove-box except the chromatographic pump. The elements of lanthanide group were separated by a gradient program of HPLC with α-hydroxyisobutyric acid. Isotopic compositions of lanthanides in eluate was sequentially analyzed by a quadruple ICP-MS. Optimization of parameter of HPLC and ICP-MS measurement system was examined with standard solutions containing 14 lanthanide elements. The elements of lanthanides were separated by HPLC and detected by ICP-MS within 25 minutes. The detection limits of Nd-146, Sm-147 and Gd-157 were 0.37 μg L -1 , 0.69 μg L -1 and 0.47 μg L -1 , respectively. The analytical precision of the above three isotopes was better than 10% for standard solutions of 100 μg L -1 with

  1. Estimation of metal ions during the dissolution of corrosion product oxides by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyaseelan, V.S.; Mittal, Vinit Kumar; Velmurugan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) is one of the several techniques, which is being widely used for both qualitative and quantitative estimation of various elements. Determination of metals in wine, arsenic in food, trace elements in soil, nutrient levels in agricultural soils, trace elements bound to protein, motor oil analysis etc. are the examples of its application. ICP-AES utilizes plasma as the atomization and excitation source. The plasma temperature in the analytical zone ranges from 5000-8000 K. This high temperature assures that most of the compounds in the samples are completely atomized. Advantages of ICP-AES are high sensitivity and linear dynamic range, multi-element capability, low chemical interference and a stable and reproducible signal. The typical limits of detection for some of the elements like Mg, Sr, Ca, Li, Cu etc are well below 1 μg L -1

  2. Direct spectral analysis of tea samples using 266 nm UV pulsed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and cross validation of LIBS results with ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondal, M A; Habibullah, Y B; Baig, Umair; Oloore, L E

    2016-05-15

    Tea is one of the most common and popular beverages spanning vast array of cultures all over the world. The main nutritional benefits of drinking tea are its anti-oxidant properties, presumed protection against certain cancers, inhibition of inflammation and possible protective effects against diabetes. Laser induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) was assembled as a powerful tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of various brands of tea samples using 266 nm pulsed UV laser. LIBS spectra for six brands of tea samples in the wavelength range of 200-900 nm was recorded and all elements present in our tea samples were identified. The major toxic elements detected in several brands of tea samples were bromine, chromium and minerals like iron, calcium, potassium and silicon. The spectral assignment was conducted prior to the determination of concentration of each element. For quantitative analysis, calibration curves were drawn for each element using standard samples prepared in known concentration in the tea matrix. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and electron density) were also determined prior to the tea samples spectroscopic analysis. The concentration of iron, chromium, potassium, bromine, copper, silicon and calcium detected in all tea samples was between 378-656, 96-124, 1421-6785, 99-1476, 17-36, 2-11 and 92-130 mg L(-1) respectively. The limits of detection estimated for Fe, Cr, K, Br, Cu, Si, Ca in tea samples were 22, 12, 14, 11, 6, 1 and 12 mg L(-1) respectively. To further confirm the accuracy of our LIBS results, we determined the concentration of each element present in tea samples by using standard analytical technique like ICP-MS. The concentrations detected with our LIBS system are in excellent agreement with ICP-MS results. The system assembled for spectral analysis in this work could be highly applicable for testing the quality and purity of food and also pharmaceuticals products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polarization spectroscopy on laser-produced plasmas and Z-pinch plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong E. [POSTECH, Kyungbuk (Korea); Baronova, Elena O. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jakubowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2002-08-01

    PPS experiments on laser-produced plasmas are reviewed. Polarization is interpreted in terms of the anisotropic velocity distribution of electrons due to non-local transport. The polarization of an x-ray laser, and recent results regarding the recombining plasma are also presented. X-ray polarization spectroscopy experiments on heliumlike ion lines from a vacuum spark and from a plasma focus are presented: in both cases, the resonance line of the heliumlike ions shows polarization in the direction perpendicular to the discharge axis. Two possible interpretations are suggested. (author)

  4. Hydrodynamic chromatography coupled to single-particle ICP-MS for the simultaneous characterization of AgNPs and determination of dissolved Ag in plasma and blood of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Marco; Rigo, Chiara; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Munivrana, Ivan; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Mičetić, Ivan; Benetti, Federico; Manodori, Laura; Cairns, Warren R L

    2016-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in medical devices as innovative antibacterial agents, but no data are currently available on their chemical transformations and fate in vivo in the human body, particularly on their potential to reach the circulatory system. To study the processes involving AgNPs in human plasma and blood, we developed an analytical method based on hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in single-particle detection mode. An innovative algorithm was implemented to deconvolute the signals of dissolved Ag and AgNPs and to extrapolate a multiparametric characterization of the particles in the same chromatogram. From a single injection, the method provides the concentration of dissolved Ag and the distribution of AgNPs in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, mass-derived diameter, number and mass concentration. This analytical approach is robust and suitable to study quantitatively the dynamics and kinetics of AgNPs in complex biological fluids, including processes such as agglomeration, dissolution and formation of protein coronas. The method was applied to study the transformations of AgNP standards and an AgNP-coated dressing in human plasma, supported by micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μXANES) speciation analysis and imaging, and to investigate, for the first time, the possible presence of AgNPs in the blood of three burn patients treated with the same dressing. Together with our previous studies, the results strongly support the hypothesis that the systemic mobilization of the metal after topical administration of AgNPs is driven by their dissolution in situ. Graphical Abstract Simplified scheme of the combined analytical approach adopted for studying the chemical dynamics of AgNPs in human plasma/blood.

  5. Plasma control using neural network and optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byungwhan; Bae, Jung Ki; Hong, Wan-Shick

    2005-01-01

    Due to high sensitivity to process parameters, plasma processes should be tightly controlled. For plasma control, a predictive model was constructed using a neural network and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce OES dimensionality. This approach was applied to an oxide plasma etching conducted in a CHF 3 /CF 4 magnetically enhanced reactive ion plasma. The etch process was systematically characterized by means of a statistical experimental design. Three etch outputs (etch rate, profile angle, and etch rate nonuniformity) were modeled using three different approaches, including conventional, OES, and PCA-OES models. For all etch outputs, OES models demonstrated improved predictions over the conventional or PCA-OES models. Compared to conventional models, OES models yielded an improvement of more than 25% in modeling profile angle and etch rate nonuniformtiy. More than 40% improvement over PCA-OES model was achieved in modeling etch rate and profile angle. These results demonstrate that nonreduced in situ data are more beneficial than reduced one in constructing plasma control model

  6. Exploiting dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) for sequential determination of trace elements in blood using a dilute-and-shoot procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos Batista, Bruno; Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Andrade Nunes, Juliana; Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina de; Barbosa, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with quadrupole (q-ICP-MS) and dynamic reaction cell (DRC-ICP-MS) were evaluated for sequential determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Tl, V and Zn in blood. The method requires as little as 100 μL of blood. Prior to analysis, samples (100 μL) were diluted 1:50 in a solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 0.5% (v/v) nitric acid. The use of the DRC was only mandatory for Cr, Cu, V and Zn. For the other elements the equipment may be operated in a standard mode (q-ICP-MS). Ammonia was used as reaction gas. Selection of best flow rate of ammonium gas and optimization of the quadrupole dynamic band-pass tuning parameter (RPq) were carried out, using a ovine base blood for Cr and V and a synthetic matrix solution (SMS) for Zn and Cu diluted 1:50 and spiked to contain 1 μg L -1 of each element. Method detection limits (3 s) for 75 As, 114 Cd, 59 Co, 51 Cr, 63 Cu 55 Mn, 208 Pb, 82 Se, 205 Tl, 51 V, and 64 Zn were 14.0, 3.0, 11.0, 7.0, 280, 9.0, 3.0, 264, 0.7, 6.0 and 800 ng L -1 , respectively. Method validation was accomplished by the analysis of blood Reference Materials produced by the L'Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec (Canada).

  7. Standard test method for determining elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This test method covers the determination of trace, minor, and major elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) following an acid digestion of the specimen. Waste streams from manufacturing processes of nuclear and nonnuclear materials can be analyzed. This test method is applicable to the determination of total metals. Results from this test method can be used to characterize waste received by treatment facilities and to formulate appropriate treatment recipes. The results are also usable to process control within waste treatment facilities. This test method is applicable only to waste streams that contain radioactivity levels which do not require special personnel or environmental protection. A list of the elements determined in waste streams and the corresponding lower reporting limit is included

  8. Special issue on the spectroscopy of transient plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James; Hoarty, David; Mancini, Roberto; Yoneda, Hitoki

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical papers are invited for a special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics on Spectroscopy of Transient Plasmas, covering plasma conditions produced by pulsed laboratory sources including for example, short and long pulse lasers; pulsed power devices; FELs; XFELs and ion beams. The full range of plasma spectroscopy from the optical range up to high energy bremsstrahlung radiation will be covered. The deadline for submitting to this special issue is 1 March 2015. (Expected web publication: autumn 2015). Late submissions will be considered for the journal, but may not be included in the special issue. All submitted articles will be fully refereed to the journal's usual high standards. Upon publication, the issue will be widely promoted to the atomic, molecular and optical physics community, ensuring that your work receives maximum visibility. Articles should be submitted at http://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/jphysb-iop. Should you have any questions regarding the preparation of manuscripts or the suitability of your work for this Issue, please do not hesitate to contact the J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Editorial team (jphysb@iop.org). We look forward to hearing from you and hope that we can welcome you as a contributing author.

  9. Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID ICP-MS) for the certification of lead and cadmium in environmental standard reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K E; Beary, E S; Rearick, M S; Vocke, R D

    2000-10-01

    Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) have been determined in six new environmental standard reference materials (SRMs) using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID ICP-MS). The SRMs are the following: SRM 1944, New York-New Jersey Waterway Sediment, SRMs 2583 and 2584, Trace Elements in Indoor Dust, Nominal 90 mg/kg and 10,000 mg/kg Lead, respectively, SRMs 2586 and 2587, Trace Elements in Soil Containing Lead from Paint, Nominal 500 mg/kg and 3,000 mg/kg Lead, respectively, and SRM 2782, Industrial Sludge. The capabilities of ID ICP-MS for the certification of Pb and Cd in these materials are assessed. Sample preparation and ratio measurement uncertainties have been evaluated. Reproducibility and accuracy of the established procedures are demonstrated by determination of gravimetrically prepared primary standard solutions and by comparison with isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID TIMS). Material heterogeneity was readily demonstrated to be the dominant source of uncertainty in the certified values.

  10. Method validation for determination of metals in Vitis labrusca L. grapevine leaf extracts by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANE V.V. BOKOWSKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vitis labrusca L. is the main species used for wine and juice production in Brazil. The grapevine leaves can be used both as functional foods and as cheapest sources for the extraction of phenolic compounds. Besides the antioxidant activity, grapevine leaves exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine the metals selenium (96Se, chromium (53Cr, nickel (62Ni, cadmium (111Cd and lead (206Pb in 30 samples of grapevine leaf extracts (Vitis labrusca, Bordo cultivar using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. To obtain the grapevine leaf extracts the samples were milled, weighed and digested in microwave oven with nitric acid. The method showed linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of quantification and detection acceptable for INMETRO protocol validation of analytical methods. Therefore, the method using ICP-MS was developed and validated to determine metals concentrations in grapevine leaves of Vitis labrusca L. and the proposed method could be applied in routine analytical laboratory.

  11. Laser ablation - inductive coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) geochemistry characterization of albitites associated to uranium in Lagoa da Rabicha deposit, Lagoa Real, BA (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lucilia A. Ramos de; Rios, Francisco Javier; Amorim, Lucas Eustaquio Dias; Souza, Aurelio da Silva; Prates, Sonia Pinto; Yardley, Bruce; Matos, Evando Carele

    2009-01-01

    The LA-ICP-MS technique is a good tool for mineral geochemical characterization. The technique has high spatial resolution, elevated sensibility, low detection limits and multi-elementary analysis possibility. Almost all chemistry elements can be analyzed by this methodology. Briefly, this methodology consists in vaporize the sample by Laser Ablation, which is dragged by argon into the Plasma where are created and accelerated the ions. They are separated by their mass/charge ratio into the Mass Spectrometer, being conveyed to a detector that convert the signals in specters. In this work LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed in two albitites thin sections, a mineralized and a non mineralized sample. Both samples are from the Lagoa da Rabicha Deposit, Uranium Lagoa Real Province, BA. From these analysis it was possible to chemically characterize the minerals present in the samples and better understand the trace elements on them. The results for plagioclase in both samples show that it is albite (NaAlSi 3 O 8 ). The albite from sample 200907-20 shows traces of strontium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium and thorium in one crystal. The albite from sample 200907-23 has strontium with uranium, yttrium and lead in smaller quantities. The results obtained in this work are very important and contribute to a better understanding of the uranium origin in Lagoa Real deposits. (author)

  12. Emission spectroscopy of highly ionized high-temperature plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belevtsev, A A; Chinnov, V F; Isakaev, E Kh [Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-01

    This paper deals with advanced studies on the optical emission spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure highly ionized high-temperature argon and nitrogen plasma jets generated by a powerful arc plasmatron. The emission spectra are taken in the 200-1000 nm range with a spectral resolution of {approx}0.01-0.02 nm. The exposure times are 6 x 10{sup -6}-2 x 10{sup -2} s, the spatial resolution is 0.02-0.03 mm. The recorded jet spectra are abundant in spectral lines originating from different ionization stages. In nitrogen plasmas, tens of vibronic bands are also observed. To interpret and process these spectra such that plasma characteristics can be derived, a purpose-developed automated processing system is applied. The use of a CCD camera at the spectrograph output allows a simultaneous recording of the spectral and chord intensity distributions of spectral lines, which can yet belong to the overlapped spectra of the first and second orders of interference. The modern optical diagnostic means and methods used permit the determination of spatial distributions of electron number densities and temperatures and evaluation of rotational temperatures. The radial profiles of the irradiating plasma components can also be obtained. Special attention is given to the method of deriving rotational temperatures using vibronic bands with an incompletely identified rotational structure.

  13. Applying Quantum Cascade Laser Spectroscopy in Plasma Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Röpcke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The considerably higher power and wider frequency coverage available from quantum cascade lasers (QCLs in comparison to lead salt diode lasers has led to substantial advances when QCLs are used in pure and applied infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, they can be used in both pulsed and continuous wave (cw operation, opening up new possibilities in quantitative time resolved applications in plasmas both in the laboratory and in industry as shown in this article. However, in order to determine absolute concentrations accurately using pulsed QCLs, careful attention has to be paid to features like power saturation phenomena. Hence, we begin with a discussion of the non-linear effects which must be considered when using short or long pulse mode operation. More recently, cw QCLs have been introduced which have the advantage of higher power, better spectral resolution and lower fluctuations in light intensity compared to pulsed devices. They have proved particularly useful in sensing applications in plasmas when very low concentrations have to be monitored. Finally, the use of cw external cavity QCLs (EC-QCLs for multi species detection is described, using a diagnostics study of a methane/nitrogen plasma as an example. The wide frequency coverage of this type of QCL laser, which is significantly broader than from a distributed feedback QCL (DFB-QCL, is a substantial advantage for multi species detection. Therefore, cw EC-QCLs are state of the art devices and have enormous potential for future plasma diagnostic studies.

  14. The use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the determination of toxic and essential elements in different types of food samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voica, C.; Dehelean, A.; Kovacs, M. H.

    2012-02-01

    Food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements. In this context, levels of essential and toxic elements must be determined routinely in consumed food products. The content of trace elements (As, Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, Sn, Hg) in different types of food samples (e.g. rice, bread, sugar, cheese, milk, butter, wheat, coffee, chocolate, biscuits pasta, etc.) was determined, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Trace element contents in some foods were higher than maximum permissible levels of toxic metals in human food (Cd in bread, Zn in cheese, Cu in coffee, Hg in carrots and peppers).

  15. Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) to detection of trace elements, heavy metals and radioisotopes in scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Yildirim; Benderli, Cihan

    2010-01-01

    Trace element analysis of human hair has the potential to reveal retrospective information about an individual's nutritional status and exposure. As trace elements are incorporated into the hair during the growth process, longitudinal segments of the hair may reflect the body burden during the growth period. it was evaluated the potential of human hair to indicate exposure or nutritional status over time by analysing trace element profiles in single strands of human hair. By using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), it was achieved profiles of 43 elements in single strands of human hair. It was shown that trace element analysis along single strands of human hair can yield information about essential and toxic elements and for some elements, can be correlated with seasonal changes in diet and exposure. The information obtained from the trace element profiles of human hair in this study substantiates the potential of hair as a biomarker

  16. Tissue gadolinium deposition in renally impaired rats exposed to different gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents: evaluation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Kanki, Akihiko; Watanabe, Shigeru; Nishimura, Hirotake; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higashi, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Akira

    2013-10-01

    To quantify tissue gadolinium (Gd) deposition in renally impaired rats exposed to Gd-EOB-DTPA and other Gd-based MRI contrast agents by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and to compare the differences in distribution among major organs as possible triggers for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). A total of 15 renally impaired rats were injected with Gd-EOB-DTPA, Gd-DTPA-BMA and Gd-HP-DO3A. Gd contents of skin, liver, kidney, lung, heart, spleen, diaphragm and femoral muscle were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Histological assessment was also conducted. Tissue Gd deposition in all organs was significantly higher (P=0.005~0.009) in the Gd-DTPA-BMA group than in the Gd-HP-DO3A and Gd-EOB-DTPA groups. In the Gd-DTPA-BMA group, Gd was predominantly deposited in kidney (1306±605.7μg/g), followed by skin, liver, lung, spleen, femoral muscle, diaphragm and heart. Comparing Gd-HP-DO3A and Gd-EOB-DTPA groups, Gd depositions in the kidney, liver and lung were significantly lower (P=0.009~0.011) in the Gd-EOB-DTPA group than in the Gd-HP-DO3A group although no significant differences were seen for any other organs. Gd-EOB-DTPA is a stable and safe Gd-based contrast agent (GBCA) showing lower Gd deposition in major organs in renally impaired rats, compared with other GBCAs. This fact suggests that the risk of NSF onset would be low in the use of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of selenium in red blood cells by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinggi, U.; Francis, R.; Shanin, M.; Scheelings, P.; Gianduzzo, T.; Nicol, D.

    2004-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element and its levels in blood have been widely used for assessing Se status in humans. A suitable method for the determination of Se in red blood cells (RBC) using ICP-MS after microwave digestion was developed. The blood samples were obtained from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), who attended urology clinics at the Princess Alexandra hospital, Brisbane, Australia. No apparent polyatomic and matrix interferences were encountered when 82 Se isotope was used for the analysis of Se levels in RBC. Whole Blood Seronorm Trace Elements (SERO, Norway) and dogfish muscle (DORM-1, NRCC) were used as reference materials for method validation. The method was rapid and accurate, and ideal for routine analysis of Se in RBC, and in particular for assessing of Se status in humans. (author)

  18. An inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) determination of boron and other trace impurities in aluminium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.S.; Patil, P.B.; Karanjikar, N.P.

    2002-01-01

    The optimisation and use of ICP-AES technique for the analysis of aluminium metal for B, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Si, Ti, V and Zn in the concentration range 5.0 to 50.0 ppm is described. The method involves the dissolution of aluminium metal in acqua-regia. The matrix aluminium solution (2mg/ml) is mixed with composite impurity solution in proper proportions, for getting the required set of standards. JY 1 metre Czerny-Turner Scanning monochromator is used to measure peak intensities corresponding to each analyte wavelength selected. The mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method for various elements is found to be 4.0% -2.0% in the concentration range studied. (author)

  19. Determination of Metals Present in Textile Dyes Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Cross-Validation Using Inductively Coupled Plasma/Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS was used for the quantitative analysis of elements present in textile dyes at ambient pressure via the fundamental mode (1064 nm of a Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Three samples were collected for this purpose. Spectra of textile dyes were acquired using an HR spectrometer (LIBS2000+, Ocean Optics, Inc. having an optical resolution of 0.06 nm in the spectral range of 200 to 720 nm. Toxic metals like Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn along with other elements like Al, Mg, Ca, and Na were revealed to exist in the samples. The %-age concentrations of the detected elements were measured by means of standard calibration curve method, intensities of every emission from every species, and calibration-free (CF LIBS approach. Only Sample 3 was found to contain heavy metals like Cr, Cu, and Ni above the prescribed limit. The results using LIBS were found to be in good agreement when compared to outcomes of inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES.

  20. Quantitative plasma spectroscopy at JET and Extrap-T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zastrow, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Studies in quantitative plasma spectroscopy are performed on the Joint European Torus (JET) in Culham, Great-Britain and on the Extrap-T1 reversed-field pinch (RFP) in Stockholm. The model concepts that form the basis of these studies are reviewed. At JET, spectra of He-like nickel are observed with a high-resolution X-ray crystal spectrometer. The experimental line intensity ratios of satellite lines to the resonance line are compared with theoretical data. The agreement is found to be good, with the exception of the excitation of dipole-forbidden lines. The spectrum is also used to derive central ion temperature, central toroidal rotation and nickel concentration based upon a model for the radial emission. The results are compared with those from an independent diagnostic, charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CWRS). Theoretically predicted cross section effects on the CXRS data are verified. On Extrap-T1, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectra and visible spectra are analysed. From these, thermodynamic quantities of the plasma are derived, like electron temperature, impurity concentrations and particle fluxes. The oxygen ionization balance is measured and compared to calculations with a collisional-dielectronic model with metastable resolution, both in 0-dimensional time-dependent and transport model calculations. The performance of the RFP discharges investigated in terms of radiative power loss and energy and particle confinement properties. The scaling of the energy confinement time with plasma current, pinch parameter and electron density is found to be dominated by the dynamo activity needed to sustain the RFP configuration. The scaling of the particle confinement time, on the other hand, is dominated by pressure-driven activity associated with the regulation of β

  1. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sidra; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Faizan–ul-Haq [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-07-15

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (λ∼ 1064 nm, τ∼ 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO{sub 2}: N{sub 2}: He), O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis.

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sidra; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Faizan–ul-Haq

    2013-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (λ∼ 1064 nm, τ∼ 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO 2 : N 2 : He), O 2 , N 2 , and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis

  3. Establishment of methodology for determination of 93Zr in radioactive wastes by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thiago Cesar de

    2014-01-01

    The zirconium-93 is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from 235 U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope 92 Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, 93 Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of 93 Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. The aim of this work was to develop a selective radiochemical separation methodology for the determination of 93 Zr in nuclear waste and analyze it by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). To set up the radiochemical separation procedure for zirconium, a tracer solution of 95 Zr and its 724 keV γ-ray measurements by γ- spectrometry were used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the radiochemical separation. For the LSC technique a 55 Fe solution, which is one of the major interfering measures zirconium, was used to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. The efficiency detection for 63 Ni was used to determination of 93 Zr activity in the matrices analyzed. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq 1 −1 was obtained for 63 Ni standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for Optiphase Hisafe 3 cocktail. For the ICP-MS technique a zirconium stable solution was used to verify the zirconium behavior and recovery during radiochemical separation and a solution of Ba, Co, Eu, Fe, Mn, Nb, Sr and Y was used to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. A standard solution 93 Nb as isotope for determining the 93 Zr by ICP-MS was used for calibration and analysis. The detection limit of 0.039 ppb was obtained for the standard solution of zirconium. Then, the protocol was applied to low level

  4. Application of high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for determination of chromium compounds in the air at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawska, Magdalena; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2013-12-15

    The toxicity and bioavailability of chromium species are highly dependable on the form or species, therefore determination of total chromium is insufficient for a complete toxicological evaluation and risk assessment. An analytical method for determination of soluble and insoluble Cr (III) and Cr (VI) compounds in welding fume at workplace air has been developed. The total chromium (Cr) was determined by using quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC(®)). Soluble trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A high-speed, reversed-phase CR C8 column (PerkinElmer, Inc., Shelton, CT, USA) was used for the speciation of soluble Cr (III) and soluble Cr (VI). The separation was accomplished by interaction of the chromium species with the different components of the mobile phase. Cr (III) formed a complex with EDTA, i.e. retained on the column, while Cr (VI) existed in the solutions as dichromate. Alkaline extraction (2% KOH and 3% Na2CO3) and anion exchange column (PRP-X100, PEEK, Hamilton) were used for the separation of the total Cr (VI). The results of the determination of Cr (VI) were confirmed by the analysis of the certified reference material BCR CRM 545 (Cr (VI) in welding dust). The results obtained for the certified material (40.2±0.6 g kg(-1)) and the values recorded in the examined samples (40.7±0.6 g kg(-1)) were highly consistent. This analytical method was applied for the determination of chromium in the samples in the workplace air collected onto glass (Whatman, Ø 37 mm) and membrane filters (Sartorius, 0.8 μm, Ø 37 mm). High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a remarkably powerful and versatile technique for determination of chromium species in welding fume at workplace air. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by

  5. Determination of Metal Levels in Shamma (Smokeless Tobacco) with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in Najran, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brima, Eid Ibrahim

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The use of Shamma (smokeless tobacco) by certain groups is giving rise to health problems, including cancer, in parts of Saudi Arabia. Our objective was to determine metals levels in Shamma using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Methods: Thirty-three samples of Shamma (smokeless tobacco) were collected, comprising four types: brown Shamma (n = 14.0), red Shamma (n = 9.0), white Shamma (n = 4.0), and yellow Shamma (n = 6.0). All samples were collected randomly from Shamma users in the city of Najran. Levels of 11 elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined by ICP-MS. Results: A mixed standard (20 ppb) of all elements was used for quality control, and average recoveries ranged from 74.7% to 112.2%. The highest average concentrations were found in the following order: Al (598.8–812.2 μg/g), Mn (51.0–80.6 μg/g), and Ni (23.2–53.3 μg/g) in all four Shamma types. The lowest concentrations were for As (0.7–1.0 μg/g) and Cd (0.0–0.06 μg/g). Conclusions: The colour of each Shamma type reflects additives mixed into the tobacco. Cr and Cu were showed significant differences (P awareness about the safety and health effects of Shamma, which is clearly a source of oral exposure to metals. Creative Commons Attribution License

  6. Analysis of corrosions-products in tissue samples near surgical implants by means of LAMMA (Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlagenhaufen, C.

    1996-08-01

    In this work corrosion products of surgical implants in tissue samples were identified. For the characterization of the corrosion products the LAMMA 500 (Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer) was used. Additional analysis were made with the ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) to determine the concentration of chromium, cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum in the tissues. In the first part several synthetic chromium- and molybdenum compounds were investigated with LAMMA. With the anionic mass spectra of the chromium-compounds it is possible to the oxidation state of chromium. The mass spectra of the synthetic compounds were used to identify, the compounds in the corrosion products. In the second part thin sections prepared from the tissue samples from the surrounding of the implants were analyzed. Several embedding and cutting methods were tested. Histological staining methods and LAMMA spectra were used to characterize the deposits in the tissue. Three different deposits were found in the tissue. In all tissues metal splinters from the implant were found. In most of the tissues iron-rich deposits were found, that were identified as iron-phosphate. As definitive corrosion products of the implant mixtures of chromium(III)phosphate, calcium molybdate, calcium phosphate and chromium(III) molybdate were identified. The ICP-MS results show in comparison to normal values, very high concentrations for chromium, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum. These results support the conclusions based on LAMMA results. The results of these investigations clearly indicate, that stainless steel implants, are not corrosion-resistant in the body. Relatively high amounts of the constituents, of the implant dissolved, and are deposited as solid compounds in the tissue next to the implant. (author)

  7. Whither spectrochemical analysis: Inductively coupled plasma - Atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassel, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of the seven proverbial ages of new physical analytical methodologies, ICP-AES has now passed through the initial five ages. Its present age may be characterized as mature, as represented by its general acceptance by the analytical community, by the evolution of standardized operating conditions and procedures, and by the automation of operations. Continuing evolutionary refinements and improvements in existing practices and theories can be expected, because intensive effort to achieve these goals is now underway. The driving forces behind these efforts will be enumerated and the problems being encountered will be summarized. In his closing remarks he comments on: (a) the impact that ICP-AES has had on the structure of the field of analytical chemistry and on the way trace elemental constituents are determined; and (b) where the action in ICP-AES is likely to be in the future

  8. Analysis of cobalt, tantalum, titanium, vanadium and chromium in tungsten carbide by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archer, M

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to measure the concentrations of cobalt, tantalum, titanium, vanadium and chromium in solutions of tungsten carbide. The main advantage of the method described here lies...

  9. Atlas of atomic spectral lines of plutonium emitted by an inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, M.C.; DeKalb, E.L.; Winge, R.K.; Fassel, V.A.

    1986-09-01

    Optical emission spectra from high-purity Pu-242 were generated with a glovebox-enclosed inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. Spectra covering the 2280 to 7008 Angstrom wavelength range are presented along with general commentary on ICP-Pu spectroscopy.

  10. Saturation spectroscopy of an optically opaque argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Ben; Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2018-02-01

    A pure argon (Ar) plasma formed by a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge was analyzed using Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy. The expected line shape was a characteristic of sub-Doppler spectra in the presence of velocity-changing collisions, a narrow Lorentzian centered on a Doppler pedestal, but the observed line shapes contain a multi-peak structure, attributed to opacity of the medium. Laser absorption and inter-modulated fluorescence spectroscopy measurements were made to validate opacity as a driving factor of the observed line shapes. Spectral line shapes are further complicated by the spatial dependence of the pump laser, probe laser and of the absorbing medium, as well as the large absorbance of the transition under investigation. A numerical line shape was derived by accounting for the spatial variation of the pump and probe with a saturated line shape obtained from the rate equations for an equivalent two-level system. This simulated line shape shows good qualitative agreement with the trends observed in the data.

  11. ICP/AES radioactive sample analyses at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, C.L.; Hara, F.T.

    1986-03-01

    Inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) analyses of radioactive materials at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began about three years ago upon completion of the installation of a modified Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) 3560. Funding for the purchase and installation of the ICP/AES was provided by the Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center (MCC) established at PNL by the Department of Energy in 1979. MCC's objective is to ensure that qualified materials data are available on waste materials. This paper is divided into the following topics: (1) Instrument selection considerations; (2) initial installation of the simultaneous system with the source stand enclosed in a 1/2'' lead-shielded glove box; (3) retrofit installation of the sequential spectrometer; and (4) a brief discussion on several types of samples analyzed. 1 ref., 7 figs., 1 tab

  12. Inductively coupled plasma – Tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS): A powerful and universal tool for the interference-free determination of (ultra)trace elements – A tutorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcaen, Lieve; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281-S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Resano, Martín [University of Zaragoza, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Vanhaecke, Frank, E-mail: Frank.Vanhaecke@UGent.be [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281-S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-09-24

    This paper is intended as a tutorial review on the use of inductively coupled plasma – tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) for the interference-free quantitative determination and isotope ratio analysis of metals and metalloids in different sample types. Attention is devoted both to the instrumentation and to some specific tools and procedures available for advanced method development. Next to the more typical reaction gases, e.g., H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, also the use of promising alternative gases, such as CH{sub 3}F, is covered, and the possible reaction pathways with those reactive gases are discussed. A variety of published applications relying on the use of ICP-MS/MS are described, to illustrate the added value of tandem mass spectrometry in (ultra)trace analysis. - Highlights: • First review on tandem ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). • Clear description of operating principles of ICP-MS/MS. • Description on how to make use of product ion scans, precursor ion scans and neutral gain scans in method development. • Overview of applications published so far.

  13. Inductively coupled plasma – Tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS): A powerful and universal tool for the interference-free determination of (ultra)trace elements – A tutorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcaen, Lieve; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Resano, Martín; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended as a tutorial review on the use of inductively coupled plasma – tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) for the interference-free quantitative determination and isotope ratio analysis of metals and metalloids in different sample types. Attention is devoted both to the instrumentation and to some specific tools and procedures available for advanced method development. Next to the more typical reaction gases, e.g., H_2, O_2 and NH_3, also the use of promising alternative gases, such as CH_3F, is covered, and the possible reaction pathways with those reactive gases are discussed. A variety of published applications relying on the use of ICP-MS/MS are described, to illustrate the added value of tandem mass spectrometry in (ultra)trace analysis. - Highlights: • First review on tandem ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). • Clear description of operating principles of ICP-MS/MS. • Description on how to make use of product ion scans, precursor ion scans and neutral gain scans in method development. • Overview of applications published so far.

  14. Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    Intensity and line profile measurements of the spectra of light hydrogenic ion which are excited by charge exchange reactions with fast neutral atoms are being widely used as diagnostics for fusion plasma research. This technique, which is referred to as charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, allows measurements of the densities of fully stripped impurity ions and particle transport coefficients with only minor uncertainties arising from atomic processes. The excitation of long wavelength transitions in light ions such as He + , C 5+ , and O 7+ allows relatively easy measurements of ion velocity distributions to determine ion temperatures and plasma rotation velocities. Among its advantages for such measurements are the facts that fiber optic coupling between a remote spectrometer and the immediate reactor environment is possible in many cases. The measurement is localized by the intersection region of a neutral beamline and viewing sightline, and intrinsic ions can be used so that injection of potentially perturbing impurities can be avoided. A particularly challenging application of this technique lies in the diagnosis of alpha particles expected to be produced in the present generation of Q approx. = 1 tokamak experiments

  15. Liquid steel analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, J.

    2002-11-01

    When a nanosecond pulsed laser is focused onto a sample and the intensity exceeds a certain threshold, material is vaporized and a plasma is formed above the sample surface. The laser-light becomes increasingly absorbed by inverse bremsstrahlung and by photo-excitation and photo-ionization of atoms and molecules. The positive feedback, by which the number of energetic electrons for ionization is increased in an avalanche-like manner under the influence of laser-light, is the so-called optical breakdown. Radiating excited atoms and ions within the expanding plasma plume produce a characteristic optical emission spectrum. A spectroscopic analysis of this optical emission of the laser-induced plasma permits a qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of the investigated sample. This technique is therefore often called laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIPS is a fast non-contact technique, by which solid, liquid or gaseous samples can be analyzed with respect to their chemical composition. Hence, it is an appropriate tool for the rapid in-situ analysis of not easily accessible surfaces for process control in industrial environments. In this work, LIPS was studied as a technique to determine the chemical composition of solid and liquid steel. A LIPS set-up was designed and built for the remote and continuous in-situ analysis of the steel melt. Calibration curves were prepared for the LIPS analysis of Cr, Mn, Ni and Cu in solid steel using reference samples with known composition. In laboratory experiments an induction furnace was used to melt steel samples in crucibles, which were placed at a working distance of 1.5 m away from the LIPS apparatus. The response of the LIPS system was monitored on-line during the addition of pure elements to the liquid steel bath within certain concentration ranges (Cr: 0.11 - 13.8 wt%, Cu: 0.044 - 0.54 wt%, Mn: 1.38 - 2.5 wt%, Ni: 0.049 - 5.92 wt%). The analysis of an element

  16. Atomic data for beam-stimulated plasma spectroscopy in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Schlummer, T.; Ralchenko, Yu.; Schultz, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    Injection of high energy atoms into a confined plasma volume is an established diagnostic technique in fusion research. This method strongly depends on the quality of atomic data for charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS), motional Stark effect (MSE) and beam-emission spectroscopy (BES). We present some examples of atomic data for CXRS and review the current status of collisional data for parabolic states of hydrogen atoms that are used for accurate MSE modeling. It is shown that the collisional data require knowledge of the excitation density matrix including the off-diagonal matrix elements. The new datasets for transitions between parabolic states are used in an extended collisional-radiative model. The ratios between the σ- and π-components and the beam-emission rate coefficients are calculated in a quasi-steady state approximation. Good agreement with the experimental data from JET is found which points out to strong deviations from the statistical distribution for magnetic sublevels

  17. Peculiarities of plasma homeostasis in the patients with rectal cancer according to laser correlation spectroscopy findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byilenko, O.A.; Bazhora, Yu.Yi.; Sokolov, V.M.; Andronov, D.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    Laser correlation spectroscopy was used to investigate plasma homeostasis in 82 patients with rectal cancer. The spectra of the blood plasma from 21 donors of the transfusion station were used as the control. The blood plasma homeostasis changes reheated with laser correlation spectrometry in the patients with rectal cancer allow to use them for diagnosis of this pathology

  18. Determination of chromium, iron and selenium in foodstuffs of animal origin by collision cell technology, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after closed vessel microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufailly, Vincent; Noel, Laurent; Guerin, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    The determination of chromium ( 52 Cr), iron ( 56 Fe) and selenium ( 80 Se) isotopes in foodstuffs of animal origin has been performed by collision cell technology (CCT) mode using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector after closed vessel microwave digestion. To significantly decrease the argon-based interferences at mass to charge ratios (m/z): 52 ( 40 Ar 12 C), 56 ( 40 Ar 16 O) and 80 ( 40 Ar 40 Ar), the gas-flow rates of a helium and hydrogen mixture used in the hexapole collision cell were optimised to 1.5 ml min -1 H 2 and 0.5 ml min -1 He and the quadrupole bias was adjusted daily between -2 and -15 mV. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.025, 0.086 and 0.041 mg kg -1 for Cr, Fe and Se, respectively, in 6% HNO 3 were estimated under optimized CCT conditions. These LOQ were improved by a factor of approximately 10 for each element compared to standard mode. Precision under repeatability, intermediate precision reproducibility and trueness have been tested on nine different certified reference materials in foodstuffs of animal origin and on an external proficiency testing scheme. The results obtained for chromium, iron and selenium were in all cases in good agreement with the certified values and trueness was improved, compared to those obtained in standard mode

  19. Quantitative analysis of some important metals and metalloids in tobacco products by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Large scale usage of tobacco causes a lot of health troubles in human. Various formulations of tobacco are extensively used by the people particularly in developing world. Besides several toxic tobacco constituents some metals and metalloids are also believed to pose health risks. This paper describes inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) quantification of some important metals and metalloids in various brands of smoked, sniffed, dipped and chewed tobacco products. Results A microwave-assisted digestion method was used for sample preparation. The method was validated by analyzing a certified reference material. Percentage relative standard deviation (% R.S.D.) between recovered and certified values was  r > 0.999. Improved limits of detection (LODs) were in range of ng/L for all elements. Fe, Al and Mn were found to be in the highest concentration in all types of tobacco products, while Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr were below the average concentration of 40 μg/g, and Pb, Co, As, Se and Cd were below 5 μg/g. All elements, apart from Pb, were high in concentration in dipping tobacco in comparison to other tobacco products. Generally, the order of all elemental concentration can be expressed in different tobacco products as chewing metalloids in a wide spectrum of tobacco formulations. The outcome of this study would be beneficial for health authorities and individuals. PMID:22709464

  20. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shum, Sam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization.

  1. Development of analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in sediment with Neutron ActivAtion method (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha

    2005-01-01

    The analytical methods for the determination of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) in sediment have been investigated with ICP-MS. The analytical results of major elements with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA. NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment, and NAA is a non-destructive analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) in sediment have been also studied with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration with ICP-MS were not accurate due to matrix interferences. Thus, internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor element with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments

  2. Vertically aligned Si nanocrystals embedded in amorphous Si matrix prepared by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogay, G. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Saleh, Z.M., E-mail: zaki.saleh@aauj.edu [Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Physics, Arab American University–Jenin (AAUJ), Jenin, Palestine (Country Unknown); Özkol, E. [Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Turan, R. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Center of Solar Energy Research and Application (GÜNAM), Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Inductively-coupled plasma is used for nanostructured silicon at room temperature. • Low temperature deposition allows device processing on various substrates. • Deposition pressure is the most effective parameter in controlling nanostructure. • Films consist of quantum dots in a-Si matrix and exhibit columnar vertical growth. • Films are porous to oxygen infusion along columnar grain boundaries. - Abstract: Vertically-aligned nanostructured silicon films are deposited at room temperature on p-type silicon wafers and glass substrates by inductively-coupled, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ICPCVD). The nanocrystalline phase is achieved by reducing pressure and increasing RF power. The crystalline volume fraction (X{sub c}) and the size of the nanocrystals increase with decreasing pressure at constant power. Columnar growth of nc-Si:H films is observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The films exhibit cauliflower-like structures with high porosity that leads to slow but uniform oxidation after exposure to air at room temperature. Films deposited at low pressures exhibit photoluminescence (PL) signals that may be deconvoluted into three distinct Gaussian components: 760–810, 920–935, and 990–1000 nm attributable to the quantum confinement and interface defect states. Hydrogen dilution is manifested in significant enhancement of the PL, but it has little effect on the nanocrystal size and X{sub c}.

  3. Characterization of Nanomaterials Using Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometery (FFF-ICP-MS and SP-ICP-MS): Scientific Operating Procedure SOP-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    constituents of Cadmium Selenide/Zinc Sulfide core-shell quantum dots, silver nanoparticles with gold seed cores, and gold nanoparticles. Additionally...nanoparticles from tissues is possible using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). Though any analysis described above is possible, only SP-ICP-MS has been...ENPs), through the various separation and detection techniques described above. These analytical tools were tested on a variety of gold and silver

  4. Optical emission spectroscopy of carbon laser plasma ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon laser plasma generated by an Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7 ns, fluence 4-52 J cm-2) is studied by optical emission spectroscopy and ion time-of-flight. Up to C4+ ions are detected with the ion flux strongly dependent on the laser fluence. The increase in ion charge with the laser fluence is accompanied by observation of multicharged ion lines in the optical spectra. The time-integrated electron temperature Te is calculated from the Boltzmann plot using the C II lines at 392.0, 426.7, and 588.9 nm. Te is found to increase from ∼0.83 eV for a laser fluence of 22 J cm-2 to ∼0.90 eV for 40 J cm-2. The electron density ne is obtained from the Stark broadened profiles of the C II line at 392 nm and is found to increase from ∼ 2 . 1 × 1017cm-3 for 4 J cm-2 to ∼ 3 . 5 × 1017cm-3 for 40 J cm-2. Applying an external electric field parallel to the expanding plume shows no effect on the line emission intensities. Deconvolution of ion time-of-flight signal with a shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for each charge state results in an ion temperature Ti ∼4.7 and ∼6.0 eV for 20 and 36 J cm-2, respectively.

  5. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for determination of Cr in soils from Brits District, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ambushe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS is an emerging analytical technique, which can be used to perform elemental analysis of any material, irrespective of its physical state. In this study, the LIBS technique has been applied for quantification of total Cr in soil samples collected from polluted areas of Brits, North West Province, South Africa. A Q-switched neodymium-yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd-YAG laser (10 Hz, λ = 1064 nm was employed for generation of a laser-induced plasma on the surface of the soil sample. The atomic emission lines were recorded using an Andor Shamrock SR-303i spectrometer, fitted with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD camera. Detailed investigation of experimental parameters such as gate delay time, gate width and laser pulse energy was conducted. Soil samples were dried, finely ground, sieved and thereafter pelletized before LIBS analysis. Calibration curve for the quantification of Cr was constructed using certified reference materials of soils and sediments. The concentrations of Cr in soil samples varied from 111 to 3180 mg/kg. In order to test the validity of the LIBS results, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was also employed for determination of Cr. The results obtained using LIBS were found to be in good agreement with those of ICP-MS.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i3.3

  6. Determination of trace amounts of rare-earth elements in highly pure neodymium oxide by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreira, W. R.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; da Silva Queiroz, C. A.; Rodrigues, C.; Tomiyoshi, I. A.; Abrão, A.

    2003-02-01

    Recently rare-earth elements (REE) have received much attention in fields of geochemistry and industry. Rapid and accurate determinations of them are increasingly required as industrial demands expand. Sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been applied to the determination of REE. HR ICP-MS was used as an element-selective detector for HPLC in highly pure materials. The separation of REE with HPLC helped to avoid erroneous analytical results due to spectral interferences. Sixteen elements (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system using a concentration gradient methods. The detection limits with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system were about 0.5-10 pg mL-1. The percentage recovery ranged from 90% to 100% for different REE. The %RSD of the methods varying between 2.5% and 4.5% for a set of five (n=5) replicates was found for the IPEN's material and for the certificate reference sample. Determination of trace REEs in two highly pure neodymium oxides samples (IPEN and Johnson Matthey Company) were performed. In short, the IPEN's materials which are highly pure (>99.9%) were successfully analyzed without spectral interferences.

  7. Determination of trace amounts of rare-earth elements in highly pure neodymium oxide by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedreira, W.R.; Sarkis, J.E.S.; Silva Queiroz, C.A. da; Rodrigues, C.; Tomiyoshi, I.A.; Abrao, A.

    2003-01-01

    Recently rare-earth elements (REE) have received much attention in fields of geochemistry and industry. Rapid and accurate determinations of them are increasingly required as industrial demands expand. Sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been applied to the determination of REE. HR ICP-MS was used as an element-selective detector for HPLC in highly pure materials. The separation of REE with HPLC helped to avoid erroneous analytical results due to spectral interferences. Sixteen elements (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system using a concentration gradient methods. The detection limits with the HPLC/ICP-SFMS system were about 0.5-10 pg mL -1 . The percentage recovery ranged from 90% to 100% for different REE. The %RSD of the methods varying between 2.5% and 4.5% for a set of five (n=5) replicates was found for the IPEN's material and for the certificate reference sample. Determination of trace REEs in two highly pure neodymium oxides samples (IPEN and Johnson Matthey Company) were performed. In short, the IPEN's materials which are highly pure (>99.9%) were successfully analyzed without spectral interferences

  8. A matrix effect and accuracy evaluation for the determination of elements in milk powder LIBS and laser ablation/ICP-OES spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilon, N; El-Haddad, J; Stankova, A; Lei, W; Ma, Q; Motto-Ros, V; Yu, J

    2011-11-01

    Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-OES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were investigated for the determination of Ca, Mg, Zn and Na in milk samples. The accuracy of both methods was evaluated by comparison of the concentration found using LA-ICP-OES and LIBS with classical wet digestion associated with ICP-OES determination. The results were not fully acceptable, with biases from less than 1% to more than 60%. Matrix effects were also investigated. The sample matrix can influence the temperature, electron number density (n (e)) and other excitation characteristics in the ICP. These ICP characteristics were studied and evaluated during ablation of eight milk samples. Differences in n (e) (from 8.9 to 13.8 × 10(14) cm(-3)) and rotational temperature (ranging from 3,400 to 4,400 K) occurred with no correlation with trueness. LIBS results obtained after classical external calibration procedure gave degraded accuracy, indicating a strong matrix effect. The LIBS measurements clearly showed that the major problem in LA-ICP was related to the ablation process and that LIBS spectroscopy is an excellent diagnostic tool for LA-ICP techniques.

  9. Plasma-cavity ringdown spectroscopy for analytical measurement: Progress and prospectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sida; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohe; Duan, Yixiang

    2013-07-01

    Plasma-cavity ringdown spectroscopy is a powerful absorption technique for analytical measurement. It combines the inherent advantages of high sensitivity, absolute measurement, and relative insensitivity to light source intensity fluctuations of the cavity ringdown technique with use of plasma as an atomization/ionization source. In this review, we briefly describe the background and principles of plasma-cavity ringdown spectroscopy(CRDS) technology, the instrumental components, and various applications. The significant developments of the plasma sources, lasers, and cavity optics are illustrated. Analytical applications of plasma-CRDS for elemental detection and isotopic measurement in atomic spectrometry are outlined in this review. Plasma-CRDS is shown to have a promising future for various analytical applications, while some further efforts are still needed in fields such as cavity design, plasma source design, instrumental improvement and integration, as well as potential applications in radical and molecular measurements.

  10. Determination of chromium, iron and selenium in foodstuffs of animal origin by collision cell technology, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after closed vessel microwave digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufailly, Vincent [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Qualite des Aliments et des procedees agroalimentaires - Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, 23, avenue du General de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France); Noel, Laurent [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Qualite des Aliments et des procedees agroalimentaires - Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, 23, avenue du General de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France); Guerin, Thierry [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Qualite des Aliments et des procedees agroalimentaires - Unite des Contaminants Inorganiques et Mineraux de l' Environnement, 23, avenue du General de Gaulle, F-94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)]. E-mail: t.guerin@afssa.fr

    2006-04-21

    The determination of chromium ({sup 52}Cr), iron ({sup 56}Fe) and selenium ({sup 80}Se) isotopes in foodstuffs of animal origin has been performed by collision cell technology (CCT) mode using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector after closed vessel microwave digestion. To significantly decrease the argon-based interferences at mass to charge ratios (m/z): 52 ({sup 40}Ar{sup 12}C), 56 ({sup 40}Ar{sup 16}O) and 80 ({sup 40}Ar{sup 40}Ar), the gas-flow rates of a helium and hydrogen mixture used in the hexapole collision cell were optimised to 1.5 ml min{sup -1} H{sub 2} and 0.5 ml min{sup -1} He and the quadrupole bias was adjusted daily between -2 and -15 mV. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.025, 0.086 and 0.041 mg kg{sup -1} for Cr, Fe and Se, respectively, in 6% HNO{sub 3} were estimated under optimized CCT conditions. These LOQ were improved by a factor of approximately 10 for each element compared to standard mode. Precision under repeatability, intermediate precision reproducibility and trueness have been tested on nine different certified reference materials in foodstuffs of animal origin and on an external proficiency testing scheme. The results obtained for chromium, iron and selenium were in all cases in good agreement with the certified values and trueness was improved, compared to those obtained in standard mode.

  11. The potential of using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS) in the forensic analysis of micro debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Cameron J; Watling, R John; Thomas, Allen G

    2005-08-15

    The majority of crimes result in the generation of some form of physical evidence, which is available for collection by crime scene investigators or police. However, this debris is often limited in amount as modern criminals become more aware of its potential value to forensic scientists. The requirement to obtain robust evidence from increasingly smaller sized samples has required refinement and modification of old analytical techniques and the development of new ones. This paper describes a new method for the analysis of oxy-acetylene debris, left behind at a crime scene, and the establishment of its co-provenance with single particles of equivalent debris found on the clothing of persons of interest (POI). The ability to rapidly determine and match the elemental distribution patterns of debris collected from crime scenes to those recovered from persons of interest is essential in ensuring successful prosecution. Traditionally, relatively large amounts of sample (up to several milligrams) have been required to obtain a reliable elemental fingerprint of this type of material [R.J. Walting , B.F. Lynch, D. Herring, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12 (1997) 195]. However, this quantity of material is unlikely to be recovered from a POI. This paper describes the development and application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS), as an analytical protocol, which can be applied more appropriately to the analysis of micro-debris than conventional quadrupole based mass spectrometry. The resulting data, for debris as small as 70mum in diameter, was unambiguously matched between a single spherule recovered from a POI and a spherule recovered from the scene of crime, in an analytical procedure taking less than 5min.

  12. Multi-element analysis of urine using dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS — A practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Brodzka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The method for the determination of As, Al, Cd, Ni, Pb (toxic elements and Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn (essential elements in human urine by the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (quadrupole ICP-MS DRCe Elan, Perkin Elmer with the dynamic reaction cell (DRC was developed. Materials and Methods: The method has been applied for multi-element analysis of the urine of 16 non-exposed healthy volunteers and 27 workers employed in a copper smelter. The analysis was conducted after initial 10-fold dilution of the urine samples with 0,1% nitric acid. Rhodium was used as an internal standard. The method validation parameters such as detection limit, sensitivity, precision were described for all elements. Accuracy of the method was checked by the regular use of certified reference materials ClinCheck®-Control Urine (Recipe as well as by participation of the laboratory in the German External Quality Assessment Scheme (G-EQUAS. Results: The detection limits (DL 3s of the applied method were 0.025, 0.007, 0.002, 0.004, 0.004, 0.086, 0.037, 0.009, 0.016, 0.008, 0.064 (μg/l for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn in urine, respectively. For each element linearity with correlation coefficient of at least 0.999 was determined. Spectral interferences from some of the ions were removed using DRC-e with addition of alternative gas: methane for cobalt, copper, cadmium, chromium, iron, manganese, nickel and rhodium, and oxygen for arsenic. Conclusions: The developed method allows to determine simultaneously eleven elements in the urine with low detection limits, high sensitivity and good accuracy. Moreover, the method is appropriate for the assessment of both environmental and occupational exposure.

  13. Evaluation of analytical procedures for the determination of cadmium, boron and lithium in UALx samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhen, Sabine Neusatz; Kakazu, Mauricio H.; Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza; Pires, Maria Aparecida Faustino; Souza, Alexandre Luiz de

    2013-01-01

    Used in over 80% of the worldwide diagnostic procedures, Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), which is obtained from the decay of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo), is the most important radioisotope in nuclear medicine. IPEN/CNEN-SP has been developing technologies in order to produce Mo-99 by the irradiation of low-enriched uranium (LEU < 20% of 235U) targets in its research reactor IEA-R1 (IPEN, Sao Paulo/Brazil). These targets consist of low enriched uranium dispersed in a matrix of aluminum (UAlx-Al). Several impurities may be incorporated during the target's production process, such as boron, cadmium and lithium, which have a high capture cross section that may reduce the irradiation's efficiency. This study describes a simple and rapid inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric method for the determination of cadmium, boron and lithium in uranium aluminum (UAlx) dispersion targets. The method involves a previous separation step, in which uranium gets removed from the matrix by chromatographic extraction with the use of a divinylbenzene resin Amberlite XAD - 4 doped with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). TBP selectively separates the uranium, leaving behind the impurities in an aqueous medium for a further quantification by ICP OES. Possible spectroscopic interferences are also discussed in this article, because of the high amount of aluminum in the remaining solution. Experimental and instrumental conditions, such as initial mass, acid solution ratio and amount, resin mass, emission lines and interfering concentrations are carefully established. This method is to be applied for the determination of several others impurities in UAlx in the future, providing means to verify the UAlx targets' compliance to the current established specifications through routine laboratory analysis. (author)

  14. Establishment of methodology for determination of {sup 93}Zr in radioactive wastes by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS); Estabelecimento de metodologia para determinacao de {sup 93}Zr em rejeitos radioativos por Espectrometria de Cintilacao Liquida (LSC) e Espectrometria de Massa com Plasma Indutivamente Acoplado (ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago Cesar de

    2014-06-01

    The zirconium-93 is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from {sup 235}U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope {sup 92}Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, {sup 93}Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of {sup 93}Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. The aim of this work was to develop a selective radiochemical separation methodology for the determination of {sup 93}Zr in nuclear waste and analyze it by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). To set up the radiochemical separation procedure for zirconium, a tracer solution of {sup 95}Zr and its 724 keV γ-ray measurements by γ- spectrometry were used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the radiochemical separation. For the LSC technique a {sup 55}Fe solution, which is one of the major interfering measures zirconium, was used to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. The efficiency detection for {sup 63}Ni was used to determination of {sup 93}Zr activity in the matrices analyzed. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq 1{sup −1} was obtained for {sup 63}Ni standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for Optiphase Hisafe 3 cocktail. For the ICP-MS technique a zirconium stable solution was used to verify the zirconium behavior and recovery during radiochemical separation and a solution of Ba, Co, Eu, Fe, Mn, Nb, Sr and Y was used to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. A standard solution {sup 93}Nb as isotope for determining the {sup 93}Zr by ICP-MS was used for calibration and analysis. The detection limit of 0.039 ppb was obtained for the standard

  15. Separation techniques for the clean-up of radioactive mixed waste for ICP-AES/ICP-MS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swafford, A.M.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Two separation techniques were investigated for the clean-up of typical radioactive mixed waste samples requiring elemental analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). These measurements frequently involve regulatory or compliance criteria which include the determination of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List (TAL). These samples usually consist of both an aqueous phase and a solid phase which is mostly an inorganic sludge. Frequently, samples taken from the waste tanks contain high levels of uranium and thorium which can cause spectral interferences in ICP-AES or ICP-MS analysis. The removal of these interferences is necessary to determine the presence of the EPA TAL elements in the sample. Two clean-up methods were studied on simulated aqueous waste samples containing the EPA TAL elements. The first method studied was a classical procedure based upon liquid-liquid extraction using tri-n- octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in cyclohexane. The second method investigated was based on more recently developed techniques using extraction chromatography; specifically the use of a commercially available Eichrom TRU·Spec trademark column. Literature on these two methods indicates the efficient removal of uranium and thorium from properly prepared samples and provides considerable qualitative information on the extraction behavior of many other elements. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the extraction behavior of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List. Experimental studies on these two methods consisted of determining whether any of the analytes were extracted by these methods and the recoveries obtained. Both methods produced similar results; the EPA target analytes were only slightly or not extracted. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were evaluated and found to be comparable

  16. Qualitative and quantitative spectro-chemical analysis of dates using UV-pulsed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehder, A O; Habibullah, Y B; Gondal, M A; Baig, Umair

    2016-08-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is demonstrated for the spectral analysis of nutritional and toxic elements present in several varieties of date fruit samples available in the Saudi Arabia market. The method analyzes the optical emission of a test sample when subjected to pulsed laser ablation. In this demonstration, our primary focus is on calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), as nutritional elements, and on chromium (Cr), as a toxic element. The local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) condition was confirmed prior to the elemental characterization of date samples to ensure accuracy of the LIBS analysis. This was achieved by measuring parameters associated with the plasma, such as the electron temperature and the electron number density. These plasma parameters aid interpretation of processes such as ionization, dissociation, and excitation occurring in the plasma plume formed by ablating the date palm sample. The minimum detection limit was established from calibration curves that involved plotting the LIBS signal intensity as a function of standard date samples with known concentrations. The concentration of Ca and Mg detected in different varieties of date samples was between 187 and 515 and 35-196mgL(-1) respectively, while Cr concentration measured between 1.72 and 7.76mgL(-1). In order to optimize our LIBS system, we have studied how the LIBS signal intensity depends on the incident laser energy and the delay time. In order to validate our LIBS analysis results, standard techniques such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were also applied on an identical (duplicate) date samples as those used for the LIBS analysis. The LIBS results exhibit remarkable agreement with those obtained from the ICP-MS analysis. In addition, the finger print wavelengths of other elements present in date samples were also identified and are reported here, which has not been previously reported, to the best of our knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  17. Standard test method for determining elements in waste Streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of trace, minor, and major elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) following an acid digestion of the sample. Waste streams from manufacturing processes of nuclear and non-nuclear materials can be analyzed. This test method is applicable to the determination of total metals. Results from this test method can be used to characterize waste received by treatment facilities and to formulate appropriate treatment recipes. The results are also usable in process control within waste treatment facilities. 1.2 This test method is applicable only to waste streams that contain radioactivity levels that do not require special personnel or environmental protection. 1.3 A list of the elements determined in waste streams and the corresponding lower reporting limit is found in Table 1. 1.4 This test method has been used successfully for treatment of a large variety of waste solutions and industrial process liquids. The com...

  18. Fingerprinting of complex mixtures with the use of high performance liquid chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yongnian; Peng Yunyan; Kokot, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The molecular and metal profile fingerprints were obtained from a complex substance, Atractylis chinensis DC-a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with the use of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) techniques. This substance was used in this work as an example of a complex biological material, which has found application as a TCM. Such TCM samples are traditionally processed by the Bran, Cut, Fried and Swill methods, and were collected from five provinces in China. The data matrices obtained from the two types of analysis produced two principal component biplots, which showed that the HPLC fingerprint data were discriminated on the basis of the methods for processing the raw TCM, while the metal analysis grouped according to the geographical origin. When the two data matrices were combined into a one two-way matrix, the resulting biplot showed a clear separation on the basis of the HPLC fingerprints. Importantly, within each different grouping the objects separated according to their geographical origin, and they ranked approximately in the same order in each group. This result suggested that by using such an approach, it is possible to derive improved characterisation of the complex TCM materials on the basis of the two kinds of analytical data. In addition, two supervised pattern recognition methods, K-nearest neighbors (KNNs) method, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were successfully applied to the individual data matrices-thus, supporting the PCA approach

  19. Emission Spectroscopy of OH Radical in Water-Argon Arc Plasma Jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašláni, Alan; Sember, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, April (2014), "952138"-"952138" ISSN 2314-4920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Emission spectroscopy * OH radical * arc plasma jet Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.538, year: 2014 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/952138/abs/

  20. Determination of the mineral compositions of some selected oil-bearing seeds and kernels using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Özcan, M.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to establish the mineral contents of oil-bearing seeds and kernels such as peanut, turpentine, walnut, hazelnut, sesame, corn, poppy, almond, sunflower etc., using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. Significant differences in mineral composition were observed among crops. All seeds and kernels contained high amounts of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P and Zn. B, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Sr, Ti while V contents of the crops were found to be very low. The levels of K and P of all crops in this study were found to be higher than those of other seeds and kernels. The results obtained from analyses of the crops showed that the mean levels of potassiumcontent ranged from 1701.08 mg/kg (corn to 20895.8 mg/kg (soybean, the average content of phosphorus ranged from 3076.9 mg/kg (turpentine to 12006,5 mg/kg to 2617.4 mg/kg (cotton seed, and Ca from 68.4 mg/kg (corn to 13195.7 mg/kg (poppy seed. The results show that these values may  be useful for the evaluation of dietary information. Particularly the obtained results provide evidence that soybean, pinestone and poppy seed are a good source of K, P and Ca, respectively. Whereas pinestone is a good source of zinc.La finalidad del trabajo es establecer el contenido en elementos minerales de semillas oleaginosas tales como cacahuetes, trementina, avellana, sesamo, maiz, almendras, girasol, utilizando ICP-AES. Se han observado diferencias significativas en la composición de minerales entre cosechas. Todas las semillas contienen cantidades elevadas de Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P y Zn. Los contenidos de B, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Sr, Ti y V, sin embargo, fueron bajos. Los contenidos de K y P en todas las semillas estudiadas fueron superiores a las de otras semillas. El contenido medio de K osciló entre 1.701,1 mg/kg (maiz a 20.895,8 mg/kg (soja, el P entre 3.076.9 mg/kg (trementina a 12.006.5 mg/kg o 2.617,4 mg/kg (semilla de algodón, y Ca de 68,4 mg/kg (maiz a 13.195,7 mg

  1. Features of laser spectroscopy and diagnostics of plasma ions in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A F; Fomichev, S V

    2003-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence and laser absorption spectroscopies of plasma ions in high magnetic fields have been investigated. Both the high degree of Zeeman splitting of the resonant transitions and the ion rotational movement drastically change the properties of the resonance interaction of the continuous wave laser radiation with ions in highly magnetized plasma. Numerical solution of the density matrix equation for a dissipative two-level system with time-dependent detuning from resonance was used to analyse this interaction. A theoretical simulation was performed and compared with the experimental results obtained from the laser spectroscopy diagnostics of barium plasma ions in high magnetic fields in the several tesla range

  2. Proceedings of the 3rd US-Japan Workshop on Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P; Flyimoto, T

    2002-01-01

    The third US-Japan Workshop on Plasma Polarization Spectroscopy was held at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, on June 18-21, 2001. The talks presented at this workshop are summarized in these proceedings. The papers cover both experimental investigation and applications of plasma polarization spectroscopy as well as the theoretical foundation and formalisms to understand and describe the polarization phenomena. The papers give an overview of the history of plasma polarization spectroscopy, derive the formal aspects of polarization spectroscopy, including the effects of electric and magnetic fields, discuss spectra perturbed by intense microwave fields, charge exchange, and dielectronic recombination, and present calculations of various collisional excitation and ionization cross sections and the modeling of plasma polarization spectroscopy phenomena. Experimental results are given from the WT-3 tokamak, the MST reverse field pinch, the Large Helical Device, the GAMMA 10 mirror machine, the Nevada Terrawatt Facility, the Livermore EBIT-II electron beam ion trap, and beam-foil spectroscopy. In addition, results were presented from studies of several laser-produced plasma experiments and new instrumental techniques were demonstrated

  3. Determination of Aluminium Content in Aluminium Hydroxide Formulation by FT-NIR Transmittance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Xuxin; Zheng, Yiwu; Søndergaard, Ib

    2007-01-01

    A method for determining the aluminium content of an aluminium hydroxide suspension using near infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy has been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used as reference method. The factors influencing the NIR analysis...... aluminium content in aluminium hydroxide suspension. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Examining Heavy Metals in Acid Mine Drainage Wetlands in Western Pennsylvania through the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Drone Aerial Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, N.; Mount, G.

    2017-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) emanating from three abandoned mines feed an estimated 126 pounds of iron per day into the Tanoma remediation wetlands located in Tanoma, Pennsylvania. Along with the iron released into the system, 1500-2800 gallons of AMD per minute is seasonally discharged into the passive system. This high rate of discharge produces areas of high velocity flow that scour the wetland bottom moving precipitants and destroying vegetation roots. Although the discharge into Tanoma is known to be damaging, other discharges to surface waters have shown iron and heavy metal concentrations several times higher, and are left untreated to enter reservoir systems. This draws attention to these remediation sites, the processes used to treat them, and the effectiveness of each site. With most of the research that's been conducted in the AMD remediation field relating to in-lab experiments on iron concentrations, there is very little information in the literature about the effects of these large influxes of heavy metals and the effects it has on the biodiversity and methane production within a AMD remediation site. This research investigates the presence and concentration of heavy metals with the treatment wetland and other surface water sources using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and drone based aerial photography. Furthermore, our ICP data is compared with biodiversity patterns and methane levels within the Tanoma AMD site to identify relationships and the potential effect they have on the productivity and effectiveness of the remediation site through time.

  5. Plasma-cavity ringdown spectroscopy for analytical measurement: Progress and prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Sida; Liu, Wei [Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Analytical and Testing Center, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Zhang, Xiaohe [College of Water Resources and Hydropower, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Duan, Yixiang, E-mail: yduan@scu.edu.cn [Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Analytical and Testing Center, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2013-07-01

    Plasma-cavity ringdown spectroscopy is a powerful absorption technique for analytical measurement. It combines the inherent advantages of high sensitivity, absolute measurement, and relative insensitivity to light source intensity fluctuations of the cavity ringdown technique with use of plasma as an atomization/ionization source. In this review, we briefly describe the background and principles of plasma-cavity ringdown spectroscopy(CRDS) technology, the instrumental components, and various applications. The significant developments of the plasma sources, lasers, and cavity optics are illustrated. Analytical applications of plasma-CRDS for elemental detection and isotopic measurement in atomic spectrometry are outlined in this review. Plasma-CRDS is shown to have a promising future for various analytical applications, while some further efforts are still needed in fields such as cavity design, plasma source design, instrumental improvement and integration, as well as potential applications in radical and molecular measurements. - Highlights: • Plasma-based cavity ringdown spectroscopy • High sensitivity and high resolution • Elemental and isotopic measurements.

  6. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) Imaging of Cerebral Ischemia: Combined Analysis of Rat Brain Thin Cuts Toward Improved Tissue Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbekova, Anna; Lohninger, Hans; van Tilborg, Geralda A F; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Bonta, Maximilian; Limbeck, Andreas; Lendl, Bernhard; Al-Saad, Khalid A; Ali, Mohamed; Celikic, Minja; Ofner, Johannes

    2018-02-01

    Microspectroscopic techniques are widely used to complement histological studies. Due to recent developments in the field of chemical imaging, combined chemical analysis has become attractive. This technique facilitates a deepened analysis compared to single techniques or side-by-side analysis. In this study, rat brains harvested one week after induction of photothrombotic stroke were investigated. Adjacent thin cuts from rats' brains were imaged using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The LA-ICP-MS data were normalized using an internal standard (a thin gold layer). The acquired hyperspectral data cubes were fused and subjected to multivariate analysis. Brain regions affected by stroke as well as unaffected gray and white matter were identified and classified using a model based on either partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) or random decision forest (RDF) algorithms. The RDF algorithm demonstrated the best results for classification. Improved classification was observed in the case of fused data in comparison to individual data sets (either FT-IR or LA-ICP-MS). Variable importance analysis demonstrated that both molecular and elemental content contribute to the improved RDF classification. Univariate spectral analysis identified biochemical properties of the assigned tissue types. Classification of multisensor hyperspectral data sets using an RDF algorithm allows access to a novel and in-depth understanding of biochemical processes and solid chemical allocation of different brain regions.

  7. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper concentrates on reviewing highlights of the Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) results on thermal plasmas, particularly supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies from the Einstein observatory. During Einstein's short but happy life, we made over 400 observations with the FPCS of 40 different objects. Three quarters of these were objects in which the emission was primarily from optically thin thermal plasma, primarily supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies. Thermal plasmas provide an excellent illustration of how spectral data, particularly high resolution spectral data, can be an important tool for probing the physical properties of astrophysical objects. (author)

  8. Plasma wave detection in laser spectroscopy and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzke, J.; Irmer, A. von; Veza, D.; Niemax, K.

    1995-01-01

    Frequency changes of plasma oscillations in low-pressure discharges are used for sensitive detection of atomic or molecular trace gases. Analyte selectivity can be either obtained by resonant laser excitation or by gas chromatography

  9. Spectroscopy of X-ray Photoionized Plasmas in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedahl, Duane A.; Loisel, Guillaume; Bailey, James E.; Nagayama, Taisuke; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Rochau, Gregory; Fontes, Christopher J.; Mancini, Roberto; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2018-06-01

    The physical processes operating in astrophysical plasmas --- heating, cooling, ionization, recombination, level population kinetics, and radiation transport --- are all accessible to observation in the laboratory. What distinguishes X-ray photoionized plasmas from the more common case of high-temperature collisionally-ionized plasmas is the elevated level of importance of the radiation/matter interaction. The advent of laboratory facilities with the capability to generate high-powered X-ray sources has provided the means by which to study this interaction, which is also fundamental to active galactic nuclei and other accretion-powered objects. We discuss recent and ongoing experiments, with an emphasis on X-ray spectroscopic measurements of silicon plasmas obtained at the Sandia Z Pulsed Power Facility.

  10. Elemental mapping in fossil tooth root section of Ursus arctos by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašinová Galiová, M.; Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam; Kynický, J.; Prokeš, L.; Neff, H.; Mason, A. Z.; Gadas, P.; Košler, J.; Kanický, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 105, 15 February 2013 (2013), s. 235-243 ISSN 0039-9140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Diagenesis * Diet * Geochemical analysis * Laser ablation ICP-MS * Migration Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 3.511, year: 2013

  11. Characterisation of a micro-plasma device sensor using electrical measurements and emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, D.

    2002-04-01

    This thesis reports on research undertaken on the characterisation of a micro-plasma device to be used for gas analysis by mean of plasma emission spectroscopy. The work covers aspects related to the micro-plasma electrical and optical emission parameters, and their importance for the utilisation of the micro-plasma device in gas analysis. Experimental results have been used to analyse the fundamental micro-plasma processes and to develop a model, which could provide additional information. This dissertation contains a general literature review of topics related to plasma physics, plasma emission spectroscopy, gas analysis (chemical analysis and artificial olfaction) and other micro-plasma applications. Experimental work focuses on two main areas: electrical measurements and emission measurements. Firstly, electrical measurements are taken and interpretations are given. Where necessary, new theoretical treatments are suggested in order to describe better the physical phenomena. Plasma emission has been considered under different working conditions. This allowed the characterisation of the micro-plasma emission and also a better understanding of the micro-plasma processes. On the basis of the experimental data obtained and other assumptions a model has been developed. A computer simulation based on this model provided additional useful information on the micro- plasma behaviour. The first fundamental implication of this new research is the peculiar behaviour of the micro-plasma. This micro-plasma exhibited deviations from Paschen law and strong dependency on cathode material, which contributed to the formation of a low current stable regime. These results have been followed by physical interpretations and theoretical descriptions. The second implication is the establishment of the boundaries and of the influencing parameters for plasma emission spectroscopy as an analytical tool in this particular micro-plasma. From the applied perspective this study has shown that

  12. Plasma Diagnostics in High Density Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daltrini, A. M.; Moshkalyov, S.; Monteiro, M. J. R.; Machida, M.; Kostryukov, A.; Besseler, E.; Biasotto, C.; Diniz, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Langmuir electric probes and optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics were developed for applications in high density plasmas. These diagnostics were employed in two plasma sources: an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and an RF driven inductively coupled plasma (ICP) plasma. Langmuir probes were tested using a number of probing dimensions, probe tip materials, circuits for probe bias and filters. Then, the results were compared with the optical spectroscopy measurements. With these diagnostics, analyses of various plasma processes were performed in both reactors. For example, it has been shown that species like NH radicals generated in gas phase can have critical impact on films deposited by ECR plasmas. In the ICP source, plasmas in atomic and molecular gases were shown to have different spatial distributions, likely due to nonlocal electron heating. The low-to-high density transitions in the ICP plasma were also studied. The role of metastables is shown to be significant in Ar plasmas, in contrast to plasmas with additions of molecular gases

  13. Investigations of GMAW plasma by optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinska, S [Instytut Fizyki im. Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Musiol, K [Instytut Fizyki im. Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Dzierzega, K [Instytut Fizyki im. Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Pellerin, S [LASEP, Faculte des Sciences-Bourges, Universite d' Orleans, BP 4043, 18028 Bourges Cedex (France); Valensi, F [LASEP, Faculte des Sciences-Bourges, Universite d' Orleans, BP 4043, 18028 Bourges Cedex (France); Izarra, Ch de [LASEP, Faculte des Sciences-Bourges, Universite d' Orleans, BP 4043, 18028 Bourges Cedex (France); Briand, F [CTAS - Air Liquide Welding, Rue des Epluches, Saint Ouen l' Aumone (France)

    2007-11-15

    We report on investigations of gas metal arc welding plasma operated in pure argon and in a mixture of argon and CO{sub 2} at a dc current of 326 A. The spatially resolved electron densities and temperatures were directly obtained by measuring the Stark widths of the Ar I 695.5 nm and Fe I 538.3 nm spectral lines. Our experimental results show a reduction of the plasma conductivity and transfer from spray arc to globular arc operation with increasing CO{sub 2} concentration. Although the electron density n{sub e} increases while approaching the core of the plasma in the spray-arc mode, a drop in the electron temperature T{sub e} is observed. Moreover, the maximum T{sub e} that we measure is about 13 000 K. Our experimental results differ from the Haidar model where T{sub e} is always maximum on the arc axis and its values exceed 20 000 K. These discrepancies can be explained as a result of underestimation of the amount of metal vapours in the plasma core and of the assumption of local thermal equilibrium plasma in the model.

  14. Plasma diagnostics in the CECI device through visible spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, M.; Kayama, M.E.; Aso, Y.

    1991-11-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of a visible spectrometer which was used to diagnose a plasma produced in an RFP device, called CECI. A Jobin Yvon, HR-640 S spectrometer with a photomultiplier detector was used to measure the Doppler broadening of lines emitted by the plasma, and allowed to measure the ion temperatures of the order of 2-3 eV. The electron temperature of 40-50 eV was determined by the method of He I line intensity ratio. The spectroscopically determined ion temperature is in better accordance with the 10 eV electron temperature obtained with an electrostatic probe. The line emissions of He II, H I, C II and O II were compared with signals from other diagnostics, and their correlations indicated the presence of MHD instabilities in the plasma. (author)

  15. Investigation of spectral interference effects on determination of uranium concentration in phosphate ore by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachari, Ayoob H.; Jalali, Fatemeh; Alahyarizadeh, Ghasem [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Engineering Dept.

    2017-04-01

    Effects of spectral interferences on determination of the uranium concentration in phosphate ore were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Eleven high intensity emission lines including four lines recommended by ICP-OES apparatus were chosen to determine the uranium concentration. The ore samples were collected from phosphate acid producing industry in the south of Iran. Three different acid combinations [(HNO{sub 3}:HCl:HF-2:6:2), (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}:H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:HF-3:3:3), (HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:HF-4:2:2)] used in microwave digestion method to explore the spectral interference effects in different solvent environments. The results showed that the trusty uranium concentration, obtained in the 367.007 nm, 386.592 nm, 389.036 nm and 409.014 nm by second acid digestion method which were 0.665 ppm, 0.972 ppm, 0.670 ppm and 0.801 ppm, respectively. Although the line of 409.014 nm was reported as the best line for determining of the uranium concentration in several literatures, the results showed that this line has a significant spectral interference with vanadium in some ores which should be considered in determining of the uranium concentration. Spectral interference effects of some elements which have high concentrations in the phosphate ore including Ca, Fe, Mg, Pb, V, Mn, and Ti on the line intensities were also investigated. Results indicated that the chosen elements affect emission intensities of all of 11 lines. They also indicated that the line of 409.014 nm provides a trusty precision in the determination of the uranium concentration in the ore sample with low vanadium concentration (at least, U/V ratio of 1:5). Results show that the line of 409.014 nm provides acceptable precision with some corrections in comparison with other selected lines. For instance in high concentrations of other elements including Fe and Ti in the ore samples, strong influences on the line intensities of the 367.007 nm (by Fe

  16. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of laser generated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Rosmej, F.B.

    1999-01-01

    The application of recently developed spectroscopic instruments in laser produced plasmas with simultaneous high spectral and spatial resolution combined with high luminosity discovered new types of X-ray spectra. These new types are characterised by the disappearance of the resonance lines and the strong emission of dielectronic satellite spectra. Several types of transitions of highly charged ions are discovered which are unknown from usual sources employed in atomic physics. New theoretical models are developed and successfully applied for the interpretation and for plasma diagnostics. (orig.)

  17. Electron temperature measurements in lowdensity plasmas by helium spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, N.

    1977-09-01

    This method to use relative intensities of singlet and triplet lines of neutral helium to measure electron temperature in low-density plasmas is examined. Calculations from measured and theoretical data about transitions in neutral helium are carried out and compared to experimental results. It is found that relative intensities of singlet and triplet lines from neutral helium only can be used for TE determination in low-density, short-duration plasmas. The most important limiting processes are excitation from the metastable 2 3 S level and excitation transfer in collisions between electrons and excited helium atoms. An evaluation method is suggested, which minimizes the effect of these processes. (author)

  18. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of laser generated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Rosmej, F.B. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1999-11-01

    The application of recently developed spectroscopic instruments in laser produced plasmas with simultaneous high spectral and spatial resolution combined with high luminosity discovered new types of X-ray spectra. These new types are characterised by the disappearance of the resonance lines and the strong emission of dielectronic satellite spectra. Several types of transitions of highly charged ions are discovered which are unknown from usual sources employed in atomic physics. New theoretical models are developed and successfully applied for the interpretation and for plasma diagnostics. (orig.) 28 refs.

  19. Analysis of organic pollutant degradation in pulsed plasma by coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratescu, Maria Antoneta; Hieda, Junko; Umemura, Tomonari; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in water was investigated by the coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method, in which the change of the anti-Stokes signal intensity corresponding to the vibrational transitions of the molecule is monitored during and after solution plasma processing (SPP). In the beginning of SPP treatment, the CARS signal intensity of the ring vibrational molecular transitions at 1233 and 1660 cm -1 increases under the influence of the electric field of the plasma, depending on the delay time between the plasma pulse and the laser firing pulse. At the same time, the plasma contributes to the degradation of p-BQ molecules by generating hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals, which decompose p-BQ into different carboxylic acids. After SPP, the CARS signal intensity of the vibrational bands of p-BQ ceased and the degradation of p-BQ was confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography analysis.

  20. Time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy for study of chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Deng, Leimin; Fan, Lisha; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yao; Shen, Xiaokang; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-François; Lu, Yongfeng

    2017-10-30

    Identification of chemical intermediates and study of chemical reaction pathways and mechanisms in laser-induced plasmas are important for laser-ablated applications. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), as a promising spectroscopic technique, is efficient for elemental analyses but can only provide limited information about chemical products in laser-induced plasmas. In this work, time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy was studied as a promising tool for the study of chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas. Resonance fluorescence excitation of diatomic aluminum monoxide (AlO) and triatomic dialuminum monoxide (Al 2 O) was used to identify these chemical intermediates. Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of AlO and Al 2 O were used to observe the temporal evolution in laser-induced Al plasmas and to study their formation in the Al-O 2 chemistry in air.

  1. Collisional-radiative model: a plasma spectroscopy theory for experimentalists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Sawada, Keiji

    1997-01-01

    The rate equation describing the population n(p) of an excited (and the ground state) level p of ions immersed in plasma is shown. In 1962, the method of quasi-steady state solution (collisional-radiative model) was proposed. Its idea is explained. The coupled differential equations reduce to a set of coupled linear equations for excited levels. The solution of these coupled equations is presented. The equations giving the ionization and recombination of this system of ions under consideration are described in terms of the effective rate coefficients. The collisional-radiative ionization and recombination rate coefficients are expressed in terms of the population coefficients for p > 1. As for ionizing plasma, the excited level populations, the populations, the population distribution among the excited levels, two regimes of the excited levels, the dominant flows of electrons among the levels and so on are shown. As for recombining plasma, the excited level populations, the population distribution among the excited levels, the dominant flows of electrons and so on are shown. Ionization balance plasma may be considered. (K.I.)

  2. Emission spectroscopy of hydrogen molecules in technical and divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantz, U.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the diagnostics of hydrogen molecules in technical plasmas (MW and RF discharges) and in divertor plasmas of fusion experiments (ASDEX Upgrade / Tokamak at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Garching near Munich, Germany). The Fulcher transition in the visible spectral range was chosen for analysis since this is the most prominent band in the spectrum of molecular hydrogen. Examples for diagnostics of molecular densities will be given, and the problems arising in the interpretation of spectra will be discussed. In divertor plasmas the diagnostics of molecular.uxes will be introduced and the contribution of molecules to the plasma recombination will be discussed. Results for vibrational populations in the ground state and the correlation to the upper Fulcher state will be given, providing an electron temperature diagnostic. Finally, the in.uence of surfaces (high-grade steel and graphite) on vibrational populations and on re.ection coe.cients of atoms will be shown. Special attention is given on a comparison of the isotopes hydrogen and deuterium. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Induction plasma-sprayed photocatalytically active titania coatings and their characterisation by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burlacov, I.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Muller, M.; Heimann, R. B.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 201, 1-2 (2006), s. 255-264 ISSN 0257-8972 Grant - others:European Communities(XE) EVKI-2002-30025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : titania (anatase) coatings * induction plasma spraying * suspension plasma spraying * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2006

  4. X-ray Spectroscopy of Hot Dense Plasmas: Experimental Limits, Line Shifts and Field Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Oldrich; Sauvan, Patrick; Dalimier, Elisabeth; Riconda, Caterina; Rosmej, Frank B.; Weber, Stefan; Nicolai, Philippe; Peyrusse, Olivier; Uschmann, Ingo; Hoefer, Sebastian; Kaempfer, Tino; Loetzsch, Robert; Zastrau, Ulf; Foerster, Eckhart; Oks, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is capable of providing complex information on environmental conditions in hot dense plasmas. Benefiting from application of modern spectroscopic methods, we report experiments aiming at identification of different phenomena occurring in laser-produced plasma. Fine features observed in broadened profiles of the emitted x-ray lines and their satellites are interpreted using theoretical models predicting spectra modification under diverse experimental situations.

  5. Time-resolved tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy of pulsed plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Petr; Olejníček, Jiří; Čada, Martin; Kment, Š.; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 14 (2013), s. 2428-2430 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12045; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/0386; GA MŠk LD12002; GA MŠk LH12043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diode laser s * plasma diagnostics * absorption spectroscopy * time resolved Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.179, year: 2013

  6. Review of x-ray spectroscopy from laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    Recent progress in x-ray spectroscopy from laser plasmas is reviewed. Advances in the use of K-shell spectra as a diagnostic tool is discussed. Much activity in understanding complex spectra especially from Ne I and Ni I isoelectronic series have been made. Much of the progress has been due to observation of amplification from Δn = O transitions from these configurations. The spectroscopy will be discussed and examples of spectra of the amplified lines will be shown. Finally, recent work on using x-ray spectroscopy to diagnose high density implosions will be discussed. 33 refs

  7. An environmentally-friendly, highly efficient, gas pressure-assisted sample introduction system for ICP-MS and its application to detection of cadmium and lead in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yupin; Deng, Biyang; Yan, Lizhen; Huang, Hongli

    2017-05-15

    An environmentally friendly and highly efficient gas pressure-assisted sample introduction system (GPASIS) was developed for inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A GPASIS consisting of a gas-pressure control device, a customized nebulizer, and a custom-made spray chamber was fabricated. The advantages of this GPASIS derive from its high nebulization efficiencies, small sample volume requirements, low memory effects, good precision, and zero waste emission. A GPASIS can continuously, and stably, nebulize 10% NaCl solution for more than an hour without clogging. Sensitivity, detection limits, precision, long-term stability, double charge and oxide ion levels, nebulization efficiencies, and matrix effects of the sample introduction system were evaluated. Experimental results indicated that the performance of this GPASIS, was equivalent to, or better than, those obtained by conventional sample introduction systems. This GPASIS was successfully used to determine Cd and Pb by ICP-MS in human plasma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Separation, preconcentration and estimation of rare earth and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) in thorium matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Prithwish; Kumar Vijay; Durani, Smeer; Satyanarayana, K.

    2007-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and efficient method is developed for the separation of Rare earth elements (REEs) La-Lu, and Y and some trace elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni,V, Zn from thorium matrix and their subsequent estimations by ICP-AES. In thorium-rich geological samples, the estimation of REE's by ICP-AES suffers from the spectral interferences due to the presence of excess of Th. In the proposed method, thorium is separated from the matrix by the solvent extraction. To optimize the separation, of REEs and trace elements from Th matrix, synthetic mixture solutions was prepared containing Th, REEs and trace elements maintaining different acidic conditions (1M, 2M, 4M, 6M, 8M and 10M HNO 3 and 2M, 4M, 6M and 8M HCl) and each solution was subjected to solvent extraction. The solvent extraction was carried out using a mixture of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (in 30 % Toluene) and 1- pentanol in the ratio of 5:1. The aqueous phase containing the required elements was evaporated to dryness and an acidity of 5% HCl is maintained in final volume. Solutions were analysed by ICP-AES and the quantitative recovery of REEs and trace elements were obtained at 6M HNO 3 acidity. The developed method was applied to the certified standard reference material: IGS-36 and the values obtained were comparable with the certified values. The method was also applied to the real time monazite sample and the recovery was quantitative. Corrections have been applied for the REEs inter-elemental interferences in ICP-AES. (author)

  9. Accurate determination of Curium and Californium isotopic ratios by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 248Cm samples for transmutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourgiotis, A.; Isnard, H.; Aubert, M.; Dupont, E.; AlMahamid, I.; Cassette, P.; Panebianco, S.; Letourneau, A.; Chartier, F.; Tian, G.; Rao, L.; Lukens, W.

    2011-02-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments including the mini-INCA (INcineration of Actinides) project for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron fluxes, in view of proposing solutions to reduce the radiotoxicity of long-lived nuclear wastes. In this context, a Cm sample enriched in {sup 248}Cm ({approx}97 %) was irradiated in thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). This work describes a quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QMS) analytical procedure for precise and accurate isotopic composition determination of Cm before sample irradiation and of Cm and Cf after sample irradiation. The factors that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of isotopic ratio measurements by ICP-QMS, such as peak centre correction, detector dead time, mass bias, abundance sensitivity and hydrides formation, instrumental background, and memory blank were carefully evaluated and corrected. Uncertainties of the isotopic ratios, taking into account internal precision of isotope ratio measurements, peak tailing, and hydrides formations ranged from 0.3% to 1.3%. This uncertainties range is quite acceptable for the nuclear data to be used in transmutation studies.

  10. CN emission spectroscopy study of carbon plasma in nitrogen environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T.; Bendib, A.; Malek, S.

    2005-01-01

    Spectroscopic emission diagnostics of a carbon plasma created by an excimer KrF laser pulse at three laser fluences (12, 25 and 32 J/cm 2 ) is performed under nitrogen ambient at pressures of 0.5 and 1 mbar. By following the time evolution of the radical CN spectral emission profiles, we notice, at a certain distance from the target surface, the existence of twin peaks for the time of flight distribution. This double structure depends on laser fluence and gas pressure parameters. The first peak moves forward in relation with the plasma expansion whereas the second peak moves backward and it is attributed to CN species undergoing oscillations or reflected shocks

  11. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of plasma lipoproteins in malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabholtz, J.M.; Rossignol, A.; Farnier, M.; Gambert, P.; Tremeaux, J.C.; Friedman, S.; Guerrin, J.

    1988-01-01

    A recent study described a method of detecting malignant tumors by water-supressed proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) study of plasma. We performed a similar study of the W 1/2, a mean of the full width at half height of the resonances of the methyl and methylene groups of the lipids of plasma lipoproteins which is inversely related to the spin-spin apparent relaxation time (T 2 * ). W 1/2 values were measured at a fixed baseline width of 310 Hz. The study was prospective and blinded and comprised 182 subjects consisting of 40 controls, 68 patients with untreated malignancies, 45 with malignant tumors undergoing therapy and 29 benign tumor patients. No differences were seen between any groups that could serve as a basis for a useful clinical test. The major difficulty in the determination of W 1/2 was due to interference of metabolite protons (particularly lactate) within the lipoprotein resonance signal. Triglyceride level was seen to correlate inversely with W 1/2 within malignant patient groups. These discrepant results may be related to differing triglyceride-rich very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels in the ;atient populations of each study. We conclude that the water-suppressed 1H NMR of plasma lipoproteins is not a valid measurement for assessing malignancy. (orig.)

  12. On the potential of CARS spectroscopy in low-temperature plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrazyavichyus, A.B.; Gladkov, S.M.; Grigajtis, Yu.P.; Koroteev, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    The principles of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and its application to the diagnostics of technological plasmas are briefly discussed. THe CARS spectrometer is described, developed in IPTPE, Caunas for investigations of a nitrogen plasma stream generated by an industrial plasmatron, and several CARS spectra of nitrogen molecules are presented. As the CARS signal from vibrational-rotational energy levels decreases substantially at plasma temperatures above 2000 K, an alternative scheme using electronlevels of atoms or ions has to be used. To test the method, CARS signals from the lines of the first nitrogen ion were studied in a low-voltage spark discharge. (J.U.)

  13. Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babushok, V.I.; DeLucia, F.C.; Gottfried, J.L.; Munson, C.A.; Miziolek, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    A review of recent results of the studies of double laser pulse plasma and ablation for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy applications is presented. The double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy configuration was suggested with the aim of overcoming the sensitivity shortcomings of the conventional single pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. Several configurations have been suggested for the realization of the double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique: collinear, orthogonal pre-spark, orthogonal pre-heating and dual pulse crossed beam modes. In addition, combinations of laser pulses with different wavelengths, different energies and durations were studied, thus providing flexibility in the choice of wavelength, pulse width, energy and pulse sequence. The double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy approach provides a significant enhancement in the intensity of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy emission lines up to two orders of magnitude greater than a conventional single pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. The double pulse technique leads to a better coupling of the laser beam with the plasma plume and target material, thus providing a more temporally effective energy delivery to the plasma and target. The experimental results demonstrate that the maximum effect is obtained at some optimum separation delay time between pulses. The optimum value of the interpulse delay depends on several factors, such as the target material, the energy level of excited states responsible for the emission, and the type of enhancement process considered. Depending on the specified parameter, the enhancement effects were observed on different time scales ranging from the picosecond time level (e.g., ion yield, ablation mass) up to the hundred microsecond level (e.g., increased emission intensity for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of submerged metal target in water). Several suggestions have been proposed to explain

  14. Determination of (90)Sr in soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, J; Boulyga, S F; Galler, P; Stingeder, G; Prohaska, T

    2008-11-01

    A rapid method is reported for the determination of (90)Sr in contaminated soil samples in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant by ICP-DRC-MS. Sample preparation and measurement procedures focus on overcoming the isobaric interference of (90)Zr, which is present in soils at concentrations higher by more than six orders of magnitude than (90)Sr. Zirconium was separated from strontium in two steps to reduce the interference by (90)Zr(+) ions by a factor of more than 10(7): (i) by ion exchange using a Sr-specific resin and (ii) by reaction with oxygen as reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of a quadrupole ICP-MS. The relative abundance sensitivity of the ICP-MS was studied systematically and the peak tailing originating from (88)Sr on mass 90 u was found to be about 3 x 10(-9). Detection limits of 4 fg g(-1) (0.02 Bq g(-1)) were achieved when measuring Sr solutions containing no Zr. In digested uncontaminated soil samples after matrix separation as well as in a solution of 5 microg g(-1) Sr and 50 ng g(-1) Zr a detection limit of 0.2 pg g(-1) soil (1 Bq g(-1) soil) was determined. (90)Sr concentrations in three soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were 4.66+/-0.27, 13.48+/-0.68 and 12.9+/-1.5 pg g(-1) corresponding to specific activities of 23.7+/-1.3, 68.6+/-3.5 and 65.6+/-7.8 Bq g(-1), respectively. The ICP-DRC-MS results were compared to the activities measured earlier by radiometry. Although the ICP-DRC-MS is inferior to commonly used radiometric methods with respect to the achievable minimum detectable activity it represents a time- and cost-effective alternative technique for fast monitoring of high-level (90)Sr contamination in environmental or nuclear industrial samples down to activities of about 1 Bq g(-1).

  15. Determination of 90Sr in soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerstein, J.; Boulyga, S.F.; Galler, P.; Stingeder, G.; Prohaska, T.

    2008-01-01

    A rapid method is reported for the determination of 90 Sr in contaminated soil samples in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant by ICP-DRC-MS. Sample preparation and measurement procedures focus on overcoming the isobaric interference of 90 Zr, which is present in soils at concentrations higher by more than six orders of magnitude than 90 Sr. Zirconium was separated from strontium in two steps to reduce the interference by 90 Zr + ions by a factor of more than 10 7 : (i) by ion exchange using a Sr-specific resin and (ii) by reaction with oxygen as reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of a quadrupole ICP-MS. The relative abundance sensitivity of the ICP-MS was studied systematically and the peak tailing originating from 88 Sr on mass 90 u was found to be about 3 x 10 -9 . Detection limits of 4 fg g -1 (0.02 Bq g -1 ) were achieved when measuring Sr solutions containing no Zr. In digested uncontaminated soil samples after matrix separation as well as in a solution of 5 μg g -1 Sr and 50 ng g -1 Zr a detection limit of 0.2 pg g -1 soil (1 Bq g -1 soil) was determined. 90 Sr concentrations in three soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were 4.66 ± 0.27, 13.48 ± 0.68 and 12.9 ± 1.5 pg g -1 corresponding to specific activities of 23.7 ± 1.3, 68.6 ± 3.5 and 65.6 ± 7.8 Bq g -1 , respectively. The ICP-DRC-MS results were compared to the activities measured earlier by radiometry. Although the ICP-DRC-MS is inferior to commonly used radiometric methods with respect to the achievable minimum detectable activity it represents a time- and cost-effective alternative technique for fast monitoring of high-level 90 Sr contamination in environmental or nuclear industrial samples down to activities of about 1 Bq g -1

  16. Determination of {sup 90}Sr in soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuerstein, J.; Boulyga, S.F.; Galler, P.; Stingeder, G. [Department of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry-VIRIS Laboratory, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Prohaska, T. [Department of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry-VIRIS Laboratory, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: thomas.prohaska@boku.ac.at

    2008-11-15

    A rapid method is reported for the determination of {sup 90}Sr in contaminated soil samples in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant by ICP-DRC-MS. Sample preparation and measurement procedures focus on overcoming the isobaric interference of {sup 90}Zr, which is present in soils at concentrations higher by more than six orders of magnitude than {sup 90}Sr. Zirconium was separated from strontium in two steps to reduce the interference by {sup 90}Zr{sup +} ions by a factor of more than 10{sup 7}: (i) by ion exchange using a Sr-specific resin and (ii) by reaction with oxygen as reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of a quadrupole ICP-MS. The relative abundance sensitivity of the ICP-MS was studied systematically and the peak tailing originating from {sup 88}Sr on mass 90 u was found to be about 3 x 10{sup -9}. Detection limits of 4 fg g{sup -1} (0.02 Bq g{sup -1}) were achieved when measuring Sr solutions containing no Zr. In digested uncontaminated soil samples after matrix separation as well as in a solution of 5 {mu}g g{sup -1} Sr and 50 ng g{sup -1} Zr a detection limit of 0.2 pg g{sup -1} soil (1 Bq g{sup -1} soil) was determined. {sup 90}Sr concentrations in three soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were 4.66 {+-} 0.27, 13.48 {+-} 0.68 and 12.9 {+-} 1.5 pg g{sup -1} corresponding to specific activities of 23.7 {+-} 1.3, 68.6 {+-} 3.5 and 65.6 {+-} 7.8 Bq g{sup -1}, respectively. The ICP-DRC-MS results were compared to the activities measured earlier by radiometry. Although the ICP-DRC-MS is inferior to commonly used radiometric methods with respect to the achievable minimum detectable activity it represents a time- and cost-effective alternative technique for fast monitoring of high-level {sup 90}Sr contamination in environmental or nuclear industrial samples down to activities of about 1 Bq g{sup -1}.

  17. A novel quantification strategy of transferrin and albumin in human serum by species-unspecific isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Liuxing, E-mail: fenglx@nim.ac.cn; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Jun; Shen, Dairui; Li, Hongmei

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • Species-unspecific ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS was used to quantify Alb and Tf in human serum. • Addition methods of species-unspecific {sup 34}S spike were evaluated. • Isotope change conditions were investigated to reach satisfactory “isotope equilibration”. • Human serum CRM (ERM-DA470k/IFCC) was used to validate the new arrangements. • The developed method offers potential for accurate quantification of protein by ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. - Abstract: Species-specific (SS) isotope dilution analysis with gel electrophoresis (GE)-laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS is a promising technique for the quantification of particular metal-binding proteins in biological samples. However, unavailable isotopically enriched spike and metal losses in GE separation are main limitations for SS-isotope dilution PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. In this study, we report for the first time the absolute quantification of transferrin (Tf) and albumin (Alb) in human serum by non-denaturing (native) GE combined with species-unspecific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of both protein and isotope-enriched spike (simulated isotope equilibration), immersing the protein strips with {sup 34}S spike solution after gel electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective way of spike addition. Furthermore, effects of immersion time and {sup 34}S spike concentration were investigated to obtain optimal conditions of the post-electrophoresis isotope dilution method. The relative mass of spike and ablated sample (m{sub sp}/m{sub sam}) in IDMS equation was calculated by standard Tf and Alb proteins, which could be applied to the quantification of Tf and Alb in ERM-DA470k/IFCC for method confirmation. The results were in agreement with the certified value with good precision and small uncertainty (1.5–3%). In this method, species-specific spike protein is not necessary and the integrity of the heteroatom-protein could be maintained in sample preparation

  18. A novel quantification strategy of transferrin and albumin in human serum by species-unspecific isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Liuxing; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Jun; Shen, Dairui; Li, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Species-unspecific ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS was used to quantify Alb and Tf in human serum. • Addition methods of species-unspecific 34 S spike were evaluated. • Isotope change conditions were investigated to reach satisfactory “isotope equilibration”. • Human serum CRM (ERM-DA470k/IFCC) was used to validate the new arrangements. • The developed method offers potential for accurate quantification of protein by ID-PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. - Abstract: Species-specific (SS) isotope dilution analysis with gel electrophoresis (GE)-laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS is a promising technique for the quantification of particular metal-binding proteins in biological samples. However, unavailable isotopically enriched spike and metal losses in GE separation are main limitations for SS-isotope dilution PAGE-LA-ICP-MS. In this study, we report for the first time the absolute quantification of transferrin (Tf) and albumin (Alb) in human serum by non-denaturing (native) GE combined with species-unspecific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of both protein and isotope-enriched spike (simulated isotope equilibration), immersing the protein strips with 34 S spike solution after gel electrophoresis was demonstrated to be an effective way of spike addition. Furthermore, effects of immersion time and 34 S spike concentration were investigated to obtain optimal conditions of the post-electrophoresis isotope dilution method. The relative mass of spike and ablated sample (m sp /m sam ) in IDMS equation was calculated by standard Tf and Alb proteins, which could be applied to the quantification of Tf and Alb in ERM-DA470k/IFCC for method confirmation. The results were in agreement with the certified value with good precision and small uncertainty (1.5–3%). In this method, species-specific spike protein is not necessary and the integrity of the heteroatom-protein could be maintained in sample preparation process. Moreover, the

  19. Determination of rare earth elements in aluminum by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanti, H.S.; Barnes, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy is evaluated for the determination of 14 rare earth elements in aluminum. Spectral line interference, limit of detection, and background equivalent concentration values are evaluated, and quantitative recovery is obtained from aluminum samples spiked with rare earth elements. The procedure is simple and suitable for routine process control analysis. 20 references, 5 tables

  20. New enhanced sensitivity infrared laser spectroscopy techniques applied to reactive plasmas and trace gas detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzel, S.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS) employing both tuneable diode and quantum cascade lasers (TDLs, QCLs) has been applied with both high sensitivity and high time resolution to plasma diagnostics and trace gas measurements. TDLAS combined with a conventional White type multiple pass cell

  1. Optical Emission Spectroscopy of an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet During Tooth Bleaching Gel Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantak, Vedran; Zaplotnik, Rok; Tarle, Zrinka; Milošević, Slobodan

    2015-11-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy was performed during atmospheric pressure plasma needle helium jet treatment of various tooth-bleaching gels. When the gel sample was inserted under the plasma plume, the intensity of all the spectral features increased approximately two times near the plasma needle tip and up to two orders of magnitude near the sample surface. The color change of the hydroxylapatite pastille treated with bleaching gels in conjunction with the atmospheric pressure plasma jet was found to be in correlation with the intensity of OH emission band (309 nm). Using argon as an additive to helium flow (2 L/min), a linear increase (up to four times) of OH intensity and, consequently, whitening (up to 10%) of the pastilles was achieved. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet activates bleaching gel, accelerates OH production, and accelerates tooth bleaching (up to six times faster).

  2. Quantitative detection of plasma-generated radicals in liquids by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tresp, H; Hammer, M U; Winter, J; Reuter, S; Weltmann, K-D

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the qualitative and quantitative detection of oxygen radicals in liquids after plasma treatment with an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy is investigated. Absolute values for · OH and O 2 ·- radical concentration and their net production rate in plasma-treated liquids are determined without the use of additional scavenging chemicals such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) or mannitol (D-MAN). The main oxygen-centred radical generation in PBS was found to originate from the superoxide radical. It is shown that hidden parameters such as the manufacturer of chemical components could have a big influence on the comparability and reproducibility of the results. Finally, the effect of a shielding gas device for the investigated plasma jet with a shielding gas composition of varying oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio on radical generation after plasma treatment of phosphate-buffered saline solution was investigated. (paper)

  3. Analysis of relaxing laser-induced plasmas by absorption spectroscopy: Toward a new quantitative diagnostic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribiere, M.; Cheron, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-band near UV absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze atmospheric laser-induced plasmas formed on metallic and refractory targets. When the common emission spectroscopy only provides the density of the radiating atomic excited states, the technique reported in this paper is able to achieve high spatial resolution in the measurement of absolute number densities in expanding laser-induced plasmas. The reliability and the versatility of this technique, which is based on the comparison between results of the numerical integration of the radiative transfer equation and experimental spectra, were tested on different targets. The evolutions in time and space of the absolute population of the plasma species originating from metallic alloys (Al-Mg and Cu-Ni) and refractory materials (C/SiC) were achieved over large time scales. Owing to its accuracy, this absorption technique (that we call 'LIPAS' for Laser Induced Plasma Absorption Spectroscopy) should bring a new and enhanced support to the validation of collisional-radiative models attempting to provide reliable evolutions of laser-induced plasmas.

  4. Application of isotope-dilution laser ablation ICP-MS for direct determination of Pu concentrations in soils at pg g(-1) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Tibi, Markus; Heumann, Klaus G

    2004-01-01

    The methods available for determination of environmental contamination by plutonium at ultra-trace levels require labor-consuming sample preparation including matrix removal and plutonium extraction in both nuclear spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In this work, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied for direct analysis of Pu in soil and sediment samples. Application of a LINA-Spark-Atomizer system (a modified laser ablation system providing high ablation rates) coupled with a sector-field ICP-MS resulted in detection limits as low as 3x10(-13) g g(-1) for Pu isotopes in soil samples containing uranium at a concentration of a few microg g(-1). The isotope dilution (ID) technique was used for quantification, which compensated for matrix effects in LA-ICP-MS. Interferences by UH+ and PbO2+ ions and by the peak tail of 238U+ ions were reduced or separated by use of dry plasma conditions and a mass resolution of 4000, respectively. No other effects affecting measurement accuracy, except sample inhomogeneity, were revealed. Comparison of results obtained for three contaminated soil samples by use of alpha-spectrometry, ICP-MS with sample decomposition, and LA-ICP-IDMS showed, in general, satisfactory agreement of the different methods. The specific activity of (239+240)Pu (9.8 +/- 3.0 mBq g(-1)) calculated from LA-ICP-IDMS analysis of SRM NIST 4357 coincided well with the certified value of 10.4 +/- 0.2 mBq g(-1). However, the precision of LA-ICP-MS for determination of plutonium in inhomogeneous samples, i.e. if "hot" particles are present, is limited. As far as we are aware this paper reports the lowest detection limits and element concentrations yet measured in direct LA-ICP-MS analysis of environmental samples.

  5. Application of isotope-dilution laser ablation ICP-MS for direct determination of Pu concentrations in soils at pg g-1 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Tibi, Markus; Heumann, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    The methods available for determination of environmental contamination by plutonium at ultra-trace levels require labor-consuming sample preparation including matrix removal and plutonium extraction in both nuclear spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In this work, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied for direct analysis of Pu in soil and sediment samples. Application of a LINA-Spark-Atomizer system (a modified laser ablation system providing high ablation rates) coupled with a sector-field ICP-MS resulted in detection limits as low as 3 x 10 -13 g g -1 for Pu isotopes in soil samples containing uranium at a concentration of a few μg g -1 . The isotope dilution (ID) technique was used for quantification, which compensated for matrix effects in LA-ICP-MS. Interferences by UH + and PbO 2 + ions and by the peak tail of 238 U + ions were reduced or separated by use of dry plasma conditions and a mass resolution of 4000, respectively. No other effects affecting measurement accuracy, except sample inhomogeneity, were revealed. Comparison of results obtained for three contaminated soil samples by use of α-spectrometry, ICP-MS with sample decomposition, and LA-ICP-IDMS showed, in general, satisfactory agreement of the different methods. The specific activity of 239+240 Pu (9.8±3.0 mBq g -1 ) calculated from LA-ICP-IDMS analysis of SRM NIST 4357 coincided well with the certified value of 10.4±0.2 mBq g -1 . However, the precision of LA-ICP-MS for determination of plutonium in inhomogeneous samples, i.e. if ''hot'' particles are present, is limited. As far as we are aware this paper reports the lowest detection limits and element concentrations yet measured in direct LA-ICP-MS analysis of environmental samples. (orig.)

  6. In situ Raman spectroscopy for growth monitoring of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes in plasma reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbaye, T.; Gaillard, M.; Lecas, T.; Kovacevic, E.; Boulmer-Leborgne, Ch.; Guimbretière, G. [GREMI, Université-CNRS, BP6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Canizarès, A.; Raimboux, N.; Simon, P.; Ammar, M. R., E-mail: mohamed-ramzi.ammar@cnrs-orleans.fr [CNRS, CEMHTI UPR3079, Univ. Orléans, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Strunskus, T. [Institute of Material Science, Chritian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)

    2014-11-24

    Portable and highly sensitive Raman setup was associated with a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor enabling in situ growth monitoring of multi-wall carbon nanotubes despite the combination of huge working distance, high growth speed and process temperature and reactive plasma condition. Near Edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was used for ex situ sample analysis as a complementary method to in situ Raman spectroscopy. The results confirmed the fact that the “alternating” method developed here can accurately be used for in situ Raman monitoring under reactive plasma condition. The original analytic tool can be of great importance to monitor the characteristics of these nanostructured materials and readily define the ultimate conditions for targeted results.

  7. Data array acquisition and joint processing in local plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekimov, K.; Luizova, L.; Soloviev, A.; Khakhaev, A.

    2005-01-01

    The setup and software for optical emission spectroscopy with spatial and temporal resolutions were developed. The automated installation includes LabView compatible instrument interfaces. The algorithm of joint data processing is based on principal component method and allows the increase in stability of results of the radial transform and the instrument distortion elimination in the presence of noises. The system is applied to diagnostics of the arc discharge in mercury vapors with the addition of thallium. The distributions of ground state and excited mercury atoms, excited thallium atoms and electron density over the arc cross section have been measured on the basis of analysis of spectral line shapes. The Saha balance between electron and high lying excited states densities was checked. An unexpected broadening of some thallium spectral lines was found out

  8. Solid phase extraction for analysis of biogenic carbonates by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS): an investigation of rare earth element signatures in otolith microchemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Zikri; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Uptake of trace elements into fish otoliths is governed by several factors such as life histories and environment in addition to stock and species differences. In an attempt to elucidate the elemental signatures of rare earth elements (REEs) in otoliths, a solid phase extraction (SPE) protocol was used in combination with electrothermal vaporization (ETV) as a sample introduction procedure for the determinations by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Effects of various parameters, such as carrier gas flow rate, atomization temperature and chemical modification, were examined for optimization of the conditions by ETV-ICP-MS. Atomization was achieved at 2800 deg. C. Lower temperatures (i.e. 2600 deg. C) resulted in severe memory problems due to incomplete atomization. Palladium was used as a chemical modifier. It was found that an increase in Pd concentration up to 0.5 μg in the injection volume (70 μl) led up to four-fold enhancement in the integrated signals. This phenomenon is attributed to the carrier effect of Pd rather than the stabilization since no significant losses were observed for high temperature drying around 700 deg. C even in the absence of Pd. Preconcentration was performed on-line at pH 5 by using a mini-column of Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650M chelating resin, which also eliminated the calcium matrix of otolith solutions. After preconcentration of 6.4 ml of solution, the concentrate was collected in 0.65 ml of 0.5% (v/v) HNO 3 in autosampler cups, and then analyzed by ETV-ICP-MS. The method was validated with the analysis of a fish otolith certified reference material (CRM) of emperor snapper, and then applied to samples. Results obtained from otoliths of fish captured in the same habitat indicated that otolith rare earth element concentrations are more dependent on environmental conditions of the habitat than on species differences

  9. Monitoring of some heavy metal in egypt using different spectroscopic technique ICP-AES and AAS-GF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metals include both toxic and/or non toxic elements egyptian aquatic environment were monitored using inductivly coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy; ICP-AES and graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy; GF-AAS. Water and aquatic weeds (waterhyathins) are of different categories specified for such monitoring form the canals. The locations of sampling sites the river nile in egypt. These sites were chosen based on the industrial activity comparing to the cleansite and the other cultivated one. Bioavailability and related effects were defined so as to specify actually the higher concentration more contaminated areas

  10. Results of an interlaboratory method performance study for the size determination and quantification of silver nanoparticles in chicken meat by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Stefan; Peters, Ruud; Loeschner, Katrin; Grombe, Ringo; Linsinger, Thomas P J

    2017-08-01

    Single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICP-MS) promises fast and selective determination of nanoparticle size and number concentrations. While several studies on practical applications have been published, data on formal, especially interlaboratory validation of sp-ICP-MS, is sparse. An international interlaboratory study was organized to determine repeatability and reproducibility of the determination of the median particle size and particle number concentration of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) in chicken meat. Ten laboratories from the European Union, the USA, and Canada determined particle size and particle number concentration of two chicken meat homogenates spiked with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized AgNPs. For the determination of the median particle diameter, repeatability standard deviations of 2 and 5% were determined, and reproducibility standard deviations were 15 and 25%, respectively. The equivalent median diameter itself was approximately 60% larger than the diameter of the particles in the spiking solution. Determination of the particle number concentration was significantly less precise, with repeatability standard deviations of 7 and 18% and reproducibility standard deviations of 70 and 90%.

  11. Temperature and Electron Density Determination on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Plasmas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, Maya L.; Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory is designed for physical chemistry students to gain experience using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in understanding plasma diagnostics. LIBS uses a high-powered laser that is focused on the sample causing a plasma to form. The emission of this plasma is then spectrally resolved and detected. Temperature and electron…

  12. Towards reconstruction of overlapping fingerprints using plasma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Ho; Choi, Soo-Jin; Yoh, Jack J.

    2017-08-01

    Chemical analysis is commonly used in the field of forensic science where the precise discrimination of primary evidence is of significant importance. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) exceeds other spectroscopic methods in terms of the time required for pre- and post-sample preparation, the insensitivity to sample phase state be it solid, liquid, or gas, and the detection of two-dimensional spectral mapping from real time point measurements. In this research, fingerprint samples on various surface materials are considered in the chemical detection and reconstruction of fingerprints using the two-dimensional LIBS technique. Strong and distinct intensities of specific wavelengths represent visible ink, natural secretion of sweat, and contaminants from the environment, all of which can be present in latent fingerprints. The particular aim of the work presented here is to enhance the precision of the two-dimensional recreation of the fingerprints present on metal, plastic, and artificially prepared soil surface using LIBS with principal component analysis. By applying a distinct wavelength discrimination for two overlapping fingerprint samples, separation into two non-identical chemical fingerprints was successfully performed.

  13. Application of Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy on Breast Cancer Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alfattah, A.; Eldakrouri, A. A.; Emam, H.; Azzouz, I. M.

    2013-03-01

    Worldwide, millions of breast cancer cases appear each year. It ranked as the first malignant tumors in Egypt. Breast cancer patients are at increased risk of developing malignant melanoma and cancers of the ovary, endometrium, colon, thyroid, and salivary glands because of similar hormonal and genetic factors. Therefore, early diagnosis by a quick and accurate method may have a great affect on healing. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of using LIPS as a simple, technique to diagnose breast cancer by measuring the concentration of trace elements in breast tissues. The accuracy of LIPS measurements was confirmed by carrying out another elemental analysis via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) technique. The results obtained via these two techniques showed that the concentration of Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn in the malignant tissue cells are significantly enhanced. A voting algorithm was built for instantaneous decision of the diagnostic technique (normal or malignant). This study instigates developing a new diagnostic tool with potential use in vivo.

  14. Experimental study of radiative energy transport in dense plasmas by emission and absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozieres, Maylis

    2016-01-01

    This PhD work is an experimental study, based on emission and absorption spectroscopy of hot and dense nanosecond laser-produced plasmas. Atomic physics in such plasmas is a complex subject and of great interest especially in the fields of astrophysics or inertial confinement fusion. On the atomic physics point of view, this means determining parameters such as the average ionization or opacity in plasmas at given electronic temperature and density. Atomic physics codes then need of experimental data to improve themselves and be validated so that they can be predictive for a wide range of plasmas. With this work we focus on plasmas whose electronic temperature varies from 10 eV to more than a hundred and whose density range goes from 10 -5 ato10 -2 g/cm 3 . In this thesis, there are two types of spectroscopic data presented which are both useful and necessary to the development of atomic physics codes because they are both characteristic of the state of the studied plasma: 1) some absorption spectra from Cu, Ni and Al plasmas close to local thermodynamic equilibrium; 2) some emission spectra from non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas of C, Al and Cu. This work highlights the different experimental techniques and various comparisons with atomic physics codes and hydrodynamics codes. (author) [fr

  15. Identification of target organs of copper nanoparticles with ICP-MS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen Chen; Huan Meng; Yun Wang; Chengcheng Zhang; Yuliang Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Nanosized copper particles are widely used in fields of lubricants, polymers/plastic, metallic coating and ink. Recently, we found that copper particles in different sizes can lead to different toxicological effects. To clarify the target organs of copper particles of different sizes, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was employed to evaluate the distribution of copper in different organs of mice after a single dose oral exposure. The results suggest that the main target organs for copper nanoparticles are kidney, liver and blood. Liver is the main damaged organ. (author)

  16. Some historic and current aspects of plasma diagnostics using atomic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Roger; Zou, Yaming; Andersson, Martin; Brage, Tomas; Martinson, Indrek

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to the use of atomic spectroscopy in plasma diagnostics. Both older works and exciting new branches of atomic physics, which have relevance to diagnostics, are discussed. In particular we focus on forbidden lines in Be-like ions, lines sensitive to magnetic fields and levels which have a lifetime dependence on the nuclear spin of the ion, i.e. f-dependent lifetimes. Finally we mention a few examples of where tokamaks, instead of needing atomic data, actually provide new data and lead to developments in atomic structure studies. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Nicol J Peacock (1931-2008), a distinguished plasma scientist who contributed much to the field of spectroscopy applied to plasma, and in particular, fusion plasma diagnostics. During the final stages of the preparation of this paper Professor Indrek Martinson passed away peacefully in his sleep on 14 November 2009. Indrek will be greatly missed by many people, both for his contributions to atomic spectroscopy and for his great kindness and friendliness, which many of us experienced.

  17. Determination of plasma temperature and electron density in river sediment plasma using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austria, Elmer S. Jr.; Lamorena-Lim, Rheo B.

    2015-01-01

    Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique is an approach used to quantitatively measure elemental composition of samples without the use of standard reference materials (SRMs). Due to the unavailability of most SRMs for specific samples, the CF-LIBS approach is steadily becoming more prevalent. CF-LIBS also minimizes interferences from the sample matrix by accounting spectral line intensifies of different elements. The first part of the CF-LIBS algorithm is the calculation of plasma temperature and electron density of the sample while the second part deals with the self-absorption correction and quantitative elemental analysis. In this study, the precursor parameters for the algorithm - plasma temperature and electron density - were measured through the neutral atom and ion line emissions of Fe and Cu in the time window of 0.1 to 10 μs. Plasma from river sediment samples were produced by a 1064 nm nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser at atmospheric pressure. The plasma temperature and electron density were calculated from the Boltzmann plot and Saha-Boltzmann equation methods, respectively. These precursor parameters can be used in calculating the time window wherein the plasma is optically thin at local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and for quantitative multi-elemental analysis. (author)

  18. Emission spectroscopy of argon ferrocene mixture jet in a low pressure plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, N.; Tak, A.K.; Chakravarthy, Y.; Shukla, A.; Meher, K.C.; Ghorui, S.; Thiyagarajan, T.K.

    2015-01-01

    Emission spectroscopy is employed to measure the plasma temperature and species identification in a reactor used for studying homogenous nucleation and growth of iron nano particle. Reactor employs segmented non transferred plasma torch mounted on water cooled cylindrical chamber. The plasma jet passes through graphite nozzle and expands in low pressure reactor. Ferrocene is fed into the nozzle where it mixes with Argon plasma jet. A high resolution spectrograph (SHAMROCK 303i, resolution 0.06 nm) has been used to record the spectra over a wide range. Identification of different emission lines has been done using NIST database. Lines from (700 to 860nm) were considered for calculation of temperature. Spectra were recorded for different axial location, pressure and power. Temperature was calculated using Maxwell Boltzman plot method. Variation in temperature with pressure and location is presented and possible reasons for different behaviour are explored. (author)

  19. Comparison endpoint study of process plasma and secondary electron beam exciter optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan Thamban, P. L.; Yun, Stuart; Padron-Wells, Gabriel; Hosch, Jimmy W.; Goeckner, Matthew J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800W Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800W Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Verity Instruments, Inc., 2901 Eisenhower Street, Carrollton, Texas 75007 (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Traditionally process plasmas are often studied and monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. Here, the authors compare experimental measurements from a secondary electron beam excitation and direct process plasma excitation to discuss and illustrate its distinctiveness in the study of process plasmas. They present results that show excitations of etch process effluents in a SF{sub 6} discharge and endpoint detection capabilities in dark plasma process conditions. In SF{sub 6} discharges, a band around 300 nm, not visible in process emission, is observed and it can serve as a good indicator of etch product emission during polysilicon etches. Based on prior work reported in literature the authors believe this band is due to SiF{sub 4} gas phase species.

  20. Optical emission spectroscopy of metal vapor dominated laser-arc hybrid welding plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribic, B.; DebRoy, T.; Burgardt, P.

    2011-01-01

    During laser-arc hybrid welding, plasma properties affect the welding process and the weld quality. However, hybrid welding plasmas have not been systematically studied. Here we examine electron temperatures, species densities, and electrical conductivity for laser, arc, and laser-arc hybrid welding using optical emission spectroscopy. The effects of arc currents and heat source separation distances were examined because these parameters significantly affect weld quality. Time-average plasma electron temperatures, electron and ion densities, electrical conductivity, and arc stability decrease with increasing heat source separation distance during hybrid welding. Heat source separation distance affects these properties more significantly than the arc current within the range of currents considered. Improved arc stability and higher electrical conductivity of the hybrid welding plasma result from increased heat flux, electron temperatures, electron density, and metal vapor concentrations relative to arc or laser welding.

  1. Development of ICP-MS and ICP-OES methods for determination of gadolinium in samples related to hospital waste water treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendakovská, L.; Krejčovská, A.; Černohorský, T.; Zelenková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 9 (2016), s. 1155-1165 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : gadolinium * rare-earth elements * bioaccumulation * gadolinium anomaly * inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) * inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  2. Forensic investigation of brick stones using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheid, Nicole; Becker, Stefan; Duecking, Marc; Hampel, Gabriele; Volker Kratz, Jens; Watzke, Peter; Weis, Peter; Zauner, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Brick stones collected from different production facilities were studied for their elemental compositions under forensic aspects using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). The aim of these examinations was to assess the potential of these methods in forensic comparison analyses of brick stones. The accuracy of the analysis methods was evaluated using NIST standard reference materials (679, 98b and 97b). In order to compare the stones to each other, multivariate data analysis was used. The evaluation of the INAA results (based on the concentrations of V, Na, K, Sm, U, Sc, Fe, Co, Rb and Cs) using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis is presented as an example. The results derived from the different analytical methods are consistent. It was shown that elemental analysis using the described methods is a valuable tool for forensic examinations of brick stones.

  3. ICP (ITER Collaborative Platform)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, C.; Carayon, F.; Patel, V. [ITER, 13 - St. Paul-Lez Durance (France)

    2009-07-01

    The ITER organization has the necessity to manage a massive amount of data and processes. Each team requires different process and databases often interconnected with those of others teams. ICP is the current central ITER repository of structured and unstructured data. All data in ICP is served and managed via a web interface that provides global accessibility with a common user friendly interface. This paper will explain the model used by ICP and how it serves the ITER project by providing a robust and agile platform. ICP is developed in ASP.NET using MSSQL Server for data storage. It currently houses 15 data driven applications, 150 different types of record, 500 k objects and 2.5 M references. During European working hours the system averages 150 concurrent users and 20 requests per second. ICP connects to external database applications to provide a single entry point to ITER data and a safe shared storage place to maintain this data long-term. The Core model provides an easy to extend framework to meet the future needs of the Organization. ICP follows a multi-tier architecture, providing logical separation of process. The standard three-tier architecture is expanded, with the data layer separated into data storage, data structure, and data access components. The business or applications logic layer is broken up into a common business functionality layer, a type specific logic layer, and a detached work-flow layer. Finally the presentation tier comprises a presentation adapter layer and an interface layer. Each layer is built up from small blocks which can be combined to create a wide range of more complex functionality. Each new object type developed gains access to a wealth of existing code functionality, while also free to adapt and extend this. The hardware structure is designed to provide complete redundancy, high availability and to handle high load. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the presentation transparencies. (authors)

  4. Gadolinium-based Contrast Agent Accumulates in the Brain Even in Subjects without Severe Renal Dysfunction: Evaluation of Autopsy Brain Specimens with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tomonori; Fukusato, Toshio; Matsuda, Megumi; Toyoda, Keiko; Oba, Hiroshi; Kotoku, Jun'ichi; Haruyama, Takahiro; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Furui, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    To use inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) to evaluate gadolinium accumulation in brain tissues, including the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP), in subjects who received a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA). Institutional review board approval was obtained for this study. Written informed consent for postmortem investigation was obtained either from the subject prior to his or her death or afterward from the subject's relatives. Brain tissues obtained at autopsy in five subjects who received a linear GBCA (GBCA group) and five subjects with no history of GBCA administration (non-GBCA group) were examined with ICP-MS. Formalin-fixed DN tissue, the inner segment of the GP, cerebellar white matter, the frontal lobe cortex, and frontal lobe white matter were obtained, and their gadolinium concentrations were measured. None of the subjects had received a diagnosis of severely compromised renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate brain regions. Gadolinium was detected in all specimens in the GBCA agent group (mean, 0.25 µg per gram of brain tissue ± 0.44 [standard deviation]), with significantly higher concentrations in each region (P = .004 vs the non-GBCA group for all regions). In the GBCA group, the DN and GP showed significantly higher gadolinium concentrations (mean, 0.44 µg/g ± 0.63) than other regions (0.12 µg/g ± 0.16) (P = .029). Even in subjects without severe renal dysfunction, GBCA administration causes gadolinium accumulation in the brain, especially in the DN and GP.

  5. Optical spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas for standoff isotopic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Brumfield, Brian E.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Hartig, Kyle C.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2018-04-20

    This review article covers the present status of isotope detection through emission, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy of atoms and molecules in a laser-produced plasma formed from a solid sample. A description of the physics behind isotope shifts in atoms and molecules is presented, followed by the physics behind solid sampling of laser ablation plumes, optical methods for isotope measurements, the suitable physical conditions of laser-produced plasma plumes for isotopic analysis, and the current status. Finally, concluding remarks will be made on the existing gaps between previous works in the literature and suggestions for future work.

  6. Time-resolved spectroscopy of plasma resonances in highly excited silicon and germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.Y.; Malvezzi, A.M.; Bloembergen, N.; Kurz, H.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of the electron-hole plasma in silicon and germanium samples irradiated by 20 ps. 532 nm laser pulses has been investigated in the near infrared by the time-resolved picosecond optical spectroscopy. The experimental reflectivities and transmission are compared with the predictions of the thermal model for degenerate carrier distributions through the Drude formalism. Above a certain fluence, a significant deviation between measured and calculated values indicates a strong increase of the recombination rate as soon as the plasma resonances become comparable with the band gaps. These new plasmon-aided recombination channels are particularly pronounced in germanium. 15 refs., 8 figs

  7. Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy of plasma immersion ion implanted H13 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwagne, G.; Hutchings, R.

    1994-01-01

    Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) has been used to investigate nitride formation in AISI-H13 tool steel after treatment by plasma immersion ion implantation (PI 3 ) at 350 C. With only slight variation in the plasma conditions, it is possible to influence the kinetics of nitride precipitation so as to obtain nitrogen concentrations that range from those associated with ε-Fe 2 N through ε-Fe 3 N to γ'-Fe 4 N. The CEMS results enable a more definite identification of the nitrides than that obtained by glancing-angle X-ray diffraction and nuclear reaction analysis alone. (orig.)

  8. Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy of plasma immersion ion implanted H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwagne, G.; Collins, G. A.; Hutchings, R.

    1994-12-01

    Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) has been used to investigate nitride formation in AISI-H13 tool steel after treatment by plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) at 350 °C. With only slight variation in the plasma conditions, it is possible to influence the kinetics of nitride precipitation so as to obtain nitrogen concentrations that range from those associated with ɛ-Fe2N through ɛ-Fe3N to γ'-Fe4N. The CEMS results enable a more definite identification of the nitrides than that obtained by glancing-angle X-ray diffraction and nuclear reaction analysis alone.

  9. Characterization of gaseous species in scanning atmospheric rf plasma with transmission infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong H.; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kang, Bang-Kwon

    2008-01-01

    A scanning atmospheric radio-frequency (rf) plasma was analyzed with transmission infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The IR analyses were made for the plasmas used for hydrophobic coating deposition and superhydrophobic coating deposition processes. Since the rf plasma was generated in a small open space with a high gas flow rate in ambient air, the density of gas-phase molecules was very high and the plasma-generated reactive species seemed to undergo various reactions in the gas phase. So, the transmission IR spectra of the scanning atmospheric rf plasma were dominated by gas-phase reaction products, rather than plasma-generated intermediate species. In the CH 4 /He plasma used for hydrophobic coating deposition, C 2 H 6 , C 2 H 2 , and a small amount of C 2 H 4 as well as CO were detected in transmission IR. The intensities of these peaks increased as the rf power increased. The CO formation is due to the activation of oxygen and water in the air. In the CF 4 /H 2 /He plasma used for deposition of superhydrophobic coatings, C 2 F 6 , CF 3 H, COF 2 , and HF were mainly detected. When the H 2 /CF 4 ratio was ∼0.5, the consumption of CF 4 was the highest. As the H 2 /CF 4 ratio increased higher, the C 2 F 6 production was suppressed while the CF 3 H peak grew and the formation of CH 4 were detected. In both CH 4 /He and CF 4 /H 2 /He plasma systems, the undissociated feed gas molecules seem to be highly excited vibrationally and rotationally. The information on plasma-generated reactive species and their reactions was deduced from the distribution of these gas-phase reaction products

  10. Determination of lead by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HG-ICP-MS): On-line generation of plumbane using potassium hexacyanomanganate(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Vedat [Jackson State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Jackson, MS 39217 (United States); Erciyes University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Arslan, Zikri, E-mail: zikri.arslan@jsums.edu [Jackson State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Jackson, MS 39217 (United States); Rose, LaKeysha [Jackson State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Jackson, MS 39217 (United States)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potassium hexacyanomanganate(III), (K{sub 3}Mn(CN){sub 6}, was utilized first time for hydride generation (HG). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hexacyanomanganate(III) promoted generation of lead hydride (PbH{sub 4}) remarkably. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HG method using K{sub 3}Mn(CN){sub 6} enhanced sensitivity by at least 40-fold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method detection limits for Pb were as low as 8 ng L{sup -1} by ICP-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is highly suitable for quantitative determination of Pb in various samples and salt matrices by ICP-MS. - Abstract: A hydride generation (HG) procedure has been described for determination of Pb by ICP-MS using potassium hexacyanomanganate(III), K{sub 3}Mn(CN){sub 6}, as an additive to facilitate the generation of plumbane (PbH{sub 4}). Potassium hexacyanomanganate(III) was prepared in acidic medium as it was unstable in water. The stability of hexacyanomanganate(III) was examined in dilute solutions of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The solutions prepared in 1% v/v H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were found to be stable for over a period of 24 h. The least suitable medium was 1% v/v HNO{sub 3}. For generation of plumbane, acidic hexacyanomanganate(III) and sample solutions were mixed on-line along a 5-cm long tygon tubing (1.14 mm i.d.) and then reacted with 2% m/v sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}). A concentration of 0.5% m/v K{sub 3}Mn(CN){sub 6} facilitated the generation of PbH{sub 4} remarkably. In comparison to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, HCl provided broader working range for which optimum concentration was 1% v/v. No significant interferences were noted from transition metals and hydride forming elements, up to 0.5 {mu}g mL{sup -1} levels, except Cu which depressed the signals severely. The depressive effects in the presence of 0.1 {mu}g mL{sup -1} Cu were alleviated by increasing the concentration of K{sub 3}Mn(CN){sub 6} to 2% m/v. Under these conditions

  11. Simultaneous measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneau, F.

    1999-01-01

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, and 242 Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  12. Investigation of metallodrug-protein interactions by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, J.; Makarov, A.; Pieper, T.; Keppler, B.K.; Lobinski, R.

    1999-01-01

    The coupling of size-exclusion HPLC with ICP-MS was developed for the studies of the kinetics of metallodrug binding to human serum proteins. Two platinum- and three ruthenium-based drugs were investigated. Various SEC columns (of different lengths and with different packings) were compared for the separation of the protein-bound and unbound fractions of a metallodrug prior to on-line detection of the metal (Ru or Pt). The approach developed offers considerable advantages over the methods based on ultrafiltration followed by the off-line metal determination in terms of speed, simplicity, precision and selectivity regarding the molecular weight of the complexes involved. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. The development of a distributed computing environment for the design and modeling of plasma spectroscopy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.K.; Eme, W.G.; Lee, R.W.; Salter, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    The design and analysis of plasma spectroscopy experiments can be significantly complicated by relatively routine computational tasks arising from the massive amount of data encountered in the experimental design and analysis stages of the work. Difficulties in obtaining, computing, manipulating and visualizing the information represent not simply an issue of convenience -- they have a very real limiting effect on the final quality of the data and on the potential for arriving at meaningful conclusions regarding an experiment. We describe ongoing work in developing a portable UNIX environment shell with the goal of simplifying and enabling these activities for the plasma-modeling community. Applications to the construction of atomic kinetics models and to the analysis of x-ray transmission spectroscopy will be shown

  14. Space-resolved vacuum ultra-violet spectroscopy on T.F.R. Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported of space-resolved vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopy (between 100 A and 2000A) on T.F.R. Tokamak plasmas and examples are given of profiles for both heavy and light impurity ions. The experimental method and the associated uncertainties and problems are stressed. The great importance of numerical calculations in the interpretation of the impurity profiles is pointed out. (author)

  15. Self-absorption influence on the optical spectroscopy of zinc oxide laser produced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Posada, E; Arronte, M A; Ponce, L; Rodriguez, E; Flores, T [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada-Unidad Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Lunney, J G, E-mail: edeposada@ipn.mx [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy is used to study the laser ablation process of ZnO targets. It is demonstrated that even if Partial Local Thermal Equilibrium is present, self absorption process leads to a decrease of recorded lines emission intensities and have to be taken into account to obtain correct values of such parameters. It is presented a method that combines results of both Langmuir probe technique and Anisimov model to obtain correct values of plasma parameters.

  16. Inductively coupled plasma for atomic emission spectroscopy at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant atomic emission spectroscopy laboratory has been in operation for over 30 years. Routine analytical methods and instrumentation are being replaced with current technology. Laboratory renovation will include the installation of contained dual excitation sources (inductively coupled plasma and d-c arc) with a direct reading spectrometer. The instrument will be used to provide impurity analyses of plutonium, uranium, and other nuclear fuel cycle materials

  17. ICP-MS Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carman, April J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eiden, Gregory C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This is a short document that explains the materials that will be transmitted to LLNL and DNN HQ regarding the ICP-MS Workshop held at PNNL June 17-19th. The goal of the information is to pass on to LLNL information regarding the planning and preparations for the Workshop at PNNL in preparation of the SIMS workshop at LLNL.

  18. Fate of Lu(III) sorbed on 2-line ferrihydrite at pH 5.7 and aged for 12 years at room temperature. I: insights from ICP-OES, XRD, ESEM, AsFlFFF/ICP-MS, and EXAFS spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Nicolas; Bouby, Muriel; Dardenne, Kathy

    2018-01-31

    Two-line ferrihydrite (2LFh) was aged for 12 years under ambient conditions and sheltered from light in the presence of Lu(III) used as surrogate for trivalent actinides. 2LFh aging produced hematite rhombohedra with overgrown acicular goethite particles. Analysis of the homogeneous suspension by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) coupled to ICP-MS indicated that particles have a mean hydrodynamic diameter of about 140 nm and the strong correlation of the Fe and Lu fractograms hinted at a structural association of the lanthanide with the solid phase(s). Unfortunately, recoveries were low and thus results cannot be considered representative of the whole sample. The suspension was centrifuged and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Lu L 3 -edge on the settled particles indicated that Lu(III) is sixfold coordinated by oxygen atoms, pointing to a retention by structural incorporation within particles. This result is consistent with AsFlFFF results on the same suspension without centrifugation. The detection of next nearest Fe and O atoms were consistent with the structure of goethite, ruling out incorporation within hematite. After centrifugation of the suspension, only nanoparticulate needle-like particles, very likely goethite, could be detected in the supernatant by ESEM. AsFlFFF data of the supernatant were comparable to that obtained for the homogeneous suspension, whereas XAS indicated that Lu(III) is predominantly present as dissolved species in the supernatant. Results from both techniques can be interpreted as a major fraction of Lu present as aqueous ions and a minor fraction as structurally incorporated. Findings from this study are corroborated by STEM-HAADF data and results from DFT calculations in a companion paper.

  19. Micro-spectrochemical analysis of document paper and gel inks by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trejos, Tatiana, E-mail: trejost@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); International Forensic Research Institute (IFRI), Florida International University, Miami, FL 3319 (United States); Flores, Alejandra, E-mail: aflor017@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Almirall, Jose R., E-mail: almirall@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); International Forensic Research Institute (IFRI), Florida International University, Miami, FL 3319 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Current methods used in document examinations are not suitable to associate or discriminate between sources of paper and gel inks with a high degree of certainty. Nearly non-destructive, laser-based methods using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were used to improve the forensic comparisons of gel inks, ballpoint inks and document papers based on similarities in elemental composition. Some of the advantages of these laser-based methods include minimum sample consumption/destruction, high sensitivity, high selectivity and excellent discrimination between samples from different origins. Figures of merit are reported including limits of detection, precision, homogeneity at a micro-scale and linear dynamic range. The variation of the elemental composition in paper was studied within a single sheet, between pages from the same ream, between papers produced by the same plant at different time intervals and between seventeen paper sources produced by ten different plants. The results show that elemental analysis of paper by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS provides excellent discrimination (> 98%) between different sources. Batches manufactured at weekly and monthly intervals in the same mill were also differentiated. The ink of more than 200 black pens was analyzed to determine the variation of the chemical composition of the ink within a single pen, between pens from the same package and between brands of gel inks and ballpoint inks. Homogeneity studies show smaller variation of elemental compositions within a single source than between different sources (i.e. brands and types). It was possible to discriminate between pen markings from different brands and between pen markings from the same brand but different model. Discrimination of {approx} 96-99% was achieved for sets that otherwise would remain inseparable by conventional methods. The results show that elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP

  20. Micro-spectrochemical analysis of document paper and gel inks by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejos, Tatiana; Flores, Alejandra; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    Current methods used in document examinations are not suitable to associate or discriminate between sources of paper and gel inks with a high degree of certainty. Nearly non-destructive, laser-based methods using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were used to improve the forensic comparisons of gel inks, ballpoint inks and document papers based on similarities in elemental composition. Some of the advantages of these laser-based methods include minimum sample consumption/destruction, high sensitivity, high selectivity and excellent discrimination between samples from different origins. Figures of merit are reported including limits of detection, precision, homogeneity at a micro-scale and linear dynamic range. The variation of the elemental composition in paper was studied within a single sheet, between pages from the same ream, between papers produced by the same plant at different time intervals and between seventeen paper sources produced by ten different plants. The results show that elemental analysis of paper by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS provides excellent discrimination (> 98%) between different sources. Batches manufactured at weekly and monthly intervals in the same mill were also differentiated. The ink of more than 200 black pens was analyzed to determine the variation of the chemical composition of the ink within a single pen, between pens from the same package and between brands of gel inks and ballpoint inks. Homogeneity studies show smaller variation of elemental compositions within a single source than between different sources (i.e. brands and types). It was possible to discriminate between pen markings from different brands and between pen markings from the same brand but different model. Discrimination of ∼ 96-99% was achieved for sets that otherwise would remain inseparable by conventional methods. The results show that elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or

  1. Optical spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas for standoff isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harilal, S. S.; Brumfield, B. E.; LaHaye, N. L.; Hartig, K. C.; Phillips, M. C.

    2018-06-01

    Rapid, in-field, and non-contact isotopic analysis of solid materials is extremely important to a large number of applications, such as nuclear nonproliferation monitoring and forensics, geochemistry, archaeology, and biochemistry. Presently, isotopic measurements for these and many other fields are performed in laboratory settings. Rapid, in-field, and non-contact isotopic analysis of solid material is possible with optical spectroscopy tools when combined with laser ablation. Laser ablation generates a transient vapor of any solid material when a powerful laser interacts with a sample of interest. Analysis of atoms, ions, and molecules in a laser-produced plasma using optical spectroscopy tools can provide isotopic information with the advantages of real-time analysis, standoff capability, and no sample preparation requirement. Both emission and absorption spectroscopy methods can be used for isotopic analysis of solid materials. However, applying optical spectroscopy to the measurement of isotope ratios from solid materials presents numerous challenges. Isotope shifts arise primarily due to variation in nuclear charge distribution caused by different numbers of neutrons, but the small proportional nuclear mass differences between nuclei of various isotopes lead to correspondingly small differences in optical transition wavelengths. Along with this, various line broadening mechanisms in laser-produced plasmas and instrumental broadening generated by the detection system are technical challenges frequently encountered with emission-based optical diagnostics. These challenges can be overcome by measuring the isotope shifts associated with the vibronic emission bands from molecules or by using the techniques of laser-based absorption/fluorescence spectroscopy to marginalize the effect of instrumental broadening. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy probe the ground state atoms existing in the plasma when it is cooler, which inherently provides narrower

  2. Revisiting the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of magnesium with online inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkirskiy, Viacheslav; King, Andrew D; Gharbi, Oumaïma; Volovitch, Polina; Scully, John R; Ogle, Kevin; Birbilis, Nick

    2015-02-23

    The electrochemical impedance of reactive metals such as magnesium is often complicated by an obvious inductive loop with decreasing frequency of the AC polarising signal. The characterisation and ensuing explanation of this phenomenon has been lacking in the literature to date, being either ignored or speculated. Herein, we couple electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with online atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) to simultaneously measure Mg-ion concentration and electrochemical impedance spectra during Mg corrosion, in real time. It is revealed that Mg dissolution occurs via Mg(2+) , and that corrosion is activated, as measured by AC frequencies less than approximately 1 Hz approaching DC conditions. The result of this is a higher rate of Mg(2+) dissolution, as the voltage excitation becomes slow enough to enable all Mg(2+) -enabling processes to adjust in real time. The manifestation of this in EIS data is an inductive loop. The rationalisation of such EIS behaviour, as it relates to Mg, is revealed for the first time by using concurrent AESEC. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Determination of trace elements in plant samples using XRF, PIXE and ICP-OES techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Hassan Elzain Hassan

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine trace element concentration (Ca, Cu, Cr, K,Fe, Mn,Sr, and Za) in some sudanese wild plants namely, Ziziphus Abyssinica and Grewia Tenax. X-ray fluorescence ( X RF), particle-induced x-ray emission ( PIXE) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) techniques were used for element determination. A series of plants standard references materials were used to check the reliability of the different employed techniques as well as to estimate possible factors for correcting the concentration of some elements that deviated significantly from their actual concentration. The results showed that, X RF, PIXE and ICP-OES are equally competitive methods for measuring Ca,K, Fe, Sr and Zn elements. Unlikely to ICP-OES seems to be superior techniques tend to be appropriate methods for Cu determination in plant samples however, for Mn element PIXE and ICP-OES are advisable techniques for measuring this element rather than X RF method. On the other hand, ICP-OES seems to be the superior techniques over PIXE and X RF methods for Cr and Ni determination in plant samples. The effect of geographical location on trace elements concentration in plants has been examined through determination of element in different species of Grewia Tenax than collected from different location. Most of measured elements showed similarity indicating there is no significant impact of locations on the difference of element contents. In addition, two plants with different genetic families namely, Ziziphus Spina Christi and Ziziphus Abyssinica were collected from the same location and screened for their trace element content. It was found that there were no difference between the two plants for Ca, K, Cu, Fe, and Sr element. However, significant variations were observed for Mn and Zn concentrations implying the possibility of using of those two elements for plant taxonomy purposes.(Author)

  4. Diode-Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of an Optically Thick Plasma in Combination with Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nomura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortion of laser-induced fluorescence profiles attributable to optical absorption and saturation broadening was corrected in combination with laser absorption spectroscopy in argon plasma flow. At high probe-laser intensity, saturated absorption profiles were measured to correct probe-laser absorption. At low laser intensity, nonsaturated absorption profiles were measured to correct fluorescence reabsorption. Saturation broadening at the measurement point was corrected using a ratio of saturated to non-saturated broadening. Observed LIF broadening and corresponding translational temperature without correction were, respectively, 2.20±0.05 GHz and 2510±100 K and corrected broadening and temperature were, respectively, 1.96±0.07 GHz and 1990±150 K. Although this correction is applicable only at the center of symmetry, the deduced temperature agreed well with that obtained by LAS with Abel inversion.

  5. Atomic and ionic density measurement by laser absorption spectroscopy of magnetized or non-magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gourrierec, P.

    1989-11-01

    Laser absorption spectroscopy is an appreciated diagnostic in plasma physics to measure atomic and ionic densities. We used it here more specifically on metallic plasmas. Firstly, a uranium plasma was created in a hollow cathode. 17 levels of U.I and U.II (12 for U.I and 5 for U.II) are measured by this method. The results are compared with the calculated levels of two models (collisional-radiative and LTE). Secondly, the theory of absorption in presence of a magnetic field is recalled and checked. Then, low-density magnetized plasma produced on our ERIC experiment (acronym for Experiment of Resonance Ionic Cyclotron), have been diagnosed successfully. The use of this technique on a low density plasma has not yet been published to our knowledge. The transverse temperature and the density of a metastable atomic level of a barium plasma has been derived. The evolution of a metastable ionic level of this element is studied in terms of two source parameters (furnace temperature and injected hyperfrequency power) [fr

  6. Structural characterization of H plasma-doped ZnO single crystals by positron annihilation spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwand, Wolfgang; Brauer, Gerhard; Cowan, Thomas E. [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510 119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Grambole, Dieter; Skorupa, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510 119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Cizek, Jakub; Kuriplach, Jan; Prochazka, Ivan [Department of Low Temperature Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Egger, Werner; Sperr, Peter [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Fakultaet fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Universitaet der Bundeswehr, Heisenbergweg 39, 85579 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Nominally undoped, hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals have been investigated before and after exposure to remote H plasma. Structural characterizations have been made by various positron annihilation spectroscopies (continuous and pulsed slow positron beams, conventional lifetime). The content of bound hydrogen (H-b) before and after the remote H plasma treatment at the polished side of the crystals was determined at depths of 100 and 600 nm, respectively, using nuclear reaction analysis. At a depth of 100 nm, H-b increased from (11.8{+-}2.5) to (48.7{+-}7.6) x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} after remote H plasma treatment, whereas at 600 nm no change in H-b was observed. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Spectroscopy and atomic physics of highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni for tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Cheng, C.-C.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the spectroscopy and atomic physics for some highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni ions produced in tokamak plasmas. Forbidden and intersystem wavelengths for Cr and Ni ions are extrapolated and interpolated using the known wavelengths for Fe lines identified in solar-flare plasmas. Tables of transition probabilities for the B I, C I, N I, O I, and F I isoelectronic sequences are presented, and collision strengths and transition probabilities for Cr, Fe, and Ni ions of the Be I sequence are given. Similarities of tokamak and solar spectra are discussed, and it is shown how the atomic data presented may be used to determine ion abundances and electron densities in low-density plasmas.

  8. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for quantification of heavy metals in soils and sediments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ambushe, AA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) will be used to determine the contents of heavy metals in soils and sediments. LIBS results will be compared with the results obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP...

  9. Precise and accurate isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J S; Dietze, H J

    2000-09-01

    The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is important for quite different application fields (e.g. for isotope ratio measurements of stable isotopes in nature, especially for the investigation of isotope variation in nature or age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, quality assurance of fuel material, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control, for tracer experiments using stable isotopes or long-lived radionuclides in biological or medical studies). Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which used to be the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements, is being increasingly replaced for isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS due to its excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy. Instrumental progress in ICP-MS was achieved by the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate many disturbing argon-based molecular ions, thermalize the ions and neutralize the disturbing argon ions of plasma gas (Ar+). The application of the collision cell in ICP-QMS results in a higher ion transmission, improved sensitivity and better precision of isotope ratio measurements compared to quadrupole ICP-MS without the collision cell [e.g., for 235U/238U approximately 1 (10 microg x L(-1) uranium) 0.07% relative standard deviation (RSD) vs. 0.2% RSD in short-term measurements (n = 5)]. A significant instrumental improvement for ICP-MS is the multicollector device (MC-ICP-MS) in order to obtain a better precision of isotope ratio measurements (with a precision of up to 0.002%, RSD). CE- and HPLC-ICP-MS are used for the separation of isobaric interferences of long-lived radionuclides and stable isotopes by determination of spallation nuclide abundances in an irradiated tantalum target.

  10. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Joon, E-mail: gjlee@kw.ac.kr; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha [Plasma Bioscience Research Center/Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Wan [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan, E-mail: piceae@naver.com [Department of Microbiology and Institute of Basic Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-14

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  11. [Discussion on diagenesis of Xilingang pluton-constrained by X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy, plasma mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu-Kun; Chen, Guo-Neng; Zhang, Ke; Huang, Hai-Hua

    2013-05-01

    The results on Xilingang pluton, mainly consisting of red beds, granites containing numerous debris of red beds and granites, obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, plasma mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy show: (1) Xilingang pluton from red beds, granites containing numerous debris of red beds to granites has obvious characteristics of decreasing silicon and alkali content, and rising ignition loss, dark mineral content and oxidation index; (2) Chondrite-normalized REE distribution curves and primitive mantle-normalized spider diagram for trace elements of redbed, granites containing numerous debris of red beds and granites have a good consistency, the distribution characteristics of elements are similar to Nanling transformation-type granite; (3) The value of Raman spectrogram characteristic peak of quartz crystal in Xilingang granite decreased from the center of quartz crystal, and FWHM is steady. According to the above, the authors believe that Xilingang granite formed was related to in-situ melting of red beds and underlying strata and magma consolidation. Volatile components were discharged continuously, and oxidation index decreased gradually in the melting process. In the process of diagenesis, the top of pluton tend to be an ongoing silicon and alkali increase, while TFeO and MgO continue to migrate to bottom, and crystallization environment is a relatively closed and steady system.

  12. Plasma polarization spectroscopy on the ECR helium plasma in a cusp magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Iwamae, A.; Fujimoto, T.; Uchida, M.; Maekawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    Helium emission lines have been observed on the ECR plasma in a cusp field with the polarized components resolved. The polarization map is constructed for the 501.6 nm (2 1 S-3 1 P) line emission. Lines from n 1 P and n 1 D levels are strongly polarized and those from n 3 D levels are weakly polarized. As the helium pressure increases the polarization degree decreases. (author)

  13. Redox speciation of final repository relevant elements using separation methods in combination with ICP mass spectrometry; Redoxspeziation von endlagerrelevanten Elementen mit Hilfe von Trennmethoden gekoppelt an ein Massenspektrometer mit induktiv gekoppeltem Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graser, Carl-Heinrich

    2015-12-18

    The long-term safety assessment for nuclear waste repositories requires a detailed understanding of the chemistry of actinide elements in the geosphere. The development of advanced analytical tools is required to gain detailed insights into actinide redox speciation in a given system. The mobility of radionuclides is mostly determined by the geochemical conditions which control the redox state of radionuclides. Besides the longlived radionuclides plutonium (Pu) and neptunium (Np), which are key elements in high level nuclear waste, iron (Fe) represents a main component in natural systems controlling redox related geochemical processes. Analytical techniques for determining oxidation state distribution for redox sensitive radionuclides and other metal ions often have a lack of sensitivity. The detection limits of these methods (i.e. UV/vis, TRLFS, XANES) are in general in the range of ≥ 10{sup -6} mol.L{sup -1}. As a consequence ultrasensitive new analytical techniques are required. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) are powerful separation methods for metal ions. In the course of this thesis different speciation method for iron, neptunium and plutonium were optimized. With the optimized setup redox speciation analysis of these elements in different samples were done. Furthermore CE hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (CE - ICP - SF - MS) was used to measure the redox speciation of Pu (III, IV, V, VI), Np (IV, V, VI) and Fe (II, III) at concentrations lower than 10{sup -7} mol.L{sup -1}. CE coupling and separation parameters such as sample gas pressure, make up flow rate, capillary position, auxiliary gas flow, as well as the electrolyte system were optimized to obtain the maximum sensitivity. The methodes detection limits are 10{sup -12} mol.L{sup -1} for Np and Pu. The various oxidation state species of Pu and Np in different samples were separated by application of an acetate based electrolyte system

  14. Ultra-trace determination of Strontium-90 in environmental soil samples from Qatar by collision/reaction cell-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CRC-ICP-MS/MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Meer, S. H.; Amr, M. A. [Central Laboratories Unit, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); Helal, A.I. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Al-Kinani, A.T. [Minstery of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2013-07-01

    Because of the very low level of {sup 90}Sr in the environmental soil samples and its determination by beta counting may take several weeks, we developed a procedure for ultra-trace determination of {sup 90}Sr using collision reaction cell-inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (CRC-ICP-MS/MS, Agilent 8800). Soil samples were dried at 105 deg. C and then heated in a furnace at 550 deg. C to remove any organics present. 500 g of each soil samples were aliquoted into 2000 ml glass beakers. Each Soils samples were soaked in 2 ppm Sr solution carrier to allow determination of chemical yield. The solid to liquid ratio was 1:1. Finally the soil samples were dried at 105 deg. C. Five hundred milliliters concentrated nitric acid and 250 ml hydrochloric acid volumes were added on 500 g soil samples. The samples were digested on hot plate at 80 deg. C to prevent spraying with continuous manual mixing. The leachate solution was separated. The solids were rinsed with 500 ml deionized water, warmed on a hot plate and the leachate plus previous leachate were filtered and the total volume was reduced to 500 ml by evaporation. Final leachate volume was transferred to a centrifuge tubes. The centrifuge tubes were centrifuged at 3,500 rpm for 10 min. The leachate was transferred to a 1 L beaker and heated on a hot plate to evaporate the leachate to dryness. The reside was re-dissolved in 100 ml of 2% HNO{sub 3} and reduced by evaporation to 10 mL. The solution was measured directly by CRC-ICP-MS/MS by setting the first quadruple analyzer to m/z 90 and introducing oxygen gas into the reaction cell for elimination isobar interference from zirconium-90. The method was validated by measurements of standard reference materials and applied on environmental soil samples. The overall time requirement for the measurement of strontium-90 by CRC-ICP-MS/MS is 2 days, significantly shorter than any radioanalytical protocol currently available. (authors)

  15. Application of an argon-nitrogen inductively-coupled radiofrequency plasma (ICP) to the analysis of geological and related materials for their rare earth contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, I. B.; Watson, A. E.; Steele, T. W.; Jones, E. A.; Goncalves, M.

    An account is given of the development of a procedure for the determination of the rare earth (RE) elements in a large variety of geological materials employing a medium power argon-nitrogen ICP coupled with a 3.4m Ebert spectrograph. The effects of the carrier and intermediate gas flow rates, height of observation and power on RE spectral line intensities have been studied. The line-to-background ratio of the RE analyte was found to increase with observation height and passed through a maximum at 12-14 mm above the top of the work coil. The method eventually developed allows the direct determination of the lanthanides and yttrium at the 50-200 μg g -1 levels using a single solution prepared by fusing 0.2-1 g samples with Na 2O 2 or LiBO 2 and dissolving the melt in 4-10% (v/v) HNO 3, or by treating the samples with HF-HClO 4-HNO 3 mixtures. For lower contents of the RE elements, they can be separated from matrix concomitants by ion exchange employing AG50W-X8 resin. A large variety of silicate and phosphate reference materials was analysed using scandium as the internal standard. The relative standard deviations vary from about 1.5-15%. No matrix effects were observed despite the large compositional variation of the samples analysed.

  16. [Determination of ru, rh and Pd in 30% trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO)-kerosene by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrum (ICP-AES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Chen; Zhang, Lin

    2013-07-01

    The determination method of Ru, Rh and Pd in 30% TRPO-kerosene ICP-AES was studied by using aqueous calibration reference solution and choosing ethanol as diluent. The effects of the contents of 30% TRPO-kerosene and aqueous solution and the concentration of HNO3 in 30% TRPO-kerosene on the intensities of Ru, Rh and Pd were described. The optimized condition for preparing samples and calibration solutions was chosen as follows: The contents of 30% TRPO-kerosene and aqueous phase were 10% (V/V) and 5% (V/V) respectively and the concentration of HNO3 30% TRPO-kerosene was 0.20 mol x L(-1). The determination method of Au, Ru and Pd was set up according to the above condition. The detection limit, precision and recovery ratio of Ru, Rh and Pd are well. The method is not only used in determination of Au, Ru and Pd in 30% TRPO-kerosene, but also used in other organic phases.

  17. A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Mohamad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a. The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA, adequate intake (AI and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium.

  18. Tenth International Colloquium on UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Eric H.; Kahn, Steven M.

    UV and X-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas draws interest from many disciplines. Contributions from international specialists are collected together in this book from a timely recent conference. In astrophysics, the Hubble Space Telescope, Astro 1 and ROSAT observatories are now providing UV and X-ray spectra and images of cosmic sources in unprecedented detail, while the Yohkoh mission recently collected superb data on the solar corona. In the laboratory, the development of ion-trap facilities and novel laser experiments are providing vital new data on high temperature plasmas. Recent innovations in the technology of spectroscopic instrumentation are discussed. These papers constitute an excellent up-to-date review of developments in short-wavelength spectroscopy and offer a solid introduction to its theoretical and experimental foundations. These proceedings give an up-to-date review of developments in short-wavelength spectroscopy and offer a solid introduction to its theoretical and experimental foundations. Various speakers presented some of the first results from the high resolution spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, the high sensitivity far ultraviolet and X-ray spectrometers of the ASTRO 1 Observatory, the imaging X-ray spectrometer on the ROSAT Observatory, and the high resolution solar X-ray spectrometer on Yohkoh. The development of ion trap devices had brought about a revolution in laboratory investigations of atomic processes in highly charged atoms. X-ray laser experiments had not only yielded considerable insight into electron ion interactions in hot dense plasmas, but also demonstrated the versatility of laser plasmas as laboratory X-ray sources. Such measurements also motivated and led to refinements in the development of large-scale atomic and molecular codes. On the instrumental side, the design and development of the next series of very powerful short wavelength observatories had generated a large number of

  19. [Classification of results of studying blood plasma with laser correlation spectroscopy based on semiotics of preclinical and clinical states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovoĭ, K S; Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Musiĭchuk, Iu I; Noskin, L A; Klopov, N V; Noskin, V A; Starodub, N F

    1998-01-01

    The usage of laser correlation spectroscopy for verification of preclinical and clinical states is substantiated. Developed "semiotic" classifier for solving the problems of preclinical and clinical states is presented. The substantiation of biological algorithms as well as the mathematical support and software for the proposed classifier for the data of laser correlation spectroscopy of blood plasma are presented.

  20. Theoretical Investigation of Spectral-Interferences of Cadmium Isotopes in ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, A.M.; Rashad, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal properties of polyatomic ions which can interfere with cadmium during the analysis process using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer ICP-MS are studied. Ionization energies and heats of formation, of the selected species at 0 K and 298 K of the expected reactions to occur under the effect of plasma conditions in ICP-MS, are calculated using Gaussian 03

  1. Optical emission and mass spectroscopy of plasma processes in reactive DC pulsed magnetron sputtering of aluminium oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří; Pokorný, Petr; Bočan, Jiří; Fitl, Přemysl; Lančok, Ján; Musil, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2010), 697-700 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100718; GA AV ČR KAN400100653; GA ČR GP202/09/P324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : reactive magnetron sputtering * alumina * plasma spectroscopy * mass spectroscopy * optical emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2010

  2. Plasma Wind Tunnel Investigation of European Ablators in Nitrogen/Methane Using Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda Wernitz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For atmospheric reentries at high enthalpies ablative heat shield materials are used, such as those for probes entering the atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Titan, such as Cassini-Huygens in December, 2004. The characterization of such materials in a nitrogen/methane atmosphere is of interest. A European ablative material, AQ60, has been investigated in plasma wind tunnel tests at the IRS plasma wind tunnel PWK1 using the magnetoplasma dynamic generator RD5 as plasma source in a nitrogen/methane atmosphere. The dimensions of the samples are 45 mm in length with a diameter of 39 mm. The actual ablator has a thickness of 40 mm. The ablator is mounted on an aluminium substructure. The experiments were conducted at two different heat flux regimes, 1.4 MW/m2 and 0.3 MW/m2. In this paper, results of emission spectroscopy at these plasma conditions in terms of plasma species’ temperatures will be presented, including the investigation of the free-stream species, N2 and N2+, and the major erosion product C2, at a wavelength range around 500 nm–600 nm.

  3. Helium temperature measurements in a hot filament magnetic mirror plasma using high resolution Doppler spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, S.; McCarthy, P. J.; Ruth, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Langmuir probe and spectroscopic diagnostics are used to routinely measure electron temperature and density over a wide operating range in a reconfigured Double Plasma device at University College Cork, Ireland. The helium plasma, generated through thermionic emission from a negatively biased tungsten filament, is confined by an axisymmetric magnetic mirror configuration using two stacks of NdFeB permanent magnets, each of length 20 cm and diameter 3 cm placed just outside the 15 mm water cooling jacket enclosing a cylindrical vacuum vessel of internal diameter 25 cm. Plasma light is analysed using a Fourier Transform-type Bruker spectrometer with a highest achievable resolution of 0.08 cm-1 . In the present work, the conventional assumption of room temperature ions in the analysis of Langmuir probe data from low temperature plasmas is examined critically using Doppler spectroscopy of the 468.6 nm He II line. Results for ion temperatures obtained from spectroscopic data for a variety of engineering parameters (discharge voltage, gas pressure and plasma current) will be presented.

  4. Determination of boron content and isotopic composition in gypsum by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry using phase transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun-Qi; Peng, Zhang-Kuang; Yang, Jian; Xiao, Ying-Kai; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2017-12-01

    As a stable isotope, boron plays an important role in hydrogeology, environmental geochemistry, ore deposit geochemistry and marine paleoclimatology. However, there is no report of boron isotopic composition in gypsum. This is mainly confined to complete dissolution of Gypsum by water or acid. In this study, gypsum was converted to calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) with ammonium bicarbonate(NH 4 HCO 3 ) by two steps at 50°C. In every step, the mass ratio of NH 4 HCO 3 /CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O was twice, and conversion rate reached more than 98%. Converted CaCO 3 was totally dissolved with hydrochloric acid (the dissolution rate was over 99%). In order to overcome the difficulties of the matrix interference and the detection limit of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), we use Amberlite IRA 743 resin to purify and enrichment the boron at first, then eluting boron from the resin with 10mL 0.1mol/L hydrochloric acid at 75°C. The boron isotopic composition of natural gypsum samples was determined using positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry (P-TIMS). The boron isotopic composition of gypsum may be an excellent indicator for the formation environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of mid-infrared tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy to plasma diagnostics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roepcke, J; Lombardi, G; Rousseau, A; Davies, P B

    2006-01-01

    Within the last decade mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy over a region from 3 to 17μm and based on tuneable lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy or TDLAS, has progressed considerably as a powerful diagnostic technique for in situ studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry in molecular plasmas. The increasing interest in processing plasmas containing hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, organo-silicon and boron compounds has led to further applications of TDLAS because most of these compounds and their decomposition products are infrared active. TDLAS provides a means of determining the absolute concentrations of the ground states of stable and transient molecular species, which is of particular importance for the investigation of reaction kinetic phenomena. Information about gas temperature and population densities can also be derived from TDLAS measurements. A variety of free radicals and molecular ions have been detected by TDLAS. Since plasmas with molecular feed gases are used in many applications such as thin film deposition, semiconductor processing, surface activation and cleaning, and materials and waste treatment, this has stimulated the adaptation of infrared spectroscopic techniques to industrial requirements. The recent development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) offers an attractive new option for the monitoring and control of industrial plasma processes. The aim of the present paper is threefold: (i) to review recent achievements in our understanding of molecular phenomena in plasmas (ii) to report on selected studies of the spectroscopic properties and kinetic behaviour of radicals and (iii) to describe the current status of advanced instrumentation for TDLAS in the mid-infrared

  6. Real-time imaging, spectroscopy, and structural investigation of cathodic plasma electrolytic oxidation of molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojadinović, Stevan, E-mail: sstevan@ff.bg.ac.rs; Tadić, Nenad; Šišović, Nikola M.; Vasilić, Rastko [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-06-21

    In this paper, the results of the investigation of cathodic plasma electrolytic oxidation (CPEO) of molybdenum at 160 V in a mixed solution of borax, water, and ethylene glycol are presented. Real-time imaging and optical emission spectroscopy were used for the characterization of the CPEO. During the process, vapor envelope is formed around the cathode and strong electric field within the envelope caused the generation of plasma discharges. The spectral line shape analysis of hydrogen Balmer line H{sub β} (486.13 nm) shows that plasma discharges are characterized by the electron number density of about 1.4 × 10{sup 21 }m{sup −3}. The electron temperature of 15 000 K was estimated by measuring molybdenum atomic lines intensity. Surface morphology, chemical, and phase composition of coatings formed by CPEO were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The elemental components of CPEO coatings are Mo and O and the predominant crystalline form is MoO{sub 3}.

  7. A distributed atomic physics database and modeling system for plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.K.; Liedahl, D.; Chen, M.H.; Iglesias, C.A.; Lee, R.W.; Salter, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    We are undertaking to develop a set of computational capabilities which will facilitate the access, manipulation, and understanding of atomic data in calculations of x-ray spectral modeling. In this present limited description we will emphasize the objectives for this work, the design philosophy, and aspects of the atomic database, as a more complete description of this work is available. The project is referred to as the Plasma Spectroscopy Initiative; the computing environment is called PSI, or the ''PSI shell'' since the primary interface resembles a UNIX shell window. The working group consists of researchers in the fields of x-ray plasma spectroscopy, atomic physics, plasma diagnostics, line shape theory, astrophysics, and computer science. To date, our focus has been to develop the software foundations, including the atomic physics database, and to apply the existing capabilities to a range of working problems. These problems have been chosen in part to exercise the overall design and implementation of the shell. For successful implementation the final design must have great flexibility since our goal is not simply to satisfy our interests but to vide a tool of general use to the community

  8. Electrolytic dissolution of aluminium alloys (chip form) and mullet-element determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoletto, Tania

    2001-01-01

    Several aluminum alloys with different chip's size were dissolved using aqua regia (HCl:HN0 3 ,3:1). The residues of the dissolution procedure were either rejected or used in silicon volatilization with hydrofluoric acid before determination of Fe, Cu, Mn, Mg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sn, Ti and Zr by ICP-OES. The influence caused by crescent amounts of aluminum in the determination of other elements and the probable spectral interference by Cu in determination of Zn (with or without electrolytic separation of Cu) was evaluated. The electrolytic dissolution of aluminum alloys was performed by pressing chips against a platinum electrode for the electrolysis to occur, so that way the chips behaved as the anode. A tube (body of syringe of 2.5 mL) with perforations around the open base was used to contain the sample and Pt electrode. The alloy was placed on synthetic wool (perlon) in this tube. An acrylic dowel with a platinum wire across its interior was fixed in the superior part a tube with Teflon film, with an orifice through which the electrolytic solution flowed (HNO 3 1 mol L -1 ; 4.5 mL min -1 ). A platinum dish was fixed at the inferior extremity of the platinum wire to press the sample. The solution came out through the inferior orifices of the tube to a flask, from where it was again captured (with a peristaltic pump) to go into the superior part of the tube. In this flask, a Pt wire cathode was also placed. A current of 0.6 A and ten minutes of electrolysis provided good results. Due to the partial dissolution, the knowledge of percentages of previous elements analyzed after total dissolution, or using certified reference material are necessary. The results were normalized by knowledge percentages. The calculations were made by the ratio between the concentration of the element determined, with the determined concentration of aluminum; the ratio between concentration of the element and the sum of the concentrations of the elements determined, including Al; the ratio

  9. Process analysis of recycled thermoplasts from consumer electronics by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Herbert; Panne, Ulrich; Niessner, Reinhard

    2002-09-01

    An experimental setup for direct elemental analysis of recycled thermoplasts from consumer electronics by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS, or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, LIBS) was realized. The combination of a echelle spectrograph, featuring a high resolution with a broad spectral coverage, with multivariate methods, such as PLS, PCR, and variable subset selection via a genetic algorithm, resulted in considerable improvements in selectivity and sensitivity for this complex matrix. With a normalization to carbon as internal standard, the limits of detection were in the ppm range. A preliminary pattern recognition study points to the possibility of polymer recognition via the line-rich echelle spectra. Several experiments at an extruder within a recycling plant demonstrated successfully the capability of LIPS for different kinds of routine on-line process analysis.

  10. Determination of trace elements in high pure rare earth oxide by double focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedreira Filho, Walter dos Reis

    2000-01-01

    Rare earth oxides are used in several technological fields whose applications can be observed in several areas of modern technology, among which are included: lasers, semiconductors semi, high purity materials and metallic alloys. The field of applications of the rare earth elements is quite wide. Several important industrial applications are ceramics, catalysts and metallurgical as well as research areas and high technology sectors. Such applications have been presenting an accentuated growth in the last years. Chemical characterization of rare earth oxides of high purity has been constituting one of the major challenges of analytical chemistry. Several analytical techniques were used for chemical characterization of high purity rare earth the oxides. Even so, those techniques present limitations when one needs to characterize materials of a high level of purity, as in the case of rare earth oxides. Some of those limitations are associated, for example, to spectral interference. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a powerful analytical tool for quantitative analysis of metal impurities in high purity materials. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has an unit of production and purification of rare earth oxides, with above 99,9% level of purity. In this work, the rare earth impurities were characterized in samples (La 2 O 3 ; CeO 2 ; Pr 6 O 11 ; Nd 2 O 3 ; Sm 2 O 3 ; Gd 2 O 3 ; Y 2 O 3 ) produced at the IPEN and certified standard materials produced by Johnson Matthey Chemical (JMC). The technique of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used in the separation of the impurities. Quantification of metallic impurities was carried out as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP MS). In this work it is presented a new analytical methodology in the chemical characterization of metallic impurities in rare earth oxides of high purity (> 99,9%) with and without separation of the matrix. Analyses of standard

  11. Resonance-enhanced laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for sensitive elemental analysis: Elucidation of enhancement mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, S.L.; Cheung, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    When performing laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for elemental analysis, the analyte signal-to-noise ratio increased from four to over fifty if the plume was reheated by a dye laser pulse tuned to resonant absorption. Time-resolved studies showed that the enhancement was not due to resonance photoionization. Rather, efficient and controlled rekindling of a larger plume volume was the key mechanism. The signal-to-noise ratio further increased to over a hundred if the atmosphere was replaced by a low-pressure heavy inert gas. The ambient gas helped confine and thermally insulate the expanding vapor

  12. Polarization mechanism in a ns laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of Al alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei Nejad, Mahboobeh; Soltanolkotabi, Mahmood; Eslami Majd, Abdollah

    2018-01-01

    Polarization emission from aluminum alloy by ns laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is carefully investigated in air using a non-gated CCD camera at integration time of 100 ms. First, the analysis reveals that the small polarization degree is the same for both continuum and discrete line emission spectra which also increases slowly with wavelength growth; second, laser fluence in the range of 347.81-550.10 J/cm2 has no significant changes in plasma polarization; and third, larger polarization in comparison with polarization introduced by preferential reflection of emission from the target surface (Fresnel reflectivity) is observed. The residual fluctuations of the anisotropic recombining plasma and the dynamic polarization of an ion's core are suggested as the possible main sources for observed polarized radiation in ns-LIBS.

  13. Degree of dissociation measured by FTIR absorption spectroscopy applied to VHF silane plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansonnens, L.; Howling, A.A.; Hollenstein, C.

    1997-10-01

    In situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the fractional depletion of silane in a radio-frequency (rf) glow discharge. The technique used a simple single pass arrangement and was implemented in a large area industrial reactor for deposition of amorphous silicon. Measurements were made on silane plasmas for a range of excitation frequencies. It was observed that at constant plasma power, the fractional depletion increased from 35% at 13.56 MHz to 70% at 70 MHz. With a simple model based on the density continuity equations in the gas phase, it was shown that this increase is due to a higher dissociation rate and is largely responsible for the observed increase in the deposition rate with the frequency. (author) 5 figs., 30 refs

  14. Infinitely high etch selectivity during CH4/H2/Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of indium tin oxide (ITO) with photoresist mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.Y.; Ko, J.H.; Park, M.S.; Lee, N.-E.

    2008-01-01

    Under certain conditions during ITO etching using CH 4 /H 2 /Ar inductively coupled plasmas, the etch rate selectivity of ITO to photoresist (PR) was infinitely high because the ITO films continued to be etched, but a net deposition of the α-C:H layer occurred on the top of the PR. Analyses of plasmas and etched ITO surfaces suggested that the continued consumption of the carbon and hydrogen in the deposited α-C:H layer by their chemical reaction with In and Sn atoms in the ITO resulting in the generation of volatile metal-organic etch products and by the ion-enhanced removal of the α-C:H layer presumably play important roles in determining the ITO etch rate and selectivity

  15. Time-resolved spectroscopy of nonequilibrium ionization in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjoribanks, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The highly transient ionization characteristic of laser-produced plasmas at high energy densities has been investigated experimentally, using x-ray spectroscopy with time resolution of less than 20 ps. Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma density and temperature were used, including line ratios, line profile broadening and continuum emission, to characterize the plasma conditions without relying immediately on ionization modeling. The experimentally measured plasma parameters were used as independent variables, driving an ionization code, as a test of ionization modeling, divorced from hydrodynamic calculations. Several state-of-the-art streak spectrographs, each recording a fiducial of the laser peak along with the time-resolved spectrum, characterized the laser heating of thin signature layers of different atomic numbers imbedded in plastic targets. A novel design of crystal spectrograph, with a conically curved crystal, was developed. Coupled with a streak camera, it provided high resolution (λ/ΔΛ > 1000) and a collection efficiency roughly 20-50 times that of planar crystal spectrographs, affording improved spectra for quantitative reduction and greater sensitivity for the diagnosis of weak emitters. Experimental results were compared to hydrocode and ionization code simulations, with poor agreement. The conclusions question the appropriateness of describing electron velocity distributions by a temperature parameter during the time of laser illumination and emphasis the importance of characterizing the distribution more generally

  16. Electromagnetic diagnostics of ECR-Ion Sources plasmas: optical/X-ray imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Altana, C.; Caliri, C.; Mazzaglia, M.; Romano, F. P.; Leone, F.; Musumarra, A.; Naselli, E.; Reitano, R.; Torrisi, G.; Celona, L.; Cosentino, L. G.; Giarrusso, M.; Gammino, S.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetoplasmas in ECR-Ion Sources are excited from gaseous elements or vapours by microwaves in the range 2.45-28 GHz via Electron Cyclotron Resonance. A B-minimum, magnetohydrodynamic stable configuration is used for trapping the plasma. The values of plasma density, temperature and confinement times are typically ne= 1011-1013 cm-3, 01 eVSilicon Drift detectors with high energy resolution of 125 eV at 5.9 keV have been used for the characterization of plasma emission at 02spectroscopy with a spatial resolution down to 30 μm and an energy resolution down to 140 eV at 5.9 keV . In parallel, imaging in the optical range and spectroscopic measurements have been carried out. Relative abundances of H/H2 atoms/molecules in the plasmas have been measured for different values of neutral pressure, microwave power and magnetic field profile (they are critical for high-power proton sources).

  17. Diagnostics of helium plasma by collisional-radiative modeling and optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonwook; Kwon, Duck-Hee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Optical diagnostics for the electron temperature (T{sub e}) and the electron density (n{sub e}) of fusion plasma is important for understanding and controlling the edge and the divertor plasmas in tokamak. Since the line intensity ratio method using the collisional-radiative modeling and OES (optical emission spectroscopy) is simple and does not disturb the plasma, many fusion devices with TEXTOR, JET, JT-60U, LHD, and so on, have employed the line intensity ratio method as a basic diagnostic tool for neutral helium (He I). The accuracy of the line intensity ratio method depends on the reliability of the cross sections and rate coefficients. We performed state-of-the-art R-matrix calculations including couplings up to n=7 states and the distorted wave (DW) calculations for the electron-impact excitation (EIE) cross sections of He I using the flexible atomic code (FAC). The collisional-radiative model for He I was constructed using the calculated the cross sections. The helium collisional-radiative model for He I was constructed to diagnose the electron temperature and the electron density of the plasma. The electron temperature and density were determined by using the line intensity ratio method.

  18. Analytical applications of ICP-FTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faires, L.M.; Palmer, B.A.; Cunningham, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Group of the Chemistry Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been investigating the analytical utility of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) - Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) combination. While a new state-of-the-art FTS facility is under construction at Los Alamos, preliminary data has been obtained on the one-meter FTS at the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak, Arizona. This paper presents an update of the Los Alamos FTS facility, which is expected to be completed in 1986, and presents data showing the analytical potential of an ICP-FTS system. Some of the potential problems of the multiplex disadvantage are discussed, and the advantages of the high resolution obtainable with the FTS are illustrated

  19. High-Activity ICP-AES Measurements in the ATALANTE Facility Applied to Analytical Monitoring of an Extraction Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbelin, E.; Boyer-Deslys, V.; Beres, A.; Viallesoubranne, C. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DRCP/SE2A/LAMM, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    The Material Analysis and Metrology Laboratory (LAMM) of the Cea's Atalante complex ensures analytical monitoring of enhanced separation tests. Certain fission products, actinides and lanthanides were assayed by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) in the CBA shielded analysis line. These analyses were particularly effective for controlling the Diamex test, and contributed to its success. The Diamex process consists in extracting the actinides and lanthanides from a Purex raffinate using a diamide, DMDOHEMA, followed by stripping at low acidity. The major elements analyzed during the test were Am, Nd, Mo, Fe, and Zr.

  20. High-Activity ICP-AES Measurements in the ATALANTE Facility Applied to Analytical Monitoring of an Extraction Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esbelin, E.; Boyer-Deslys, V.; Beres, A.; Viallesoubranne, C.

    2008-01-01

    The Material Analysis and Metrology Laboratory (LAMM) of the Cea's Atalante complex ensures analytical monitoring of enhanced separation tests. Certain fission products, actinides and lanthanides were assayed by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) in the CBA shielded analysis line. These analyses were particularly effective for controlling the Diamex test, and contributed to its success. The Diamex process consists in extracting the actinides and lanthanides from a Purex raffinate using a diamide, DMDOHEMA, followed by stripping at low acidity. The major elements analyzed during the test were Am, Nd, Mo, Fe, and Zr

  1. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  2. Rapid and sensitive determination of radiocesium (Cs-135, Cs-137) in the presence of excess barium by electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) with potassium thiocyanate as modifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.; Probst, T.U.; Berryman, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    An electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ETV-ICP-MS) method based on selective volatilization of cesium with KSCN as modifier has been developed for determination of radiocesium, i.e. 135 Cs and 137 Cs, in the presence of isobaric barium. A 10000 times excess of barium, which was volatilized at a temperature of 1100 C, resulted only in a 1% signal increase in the signal of mass 135 amu. The recommended concentration of KSCN is 0.3 mM, and pretreatment and volatilization temperatures are 400 C and 1100 C, respectively. A ramp time of 1 s is recommended for the volatilization step. The achieved limit of detection for 135 Cs is 0.2 pg/mL (10 μBq/mL) and 4 fg (0.2 μBq) absolute for a sample volume of 20 μL. This means a limit of detection for 137 Cs of 0.2 pg/mL (0.6 Bq/mL) and of 4 fg (0.01 Bq) absolute. Signal variations of 135 Cs and 137 Cs, respectively, in spiked samples with various matrices were investigated. (orig.)

  3. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  4. New ways for the quantification by the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Maike

    2010-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is capable of a fast and multielement analysis of various samples types and matrices which makes the method particularly attractive for industrial process analysis. However, for LIBS to become well accepted as an analytical method some issues in calibration and understanding of the underlying transient plasma processes have to be solved. The objective of this work was to identify influential instrumental parameters and plasma conditions in order to improve the overall quantitative performance of LIBS. As the spectral sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of the detector represents a decisive element for the application of LIBS in an industrial environment, two detectors, an ICCD and CCD camera, were compared. In combination with a high-resolution echelle spectrograph, the superior or at least equivalent efficiency of the non-intensified CCD was experimentally demonstrated and supported by corresponding plasma simulations. Further investigations of the plasma expansion under different atmospheric conditions revealed that the geometry of observing the expanding plasma influences the sensitivity and reproducibility of the measurements considerably. The diagnostics of self-absorbed spectral lines and their use for calibration purposes were studied with a mirror-based duplication method and a statistical line shape analysis employing linear correlation. The linear correlation approach displayed good performance for identifying the on-set of self absorption in comparison to the duplication method. As matrixmatched reference materials are essential to validate laser ablation methods, two novel preparations of individual calibration standards based on a copper-and polyacrylamide matrix were tested for their applicability to LIBS. (orig.)

  5. Plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of extracellular component of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-04-01

    To achieve the quantitative optical non-invasive diagnosis of blood during extracorporeal circulation therapies, the instrumental technique to extract extracellular spectra from whole blood was developed. In the circuit, the continuous blood flow was generated by a centrifugal blood pump. The oxygen saturation was maintained 100% by an oxygenator. The developed glass optical flow cell was attached to the outlet tubing of the oxygenator. The halogen lamp including the light from 400 to 900 nm wavelength was used for the light source. The light was guided into an optical fiber. The light emitted by the fiber was collimated and emitted to the flow cell flat surface at the incident angle of 45 degrees. The light just reflected on the boundary between inner surface of the flow cell and plasma at 45 degrees was detected by the detection fiber. The detected light was analyzed by a spectral photometer. The obtained spectrum from 400 to 600nm wavelength was not changed with respect to the hematocrit. In contrast, the signal in the spectral range was changed when the plasma free hemoglobin increased. By using two spectral range, 505+/-5 nm and 542.5+/-2.5 nm, the differential spectrum was correlated with the free hemoglobin at R2=0.99. On the other hand, as for the hematocrit, the differential spectrum was not correlated at R2=0.01. Finally, the plasma free hemoglobin was quantified with the accuracy of 22+/-19mg/dL. The result shows that the developed plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy (PSRS) can extract the plasma spectrum from flowing whole blood.

  6. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miaja-Avila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  7. Tandem on-line continuous separations for atomic spectroscopic indirect analysis: iodide determination by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.M.; Sanchez Uria, J.E.; Sanz-Medel, A.; Quintero Ortega, M.C.; Bautista, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A sensitive and selective indirect determination of iodide by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) based on the principle of tandem on-line continuous separations as an alternative means of introducing samples into plasmas is proposed. Iodide is continuously extracted as an ion-pair into xylene by mixing the sample with Hg(II) and dipyridil solutions. The organic phase (containing the analyte in [Hg(Dipy) 2 ]I 2 form) is on-line continuously mixed with NaBH 4 (in DMF) and acetic acid solutions. Mercury vapour continuously generated from this organic phase is separated in a classical U-type gas-liquid separation device. The system has been optimized for the continuous extraction of KI, for the direct generation of cold mercury vapour from xylene and for the final ICP-AES determination of mercury. The optimised method has been applied to the determination of iodide (detection limit 20 ng/ml of iodide) in table salt and in synthetic samples. Very good agreement between found and certified results was observed. The usefulness and convenience of such alternative sample chemical pretreatment/presentation to the ICP is thus demonstrated for indirect determinations to be carried out by atomic spectroscopy methods. (authors)

  8. Simultaneous measurement of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments; Mesure des isotopes du plutonium des sediments marins par spectrometrie de masse a plasma couple inductivement haute resolution (HR ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, F

    1999-07-01

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  9. Pre-concentration of Cr, Mn, Fe and Co of water sea and analysis by plasma emission spectroscopy - DCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of separation and pre-concentration methods of chromium, manganese, iron and cobalt from seawater, that allow use control methods of 5 1 Cr, 5 4 Mn, 5 5 , 5 9 Fe, 5 8 , 5 9 Co with a better sensibility and the determination of this elements by atomic absorption spectroscopy or plasma emission spectroscopy are described. This methods of seawater analysis will use near the region of Angra I reactor. (author)

  10. Study on spatial distribution of plasma parameters in a magnetized inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Hee-Woon; Lee, Woohyun; Kim, Ji-Won; Whang, Ki-Woong, E-mail: kwhang@snu.ac.kr [Plasma Laboratory, Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyuk [Samsung Electronics Co., Banwol-dong, Hwaseong 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Wanjae [Tokyo Electron Miyagi Ltd., Taiwa-cho, Kurokawa-gun, Miyagi 981-3629 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Spatial distributions of various plasma parameters such as plasma density, electron temperature, and radical density in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and a magnetized inductively coupled plasma (M-ICP) were investigated and compared. Electron temperature in between the rf window and the substrate holder of M-ICP was higher than that of ICP, whereas the one just above the substrate holder of M-ICP was similar to that of ICP when a weak (<8 G) magnetic field was employed. As a result, radical densities in M-ICP were higher than those in ICP and the etch rate of oxide in M-ICP was faster than that in ICP without severe electron charging in 90 nm high aspect ratio contact hole etch.

  11. Laser-produced lithium plasma as a narrow-band extended ultraviolet radiation source for photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriever, G; Mager, S; Naweed, A; Engel, A; Bergmann, K; Lebert, R

    1998-03-01

    Extended ultraviolet (EUV) emission characteristics of a laser-produced lithium plasma are determined with regard to the requirements of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The main features of interest are spectral distribution, photon flux, bandwidth, source size, and emission duration. Laser-produced lithium plasmas are characterized as emitters of intense narrow-band EUV radiation. It can be estimated that the lithium Lyman-alpha line emission in combination with an ellipsoidal silicon/molybdenum multilayer mirror is a suitable EUV source for an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy microscope with a 50-meV energy resolution and a 10-mum lateral resolution.

  12. Investigations of the cathode region of an argon arc plasma by degenerate four-wave mixing laser spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzierzega, K; Pokrzywka, B; Pellerin, S

    2004-01-01

    Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) laser spectroscopy was used in local studies of atmospheric pressure argon plasma generated in a free-burning arc. The results of plasma diagnostics using the DFWM method were compared to the results obtained with optical emission measurements. In the cathode region of the arc the maxima of both the DFWM signal and the emission coefficient for the 696.5 nm Ar I line depend on the distance from the cathode tip. This effect proves the departure of the plasma state from local thermal equilibrium (LTE) as it has been reported by many authors. On the other hand the Stark shifts of the 696.5 nm Ar I line determined by the DFWM method in relation to plasma diagnostic results show no deviations from LTE on the arc axis down to 1.0 mm from the cathode tip

  13. Quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy with the amplitude-to-time conversion technique for atmospheric-pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumii, Takayoshi; Kimura, Noriaki; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The NO 2 concentration, i.e., density, in a small plasma of a nitrogen oxide (NOx) treatment reactor has been measured by highly sensitive laser absorption spectroscopy. The absorption spectroscopy uses a single path of a quantum cascade laser beam passing through a plasma whose dimension is about 1 cm. The high sensitivity of spectroscopy is achieved by the amplitude-to-time conversion technique. Although the plasma reactor is designed to convert NO in the input gas to NO 2 , it has been demonstrated by this highly sensitive absorption spectroscopy that NO 2 in a simulated exhaust gas that enters the reactor is decomposed by the plasma first and then NO 2 is formed again, possibly more than it was decomposed, through a series of gas-phase reactions by the time the gas exits the reactor. The observation is consistent with that of an earlier study on NO decomposition by the same type of a plasma reactor [T. Yumii et al., J. Phys. D 46, 135202 (2013)], in which a high concentration of NO 2 was observed at the exit of the reactor.

  14. Comparison of elemental quantity by PIXE and ICP-MS and/or ICP-AES for NIST standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, K.; Sera, K.; Gotoh, T.; Nakamura, M.

    2002-01-01

    Urban particulate matter (SRM 1648), Buffalo River sediment (SRM 2704) and pine needle (SRM 1575) standard reference materials prepared by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) were analyzed by three multi-element analysis methods, i.e., particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES); values determined by those analysis methods were compared with certified and/or non-certified values of NIST samples. Values determined by PIXE were 70-120% relative to certified and/or non-certified values of NIST samples except for Co in the urban particulate matter, for V and Co in Buffalo River sediment and for Ni and Br in the pine needles samples. In particular, Al, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb were 85-110% in all samples. On the other hand, Na and Fe values determined by ICP-MS were very much different from the certified values in all samples, but the other elements were 70-120%. As for ICP-AES, all elements except for Na were 80-100% in all samples. Comparing the values determined by PIXE and those determined by ICP-MS and/or ICP-AES, there was a slight difference between the samples, but the range was 75-120% except for Na, V, Fe and Co determined by ICP-MS and Na determined by ICP-AES, which was generally consistent with PIXE

  15. Sequential determination of environmental levels of isotopic thorium, uranium and the light rare earth elements within the terrestrial food chain by induced coupled plasma (ICP) and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Morse, R.; Ford, H.

    1986-01-01

    A radioecological study designed to measure soil to plant and soil to animal (livestock) transfer of Th, U, Ra and the light rare earth elements (REE) in typical and naturally-enhanced radiation environments required the development of radiochemical methods suitable for low-level determinations in a broad suite of environmental matrices including soil, edible vegetables and vegetation, and the major organs and tissues of various livestock. Earlier work has demonstrate the reliability of the methods summarized here for measuring the isotopic thorium and REE content of human feces, and that in the edible portions of various vegetables grown under field conditions. The very high degree of biological discrimination against Th and REE uptake in plants as well as in animal soft tissues necessitated the analysis of typical sample masses of 1-4 kg (fresh weight) to insure reasonably precise (eg., 10-20%) concentration estimates for most of the elements and isotopes of interest. As a result of the ''bone-seeking'' nature and relatively long retention times for these elements in skeletal tissue, typical analytical masses required for analysis of bone range from 40 to 70 g (fresh weight) except for the REE's in which a larger aliquot is recommended when determination is by induced coupled plasma spectrometry

  16. Quantitative plasma spectroscopy in a resistive shell reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedqvist, Anders

    1999-10-01

    The subject addressed in this thesis is quantitative plasma spectroscopy. Measurements of electron temperature and impurity ion density, performed at EXTRAP-T2, are aimed to investigate the effects of operating a reversed- field pinch with a resistive shell and a graphite wall. The spectroscopic measurements are analyzed with a collisional-radiative model and a consistency check is performed for the measurements and the model itself. The resistive shell results in wall-locked modes, enhanced plasma-wall interaction and degraded confinement. Measurements of vacuum ultraviolet resonant transitions of carbon and oxygen show that the local heating of the wall, at the position of the locking, leads to influxes of hydrogen and impurities, resulting in a cold and resistive plasma. Effects on the local scale are also observed. Spatially-resolved measurements of line emission originating from charge exchange collisions are used to investigate the change in neutral hydrogen profile. Temporal correlations between soft x-ray emission and poloidal loop voltage at the position of the wall-locked modes are observed and in connection, a decrease in central electron temperature, indicating there is a direct energy loss channel between the center and the edge. The hydrogen recycling properties of the graphite wall are investigated in an isotope exchange experiment. The density of the hydrogen isotopes are measured from spectral line emission and compared with recycling models. In charge exchange collisions between fully stripped chlorine and thermal deuterium, observed in JET plasmas, only a single n-level is populated. This is different from most ions and may be used to test models for calculating charge exchange collision cross-sections

  17. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch in Atmospheric Argon Plasma under Diverse Humidity by FTIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeyai, P.; Suphantharika, M.; Wongsagonsup, R.; Dangtip, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tapioca is economical crop grown in Thailand and continues to be one of the major sources of starch. Nowadays, tapioca starch has been widely used in industrial applications, however the native form of starch has limited the applications. Thus scientists try to modify the properties of starch for increasing the stability of the granules, pastes to low pH, heat, and shear during the food process. We modify the tapioca starch by plasma treatment under an argon atmosphere. The degree of modification is determined by following water content in the starch granules. The tablet samples of native starch are also prepared and compared with the plasma treated starch. Before plasma treatment, the starch tablets are stored under three different relative humilities (RH) including 11%, 68%, and 78%RH, respectively. The samples are characterized using FTIR spectroscopy associated with the degree of cross-linking. The results show that the water molecules are engulfed into the starch structure in two ways, a tight bond and a weak absorption of water molecules which is represented at two wave number of 1630 cm-1 and 3272 cm-1, respectively. The degree of cross-linking can be identified from the relative intensity of these two peaks with the C—O—H peak at 993 cm-1. The results show that the degree of cross-linking increase in the plasma treated starch. The degree of cross-linking of the treated starch with high relative humidity is less than that of the treated starch with low relative humidity.

  18. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch in Atmospheric Argon Plasma under Diverse Humidity by FTIR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeyai, P.; Suphantharika, M.; Wongsagonsup, R.; Dangtip, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tapioca is economical crop grown in Thailand and continues to be one of the major sources of starch. Nowadays, tapioca starch has been widely used in industrial applications, however the native form of starch has limited the applications. Thus scientists try to modify the properties of starch for increasing the stability of the granules, pastes to low pH, heat, and shear during the food process. We modify the tapioca starch by plasma treatment under an argon atmosphere. The degree of modification is determined by following water content in the starch granules. The tablet samples of native starch are also prepared and compared with the plasma treated starch. Before plasma treatment, the starch tablets are stored under three different relative humilities (RH) including 11%, 68%, and 78%RH, respectively. The samples are characterized using FTIR spectroscopy associated with the degree of cross-linking. The results show that the water molecules are engulfed into the starch structure in two ways, a tight bond and a weak absorption of water molecules which is represented at two wave number of 1630 cm −1 and 3272 cm −1 , respectively. The degree of cross-linking can be identified from the relative intensity of these two peaks with the C—O—H peak at 993 cm −1 . The results show that the degree of cross-linking increase in the plasma treated starch. The degree of cross-linking of the treated starch with high relative humidity is less than that of the treated starch with low relative humidity

  19. Quantitative plasma spectroscopy in a resistive shell reversed-field pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedqvist, Anders

    1999-10-01

    The subject addressed in this thesis is quantitative plasma spectroscopy. Measurements of electron temperature and impurity ion density, performed at EXTRAP-T2, are aimed to investigate the effects of operating a reversed- field pinch with a resistive shell and a graphite wall. The spectroscopic measurements are analyzed with a collisional-radiative model and a consistency check is performed for the measurements and the model itself. The resistive shell results in wall-locked modes, enhanced plasma-wall interaction and degraded confinement. Measurements of vacuum ultraviolet resonant transitions of carbon and oxygen show that the local heating of the wall, at the position of the locking, leads to influxes of hydrogen and impurities, resulting in a cold and resistive plasma. Effects on the local scale are also observed. Spatially-resolved measurements of line emission originating from charge exchange collisions are used to investigate the change in neutral hydrogen profile. Temporal correlations between soft x-ray emission and poloidal loop voltage at the position of the wall-locked modes are observed and in connection, a decrease in central electron temperature, indicating there is a direct energy loss channel between the center and the edge. The hydrogen recycling properties of the graphite wall are investigated in an isotope exchange experiment. The density of the hydrogen isotopes are measured from spectral line emission and compared with recycling models. In charge exchange collisions between fully stripped chlorine and thermal deuterium, observed in JET plasmas, only a single n-level is populated. This is different from most ions and may be used to test models for calculating charge exchange collision cross-sections.

  20. Surface characterization of hydrophobic thin films deposited by inductively coupled and pulsed plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Kang-Jin; Lee, Yeonhee

    2009-01-01

    Different fluorocarbon thin films were deposited on Si substrates using a plasma-polymerization method. Fluorine-containing hydrophobic thin films were obtained by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and pulsed plasma (PP) with a mixture of fluorocarbon precursors C 2 F 6 , C 3 F 8 , and c-C 4 F 8 and the unsaturated hydrocarbons of C 2 H 2 . The influence on the fluorocarbon surfaces of the process parameters for plasma polymerization, including the gas ratio and the plasma power, were investigated under two plasma-polymerized techniques with different fluorocarbon gas precursors. The hydrophobic properties, surface morphologies, and chemical compositions were elucidated using water contact angle measurements, field emission-scanning electron microscope, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). In this study, the ICP technique provides coarser grained films and more hydrophobic surfaces as well as a higher deposition rate compared to the PP technique. XPS, FT-IR, and TOF-SIMS analyses indicated that the ICP technique produced more fluorine-related functional groups, including CF 2 and CF 3 , on the surface. From the curve-fitted XPS results, fluorocarbon films grown under ICP technique exhibited less degree of cross-linking and higher CF 2 concentrations than those grown under PP technique.

  1. Surface chemistry of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langereis, E.; Keijmel, J.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The surface groups created during plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 were studied by infrared spectroscopy. For temperatures in the range of 25–150 °C, –CH3 and –OH were unveiled as dominant surface groups after the Al(CH3)3precursor and O2 plasma half-cycles, respectively. At

  2. Triethylamine-assisted Mg(OH)2 coprecipitation/preconcentration for determination of trace metals and rare earth elements in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Zikri; Oymak, Tulay; White, Jeremy

    2018-05-30

    In this paper, we report an improved magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH) 2 , coprecipitation method for the determination of 16 trace elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sb, Sn and Pb) and 18 rare earth elements (REEs), including Sc, Y, U and Th in seawater and estuarine water samples. The procedure involves coprecipitation of the trace elements and REEs on Mg(OH) 2 upon addition of a small volume of triethylamine (TEA) followed by analysis of the dissolved pellet solutions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Three-step sequential coprecipitation was carried out on 10 mL aliquots of seawater to eliminate the matrix ions and to preconcentrate the analytes of interest into a 1 mL final volume. Spike recoveries varied from 85% (Th) to 105% (Y). Calcium (Ca), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) matrices were virtually eliminated from the analysis solutions. Collision reaction interface (CRI) technology utilizing H 2 and He gases was employed to determine its effectiveness in removing the spectral interferences originating from the residual Mg matrix, TEA and plasma gases. H 2 was more effective than He in reducing spectral interferences from TEA and plasma gases. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.01 ng L -1 (Ho) to 72 ng L -1  (Al). The method was validated by using certified seawater (CASS-4) and estuarine water (SLEW-3) reference materials. Precision for five (n = 5) replicate measurements were between 1.2% (Pr) and 18% (Lu). Fe, Pb, Sn, and Zn impurities in TEA were significant in comparison to the levels in CASS-4 and SLEW-3, while relatively high background signals impacted determinations of low levels of Sc and Th. The effects of these hurdles on precision and accuracy were alleviated by measuring these elements in spiked CASS-4 and SLEW-3. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. On-line iron ore slurry monitoring using laser induced plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, L.; Turmel, S.; Boivin, J.-A.; Sabsabi, M.; Martinovic, T.I.; Ouellet, G.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the need for a better control [Lb1] of the various additives used in the iron ore pellet making process, Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (LIPS) has been tested for the on-line monitoring of Si, AI, Ca, Mg, and C. This work shows that factors such as laser beam focusing, particle size, slurry density and mineralogical composition have to be taken into account to meet precision and accuracy requirements. An internal standardization (peak ratio) and an original multivariate calibration technique based on fuzzy logic concepts [Lb2] are [Lb3] used to minimize the effect of these factors. This paper describes the experimental set-up, the effect of influence factors and the results obtained both in the laboratory and in an iron ore plant. (author)

  4. Influences on the Emissions of Bacterial Plasmas Generated through Nanosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfant, Dylan J.

    In the past decade, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been shown to provide compositional data that can be used for discrimination between bacterial specimens at the strain level. This work demonstrates the viability of this technique in a clinical setting. Studies were conducted to investigate the impact of emissions generated by a nitrocellulose filter paper background on the classification of four species: E. coli, S. epidermidis, M. smegmatis, and P. aeruginosa. Limits of detection were determined as 48+/-12 kCFU per ablation event for new mounting procedures using standard diagnostic laboratory techniques, and a device for centrifuge filtration was designed for sampling from low-titer bacterial suspensions. Plasma emissions from samples grown at biological levels of magnesium, zinc, and glucose were shown not to deviate from controls. A limit of detection for environmental zinc was found to be 11 ppm. Discrimination with heat-killed samples was demonstrated, providing a sterile diagnostic environment.

  5. Laser induced aluminiun plasma analysis by optical emission spectroscopy in a nitrogen background gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, J C; Uzuriaga, J; Riascos, H

    2012-01-01

    We studied an Al plasma generated by a Nd:YAG laser with a laser fluence of 4 J/cm 2 , a wavelength of 1064 nm, energy pulse of 500 mJ and 10 Hz repetition rate. We studied their spectral characteristics at various ambient nitrogen pressures by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The N 2 gas pressure was varied from 20 mTorr to 150 mTorr. In Al plume, both atomic and ionic spectra were observed. The electron temperature and electron number density of the plume as of the function ambient gas pressure were determined. The electron temperature was calculated by using the Boltzmann-plot method and the number density was calculated considering the stark effect as dominating on the emission lines.

  6. Resonance-enhanced laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: ambient gas effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, S.L.; Cheung, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    When performing laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for elemental analysis, the sensitivity could be significantly enhanced if the plume was resonantly rekindled by a dye laser pulse. The extent of the enhancement was found to depend on the ambient gas. Air, nitrogen, helium, argon and xenon at pressures ranging from vacuum to 1 bar were investigated. In vacuum, the analyte signal was boosted because of reduced cooling, but it soon decayed as the plume freely expanded. By choosing the right ambient gas at the right pressure, the expanding plume could be confined as well as thermally insulated to maximize the analyte signal. For instance, an ambient of 13 mbar xenon yielded a signal-to-noise ratio of 110. That ratio was 53 when the pellet was ablated in air, and decreased further to 5 if the dye laser was tuned off resonance

  7. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  8. Three-dimensional modeling of beam emission spectroscopy measurements in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guszejnov, D.; Pokol, G. I. [Department of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Association EURATOM, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Pusztai, I. [Nuclear Engineering, Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Refy, D.; Zoletnik, S. [MTA Wigner FK RMI, Association EURATOM, Pf. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lampert, M. [Department of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Association EURATOM, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); MTA Wigner FK RMI, Association EURATOM, Pf. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Nam, Y. U. [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    One of the main diagnostic tools for measuring electron density profiles and the characteristics of long wavelength turbulent wave structures in fusion plasmas is beam emission spectroscopy (BES). The increasing number of BES systems necessitated an accurate and comprehensive simulation of BES diagnostics, which in turn motivated the development of the Rate Equations for Neutral Alkali-beam TEchnique (RENATE) simulation code that is the topic of this paper. RENATE is a modular, fully three-dimensional code incorporating all key features of BES systems from the atomic physics to the observation, including an advanced modeling of the optics. Thus RENATE can be used both in the interpretation of measured signals and the development of new BES systems. The most important components of the code have been successfully benchmarked against other simulation codes. The primary results have been validated against experimental data from the KSTAR tokamak.

  9. ICP analysis of zinc and zamak alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Coedo, A.; Dorado Lopez, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    A study was carried out on the possibilities of inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) in the determination of Cu, Cd, Fe, Pb, Sn, Al and Mg in zinc-base materials using direct sample solutions. A selection of analytical lines is made, on account of both their sensitivity and the corresponding study of spectral interferences; measurable minimum contents and calibrated terms are also established, to conduce therefore to a complete methodology which allows determination of the mentioned elements within the contents established on the specifications of these materials. (author)

  10. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jing; Tay, Francis E. H.; Miao, Jianmin

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF6/O2 isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases.

  11. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jing; Tay, Francis E H; Miao Jianmin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF 6 /O 2 isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases

  12. Microfabricated hollow microneedle array using ICP etcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Jing [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Tay, Francis E H [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Miao Jianmin [MicroMachines Center, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a developed process for fabrication of hollow silicon microneedle arrays. The inner hollow hole and the fluidic reservoir are fabricated in deep reactive ion etching. The profile of outside needles is achieved by the developed fabrication process, which combined isotropic etching and anisotropic etching with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher. Using the combination of SF{sub 6}/O{sub 2} isotropic etching chemistry and Bosch process, the high aspect ratio 3D and high density microneedle arrays are fabricated. The generated needle external geometry can be controlled by etching variables in the isotropic and anisotropic cases.

  13. Air pollution studies using PIXE and ICP methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stihi, Claudia; Bancuta, Anca; Popescu, I V; Virgolici, M; Cimpoca, V; Gugiu, M; Vlaicu, Gh

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the moss biomonitoring technique and the combination of two analytical techniques - Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) - were applied for assessing environmental situation from the point of view of air polluting along the transect from north to south of the Dambovita County. PIXE analysis at the Tandem Accelerator FN-8 of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics - Horia Hulubei of Magurele, Bucharest, allowed determination of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd and Pb in samples. ICP analyses were made using a Baird ICP2070 - Sequential Plasma Spectrometer in Targoviste and we determined in samples the concentration of Li, B, Na, and Mg together with Cd and Pb. The obtained results will permit to determine the regional extent of heavy metals and toxic elements atmospheric pollution and to identify specially affected areas and local sources of

  14. [A comparative study of cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, selenium, manganese, copper and zinc in brown rice and fish by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Harumi; Ueno, Eiji; Saito, Isao; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of ICP-MS techniques for determination of metals in brown rice and fish. Cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, selenium, manganese, copper and zinc were determined by this method. An open digestion with nitric acid (Method A) and a rapid open digestion with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (Method B) were used to solubilize analytes in samples, and these procedures were followed by ICP-MS analysis. Recovery of certified elements from standard reference materials by Method A and Method B ranged from 92 to 110% except for mercury (70 to 100%). Analytical results of brown rice and fish samples obtained by this ICP-MS agreed with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results of this study demonstrate that quadrupole ICP-MS provides precise and accurate measurements of the elements tested in brown rice and fish samples.

  15. Surface modification of ceramic materials induced by irradiation of high power pulsed ICP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Takamasa; Okada, Nobuhiro; Ohashi, Naoki; Haneda, Hajime

    2003-01-01

    Newly developed pulse-modulated high-power inductively coupled plasma [ICP] is expected to offer the unique physico-chemical condition, such as the increased concentration of chemically reactive species, as well as the appropriate heat flux for materials processing. Two kinds of oxide materials, titanium and zinc oxide, were placed at the downstream of Ar-H 2 ICP and irradiated in the plasma of continuous [CN] and pulse-modulated [PM] modes. The CN-ICP irradiation at the position close to the plasma tail gave rise to the thermal reduction of oxides. In the PM-ICP irradiation, the degree of thermal reduction depended on the lower power level during pulse-off time, as well as the total electric power. Irradiation in PM-ICP led to the increased formation of oxygen vacancies in titanium dioxide. In the case of zinc oxide, the UV emission efficiency was improved by PM-ICP irradiation, while the green emission became predominant by CN-ICP irradiation at the appropriate position. Induced effects in the two oxides by PM-ICP would be related to the high concentration of hydrogen radicals in the plasma. (author)

  16. Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to explore geochemical taphonomy of vertebrate fossils in the upper cretaceous two medicine and Judith River formations of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R.R.; Fricke, H.C.; Addona, V.; Canavan, R.R.; Dwyer, C.N.; Harwood, C.L.; Koenig, A.E.; Murray, R.; Thole, J.T.; Williams, J.

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine rare earth element (REE) content of 76 fossil bones collected from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Two Medicine (TMF) and Judith River (JRF) Formations of Montana. REE content is distinctive at the formation scale, with TMF samples exhibiting generally higher overall REE content and greater variability in REE enrichment than JRF samples. Moreover, JRF bones exhibit relative enrichment in heavy REE, whereas TMF bones span heavy and light enrichment fields in roughly equal proportions. TMF bones are also characterized by more negative Ce anomalies and greater U enrichment than JRF bones, which is consistent with more oxidizing diagenetic conditions in the TMF. Bonebeds in both formations show general consistency in REE content, with no indication of spatial or temporal mixing within sites. Previous studies, however, suggest that the bonebeds in question are attritional assemblages that accumulated over considerable time spans. The absence of geochemical evidence for mixing is consistent with diagenesis transpiring in settings that remained chemically and hydrologically stable during recrystallization. Lithology-related patterns in REE content were also compared, and TMF bones recovered from fluvial sandstones show relative enrichment in heavy REE when compared with bones recovered from fine-grained floodplain deposits. In contrast, JRF bones, regardless of lithologic context (sandstone versus mudstone), exhibit similar patterns of REE uptake. This result is consistent with previous reconstructions that suggest that channel-hosted microfossil bonebeds of the JRF developed via the reworking of preexisting concentrations embedded in the interfluve. Geochemical data further indicate that reworked elements were potentially delivered to channels in a recrystallized condition, which is consistent with rapid adsorption of REE postmortem. Copyright ?? 2010, SEPM (Society for

  17. Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS): use of a geological tool in assessing bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrássy, László; Gomez, Izabella; Horváth, Ágnes; Gulyás, Katalin; Pethö, Zsófia; Juhász, Balázs; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Szekanecz, Zoltan

    2018-02-17

    Bone may be similar to geological formulations in many ways. Therefore, it may be logical to apply laser-based geological techniques in bone research. The mineral and element oxide composition of bioapatite can be estimated by mathematical models. Laser-induced plasma spectrometry (LIPS) has long been used in geology. This method may provide a possibility to determine the composition and concentration of element oxides forming the inorganic part of bones. In this study, we wished to standardize the LIPS technique and use mathematical calculations and models in order to determine CaO distribution and bone homogeneity using bovine shin bone samples. We used polished slices of five bovine shin bones. A portable LIPS instrument using high-power Nd++YAG laser pulses has been developed (OpLab, Budapest). Analysis of CaO distribution was carried out in a 10 × 10 sampling matrix applying 300-μm sampling intervals. We assessed both cortical and trabecular bone areas. Regions of interest (ROI) were determined under microscope. CaO peaks were identified in the 200-500 nm wavelength range. A mathematical formula was used to calculate the element oxide composition (wt%) of inorganic bone. We also applied two accepted mathematical approaches, the Bartlett's test and frequency distribution curve-based analysis, to determine the homogeneity of CaO distribution in bones. We were able to standardize the LIPS technique for bone research. CaO concentrations in the cortical and trabecular regions of B1-5 bones were 33.11 ± 3.99% (range 24.02-40.43%) and 27.60 ± 7.44% (range 3.58-39.51%), respectively. CaO concentrations highly corresponded to those routinely determined by ICP-OES. We were able to graphically demonstrate CaO distribution in both 2D and 3D. We also determined possible interrelations between laser-induced craters and bone structure units, which may reflect the bone structure and may influence the heterogeneity of CaO distributions. By using two different

  18. X-ray spectroscopic characterization of laser produced hot dense plasmas; Caracterisation par spectroscopie X de plasmas chauds et denses crees par lasers de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontogiannopoulos, N

    2007-12-15

    In this work we performed experiments of emission and absorption spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas, to provide well characterized spectral data which permit to benchmark atomic physics codes. More precisely, we produced xenon and krypton plasmas in NLTE (non local thermodynamic equilibrium) conditions and studied their emission spectra. In a second experiment, we characterized the absorption spectra of zinc sulfide and aluminium plasmas in LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) conditions.The first two chapters give an outline of the theory involved in the study of the emission and absorption plasma spectroscopy. Chapter 1 describes the different atomic processes occurring in a plasma. The LTE and the NLTE statistics ruling the equilibrium of the atomic processes are presented. Then, we give a brief description of the different codes of plasma atomic physics used in the analysis of our experimental data, namely HULLAC, SCO and TRANSPEC/AVERROES. In Chapter 2 the macroscopic theory of the radiation transport through a plasma is given. We describe also the self-similar model of Basko and the view factor approach, which permits us to calculate the heating conditions of the absorption foils achieved in the interior of the spherical gold cavity. Chapter 3 gives a description of the instruments used for realizing the two experiments, as well as the technical characteristics of the LULI2000 laser facility used to perform the experiments. Chapter 4 presents the experiment realized to characterize the emission spectra of the xenon and krypton plasmas in NLTE, as well the analysis of the experimental data with TRANSPEC/AVERROES. Finally, the experiment for measuring the absorption spectrum of the ZnS plasma mixture and the analysis of the experimental data with the code SCO are given in Chapter 5.

  19. A comparative study of sample dissolution techniques and plasma-based instruments for the precise and accurate quantification of REEs in mineral matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Turgeon, Keven [Département de génie des mines, de la métallurgie et des matériaux, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Département de chimie, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Bazin, Claude [Département de génie des mines, de la métallurgie et des matériaux, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Larivière, Dominic, E-mail: dominic.lariviere@chm.ulaval.ca [Département de chimie, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada)

    2017-04-08

    The recent commercialisation of inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometric (ICP-MS/MS) instruments has provided analytical chemists with a new tool to properly quantify atomic composition in a variety of matrices with minimal sample preparation. In this article, we report on our assessment of the compatibility of 3 sample preparation techniques (open-vessel acid digestion, microwave digestion and alkaline fusion) for the quantification of rare earth elements (REEs) in mineral matrices. The combination of the high digestion temperatures (1050 °C) and using LiBO{sub 2} as a flux was the most effective strategy for the digestion of all rare earth elements in mineral matrices and was compatible with ICP-MS/MS measurements. We also assessed the analytical performances of ICP-MS/MS against other plasma-based instrumentation (microwave induced plasma and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MIP-AES and ICP-AES, respectively) and single quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The comparative study showed that the concentrations obtained by ICP-MS/MS are in excellent agreement with the certified reference material values, and much more suited than the other analytical techniques tested for the quantification of REEs, which exhibited low detectability and/or spectral interferences for some elements/isotopes. Finally, the ruggedness of the analytical protocol proposed which combines a rapid sample dissolution step performed by an automated fusion unit and an ICP-MS/MS as a detector was established using various certified mineral matrices containing variable levels of REEs. - Highlights: • Three types of digestion methods were tested. • Four types of analytical techniques were compared. • Elimination of the spectral interferences encountered in ICP-MS was achieved by the use of Tandem ICP-MS. • Robustness of the analytical procedure was successfully evaluate on four types of certified reference material.

  20. A comparative study of sample dissolution techniques and plasma-based instruments for the precise and accurate quantification of REEs in mineral matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Turgeon, Keven; Bazin, Claude; Larivière, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    The recent commercialisation of inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometric (ICP-MS/MS) instruments has provided analytical chemists with a new tool to properly quantify atomic composition in a variety of matrices with minimal sample preparation. In this article, we report on our assessment of the compatibility of 3 sample preparation techniques (open-vessel acid digestion, microwave digestion and alkaline fusion) for the quantification of rare earth elements (REEs) in mineral matrices. The combination of the high digestion temperatures (1050 °C) and using LiBO_2 as a flux was the most effective strategy for the digestion of all rare earth elements in mineral matrices and was compatible with ICP-MS/MS measurements. We also assessed the analytical performances of ICP-MS/MS against other plasma-based instrumentation (microwave induced plasma and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MIP-AES and ICP-AES, respectively) and single quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The comparative study showed that the concentrations obtained by ICP-MS/MS are in excellent agreement with the certified reference material values, and much more suited than the other analytical techniques tested for the quantification of REEs, which exhibited low detectability and/or spectral interferences for some elements/isotopes. Finally, the ruggedness of the analytical protocol proposed which combines a rapid sample dissolution step performed by an automated fusion unit and an ICP-MS/MS as a detector was established using various certified mineral matrices containing variable levels of REEs. - Highlights: • Three types of digestion methods were tested. • Four types of analytical techniques were compared. • Elimination of the spectral interferences encountered in ICP-MS was achieved by the use of Tandem ICP-MS. • Robustness of the analytical procedure was successfully evaluate on four types of certified reference material.

  1. Calculation of the spatial resolution in two-photon absorption spectroscopy applied to plasma diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lechuga, M. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011-Valladolid (Spain); Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Óptica “Daza de Valdés,” CSIC, 28006-Madrid (Spain); Fuentes, L. M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011-Valladolid (Spain); Grützmacher, K.; Pérez, C., E-mail: concha@opt.uva.es; Rosa, M. I. de la [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011-Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-10-07

    We report a detailed characterization of the spatial resolution provided by two-photon absorption spectroscopy suited for plasma diagnosis via the 1S-2S transition of atomic hydrogen for optogalvanic detection and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A precise knowledge of the spatial resolution is crucial for a correct interpretation of measurements, if the plasma parameters to be analysed undergo strong spatial variations. The present study is based on a novel approach which provides a reliable and realistic determination of the spatial resolution. Measured irradiance distribution of laser beam waists in the overlap volume, provided by a high resolution UV camera, are employed to resolve coupled rate equations accounting for two-photon excitation, fluorescence decay and ionization. The resulting three-dimensional yield distributions reveal in detail the spatial resolution for optogalvanic and LIF detection and related saturation due to depletion. Two-photon absorption profiles broader than the Fourier transform-limited laser bandwidth are also incorporated in the calculations. The approach allows an accurate analysis of the spatial resolution present in recent and future measurements.

  2. Calculation of the spatial resolution in two-photon absorption spectroscopy applied to plasma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Fuentes, L. M.; Grützmacher, K.; Pérez, C.; Rosa, M. I. de la

    2014-01-01

    We report a detailed characterization of the spatial resolution provided by two-photon absorption spectroscopy suited for plasma diagnosis via the 1S-2S transition of atomic hydrogen for optogalvanic detection and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A precise knowledge of the spatial resolution is crucial for a correct interpretation of measurements, if the plasma parameters to be analysed undergo strong spatial variations. The present study is based on a novel approach which provides a reliable and realistic determination of the spatial resolution. Measured irradiance distribution of laser beam waists in the overlap volume, provided by a high resolution UV camera, are employed to resolve coupled rate equations accounting for two-photon excitation, fluorescence decay and ionization. The resulting three-dimensional yield distributions reveal in detail the spatial resolution for optogalvanic and LIF detection and related saturation due to depletion. Two-photon absorption profiles broader than the Fourier transform-limited laser bandwidth are also incorporated in the calculations. The approach allows an accurate analysis of the spatial resolution present in recent and future measurements.

  3. Analysis of two colliding laser-produced plasmas by emission spectroscopy and fast photography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Ake, C., E-mail: citlali.sanchez@ccadet.unam.m [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Mustri-Trejo, D. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Garcia-Fernandez, T. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Prolongacion San Isidro 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, Mexico DF, C.P. 09790 (Mexico); Villagran-Muniz, M. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2010-05-15

    In this work two colliding laser-induced plasmas (LIP) on Cu and C were studied by means of time resolved emission spectroscopy and fast photography. The experiments were performed using two opposing parallel targets of Cu and C in vacuum, ablated with two synchronized ns lasers. The results showed an increased emission intensity from copper ions Cu II (368.65, 490.97, 493.16, 495.37 and 630.10 nm) and Cu III (374.47 and 379.08 nm) due to the ionization that occurs during collisions of Cu and C species. It was found that the optimum delay between pulses, which yields the maximum emission enhancement of Cu ions, depends on the sampling distance. On the other hand, the emission intensity of C lines, C II (426.70 nm), C III (406.99 and 464.74 nm) and C IV (465.83 nm), decreased and the formation of C{sub 2} molecules was observed. A comparison between the temporal evolution of the individual plasmas and their collision performed by combining imaging and the time resolved emission diagnostics, revealed an increase of the electron temperature and electron density and the splitting of the plume into slow and fast components.

  4. The use of laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique for the characterization of boiler tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, G.; Mateo, M.P.; Yanez, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present work focuses on the characterization of boiler tube walls using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique with visual inspection by optical and scanning electron microscopy of the cross-sections of these tubes. In a watertube boiler, water runs through tubes that are surrounded by a heating source. As a result, the water is heated to very high temperatures, causing accumulation of deposits on the inside surfaces of the tubes. These deposits play an important role in the efficiency of the boiler tube because they produce a reduction of the boiler heat rate and an increase in the number of tube failures. The objectives are to determine the thickness and arrangement of deposits located on the highest heat area of the boiler and compare them with tube parts where the heat flux is lower. The major deposits found were copper and magnetite. These deposits come mainly from the boiler feedwater and from the reaction between iron and water, and they do not form on the tube walls at a uniform rate over time. Their amount depends on the areas where they are collected. A Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 nm has been used to perform laser-induced plasma spectra and depth profiles of the deposits

  5. The use of laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique for the characterization of boiler tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, G.; Mateo, M. P.; Yañez, A.

    2007-12-01

    The present work focuses on the characterization of boiler tube walls using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique with visual inspection by optical and scanning electron microscopy of the cross-sections of these tubes. In a watertube boiler, water runs through tubes that are surrounded by a heating source. As a result, the water is heated to very high temperatures, causing accumulation of deposits on the inside surfaces of the tubes. These deposits play an important role in the efficiency of the boiler tube because they produce a reduction of the boiler heat rate and an increase in the number of tube failures. The objectives are to determine the thickness and arrangement of deposits located on the highest heat area of the boiler and compare them with tube parts where the heat flux is lower. The major deposits found were copper and magnetite. These deposits come mainly from the boiler feedwater and from the reaction between iron and water, and they do not form on the tube walls at a uniform rate over time. Their amount depends on the areas where they are collected. A Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 nm has been used to perform laser-induced plasma spectra and depth profiles of the deposits.

  6. Atomic hydrogen and argon ground state density determination in a recombining plasma using visible light absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otorbaev, D.K.; Buuron, A.J.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Meulenbroeks, R.F.G.; Schram, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    The atomic radical density in the first excited state, obtained by the technique of optical absorption spectroscopy, and a simple kinetic model are used to determine the radical ground state density in a recombining expanding plasma. The kinetic model used does not require knowledge of the shape of

  7. Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules.......This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules....

  8. ICPES World Congress 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Pak Lau

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The XII World Congress on Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology is co-organised by the International Cardiac Pacing & Electrophysiology Society (ICPES and the Hong Kong College of Cardiology (HKCC. It will take place at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre on February 19-22, 2003. The World Congress has been organized in various countries, including USA, France, The Netherlands, Japan, Canada, Austria, Israel, Argentina and Germany. The coming Congress is going to be held in the centre of Asia where East meets West – Hong Kong, which is now a Special Administrative Region of China since 1997. Hong Kong continues to enjoy a high degree of autonomy, and has remained an important center of finance, information technology, tourism, trade and exchange in Asia. In addition, it enjoys increasing interaction with the rapidly developing Mainland China. Developed with the assistance of a broadly represented International Scientific Advisory Committee, the scientific programme will feature 11 major topics - “Electrophysiology”, “Catheter Ablation”, “Pacing”, “Defibrillation”, “Pharmacology”, “Hybrid Therapy”, “Pediatric Arrhythmias”, “Arrhythmias for Allied Professionals”, “Genetics & Gene Therapy”, “ECG, Noninvasive Evaluation & Risk Stratification” and “Implantable Monitoring Devices”. It includes Plenary Sessions, Core Sessions, Expert Sessions, Featured Symposia, Live Demonstration, Teaching Courses, Abstract Presentations and Poster Sessions.

  9. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of plasma-polymer interactions for development of low-damage plasma processing of soft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setsuhara, Yuichi; Cho, Ken; Shiratani, Masaharu; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    Plasma-polymer interactions have been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) films, which have been exposed to argon plasmas driven by low-inductance antenna modules as a parameter of ion energy. The AFM images indicated that the argon plasma exposure exhibited a significant change in surface roughness. The XPS analyses suggested that the degradation of chemical bonding structure and/or bond scission of PET could be effectively suppressed in the plasma exposures with ion energies below 6 eV. However, significant degradations of O = C-O bond, C-O bond and phenyl group were observed with increasing ion energy above 6 eV.

  10. Environmental radioactivity research on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Takeshi; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is characterized by high ionization efficiency for almost all elements. Recently, a triple quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-MS/MS) has been applied to the measurements of isotope ratios for ultra-low level radioisotopes. The ICP-MS/MS features an additional quadrupole mass filter situated in front of the octopole reaction cell and quadrupole mass filter, which allows only the analyte ion to enter the cell by rejecting all the other ions. In this manuscript, we review recent studies on environmental radioactivity in Fukushima achieved by ICP-MS/MS techniques. (author)

  11. Use of emission spectroscopy as a tool for optimization of plasma hearth operation for hazardous waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monts, D.L.; Bauman, L.E.; Lengel, R.K.; Wang, W.; Lin, J.; Cook, R.L.; Shepard, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal processing of mixed wastes by plasma hearth vitrification requires optimization of and continuous monitoring of plasma hearth operation. A series of investigations utilizing emission spectroscopy has been initiated to characterize the plasma of a 96 kW plasma hearth in order to determine optimum conditions for monitoring and hence controlling plasma hearth performance. The plasma hearth test stand is based upon a 96 kW, transferred arc plasma torch. The torch is mounted in a vacuum vessel through an electrically operated XYZ Gimbal mount. The peak operating power depends on the gas used for the plasma. The operational limits for DC voltage are 180 V to 550 V; and the current is operated at a constant value, selectable in the range from 72 to 200 amps. The plasma arc length can be varied from 2.5 cm to 25 cm, and is dependent on the supply voltage and the process gas used. The arc current and voltage, gas pressure, cooling water flow, and cooling water temperature are monitored and stored by a PC-based data acquisition system. Five optical ports are available for making optical diagnostic measurements

  12. Application of isotope-dilution laser ablation ICP-MS for direct determination of Pu concentrations in soils at pg g{sup -1} levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Tibi, Markus; Heumann, Klaus G. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099, Mainz (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    The methods available for determination of environmental contamination by plutonium at ultra-trace levels require labor-consuming sample preparation including matrix removal and plutonium extraction in both nuclear spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In this work, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied for direct analysis of Pu in soil and sediment samples. Application of a LINA-Spark-Atomizer system (a modified laser ablation system providing high ablation rates) coupled with a sector-field ICP-MS resulted in detection limits as low as 3 x 10{sup -13} g g{sup -1} for Pu isotopes in soil samples containing uranium at a concentration of a few {mu}g g{sup -1}. The isotope dilution (ID) technique was used for quantification, which compensated for matrix effects in LA-ICP-MS. Interferences by UH{sup +} and PbO{sub 2}{sup +} ions and by the peak tail of {sup 238}U{sup +} ions were reduced or separated by use of dry plasma conditions and a mass resolution of 4000, respectively. No other effects affecting measurement accuracy, except sample inhomogeneity, were revealed. Comparison of results obtained for three contaminated soil samples by use of {alpha}-spectrometry, ICP-MS with sample decomposition, and LA-ICP-IDMS showed, in general, satisfactory agreement of the different methods. The specific activity of {sup 239+240}Pu (9.8{+-}3.0 mBq g{sup -1}) calculated from LA-ICP-IDMS analysis of SRM NIST 4357 coincided well with the certified value of 10.4{+-}0.2 mBq g{sup -1}. However, the precision of LA-ICP-MS for determination of plutonium in inhomogeneous samples, i.e. if ''hot'' particles are present, is limited. As far as we are aware this paper reports the lowest detection limits and element concentrations yet measured in direct LA-ICP-MS analysis of environmental samples. (orig.)

  13. Characterizing Hohlraum Plasma Conditions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Using X-ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Maria Alejandra

    2015-11-01

    Improved hohlraums will have a significant impact on increasing the likelihood of indirect drive ignition at the NIF. In indirect-drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), a high-Z hohlraum converts laser power into a tailored x-ray flux that drives the implosion of a spherical capsule filled with D-T fuel. The x-radiation drive to capsule coupling sets the velocity, adiabat, and symmetry of the implosion. Previous experiments in gas-filled hohlraums determined that the laser-hohlraum energy coupling is 20-25% less than modeled, therefore identifying energy loss mechanisms that reduce the efficacy of the hohlraum drive is central to improving implosion performance. Characterizing the plasma conditions, particularly the plasma electron temperature (Te) , is critical to understanding mechanism that affect the energy coupling such as the laser plasma interactions (LPI), hohlraum x-ray conversion efficiency, and dynamic drive symmetry. The first Te measurements inside a NIF hohlraum, presented here, were achieved using K-shell X-ray spectroscopy of an Mn-Co tracer dot. The dot is deposited on a thin-walled CH capsule, centered on the hohlraum symmetry axis below the laser entrance hole (LEH) of a bottom-truncated hohlraum. The hohlraum x-ray drive ablates the dot and causes it to flow upward, towards the LEH, entering the hot laser deposition region. An absolutely calibrated streaked spectrometer with a line of sight into the LEH records the temporal history of the Mn and Co X-ray emission. The measured (interstage) Lyα/ Heα line ratios for Co and Mn and the Mn-Heα/Co-Heα isoelectronic line ratio are used to infer the local plasma Te from the atomic physics code SCRAM. Time resovled x-ray images perpendicular to the hohlraum axis record the dot expansion and trajectory into the LEH region. The temporal evolution of the measured Te and dot trajectory are compared with simulations from radiation-hydrodynamic codes. This work was performed under the auspices of the U

  14. Characterization of bottom sediment of Adam bridge for its mineral content by spectrochemical and ICP-OES techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.K.; Bassan, M.K.T.; Avhad, D.K.; Singhal, R.K.; UrsaI, G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Adam's Bridge also known as Rama's Bridge or Rama Setu is a chain of limestone shoals, between Rameswaram Island, off the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India, and Mannar Island, off the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka. Geological evidence suggests that this bridge is a former land connection between India and Sri Lanka. During this work mineral content in the sand sample collected from four different locations were evaluated by using spectrochemical techniques such as FAAS (Flame atomic absorption spectroscopy), FES(Florescence Emission Spectroscopy), ICP-OES (Inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy) and UV - Visible Spectrophotometry. Various major elements like SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, CaO , Na 2 O , K 2 O, minor elements like MnO, TiO 2 , P 2 O 5 and trace elements like Zr O2 ; V 2 O 5 , PbO and U etc. Validation of analytical methodology and reliability of analytical results were carried out by the analysis of the standard reference material. Trace elements were estimated after the selective removal of silica using AAS and ICP-OES technique. (author)

  15. LA-ICP-MS Results: 3 Siple Dome A Glacial Age Archives, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the results of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) performed on an archive of the Siple Dome A ice core...

  16. PIXE and ICP-AES comparison in evaluating the efficiency of metal extraction and analysis in aerosol samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugi, F.; Becagli, S.; Ghedini, C.; Marconi, M.; Severi, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R. [Dep. of Chemistry, University of Florence, Sesto F.no (Fl) (Italy); Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S. [Dep. of Physics and Astronomy , University of Florence and INFN, Sesto F. no (Fl) (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A recent EU regulation (EN 149022005) requests the quantification of selected metals in the atmospheric particulate by mineralization with H{sub 2}0{sub 2} and HN0{sub 3} in microwave oven.This method might possibly conflict with the determination of the total metal content. In fact, the more the aerosol is enriched in crustal elements the more the difference in the two methods are expected, since the H{sub 2}0{sub 2}+ HN0{sub 3}, extraction is not reliable for metals in silicate form. In order to evaluate the extracted fraction, PIXE and ICP-AES measurements were carried out on the two halves of a series of PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected on Teflon filters in an urban site in the surrounding of Florence (Italy). An ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma -Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) method was optimized by an ultrasound nebuliser (CETAC 5000 AT+), in order to improve reproducibility and detection limit. In these conditions, it was possible quantifying AI, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Vatsub-ppb levels. PIXE analysis using the external beam set-up at LABEC and a 3 MeV proton beam was carried out in order to measure the total elemental content of the metals. By comparing the ICP-AES and the PIXE results, a preliminary evaluation of the efficiency of the H{sub 2}0{sub 2} and HN0{sub 3} extraction method was performed. The obtained results (the mean values for the ICP-AES/PIXE ratio are reported in Table 1) show that the extraction procedure following the EN 14902 directive allows quantitative recoveries (80-120%, including the analytical uncertainties)for the majority of the analysed metals, especially for those mainly emitted by anthropic sources. This result points out that anthropic metals are present in the atmosphere as relatively available species (free metals, labile complexes, carbonates, oxides). On the contrary, lower recoveries were obtained for AI (mean value around 75%), a metal that has a relevant crustal fraction. Percentage of recovery of

  17. Current role of ICP-MS in clinical toxicology and forensic toxicology: a metallic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullé, Jean-Pierre; Saussereau, Elodie; Mahieu, Loïc; Guerbet, Michel

    2014-08-01

    As metal/metalloid exposure is inevitable owing to its omnipresence, it may exert toxicity in humans. Recent advances in metal/metalloid analysis have been made moving from flame atomic absorption spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry to the multi-elemental inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques as ICP atomic emission spectrometry and ICP-MS. ICP-MS has now emerged as a major technique in inorganic analytical chemistry owing to its flexibility, high sensitivity and good reproducibility. This in depth review explores the ICP-MS metallic profile in human toxicology. It is now routinely used and of great importance, in clinical toxicology and forensic toxicology to explore biological matrices, specifically whole blood, plasma, urine, hair, nail, biopsy samples and tissues.

  18. PIXE and ICP-MS Analysis of Andrographis Paniculata Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar Rao, J.; Naidu, B. G.; Sarita, P.; Srikanth, S.; Naga Raju, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    The concentrations of elements Li, Be, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb and U in Andrographis Paniculata medicinal plant used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus were determined by using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques. This plant was collected from four different geographical locations in Andhra Pradesh, India in order to assess the regional variation of elemental concentrations. Appreciable levels of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu and Zn determined in this plant can be correlated to the antidiabetic property of Andrographis Paniculata since these elements are known to regulate and potentiate insulin action. Presence of toxic elements As, Cd and Pb necessitates the adoption of precautionary measures while prescribing dosage of the herbal medicine prepared from this plant for the treatment diabetes mellitus.

  19. ICP-AES Determination of Mineral Content in Boletus tomentipes Collected from Different Sites of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-mei; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Li, Jie-qing; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Liu, Hong-gao

    2015-05-01

    P, Na, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr and Ni, contents have been examined in caps and stipes of Boletus tomentipes collected from different sites of Yunnan province, southwest China. The elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) with microwave digestion. P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu were the most abundant amongst elements determined in Boletus tomentipes. The caps were richer in P, Mg, Zn and Cd, and the stipes in Ca, Co and Ni. Cluster analysis showed a difference between Puer (BT7 and BT8) and other places. The PCA explained about 77% of the total variance, and the minerals differentiating these places were P (PC1) together with Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, As and Ni, Na (PC2) together with Cd, and Zn (PC3). The results of this study imply that element concentrations of a mushroom are mutative when collected from the different bedrock soil geochemistry.

  20. PIXE and ICP-MS analysis of fenugreek medicinal plant from different regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Rao, J.; Naidu, B.G.; Sarita, P.; Naga Raju, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Elemental analysis of Fenugreek medicinal plant collected from different regions was carried out by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques. The elements Li, Be, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb and U were identified and their concentrations were estimated. These elements were found to be in widely varying concentrations in the analyzed Fenugreek medicinal plant collected from different regions. of the. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the pharmacological action of Fenugreek medicinal plant and it can also be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of herbal drugs. (author)

  1. The optimisation of an intense Z-pinch discharge as a plasma source for absorption spectroscopy investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandolache, Gabriela; Zoita, Vasile; Iova, Iancu; Fleurier, Claude; Hong, Dunpin; Bauchire, Jean Marc

    2002-01-01

    The characterisation of the low voltage circuit breaker arc from the optical and plasma physics points of view represents an element of importance for understanding the operating mechanism and the current interruption process. The development of the broad band optical absorption spectroscopy method seems to be well adapted in order to perform the circuit breaker arc analysis. A pulsed power device based on a Z-pinch type discharge has been developed as a plasma source for absorption spectroscopy investigations. The spatial extension of this radiation source, its brightness, reproducibility are well adapted to characterize the circuit-breaker arc. In addition, a very short emission period compared to the lifetime of the arc discharge provides an excellent time resolution for the absorption spectroscopy method. The first compression phase of the linear pinch produced in argon has been studied from the point of view of its use as a light source. The initial pressure of argon was varied from 0.5 to 2 mbar and the condenser bank energy from 5.1 to 8.7 kJ. The characterization of the emitted radiation, especially the influence of the condenser bank voltage and the argon pressure on the discharge has been studied. Collapse dynamics of the argon compressional pinch and the spectrally resolved continuum emission at the time of maximum compression have been observed. A very satisfactory plasma source optimisation has been achieved that fulfils the conditions required for the absorption spectroscopy method. (authors)

  2. C-13 NMR spectroscopy of plasma reduces interference of hypertriglyceridemia in the H-1 NMR detection of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossell, E.T.; Hall, F.M.; McDonagh, J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have previously described the application of water-suppressed proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1 NMR) spectroscopy of plasma for detection of malignancy. Subsequently, hypertriglyceridemia has been identified as a source of false positive results. Here is described a confirmatory, adjunctive technique -analysis of the carbon-13 (C-13) NMR spectrum of plasma- which also identifies the presence of malignancy but is not sensitive to the plasma triglyceride level. Blinded plasma samples from 480 normal donors and 208 patients scheduled for breast biopsy were analyzed by water-suppressed H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Triglyceride levels were also measured. Among the normal donors, there were 38 individuals with hypertriglyceridemia of whom 18 had results consistent with malignancy by H-1 NMR spectroscopy. However, the C-13 technique reduced the apparent H-1 false positive rate from 7.0 to 0.6 percent. Similarly, in the breast biopsy cohort, C-13 reduced the false positive rate from 2.8 to 0.9 percent. Furthermore, the accuracy of the combined H-1/C-13 test in this blinded study was greater than 96 percent in 208 patients studied. (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs.; 4 tabs

  3. VUV absorption spectroscopy of a Penning surface-plasma H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    Because H - is efficiently neutralized at high energies, these beams are ideally suited to applications where energetic neutral beams of particles are required to propagate across magnetic fields. A class of sources that holds great promise for meeting the stringent requirements for these beams is the surface-plasma source (SPS), and in particular, the Penning type of SPS. It has been conjectured that atomic hydrogen plays an important role in both H - formation and transport in these sources. Understanding the interdependence of atomic hydrogen properties and those of H - , and how this relationship might be exploited to improve source performance is the motivation for this research. An overview of SPS's is presented. Previous measurements on the discharge are reviewed. Absorption spectroscopy is discussed. Techniques that may potentially be used to measure the properties of H - in the discharge are discussed. The two absorption spectrometers used in this experiment are described. Measurements of ground-state atomic hydrogen density and temperature in a Penning SPS are presented. These measurements are the first of this kind for this type of discharge. An upper limit on the H - density in the extraction region of the source is measured by the application of a novel diagnostic technique: the hydrogen atom density following H - photodetachment by a Nd:YAG beam is measured and compared to the equilibrium atomic density. A simple model is derived that describes the dependence of the atomic temperature on the externally-controlled parameters of discharge current and H 2 gas flow. The measured atomic density is considered in light of the widely-accepted hypothesis of the mechanism for H - formation. The measured upper limit of the H - density is used to infer the potential of the discharge plasma relative to the source anode

  4. spectroscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-14

    Oct 14, 2015 ... characterized by using phenotypic, API and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods. One hundred and fifty-seven (157) strains were isolated from 13 cheese samples, and identification test was performed for 83 strains. At the end of the study, a total of 22 Lactococcus sp., 36 Enterecoccus ...

  5. Easy measurement of diffusion coefficients of EGFP-tagged plasma membrane proteins using k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup; Marlar, Saw

    2014-01-01

    Lateral diffusion and compartmentalization of plasma membrane proteins are tightly regulated in cells and thus, studying these processes will reveal new insights to plasma membrane protein function and regulation. Recently, k-Space Image Correlation Spectroscopy (kICS)1 was developed to enable...... routine measurements of diffusion coefficients directly from images of fluorescently tagged plasma membrane proteins, that avoided systematic biases introduced by probe photophysics. Although the theoretical basis for the analysis is complex, the method can be implemented by nonexperts using a freely...... to the correlation function yields the diffusion coefficient. This paper provides a step-by-step guide to the image analysis and measurement of diffusion coefficients via kICS. First, a high frame rate image sequence of a fluorescently labeled plasma membrane protein is acquired using a fluorescence microscope Then...

  6. Study of sterilization-treatment in pure and N- doped carbon thin films synthesized by inductively coupled plasma assisted pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javid, Amjed [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Textile Processing, National Textile University, Faisalabad 37610 (Pakistan); Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishk@skku.edu [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeon Geon, E-mail: hanjg@skku.edu [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Pure and N-doped nanocrystallie carbon films are synthesized by ICP assisted pulsed DC plasma process. • ICP power induces the increase in average graphitic crystallite size from 4.86 nm to 6.42 nm. • Beneficial role of ICP source assistance to achieve high sputtering throughput (deposition rate ∼55 nm/min). • Post-sterilization electron-transport study shows N-doped carbon films having promising stability. - Abstract: Electrically-conductive nanocrystalline carbon films, having non-toxic and non-immunogenic characteristics, are promising candidates for reusable medical devices. Here, the pure and N- doped nanocrystalline carbon films are deposited by the assistance of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) in an unbalanced facing target pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering process. Through the optical emission spectroscopy study, the role of ICP assistance and N-doping on the reactive components/radicals during the synthesis is presented. The N-doping enhances the three fold bonding configurations by increasing the ionization and energies of the plasma species. Whereas, the ICP addition increases the plasma density to control the deposition rate and film structure. As a result, sputtering-throughput (deposition rate: 31–55 nm/min), electrical resistivity (4–72 Ωcm) and water contact angle (45.12°–54°) are significantly tailored. Electric transport study across the surface microchannel confirms the superiority of N-doped carbon films for sterilization stability over the undoped carbon films.

  7. Study on the uptake and distribution of gadolinium based contrast agents in biological samples using laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingott, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Gadolinium based contrast agents are used for magnetic resonance imaging. After their excretion by medicated patients they reach surface water passing waste water treatment plants where they are not removed sufficiently. The behavior of the contrast agents in the environment and the interaction with organisms was investigated in this work due to the toxicity of the free Gd 3+ ion and the associated risks, such as accumulation in the human food chain. In this work, the two elemental analytical imaging methods laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) have been used to investigate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of Gd-based contrast agents by various biological systems. Both methods were analytically characterized and compared for this application. The detection limits of gadolinium were determined under optimized conditions by LA-ICP-MS and SRXRF. With calibration by remains of dried elemental standard droplets detection limits of 0.78 pg absolute amount of gadolinium (LA-ICP-MS), respectively 89 pg (SRXRF) were reached. Based on filamentous algae as water plants the uptake and the excretion of Gd-based contrast agents were revealed. The dependence on concentration of the contrast agent in the exposition solution and the independence of temporal uptake within one to seven days were studied for duckweed. By LA-ICP-MS gadolinium was quantified in a leaf of cress plant. The verification of the results was performed by SRXRF and ICP-MS after digestion. Furthermore, the uptake and distribution of Gd-based contrast agents in higher organisms (water flea) were observed. The exact location of gadolinium was resolved by three-dimensional μ-computed tomography by the comparison of an exposed with a Gd-free water flea. In all studies, gadolinium was detected in the investigated exposed model organisms. It can be concluded that the contrast agents were taken from the environment.

  8. High Resolution Gamma Ray Spectroscopy at MHz Counting Rates With LaBr3 Scintillators for Fusion Plasma Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocente, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Olariu, A.; Olariu, S.; Pereira, R. C.; Chugunov, I. N.; Fernandes, A.; Gin, D. B.; Grosso, G.; Kiptily, V. G.; Neto, A.; Shevelev, A. E.; Silva, M.; Sousa, J.; Gorini, G.

    2013-04-01

    High resolution γ-ray spectroscopy measurements at MHz counting rates were carried out at nuclear accelerators, combining a LaBr 3(Ce) detector with dedicated hardware and software solutions based on digitization and off-line analysis. Spectra were measured at counting rates up to 4 MHz, with little or no degradation of the energy resolution, adopting a pile up rejection algorithm. The reported results represent a step forward towards the final goal of high resolution γ-ray spectroscopy measurements on a burning plasma device.

  9. Quantification of "2"3"2Th, "2"3"4U, "2"3"5U and "2"3"8U in river mollusks by magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo R, D. L.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T.; Lara A, N.; Alfaro de la T, M. C.

    2016-09-01

    The present work deals with the methodology established for the quantification of "2"3"2Th, "2"3"4U, "2"3"8U and "2"3"5U in the shell of gastropod mollusks collected in the rivers Valles, Coy and Axtla of San Luis Potosi, Mexico, which belong to the Panuco River basin; these rivers have as main source of pollution the discharge of municipal sewage, waste from small industries, agricultural and cattle residues and from natural sources. Conventional methods for measuring radio-nuclides are confronted with certain conditions related to the requirement in measurement, basically in the characterization that is related to the concepts of precision and accuracy. The analysis of the gastropod mollusk shell was performed by the Icp-SFMS technique; the main advantages of this technique lie in the isotope quantification capacity, the high precision and the low limits of detection, in this study are very important because these elements are in concentrations between ppb and ppt. This technique allowed the analysis of the samples having a complex matrix by the presence CaCO_3 minimizing the interferences thanks to the ionization efficiency of the Ar plasma. For the species Pachychilus monachus were found concentrations of "2"3"2Th of 0.16-5.37 μg/g and of total U of 0.101-4.081 μg/g being this species where the highest values of total U were found. For Thiara (melanoids) tuberculata the lowest values were found among the different species ("2"3"2Th 0.61-3.61 μg/g and total U 0.006-0.042 μg/g), for Pachychilus suturalis, values of "2"3"2Th of 0.58-6.4 μg/g and for Pachychilus sp. were found between 0.26-7.62 μg/g and for total U values between 0.28-3.33 μg/g. The method offers several advantages: speed, good precision, low values of quantification limits and high sensitivity in the measurement of radio-nuclides and heavy metals. (Author)

  10. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions - Atomic Spectroscopy and Fusion Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clementson, Joel [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    The spectra of highly charged tungsten ions have been investigated using x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. These heavy ions are of interest in relativistic atomic structure theory, where high-precision wavelength measurements benchmark theoretical approaches, and in magnetic fusion research, where the ions may serve to diagnose high-temperature plasmas. The work details spectroscopic investigations of highly charged tungsten ions measured at the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility. Here, the EBIT-I and SuperEBIT electron beam ion traps have been employed to create, trap, and excite tungsten ions of M- and L-shell charge states. The emitted spectra have been studied in high resolution using crystal, grating, and x-ray calorimeter spectrometers. In particular, wavelengths of n = 0 M-shell transitions in K-like W55+ through Ne-like W64+, and intershell transitions in Zn-like W44+ through Co-like W47+ have been measured. Special attention is given to the Ni-like W46+ ion, which has two strong electric-dipole forbidden transitions that are of interest for plasma diagnostics. The EBIT measurements are complemented by spectral modeling using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC), and predictions for tokamak spectra are presented. The L-shell tungsten ions have been studied at electron-beam energies of up to 122 keV and transition energies measured in Ne-like W64+ through Li-like W71+. These spectra constitute the physics basis in the design of the ion-temperature crystal spectrometer for the ITER tokamak. Tungsten particles have furthermore been introduced into the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) spheromak in Livermore in order to investigate diagnostic possibilities of extreme ultraviolet tungsten spectra for the ITER divertor. The spheromak measurement and spectral modeling using FAC suggest that tungsten ions in charge states around Er-like W6+ could be useful for

  11. X-ray imaging crystal spectroscopy for use in plasma transport research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, M. L.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Bitter, M.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Rice, J. E.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Gao, C.; Greenwald, M.; Hill, K.; Howard, N. T.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Pablant, N.; White, A. E.; Wolfe, S. M.

    2012-11-01

    This research describes advancements in the spectral analysis and error propagation techniques associated with x-ray imaging crystal spectroscopy (XICS) that have enabled this diagnostic to be used to accurately constrain particle, momentum, and heat transport studies in a tokamak for the first time. Doppler tomography techniques have been extended to include propagation of statistical uncertainty due to photon noise, the effect of non-uniform instrumental broadening as well as flux surface variations in impurity density. These methods have been deployed as a suite of modeling and analysis tools, written in interactive data language (IDL) and designed for general use on tokamaks. Its application to the Alcator C-Mod XICS is discussed, along with novel spectral and spatial calibration techniques. Example ion temperature and radial electric field profiles from recent I-mode plasmas are shown, and the impact of poloidally asymmetric impurity density and natural line broadening is discussed in the context of the planned ITER x-ray crystal spectrometer.

  12. Improved Fast, Deep Record Length, Time-Resolved Visible Spectroscopy of Plasmas Using Fiber Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Cruz, E.; Williams, A.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Horton, R.; Klauser, R.; Hwang, D.

    2017-10-01

    HyperV Technologies is developing a fiber-coupled, deep record-length, low-light camera head for performing high time resolution spectroscopy on visible emission from plasma events. By coupling the output of a spectrometer to an imaging fiber bundle connected to a bank of amplified silicon photomultipliers, time-resolved spectroscopic imagers of 100 to 1,000 pixels can be constructed. A second generation prototype 32-pixel spectroscopic imager employing this technique was constructed and successfully tested at the University of California at Davis Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX). Pixel performance of 10 Megaframes/sec with record lengths of up to 256,000 frames ( 25.6 milliseconds) were achieved. Pixel resolution was 12 bits. Pixel pitch can be refined by using grids of 100 μm to 1000 μm diameter fibers. Experimental results will be discussed, along with future plans for this diagnostic. Work supported by USDOE SBIR Grant DE-SC0013801.

  13. Determination of Dynamics of Plant Plasma Membrane Proteins with Fluorescence Recovery and Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laňková, Martina; Humpolíčková, Jana; Vosolsobě, Stanislav; Cit, Zdeněk; Lacek, Jozef; Čovan, Martin; Čovanová, Milada; Hof, Martin; Petrášek, Jan

    2016-04-01

    A number of fluorescence microscopy techniques are described to study dynamics of fluorescently labeled proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and whole organelles. However, for studies of plant plasma membrane (PM) proteins, the number of these techniques is still limited because of the high complexity of processes that determine the dynamics of PM proteins and the existence of cell wall. Here, we report on the usage of raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) for studies of integral PM proteins in suspension-cultured tobacco cells and show its potential in comparison with the more widely used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching method. For RICS, a set of microscopy images is obtained by single-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Fluorescence fluctuations are subsequently correlated between individual pixels and the information on protein mobility are extracted using a model that considers processes generating the fluctuations such as diffusion and chemical binding reactions. As we show here using an example of two integral PM transporters of the plant hormone auxin, RICS uncovered their distinct short-distance lateral mobility within the PM that is dependent on cytoskeleton and sterol composition of the PM. RICS, which is routinely accessible on modern CLSM instruments, thus represents a valuable approach for studies of dynamics of PM proteins in plants.

  14. Quality control of Al alloy by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, N.F.; Amr, M.A.; Helal, A.I.; Waly, S.A.; Afifi, Y.K.

    2000-01-01

    Laser ablation sample introduction system in combination with an inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is used for the investigation of elemental distribution of Al alloy. The samples are ablated by an ultraviolet laser beam at 266 nm with an energy of 4mJ/shot at a repetition rate of 20 Hz. Samples are digested using HNO 3 in a microwave system and analyzed in a solution form by ICP-MS. The quantification of the analytical results is carried out using multielement solution. Quantitative data from the solution samples are used as a standard data for the laser ablation technique. The effect of Aluminum as a matrix is studied. High-resolution mass spectrometer is used to identify the Aluminum polyatomic ions in the ICP-ion source

  15. ICP-MS analysis for long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is an attractive alternative for the analysis of radioisotopes having a half-life in the order of several hundred years and above. The technique should not be considered a replacement for radiometric measurements of these isotopes but merely an alternative. Similarly to radiometric techniques like alpha and beta spectrometry most analysis of 'low-level' concentrations by ICP-MS requires chemical isolation of the element in question. For 'ultra-low-level' concentrations this clean-up of the sample is usually even more necessary than for the alternative radiometric techniques. The presentation gives an overview of advantages and disadvantages in using ICP-MS and compares it to relevant radiometric alternatives. (author)

  16. Characterization of plasma etching damage on p-type GaN using Schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, M.; Mikamo, K.; Ichimura, M.; Kanechika, M.; Ishiguro, O.; Kachi, T.

    2008-01-01

    The plasma etching damage in p-type GaN has been characterized. From current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of Schottky diodes, it was revealed that inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching causes an increase in series resistance of the Schottky diodes and compensation of acceptors in p-type GaN. We investigated deep levels near the valence band of p-type GaN using current deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and no deep level originating from the ICP etching damage was observed. On the other hand, by capacitance DLTS measurements for n-type GaN, we observed an increase in concentration of a donor-type defect with an activation energy of 0.25 eV after the ICP etching. The origin of this defect would be due to nitrogen vacancies. We also observed this defect by photocapacitance measurements for ICP-etched p-type GaN. For both n- and p-type GaN, we found that the low bias power ICP etching is effective to reduce the concentration of this defect introduced by the high bias power ICP etching

  17. Enhancement and stabilization of plasma using collinear long-short double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Minchao; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Wang, Zhenzhen; Fujita, Yuki; Liu, Renwei; Shiou, Fang-Jung; Zhao, Shengdun

    2018-04-01

    A collinear long-short dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) method was employed to enhance and stabilize the laser-induced plasma from steel sample. The long-pulse-width laser beam with the pulse width of 60 μs was generated by a Nd: YAG laser which was operated at FR (free running) mode. The comparative experiments were carried out between single pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS) and long-short DP-LIBS. The recorded results showed that the emission intensities and the temperature of plasma were enhanced by long-short DP-LIBS. The plasma images showed that the plasma was bigger and had a longer lifetime in long-short DP-LIBS situation. Through the calculation of time-resolved plasma temperature and intensity ratio, it can be concluded that the plasma was stabilized by the long-pulse-width laser beam. The long-short DP-LIBS method also generated the stable plasma condition from the samples with different initial temperatures, which overcame the difficulties of LIBS in the online measurement for steel production line.

  18. Secondary plasma formation after single pulse laser ablation underwater and its advantages for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilović, M R; Cvejić, M; Lazic, V; Jovićević, S

    2016-06-07

    In this work we present studies of spatial and temporal plasma evolution after single pulse ablation of an aluminium target in water. The laser ablation was performed using 20 ns long pulses emitted at 1064 nm. The plasma characterization was performed by fast photography, the Schlieren technique, shadowgraphy and optical emission spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate the existence of two distinct plasma stages: the first stage has a duration of approximately 500 ns from the laser pulse, and is followed by a new plasma growth starting from the crater center. The secondary plasma slowly evolves inside the growing vapor bubble, and its optical emission lasts over several tens of microseconds. Later, the hot glowing particles, trapped inside the vapor cavity, were detected during the whole cycle of the bubble, where the first collapse occurs after 475 μs from the laser pulse. Differences in the plasma properties during the two evolution phases are discussed, with an accent on the optical emission since its detection is of primary importance for LIBS. Here we demonstrate that the LIBS signal quality in single pulse excitation underwater can be greatly enhanced by detecting only the secondary plasma emission, and also by applying long acquisition gates (in the order of 10-100 μs). The presented results are of great importance for LIBS measurements inside a liquid environment, since they prove that a good analytical signal can be obtained by using nanosecond pulses from a single commercial laser source and by employing cost effective, not gated detectors.

  19. Characterization of an Atmospheric-Pressure Argon Plasma Generated by 915 MHz Microwaves Using Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Miotk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the investigations of an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma generated at 915 MHz microwaves using the optical emission spectroscopy (OES. The 915 MHz microwave plasma was inducted and sustained in a waveguide-supplied coaxial-line-based nozzleless microwave plasma source. The aim of presented investigations was to estimate parameters of the generated plasma, that is, excitation temperature of electrons Texc, temperature of plasma gas Tg, and concentration of electrons ne. Assuming that excited levels of argon atoms are in local thermodynamic equilibrium, Boltzmann method allowed in determining the Texc temperature in the range of 8100–11000 K. The temperature of plasma gas Tg was estimated by comparing the simulated spectra of the OH radical to the measured one in LIFBASE program. The obtained Tg temperature ranged in 1200–2800 K. Using a method based on Stark broadening of the Hβ line, the concentration of electrons ne was determined in the range from 1.4 × 1015 to 1.7 × 1015 cm−3, depending on the power absorbed by the microwave plasma.

  20. Heavy metal elements in toiletries analyzed by INAA, ICP-MS and SEM-EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, E.; Tagami, K.; Okada, Y.; Nakahara, H.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many toiletries claiming inclusion of platinum (Pt), silver (Ag) and gold (Au) as additives are sold in ordinary cosmetics shops. However, their concentrations are not clearly indicated. In the present work, these toiletries were analyzed for heavy metal elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the particle sizes were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the constitutions of the small particles were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The concentrations of Pt in the toiletries observed were from 1 to 80 ppm. The lower detection limit of Pt by INAA was about 1 ppm because of the presence of sodium in high concentrations for those samples. Consequently, some toiletries which should have had Pt according to the manufactures were found not to contain Pt probably because it was less than the detection limit. On the other hand, there were a few toiletries that were found to contain Ag although the addition of Ag was not mentioned by the manufactures. It is considered that these non-indicated Ag were included as impurities of the added Au. The concentrations of the non-indicated Ag were even higher than those of the indicated Ag. A very small amount of Sr, which was nominated in the negative list of Japan, was also detected in 2 out of 5 kinds of toiletries analyzed by ICP-MS. (orig.)

  1. Inductively coupled plasma-induced defects in n-type GaN studied from Schottky diode characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, W.; Tokuda, Y.; Ueda, H.; Kachi, T.

    2006-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma-(ICP-)induced defects in n-type GaN have been studied from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) for Schottky diodes fabricated on etched surfaces. The samples after ICP etching show the ohmic I-V characteristics. Schottky characteristics are obtained after annealing at 600 and 800 deg. C in N 2 , but are not restored to that of the control samples. DLTS shows that the effect of ICP etching is small on the region beyond 80 nm from the surface. These results suggest that there remain ICP-induced damage in the near-surface region after thermal annealing

  2. The use of ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS techniques for uranium analysis in real-life swipe samples for safeguards purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana, Rafael C.B.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Carvalho, Elita F.U.; Abreu Junior, Cassio H.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental swipe sampling for safeguards purposes is a powerful tool to detect undeclared materials and activities, and has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency since 1997. This work describes the utilization of the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for determining uranium isotopic ratios in a real-life swipe samples collected in a conversion plant at IPEN/CNEN, Brazil. Uncertainties were estimated by following the International Organization for Standardization - Guide to the Expression of Uncertainties in Measurement (ISO GUM), with a confidence level of 95%. The major uncertainties percentage for n( 235 U)/n( 238 U) ratio for ICP-MS was 3% and for LA-ICP-MS was 30% The values of uranium isotopic ratios obtained for each technique demonstrate the viability of these analytical techniques as an alternative tool for uranium analysis in swipe samples for safeguards purposes. (author)

  3. Quantification of {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U in river mollusks by magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS); Cuantificacion de {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U y {sup 238}U en moluscos de rios por espectrometria de masas de sector magnetico con fuente de plasma acoplado inductivamente (ICP-SFMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo R, D. L.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T.; Lara A, N. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Alfaro de la T, M. C., E-mail: arevalo0591@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Dr. Salvador Nava s/n, Zona Universitaria, 78290 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The present work deals with the methodology established for the quantification of {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U in the shell of gastropod mollusks collected in the rivers Valles, Coy and Axtla of San Luis Potosi, Mexico, which belong to the Panuco River basin; these rivers have as main source of pollution the discharge of municipal sewage, waste from small industries, agricultural and cattle residues and from natural sources. Conventional methods for measuring radio-nuclides are confronted with certain conditions related to the requirement in measurement, basically in the characterization that is related to the concepts of precision and accuracy. The analysis of the gastropod mollusk shell was performed by the Icp-SFMS technique; the main advantages of this technique lie in the isotope quantification capacity, the high precision and the low limits of detection, in this study are very important because these elements are in concentrations between ppb and ppt. This technique allowed the analysis of the samples having a complex matrix by the presence CaCO{sub 3} minimizing the interferences thanks to the ionization efficiency of the Ar plasma. For the species Pachychilus monachus were found concentrations of {sup 232}Th of 0.16-5.37 μg/g and of total U of 0.101-4.081 μg/g being this species where the highest values of total U were found. For Thiara (melanoids) tuberculata the lowest values were found among the different species ({sup 232}Th 0.61-3.61 μg/g and total U 0.006-0.042 μg/g), for Pachychilus suturalis, values of {sup 232}Th of 0.58-6.4 μg/g and for Pachychilus sp. were found between 0.26-7.62 μg/g and for total U values between 0.28-3.33 μg/g. The method offers several advantages: speed, good precision, low values of quantification limits and high sensitivity in the measurement of radio-nuclides and heavy metals. (Author)

  4. The use of atomic spectroscopy in the pharmaceutical industry for the determination of trace elements in pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewen, Nancy

    2011-06-25

    The subject of the analysis of various elements, including metals and metalloids, in the pharmaceutical industry has seen increasing importance in the last 10-15 years, as modern analytical instrumentation has afforded analysts with the opportunity to provide element-specific, accurate and meaningful information related to pharmaceutical products. Armed with toxicological data, compendial and regulatory agencies have revisited traditional approaches to the testing of pharmaceuticals for metals and metalloids, and analysts have begun to employ the techniques of atomic spectroscopy, such as flame- and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS, Flame AA or FAA and GFAAS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), to meet their analytical needs. Newer techniques, such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation ICP-MS (LAICP-MS) are also beginning to see wider applications in the analysis of elements in the pharmaceutical industry.This article will provide a perspective regarding the various applications of atomic spectroscopy in the analysis of metals and metalloids in drug products, active pharmaceutical ingredients (API's), raw materials and intermediates. The application of atomic spectroscopy in the analysis of metals and metalloids in clinical samples, nutraceutical, metabolism and pharmacokinetic samples will not be addressed in this work. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ICP-oa TOFMS utilisation to determine the Gd isotopic abundance in gadolinium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir, M.; Ohai, D.; Dumitrescu, I.; Furtuna, I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is describes the development of a method that should permit the determination of isotope abundance of gadolinium in gadolinium nitrate, used as burnable poison at Cernavoda NPP. To determine the isotopic abundance of gadolinium the inductively coupled plasma orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ICP-oa TOFMS) was used. The ICP-oa TOFMS allows the elimination of noise associated with instrumental drift and instability (flicker noise). The absence of flicker noise in the ICP-oa TOFMS means that the isotope ratios can be measured up to the statistical limit of ion counting. With TOFMS, each spectrum acquired represents signals from ions extracted from the plasma during the same time interval, formed from identical plasma and sample introduction events. Therefore, the ICP-oa TOFMS, Optimass 8000, has been successfully used for isotope ratio measurements of Gd in gadolinium nitrate [Gd (NO 3 ) 3 x 6H 2 O] sample solutions. (authors)

  6. Moessbauer spectroscopy study on the corrosion resistance of plasma nitrided ASTM F138 stainless steel in chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.D. de; Olzon-Dionysio, M.; Basso, R.L.O.; Souza, S. de

    2010-01-01

    Plasma nitriding of ASTM F138 stainless steel samples has been carried out using dc glow discharge under 80% H 2 -20% N 2 gas mixture, at 673 K, and 2, 4, and 7 h time intervals, in order to investigate the influence of treatment time on the microstructure and the corrosion resistance properties. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, besides electrochemical tests in NaCl aerated solution. A modified layer of about 6 μm was observed for all the nitrided samples, independent of nitriding time. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows broad γ N phase peaks, signifying a great degree of nitrogen supersaturation. Besides γ N, the Moessbauer spectroscopy results indicated the occurrence of γ' and ε phases, as well as some other less important phases. Corrosion measurements demonstrate that the plasma nitriding time affects the corrosion resistance and the best performance is reached at 4 h treatment. It seems that the ε/γ' fraction ratio plays an important role on the resistance corrosion. Additionally, the Moessbauer spectroscopy was decisive in this study, since it was able to identify and quantify the iron phases that influence the corrosion resistance of plasma nitrided ASTM F138 samples.

  7. Experimental investigation of silicon photomultipliers as compact light readout systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocente, M., E-mail: massimo.nocente@mib.infn.it; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Fazzi, A.; Lorenzoli, M.; Pirovano, C. [Dipartimento di Energia, CeSNEF, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Cazzaniga, C.; Rebai, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Uboldi, C.; Varoli, V. [Dipartimento di Energia, CeSNEF, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    A matrix of Silicon Photo Multipliers has been developed for light readout from a large area 1 in. × 1 in. LaBr{sub 3} crystal. The system has been characterized in the laboratory and its performance compared to that of a conventional photo multiplier tube. A pulse duration of 100 ns was achieved, which opens up to spectroscopy applications at high counting rates. The energy resolution measured using radioactive sources extrapolates to 3%–4% in the energy range E{sub γ} = 3–5 MeV, enabling gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at good energy resolution. The results reported here are of relevance in view of the development of compact gamma-ray detectors with spectroscopy capabilities, such as an enhanced gamma-ray camera for high power fusion plasmas, where the use of photomultiplier is impeded by space limitation and sensitivity to magnetic fields.

  8. Metastable argon atom density in complex argon/acetylene plasmas determined by means of optical absorption and emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkov, Vladimir; Herrendorf, Ann-Pierra; Hippler, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Optical emission and absorption spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the instability of acetylene-containing dusty plasmas induced by growing nano-particles. The density of Ar(1s 5 ) metastable atoms was derived by two methods: tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and with the help of the branching ratio method of emitted spectral lines. Results of the two techniques agree well with each other. The density of Ar(1s 3 ) metastable atoms was also measured by means of optical emission spectroscopy. The observed growth instability leads to pronounced temporal variations of the metastable and other excited state densities. An analysis of optical line ratios provides evidence for a depletion of free electrons during the growth cycle but no indication for electron temperature variations. (paper)

  9. ICP experiments more durable pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1994-01-01

    A new asphalts technology that will make more durable the pavement in the highways and roads of the cities of Colombia investigates the Colombian Institute of the Petroleum ICP. The project that will have important incidence in the solution of one of the main problems in the roads of cities like Bogota, is only one of the 35 investigation programs and application of new technologies that with relationship to the sector of the hydrocarbons and its influence branches the ICP advances. The investigation looks for to elevate the current average of useful life of the pavements, with that it would be reached a standard that has the developed countries in this field

  10. Determination of trace elements in seawater by air-flow injection/ICP-MS with chelating resin preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyue-Hyung; Ohshima, Mitsuko; Motomizu, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    Multielement determination of major to trace metals in a deep seawater malt was accomplished by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) together with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Major elements, such as Na, K, Mg, and Ca, were measured by ICP-AES and normal continuos nebulization ICP-MS after sample dilution by 10 3 -10 6 fold. Fifteen trace elements in the concentrated metal solutions pretreated with cation-exchange resin or chelating resin could be simultaneously determined by air-flow injection/ICP-mass spectrometry (AFI/ICP-MS). Since the injection volume for AFI/ICP-MS was 25 μl, final samples volumes less than 500 μl were enough for several replicate measurements. Three different preconcentration methods assisted with AFI/ICP-MS were examined and could be successfully applied to a deep seawater malt. The analytical results of rate earth elements (REEs) and Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb obtained by AFI/ICP-MS coupled with disk filtration method using iminodiacetate (IDA)-type chelating resin were favorably agreed with the data obtained by AFI/ICP-MS coupled with column preconcentration method using chitosan-based chelating resin. (author)

  11. LIBS coupled with ICP/OES for the spectral analysis of betel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, I.; Rehan, K.; Sultana, S.; Khan, M. Z.; Muhammad, R.

    2018-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was optimized and was applied for the elemental analysis and exposure of the heavy metals in betel leaves in air. Pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) in conjunction with a suitable detector (LIBS 2000+, Ocean Optics, Inc) having the optical resolution of 0.06 nm was used to record the emission spectra from 200 to 720 nm. Elements like Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, P, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr, and Zn were found to be present in the samples. The abundances of observed elements were calculated through normalized calibration curve method, integrated intensity ratio method, and calibration free-LIBS approach. Quantitative analyses were accomplished under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and optically thin plasma. LIBS findings were validated by comparing its results with the results obtained using a typical analytical technique of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP/OES). Limit of detection (LOD) of the LIBS system was also estimated for heavy metals.

  12. Application of FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy to Determine the Extent of Lipid Peroxidation in Plasma during Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Oleszko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During a haemodialysis (HD, because of the contact of blood with the surface of the dialyser, the immune system becomes activated and reactive oxygen species (ROS are released into plasma. Particularly exposed to the ROS are lipids and proteins contained in plasma, which undergo peroxidation. The main breakdown product of oxidized lipids is the malondialdehyde (MDA. A common method for measuring the concentration of MDA is a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS method. Despite the formation of MDA in plasma during HD, its concentration decreases because it is removed from the blood in the dialyser. Therefore, this research proposes the Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, which enables determination of primary peroxidation products. We examined the influence of the amount of hydrogen peroxide added to lipid suspension that was earlier extracted from plasma specimen on lipid peroxidation with use of TBARS and FTIR-ATR methods. Linear correlation between these methods was shown. The proposed method was effective during the evaluation of changes in the extent of lipid peroxidation in plasma during a haemodialysis in sheep. A measurement using the FTIR-ATR showed an increase in plasma lipid peroxidation after 15 and 240 minutes of treatment, while the TBARS concentration was respectively lower.

  13. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, David, E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Castro, Giuseppe; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Gammino, Santo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Caliri, Claudia [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dip.to di Fisica e Astronomia, via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, Francesco Paolo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, DIIES, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed “on-line” during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure.

  14. Optical spectroscopy of free-propagating plasma and its interaction with tungsten targets in PF-1000 facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)] [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kubkowska, M.; Jakubowska, K.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Garkusha, I.E.; Ladygina, M.; Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, 61-108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2011-07-01

    The paper reports on optical spectroscopy of pulsed plasma streams during their free propagation within a vacuum chamber and their interaction with tungsten targets. Experiments were performed with the PF-1000 facility and particular attention was paid to improvements in spectroscopic diagnostics techniques. In contrary to preliminary studies, the recent spectroscopic measurements of the free plasma streams were carried out perpendicular to the z-axis and at a larger distance from the electrode outlet. The center of the observation quartz-window was located at z = 30 cm in order to observe first a pure deuterium-plasma stream, and later on some heavy impurities which might reach that distance with a delay induced by differences in their production and time-of-flight. The recorded spectral lines were identified by means of a Kurucz database. It was confirmed that at the pure D{sub 2}-filling the PF-1000 facility emits first the deuterium-plasma stream and one can observe intense deuterium Balmer lines, but at a distance z = 30 cm, after about 2 microseconds there appear many impurity lines originating mainly from the Cu-electrodes, i.e. Cu-lines. The second part of the experiment concerned the spectroscopic measurements of metal plasma 'pillow' produced by the plasma stream impinging upon a solid target made of pure tungsten. The described measurements enabled the most intense spectral lines to be identified. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the slides of the presentation

  15. Nuclear spin state-resolved cavity ring-down spectroscopy diagnostics of a low-temperature H3+ -dominated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejduk, Michal; Dohnal, Petr; Varju, Jozef; Rubovič, Peter; Plašil, Radek; Glosík, Juraj

    2012-01-01

    We have applied a continuous-wave near-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy method to study the parameters of a H 3 + -dominated plasma at temperatures in the range 77–200 K. We monitor populations of three rotational states of the ground vibrational state corresponding to para and ortho nuclear spin states in the discharge and the afterglow plasma in time and conclude that abundances of para and ortho states and rotational temperatures are well defined and stable. The non-trivial dependence of a relative population of para- H 3 + on a relative population of para-H 2 in a source H 2 gas is described. The results described in this paper are valuable for studies of state-selective dissociative recombination of H 3 + ions with electrons in the afterglow plasma and for the design of sources of H 3 + ions in a specific nuclear spin state. (paper)

  16. Nuclear spin state-resolved cavity ring-down spectroscopy diagnostics of a low-temperature H_3^+ -dominated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, Michal; Dohnal, Petr; Varju, Jozef; Rubovič, Peter; Plašil, Radek; Glosík, Juraj

    2012-04-01

    We have applied a continuous-wave near-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy method to study the parameters of a H_3^+ -dominated plasma at temperatures in the range 77-200 K. We monitor populations of three rotational states of the ground vibrational state corresponding to para and ortho nuclear spin states in the discharge and the afterglow plasma in time and conclude that abundances of para and ortho states and rotational temperatures are well defined and stable. The non-trivial dependence of a relative population of para- H_3^+ on a relative population of para-H2 in a source H2 gas is described. The results described in this paper are valuable for studies of state-selective dissociative recombination of H_3^+ ions with electrons in the afterglow plasma and for the design of sources of H_3^+ ions in a specific nuclear spin state.

  17. Soil analyses by ICP-MS (Review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Shin-ichi

    2000-01-01

    Soil analyses by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are reviewed. The first half of the paper is devoted to the development of techniques applicable to soil analyses, where diverse analytical parameters are carefully evaluated. However, the choice of soil samples is somewhat arbitrary, and only a limited number of samples (mostly reference materials) are examined. In the second half, efforts are mostly concentrated on the introduction of reports, where a large number of samples and/or very precious samples have been analyzed. Although the analytical techniques used in these reports are not necessarily novel, valuable information concerning such topics as background levels of elements in soils, chemical forms of elements in soils and behavior of elements in soil ecosystems and the environment can be obtained. The major topics discussed are total elemental analysis, analysis of radionuclides with long half-lives, speciation, leaching techniques, and isotope ratio measurements. (author)

  18. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry: analytical assessment of the technique at the beginning of the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Medel, A.

    1991-01-01

    The main application of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) today is in atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), as an excitation spectrochemical source, although uses of an ICP for fluorescence as just an atomizer, and specially for mass spectrometry, as an ionization source, are rocketing in the last few years. Since its inception, only a quarter of a century ago, ICP-AES has rapidly evolved to one of the preferred routine analytical techniques for convenient determination of many elements with high speed, at low levels and in the most varied samples. Perhaps its comparatively high kinetic temperature (capable of atomizing virtually every compound of any sample), its high excitation and ionization temperatures, and its favourable spatial structure at the core of the ICP success. By now, the ICP-AES can be considered as having achieved maturity in that a huge amount of analytical problems can be tackled with this technique, while no major or fundamental changes have been adopted for several years. Despite this fact, important driving forces are still in operation to further improve the ICP-AES sensitivity, selectivity, precision, sample throughput, etc. Moreover, proposals to extend the scope of the technique to traditionally elusive fields (e.g. non-metals and organic compound analysis) are also appearing in the recent literature. In this paper the 'state of the art', the last developments and the expectations in trying to circumvent the limitations of the ICP-AES (on the light of literature data and personal experience) are reviewed. (author)

  19. Development of a test bed plasma and diagnostic methods for detailed K-shell spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hall, I.M.; Chambers, D.M.; Courtois, C.; Förster, E.; Gregory, C.D.; Howe, J.; Renner, Oldřich; Uschmann, I.; Woolsey, N.C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 133, - (2006), s. 1009-1011 ISSN 1155-4339 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-produced plasmas * x-ray and optical emission * plasma modelling * plasma diagnostics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.315, year: 2006

  20. Analysis of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub y}TiO{sub 3} perovskite layers. II. Development of analytical method for the determination of the stoichiometry and trace impurities by ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen]|[Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk (Belarus); Becker, J.S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen

    2000-11-01

    Determination of stoichiometry in semiconducting and non-conducting thin layers is of importance for the study of growth mechanisms and for the control of defects during their development and production. An analytical procedure for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed using different ICP-MS instruments [one double-focusing sector field ICP-MS (DF-ICP-MS) and two quadrupole ICP-MS without and with hexapole collision cell (ICP-QMS and HEX-ICP-QMS, respectively)] for the determination of stoichiometry and trace impurities in thin Ba{sub x}Sr{sub y}TiO{sub 3} (BST) perovskite layers on silicon substrates after dissolution of layer. Maximum sensitivity, lowest detection limits and best precision was achieved in DF-ICP-MS. ICP-QMS with hexapole collision cell yielded better sensitivity and lower limits of detection in comparison to conventional quadrupole ICP-MS. (orig.)

  1. Proceedings of the eighth international colloquium on ultraviolet and x-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas (IAU colloquium 86)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This volume represents the Proceedings of the Eighth International Colloquium on Ultraviolet and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas. The aim of this series of colloquia has been to bring together workers in the fields of astrophysical spectroscopy, laboratory spectroscopy and atomic physics in order to exchange ideas and results on problems which are common to these different disciplines. In addition to the presented papers there was a poster paper session

  2. Proceedings of the eighth international colloquium on ultraviolet and x-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas (IAU colloquium 86)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This volume represents the Proceedings of the Eighth International Colloquium on Ultraviolet and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas. The aim of this series of colloquia has been to bring together workers in the fields of astrophysical spectroscopy, laboratory spectroscopy and atomic physics in order to exchange ideas and results on problems which are common to these different disciplines. In addition to the presented papers there was a poster paper session. (WRF)

  3. Measurement of inclusion size by laser ablation ICP mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasev, Andrey V.; Suito, Hideaki

    2004-01-01

    By using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), the measurement of particle size has been made for one component oxide (Al 2 O 3 and MgO) and multicomponent oxide (12CaO·7Al 2 O 3 and CaO-Al 2 O 3 -MgO) located on surface of iron or glass sample. The method of particle size estimation by LA-ICP-MS has been developed coupled with a new method of making samples with particles. The size calibration lines for Al 2 O 3 , MgO and CaO particles have been obtained. The results of particle size measurement by LA-ICP-MS are compared with those by SEM and single-particle optical sensing (SPOS) methods. It was confirmed that LA-ICP-MS has the perspective to be used for the quick measurement of inclusion composition and size in metal and other materials. The size frequency distributions of Al 2 O 3 particles measured by LA-ICP-MS in iron samples with particles agree reasonably well with those by SEM and SPOS in the range of particle diameter from 2 to 20 μm. The size of Al 2 O 3 , MgO and complex oxide (12CaO·7Al 2 O 3 and CaO-Al 2 O 3 -MgO) particles measured by LA-ICP-MS is in good agreement with that by SEM in the range of particle diameter from 10 to 40 μm. (author)

  4. Toepassing ICP-AES op het RIKILT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruig, de W.G.

    1980-01-01

    Rapportage over de toepassing van ICP-AES op het RIKILT. Bij ICP-AES worden twee manieren van lichtemissie detectie toegepast nl. simultaan en sequentieel. De voor- en nadelen van ICP-AES t.o.v. AAS worden op een rij gezet.

  5. Development of a chromatographic separation method hyphenated to electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS): application to the lanthanides speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuvier, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the development of a chromatographic separation method coupled to both ESI-MS and ICP-MS in order to achieve the comprehensive speciation analysis of lanthanides in aqueous phase representative of back-extraction phases of advanced spent nuclear fuel treatment processes. This analytical method allowed the separation, the characterization and the quantitation of lanthanides complexes holding poly-aminocarboxylic ligands, such as DTPA and EDTA, used as complexing agents in these processes. A HILIC separation method of lanthanides complexes has been developed with an amide bonded stationary phase. A screening of a wide range of mobile phase compositions demonstrated that the adsorption mechanism was predominant. This screening allowed also obtaining optimized separation conditions. Faster analysis conditions with shorter amide column packed with sub 2 μm particles reduced analysis time by 2.5 and 25% solvent consumption. Isotopic and structural characterization by HILIC ESI-MS was performed as well as the development of external calibration quantitation method. Analytical performances of quantitation method were determined. Finally, the development of the HILIC coupling to ESI-MS and ICP-MS was achieved. A simultaneous quantitation method by ESI-MS and ICP-MS was performed to determine the species quantitative distribution in solution. Analytical performances of quantitation method were also determined. (author) [fr

  6. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), part I: review of basic diagnostics and plasma-particle interactions: still-challenging issues within the analytical plasma community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, David W; Omenetto, Nicoló

    2010-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become a very popular analytical method in the last decade in view of some of its unique features such as applicability to any type of sample, practically no sample preparation, remote sensing capability, and speed of analysis. The technique has a remarkably wide applicability in many fields, and the number of applications is still growing. From an analytical point of view, the quantitative aspects of LIBS may be considered its Achilles' heel, first due to the complex nature of the laser-sample interaction processes, which depend upon both the laser characteristics and the sample material properties, and second due to the plasma-particle interaction processes, which are space and time dependent. Together, these may cause undesirable matrix effects. Ways of alleviating these problems rely upon the description of the plasma excitation-ionization processes through the use of classical equilibrium relations and therefore on the assumption that the laser-induced plasma is in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Even in this case, the transient nature of the plasma and its spatial inhomogeneity need to be considered and overcome in order to justify the theoretical assumptions made. This first article focuses on the basic diagnostics aspects and presents a review of the past and recent LIBS literature pertinent to this topic. Previous research on non-laser-based plasma literature, and the resulting knowledge, is also emphasized. The aim is, on one hand, to make the readers aware of such knowledge and on the other hand to trigger the interest of the LIBS community, as well as the larger analytical plasma community, in attempting some diagnostic approaches that have not yet been fully exploited in LIBS.

  7. On the application of ICP-MS techniques for measuring uranium and plutonium: a Nordic inter-laboratory comparison exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Lagerkvist, Petra; Rodushkin, Ilia

    2018-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques are widely used for determination of long-lived radionuclides and their isotopic ratios in the nuclear fields. Uranium (U) and Pu (Pu) isotopes have been determined by many researchers with ICP-MS due to its relatively high sensitiv...

  8. Time-Resolved Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy of Pulsed Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Processes Containing BCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Norbert; Hempel, Frank; Strämke, Siegfried; Röpcke, Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    In situ measurements are reported giving insight into the plasma chemical conversion of the precursor BCl3 in industrial applications of boriding plasmas. For the online monitoring of its ground state concentration, quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) in the mid-infrared spectral range was applied in a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) reactor. A compact quantum cascade laser measurement and control system (Q-MACS) was developed to allow a flexible and completely dust-sealed optical coupling to the reactor chamber of an industrial plasma surface modification system. The process under the study was a pulsed DC plasma with periodically injected BCl3 at 200 Pa. A synchronization of the Q-MACS with the process control unit enabled an insight into individual process cycles with a sensitivity of 10-6 cm-1·Hz-1/2. Different fragmentation rates of the precursor were found during an individual process cycle. The detected BCl3 concentrations were in the order of 1014 molecules·cm-3. The reported results of in situ monitoring with QCLAS demonstrate the potential for effective optimization procedures in industrial PACVD processes.

  9. Diagnostic of capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma from electrical discharge characteristics: comparison with optical emission spectroscopy and fluid model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, HE; Chong, LIU; Yachun, ZHANG; Jianping, CHEN; Yudong, CHEN; Xiaojun, ZENG; Bingyan, CHEN; Jiaxin, PANG; Yibing, WANG

    2018-02-01

    The capacitively coupled radio frequency (CCRF) plasma has been widely used in various fields. In some cases, it requires us to estimate the range of key plasma parameters simpler and quicker in order to understand the behavior in plasma. In this paper, a glass vacuum chamber and a pair of plate electrodes were designed and fabricated, using 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) discharge technology to ionize the working gas of Ar. This discharge was mathematically described with equivalent circuit model. The discharge voltage and current of the plasma were measured at different pressures and different powers. Based on the capacitively coupled homogeneous discharge model, the equivalent circuit and the analytical formula were established. The plasma density and temperature were calculated by using the equivalent impedance principle and energy balance equation. The experimental results show that when RF discharge power is 50-300 W and pressure is 25-250 Pa, the average electron temperature is about 1.7-2.1 eV and the average electron density is about 0.5 × 1017-3.6 × 1017 m-3. Agreement was found when the results were compared to those given by optical emission spectroscopy and COMSOL simulation.

  10. Modeling of plasma distortions by laser-induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) and implications for the interpretation of LIAS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, M. Z.; Gierse, N.; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.

    2015-09-01

    For the interpretation of the line radiation observed from laser induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) such parameters as the density and temperature of electrons within very compact clouds of atoms and singly charged ions of ablated material have to be known. Compared to the local plasma conditions prior to the laser pulse, these can be strongly changed during LIAS since new electrons are generated by the ionisation of particles ejected from the irradiated target. Because of their transience and spatial inhomogeneity it is technically difficult to measure disturbances induced in the plasma by LIAS. To overcome this uncertainty a numerical model has been elaborated, providing a self-consistent description for the spreading of ablated particles and accompanying modifications in the plasma. The results of calculations for LIAS performed on carbon-containing targets in Ohmic and additionally heated discharges in the tokamak TEXTOR are presented. Due to the increase in the electron density the ‘ionisation per photon’ ratio, S/XB factor, is significantly enhanced compared to unperturbed plasma conditions. The impact of the amount of material ablated and of the plasma conditions before LIAS on the level of the S/XB-enhancement is investigated.

  11. Fundamental studies of interferences in ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, L.K

    2000-11-01

    Methods of temperature measurement by mass spectrometry have been critically reviewed. It was concluded that the most appropriate method depended critically on the availability of fundamental data, hence a database of fundamental spectroscopic constants, for diatomic ions which cause interferences in ICP-MS, was compiled. The equilibration temperature, calculated using the different methods and using various diatomic ions as the thermometric probes, was between c.a. 400 - 10,000 K in the central channel, and between c.a. 600 - 16,000 K when the plasma was moved 1.8 mm off-centre. The wide range in temperature reflected the range of temperature measurement methods and uncertainty in the fundamental data. Optical studies using a fibre optic connected to a monochromator were performed in order to investigate the presence of interferences both in the plasma and the interface region of the ICP-MS, and the influence of a shielded torch on these interferences. It was possible to determine the presence of some species in the plasma, such as the strongly bound metal oxides, however, no species other than OH were detected in the interface region of the ICP-MS. The OH rotational temperature within the interface region of the ICP-MS was calculated to be between 2,000 - 4,000 K. The effect of sampling depth, operating power, radial position and solvent loading, with and without the shielded torch, on the dissociation temperature of a variety of polyatomic interferences was investigated. These calculated temperatures were then used to elucidate the site of formation for different polyatomic interferences. Results confirmed that strongly bound ions such as MO{sup +} were formed in the plasma, whereas weakly bound ions such as ArO{sup +} were formed in the interface region due to gross deviation of the calculated temperatures from those expected for a system in thermal equilibrium. (author)

  12. Nanoparticle Enhanced Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Effect of nanoparticles deposited on sample surface on laser ablation and plasma emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Giacomo, A.; Gaudiuso, R.; Koral, C.; Dell'Aglio, M.; De Pascale, O.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the use of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) for improving Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is discussed. In the case of conductors an emission signal enhancement up to 1–2 orders of magnitude was obtained depositing NPs on the sample surface by drying a micro-drop of colloidal solution. The basic mechanisms of Nanoparticle Enhanced LIBS (NELIBS) were studied and the main causes of this significantly large enhancement were found to be related to the effect of NPs on the laser ablation process, in terms of a faster and more efficient production of seed electrons with respect to conventional LIBS. The characteristics of NELIBS-produced plasma were investigated by emission spectroscopy and spectrally resolved images. In spite of similar plasma parameters, the NELIBS plasma was found to have larger emission volume and longer persistence than the LIBS one. A method to determine NP concentration and size was also proposed, which involved depositing NPs on non-interacting substrates, and proved the feasibility of LIBS as a fast detection tool for a preliminary characterization of NPs. - Highlights: • Effect of NPs on sample surface enables instantaneous field emission. • More efficient ablation • LIBS emission enhancement up to 1–2 orders of magnitude • Possibility of NP characterization in terms of concentration and size

  13. Study by optical spectroscopy of the interaction between a hydrogen multi-polar plasma and a gallium arsenide surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdinand, Robin

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis has been to understand which are the involved species during the deoxidation-passivation stage of the processing of gallium arsenide platelets used in semiconductor industry. The author describes problems related to the presence of oxides, and highlights the benefit of using a hydrogen multi-polar plasma to softly remove surface oxides. The experimental set-up is notably characterised by the role of magnetic confinement and its influence on plasma. A theoretical model is then developed for a better understanding of chemical and physical-chemical reactions occurring in the hydrogen plasma. Based on the use of the Boltzmann equation, the model calculates the electron energy distribution function, and allows the follow-up of species present in the plasma with respect to available and accessible parameters (pressure, discharge current, discharge voltage). A spectroscopic study of the hydrogen plasma is then reported, and the numerical model is validated by interpreting line shapes of the hydrogen Balmer series. A second experimental approach, based on electrostatic probes, is implemented, and the Laframboise theory is applied to this technique and allows electronic and ionic densities, and electron temperature to be determined. Experimental and numerical results are compared. All this leads to the study of the interaction of plasma with a sample, with a first step of study of a mixture plasma containing 85 per cent of hydrogen and 15 per cent of arsine, in order to get a general knowledge of emissions related to the presence of AsH 3 . Finally, interaction studies are performed by using laser-induced fluorescence and conventional space-resolved optical spectroscopy

  14. Multi-element determinations of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) coal slurries using ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Mujuru; R.I. McCrindle; B.M. Botha; P.P. Ndibewu [Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa). Department of Chemistry

    2009-04-15

    A slurry nebulisation technique was applied for elemental analysis of bituminous coals SARM 18, SARM 19 and four coals from three different seams in Witbank, South Africa, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, S, Si and Ti) and trace elements (Ba, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, Zn and Zr) in coal were determined. Various slurry preparations were evaluated using two dispersants (glycerol and Triton X-100) and by varying the concentration of dispersants, between 0.1% and 1.0% (v/v). The effect of initially solubilising the ground coal in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was investigated by varying the volume of DMF added. The effect of wet grinding with DMF was investigated. Wet grinding with DMF was shown to drastically reduce particle sizes (50.0% < 0.28 m and 90.0% < 6.17 {mu}m) as compared to dry grinding (50.0% < 5.25 {mu}m and 90.0% < 11.1 {mu}m). The reduced particle sizes and increased transport efficiency of the coal slurries led to improved analytical recoveries of elements in the reference coal, SARM 18. The best analytical recoveries for all elements were achieved using 0.1% Triton X-100 with 10.0% DMF. Results obtained by ICP-OES after wet grinding of the coal with DMF, using 0.1% Triton X-100, also gave excellent recoveries (Al, 100%; Ca, 103%; Cr, 106%; Fe, 102%; Mg, 100%; Mn, 104%; Ni, 109%; Si, 102%; Ti, 95.0%; and V, 108%). The results obtained with 10.0% DMF and 0.1% Triton X-100 were in agreement with certified values for all selected elements according to paired t-test at the 95.0% confidence level. Selected elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and V) were also analysed with X-ray fluorescence for comparison with results obtained from ICP-OES. Analysis by ICP-OES of microwave digested coal was also carried out. It is suggested that the DMF slurry technique could be used for routine analysis of bituminous coals. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Multielement determination and speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Hokura, Akiko; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the multi-elemental composition of green tea leaves as well as chemical species in tea infusions, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for elemental analysis and elemental speciation with the aid of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). As a result, the multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves and green tea infusions was carried out by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. About 40 elements in these tea samples could be determined in a wide concentration range of over 8 orders of magnitude. The extraction efficiency of each element was estimated as the ratio of its concentration in tea infusion to that in tea leaves. It was found from the experimental results that the elements in tea leaves could be classified into three characteristic groups, depending on their extraction efficiencies. Furthermore, tea infusions were analyzed by a combined system of SEC, UV absorption detector, and ICP-AES (or ICP-MS) for the speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements. Most of the elements in tea infusions were found to be present as associated complexes with large organic molecules. (author)

  16. Determination of the electron energy distribution function of a low temperature plasma from optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodt, Dirk Hilar

    2009-01-05

    The experimental determination of the electron energy distribution of a low pressure glow discharge in neon from emission spectroscopic data has been demonstrated. The spectral data were obtained with a simple overview spectrometer and analyzed using a strict probabilistic, Bayesian data analysis. It is this Integrated Data Analysis (IDA) approach, which allows the significant extraction of non-thermal properties of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The results bear potential as a non-invasive alternative to probe measurements. This allows the investigation of spatially inhomogeneous plasmas (gradient length smaller than typical probe sheath dimensions) and plasmas with reactive constituents. The diagnostic of reactive plasmas is an important practical application, needed e.g. for the monitoring and control of process plasmas. Moreover, the experimental validation of probe theories for magnetized plasmas as a long-standing topic in plasma diagnostics could be addressed by the spectroscopic method. (orig.)

  17. Determination of the electron energy distribution function of a low temperature plasma from optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodt, Dirk Hilar

    2009-01-01

    The experimental determination of the electron energy distribution of a low pressure glow discharge in neon from emission spectroscopic data has been demonstrated. The spectral data were obtained with a simple overview spectrometer and analyzed using a strict probabilistic, Bayesian data analysis. It is this Integrated Data Analysis (IDA) approach, which allows the significant extraction of non-thermal properties of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The results bear potential as a non-invasive alternative to probe measurements. This allows the investigation of spatially inhomogeneous plasmas (gradient length smaller than typical probe sheath dimensions) and plasmas with reactive constituents. The diagnostic of reactive plasmas is an important practical application, needed e.g. for the monitoring and control of process plasmas. Moreover, the experimental validation of probe theories for magnetized plasmas as a long-standing topic in plasma diagnostics could be addressed by the spectroscopic method. (orig.)

  18. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laroche, G. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie de Surface, Centre de Recherche sur les Materiaux Avances, Departement de genie des mines, de la metallurgie et des materiaux, Universite Laval, 1065, avenue de la Medecine, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Centre de recherche du CHUQ, Hopital St Francois d' Assise, 10, rue de l' Espinay, local E0-165, Quebec G1L 3L5 (Canada); Vallade, J. [Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES, CNRS, Technosud, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, F-66100 Perpignan (France); Agence de l' environnement et de la Ma Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -carettrise de l' Energie, 20, avenue du Gresille, BP 90406, F-49004 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Bazinette, R.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F. [Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES, CNRS, Technosud, Rambla de la Thermodynamique, F-66100 Perpignan (France); Nijnatten, P. van [OMT Solutions bv, High Tech Campus 9, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm Multiplication-Sign 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45 Degree-Sign beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  19. Characterisation of Supra- and Infratentorial ICP Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyse, Emmanuel; Ros, Maxime; Marhar, Fouad; Swider, Pascal; Schmidt, Eric Albert

    2016-01-01

    In pathophysiology and clinical practice, the intracranial pressure (ICP) profiles in the supratentorial and infratentorial compartments are unclear. We know that the pressure within the skull is unevenly distributed, with demonstrated ICP gradients. We recorded and characterised the supra- and infratentorial ICP patterns to understand what drives the transtentorial ICP gradient.A 70-year-old man was operated on for acute cerebellar infarction. One supratentorial probe and one cerebellar probe were implanted. Both signals were recorded concurrently and analysed off-line. We calculated mean ICP, ICP pulse amplitude, respiratory waves, slow waves and the RAP index of supra- and infratentorial ICP signals. Then, we measured transtentorial difference and performed correlation analysis for every index.Supratentorial ICP mean was 8.5 mmHg lower than infratentorial ICP, but the difference lessens for higher values. Both signals across the tentorium showed close correlation. Supra- and infratentorial pulse amplitude, respiratory waves and slow waves also showed a high degree of correlation. The compensatory reserve (RAP) showed good correlation. In this case report, we demonstrate that the mean value of ICP is higher in the posterior fossa, with a strong correlation across the tentorium. All other ICP-derived parameters display a symmetrical profile.

  20. ICP-MS and elemental tags for the life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesen, Charlotte

    2012-08-07

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been applied for the analysis of biomolecules due to its high sensitivity, wide linear dynamic range, and multielement capabilities. However, outside the elemental MS community the potential of this technique, e.g. for life sciences applications, is not yet fully exploited. Thus, the development of ICP-MS-based (immuno) assays for a wide range of medical (cancer diagnostics, cisplatin toxicity studies), biochemical (DNA microarray, single cell analysis), and environmental (analysis of comestible goods) applications was accomplished by utilization of chemical labels. Laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS was employed for the direct analysis of solid samples like microarrays and thin tissue sections. An immunoassay was developed for ochratoxin A (OTA) determination in wine, and ICP-MS detection was compared to conventional photometry by gold nanoparticle tagging and horseradish peroxidase, respectively. Detection limits of the assay were optimized to 0.003 {mu}g L{sup -1}, and the quantification range was 0.01-1 {mu}g L{sup -1} for both methods. For LA-ICP-MS-based DNA microarray detection, gold nanoparticle tags were specifically introduced via a streptavidin-biotin linkage. In immunohistochemistry (IHC), up to 20 tumor markers are routinely evaluated for one patient and thus, a common analysis results in a series of time consuming staining procedures. Hence, LA-ICP-MS was elaborated as a detection tool for a novel, multiplexed IHC analysis of tissue sections. Different lanthanides were employed for the simultaneous detection of up to three tumor markers (Her 2, CK 7, and MUC 1) in a breast cancer tissue. Additionally, iodine was employed as a labeling reagent, and a new LA-ICP-MS method for single cell and cell nucleus imaging was developed at 4 {mu}m laser spot size. Iodine was also applied as a new internal standard for tissue samples. Moreover, Pt-protein complexes separated by an optimized 1D and 2D gel

  1. Optical emission spectroscopy for quantification of ultraviolet radiations and biocide active species in microwave argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattieaux, G., E-mail: gaetan.wattieaux@laplace.univ-tlse.fr; Yousfi, M.; Merbahi, N.

    2013-11-01

    case. - Highlights: • Absorption and emission spectroscopy diagnostic of a microwave plasma jet • Cheap and simple absolute calibration in the UV range without UV calibration source • Determination of the gas temperature uncertainty from OH(A-X) spectrum • Anticipation of the biocide effect of the plasma jet from spectroscopic analysis • Safety requirements in terms of microwave and ozone exposure.

  2. Optical emission spectroscopy for quantification of ultraviolet radiations and biocide active species in microwave argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattieaux, G.; Yousfi, M.; Merbahi, N.

    2013-01-01

    . - Highlights: • Absorption and emission spectroscopy diagnostic of a microwave plasma jet • Cheap and simple absolute calibration in the UV range without UV calibration source • Determination of the gas temperature uncertainty from OH(A-X) spectrum • Anticipation of the biocide effect of the plasma jet from spectroscopic analysis • Safety requirements in terms of microwave and ozone exposure

  3. Some practical applications of an ICP-MS instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddings, B.; Ng, R.

    1987-01-01

    An early model commercial ICP-MS instrument (PlasmaQuad from VG Isotopes Limited) was acquired more than two years ago. As a typical analytical laboratory in the metallurgical field, the application of the ICP-MS technique to real sample analysis is the authors prime concern. The process of introducing this state-of-the-art instrument into routine analysis will be described. The modifications and limitations necessary to achieve acceptable precision under normal working conditions will be outlined. In most cases, practical problems can be circumvented with some sacrifice in analytical performance in the area of detection limits and dynamic range. In this presentation, specific applications of the ICP-MS technique in the authors laboratory will be discussed. These include trace analysis on high purity metals such as copper, aluminum, cobalt, nickel etc., on refinery feed samples such as nickel sulfate, mixed cobalt and nickel sulfide, cobalt cathode, samarium oxide etc., on alloys such as cobalt-samarium magnetic materials, nickel or cobalt based alloys used in turbine blades etc. Other applications such as the determination of uranium in phosphate rock, trace analysis on fertilizers, water samples and high purity acids will also be mentioned. The solutions to the practical problems encountered in these applications will be discussed. The analytical power of the ICP-MS technique for real sample analysis will be assessed

  4. Determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in urine and dextrose by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mianzhi, Zhuang; Barnes, Ramon M.

    The determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in human urine and in commercial dextrose solution is performed by induclively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy after selective preconcentration of the chromium species at different pH values by poly(dithiocarbamate) and poly(acrylamidoxime) chelating resins. The chelating properties of these resins with chromium, including the kinetics of uptake and removal of Cr(III), and the influence of matrix concentrations were evaluated. Chromium in human urine was found to exist exclusively as Cr(III).

  5. Least squares autoregressive (maximum entropy) spectral estimation for Fourier spectroscopy and its application to the electron cyclotron emission from plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwama, N.; Inoue, A.; Tsukishima, T.; Sato, M.; Kawahata, K.

    1981-07-01

    A new procedure for the maximum entropy spectral estimation is studied for the purpose of data processing in Fourier transform spectroscopy. The autoregressive model fitting is examined under a least squares criterion based on the Yule-Walker equations. An AIC-like criterion is suggested for selecting the model order. The principal advantage of the new procedure lies in the enhanced frequency resolution particularly for small values of the maximum optical path-difference of the interferogram. The usefulness of the procedure is ascertained by some numerical simulations and further by experiments with respect to a highly coherent submillimeter wave and the electron cyclotron emission from a stellarator plasma. (author)

  6. Time resolved measurement of laser-ablated particles by LAPXAS (Laser Plasma Soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Atsumi; Yoda, Osamu; Murakami, Kouichi

    1999-01-01

    The time- and spatially-resolved properties of laser ablated carbon, boron and silicon particles were measured by LAPXAS (Laser Plasma Soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy). The maximum speed of positively charged ions is higher than those of neutral atoms and negatively charged ions. The spatial distributions of the laser-ablated particles in the localized rare gas environment were measured. In helium gas environment, by the helium cloud generated on the top of ablation plume depressed the ablation plume. There is no formation of silicon clusters till 15 μs after laser ablation in the argon gas environment. (author)

  7. A simulation package for soft X-ray and EUV spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas in different environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G Y; Li, F; Wang, F L; Zhong, J Y; Zhao, G; Wu, Y

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic researches in astronomy are significantly dependent on theoretical modelling methods, such as Chianti, Xstar, Cloudy etc. Recently, a different research community - Laboratory Astrophysics tries to benchmark these theoretical models or simulate the astrophysical phenomenon directly in conditions accessed in ground laboratory. Those unavoidable differences between the astrophysical objects and laboratory provide a need for a self-consistent model to make a bridge for the two cases. So we setup a visualized simulation package for soft X-ray and EUV spectroscopy in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  8. Application of laser fluorescence spectroscopy by two-photon excitation into atomic hydrogen density measurement in reactive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, Toshinori; Takeda, Kazuyuki; Kim, Hee Je; Park, Won Zoo; Muraoka, Katsunori; Akazaki, Masanori; Okada, Tatsuo; Maeda, Mitsuo.

    1990-01-01

    Density profiles of hydrogen atoms in reactive plasmas of hydrogen and methane gases were measured, for the first time, using the laser fluorescence spectroscopy by two-photon excitation of Lyman beta transition and observation at the Balmer alpha radiation. Absolute density determinations showed atomic densities of around 3 x 10 17 m -3 , or the degree of dissociation to be 10 -4 . Densities along the axis perpendicular to the RF electrode showed peaked profiles, which were due to the balance of atomic hydrogen production by electron impact on molecules against diffusion loss to the walls. (author)

  9. Implications of electronic short circuiting in plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells on electrode performance evaluation by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, B.D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Sciences Lane, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    Electronic short circuiting of the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arising from flaws in the plasma spray fabrication process has been found to have a significant effect on the perceived performance of the electrodes, as evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of a short circuit has been found to lead to the underestimation of the electrode polarization resistance (R{sub p}) and hence an overestimation of electrode performance. The effect is particularly noticeable when electrolyte resistance is relatively high, for example during low to intermediate temperature operation, leading to an obvious deviation from the expected Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of R{sub p}. A method is developed for determining the real electrode performance from measurements of various cell properties, and strategies for eliminating the occurrence of short circuiting in plasma sprayed cells are identified. (author)

  10. Implications of electronic short circuiting in plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells on electrode performance evaluation by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B. D.; Kesler, O.

    Electronic short circuiting of the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arising from flaws in the plasma spray fabrication process has been found to have a significant effect on the perceived performance of the electrodes, as evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The presence of a short circuit has been found to lead to the underestimation of the electrode polarization resistance (R p) and hence an overestimation of electrode performance. The effect is particularly noticeable when electrolyte resistance is relatively high, for example during low to intermediate temperature operation, leading to an obvious deviation from the expected Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of R p. A method is developed for determining the real electrode performance from measurements of various cell properties, and strategies for eliminating the occurrence of short circuiting in plasma sprayed cells are identified.

  11. First measurements of the temporal evolution of the plasma density in HiPIMS discharges using THz time domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Steffen M.; Hecimovic, Ante; Tsankov, Tsanko V.; Luggenhölscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the novel technique of THz time domain spectroscopy has been applied to obtain time-resolved measurements of the plasma density in the active zone of a HiPIMS discharge with a titanium target. The obtained peak values are in the range of 1012-1013 cm-3 for discharge current densities of 1-4 A cm-2 at 0.5 and 2 Pa argon pressure. The measured densities show good correlation with the discharge current and voltage and the intensity of various atomic and ionic lines. The well known phases of the discharge have been identified and related to the variation of the electron density. The measurement results show that the plasma density remains nearly constant during the runaway/self-sputtering phase. Based on that, it is conjectured that singly charged titanium ions are the dominant ion species during this phase.

  12. Space-resolved characterization of high frequency atmospheric-pressure plasma in nitrogen, applying optical emission spectroscopy and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Ruhrmann, Cornelia; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Averaged plasma parameters such as electron distribution function and electron density are determined by characterization of high frequency (2.4 GHz) nitrogen plasma using both experimental methods, namely optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and microphotography, and numerical simulation. Both direct and step-wise electron-impact excitation of nitrogen emissions are considered. The determination of space-resolved electron distribution function, electron density, rate constant for electron-impact dissociation of nitrogen molecule and the production of nitrogen atoms, applying the same methods, is discussed. Spatial distribution of intensities of neutral nitrogen molecule and nitrogen molecular ion from the microplasma is imaged by a CCD camera. The CCD images are calibrated using the corresponding emissions measured by absolutely calibrated OES, and are then subjected to inverse Abel transformation to determine space-resolved intensities and other parameters. The space-resolved parameters are compared, respectively, with the averaged parameters, and an agreement between them is established. (paper)

  13. Understanding of impurity behavior in SST-1 plasmas using visible spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchanda, Ranjana; Ramaiya, Nilam; Chowdhuri, Malay Bikas; Banerjee, Santanu; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Studies of impurity behavior in SST-1 plasma have been carried out using visible spectroscopic systems installed on the tokomak. This has been carried out using a low resolution and broadband survey spectrometer covering a 350-900 nm wavelength range, 0.5 m visible spectrometer having 600 and 1200 grooves/mm grating coupled with CCD camera and interference filter and photomultiplier (PMT) tube based systems. Temporal evolution of the hydrogen (H α , H β ) and impurities emissions like, C II, C III, O I, O II, O III, O V and a visible Continuum at 536.0 nm have been monitored using the PMT based system to understand impurity charge state evolution during plasma discharges. All systems are absolutely calibrated for impurity influx and plasma parameter estimations. Observed spectral lines in the visible range have been identified to recognize the presence of various impurities in the SST-1 plasmas. Comparison of impurities emission has been made for different plasma currents and toroidal magnetic fields. An analysis has been carried out to understand the impurities activities in plasmas of SST-1 tokomak in presence and absence of installed plasma facing components (PFC). Significantly higher carbon emissions have been observed indicating higher carbon content in the plasma with graphite PFCs installed. (author)

  14. Soft X-ray spectroscopy of high-Z ions in a cool dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presnyakov, L.P.; Shevelko, A.P.; Uskov, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Spectra of multiply-charged ions with one and two electrons are investigated when a laser-produced plasma interacts with a solid obstacle. The level population densities of the Mg ions, recombining in the region of dense cool plasma near the obstacle, are studied both experimentally and theoretically. Values of the gain coefficient are calculated for the case of carbon ions. (orig.)

  15. Structural changes in plasma membranes prepared from irradiated Chinese hamster V79 cells as revealed by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, S.P.; Sonwalkar, N.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the integrity of plasma membranes isolated from Chinese hamster V79 cells was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. Plasma membranes of control V79 cells show transitions between -10 and 5 degree C (low-temperature transition), 10 and 22 degree C (middle-temperature transition), and 32 and 40 degree C (high-temperature transition). Irradiation (5 Gy) alters these transitions markedly. First, the low-temperature transition shifts to higher temperature (onset and completion temperatures 4 and 14 degree C). Second, the middle-temperature transition shifts up to the range of about 20-32 degree C, but the width remains unchanged. Third, the higher temperature transition broadens markedly and shifts to the range of about 15-40 degree C. Protein secondary structure as determined by least-squares analysis of the amide I bands shows 36% total helix, 55% total beta-strand, and 9% turn plus undefined for control plasma membrane proteins. Plasma membrane proteins of irradiated V79 cells show an increase in total helix (40 and 45% at 5 and 10 Gy, respectively) and a decrease in the total beta-strand (48 and 44% at 5 and 10 Gy, respectively) structures. The qualitative analysis of the Raman features of plasma membranes and model compounds in the 1600 cm-1 region, assigned to tyrosine groups, revealed that irradiation alters the microenvironment of these groups. We conclude that the radiation dose used in the survival range of Chinese hamster V79 cells can cause damage to plasma membrane proteins without detectable lipid peroxidation, and that the altered proteins react differently with lipids, yielding a shift in the thermal transition properties

  16. Multielement analytical procedure coupling INAA, ICP-MS and ICP-AES: Application to the determination of major and trace elements in sediment samples of the Bouregreg river (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounouira, H.; CEA - CNRS/UMR, Centre de Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette; Choukri, A.; Hakam, O.K.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.; Delmas, R.; Mariet, C.; Chakiri, S.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were used for the determination of major and trace elements in sediment samples of the Bouregreg river (Morocco). The reliability of the results was checked, by using IAEA Soil-7 certified reference material. Results obtained by the three techniques were compared to control digestions efficiencies. A general good agreement was found between INAA and both ICP-MS and ICP-AES after alkaline fusion (ICPf). The ICP-MS technique used after acid attack (ICPa) was satisfactory for a few elements. A principal component analysis (PCA) has been used for analyzing the variability of concentrations, and defining the most influential sites with respect to the general variation trends. Three groups of elements could be distinguished. For these groups a normalization of concentrations to the central element concentration (that means Mn, Si or Al) is proposed. (author)

  17. Transversely Excited Atmospheric CO2 Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy for the Detection of Heavy Metals in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumaeni, A.; Sugito, H.; Setia Budi, W.; Yoyo Wardaya, A.

    2018-01-01

    A rapid detection of heavy metals in soil was presented by the metal-assisted gas plasma method using specific characteristics of a pulsed, transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser. The soil particles were placed in a hole made of acrylic plate. The sample was covered by a to prevent the soil particles from being blown off. The mesh also functioned to initiate a luminous plasma. When a TEA CO2 laser (1500 mJ, 200 ns) was focused on the soil sample, passing through the metal mesh, some of the laser energy was used to generate the gas plasma on the mesh surface, and the remaining laser energy was employed to ablate the soil particles. The fine, ablated soil particles moved into the gas plasma region to be dissociated and excited. Using this technique, analysis can be made with reduced sample pretreatment, and therefore a rapid analysis can be performed efficiently. The results proved that the signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the emission spectral lines is much better for the case of the present method (mesh method) compared to the case of standard laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using the pellet method. Rapid detection of heavy metal elements in soil has been successfully carried out. The detection limits of Cu and Hg in soil were estimated to be 3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The present method has good potential for rapid and sensitive detection of heavy metals in soil samples.

  18. Transition probabilities for lines of Cr II, Na II and Sb I by laser produced plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A. M.; Ortiz, M.; Campos, J.

    1995-01-01

    Absolute transition probabilities for lines of CR II, Na II and Sb I were determined by emission spectroscopy of laser induced plasmas. the plasma was produced focusing the emission of a pulsed Nd-Yag laser on solid samples containing the atom in study. the light arising from the plasma region was collected by and spectrometer. the detector used was a time-resolved optical multichannel analyzer (OMA III EG and G). The wavelengths of the measured transitions range from 2000 sto 4100 A. The spectral resolution of the system was 0. 2 A. The method can be used in insulators materials as Cl Na crystals and in metallic samples as Al-Cr and Sn-Sn alloys. to avoid self-absorption effects the alloys were made with low Sb or Cr content. Relative transition probabilities have been determined from measurements of emission-line intensities and were placed on an absolute scale by using, where possible, accurate experimental lifetime values form the literature or theoretical data. From these measurements, values for plasma temperature (8000-24000 K), electron densities (∼∼ 10''16 cm ''-3) and self-absorption coefficients have been obtained. (Author) 56 refs

  19. Transition probabilities for lines of Cr II, Na II and Sb I by laser produced plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.M.; Ortiz, M.; Campos, J.

    1995-09-01

    Absolute transition probabilities for lines of Cr II, Na II and Sb I were determined by emission spectroscopy of laser induced plasmas. The plasma was produced focusing the emission of a pulsed Nd-Yag laser on solid samples containing the atom in study. The light arising from the plasma region was collected by and spectrometer. the detector used was a time-resolved optical multichannel analyzer (OMA III EG and G). The wavelengths of the measured transitions range from 2000 to 4100 A. The spectral resolution of the system was 0.2 A. The method can be used in insulators materials as Cl Na crystals and in metallic samples as Al-Cr and Sn-Sb alloys. To avoid self-absorption effects the alloys were made with low Sb or Cr content. Relative transition probabilities have been determined from measurements of emission-line intensities and were placed on an absolute scale by using, where possible, accurate experimental lifetime values form the literature or theoretical data. From these measurements, values for plasma temperature (8000-24000K), electron densities (approx 10 ''16 cm''-3) and self-absorption coefficients have been obtained

  20. Evaluation of Penicillium digitatum sterilization using non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Takehiro; Ebizuka, Noboru; Takeda, Keigo; Ohta, Takayuki; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Kawase, Kodo; Ito, Masafumi; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2011-10-01

    Recently, the plasma sterilization has attracted much attention as a new sterilization technique that takes the place of spraying agricultural chemicals. The conventional methods for sterilization evaluation, was demanded to culture the samples for several days after plasma treatment. Then, we focused on Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). At the THz region, vibrational modes of biological molecules and fingerprint spectra of biologically-relevant molecules were also observed. In this study, our purpose was measurement of the fingerprint spectrum of the Penicillium digitatum (PD) spore and establishment of sterilization method by THz-TDS. The sample was 40mg/ml PD spore suspensions which dropped on cover glass. The atmospheric pressure plasma generated under the conditions which Ar gas flow was 3slm, and alternating voltage of 6kV was applied. The samples were exposed the plasma from 10mm distance for 10 minutes. We could obtain the fingerprint spectrum of the PD spore from 0.5 to 0.9THz. This result indicated the possibility of in-situ evaluation for PD sterilization using THz-TDS.

  1. Development of routines for simultaneous in situ chemical composition and stable Si isotope ratio analysis by femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, Daniel A., E-mail: dfrick@gfz-potsdam.de [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Schuessler, Jan A. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Blanckenburg, Friedhelm von [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Geological Science, Freie Universität Berlin, 12249 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-28

    Stable metal (e.g. Li, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo) and metalloid (B, Si, Ge) isotope ratio systems have emerged as geochemical tracers to fingerprint distinct physicochemical reactions. These systems are relevant to many Earth Science questions. The benefit of in situ microscale analysis using laser ablation (LA) over bulk sample analysis is to use the spatial context of different phases in the solid sample to disclose the processes that govern their chemical and isotopic compositions. However, there is a lack of in situ analytical routines to obtain a samples' stable isotope ratio together with its chemical composition. Here, we evaluate two novel analytical routines for the simultaneous determination of the chemical and Si stable isotope composition (δ{sup 30}Si) on the micrometre scale in geological samples. In both routines, multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) is combined with femtosecond-LA, where stable isotope ratios are corrected for mass bias using standard-sample-bracketing with matrix-independent calibration. The first method is based on laser ablation split stream (LASS), where the laser aerosol is split and introduced simultaneously into both the MC-ICP-MS and a quadrupole ICP-MS. The second method is based on optical emission spectroscopy using direct observation of the MC-ICP-MS plasma (LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES). Both methods are evaluated using international geological reference materials. Accurate and precise Si isotope ratios were obtained with an uncertainty typically better than 0.23‰, 2SD, δ{sup 30}Si. With both methods major element concentrations (e.g., Na, Al, Si, Mg, Ca) can be simultaneously determined. However, LASS-ICP-MS is superior over LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES, which is limited by its lower sensitivity. Moreover, LASS-ICP-MS offers trace element analysis down to the μg g{sup −1}-range for more than 28 elements due to lower limits of detection, and with typical uncertainties better than 15%. For in situ

  2. Development of routines for simultaneous in situ chemical composition and stable Si isotope ratio analysis by femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, Daniel A.; Schuessler, Jan A.; Blanckenburg, Friedhelm von

    2016-01-01

    Stable metal (e.g. Li, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo) and metalloid (B, Si, Ge) isotope ratio systems have emerged as geochemical tracers to fingerprint distinct physicochemical reactions. These systems are relevant to many Earth Science questions. The benefit of in situ microscale analysis using laser ablation (LA) over bulk sample analysis is to use the spatial context of different phases in the solid sample to disclose the processes that govern their chemical and isotopic compositions. However, there is a lack of in situ analytical routines to obtain a samples' stable isotope ratio together with its chemical composition. Here, we evaluate two novel analytical routines for the simultaneous determination of the chemical and Si stable isotope composition (δ 30 Si) on the micrometre scale in geological samples. In both routines, multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) is combined with femtosecond-LA, where stable isotope ratios are corrected for mass bias using standard-sample-bracketing with matrix-independent calibration. The first method is based on laser ablation split stream (LASS), where the laser aerosol is split and introduced simultaneously into both the MC-ICP-MS and a quadrupole ICP-MS. The second method is based on optical emission spectroscopy using direct observation of the MC-ICP-MS plasma (LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES). Both methods are evaluated using international geological reference materials. Accurate and precise Si isotope ratios were obtained with an uncertainty typically better than 0.23‰, 2SD, δ 30 Si. With both methods major element concentrations (e.g., Na, Al, Si, Mg, Ca) can be simultaneously determined. However, LASS-ICP-MS is superior over LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES, which is limited by its lower sensitivity. Moreover, LASS-ICP-MS offers trace element analysis down to the μg g −1 -range for more than 28 elements due to lower limits of detection, and with typical uncertainties better than 15%. For in situ

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for the analysis of xenobiotic metabolites in rat urine: application to the metabolites of 4-bromoaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J K; Lindon, J C; Scarfe, G; Wilson, I D; Abou-Shakra, F; Castro-Perez, J; Eaton, A; Preece, S

    2000-02-01

    The use of HPLC-ICP-MS for the profiling and quantification of the metabolites of 4-bromoaniline following reversed-phase gradient chromatography is demonstrated. In the 0-8 h post dose sample, which contained the highest concentrations of compound-related material, it was possible to detect at least 16 metabolites of the compound. The methodology described offers the possibility of obtaining metabolite profiles and quantification for drugs and other xenobiotics in biological fluids and excreta without the requirement for radiolabelled tracers.

  4. Vacuum UV spectroscopy of armor erosion from plasma gun disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockett, P.D.; Gahl, J.M.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Arkhipov, K.; Bakhtin, V.; Toporkov, D.; Ovchinnokov, I.; Kuznetsov, V.E.; Titov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive simulations of tokamak disruptions have provided a picture of material erosion that is limited by the transfer of energy from the incident plasma to the armor solid surface through a dense vapor shield. Two transmission grating vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrographs were designed and utilized to study the plasma-material interface in plasma gun simulation experiments. Target materials included POCO graphite, ATJ graphite, boron nitride and plasma-sprayed tungsten. Detailed spectra were recorded with a spatial resolution of ca. 0.7mm resolution on VIKA at Efremov and on 2MK-200 at Troitsk. Time-resolved data with 40-200ns resolution were then recorded along with the same spatial resolution on 2MK-200. The VIKA plasma gun directly illuminated a target with a high-intensity plasma pulse of 2-100MJm -2 with low-energy ions of ca. 100eV. The 2MK-200 plasma gun illuminated the target via a magnetic cusp that permitted only deuterium to pass with energies of ca. 1keV, but which produced a fairly low intensity of 2MJm -2 . Power densities on target ranged from 10 7 to 10 8 Wcm -2 . Emitted spectra were recorded from 15 to 450A over a distance from 0 to 7cm above the armor target surface. The data from both plasma gun facilities demonstrated that the hottest plasma region was sitting several millimeters above the armor tile surface. This apparently constituted the absorption region, which confirmed past computer simulations. Spectra indicated both the species and ionization level that were being ablated from the target, demonstrating impurity content, and showing plasma ablation velocity. Graphite samples clearly showed CV lines as well as impurity lines from O V and O VI. The BN tiles produced textbook examples of BIV and BV, and extensive NIV, V and VI lines. These are being compared with radiation-hydrodynamic calculations. (orig.)

  5. Observation of forbidden (E2) lines in the ultraviolet spectra of Ca II, Sr II, and Ba II by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doidge, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Forbidden (electric quadrupole, E2) transitions of the type ns 2 S 1/2 –nd 2 D 3/2 and ns 2 S 1/2 –nd 2 D 5/2 in the ultraviolet spectra of singly ionized Ca, Sr, and Ba (with n = 4, 5 or 6 for Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively) have been observed in the emission spectrum of an inductively coupled argon plasma. Wavelengths and wavenumbers of the six lines are reported and the values are in good agreement with those expected from literature data for the energy levels involved. - Highlights: • Wavelengths measured using commercially available ICP emission spectrometer • First wavelength and wavenumber measurements of some E2 lines of Ba +, Ca +, Sr + • Evidence for small plasma shifts in the wavenumbers of Ba + and Sr +

  6. A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy dual-mode plasma spectrometer for measurements of environmentally important trace heavy metals: Initial test with elemental Hg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan T.; Wang, Chuji

    2012-09-01

    A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OES-CRDS) dual-mode plasma spectrometer is described. A compact, low-power, atmospheric argon microwave plasma torch (MPT) is utilized as the emission source when the spectrometer is operating in the OES mode. The same MPT serves as the atomization source for ringdown measurements in the CRDS mode. Initial demonstration of the instrument is carried out by observing OES of multiple elements including mercury (Hg) in the OES mode and by measuring absolute concentrations of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p 3P0 in the CRDS mode, in which a palm-size diode laser operating at a single wavelength 405 nm is incorporated in the spectrometer as the light source. In the OES mode, the detection limit for Hg is determined to be 44 parts per 109 (ppb). A strong radiation trapping effect on emission measurements of Hg at 254 nm is observed when the Hg solution concentration is higher than 50 parts per 106 (ppm). The radiation trapping effect suggests that two different transition lines of Hg at 253.65 nm and 365.01 nm be selected for emission measurements in lower (50 ppm), respectively. In the CRDS mode, the detection limit of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p 3P0 is achieved to be 2.24 parts per 1012 (ppt) when the plasma is operating at 150 W with sample gas flow rate of 480 mL min-1; the detection limit corresponds to 50 ppm in Hg sample solution. Advantage of this novel spectrometer has two-fold, it has a large measurement dynamic range, from a few ppt to hundreds ppm and the CRDS mode can serve as calibration for the OES mode as well as high sensitivity measurements. Measurements of seven other elements, As, Cd, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, and Sr, using the OES mode are also carried out with detection limits of 1100, 33, 30, 144, 576, 94, and 2 ppb, respectively. Matrix effect in the presence of other elements on Hg measurements has been found to increase the detection limit to 131 ppb. These elements in lower

  7. Fundamental and applied measurements in ICP MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Julian Robert

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental and applied aspects of ICP-MS have been investigated to gain an increased understanding of the technique and improve on its analytical capabilities. Dissociation temperatures of polyatomic ions were calculated using a double-focusing sector instrument, to obtain more reliable mass spectral data with controlled vapour introduction via a Dreschel bottle to allow accurate calculation of the ingredients in the plasma. The equilibrium temperature for the plasma, operated at 1280 W calculated using CO + and C 2 + as the thermometric probes, was c.a. 5800 - 7400 K, while using ArO + and ArC + as the thermometric probes the temperature calculated was c.a. 2000 - 7000 K. Calculated dissociation temperatures were used to elucidate the site of formation of these ions. Results confirmed that strongly bound ions such as CO + and C 2 + were formed in the plasma whereas weakly bound ions such as ArO + and ArC + were formed in the interface region due to gross deviation of the calculated temperatures from those expected for a system in thermal equilibrium. The use of helium gas in a hexapole collision cell attenuated the signals of ArH + Ar + , ArO + , ArC + , ArCl + and Ar 2 + allowing improved determination of 39 K + , 40 Ca + , 56 Fe + , 52 Cr + , 75 As + and 80 Se + in standard solutions. The use of the hexapole collision cell also resulted in an enhancement of analyte signals due to the thermalisation of the ion beam. The ion kinetic energy of ions sampled from the plasma and those sampled from the skimmer cone were determined using a modified lens stack to assess the significance for memory effects of material deposited on the skimmer cone. The most probable kinetic energy of Be + ions sampled from the skimmer cone was found to be 2.4 eV, which was considerably lower than the most probable kinetic energy of Be + ions sampled from the plasma, which was found to be 9.5 eV. The low kinetic energy of the ions deposited on the skimmer cone means they will only

  8. Fundamental and applied measurements in ICP MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Julian Robert

    2002-07-01

    Fundamental and applied aspects of ICP-MS have been investigated to gain an increased understanding of the technique and improve on its analytical capabilities. Dissociation temperatures of polyatomic ions were calculated using a double-focusing sector instrument, to obtain more reliable mass spectral data with controlled vapour introduction via a Dreschel bottle to allow accurate calculation of the ingredients in the plasma. The equilibrium temperature for the plasma, operated at 1280 W calculated using CO{sup +} and C{sub 2}{sup +} as the thermometric probes, was c.a. 5800 - 7400 K, while using ArO{sup +} and ArC{sup +} as the thermometric probes the temperature calculated was c.a. 2000 - 7000 K. Calculated dissociation temperatures were used to elucidate the site of formation of these ions. Results confirmed that strongly bound ions such as CO{sup +} and C{sub 2}{sup +} were formed in the plasma whereas weakly bound ions such as ArO{sup +} and ArC{sup +} were formed in the interface region due to gross deviation of the calculated temperatures from those expected for a system in thermal equilibrium. The use of helium gas in a hexapole collision cell attenuated the signals of ArH{sup +} Ar{sup +}, ArO{sup +}, ArC{sup +}, ArCl{sup +} and Ar{sub 2}{sup +} allowing improved determination of {sup 39}K{sup +}, {sup 40}Ca{sup +}, {sup 56}Fe{sup +}, {sup 52}Cr{sup +}, {sup 75}As{sup +} and {sup 80}Se{sup +} in standard solutions. The use of the hexapole collision cell also resulted in an enhancement of analyte signals due to the thermalisation of the ion beam. The ion kinetic energy of ions sampled from the plasma and those sampled from the skimmer cone were determined using a modified lens stack to assess the significance for memory effects of material deposited on the skimmer cone. The most probable kinetic energy of Be{sup +} ions sampled from the skimmer cone was found to be 2.4 eV, which was considerably lower than the most probable kinetic energy of Be{sup +} ions

  9. Biocompatible Polymer Nanoformulation To Improve the Release and Safety of a Drug Mimic Molecule Detectable via ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Talamini, Laura; Violatto, Martina Bruna; Giangregorio, Paola; Sponchioni, Mattia; Morbidelli, Massimo; Salmona, Mario; Bigini, Paolo; Moscatelli, Davide

    2017-01-03

    Fluorescent poly(ε-caprolactone)-based nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized and successfully loaded with a titanium organometallic compound as a mimic of a water-insoluble drug. The nature of this nanovector enabled us to combine the quantification of the metal in tissues after systemic administration in healthy immunocompetent mice by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) followed by the visualization of NPs in organ sections by confocal microscopy. This innovative method of nanodrug screening has enabled us to elucidate the crucial parameters of their kinetics. The organometallic compound is a good mimic of most anticancer drugs, and this approach is an interesting starting point to design the relevance of a broad range of nanoformulations in terms of safety and targeted delivery of the cargoes.

  10. Forensic comparative glass analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Candice M.; Powell, Joseph; Steele, Katie L.; Sigman, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Glass samples of four types commonly encountered in forensic examinations have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the purpose of discriminating between samples originating from different sources. Some of the glass sets were also examined by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Refractive index (RI) measurements were also made on all glass samples and the refractive index data was combined with the LIBS and with the LA-ICP-MS data to enhance discrimination. The glass types examined included float glass taken from front and side automobile windows (examined on the non-float side), automobile headlamp glass, automobile side-mirror glass and brown beverage container glass. The largest overall discrimination was obtained by employing RI data in combination with LA-ICP-MS (98.8% discrimination of 666 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence), while LIBS in combination with RI provided a somewhat lower discrimination (87.2% discrimination of 1122 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence). Samples of side-mirror glass were less discriminated by LIBS due to a larger variance in emission intensities, while discrimination of side-mirror glass by LA-ICP-MS remained high

  11. X-ray spectroscopy of plasmas created by the Nike KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Deniz, A.; Hardgrove, J.; Seely, J.; Brown, C.; Feldman, U.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Bodner, S.; Obenschain, S.; Lehmberg, R.; McLean, E.; Pronko, M.; Sethian, J.; Stamper, J.; Schmitt, A.; Sullivan, C.; Holland, G.; Laming, M.

    1997-01-01

    The x-ray emission from plasmas created by the Naval Research Laboratory Nike KrF laser was characterized using spectroscopic instruments. The targets were thin foils of aluminum and titanium and were irradiated by laser energies in the range 100 endash 1500 J. Using a spherical-crystal imaging spectrometer operating in the 1 endash 2 keV x-ray region, the density, temperature, and opacity of aluminum plasmas were determined with a spatial resolution of 10 μm in the direction perpendicular to the target surface. The spectral line ratios indicated that the aluminum plasmas were relatively dense, cool, and optically thick near the target surface

  12. Atomic hydrogen and diatomic titanium-monoxide molecular spectroscopy in laser-induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parigger, Christian G.; Woods, Alexander C.

    2017-03-01

    This article gives a brief review of experimental studies of hydrogen Balmer series emission spectra. Ongoing research aims to evaluate early plasma evolution following optical breakdown in laboratory air. Of interest is as well laser ablation of metallic titanium and characterization of plasma evolution. Emission of titanium monoxide is discussed together with modeling of diatomic spectra to infer temperature. The behavior of titanium particles in plasma draws research interests ranging from the modeling of stellar atmospheres to the enhancement of thin film production via pulsed laser deposition.

  13. Multielemental analysis of Korean geological reference samples by INAA, ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoki Shirai; Hiroki Takahashi; Yuta Yokozuka; Mitsuru Ebihara; Meiramkhan Toktaganov; Shun Sekimoto

    2015-01-01

    Six Korean geological reference samples (KB-1, KGB-1, KT-1, KD-1, KG-1 and KG-2) prepared by Korea Institutes of Geoscience and Mineral Resources were analyzed by using INAA, ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Some elements could be determined by both INAA and non-INAA methods (ICP-AES and ICP-MS), and these data are consistent with each other. This study confirms that a combination of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is comparable to INAA in determining a wide range of major, minor and trace elements in geological materials. (author)

  14. Comparison of MP AES and ICP-MS for analysis of principal and selected trace elements in nitric acid digests of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Stefan; Sjöberg, Viktor; Ogar, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrogen as plasma gas for microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MP AES) is an interesting development in analytical science since the running cost can be significantly reduced in comparison to the inductively coupled argon plasma. Here, we evaluate the performance of the Agilent 4100 MP AES instrument for the analysis of principal metals (Ca, K, Mg, and Na), lithogenic metals (Al, Fe, and Mn) and selected trace metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in nitric acid plant digests. The digests were prepared by microwave-assisted dissolution of dry plant material from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in concentrated nitric acid. Comparisons are made with analysis of the same solutions with ICP-MS (Agilent 7500cx) using the octopole reaction system (ORS) in the collision mode for As, Fe, and V. The limits of detection were usually in the low µg L(-1) range and all principal and lithogenic metals were successfully determined with the MP AES and provided almost identical results with the ICP-MS. The same applies for the selected trace metals except for As, Co and Mo where the concentrations were below the detection limit with the MP AES. For successful analysis we recommend that (i) only atom lines are used, (ii) ionization is minimized (e.g. addition of CsNO3) and (iii) the use of internal standards should be considered to resolve spectral interferences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Forensic analysis of printing inks using tandem Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subedi, Kiran; Trejos, Tatiana; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or LIBS, can be used for the chemical characterization of materials of forensic interest to discriminate between source materials originating from different sources and also for the association of materials known to originate from the same source. In this study, a tandem LIBS/LA-ICP-MS system that combines the benefits of both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS was evaluated for the characterization of samples of printing inks (toners, inkjets, intaglio and offset.). The performance of both laser sampling methods is presented. A subset of 9 black laser toners, 10 colored (CMYK) inkjet samples, 12 colored (CMYK) offset samples and 12 intaglio inks originating from different manufacturing sources were analyzed to evaluate the discrimination capability of the tandem method. These samples were selected because they presented a very similar elemental profile by LA-ICP-MS. Although typical discrimination between different ink sources is found to be > 99% for a variety of inks when only LA-ICP-MS was used for the analysis, additional discrimination was achieved by combining the elemental results from the LIBS analysis to the LA-ICP-MS analysis in the tandem technique, enhancing the overall discrimination capability of the individual laser ablation methods. The LIBS measurements of the Ca, Fe, K and Si signals, in particular, improved the discrimination for this specific set of different ink samples previously shown to exhibit very similar LA-ICP-MS elemental profiles. The combination of these two techniques in a single setup resulted in better discrimination of the printing inks with two distinct fingerprint spectra, providing information from atomic/ionic emissions and isotopic composition (m/z) for each ink sample. - Highlights: • The optimization of the parameters for LA-ICP-MS and LIBS in a tandem experiment are presented. • The analytical figures of merit for the tandem experiment for data collected simultaneously, are presented. • A

  16. Forensic analysis of printing inks using tandem Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, Kiran, E-mail: ksube001@fiu.edu; Trejos, Tatiana, E-mail: trejost@fiu.edu; Almirall, José, E-mail: almirall@fiu.edu

    2015-01-01

    Elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or LIBS, can be used for the chemical characterization of materials of forensic interest to discriminate between source materials originating from different sources and also for the association of materials known to originate from the same source. In this study, a tandem LIBS/LA-ICP-MS system that combines the benefits of both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS was evaluated for the characterization of samples of printing inks (toners, inkjets, intaglio and offset.). The performance of both laser sampling methods is presented. A subset of 9 black laser toners, 10 colored (CMYK) inkjet samples, 12 colored (CMYK) offset samples and 12 intaglio inks originating from different manufacturing sources were analyzed to evaluate the discrimination capability of the tandem method. These samples were selected because they presented a very similar elemental profile by LA-ICP-MS. Although typical discrimination between different ink sources is found to be > 99% for a variety of inks when only LA-ICP-MS was used for the analysis, additional discrimination was achieved by combining the elemental results from the LIBS analysis to the LA-ICP-MS analysis in the tandem technique, enhancing the overall discrimination capability of the individual laser ablation methods. The LIBS measurements of the Ca, Fe, K and Si signals, in particular, improved the discrimination for this specific set of different ink samples previously shown to exhibit very similar LA-ICP-MS elemental profiles. The combination of these two techniques in a single setup resulted in better discrimination of the printing inks with two distinct fingerprint spectra, providing information from atomic/ionic emissions and isotopic composition (m/z) for each ink sample. - Highlights: • The optimization of the parameters for LA-ICP-MS and LIBS in a tandem experiment are presented. • The analytical figures of merit for the tandem experiment for data collected simultaneously, are presented. • A

  17. Electron beam effects on the spectroscopy of multiply charged ions in plasma focus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, J.; Clark, R.E.H.; Faenov, A.Y.; Karpinski, L.; Pikuz, S.A.; Romanova, V.M.; Sadowski, M.; Scholz, M.; Szydlowski, A.

    1999-01-01

    Argon-hydrogen mixture plasma focus experiments performed at the Warsaw Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion show detailed space resolved spectra for Ar K-shell satellite lines up to F-like Ar and K-alpha of Ar. These transitions originating from autoionizing levels are caused by collisions of ions with the energetic electron beams which are created by the constrictions of the plasma column due to the development of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. A collisional-radiative model was constructed using a non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution consisting of a thermal Maxwellian part plus a Gaussian part to represent the high-energy electron beam. The shapes of the observed satellite structures are consistent with the calculated spectrum for electron temperatures between 20 and 230 eV, and beam densities of about 10 -3 times the plasma electron density. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Electron beam effects on the spectroscopy of multiply charged ions in plasma focus experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J. [UCLA Plasma Physics Laboratory, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Clark, R.E.H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Faenov, A.Y. [MISDC, NPO ' VNIIFTRI' , Mendeleevo, Moscow region, 141570 (Russian Federation); Karpinski, L. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Pikuz, S.A.; Romanova, V.M. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sadowski, M. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk (Poland); Scholz, M.; Szydlowski, A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland)

    1999-05-01

    Argon-hydrogen mixture plasma focus experiments performed at the Warsaw Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion show detailed space resolved spectra for Ar K-shell satellite lines up to F-like Ar and K-alpha of Ar. These transitions originating from autoionizing levels are caused by collisions of ions with the energetic electron beams which are created by the constrictions of the plasma column due to the development of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. A collisional-radiative model wasconstructed using a non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution consisting of a thermal Maxwellian part plus a Gaussian part to represent the high-energy electron beam. The shapes of the observed satellite structures are consistent with the calculated spectrum for electron temperatures between 20 and 230 eV, and beam densities of about 10{sup -3} times the plasma electron density. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Precise alignment of the collection fiber assisted by real-time plasma imaging in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motto-Ros, V., E-mail: vincent.motto-ros@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Negre, E. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); CRITT Matériaux Alsace, 19, rue de St Junien, 67305 Schiltigheim (France); Pelascini, F. [CRITT Matériaux Alsace, 19, rue de St Junien, 67305 Schiltigheim (France); Panczer, G.; Yu, J. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2014-02-01

    Improving the repeatability and the reproducibility of measurement with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is one of the actual challenging issues faced by the technique to fit the requirements of precise and accurate quantitative analysis. Among the numerous factors influencing the measurement stability in short and long terms, there are shot-to-shot and day-to-day fluctuations of the morphology of the plasma. Such fluctuations are due to the high sensitivity of laser-induced plasma to experimental conditions including properties of the sample, the laser parameters as well as properties of the ambient gas. In this paper, we demonstrate that precise alignment of the optical fiber for the collection of the plasma emission with respect to the actual morphology of the plasma assisted by real-time imaging, greatly improves the stability of LIBS measurements in short as well as in long terms. The used setup is based on a plasma imaging arrangement using a CCD camera and a real-time image processing. The obtained plasma image is displayed in a 2-dimensional frame where the position of the optical fiber is beforehand calibrated. In addition, the setup provides direct sample surface monitoring, which allows a precise control of the distance between the focusing lens and the sample surface. Test runs with a set of 8 reference samples show very high determination coefficient for calibration curves (R{sup 2} = 0.9999), and a long term repeatability and reproducibility of 4.6% (relative standard deviation) over a period of 3 months without any signal normalization. The capacity of the system to automatically correct the sample surface position for a tilted or non-regular sample surface during a surface mapping measurement is also demonstrated. - Highlights: • Automated alignment of the collection fiber by real-time plasma imaging • High level control of experimental parameters in LIBS experiments • Improvement of the short and long term stability in LIBS

  20. Precise alignment of the collection fiber assisted by real-time plasma imaging in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motto-Ros, V.; Negre, E.; Pelascini, F.; Panczer, G.; Yu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Improving the repeatability and the reproducibility of measurement with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is one of the actual challenging issues faced by the technique to fit the requirements of precise and accurate quantitative analysis. Among the numerous factors influencing the measurement stability in short and long terms, there are shot-to-shot and day-to-day fluctuations of the morphology of the plasma. Such fluctuations are due to the high sensitivity of laser-induced plasma to experimental conditions including properties of the sample, the laser parameters as well as properties of the ambient gas. In this paper, we demonstrate that precise alignment of the optical fiber for the collection of the plasma emission with respect to the actual morphology of the plasma assisted by real-time imaging, greatly improves the stability of LIBS measurements in short as well as in long terms. The used setup is based on a plasma imaging arrangement using a CCD camera and a real-time image processing. The obtained plasma image is displayed in a 2-dimensional frame where the position of the optical fiber is beforehand calibrated. In addition, the setup provides direct sample surface monitoring, which allows a precise control of the distance between the focusing lens and the sample surface. Test runs with a set of 8 reference samples show very high determination coefficient for calibration curves (R 2 = 0.9999), and a long term repeatability and reproducibility of 4.6% (relative standard deviation) over a period of 3 months without any signal normalization. The capacity of the system to automatically correct the sample surface position for a tilted or non-regular sample surface during a surface mapping measurement is also demonstrated. - Highlights: • Automated alignment of the collection fiber by real-time plasma imaging • High level control of experimental parameters in LIBS experiments • Improvement of the short and long term stability in LIBS measurements

  1. Atomic physics for fusion plasma spectroscopy; a soft x-ray study of molybdenum ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, K.B.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding the radiative patterns of the ions of heavy atoms (Z approx-gt 18) is crucial to fusion experiments. The present thesis applies ab initio, relativistic calculations of atomic data to modeling the emission of molybdenum (Z = 42) ions in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The models are compared to observations made in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak (Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology), and the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade. Experimental confirmation of these models allows confidence in calculations of the total molybdenum concentration and quantitative estimates of the total power lost from the plasmas due to molybdenum line radiation. Charge states in the plasma core (Mo 33+ to Mo 29+ ) emit strong x-ray and XUV spectra which allow benchmarking of models for the spatial distribution of highly stripped molybdenum ions; the models only achieve agreement with observations when the rates of indirect ionization and recombination processes are included in the calculation of the charge state distribution of the central molybdenum ions. The total concentration of molybdenum in the core of the plasma is found, and the total power radiated from the plasma core is computed. Observations of line emission from more highly charged molybdenum ions (Mo 36+ to Mo 34+ ) are presented. open-quotes Bulkclose quotes molybdenum charge states (Mo 25+ to Mo 23+ ) emit complicated XUV spectra from a position in the plasma near C-Mod's half radius; spatial profiles of these ions' emission are analyzed. Models for the line-emission spectra of adjacent ions (Mo 28+ to Mo 26+ ) are offered, and the accuracy and limits of ab initio energy level calculations are discussed. open-quotes Edgeclose quotes charge states (Mo 22+ to Mo 15 ) extend to the last closed magnetic flux surface of the C-Mod plasma. The strongest features from these charge states are emitted in a narrow band from ∼70 Angstrom

  2. CH spectroscopy for carbon chemical erosion analysis in high density low temperature hydrogen plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Rapp, J.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    The CH A-X molecular band is measured upon seeding the hydrogen plasma in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI [electron temperature T-e=0.1-2.5 eV and electron density n(e)=(0.5-5) X 10(20) m(-3)] with methane. Calculated inverse photon efficiencies for these conditions range from 3 up to

  3. Atomic data of Ti II from laser produced Ti plasmas by optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refaie, A.I.; Farrag, A.A.; El Sharkawy, H.; El Sherbini, T.M.

    2005-06-01

    In the present study, the emission spectrum of titanium produced from laser induced plasma has been measured at different distances from the target. The Titanium target is irradiated by using the high power Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ=1064 nm) that generates energy 750 mJ/pulse of duration rate 6 ns and repetition rate 10 Hz in vacuum and at different distances. The variation of the distance from the target affects the measured plasma parameters, i.e. the electron density, the ion temperature and the velocity distribution. The electron density increases with the increase of the distance from the target. At a distance 0.6 mm from the target it decreases to 2.28·10 16 cm -3 . The temperature increases with the distance from the get until a distance of 1 mm, after that it decreases. It is found that the plasma velocity increases with the distance then it decreases again. Then, Energy levels and transition probabilities for 3d 2 4p →(3d 2 4s + 3d 3 ) lines have been determined by measurement of emission line intensities from an optically thin laser produced plasma of Ti II in vacuum. Calculations with intermediate coupling using Hartree-Fock wave functions have been carried out in order to place the experimental data on an absolute scale and also to evaluate the lifetimes. The plasma parameters in different regions of the plasma plume have been measured and used to obtain further transition probabilities. (author)

  4. High spatial resolution in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of expanding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, J.; Epurescu, G.; Perea, A.; Gordillo-Vazquez, F.J.; Gonzalo, J.; Afonso, C.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report a technique that is able to achieve high spatial resolution in the measurement of the temporal and spectral emission characteristics of laser-induced expanding plasmas. The plasma is imaged directly onto the slit of an imaging spectrograph coupled to a time-gated intensified camera, with the plasma expansion direction being parallel to the slit extension. In this way, a single hybrid detection system is used to acquire the spatial, spectral and temporal characteristics of the laser induced plasma. The parallel acquisition approach of this technique ensures a much better spatial resolution in the expansion direction, reproducibility and data acquisition speed than commonly obtained by sequential measurements at different distances from the target. We have applied this technique to study the laser-induced plasma in LiNbO 3 and Bi 12 Ge 1 O 20 , revealing phenomena not seen in such detail with standard instruments. These include extreme line broadening up to a few nanometers accompanied by self-absorption near the target surface, as well as different ablation and expansion dynamics for the different species ejected. Overall, the high precision and wealth of quantitative information accessible with this technique open up new possibilities for the study of fundamental plasma expansion processes during pulsed laser ablation

  5. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Thai Monazite by Inductively Coupled Plasma and Nuclear Analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Ratanapra, Dusadee; Sukharn, Sumalee; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart

    2003-10-01

    The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for the determination of individual rare-earth elements (REE) was evaluated by comparison with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The accuracy and precision of INAA and ICP-AES were evaluated by using standard reference material IGS-36, a monazite concentrate. For INAA, the results were close to the certified value while ICP-AES were in good agreement except for some low concentration rare earth. The techniques were applied for the analysis of some rare earth elements in two Thai monazite samples preparing as the in-house reference material for the Rare Earth Research and Development Center, Chemistry Division, Office of Atoms for Peace. The analytical results obtained by these techniques were in good agreement with each other

  6. Quantitative X-ray spectroscopy of sodium Z-pinch plasmas for Na/ne photopumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhalter, P.G.; Mehlman, G.; Apruzese, J.P.; Newman, D.A.; Scherrer, V.E.; Young, F.C.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Hinshelwood, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Spectra of sodium K-shell x-ray emission were measured for implosions of sodium-bearing plasmas produced on the Naval Research Laboratory Gamble II pulsed-power generator. Sodium fluoride from a capillary discharge provided the initial plasma for these fast Z-pinch implosions. Spatially-resolved images, corresponding to sodium K-shell x-rays from a 3 to 4 cm long plasma column, were recorded with a curved-crystal spectrograph. Non-uniform emission was observed along this column. The diameter of the plasma along the column (1-5 mm) was determined from time-integrated pinhole-camera images, and the duration of the x-ray emission (15-23 ns FWHM) was measured with a vacuum x-ray diode. Absolute emissivities were determined for X-rays from the n=2-1 and n=3-1 transitions in Na X and Na XI. Emissivities calculated using a collisional-radiative equilibrium model were fitted to these measurements to determine plasma temperatures of 230 to 550 eV and electron densities of 0.2 to 4.0 x 10 20 cm -3 at several locations along the plasma column. The slope of the recombination continuum was also used to determine temperatures of 200 to 300 eV and 200 to 400 eV for Na X and Na XI ions, respectively. Absolute intensity measurements of the n=2-1 line emissions from Na X and Na XI, averaged over the entire plasma length, indicated shot-to-shot variations of more than a factor of two in these implosions. (author)

  7. Assessment of Laser Induced Ablation Spectroscopy (LIAS) as a method for quantitative in situ surface diagnostic in plasma environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierse, Niels Hannes Gustav

    2014-01-01

    In this work Laser Induced Ablation Spectroscopy (LIAS) is investigated as an in situ plasma surface interaction diagnostic for fusion reactors and fusion experiments. In LIAS an intensive laser pulse is used to ablate the material under investigation during plasma operation. Ablation products penetrate into the edge region of the plasma and are excited and ionized. In case of molecules and clusters additionally dissociation occurs. The emitted line radiation is observed by radiometric calibrated spectroscopy. Results from LIAS of W/C/Al/D-mixed layers and amorphous hydrocarbon layers are presented. Using a fast camera system time resolved measurements of the LIAS.process could be performed, allowing investigation of the temporal behavior of excitation, dissociation and ionization processes. For Tungsten, 90% of the LIAS light is observed within 10±3 μs after the laser pulse. In case of carbon within 20±3 μs. Additionally separation in time of LIAS emission and the LIBS emission caused by the laser pulse at the surface within single measurements was demonstrated. This allows the separate analysis of both processes in a coaxial setup which is foreseen for future experiments. The inverse photon efficiency of the Balmer D_α-emission from LIAS of a-C:D-layers was found to be [(D)/(XB)]"a"-"C":"D""L""I""A""S"_→"D_D__α=71±7. The plasma perturbation due to LIAS was investigated by laser energy density variation when ablating W/C/Al/D.mixed layers. Local plasma perturbation is found to increase with laser energy density. Balmer H_γ/H_δ - line intensity ratio measurements only show for ohmic discharges and the case of the lowest central density signs of local plasma perturbation in LIAS of graphite samples. A simple analytical model for local plasma perturbation during LIAS is introduced and evaluated. Qualitative agreement between the model and the above reported experimental observations is found; a stronger influence on local conditions is found by tungsten

  8. X-ray spectroscopy of a thin foil plasma produced by a short-pulse high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audebert, P.; Nagels, V.; Geindre, J.P.; Dorchies, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Gary, S.; Girard, F.; Shepherd, R.; Gauthier, J.C.; Chenais-Popovics, C.

    2003-01-01

    High density and temperature plasmas have been generated by irradiating thin foils of various elements with a high-energy subpicosecond laser pulse. The X-ray emission duration was studied by time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Frequency domain interferometry provided a measurement of the hydrodynamic expansion of the back of the foil as a function of time. The effect of longitudinal temperature gradients, i.e., gradients perpendicular to the surface, were decreased using very thin foil targets. Additionally, radial gradients effects, i.e., gradients parallel to the surface, were limited by using a 50 μm pinhole on target. The Al, Se and Sm spectra, recorded in the range 7.7-8 Angst. using a conical crystal spectrometer coupled to an 800 fs resolution streak camera, lasted a few picoseconds. Sm spectra showed no spectral features in this wavelength range, providing a spectrally homogeneous backlighter for future experiments. The main features of the experimental time-resolved spectra have been well reproduced with one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the free expansion of a plasma heated at a given initial temperature obtained from the expansion velocity of the rear critical surface of the plasma

  9. An optical emission spectroscopy study of the plasma generated in the DC HF CVD nucleation of diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larijani, M.M. [Nuclear Research Centre for Agriculture and Medicine, AEOI, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: mmojtahedzadeh@nrcam.org; Le Normand, F. [Groupe Surfaces-Interfaces, IPCMS, UMR 7504 CNRS, BP 20, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Cregut, O. [Groupe Surfaces-Interfaces, IPCMS, UMR 7504 CNRS, BP 20, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2007-02-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to study the plasma generated by the activation of the gas phase CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2} both by hot filaments and by a plasma discharge (DC HF CVD) during the nucleation of CVD diamond. The effects of nucleation parameters, such as methane concentration and extraction potential, on the plasma chemistry near the surface were investigated. The density of the diamond nucleation and the quality of the diamond films were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman scattering, respectively. The OES results showed that the methane concentration influenced strongly the intensity ratio of H{sub {beta}}-H{sub {alpha}} implying an increase of electron mean energy, as well as CH, CH{sup +}, C{sub 2}. A correlation between the relative increase of CH{sup +} and the diamond nucleation density was found, conversely the increase of C{sub 2} contributed to the introduction of defects in the diamond nuclei.

  10. Distribution of Fe atom density in a dc magnetron sputtering plasma source measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibagaki, K.; Nafarizal, N.; Sasaki, K.; Toyoda, H.; Iwata, S.; Kato, T.; Tsunashima, S.; Sugai, H.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetron sputtering discharge is widely used as an efficient method for thin film fabrication. In order to achieve the optimized fabrication, understanding of the kinetics in plasmas is essential. In the present work, we measured the density distribution of sputtered Fe atoms using laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A dc magnetron plasma source with a Fe target was used. An area of 20 × 2 mm in front of the target was irradiated by a tunable laser beam having a planar shape. The picture of laser-induced fluorescence on the laser beam was taken using an ICCD camera. In this way, we obtained the two-dimensional image of the Fe atom density. As a result, it has been found that the Fe atom density observed at a distance of several centimeters from the target is higher than that adjacent to the target, when the Ar gas pressure was relatively high. It is suggested from this result that some gas-phase production processes of Fe atoms are available in the plasma. This work has been performed under the 21st Century COE Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.

  11. The use of laser-induced shock wave plasma spectroscopy (LISPS) for examining physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur, E-mail: syahrun-madjid@yahoo.com; Lahna, Kurnia, E-mail: kurnialahna@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Aceh (Indonesia); Desiyana, Lydia Septa, E-mail: lydia-septa@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Aceh (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    An experimental study has been performed to examine the physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products, such as tablet, by employing an emission plasma induced by Nd-YAG laser at a low pressure of Helium gas. The hardness of tablet is one of the parameters that examined during the production process for standard quality of pharmaceutical products. In the Laser-Induced Shock Wave Plasma Spectroscopy (LISPS), the shock wave has a significant role in inducing atomic excitation. It was known that, the speed of the shock wavefront depends on the hardness of the sample, and it correlates with the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. The hardness of the tablet is examined using the intensity ratio between the ion of Mg (II) 275.2 nm and the neutral of Mg (I) 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma. It was observed that the ratio changes with respect to the change in the tablet hardness, namely the ratio is higher for the hard tablet. Besides the ratio measurements, we also measured the depth profile of a tablet by focusing 60 shots of irradiation of laser light at a fixed position on the surface of the tablet. It was found that the depth profile varies differently with the hardness of the tablet. These experiment results show that the technique of LISPS can be applied to examine the quality of pharmaceutical products.

  12. The use of laser-induced shock wave plasma spectroscopy (LISPS) for examining physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lahna, Kurnia; Desiyana, Lydia Septa

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed to examine the physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products, such as tablet, by employing an emission plasma induced by Nd-YAG laser at a low pressure of Helium gas. The hardness of tablet is one of the parameters that examined during the production process for standard quality of pharmaceutical products. In the Laser-Induced Shock Wave Plasma Spectroscopy (LISPS), the shock wave has a significant role in inducing atomic excitation. It was known that, the speed of the shock wavefront depends on the hardness of the sample, and it correlates with the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. The hardness of the tablet is examined using the intensity ratio between the ion of Mg (II) 275.2 nm and the neutral of Mg (I) 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma. It was observed that the ratio changes with respect to the change in the tablet hardness, namely the ratio is higher for the hard tablet. Besides the ratio measurements, we also measured the depth profile of a tablet by focusing 60 shots of irradiation of laser light at a fixed position on the surface of the tablet. It was found that the depth profile varies differently with the hardness of the tablet. These experiment results show that the technique of LISPS can be applied to examine the quality of pharmaceutical products.

  13. ICP MS ニヨル カンキョウ シリョウチュウ ノ コンセキ ゲンソ ノ ソクテイ 1 ICP MS ソウチ ノ サイテキ ジョウケン オヨビ ソノ ブンセキ セイド

    OpenAIRE

    "猶原,順/大西,諭/佐藤,昭彦[他]"; "ナオハラ,ジュン/オオニシ,サトシ/サトウ,アキヒコ"; "Naohara,Jun/Oonishi,Satoshi/Satou,Akihiko"

    1992-01-01

    "For determination of trace elements in environmental sample by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the optimum condition of ICP-MS was determined and the stability of ICP-MS and the precision of elements concentration were investigated. The optimum condition was the sampling depth : 13 mm and RF-power : 1.2 KW. The stability of ICP-MS was indicated little drift of ionic strength after plasma lighting, however, ICP-MS was stabilized after 40 minutes. The coefficient variati...

  14. Plasma spectroscopy diagnostics in pulsed-power X-ray radiography diode research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maron, Yitzhak; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Portillo, Salvador; Johnston, Mark D.; Rose, David Vincent; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Schamiloglu, Edl; Welch, Dale R.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Maenchen, John Eric

    2005-01-01

    Spectroscopic investigations in the visible and near UV are underway to study plasmas present in X-ray radiography diodes during the time of the electron beam propagation. These studies are being performed on the RITS-3 accelerator (5.25 MV and 120 kA) at Sandia National Laboratories using several diode configurations. The proper characterization of the plasmas occurring during the time of the X-ray pulse can lead to a greater understanding of diode behavior and X-ray spot size evolution. By studying these plasmas along with the use of selective dopants, insights into such phenomena as impedance collapse, thermal and non-thermal species behavior, charge and current neutralization, anode and cathode plasma formation and propagation, and beam/foil interactions, can be obtained. Information from line and continuum emission and absorption can give key plasma parameters such as temperatures, densities, charge states, and expansion velocities. This information is important for proper modeling and future predictive capabilities for the design and improvement of flash X-ray radiography diodes. Diagnostics include a gated, intensified multichannel plate camera combined with a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator with a multi-fiber spectral input, allowing for both temporal and spatial resolution. Recent results are presented.

  15. Silicon oxide particle formation in RF plasmas investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollenstein, Ch.; Howling, A.A.; Courteille, C.; Magni, D.; Scholz, S.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Simons, N.; de Zeeuw, W.; Schwarzenbach, W.

    1998-01-01

    In situ Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the composition of particles formed and suspended in radio-frequency discharges of silane - oxygen-argon gas mixtures. The silane gas consumption was observed by infrared absorption. The stoichiometry of the produced

  16. Optical Emission Spectroscopy of Plasma in Hybrid Pulsed Laser Deposition System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Jelínek, Miroslav; Bulíř, Jiří; Lančok, Ján; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Zelinger, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, Suppl. D (2002), s. 292-298 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010110 Keywords : optical emission spectroscopy * pulsed laser deposition * RF discharge Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  17. Standard practice for the determination of 237Np, 232Th, 235U and 238U in urine by inductively coupled plasma-Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma ray spectrometry.

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the separation and preconcentration of neptunium-237 (237Np), thorium-232 (232Th), uranium-235 (235U) and uranium-238 (238U) from urine followed by quantitation using ICP-MS. 1.2 This practice can be used to support routine bioassay programs. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDC) for this method, taking the preconcentration factor into account, are approximately 1E-2Bq for 237Np (0.38ng), 2E-6Bq for 232Th (0.50ng), 4E-5Bq for 235U (0.50ng) and 6E-6Bq for 238U (0.48ng). 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. EBIT spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions relevant to hot plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2013-05-01

    An electron beam ion trap (EBIT) is a versatile device for studying highly charged ions. We have been using two types of EBITs for the spectroscopic studies of highly charged ions. One is a high-energy device called the Tokyo-EBIT, and another is a compact low-energy device called CoBIT. Complementary use of them enables us to obtain spectroscopic data for ions over a wide charge-state range interacting with electrons over a wide energy range. In this talk, we present EBIT spectra of highly charged ions for tungsten, iron, bismuth, etc., which are relevant to hot plasmas. Tungsten is considered to be the main impurity in the ITER (the next generation nuclear fusion reactor) plasma, and thus its emission lines are important for diagnosing and controlling the ITER plasma. We have observed many previously unreported lines to supply the lack of spectroscopic data of tungsten ions. Iron is one of the main components of the solar corona, and its spectra are used to diagnose temperature, density, etc. The diagnostics is usually done by comparing observed spectra with model calculations. An EBIT can provide spectra under a well-defined condition; they are thus useful to test the model calculations. Laser-produced bismuth plasma is one of the candidates for a soft x-ray source in the water window region. An EBIT has a narrow charge state distribution; it is thus useful to disentangle the spectra of laser-produced plasma containing ions with a wide charge-state range. Performed with the support and under the auspices of the NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS09KOAJ003) and JSPS KAKENHI Number 23246165, and partly supported by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the field of Plasma Physics.

  19. Forensic analysis of printing inks using tandem Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Kiran; Trejos, Tatiana; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or LIBS, can be used for the chemical characterization of materials of forensic interest to discriminate between source materials originating from different sources and also for the association of materials known to originate from the same source. In this study, a tandem LIBS/LA-ICP-MS system that combines the benefits of both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS was evaluated for the characterization of samples of printing inks (toners, inkjets, intaglio and offset.). The performance of both laser sampling methods is presented. A subset of 9 black laser toners, 10 colored (CMYK) inkjet samples, 12 colored (CMYK) offset samples and 12 intaglio inks originating from different manufacturing sources were analyzed to evaluate the discrimination capability of the tandem method. These samples were selected because they presented a very similar elemental profile by LA-ICP-MS. Although typical discrimination between different ink sources is found to be > 99% for a variety of inks when only LA-ICP-MS was used for the analysis, additional discrimination was achieved by combining the elemental results from the LIBS analysis to the LA-ICP-MS analysis in the tandem technique, enhancing the overall discrimination capability of the individual laser ablation methods. The LIBS measurements of the Ca, Fe, K and Si signals, in particular, improved the discrimination for this specific set of different ink samples previously shown to exhibit very similar LA-ICP-MS elemental profiles. The combination of these two techniques in a single setup resulted in better discrimination of the printing inks with two distinct fingerprint spectra, providing information from atomic/ionic emissions and isotopic composition (m/z) for each ink sample.

  20. Monitoring Temperature in High Enthalpy Arc-heated Plasma Flows using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Marcel Nations; Chang, Leyen S.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Nawaz, Anuscheh; Taunk, Jaswinder S.; Driver, David M.; Raiche, George

    2013-01-01

    A tunable diode laser sensor was designed for in situ monitoring of temperature in the arc heater of the NASA Ames IHF arcjet facility (60 MW). An external cavity diode laser was used to generate light at 777.2 nm and laser absorption used to monitor the population of electronically excited oxygen atoms in an air plasma flow. Under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, time-resolved temperature measurements were obtained on four lines-of-sight, which enabled evaluation of the temperature uniformity in the plasma column for different arcjet operating conditions.

  1. Measurement of spatially resolved gas-phase plasma temperatures by optical emission and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.P.; Gottscho, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Knowledge of the energy distributions of particles in glow discharges is crucial to the understanding and modeling of plasma reactors used in microelectronic manufacturing. Reaction rates, available product channels, and transport phenomena all depend upon the partitioning of energy in the discharge. Because of the nonequilibrium nature of glow discharges, however, the distribution of energy among different species and among different degrees of freedom cannot be characterized simply by one temperature. The extent to which different temperatures are needed for each degree of freedom and for each species is not known completely. How plasma operating conditions affect these energy distributions is also an unanswered question. We have investigated the temperatures of radicals, ions, and neutrals in CCl 4 , CCl 4 /N 2 (2%), and N 2 discharges. In the CCl 4 systems, we probed the CCl rotational and vibrational energy distributions by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The rotational distribution always appeared to be thermal but under identical operating conditions was found to be roughly-equal400 K colder than the vibrational distribution. The rotational temperature at any point in the discharge was strongly dependent upon both applied power and surface temperature. Thermal gradients as large as 10 2 K mm -1 were observed near electrode surfaces but the bulk plasmas were isothermal. When 2% N 2 was added to a CCl 4 discharge, N 2 second positive emission was observed and used to estimate the N 2 rotational temperature. The results suggest that emission from molecular actinometers can be used to measure plasma temperatures, providing such measurements are not made in close proximity to surfaces

  2. Application of femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seokhee [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Gonzalez, Jhanis J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Applied Spectra Inc., 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Yoo, Jong H. [Applied Spectra Inc., 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Chirinos, Jose R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas 1041A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Russo, Richard E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Applied Spectra Inc., 46665 Fremont Boulevard, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Jeong, Sungho, E-mail: shjeong@gist.ac.kr [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-27

    This work reports that the composition of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin solar cell films can be quantitatively predicted with high accuracy and precision by femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (fs-LA-ICP-MS). It is demonstrated that the results are strongly influenced by sampling conditions during fs-laser beam (λ = 1030 nm, τ = 450 fs) scanning on the CIGS surface. The fs-LA-ICP-MS signals measured at optimal sampling conditions generally provide a straight line calibration with respect to the reference concentrations measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The concentration ratios predicted by fs-LA-ICP-MS showed high accuracy, to 95–97% of the values measured with ICP-OES, for Cu, In, Ga, and Se elements. - Highlights: • Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of thin film is reported. • Concentration ratio prediction with a confidence level of 95–97% is achieved. • Quantitative determination of composition is demonstrated.

  3. Diagnostics of electric fields in plasmas using Stark spectroscopy of xenon atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowden, M.D.; Jiang, Tao; Visser, B.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma breakdown is the process that occurs when a voltage is applied across an electrode gap and the neutral gas in the gap becomes ionized and electrically conducting. The goal of our research is to study breakdown processes experimentally on a sub-nanosecond timescale, so that features of

  4. Determination of the electron-electron collisional frequency by means of plasma electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokolov, N.B.; Kudryavtsev, A.A.; Romanenko, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Methods of controlling fast part of electron distribution function (DF) in nonlocal regime of current-free plasma are suggested and realized. Artificially created step in DF fast part has a simple link with frequencies of electron-electron and elastic electron-atom collisions that may be defined in the corresponding experiments

  5. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy for warm dense matter studies and ICF plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    The burning core of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasma at stagnation is surrounded by a shell of warm, dense matter whose properties are difficult both to model (due to a complex interplay of thermal, degeneracy, and strong coupling effects) and to diagnose (due to low emissivity and high opacity). We demonstrate a promising technique to study the warm dense shells of ICF plasmas based on the fluorescence emission of dopants or impurities in the shell material. This emission, which is driven by x-rays produced in the hot core, exhibits signature changes in response to compression and heating. High-resolution measurements of absorption and fluorescence features can refine our understanding of the electronic structure of material under high compression, improve our models of density-driven phenomena such as ionization potential depression and plasma polarization shifts, and help diagnose shell density, temperature, mass distribution, and residual motion in ICF plasmas at stagnation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science Early Career Research Program, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under FWP-14-017426.

  6. Electron plasmas as a diagnostic tool for hyperfine spectroscopy of antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, T.; Thompson, R. I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Amole, C.; Capra, A.; Menary, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Fajans, J.; Little, A.; So, C.; Wurtele, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester, UK and The Cockcroft Institute, WA4 4AD Warrington (United Kingdom); Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Rasmussen, C. O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cesar, C. L.; Silveira, D. M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Charlton, M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-03-19

    Long term magnetic confinement of antihydrogen atoms has recently been demonstrated by the ALPHA collaboration at CERN, opening the door to a range of experimental possibilities. Of particular interest is a measurement of the antihydrogen spectrum. A precise comparison of the spectrum of antihydrogen with that of hydrogen would be an excellent test of CPT symmetry. One prime candidate for precision CPT tests is the ground-state hyperfine transition; measured in hydrogen to a precision of nearly one part in 10{sup 12}. Effective execution of such an experiment with trapped antihydrogen requires precise knowledge of the magnetic environment. Here we present a solution that uses an electron plasma confined in the antihydrogen trapping region. The cyclotron resonance of the electron plasma is probed with microwaves at the cyclotron frequency and the subsequent heating of the electron plasma is measured through the plasma quadrupole mode frequency. Using this method, the minimum magnetic field of the neutral trap can be determined to within 4 parts in 10{sup 4}. This technique was used extensively in the recent demonstration of resonant interaction with the hyperfine levels of trapped antihydrogen atoms.

  7. On the approximation of the optically thin layer in plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preobrazhensky, N.G.

    1975-01-01

    Recent studies are described of criteria for the optically thin approximation relevant to more reliable interpretation of various plasma spectroscopic measurements. Non-equilibrium situations are in the focus of attention. Applicability of well-known criteria suggested by McWhirter and Hearn is outlined. (Auth.)

  8. In situ calibration of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission and mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braymen, Steven D.

    1996-06-11

    A method and apparatus for in situ addition calibration of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer or mass spectrometer using a precision gas metering valve to introduce a volatile calibration gas of an element of interest directly into an aerosol particle stream. The present situ calibration technique is suitable for various remote, on-site sampling systems such as laser ablation or nebulization.

  9. Millimeterwave spectroscopy of active laser plasmas; the excited vibrational states of HCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lucia, F.C.; Helminger, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    Millimeter and submillimeter microwave techniques have been used for the spectroscopic study of an HCN laser plasma. Forty-seven rotational transitions in 12 excited vibrational states have been observed. Numerous rotational, vibrational, and perturbation parameters have been calculated from these data. A discussion of experimental techniques is included

  10. Elemental bioimaging of nanosilver-coated prostheses using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaske, Franziska; Reifschneider, Olga; Gosheger, Georg; Wehe, Christoph A; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe; Hauschild, Gregor; Höll, Steffen

    2014-01-07

    The distribution of different chemical elements from a nanosilver-coated bone implant was visualized, combining the benefits of two complementary methods for elemental bioimaging, the nondestructive micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Challenges caused by the physically inhomogeneous materials including bone and soft tissues were addressed by polymer embedding. With the use of μ-XRF, fast sample mapping was achieved obtaining titanium and vanadium signals from the metal implant as well as phosphorus and calcium signals representing hard bone tissue and sulfur distribution representing soft tissues. Only by the use of LA-ICP-MS, the required high sensitivity and low detection limits for the determination of silver were obtained. Metal distribution within the part of cancellous bone was revealed for silver as well as for the implant constituents titanium, vanadium, and aluminum. Furthermore, the detection of coinciding high local zirconium and aluminum signals at the implant surface indicates remaining blasting abrasive from preoperative surface treatment of the nanosilver-coated device.

  11. ICP27-dependent resistance of herpes simplex virus type 1 to leptomycin B is associated with enhanced nuclear localization of ICP4 and ICP0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, Joy; Strain, Anna K.; Perkins, Keith D.; Rice, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    It was previously shown that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is sensitive to leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of nuclear export factor CRM1, and that a single methionine to threonine change at residue 50 (M50T) of viral immediate-early (IE) protein ICP27 can confer LMB resistance. In this work, we show that deletion of residues 21-63 from ICP27 can also confer LMB resistance. We further show that neither the M50T mutation nor the presence of LMB affects the nuclear shuttling activity of ICP27, suggesting that another function of ICP27 determines LMB resistance. A possible clue to this function emerged when it was discovered that LMB treatment of HSV-1-infected cells dramatically enhances the cytoplasmic accumulation of two other IE proteins, ICP0 and ICP4. This effect is completely dependent on ICP27 and is reversed in cells infected with LMB-resistant mutants. Moreover, LMB-resistant mutations in ICP27 enhance the nuclear localization of ICP0 and ICP4 even in the absence of LMB, and this effect can be discerned in transfected cells. Thus, the same amino (N)-terminal region of ICP27 that determines sensitivity to LMB also enhances ICP27's previously documented ability to promote the cytoplasmic accumulation of ICP4 and ICP0. We speculate that ICP27's effects on ICP4 and ICP0 may contribute to HSV-1 LMB sensitivity

  12. Determination of Dynamics of Plant Plasma Membrane Proteins with Fluorescence Recovery and Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laňková, Martina; Humpolíčková, Jana; Vosolsobě, S.; Cit, Zdeněk; Lacek, Jozef; Čovan, Martin; Čovanová, Milada; Hof, Martin; Petrášek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2016), s. 290-299 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2476; GA ČR(CZ) GPP501/12/P951 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : raster image correlation spectroscopy * fluorescence recovery after photobleaching * auxin influx Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  13. Plasma emission spectroscopy of solids irradiated by intense XUV pulses from a free electron laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzelzainis, T.W.J.; Chalupský, Jaromír; Fajardo, M.; Fäustlin, R.; Heimann, P.A.; Hájková, Věra; Juha, Libor; Jurek, Karel; Khattak, F.Y.; Kozlová, Michaela; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Nagler, B.; Nelson, A.J.; Rosmej, F.B.; Soberierski, R.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; Vinko, S.M.; Wark, J. S.; Whitcher, T.; Riley, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2010), 109-112 ISSN 1574-1818 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : XUV emission spectroscopy * free-electron laser * warm dense matter Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.206, year: 2010

  14. Optimisation and application of ICP-MS and alpha-spectrometry for determination of isotopic ratios of depleted uranium and plutonium in samples collected in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Boulyga, S. F.; Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Becker, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The determination of environmental contamination with natural and artificial actinide isotopes and evaluation of their source requires precise isotopic determination of actinides, above all uranium and plutonium. This can be achieved by alpha spectrometry or by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after chemical separation of actinides. The performance of a sector-field ICP-MS (ICP-SFMS) coupled to a low-flow micronebulizer with a membrane desolvation unit, "Aridus'', was stu...

  15. Use of neutron diffraction and laser-induced plasma spectroscopy in integrated authentication methodologies of copper alloy artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siano, S.; Bartol, L.; Mencaglia, A.A.; Agresti, J.; Miccio, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study approaches the general problem of the authentication of copper alloy artefacts of art and historical interest using non-invasive analytical techniques. It aims to demonstrate that a suitable combination of time-of-flight neutron diffraction and laser-induced plasma spectroscopy in integrated multidisciplinary authentication methodologies can provide crucial data for discriminating between genuine archaeological objects and modern counterfeits. After introducing the methodology, which is dedicated in particular to copper alloy figurines of ancient style, two representative authentication case studies are discussed. The results of the work provide evidence that the combination of multiphase analysis using TOF-N D and elemental depth profiles provided by Lips makes it possible to solve most of the present authentication problems.

  16. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy study of AsS chalcogenide films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalov, Leonid; Dorosz, Dominik; Kudryashov, Mikhail; Nezhdanov, Aleksey; Usanov, Dmitry; Gogova, Daniela; Zelentsov, Sergey; Boryakov, Aleksey; Mashin, Alexandr

    2018-03-15

    AsS chalcogenide films, where As content is 60-40at.%, have been prepared via a RF non-equilibrium low-temperature argon plasma discharge, using volatile As and S as the precursors. Optical properties of the films were studied in UV-visible-NIR region in the range from 0.2 to 2.5μm. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy have been employed for the elucidation of the molecular structure of the newly developed material. It was established that PECVD films possess a higher degree of transparency (up to 80%) and a wider transparency window (>20μm) in comparison with the "usual" AsS thin films, prepared by different thermal methods, which is highly advantageous for certain applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma emission spectroscopy (DCP) for rare earths determination in waters from Morro do Ferro (MG) Brazil, after chromatographic preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.R. de.

    1987-01-01

    Rare earth determinations in surface and well waters from Morro do Ferro was studied using chemical preconcentration methods of the group and plasma emission spectroscopy excited by direct current are - DCP. A method that combines retention in alumina is HF medium with ion exchange for the preconcentration of the group was developed in semi micro scale. DCP determination, in the sequencial mode by using mixed standards containing, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, Ga, Tb, Dy, Er, Yb and Al, principal concentrate componentes was studied by analysis of the profile of each spectral line. Principal cations, anions, ph and Eh were determined. Semi-micro techniques were developed for anions preconcentration and for determination of sulphate, phosphate and carbonate. (M.J.C.) [pt

  18. Low temperature hydrogen plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of copper studied using in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaukulkar, Rohan P.; Rai, Vikrant R.; Agarwal, Sumit; Thissen, Nick F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an ideal technique to deposit ultrathin, conformal, and continuous metal thin films. However, compared to the ALD of binary materials such as metal oxides and metal nitrides, the surface reaction mechanisms during metal ALD are not well understood. In this study, the authors have designed and implemented an in situ reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (IRAS) setup to study the surface reactions during the ALD of Cu on Al 2 O 3 using Cu hexafluoroacetylacetonate [Cu(hfac) 2 ] and a remote H 2 plasma. Our infrared data show that complete ligand-exchange reactions occur at a substrate temperature of 80 °C in the absence of surface hydroxyl groups. Based on infrared data and previous studies, the authors propose that Cu(hfac) 2 dissociatively chemisorbs on the Al 2 O 3 surface, where the Al-O-Al bridge acts as the surface reactive site, leading to surface O-Cu-hfac and O-Al-hfac species. Surface saturation during the Cu(hfac) 2 half-cycle occurs through blocking of the available chemisorption sites. In the next half-reaction cycle, H radicals from an H 2 plasma completely remove these surface hfac ligands. Through this study, the authors have demonstrated the capability of in situ IRAS as a tool to study surface reactions during ALD of metals. While transmission and internal reflection infrared spectroscopy are limited to the first few ALD cycles, IRAS can be used to probe all stages of metal ALD starting from initial nucleation to the formation of a continuous film

  19. Laser absorption spectroscopy for measurement of He metastable atoms of a microhollow cathode plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Keisuke; Kamebuchi, Kenta; Kakutani, Jiro; Matsuoka, Leo; Namba, Shinichi; Fujii, Keisuke; Shikama, Taiichi; Hasuo, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    We generated a 0.3-mm-diameter DC, hollow-cathode helium discharge in a gas pressure range of 10-80 kPa. In discharge plasmas, we measured position-dependent laser absorption spectra for helium 23S1-23P0 transition with a spatial resolution of 55 µm. From the results of the analysis of the measured spectra using Voigt functions and including both the Doppler and collision broadening, we produced two-dimensional maps of the metastable 23S1 atomic densities and gas temperatures of the plasmas. We found that, at all pressures, the gas temperatures were approximately uniform in space with values in the range of 400-1500 K and the 23S1 atomic densities were ˜1019 m-3. We also found that the two-dimensional density distribution profiles became ring-shaped at high gas pressures, which is qualitatively consistent with the two-dimensional fluid simulation results.

  20. High spatial and temporal resolution visible spectroscopy of the plasma edge in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohil, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Seraydarian, R.P.

    1990-10-01

    In DIII-D, visible spectroscopic measurements of the He II 468.6 nm and C VI 529.2 nm Doppler broadened spectral lines, resulting from charge exchange recombination interactions between beam neutral atoms and plasma ions, are performed to determine ion temperatures, and toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities. The diagnostics system comprises 32 viewing chords spanning a typical minor radius of 63 cm across the midplane, of which 16 spatial chords span 11 cm of the plasma edge just within the separatrix. A temporal resolution of 260 μs per time slice can be obtained as a result of using MCP phosphors with short decay times and fast camera readout electronics. Results from this system will be used in radial electric field comparisons with theory at the L-H transition and ion transport analysis. 6 refs., 3 figs

  1. Metabolic profiling of human lung cancer blood plasma using 1H NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokova, Daria; Dementeva, Natalia; Kotelnikov, Oleg; Ponomaryova, Anastasia; Cherdyntseva, Nadezhda; Kzhyshkowska, Juliya

    2017-11-01

    Lung cancer (both small cell and non-small cell) is the second most common cancer in both men and women. The article represents results of evaluating of the plasma metabolic profiles of 100 lung cancer patients and 100 controls to investigate significant metabolites using 400 MHz 1H NMR spectrometer. The results of multivariate statistical analysis show that a medium-field NMR spectrometer can obtain the data which are already sufficient for clinical metabolomics.

  2. X-ray emission spectroscopy of well-characterised non-LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgaux, A C; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Audebert, P; Marquès, J R; Vassura, L; Vinci, T; Jacquemot, S; Dorchies, F; Leguay, P M; Chung, H K; Bowen, C; Dervieux, V; Renaudin, P; Silvert, V

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present an experimental platform developed on LULI2000 to measure x-ray emission of non-LTE plasmas in well-defined hydrodynamic conditions thanks to implementation of a whole set of diagnostics, including time-resolved electronic and ionic Thomson scattering and self-optical pyrometry. K-, L- and M-shell spectra will be presented and the methodology, that has been developed to analyze them, discussed. (paper)

  3. Online quality monitoring of welding processes by means of plasma optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Michele; Ancona, Antonio; Lugara, Pietro M.; Sibilano, Michele

    2000-02-01

    An optical monitoring system for the welding process has been developed; it is based on the study of the optical emission of the welding plasma plume, created during the welding of stainless steels and other iron-based materials. In the first approach a continuous wave CO2 laser of 2500-Watt maximum power, available at the INFM Research Unit labs in Bari University, has been used as welding source. A detailed spectroscopic study of the visible and UV welding plasma emission has been carried out; many transition lines corresponding to the elements composing the material to be welded have been found. By means of an appropriate selection of these lines and suitable algorithms, the electronic temperature of the plasma plume has been calculated and its evolution recorded as a function of several welding parameters. The behavior of the registered signal has resulted to be correlated to the welded joint quality. These findings have allowed to design and assemble a portable, non-intrusive and real-time welding quality optical sensor which has been successfully tested for laser welding of metals in different geometrical configurations; it has been capable of detecting a wide range of weld defects normally occurring during industrial laser metal-working. This sensor has also been tested in arc welding industrial processes (TIG) with promising results.

  4. Characterisation by optical spectroscopy of a plasma of depositions of thins layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouan, Yannick

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis reports a work which, by correlating emission and absorption spectroscopic measurements with properties of deposited thin layers, aimed at being a complement to works undertaken by a team in charge of the realisation of a flat screen. In a first part, the author reports the study of a cathodic pulverisation of a silicon target. He describes the experimental set-up, presents correlations obtained between plasma electric properties (target self-polarisation voltage), emission spectroscopic measurements (line profile and intensity) and absorption spectroscopic measurements (density of metastables), and the composition of deposited thin layers for two reactive pulverisation plasmas (Ar-H_2 and Ar-CH_4). The second part addresses the relationship between experimental conditions and spectroscopic characteristics (emission and absorption lines, excitation and rotation temperature) of a He-SiH_4 plasma. The author also determined the most adapted spectroscopic measurements to the 'control' of deposition, and which result in an optimisation of electronic properties and of the deposition rate for the hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The third part reports the characterisation of depositions. Electric and optic measurements are reported. Then, for both deposition techniques, the author relates the influence of experimental conditions to deposition properties and to spectroscopic diagnosis. The author finally presents static characteristics of a thin-layer-based transistor

  5. Schlieren, Phase-Contrast, and Spectroscopy Diagnostics for the LBNL HIF Plasma Channel Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. M.; Niemann, C.; Fessenden, T. J.; Leemans, W.; Vandersloot, K.; Dahlbacka, G.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.; Tauschwitz, A.

    1999-11-01

    The LBNL Plasma Channel experiment has demonstrated stable 42-cm Z-pinch discharge plasma channels with peak currents in excess of 50 kA for a 7 torr nitrogen, 30 kV discharge. These channels offer the possibility of transporting heavy-ion beams for inertial fusion. We postulate that the stability of these channels resides in the existance of a neutral-gas density depresion created by a pre-pulse discharge before the main capacitor bank discharge is created. Here, we present the results and experimental diagnostics setup used for the study of the pre-pulse and main bank channels. Observation of both the plasma and neutral gas dynamics is achieved. Schlieren, Zernike's phase-contrast, and spectroscopic techniques are used. Preliminary Schlieren results show a gas shockwave moving radially at a rate of ≈ 10^6 mm/sec as a result of the fast and localized deposited energy during the evolution of the pre-pulse channel. This data will be used to validate simulation codes (BUCKY and CYCLOPS).

  6. Study of early laser-induced plasma dynamics: Transient electron density gradients via Thomson scattering and Stark Broadening, and the implications on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, P.K.; Hahn, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    To further develop laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an analytical technique, it is necessary to better understand the fundamental processes and mechanisms taking place during the plasma evolution. This paper addresses the very early plasma dynamics (first 100 ns) using direct plasma imaging, light scattering, and transmission measurements from a synchronized 532-nm probe laser pulse. During the first 50 ns following breakdown, significant Thomson scattering was observed while the probe laser interacted with the laser-induced plasma. The Thomson scattering was observed to peak 15-25 ns following plasma initiation and then decay rapidly, thereby revealing the highly transient nature of the free electron density and plasma equilibrium immediately following breakdown. Such an intense free electron density gradient is suggestive of a non-equilibrium, free electron wave generated by the initial breakdown and growth processes. Additional probe beam transmission measurements and electron density measurements via Stark broadening of the 500.1-nm nitrogen ion line corroborate the Thomson scattering observations. In concert, the data support the finding of a highly transient plasma that deviates from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions during the first tens of nanoseconds of plasma lifetime. The implications of this early plasma transient behavior are discussed in the context of plasma-analyte interactions and the role on LIBS measurements

  7. Efficient generation of volatile cadmium species using Ti(III) and Ti(IV) and application to determination of cadmium by cold vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CVG-ICP-MS)†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Zikri; Yilmaz, Vedat; Rose, LaKeysha

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a highly efficient chemical vapor generation (CVG) approach is reported for determination of cadmium (Cd). Titanium (III) and titanium (IV) were investigated for the first time as catalytic additives along with thiourea, L-cysteine and potassium cyanide (KCN) for generation of volatile Cd species. Both Ti(III) and Ti(IV) provided the highest enhancement with KCN. The improvement with thiourea was marginal (ca. 2-fold), while L-cysteine enhanced signal slightly only with Ti(III) in H2SO4. Optimum CVG conditions were 4% (v/v) HCl + 0.03 M Ti(III) + 0.16 M KCN and 2% (v/v) HNO3 + 0.03 M Ti(IV) + 0.16 M KCN with a 3% (m/v) NaBH4 solution. The sensitivity was improved about 40-fold with Ti(III) and 35-fold with Ti(IV). A limit of detection (LOD) of 3.2 ng L−1 was achieved with Ti(III) by CVG-ICP-MS. The LOD with Ti(IV) was 6.4 ng L−1 which was limited by the blank signals in Ti(IV) solution. Experimental evidence indicated that Ti(III) and Ti(IV) enhanced Cd vapor generation catalytically; for best efficiency mixing prior to reaction with NaBH4 was critical. The method was highly robust against the effects of transition metal ions. No significant suppression was observed in the presence of Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) up to 1.0 μg mL−1. Among the hydride forming elements, no interference was observed from As(III) and Se(IV) at 0.5 μg mL−1 level. The depressive effects from Pb(II) and Sb(III) were not significant at 0.1 μg mL−1 while those from Bi(III) and Sn(II) were marginal. The procedures were validated with determination of Cd by CVG-ICP-MS in a number certified reference materials, including Nearshore seawater (CASS-4), Bone ash (SRM 1400), Dogfish liver (DOLT-4), Mussel tissue (SRM 2976) and Domestic Sludge (SRM 2781). PMID:26251554

  8. A specific 2,4-disubstituted-adamantane interaction with plasma-grown aluminum oxide. Inelastic-electron-tunneling spectroscopy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.W.; Raas, M.C.; Velzen, van P.N.T.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of several mono- and disubstituted adamantanes with plasma-grown aluminum oxide has been studied using inelastic-electron-tunneling (IET) spectroscopy. The IET spectra evidence the chemisorption of 2,4-adamantanedione onto the aluminum oxide surface as the carboxylate anion of

  9. Measurement of H and H2 populations in-situ in a low-temperature plasma by vacuum-ultraviolet laser-absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Young, A.T.; Stutzin, G.C.; Stearns, J.W.; Doebele, H.G.; Leung, K.N.; Kunkel, W.B.

    1988-12-01

    A new technique, vacuum-ultraviolet laser-absorption spectroscopy, has been developed to quantitatively determine the absolute density of H and H 2 within a plasma. The technique is particularly well suited to measurement in a plasma, where high charged particle and photon background complicate other methods of detection. The high selectivity and sensitivity of the technique allows for the measurement of the rotational-vibrational state distribution of H 2 as well as the translational temperature of the atoms and molecules. The technique has been used to study both pulsed and continuous H/sup /minus// ion-source plasma discharges. H 2 state distributions in a multicusp ''volume'' H/sup /minus// ion- source plasma show a high degree of internal excitation, with levels up to v = 5 and J = 8 being observed. The method is applicable for a very wide range of plasma conditions. Emission measurements from excited states of H are also reported. 17 refs., 9 figs

  10. Elemental Analysis in Biological Matrices Using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew N; Clogston, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-01

    The increasing exploration of metallic nanoparticles for use as cancer therapeutic agents necessitates a sensitive technique to track the clearance and distribution of the material once introduced into a living system. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) provides a sensitive and selective tool for tracking the distribution of metal components from these nanotherapeutics. This chapter presents a standardized method for processing biological matrices, ensuring complete homogenization of tissues, and outlines the preparation of appropriate standards and controls. The method described herein utilized gold nanoparticle-treated samples; however, the method can easily be applied to the analysis of other metals.

  11. Some aspects of ICP-AES analysis of high purity rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, P.S.; Biswas, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is a technique capable of giving high sensitivity in trace elemental analysis. While the technique possesses high sensitivity, it lacks high selectivity. Selectivity is important where substances emitting complex spectra are to be analysed for trace elements. Rare earths emit highly complex spectra in a plasma source and the determination of adjacent rare earths in a high purity rare earth matrix, with high sensitivity, is not possible due to the inadequate selectivity of ICP-AES. One approach that has yielded reasonably good spectral selectivity in the high purity rare earth analysis by ICP-AES is by employing a combination of wavelength modulation techniques and high resolution echelle grating. However, it was found that by using a high resolution monochromator senstitivities either comparable to or better than those reported by the wavelength modulation technique could be obtained. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. X-ray High-resolution Spectroscopy for Laser-produced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, F.; Scarpellini, D.; Malizia, A.; Gaudio, P.; Richetta, M.; Antonelli, L.

    The study of the emission spectrum gives information about the material generating the spectrum itself and the condition in which this is generated. The wavelength spectra lines are linked to the specific element and plasma conditions (electron temperature, density), while their shape is influenced by several physical effects like Stark and Doppler ones. In this work we study the X-ray emission spectra of a copper laser-produced plasma by using a spherical bent crystal spectrometer to measure the electron temperature. The facility used is the laser TVLPS, at the Tor Vergata University in Rome. It consists of a Nd:Glass source (in first harmonic - 1064 nm) whose pulse parameters are: 8 J in energy, time duration of 15 ns and a focal spot diameter of 200 μm. The adopted spectrometer is based on a spherical bent crystal of muscovite. The device combines the focusing property of a spherical mirror with the Bragg's law. This allows to obtain a great power resolution but a limited range of analysis. In our case the resolution is on average 80 eV. As it is well-known, the position of the detector on the Rowland's circle is linked to the specific spectral range which has been studied. To select the area to be investigated, we acquired spectra by means of a flat spectrometer. The selected area is centered on 8.88 Å. To calibrate the spectrum we wrote a ray-tracing MATLAB code, which calculates the detector alignment parameters and calibration curve. We used the method of line ratio to measure the electron temperature. This is possible because we assumed the plasma to be in LTE condition. The temperature value was obtained comparing the experimental one, given by the line ratio, with the theoretical one, preceded by FLYCHK simulations.