WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma skin test

  1. Autologous Serum Skin Test versus Autologous Plasma Skin Test in Patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Alpay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that 25–45% of chronic urticaria patients have an autoimmune etiology. Autologous serum skin test (ASST and autologous plasma skin test (APST are simple tests for diagnosing chronic autoimmune urticaria (CAU. However, there are still some questions about the specificity of these tests. This study consisted of 50 patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU and 50 sex- and age-matched healthy individuals aged 18 years, and older. A total of 31 (62% patients and 5 (10% control patients had positive ASST; 21 (42% patients and 3 (6% control patients had positive APST. Statistically significant differences were noted in ASST and APST positivity between the patient and control groups (ASST P<0.001; APST P<0.001. Thirteen (26% patients and 5 (10% control patients had antithyroglobulin antibodies or antithyroid peroxidase antibody positivity. No statistically significant differences were noted in thyroid autoantibodies between the patient and control groups (anti-TG P=0.317; anti-TPO P=0.269. We consider that the ASST and APST can both be used as in vivo tests for the assessment of autoimmunity in the etiology of CSU and that thyroid autoantibodies should be checked even when thyroid function tests reveal normal results in patients with CSU.

  2. Autologous serum and plasma skin tests in chronic spontaneous urticaria: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to assess autologous serum skin test (ASST vs autologous plasma skin test (APST response in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU patients and study the significance of intensity of positive responses in relation to clinicoepidemiological parameters. Materials and Methods: One hundred CSU patients and 100 age and sex-matched controls were recruited. The demographic and clinical features were recorded in all patients and routine investigations were performed. ASST and APST tests were performed as per the standard guidelines. Results: The mean duration of illness was 4.85 ± 5.07 years, 90% patients were APST (+, 68% ASST (+, and 22 patients were only APST (+. Positive predictive value (PPV of ASST and APST was 90.7% and 95.7%, respectively. A significant inverse association was seen between thyroid status and serum IgE levels with APST and ASST positivity. Conclusion: APST appears to have better PPV and high intensity of positive response on autologous tests, and correlates with ANA positivity and angioedema.

  3. PPD skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Mantoux test Images Tuberculosis in the kidney Tuberculosis in the lung Positive PPD skin test PPD skin test References Chernecky CC, Berger ... test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, tuberculosis test) - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  4. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  5. Leishmania Skin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    2009, a dose of 50µg will be used in the design of a phase III clinical trial. 15. SUBJECT TERMS LtSTA = Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen 16...2010 on a Leishmania Skin Test (LtSTA) developed from the promastigotes of Leishmania tropica . During this period a phase IIB study was in progress...diluent. The final product is referred to as Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen (LtSTA). Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the Drug Product

  6. T-cell evaluation in patients with colon cancer : Dinitrochlorobenzene skin testing versus plasma levels of sIL-2r and sCD8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, WA; de Ley, L; Oeseburg, HB; Martens, A; Mulder, NH; Hermans, J; Plukker, JT

    1998-01-01

    Background: Developing reliable methods to test the T-cell system may be important in the treatment of colon cancer patients with 5-fluorouracil/levamisole. In a pilot study we explored whether DNCB (dinitrochlorobenzene) skin testing correlated with plasma levels of soluble inter leukin-2 receptor

  7. T-cell evaluation in patients with colon cancer : Dinitrochlorobenzene skin testing versus plasma levels of sIL-2r and sCD8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, WA; de Ley, L; Oeseburg, HB; Martens, A; Mulder, NH; Hermans, J; Plukker, JT

    1998-01-01

    Background: Developing reliable methods to test the T-cell system may be important in the treatment of colon cancer patients with 5-fluorouracil/levamisole. In a pilot study we explored whether DNCB (dinitrochlorobenzene) skin testing correlated with plasma levels of soluble inter leukin-2 receptor

  8. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... once. This test is usually done to identify allergies to pollen, mold, pet dander, dust mites and foods. In adults, the test is usually done on the forearm. Children may be tested on the upper back. Allergy skin tests aren't painful. This type of ...

  9. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  10. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidance for XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains Data & Statistics Trends in Tuberculosis, 2015 TB Incidence in the United ... No. RR-17). CDC. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test: Training Materials Kit (2003). CDC. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection . MMWR 2000; 49 (No. ... CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  11. Echo: skin stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-01

    Skin Stress Test of the 12-foot satellite built as a prototype of the full-scale Echo satellite. The 12-foot diameter of the sphere was chosen because that was the ceiling height in the Langley model shop. The proposal to build the 12-foot satellite was made in November 1957. - Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, pp. 170-171.

  12. Histoplasma skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Histoplasma capsulatum. The fungus causes an infection called histoplasmosis. How the Test is Performed The health care ... have been exposed to the fungus that causes histoplasmosis . Normal Results No reaction (inflammation) at the site ...

  13. SDBD plasma jet for skin disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Meijer, S.R.; Verweij, P.E.; Zanden, F. van der; Leenders, P.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium consisting of the research institute TNO, the medical university and hospital St Radboud and two industrial enterprises is working on a non-thermal plasma treatment method for skin and wound disinfection. The group is seeking for cooperation, in particular in the field of validation

  14. SDBD plasma jet for skin disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Meijer, S.R.; Verweij, P.E.; Zanden, F. van der; Leenders, P.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium consisting of the research institute TNO, the medical university and hospital St Radboud and two industrial enterprises is working on a non-thermal plasma treatment method for skin and wound disinfection. The group is seeking for cooperation, in particular in the field of validation met

  15. A novel cupping-assisted plasma treatment for skin disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zilan; Graves, David B.

    2017-02-01

    A novel plasma treatment method/plasma source called cupping-assisted plasma treatment/source for skin disinfection is introduced. The idea combines ancient Chinese ‘cupping’ technology with plasma sources to generate active plasma inside an isolated, pressure-controlled chamber attached to the skin. Advantages of lower pressure include reducing the threshold voltage for plasma ignition and improving the spatial uniformity of the plasma treatment. In addition, with reduced pressure inside the cup, skin pore permeability might be increased and it improves attachment of the plasma device to the skin. Moreover, at a given pressure, plasma-generated active species are restricted inside the cup, raising local reactive species concentration and enhancing the measured surface disinfection rate. A surface micro-discharge (SMD) device is used as an example of a working plasma source. We report discharge characteristics and disinfection efficiency as a function of pressure and applied voltage.

  16. A strategy for skin irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael K; Perkins, Mary A

    2002-03-01

    Skin irritation safety testing and risk assessment for new products, and the ingredients they contain, is a critical requirement before market introduction. In the past, much of this skin testing required the use of experimental animals. However, new current best approaches for skin corrosion and skin irritation testing and risk assessment are being defined, obviating the need for animal test methods. Several in vitro skin corrosion test methods have been endorsed after successful validation and are gaining acceptance by regulatory authorities. In vitro test methods for acute, cumulative (repeat exposure), and chronic (prolonged exposure) skin irritation are under development. Though not yet validated, many are being used successfully for testing and risk assessment purposes as documented through an expanding literature. Likewise, a novel acute irritation patch test in human subjects is providing a valid and ethical alternative to animal testing for prediction of chemical skin irritation potential. An array of other human test methods also have been developed and used for the prediction of cumulative/chronic skin irritation and the general skin compatibility of finished products. The development of instrumental methods (e.g., transepidermal water loss, capacitance, and so on) has provided the means for analyzing various biophysical properties of human skin and changes in these properties caused by exposure to irritants. However, these methods do not directly measure skin inflammation. A recently introduced skin surface tape sampling procedure has been shown to detect changes in skin surface cytokine recovery that correlate with inflammatory skin changes associated with chemical irritant exposures or existing dermatitis. It holds promise for more objective quantification of skin irritation events, including subclinical (sensory) irritation, in the future.

  17. Skin and plasma autofluorescence during hemodialysis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graaff, Reindert; Arsov, Stefan; Ramsauer, Bernd; Koetsier, Marten; Sundvall, Nils; Engels, Gerwin E; Sikole, Aleksandar; Lundberg, Lennart; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) is related to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and is one of the strongest prognostic markers of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether changes in skin AF appear after a single HD session and if they might be related to changes in plasma AF. Skin and plasma AF were measured before and after HD in 35 patients on maintenance HD therapy (nine women and 26 men, median age 68 years, range 33-83). Median dialysis time was 4 h (range 3-5.5). Skin AF was measured noninvasively with an AGE Reader, and plasma AF was measured before and after HD at 460 nm after excitation at 370 nm. The HD patients had on average a 65% higher skin AF value than age-matched healthy persons (P < 0.001). Plasma AF was reduced by 14% (P < 0.001), whereas skin AF was not changed after a single HD treatment. No significant influence of the reduced plasma AF on skin AF levels was found. This suggests that the measurement of skin AF can be performed during the whole dialysis period and is not directly influenced by the changes in plasma AF during HD.

  18. Kissing reduces allergic skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    The effect of kissing on allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels were studied in 30 normal subjects, 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and 30 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). All of the patients with AR or AD are allergic to house dust mite (HDM) and Japanese cedar pollen (JCP). They are all Japanese and they do not kiss habitually. The subject kissed freely during 30 min with their lover or spouse alone in a room with closed doors while listening to soft music. Before and after kissing, skin prick tests were performed using commercial HDM allergen, JCP allergen, as well as histamine and control solution, and wheal responses were measured. Simultaneously, plasma levels of neurotrophin, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and -4 (NT-4) were measured. Kissing significantly reduced wheal responses induced by HDM and JCP, but not by histamine, and decreased plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in patients with AR or AD, while it failed to do so in normal subjects. These finding indicate that kissing have some implication in the study of neuroimmunology in allergic patients.

  19. Anomalous skin effects in anisotropic kappa distributed plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Tajammal H.; Bashir, M. F.; Murtaza, G.

    2017-07-01

    Anomalous skin effects (ASEs) are studied for the transverse electromagnetic waves in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma using anisotropic kappa distribution. The effects of the kappa spectral index (κ), temperature anisotropy ( A =T⊥/T||) , and the wave frequency (ω) on the ASEs are highlighted to be applicable for a wide range of plasma parameters. It is shown that the skin depth is reduced in a kappa distributed plasma as compared to the Maxwellian one. The anisotropy may enhance/reduce the skin depth depending upon the wave frequency to plasma frequency ratio ( ω/ωp ) and the regime of the anisotropy (i.e., A > 1 or A < 1). The results for the Maxwellian distribution ( κ→∞ ) are also retrieved. The possible applications to space and laboratory plasmas are also discussed.

  20. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After 48 to 72 hours the site of injection is evaluated by a physician. If a positive reaction occurs (the test site is inflamed), the person has been exposed to the aspergillus mold and is at risk for developing aspergillosis.

  1. Helminths and skewed cytokine profiles increase tuberculin skin test positivity in Warao Amerindians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Warris, A.; Groot, R. de; Maes, M.; Villalba, J.A.; del Nogal, B.; Hof, S. van den; Mughini Gras, L.; Soolingen, D. van; Pinelli, E.; Waard, J.H. de

    2012-01-01

    The immune regulatory mechanisms involved in the acquisition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children are largely unknown. We investigated the influence of parasitic infections, malnutrition and plasma cytokine profiles on tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity in Warao Amerindians in Vene

  2. The skin prick test ¿ European standards

    OpenAIRE

    Heinzerling Lucie; Mari Adriano; Bergmann Karl-Christian; Bresciani Megon; Burbach Guido; Darsow Ulf; Durham Stephen; Fokkens Wytske; Gjomarkaj Mark; Haahtela Tari; Bom Ana Todo; Wöhrl Stefan; Maibach Howard; Lockey Richard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific alle...

  3. Comparison of atmospheric microplasma and plasma jet irradiation for increasing of skin permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Tran, N. A.; Hayashida, K.; Blajan, M.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric plasma is attracting interest for medical applications such as sterilization, treatment of cancer cells and blood coagulation. Application of atmospheric plasma in dermatology has potential as a novel tool for wound healing, skin rejuvenation and treatment of wrinkles. In this study, we investigated the enhancement of percutaneous absorption of dye as alternative agents of transdermal drugs. Hypodermic needles are often the only way to deliver large-molecule drugs into the dermis, although a safe transdermal drug delivery method that does not require needles would be desirable. We therefore explored the feasibility of using atmospheric microplasma irradiation to enhance percutaneous absorption of drugs, as an alternative delivery method to conventional hypodermic needles. Pig skin was used as a biological sample, exposed to atmospheric microplasma, and analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A tape stripping test, a representative method for evaluating skin barrier performance, was also conducted for comparison. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured and compared with and without atmospheric microplasma irradiation, to quantify water evaporation from the inner body through the skin barrier. The results show that the stratum corneum, the outermost skin layer, could be chemically and physically modified by atmospheric microplasma irradiation. Physical damage to the skin by microplasma irradiation and an atmospheric plasma jet was also assessed by observing the skin surface. The results suggest that atmospheric microplasma has the potential to enhance percutaneous absorption.

  4. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25......-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing 25-OH-vitD levels, by clinical categories or by seasonally adjusted tertiles, were associated...... with increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 × 10(-15) and P=3 × 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD 50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH...

  5. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  6. Development and Testing of Living Skin Equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Model a) The use of Isografts in an inbred strain of rats. In a preliminary series of experiments the potential use of Fischer strain rats has been...tested by preparing a series of isografts made by grafting skin equivalents with cells from female donors to male hosts. On the average, wound...Autograft--rat 4 1 4 3 5 17 Autograft--rabbit 6 3 1 1 11 Isograft --rat 37 13 13 1 64 Allo fib., iso ker--rat 15 12 3 30 Allo fib, iso ker--rab 8 6 14 Iso

  7. Implementation of a penicillin allergy skin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Tiemi Nagao-Dias

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The penicillin allergy skin testing is the only accurate and reliable test for penicillin hypersensitivity mediated by IgE. It is useful for identifying patients with doubtful history of allergy. Positive test for major and minor determinants presents a positive predictive value of 50% and negative predictive value of 99%. In Brazil, the Ministry of Health suggests a protocol for in house made reagents, since they are not commercially available. As the referred protocol does not mention some important details about the test procedures, we propose in the present work to implement them, critically evaluating each step in order to allow the protocol establishment at any health service, with quality and safety.O teste cutâneo para alergia imediata a penicilina é o único teste validado internacionalmente, sendo que sua grande utilidade reside na avaliação de pacientes com história positiva de alergia a penicilina. O teste positivo para determinantes principais e secundários da penicilina apresenta um valor preditivo positivo de 50% e valor preditivo negativo de 99%. Em nosso meio, o Ministério de Saúde disponibiliza um protocolo para o preparo dos reagentes, uma vez que os mesmos não estão disponíveis comercialmente. Como o referido protocolo não apresenta maiores detalhes sobre o cuidado relativo às etapas de preparo das soluções, bem como faltam algumas considerações no que tange a realização do teste, propusemo-nos no presente trabalho operacionalizar o teste, avaliando de forma crítica e minuciosa cada etapa, de forma que outros profissionais possam reproduzi-lo de maneira mais segura e eficaz.

  8. Development and Production of a Leishmania Skin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    manufacturing process of Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen (LtSTA) was made during this contract period to increase the yield and robustness of the...interest group. 15. SUBJECT TERMS LtSTA = Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT... tropica Skin Test Antigen (LtSTA), is a sterile injectable microfluidized lysate of Leishmania tropica (WR#1063:C1A) promastigotes. The product is heat

  9. Assessment of 'dry skin': current bioengineering methods and test designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T W; Wigger-Alberti, W; Elsner, P

    2001-01-01

    Dry skin is a frequent problem in dermatology and a sign of dysfunction of the epidermis, especially of the stratum corneum as the morphological equivalent of the skin barrier. It may occur as an individual disposition or as the leading symptom of atopic dermatitis or ichthyosis. Besides the visual examination of the skin, various bioengineering methods have been developed to assess the different pathological and adaptive changes in the skin. In addition to the assessment of skin humidity, barrier function and desquamation, the quantification of skin surface topography and the mechanical properties of skin are suitable methods to characterize a dry skin condition. For clinical assessment of moisturizing products and emollients the parameters of investigation have to be defined and integrated in an adapted study design depending on the composition and content of the active agent in the test product. Newly developed cosmetic products have to be investigated for safety and efficacy. Modern bioengineering methods are suitable to fulfill these challenges.

  10. Comparison of the in vivo autologous skin test with in vitro diagnostic tests for diagnosis of chronic autoimmune urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altrich, Michelle L; Halsey, John F; Altman, Leonard C

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that 30-50% of chronic urticaria patients have an autoimmune etiology. Clinical diagnosis of autoimmune urticaria is supported with the autologous serum skin test. The purpose of this study was to compare two laboratory tests for measurement of IgG autoantibodies to IgE or IgE receptors and compare the results with the autologous serum and plasma skin tests. We performed skin tests and two functional in vitro tests, basophil histamine release, and CD63 up-regulation to detect autoantibodies relevant to autoimmune urticaria. Both sera and citrated plasma were evaluated in the autologous skin test and histamine release assay. Thyroid autoantibodies were also measured. Basophils were incubated with patient plasma, sera, buffer, or anti-IgE. The cells were analyzed for CD63 expression and the supernatants were recovered for histamine analysis. There was high correlation between CD63 up-regulation and histamine release assays, but histamine release was more sensitive. There was a high concordance between sera and citrated plasma for the skin test. Sera from chronic urticaria patients produced higher mean histamine release (23%) compared with citrated plasma (12%). Thirty-one percent of patients positive in the histamine release assay were also positive for thyroid autoantibodies. This compares with 12% who were negative in the histamine release assay. These data show that in vitro basophil histamine release can be used to measure antibodies to FceRI, FceRII/CD23, or IgE and identify patients with autoimmune urticaria.

  11. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  12. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human sk

  13. Development of a forensic skin colour predictive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroñas, Olalla; Phillips, Chris; Söchtig, Jens; Gomez-Tato, Antonio; Cruz, Raquel; Alvarez-Dios, José; de Cal, María Casares; Ruiz, Yarimar; Fondevila, Manuel; Carracedo, Ángel; Lareu, María V

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in skin colour prediction in the forensic field. However, a lack of consensus approaches for recording skin colour phenotype plus the complicating factors of epistatic effects, environmental influences such as exposure to the sun and unidentified genetic variants, present difficulties for the development of a forensic skin colour predictive test centred on the most strongly associated SNPs. Previous studies have analysed skin colour variation in single unadmixed population groups, including South Asians (Stokowski et al., 2007, Am. J. Hum. Genet, 81: 1119-32) and Europeans (Jacobs et al., 2013, Hum Genet. 132: 147-58). Nevertheless, a major challenge lies in the analysis of skin colour in admixed individuals, where co-ancestry proportions do not necessarily dictate any one person's skin colour. Our study sought to analyse genetic differences between African, European and admixed African-European subjects where direct spectrometric measurements and photographs of skin colour were made in parallel. We identified strong associations to skin colour variation in the subjects studied from a pigmentation SNP discovery panel of 59 markers and developed a forensic online classifier based on naïve Bayes analysis of the SNP profiles made. A skin colour predictive test is described using the ten most strongly associated SNPs in 8 genes linked to skin pigmentation variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reactivity of allergy skin test in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supakthanasiri, Phisit; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Healthy individuals may be exposed and sensitised to allergens, and have a positive response to a skin prick test despite being asymptomatic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of atopic sensitisation and identify the reactivity of healthy volunteers to common aeroallergens. Healthy volunteers with no known allergic symptoms were recruited in this study. All volunteers were scheduled to undergo a skin prick test with 16 common aeroallergens that were previously identified among atopic patients. A total of 100 volunteers (mean age 28 years) were enrolled in this study. 42 volunteers had positive skin prick tests for at least one allergen. The median number of sensitised allergen was 2 (range 1-7). Volunteers with positive skin tests (n = 42) were younger than those with negative skin tests (n = 58) (mean age 25.5 vs. 29.2 years; p mite (n = 33), house dust (n = 23) and American cockroach (n = 20). In this study, up to 42% of healthy volunteers, particularly those with a family history of atopy, were sensitised to allergens. Reactivity of the skin test without allergic symptoms, however, does not indicate allergic disease. Therefore, the skin test should only be indicated in atopic symptomatic individuals.

  15. Cutaneous tuberculosis with nonreactive PPD skin test: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Priscila Wolf; Rosa, Ana Paula Zanatta; Gurgel, Ana Cristina Medeiros; Campanerut, Paula Aline Zanetti; Fillus Neto, José; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of cutaneous tuberculosis in a 63-year-old female patient, who had an infiltrated, erythematous-ferruginous plaque of indurated aspect on her right leg and a nonreactive PPD skin test. Diagnosis was made by tissue culture and PCR of skin biopsy material. The treatment was performed with pyrazinamide, rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol, with good response.

  16. Local administration of autologous platelet-rich plasma in a female patient with skin ulcer defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Noskov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical observation of the efficiency of local therapy with autologous platelet-rich plasma for .skin ulcer defect in a female with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

  17. Influence of External Magnetic Field on Anomalous Skin Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ming; WANG You-Nian

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using a one-dimensional slab model, we study the influence of the external static magnetic field on the anomalous skin effects in the inductively coupled plasma. The rf electromagnetic field in the plasma is determined by solving the linearized Boltzmann equation incorporating with the Maxwell equations. The numerical results show that,due to the existence of the external magnetic field, the anomalous skin effects are greatly enhanced and the number of regions with negative absorption is decreased.

  18. Development, validation and testing of a skin sampling method for assessment of metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Behnaz; Midander, Klara; Lidén, Carola; Julander, Anneli

    2017-07-01

    Nickel, cobalt and chromium are frequent skin sensitizers. Skin exposure results in eczema in sensitized individuals, the risk being related to the skin dose. To develop a self-sampling method for quantification of skin exposure to metals, to validate the method, and to assess its feasibility. Defined metal doses (0.01-5 µg) were applied to the fingers of 5 participants. Skin areas (2 cm(2) ) were sampled with 1% HNO3 , either as 0.1 ml on a swab, or as 0.5 ml on a wipe. Furthermore, 17 participants performed self-sampling by swab after 2 h of leisure activity. Samples were extracted in 1% HNO3 and analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The sampling efficiency by swab was 46%, as compared with 93% for acid wipe sampling, for all tested doses. Most metal from the skin dose was detected in the first swab (33-43%). Despite lower sampling efficiency by swab, skin doses of metals following 2 h of leisure activity without hand washing were quantified in all participants, and ranged from 0.0016 to 0.15 µg/cm(2) , from 0.00014 to -0.0020 µg/cm(2) and from 0.00048 to -0.027 µg/cm(2) for nickel, cobalt, and chromium, respectively. The results indicate a future potential of skin sampling by swab to detect and monitor metals on skin by self-sampling. This will contribute to better knowledge of metal skin exposure among dermatitis patients, workers, and the general population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Differences between the glycosylation patterns of haptoglobin isolated from skin scales and plasma of psoriatic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardetta Maresca

    Full Text Available Improved diagnosis of psoriasis, by new biomarkers, is required for evaluating the progression rate of the disease and the response to treatment. Haptoglobin (Hpt, a glycoprotein secreted by hepatocytes and other types of cells including keratinocytes, was found with glycan changes in psoriasis and other diseases. We previously reported that Hpt isolated from plasma of psoriatic patients is more fucosylated than Hpt of healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the glycosylation pattern of Hpt isolated from skin scales or plasma of patients with psoriasis with that of Hpt from cornified epidermal layer or plasma of healthy subjects. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the glycans isolated from the protein backbone revealed that glycan patterns from skin and plasma of patients were similar, and mostly displayed quantitative rather than qualitative differences from normal pattern. Biotin-labeled lectins were used to evaluate quantitative differences in the glycoforms of Hpt from plasma and psoriatic skin scales. Hpt from skin and plasma of patients showed more fucosylated and branched glycans than Hpt from plasma of healthy subjects. Tryptic glycopeptides of Hpt were also analyzed by mass spectrometry, and a decreased amount of sialylated glycan chains was found in glycopeptides of skin Hpt, as compared with Hpt from plasma. High levels of glycans with fucosylated and tetra-antennary chains were detected on the peptide NLFLNHSENATAK from Hpt of psoriatic patients. Our data demonstrate that specific changes in glycan structures of Hpt, such as enhanced glycan branching and fucose content, are associated with psoriasis, and that differences between circulating and skin Hpt do exist. A lower extent of glycan fucosylation and branching was found in Hpt from plasma of patients in disease remission. Altered glycoforms might reflect changes of Hpt function in the skin, and could be used as markers of the disease.

  20. Estimating Skin Cancer Risk: Evaluating Mobile Computer-Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaja, Ngadiman; Janda, Monika; Olsen, Catherine M; Whiteman, David C; Chien, Tsair-Wei

    2016-01-22

    Response burden is a major detriment to questionnaire completion rates. Computer adaptive testing may offer advantages over non-adaptive testing, including reduction of numbers of items required for precise measurement. Our aim was to compare the efficiency of non-adaptive (NAT) and computer adaptive testing (CAT) facilitated by Partial Credit Model (PCM)-derived calibration to estimate skin cancer risk. We used a random sample from a population-based Australian cohort study of skin cancer risk (N=43,794). All 30 items of the skin cancer risk scale were calibrated with the Rasch PCM. A total of 1000 cases generated following a normal distribution (mean [SD] 0 [1]) were simulated using three Rasch models with three fixed-item (dichotomous, rating scale, and partial credit) scenarios, respectively. We calculated the comparative efficiency and precision of CAT and NAT (shortening of questionnaire length and the count difference number ratio less than 5% using independent t tests). We found that use of CAT led to smaller person standard error of the estimated measure than NAT, with substantially higher efficiency but no loss of precision, reducing response burden by 48%, 66%, and 66% for dichotomous, Rating Scale Model, and PCM models, respectively. CAT-based administrations of the skin cancer risk scale could substantially reduce participant burden without compromising measurement precision. A mobile computer adaptive test was developed to help people efficiently assess their skin cancer risk.

  1. A new alternative method for testing skin irritation using a human skin model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A; Berthet, A; Hopf, N B; Gilliet, M; Raffoul, W; Vernez, D; Spring, P

    2014-03-01

    Studies assessing skin irritation to chemicals have traditionally used laboratory animals; however, such methods are questionable regarding their relevance for humans. New in vitro methods have been validated, such as the reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model (Episkin®, Epiderm®). The comparison (accuracy) with in vivo results such as the 4-h human patch test (HPT) is 76% at best (Epiderm®). There is a need to develop an in vitro method that better simulates the anatomo-pathological changes encountered in vivo. To develop an in vitro method to determine skin irritation using human viable skin through histopathology, and compare the results of 4 tested substances to the main in vitro methods and in vivo animal method (Draize test). Human skin removed during surgery was dermatomed and mounted on an in vitro flow-through diffusion cell system. Ten chemicals with known non-irritant (heptylbutyrate, hexylsalicylate, butylmethacrylate, isoproturon, bentazon, DEHP and methylisothiazolinone (MI)) and irritant properties (folpet, 1-bromohexane and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI/MI)), a negative control (sodiumchloride) and a positive control (sodiumlaurylsulphate) were applied. The skin was exposed at least for 4h. Histopathology was performed to investigate irritation signs (spongiosis, necrosis, vacuolization). We obtained 100% accuracy with the HPT model; 75% with the RHE models and 50% with the Draize test for 4 tested substances. The coefficients of variation (CV) between our three test batches were test method presented effective results for the tested chemicals. It should be further validated using a greater number of substances; and tested in different laboratories in order to suitably evaluate reproducibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Skin and Plasma Autofluorescence During Hemodialysis : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, Reindert; Arsov, Stefan; Ramsauer, Bernd; Koetsier, Marten; Sundvall, Nils; Engels, Gerwin E.; Sikole, Aleksandar; Lundberg, Lennart; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) is related to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and is one of the strongest prognostic markers of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether changes in skin AF appear after a single HD session an

  3. Penicillin skin testing: potential implications for antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Nathan R; Gauthier, Timothy P; Cheung, Linda W

    2013-08-01

    As the progression of multidrug-resistant organisms and lack of novel antibiotics move us closer toward a potential postantibiotic era, it is paramount to preserve the longevity of current therapeutic agents. Moreover, novel interventions for antimicrobial stewardship programs are integral to combating antimicrobial resistance worldwide. One unique method that may decrease the use of second-line antibiotics (e.g., fluoroquinolones, vancomycin) while facilitating access to a preferred β-lactam regimen in numerous health care settings is a penicillin skin test. Provided that up to 10% of patients have a reported penicillin allergy, of whom ~10% have true IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, significant potential exists to utilize a penicillin skin test to safely identify those who may receive penicillin or a β-lactam antibiotic. In this article, we provide information on the background, associated costs, currently available literature, pharmacists' role, antimicrobial stewardship implications, potential barriers, and misconceptions, as well as future directions associated with the penicillin skin test.

  4. Natural history of skin prick test reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Nielsen, Jesper; Meteran, Howraman; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    of sensitization were variable. In the group of individuals tested more than once (n = 592), 16% developed sensitization during the study period and 9% became desensitized. In the group of individuals tested at all 4 examinations (n = 148), 34% developed sensitization and 22% became desensitized. In the group who...... developed sensitization, 55% had rhinitis, 17% had asthma, and 70% had eczema. In the group who became desensitized, 30% had rhinitis, 10% had asthma, and 50% had eczema. CONCLUSION: This 20-year prospective study found that sensitization is common, but its prevalence in individuals is also variable over...... time. Furthermore, through puberty and early adulthood a large number of individuals develop sensitization and a smaller number become desensitized. In addition, we found that symptoms of rhinitis rarely preceded sensitization....

  5. Functional testing of topical skin formulations using an optimised ex vivo skin organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidgwick, G P; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of equivalent-skin models are available for investigation of the ex vivo effect of topical application of drugs and cosmaceuticals onto skin, however many have their drawbacks. With the March 2013 ban on animal models for cosmetic testing of products or ingredients for sale in the EU, their utility for testing toxicity and effect on skin becomes more relevant. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof of principle that altered expression of key gene and protein markers could be quantified in an optimised whole tissue biopsy culture model. Topical formulations containing green tea catechins (GTC) were investigated in a skin biopsy culture model (n = 11). Punch biopsies were harvested at 3, 7 and 10 days, and analysed using qRT-PCR, histology and HPLC to determine gene and protein expression, and transdermal delivery of compounds of interest. Reduced gene expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, TGF-β1, CTGF and PAI-1 was observed after 7 and 10 days compared with treated controls (p skin, negating the requirement for animal models in this context, prior to study in a clinical trial environment.

  6. Catecholamines, Plasma and Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific genetic mutation permits increased vigilance during preoperative localization or postoperative surveillance of such patients. It is also recommended that if a mutation is identified, predictive genetic testing should be offered to asymptomatic at-risk family ...

  7. Non-animal testing strategies for assessment of the skin corrosion and skin irritation potential of ingredients and finished products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Cohen, C; de Fraissinette, A de Brugerolle; Ponec, M; Whittle, E; Fentem, J H

    2002-05-01

    The dermatotoxicologist today is faced with a dilemma. Protection of workers and consumers from skin toxicities (irritation and allergy) associated with exposure to products, and the ingredients they contain, requires toxicological skin testing prior to manufacture, transport, or marketing. Testing for skin corrosion or irritation has traditionally been conducted in animals, particularly in rabbits via the long established Draize test method. However, this procedure, among others, has been subject to criticism, both for its limited predictive capacity for human toxicity, as well as for its use of animals. In fact, legislation is pending in the European Union which would ban the sale of cosmetic products, the ingredients of which have been tested in animals. These considerations, and advancements in both in vitro skin biology and clinical testing, have helped drive an intensive effort among skin scientists to develop alternative test methods based either on in vitro test systems (e.g. using rat, pig or human skin ex vivo, or reconstructed human skin models) or ethical clinical approaches (human volunteer studies). Tools are now in place today to enable a thorough skin corrosion and irritation assessment of new ingredients and products without the need to test in animals. Herein, we describe general testing strategies and new test methods for the assessment of skin corrosion and irritation. The methods described, and utilized within industry today, provide a framework for the practicing toxicologist to support new product development initiatives through the use of reliable skin safety testing and risk assessment tools and strategies.

  8. AUTOLOGOUS SERUM SKIN TESTING (ASST) IN CHRONIC IDIOPATHIC URTICARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Arun; Suresh; Raghavendra; Vijay; Ramesh,; Asha; Manali; Jitendra

    2014-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a form of urticaria , in which there appears to be persistent activation of mast cells , but the mechanism of mast cell triggering is unknown. The Autologous serum skin test (ASST) is an in vivo test which assesses auto reactivity. ASST could be good screening test for Autoreactive urticaria a subset of chronic idiopathic urticaria. AIMS : To study the clinical profile of chronic idiopathic urticaria and pattern of A...

  9. Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertsching, Heike; Weimer, Michaela; Kersen, Silke; Brunner, Herwig

    2008-03-11

    The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal interactions to occur. Future emphasis is the establishment of different test systems to investigate wound healing, melanoma research and infection biology. Key features of this skin model are that it can be used as an alternative for in vivo studies, donor tissue can be tailored to the needs of the study and multiple analyses can be carried out at mRNA and protein level. Driven by both ethical and economical incentives, this has already resulted in a shift of the test strategies used by the Pharmaceutical Industry in the early drug development process as reflected by the increased demand for application of cell based assays. It is also a suitable model for testing a wide variety of endpoints including cell viability, the release of proinflammatory mediators, permeation rate, proliferation and biochemical changes.

  10. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  11. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of secular trends in the prevalence of allergy among children stems in large part from questionnaire surveys, whereas repeated cross-sectional studies using objective markers of atopic sensitization are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the prevalence of skin prick...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...

  12. Pumpless microfluidic platform for drug testing on human skin equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Gledhill, Karl; Guo, Zongyou; Christiano, Angela M; Shuler, Michael L

    2015-02-07

    Advances in bio-mimetic in vitro human skin models increase the efficiency of drug screening studies. In this study, we designed and developed a microfluidic platform that allows for long-term maintenance of full thickness human skin equivalents (HSE) which are comprised of both the epidermal and dermal compartments. The design is based on the physiologically relevant blood residence times in human skin tissue and allows for the establishment of an air-epidermal interface which is crucial for maturation and terminal differentiation of HSEs. The small scale of the design reduces the amount of culture medium and the number of cells required by 36 fold compared to conventional transwell cultures. Our HSE-on-a-chip platform has the capability to recirculate the medium at desired flow rates without the need for pump or external tube connections. We demonstrate that the platform can be used to maintain HSEs for three weeks with proliferating keratinocytes similar to conventional HSE cultures. Immunohistochemistry analyses show that the differentiation and localization of keratinocytes was successfully achieved, establishing all sub-layers of the epidermis after one week. Basal keratinocytes located at the epidermal-dermal interface remain in a proliferative state for three weeks. We use a transdermal transport model to show that the skin barrier function is maintained for three weeks. We also validate the capability of the HSE-on-a-chip platform to be used for drug testing purposes by examining the toxic effects of doxorubucin on skin cells and structure. Overall, the HSE-on-a-chip is a user-friendly and cost-effective in vitro platform for drug testing of candidate molecules for skin disorders.

  13. Validation of artificial skin equivalents as in vitro testing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Robert; Marx, Ulrich; Walles, Heike; Schober, Lena

    2011-03-01

    With the increasing complexity of the chemical composition of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and everyday substances, the awareness of potential health issues and long term damages for humanoid organs is shifting into focus. Artificial in vitro testing systems play an important role in providing reliable test conditions and replacing precarious animal testing. Especially artificial skin equivalents ASEs are used for a broad spectrum of studies like penetration, irritation and corrosion of substances. One major challenge in tissue engineering is the qualification of each individual ASE as in vitro testing system. Due to biological fluctuations, the stratum corneum hornified layer of some ASEs may not fully develop or other defects might occur. For monitoring these effects we developed an fully automated Optical Coherence Tomography device. Here, we present different methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of the ASEs based on image and data processing of OCT B-scans. By analysing the surface structure, defects, like cuts or tears, are detectable. A further indicator for the quality of the ASE is the morphology of the tissue. This allows to determine if the skin model has reached the final growth state. We found, that OCT is a well suited technology for automatically characterizing artificial skin equivalents and validating the application as testing system.

  14. Screening of a Test Charge in Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bai-Song; WANG Rong

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear screening of a test charge in plasma by electrons trapped or untrapped is studied. The obtained results are in rigorous estimations mathematically in comparison with the corresponding Debye screening forms.Meanwhile their validity is physically discussed and some confusions in literature are clarified.

  15. Influence of surface finish on the plasma formation at the skin explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsko, I. M.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Rybka, D. V.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Khishchenko, K. V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper reports on experiments to investigate how the quality of surface finish, i.e., surface roughness, influences the plasma formation in a skin explosion of conductors. The experiments were performed on a MIG terawatt generator with a current amplitude of up to 2.5 MA and current rise time of 100 ns. The plasma formation at the conductor surface and the evolution of the plasma boundary was recorded using a four-frame optical camera with an exposure time of 3 ns per frame. It is shown that the quality of surface finish little affects the onset of plasma formation in a skin explosion of stainless steel and St3 steel conductors at a magnetic field of up to 400 T.

  16. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of secular trends in the prevalence of allergy among children stems in large part from questionnaire surveys, whereas repeated cross-sectional studies using objective markers of atopic sensitization are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the prevalence of skin prick...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...... to most allergens tested, statistically significant; however, only for mugwort and Alternaria iridis. Among subjects, who were sensitized to only one allergen, we found significantly fewer individuals with reactions to D. pteronyssinus and mugwort. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of atopic sensitization...

  17. [Aeroallergens, skin tests and allergic diseases in 1091 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez Palomec, O; Hernández Chávez, L; Sarrazola Sanjuan, D M; Segura Méndez, N H; Hernández Colín, D D; Martínez-Cairo, S

    1997-01-01

    To know the frequency of positively of several skin tests, data cards from patients, of the Allergy and Clinic Immunology Service of the Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI (Mexico City), between January, 1989 and March, 1995, were reviewed. Aqueous extracts manufactures by our laboratory were applied, in a dilution of 1:1000 weight-volume. 1091 from 5,651 skin tests patients were positive. Asthma and rhinitis were diagnosed in 492, allergic rhinitis in 289, allergic asthma in 111, and other diagnosis in 199 cases. The most frequent inhalable aeroallergens were house dust and perennial Dermatophagoides p and f1 with predominance in the rainy season, followed by pollens from Fraxinus a. Quercus a and Capriola, with predominance in the rainy season. The most frequent fungi were Candida and Fusarium, with predominance in the dry season.

  18. Skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens by filaggrin mutation status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, M G; Johansen, J D; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations are positively associated with sensitization to aero allergens. We hypothesized that FLG mutations would also have an effect on the mean size of positive skin prick test (SPT) reactions as well as the number of positive reactions...... mutations alone are insufficient to cause secondary sensitization to allergens. The positive association seen in patients must be explained by a combination of further barrier abnormality caused by dermatitis as well as increased allergen exposure....

  19. Advanced Development of Leishmania Topical Skin Test Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    followed to assess the effectiveness of the cleaning and sanitization procedures. The filling, capping and assembly of final containers occurred in Class...disappeared after several days in both subjects. Topical steroid cream was administered to one subject to promote resolution. 2.5.2 Phase II Dose...al. (3) studied the effects of repeat skin tests in healthy volunteers residing in a leishmaniasis non-endemic area. The Leishmnaia antigen used in

  20. 575 Photoaging Attenuates Skin Test Response to Histamine More Than Natural Aging

    OpenAIRE

    King, Monroe James; Fitzhugh, David; Lockey, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical experience suggests that skin test reactivity is often decreased in photo-exposed skin versus sun-protected skin in older individuals. The current study was designed to address whether photoaging or natural aging of skin causes a greater diminution in skin test reponse. Methods Prick-puncture skin tests to histamine were performed on sun-exposed and sun-protected areas in younger (n = 61, age 20–50) and older (n = 63, age 60–87) adult volunteers who were recruited for skin...

  1. Clinical and Biological Principles of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Application in Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Mimbrera, Jesús; García, Maria Carmen; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz; Rodero-Serrano, Antonio; García-Nieto, Antonio Vélez; Ruano, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Plasma-based electrosurgical devices have long been employed for tissue coagulation, cutting, desiccation, and cauterizing. Despite their clinical benefits, these technologies involve tissue heating and their effects are primarily heat-mediated. Recently, there have been significant developments in cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) science and engineering. New sources of CAP with well-controlled temperatures below 40 °C have been designed, permitting safe plasma application on animal and human bodies. In the last decade, a new innovative field, often referred to as plasma medicine, which combines plasma physics, life science, and clinical medicine has emerged. This field aims to exploit effects of mild plasma by controlling the interactions between plasma components (and other secondary species that can be formed from these components) with specific structural elements and functionalities of living cells. Recent studies showed that CAP can exert beneficial effects when applied selectively in certain pathologies with minimal toxicity to normal tissues. The rapid increase in new investigations and development of various devices for CAP application suggest early adoption of cold plasma as a new tool in the biomedical field. This review explores the latest major achievements in the field, focusing on the biological effects, mechanisms of action, and clinical evidence of CAP applications in areas such as skin disinfection, tissue regeneration, chronic wounds, and cancer treatment. This information may serve as a foundation for the design of future clinical trials to assess the efficacy and safety of CAP as an adjuvant therapy for skin cancer.

  2. Unraveling the interactions between cold atmospheric plasma and skin-components with vibrational microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartaschew, Konstantin; Mischo, Meike; Baldus, Sabrina; Bründermann, Erik; Awakowicz, Peter; Havenith, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Using infrared and Raman microspectroscopy, the authors examined the interaction of cold atmospheric plasma with the skin's built-in protective cushion, the outermost skin layer stratum corneum. Following a spectroscopic analysis, the authors could identify four prominent chemical alterations caused by plasma treatment: (1) oxidation of disulfide bonds in keratin leading to a generation of cysteic acid; (2) formation of organic nitrates as well as (3) of new carbonyl groups like ketones, aldehydes and acids; and (4) reduction of double bonds in the lipid matter lanolin, which resembles human sebum. The authors suggest that these generated acidic and NO-containing functional groups are the source of an antibacterial and regenerative environment at the treatment location of the stratum corneum. Based upon the author's results, the authors propose a mechanistic view of how cold atmospheric plasmas could modulate the skin chemistry to produce positive long-term effects on wound healing: briefly, cold atmospheric plasmas have the potential to transform the skin itself into a therapeutic resource.

  3. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  4. Anaphylaxis to muscle relaxants: rational for skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G

    2002-09-01

    IgE-dependent allergy to muscle relaxants (MR) has an estimated prevalence of 1 out of 6500 General Anesthesias (GA). 62% of anaphylaxis during surgery are due to MR anaphylaxis. All the molecules are divalent, carrying two NH4+ epitopes (quaternary ammonium ions), either structurally or after rapid in vivo protonization (vecuronium). The excellent overall performance of skin test makes them the golden standard for the diagnosis of anaphylactoid reactions. Techniques include intradermal tests and prick-tests. The current localizations are the forearm and the back. Positivity criteria are 3 mm for prick-tests. For IDTs, the criterium is the doubling of the size of the injection papula, when 0.02 to 0.04 ml is injected: 8 mm. The recommended concentrations are not falsely negative. Commercial concentrations can be tested by prick tests, except for mivacurium and atracurium tested of 1:10 dilution. A scale of concentrations is advised for IDT starting with 1:10,000, up to a normally non reactive concentration that is: 100 micrograms/ml (succinylcholine), 200 micrograms/ml (gallamine), 10 micrograms/ml (atracurium), 2 micrograms/ml (mivacurium), 200 micrograms/ml (pancuronium), 400 micrograms/ml (vecuronium), 1,000 micrograms/ml (rocuronium), 200 micrograms/ml (cis atracurium). The specificity and sensitivity of the skin tests to MRs are greater than 95%. The reproducibility over years is 88%. The overall concordance of PT and IDR is 97%. Both types of tests can be used for the diagnosis. IDT have to be carried out for the search of the cross sensitization. 84% of patients do have cross sensitization to MRs but only 16% react to all MRs. The further use of MRs selected by negative IDTs has been proved to be safe.

  5. Biological stimulation of the Human skin applying health promoting light and plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakowicz, P.; Bibinov, N. [Center for Plasma Science and Technology, Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany); Born, M.; Niemann, U. [Philips Research, Aachen (Germany); Busse, B. [Zell-Kontakt GmbH, Noerten-Hardenberg (Germany); Gesche, R.; Kuehn, S.; Porteanu, H.E. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany); Kaemling, A.; Wandke, D. [CINOGY GmbH, Duderstadt (Germany); Kolb-Bachofen, V.; Liebmann, J. [Institute for Immunobiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kovacs, R.; Mertens, N.; Scherer, J. [Aurion Anlagentechnik GmbH, Seligenstadt (Germany); Oplaender, C.; Suschek, C. [Clinic for Plastic Surgery, University Clinic, Aachen (Germany); Vioel, W. [Laser-Laboratorium, Goettingen (Germany); University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    In the frame of BMBF project ''BioLiP'', new physical treatment techniques aiming at medical treatment of the human skin have been developed. The acronym BioLiP stands for ''Desinfektion, Entkeimung und biologische Stimulation der Haut durch gesundheitsfoerdernde Licht- und Plasmaquellen'' (Disinfection, germ reduction and biological stimulation of the human skin by health promoting light and plasma sources). A source applying a low-temperature dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) has been investigated on its effectiveness for skin disinfection and stimulation of biological material. Alternatively an atmospheric plasma source consisting of a microwave resonator combined with a solid state power oscillator has been examined. This concept which allows for a compact and efficient design avoiding external microwave power supply and matching units has been optimized with respect to nitrogen monoxide (NO) production in high yields. In both cases various application possibilities in the medical and biological domain are opened up. Light sources in the visible spectral range have been investigated with respect to the proliferation of human cell types. Intensive highly selective blue light sources based on LED technology can slow down proliferation rates without inducing toxic effects which offers new opportunities for treatments of so-called hyperproliferative skin conditions (e.g. with psoriasis or in wound healing) using UV-free light. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. How plasma induced oxidation, oxygenation, and de-oxygenation influences viability of skin cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Strudwick, Xanthe; Short, Robert D.; Ogawa, Kotaro; Hatta, Akimitsu; Furuta, Hiroshi; Gaur, Nishtha; Hong, Sung-Ha; Cowin, Allison J.; Fukuhara, Hideo; Inoue, Keiji; Ito, Masafumi; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Roderick W.; Bradley, James W.; Graves, David B.; Szili, Endre J.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of oxidation, oxygenation, and de-oxygenation arising from He gas jet and He plasma jet treatments on the viability of skin cells cultured in vitro has been investigated. He gas jet treatment de-oxygenated cell culture medium in a process referred to as "sparging." He plasma jet treatments oxidized, as well as oxygenated or de-oxygenated cell culture medium depending on the dissolved oxygen concentration at the time of treatment. He gas and plasma jets were shown to have beneficial or deleterious effects on skin cells depending on the concentration of dissolved oxygen and other oxidative molecules at the time of treatment. Different combinations of treatments with He gas and plasma jets can be used to modulate the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and other oxidative molecules to influence cell viability. This study highlights the importance of a priori knowledge of the concentration of dissolved oxygen at the time of plasma jet treatment, given the potential for significant impact on the biological or medical outcome. Monitoring and controlling the dynamic changes in dissolved oxygen is essential in order to develop effective strategies for the use of cold atmospheric plasma jets in biology and medicine.

  7. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C;

    2006-01-01

    test (SPT) positivity in Danish children has changed from 1986 to 2001. METHODS: Serial cross-sectional studies of two different random population samples of children aged 7 to 17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark, were performed 15 years apart. The first cohort was investigated in 1986...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...... to most allergens tested, statistically significant; however, only for mugwort and Alternaria iridis. Among subjects, who were sensitized to only one allergen, we found significantly fewer individuals with reactions to D. pteronyssinus and mugwort. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of atopic sensitization...

  8. CLINICAL RESULTS FROM THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC SKIN WOUNDS WITH PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To show platelet rich plasma (PRP) application of chronic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2009 to December 2014) with the following patient sex ratio: male patients - 5 and female patients - 9. Average age - 48,5 (30-76). Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - 4, with decubitus ulcers - 6, traumatic - 8, with infection -...

  9. PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP) FOR THE TREATMENT OF PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To show platelet-rich plasma (PRP) application of problematic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 31 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2010 to September 2015) with the following patient sex ratio: male patients– 13 and female patients– 18. Average age– 46,5 (22-82). Patients with Type 2 Diabetes– 10, with decubitus ulcers– 2, traumatic– 29, with infect...

  10. Predicting the Development of Tuberculosis with the Tuberculin Skin Test and QuantiFERON Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altet, Neus; Dominguez, José; Souza-Galvão, Maria-Luiza de; Jiménez-Fuentes, M Ángeles; Milà, Célia; Solsona, Jordi; Soriano-Arandés, Antonio; Latorre, Irene; Lara, Elisa; Cantos, Adela; Ferrer, María Dolores; Orcau, Àngels; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Caylà, Joan

    2015-05-01

    The identification of patients with latent tuberculosis infection, who are at higher risk to develop active disease, is an important component of disease control. We aim to compare the usefulness of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube assay and the tuberculin skin test to predict the development of active tuberculosis during follow-up, using positive and negative predictive values, positive likelihood ratios, and stratified level of risk. The study included contacts of tuberculosis cases diagnosed between 2007 and 2009. All contacts included were from the first circle of exposure. Tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON test were performed and a chest radiograph was obtained during the contact's study. A total of 1,335 contacts were followed up for 4 years: a smear-positive index case was identified for 937 contacts, of whom 15 developed active tuberculosis and had initially presented with positive tuberculin skin test/QuantiFERON results, a normal chest radiograph, and no symptoms. The positive predictive value was 4% for QuantiFERON and 2% for the tuberculin skin test (when ≥5 mm). The probability of developing active disease was 2.36 times higher with a positive QuantiFERON, and 1.3 times higher with a positive tuberculin skin test. The positive predictive value was 17%, and the positive likelihood ratio was 7.53 for untreated contacts with a positive QuantiFERON. Stratifying according to initial QuantiFERON results showed a 6.36 times higher risk of developing active tuberculosis for patients with a QuantiFERON result greater than or equal to 10 IU/ml. Among bacillus Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated patients, a tuberculin skin test induration greater than or equal to 15 mm correlated better with a positive QuantiFERON. QuantiFERON results were more accurate than tuberculin skin test results in predicting tuberculosis. Although all contacts with QuantiFERON-positive results are at risk of developing tuberculosis, those with a tuberculin skin test induration greater than

  11. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2016-12-01

    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  12. Electron spectroscopic analysis of the human lipid skin barrier: cold atmospheric plasma-induced changes in lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschewski, Marcel; Hirschberg, Joanna; Omairi, Tarek; Höfft, Oliver; Viöl, Wolfgang; Emmert, Steffen; Maus-Friedrichs, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    The lipids of the stratum corneum comprise the most important components of the skin barrier. In patients with ichthyoses or atopic dermatitis, the composition of the skin barrier lipids is disturbed resulting in dry, scaly, itching erythematous skin. Using the latest X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) technology, we investigated the physiological skin lipid composition of human skin and the effects of cold atmospheric plasma treatment on the lipid composition. Skin lipids were stripped off forearms of six healthy volunteers using the cyanoacrylate glue technique, plasma treated or not and then subjected to detailed XPS analysis. We found that the human lipid skin barrier consisted of 84.4% carbon (+1.3 SEM%), 10.8% oxygen (+1.0 SEM%) and 4.8% nitrogen (+0.3 SEM%). The composition of physiological skin lipids was not different in males and females. Plasma treatment resulted in significant changes in skin barrier lipid stoichiometry. The total carbon amount was reduced to 76.7%, and the oxygen amount increased to 16.5%. There was also a slight increase in nitrogen to 6.8%. These changes could be attributed to reduced C-C bonds and increased C-O, C=O, C-N and N-C-O bonds. The moderate increase in nitrogen was caused by an increase in C-N and N-C-O bonds. Our results show for the first time that plasma treatment leads to considerable changes in the human skin lipid barrier. Our proof of principle investigations established the technical means to analyse, if plasma-induced skin lipid barrier changes may be beneficial in the treatment of ichthyotic or eczematous skin.

  13. Freeze-drying as a preserving preparation technique for in vitro testing of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Lutz; Vidlářová, Lucie; Kostka, Karl-Heinz; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-01-01

    In vitro testing of drugs with excised human skin is a valuable prerequisite for clinical studies. However, the analysis of excised human skin presents several obstacles. Ongoing drug diffusion, microbial growth and changes in hydration state influence the results of drug penetration studies. In this work, we evaluate freeze-drying as a preserving preparation method for skin samples to overcome these obstacles. We analyse excised human skin before and after freeze-drying and compare these results with human skin in vivo. Based on comprehensive thermal and spectroscopic analysis, we demonstrate comparability to in vivo conditions and exclude significant changes within the skin samples due to freeze-drying. Furthermore, we show that freeze-drying after skin incubation with drugs prevents growth of drug crystals on the skin surface due to drying effects. In conclusion, we introduce freeze-drying as a preserving preparation technique for in vitro testing of human skin.

  14. Numerical simulation of an atmospheric pressure RF-driven plasma needle and heat transfer to adjacent human skin using COMSOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Maximilian; Ochoa, Angel; Breitkopf, Cornelia

    2015-06-07

    Plasma medicine is an emerging field where plasma physics is used for therapeutical applications. Temperature is an important factor to take into account with respect to the applications of plasma to biological systems. During the treatment, the tissue temperature could increase to critical values. In this work, a model is presented, which is capable of predicting the skin temperature during a treatment with a radio frequency driven plasma needle. The main gas was helium. To achieve this, a discharge model was coupled to a heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results provide maximum application times for different power depositions in order to avoid reaching critical skin temperatures.

  15. Clinical patterns and results of radioallergosorbent test (RAST) and skin tests in penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D; Wide, L

    1976-06-01

    Seventy-nine patients with acute or former reactions to penicillin were investigated by a benzylpenicilloyl (BPO)-specific RAST and/or by skin tests with penicilloyl-polylysine (PPL), benzylpenicillin and penicilloic acid and the results were correlated with the different clinical pictures. Positive RAST and skin test results could be found in patients with anaphylactic shock, urticaria and serum sickness-like reaction and sometimes in a special group of exanthems, which are characterized by the existence of many different lesions at the same time, therefore called 'polymorphic exanthems', and often observed after high-dosage penicillin therapy. In cases of scarlatiniform or morbilliform exanthems no positive results were found. The BPO-specific RAST showed an overall correlation of 95-I% with skin tests using PPL. However, some patients with positive skin tests to benzylpenicillin and penicilloic acid did no have detectable circulating IgE antibodies to BPO. This emphasizes the need for including these antigens in in vitro methods. The RAST was informative even at the allergic reaction or in the first 15 days afterwards and seems to be very valuable for early diagnosis of penicillin allergy especially in cases when many drugs have been given.

  16. In vitro skin irritation testing: Improving the sensitivity of the EpiDerm skin irritation test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandárová, Helena; Hayden, Patrick; Klausner, Mitch; Kubilus, Joseph; Kearney, Paul; Sheasgreen, John

    2009-12-01

    A skin irritation test (SIT) utilising a common protocol for two in vitro reconstructed human epidermal (RhE) models, EPISKIN and EpiDerm, was developed, optimised and evaluated as a replacement for the in vivo rabbit skin irritation test in an ECVAM-sponsored validation study. In 2007, both RhE models were recognised by an independent peer-review panel and the ECVAM Scientific Advisory Committee (ESAC) as validated for use with the common SIT protocol. The EPISKIN SIT was endorsed as a full replacement of the in vivo rabbit test. Since the EpiDerm SIT proved to be less sensitive than the in vivo test and the EPISKIN SIT, the test was recognised as a validated component of a tiered testing strategy, in which positive results are accepted and negative results require further confirmation. The ESAC, in its April 2007 statement, also recommended increasing the sensitivity of the EpiDerm SIT, in order to gain the full acceptance. Analysis of the EpiDerm and EPISKIN data from the ECVAM validation study indicated that the lower sensitivity of the EpiDerm SIT might be linked to the more robust barrier properties of the EpiDerm model. This hypothesis was also in line with results published previously. To overcome the relatively low sensitivity of the EpiDerm protocol as a hindrance to full regulatory acceptance, a modification of exposure conditions was introduced into the protocol to achieve better agreement with the in vivo rabbit data. In the Modified EpiDerm SIT protocol, the test chemical exposure time was increased from 15 minutes to 60 minutes. In addition, part of the exposure was performed at 37 degrees C. When the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assay endpoint was used for classification, a significant increase of sensitivity was obtained (86.1%), whilst maintaining the high specificity of the method (76.3%). With the change to the EU classification system, which now uses higher cut-off for the classification of

  17. Dual effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on skin wound healing of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Min; Shi, Xing-Min; Cai, Jing-Fen; Chen, Si-Le; Li, Ping; Yao, Cong-Wei; Chang, Zheng-Shi; Zhang, Guan-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Cold plasma has become an attractive tool for promoting wound healing and treating skin diseases. This article presents an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) generated in argon gas through dielectric barrier discharge, which was applied to superficial skin wounds in BALB/c mice. The mice (n = 50) were assigned randomly into five groups (named A, B, C, D, E) with 10 animals in each group. Natural wound healing was compared with stimulated wound healing treated daily with APPJ for different time spans (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 seconds) on 14 consecutive days. APPJ emission spectra, morphological changes in animal wounds, and tissue histological parameters were analyzed. Statistical results revealed that wound size changed over the duration of the experimental period and there was a significant interaction between experimental day and group. Differences between group C and other groups at day 7 were statistically significant (p plasma could inactivate bacteria around the wound, activate fibroblast proliferation in wound tissue, and eventually promote wound healing. Whereas, over doses of plasma suppressed wound healing due to causing cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Both positive and negative effects may be related to the existence of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in APPJ.

  18. Food-induced contact urticaria syndrome (CUS) in atopic dermatitis: Reproducibility of repeated and duplicate testing with a skin provocation test,the skin application food test (SAFT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Oranje (Arnold); D. van Gysel (Dirk); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); P.H. Dieges

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIgE-mediated contact urticaria syndrome (CUS) is one of the manifestations of allergy in childhood atopic dermatitis (AD). Allergens such as foods and animal products penetrate the skin easily. They can then cause urticarial reactions in sensitized individuals. A provocation test system

  19. AUTOLOGOUS SERUM SKIN TESTING (ASST IN CHRONIC IDIOPATHIC URTICARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU is a form of urticaria , in which there appears to be persistent activation of mast cells , but the mechanism of mast cell triggering is unknown. The Autologous serum skin test (ASST is an in vivo test which assesses auto reactivity. ASST could be good screening test for Autoreactive urticaria a subset of chronic idiopathic urticaria. AIMS : To study the clinical profile of chronic idiopathic urticaria and pattern of ASST among p atients of chronic idiopathic urticaria. METHODS : Study included 200 patients of CIU that were recruited from outpatient department (OPD. Patient s with a history of urticaria for more than 6 weeks were included in the study. The detailed history , cutaneou s and systemic examination was done. ASST was performed under strict aseptic precaution. RESULTS : Out of 200 patients 100 were male and 100 were female. Mean age of patients was 31.9 yrs. Most common age group was 25 - 34yrs. ASST was found positive in 36(18 % patients. In most of the patients duration of disease was less than 11months (42% with the mean duration of disease 21.74 months. Mean duration of wheal was 64.7 minutes , in which most of the patients (112 having duration of wheal less than 59 min. Hi story of angioedema was positive in 109(54.5% patients. Aggravating factors were positive in 50(25% patients in which drugs and cold were the most common. Family history of urticaria and angioedema was present in 35 patients. None of patient complained a ny adverse reactions during and after ASST. CONCLUSION : ASST is the easily available bed side test for the diagnosis of autoreactive urticaria. It is a simple , inexpensive , semi invasive and easy - to - perform test which can be done and recorded by the dermat ologist himself. ASST may help in diagnosis and management of chronic idiopathic urticaria.

  20. Pumpless microfluidic platform for drug testing on human skin equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Gledhill, Karl; Guo, Zongyou; Christiano, Angela M.; Shuler, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in bio-mimetic in vitro human skin models increase the efficiency of drug screening studies. In this study, we designed and developed a microfluidic platform that allows for long-term maintenance of full thickness human skin equivalents (HSE) which are comprised of both the epidermal and dermal compartments. The design is based on the physiologically relevant blood residence times in human skin tissue and allows for the establishment of an air-epidermal interface which is crucial for...

  1. Testing Plasma Physics in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    TESTING PLASMA PHYSICS IN THE IONOSPHERE K. Papadopoulos University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 Ionospheric heaters supplemented by ground and space based diagnostic instruments, such as radars, optical cameras and photometers, HF/VLF/ELF/ULF receivers and magnetometers, radio beacons, riometers and ionosondes have for a long time being used to conduct plasma physics, geophysical and radio science investigations. The latest entry to ionospheric heating, the HF transmitter associated with the High Frequency Active Ionospheric Research Program (HAARP), was completed in February 2007. The transmitter consists of 180 antenna elements spanning 30.6 acres and can radiate 3.6 MW of HF power in the 2.8-10.0 MHz frequency range. With increasing frequency the beam-width varies from 15-5 degrees, corresponding to 20-30 dB gain and resulting in Effective Radiating Power (ERP) between .36 - 4.0 GW. The antenna can point to any direction in a cone of 30 degrees from the vertical, with a reposition time of 15 degrees in 15 microseconds resulting in super-luminous scanning speeds. The transmitter can synthesize essentially any desired waveform within the regulatory allowed bandwidth in linear and circular polarization. These capabilities far exceed those of previous ionospheric heaters and allow for new frontier research in plasma physics, geophysics and radio science. Following a brief discussion of the relationship of the new capabilities of the facility with thresholds of physical processes that could not be achieved previously, the presentation will discuss recent results in the areas of ULF/ELF/VLF generation and propagation and wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere acquired with the completed facility. The presentation will conclude with a detailed discussion of possible frontier science experiments in the areas of Langmuir turbulence, parametric instabilities, electron acceleration, optical emissions and field aligned striations and duct generation, made

  2. Decolonisation of MRSA, S. aureus and E. coli by cold-atmospheric plasma using a porcine skin model in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Maisch

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years new antibacterial agents approved by the U.S. FDA decreased whereas in parallel the resistance situation of multi-resistant bacteria increased. Thus, community and nosocomial acquired infections of resistant bacteria led to a decrease in the efficacy of standard therapy, prolonging treatment time and increasing healthcare costs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of cold atmospheric plasma for decolonisation of Gram-positive (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli using an ex vivo pig skin model. Freshly excised skin samples were taken from six month old female pigs (breed: Pietrain. After application of pure bacteria on the surface of the explants these were treated with cold atmospheric plasma for up to 15 min. Two different plasma devices were evaluated. A decolonisation efficacy of 3 log(10 steps was achieved already after 6 min of plasma treatment. Longer plasma treatment times achieved a killing rate of 5 log(10 steps independently from the applied bacteria strains. Histological evaluations of untreated and treated skin areas upon cold atmospheric plasma treatment within 24 h showed no morphological changes as well as no significant degree of necrosis or apoptosis determined by the TUNEL-assay indicating that the porcine skin is still vital. This study demonstrates for the first time that cold atmospheric plasma is able to very efficiently kill bacteria applied to an intact skin surface using an ex vivo porcine skin model. The results emphasize the potential of cold atmospheric plasma as a new possible treatment option for decolonisation of human skin from bacteria in patients in the future without harming the surrounding tissue.

  3. Integration, Testing, and Analysis of Multispectral Imager on Small Unmanned Aerial System for Skin Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    INTEGRATION, TESTING, AND ANALYSIS OF MULTISPECTRAL IMAGER ON SMALL UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEM FOR SKIN......12 2.5 Image Registration ................................................................................................16 2.6

  4. Treatment of a Refractory Skin Ulcer Using Punch Graft and Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carducci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic ulceration of the lower legs is a relatively common condition amongst adults: one that causes pain and social distress and results in considerable healthcare and personal costs. The technique of punch grafting offers an alternative approach to the treatment of ulcers of the lower limbs. Objective. Combining platelet-rich plasma and skin graft enhances the efficacy of treating chronic diabetic wounds by enhancing healing rate and decreasing recurrence rate. Platelet-rich plasma could, by stimulating dermal regeneration, increase the take rate after skin grafting or speed up reepithelialization. Methods and Materials. The ulcer was prepared by removing fibrin with a curette and the edges of the ulcer were freshened. The platelet-rich plasma has been infiltrated on the bottom and edges of the ulcer. The punch grafts were placed in 5 mm holes arranged. The ulcer was medicated with hydrogel and a pressure dressing was removed after 8 days. Results. After a few days the patient did not report more pain. Granulation tissue appeared quickly between implants. Most of the grafts were viable in 2-3 weeks. The grafts gradually came together to close the ulcer and were completed in four months.

  5. Effect of intraoperative platelet-rich plasma and fibrin glue application on skin flap survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findikcioglu, Fulya; Findikcioglu, Kemal; Yavuzer, Reha; Lortlar, Nese; Atabay, Kenan

    2012-09-01

    The experiment was designed to compare the effect of intraoperative platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and fibrin glue application on skin flap survival. In this study, bilateral epigastric flaps were elevated in 24 rats. The right-side flaps were used as the control of the left-side flaps. Platelet-rich plasma, fibrin glue, and thrombin had been applied under the flap sites in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Five days later, all flap pedicles were ligated. Necrotic area measurements, microangiography, and histologic and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed to compare the groups. Platelet-rich plasma reduced necrotic area percentages as compared with other groups. Histologically and microangiographically increased number of arterioles were observed in PRP groups. Thrombin when used alone increased flap necrosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor β3 primary antibody staining showed increased neovascularization and reepithelialization in all PRP-applied flaps. This study demonstrated that PRP, when applied intraoperatively under the skin flap, may enhance flap survival. Thrombin used alone was found to be unsuitable in flap surgery.

  6. Structural modification of the skin barrier by OH radicals: a reactive molecular dynamics study for plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Paal, J.; Verlackt, C. C.; Yusupov, M.; Neyts, E. C.; Bogaerts, A.

    2015-04-01

    While plasma treatment of skin diseases and wound healing has been proven highly effective, the underlying mechanisms, and more generally the effect of plasma radicals on skin tissue, are not yet completely understood. In this paper, we perform ReaxFF-based reactive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interaction of plasma generated OH radicals with a model system composed of free fatty acids, ceramides, and cholesterol molecules. This model system is an approximation of the upper layer of the skin (stratum corneum). All interaction mechanisms observed in our simulations are initiated by H-abstraction from one of the ceramides. This reaction, in turn, often starts a cascade of other reactions, which eventually lead to the formation of aldehydes, the dissociation of ceramides or the elimination of formaldehyde, and thus eventually to the degradation of the skin barrier function.

  7. ECVAM's activities in validating alternative tests for skin corrosion and irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentem, Julia H; Botham, Philip A

    2002-12-01

    ECVAM has funded and managed validation studies on in vitro tests for skin corrosion, resulting in the validities of four in vitro tests being endorsed by the ECVAM Scientific Advisory Committee: the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay, two tests based on the use of commercial reconstituted human skin equivalents, EPISKIN and EpiDerm, and another commercially-produced test, CORROSITEX. In the European Union (EU), a new test method on skin corrosion (B.40), incorporating the rat skin TER and human skin model assays, was included in Annex V of Directive 67/548/EEC in mid-2000, thereby making the use of in vitro alternatives for skin corrosion testing of chemicals mandatory in the EU. At the recommendation of its Skin Irritation Task Force, ECVAM has funded prevalidation studies on five in vitro tests for acute skin irritation: EpiDerm, EPISKIN, PREDISKIN, the pig-ear test, and the mouse-skin integrity function test (SIFT). However, none of the tests met the criteria (set by the Management Team for the studies) for inclusion in a large-scale formal validation study. Thus, to date, there are no validated in vitro tests for predicting the dermal irritancy of chemicals. Following further work on the EPISKIN, EpiDerm and SIFT test protocols and/or prediction models after the completion of the prevalidation studies, it appears that the modified tests could meet the performance criteria defined for progression to a validation study. This will now be assessed independently by the ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force, with the objective of taking a decision before the end of 2002 on whether to conduct a formal validation study.

  8. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kUA/L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kUA/L) compared with adults (5.10 kUA/L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kUA/L) (P venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term repeatability of the skin prick test is high when supported by history or allergen-sensitivity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Jacobsen, C R; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2003-01-01

    Long-term reproducibility of the skin-prick test (SPT) has been questioned. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical relevance of SPT changes.......Long-term reproducibility of the skin-prick test (SPT) has been questioned. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical relevance of SPT changes....

  10. Factors influencing and modifying the decision to pursue genetic testing for skin cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Alexander L; Jaju, Prajakta D; Li, Shufeng; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2017-05-01

    Across cancers, the decision to pursue genetic testing is influenced more by subjective than objective factors. However, skin cancer, which is more prevalent, visual, and multifactorial than many other malignancies, may offer different motivations for pursuing such testing. The primary objective was to determine factors influencing the decision to receive genetic testing for skin cancer risk. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of priming with health questions on the decision to receive testing. We distributed anonymous online surveys through ResearchMatch.org to assess participant health, demographics, motivations, and interest in pursuing genetic testing for skin cancer risk. Two surveys with identical questions but different question ordering were used to assess the secondary objective. We received 3783 responses (64% response rate), and 85.8% desired testing. Subjective factors, including curiosity, perceptions of skin cancer, and anxiety, were the most statistically significant determinants of the decision to pursue testing (P skin cancer (odds ratio 0.5, P = .01). Age and family history of skin cancer did not influence this decision. Participants increasingly chose testing if first queried about health behaviors (P skin cancer is primarily determined by subjective factors, such as anxiety and curiosity. Health factors, including skin cancer history, also influenced decision-making. Priming with consideration of objective health factors can increase the desire to pursue testing. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Duration of postoperative immunosuppression assessed by repeated delayed type hypersensitivity skin tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J H; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Moesgaard, F;

    1992-01-01

    The duration of postoperative impairment in cell-mediated immunity was assessed by repeated skin testing with seven delayed type common antigens in 15 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery compared to a similar testing regimen in 10 healthy volunteers. All were skin tested four times......, with 72-hour intervals, and in the surgical patients the first test was applied 2 days before surgery, followed by tests on postoperative days 1, 4 and 7. The tests were read after 48 h. Postoperatively, the skin test area decreased on day 3 (p less than 0.01) and recurred to preoperative levels on day 9....... In contrast, the skin test area in the volunteers increased from test to test (p less than 0.001) during the study, confirming a previous finding of a vaccination effect. These results suggest that the postoperative immunosuppression is maintained for about 6-9 days....

  12. Skin models for the testing of transdermal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eman Abd,1 Shereen A Yousef,1 Michael N Pastore,2 Krishna Telaprolu,1 Yousuf H Mohammed,1 Sarika Namjoshi,1 Jeffrey E Grice,1 Michael S Roberts1,2 1Translational Research Institute, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 2School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia Abstract: The assessment of percutaneous permeation of molecules is a key step in the evaluation of dermal or transdermal delivery systems. If the drugs are intended for delivery to humans, the most appropriate setting in which to do the assessment is the in vivo human. However, this may not be possible for ethical, practical, or economic reasons, particularly in the early phases of development. It is thus necessary to find alternative methods using accessible and reproducible surrogates for in vivo human skin. A range of models has been developed, including ex vivo human skin, usually obtained from cadavers or plastic surgery patients, ex vivo animal skin, and artificial or reconstructed skin models. Increasingly, largely driven by regulatory authorities and industry, there is a focus on developing standardized techniques and protocols. With this comes the need to demonstrate that the surrogate models produce results that correlate with those from in vivo human studies and that they can be used to show bioequivalence of different topical products. This review discusses the alternative skin models that have been developed as surrogates for normal and diseased skin and examines the concepts of using model systems for in vitro–in vivo correlation and the demonstration of bioequivalence. Keywords: percutaneous permeation, dermal delivery, transdermal, bioequivalence, ex vivo skin models, reconstructed skin

  13. Skin models for the testing of transdermal drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd, Eman; Yousef, Shereen A; Pastore, Michael N; Telaprolu, Krishna; Mohammed, Yousuf H; Namjoshi, Sarika; Grice, Jeffrey E; Roberts, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of percutaneous permeation of molecules is a key step in the evaluation of dermal or transdermal delivery systems. If the drugs are intended for delivery to humans, the most appropriate setting in which to do the assessment is the in vivo human. However, this may not be possible for ethical, practical, or economic reasons, particularly in the early phases of development. It is thus necessary to find alternative methods using accessible and reproducible surrogates for in vivo human skin. A range of models has been developed, including ex vivo human skin, usually obtained from cadavers or plastic surgery patients, ex vivo animal skin, and artificial or reconstructed skin models. Increasingly, largely driven by regulatory authorities and industry, there is a focus on developing standardized techniques and protocols. With this comes the need to demonstrate that the surrogate models produce results that correlate with those from in vivo human studies and that they can be used to show bioequivalence of different topical products. This review discusses the alternative skin models that have been developed as surrogates for normal and diseased skin and examines the concepts of using model systems for in vitro–in vivo correlation and the demonstration of bioequivalence. PMID:27799831

  14. Use of recombinant CFP-10 protein for a skin test specific for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... as the specific antigen in the skin test for the diagnosis of MTB infection in humans. Key words: ... experimental animals and humans to the recombinant. CFP-10 or ..... turing and quality control of skin test reagents. CFP-10 is ...

  15. Chitin microneedles for an easy-to-use tuberculosis skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jungho; Reese, Valerie; Coler, Rhea; Carter, Darrick; Rolandi, Marco

    2014-03-01

    An easy-to-use tuberculosis skin test is developed with chitin microneedles that deliver purified protein derivative at the correct skin depth and result in a positive test in BCG-immunized guinea pigs. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, S.C.; Maas, W.J.M.; Nielsen, J.B.; Greaves, L.C.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Williams, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of skin thickness on the percutaneous penetration and distribution of test compounds with varying physicochemical properties using in vitro systems. Studies were carried out in accordance with OECD guidelines on skin absorption tests. Methods: Percutaneous penetra

  17. Cryogenic rf test of the first plasma etched SRF cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, J; Popović, S; Valente-Feliciano, A -M; Im, D; Phillips, L; Vušković, L

    2016-01-01

    Plasma etching has a potential to be an alternative processing technology for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. An apparatus and a method are developed for plasma etching of the inner surfaces of SRF cavities. To test the effect of the plasma etching on the cavity rf performance, a 1497 MHz single cell SRF cavity is used. The single cell cavity is mechanically polished, buffer chemically etched afterwards and rf tested at cryogenic temperatures for a baseline test. This cavity is then plasma processed. The processing was accomplished by moving axially the inner electrode and the gas flow inlet in a step-wise manner to establish segmented plasma processing. The cavity is rf tested afterwards at cryogenic temperatures. The rf test and surface condition results are presented.

  18. Comparison of human skin irritation patch test data with in vitro skin irritation assays and animal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jírová, Dagmar; Basketter, David; Liebsch, Manfred; Bendová, Hana; Kejlová, Kristina; Marriott, Marie; Kandárová, Helena

    2010-02-01

    Efforts to replace the rabbit skin irritation test have been underway for many years, encouraged by the EU Cosmetics Directive and REACH. Recently various in vitro tests have been developed, evaluated and validated. A key difficulty in confirming the validity of in vitro methods is that animal data are scarce and of limited utility for prediction of human effects, which adversely impacts their acceptance. This study examines whether in vivo or in vitro data most accurately predicted human effects. Using the 4-hr human patch test (HPT) we examined a number of chemicals whose EU classification of skin irritancy is known to be borderline, or where in vitro methods provided conflicting results. Of the 16 chemicals classified as irritants in the rabbit, only five substances were found to be significantly irritating to human skin. Concordance of the rabbit test with the 4-hr HPT was only 56%, whereas concordance of human epidermis models with human data was 76% (EpiDerm) and 70% (EPISKIN). The results confirm observations that rabbits overpredict skin effects in humans. Therefore, when validating in vitro methods, all available information, including human data, should be taken into account before making conclusions about their predictive capacity.

  19. CLINICAL RESULTS FROM THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC SKIN WOUNDS WITH PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencho Kossev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To show platelet rich plasma (PRP application of chronic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2009 to December 2014 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients - 5 and female patients - 9. Average age - 48,5 (30-76. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - 4, with decubitus ulcers - 6, traumatic - 8, with infection - 5. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 - 6 months (4,5 on average. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score - 12 p.; Total anatomic score - 10 p., Total score - 17 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  20. Development of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after Leishmania Skin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Augusto M.; Machado, Gustavo U.; Dantas, Marina L.; Arruda, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-year-old female with a previous history of a cutaneous ulcer suspicious of leishmaniasis 20 years ago presented with a new complaint of a depressed papular lesion 8 × 7 mm in the right lower extremity. The lesion was of 10-day duration. Because early cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions may have a non-ulcerated appearance, a Leishmania skin test (LST) was performed on the forearm with a strong positive result (38 × 32 mm). After 8 days, the lesion in the leg, which was diagnosed as folliculitis, completely healed. However, a typical CL ulcer (26 × 24 mm) developed at the LST site. Histopathology of the new lesion did not identifiy parasites, but the findings were consistent with a diagnosis of CL. Further analysis identified amastigotes by immunohistochemical stain. Mononuclear cells harvested from the patient were stimulated with Leishmania antigen and showed high levels of production of both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ): 2,943 pg/mL and 2,313 pg/mL, respectively. After 40 days of treatment with antimony and pentoxifylline, the ulcer resolved. The development of CL at the LST site suggests a strong Th1 immune response, and it is an in vivo documentation of the role of the host immune response in the pathology of CL. It teaches us that LST should be cautiously, if at all, used in patients with self-healing CL ulcers. PMID:22162702

  1. Development of cutaneous leishmaniasis after leishmania skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo R; Carvalho, Augusto M; Machado, Gustavo U; Dantas, Marina L; Arruda, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-year-old female with a previous history of a cutaneous ulcer suspicious of leishmaniasis 20 years ago presented with a new complaint of a depressed papular lesion 8 × 7 mm in the right lower extremity. The lesion was of 10-day duration. Because early cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions may have a non-ulcerated appearance, a Leishmania skin test (LST) was performed on the forearm with a strong positive result (38 × 32 mm). After 8 days, the lesion in the leg, which was diagnosed as folliculitis, completely healed. However, a typical CL ulcer (26 × 24 mm) developed at the LST site. Histopathology of the new lesion did not identifiy parasites, but the findings were consistent with a diagnosis of CL. Further analysis identified amastigotes by immunohistochemical stain. Mononuclear cells harvested from the patient were stimulated with Leishmania antigen and showed high levels of production of both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ): 2,943 pg/mL and 2,313 pg/mL, respectively. After 40 days of treatment with antimony and pentoxifylline, the ulcer resolved. The development of CL at the LST site suggests a strong Th1 immune response, and it is an in vivo documentation of the role of the host immune response in the pathology of CL. It teaches us that LST should be cautiously, if at all, used in patients with self-healing CL ulcers.

  2. Update on the validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative tests for skin corrosion and irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentem, Julia H; Botham, Philip A

    2004-06-01

    The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) has supported validation studies on in vitro tests for skin corrosion, resulting in the validities of four alternative tests being endorsed. The US Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) has also evaluated the validity of these alternative methods for skin corrosion testing. In the European Union, a new Test Method on Skin Corrosion (B.40), incorporating the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance and human skin model assays, was included in Annex V of Directive 67/548/EEC in mid-2000. At an international level, two OECD Test Guidelines (430 and 431) on these alternative methods have been approved as of May 2002. To date, there are no validated in vitro tests for predicting the dermal irritancy of chemicals. ECVAM supported prevalidation studies on five in vitro tests for acute skin irritation during 1999-2001. These tests were based on human, pig and mouse skin. However, none of them met the criteria set for inclusion in a large-scale formal validation study. Following additional work on the test protocols and/or prediction models, it appears that several modified tests could now be ready for validation in 2003.

  3. Insertion Testing of Polyethylene Glycol Microneedle Array into Cultured Human Skin with Biaxial Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hiroto; Miyano, Takaya; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki

    Aiming at the practical use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microneedles for transdermal drug delivery system (DDS), a testing apparatus for their insertion into cultured human skin has been developed. To simulate the variety of conditions of human skin, biaxial tension can be applied to the cultured human skin. An adopted testing scheme to apply and control the biaxial tension is similar to the deep-draw forming technique. An attention was also paid to the short-time setup of small, thin and wet cultured skin. One dimensional array with four needles was inserted and influence of tension was discussed. It was found that tension, deflection of skin during insertion and original curvature of skin are the important parameters for microneedles array design.

  4. PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP FOR THE TREATMENT OF PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show platelet-rich plasma (PRP application of problematic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 31 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2010 to September 2015 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients– 13 and female patients– 18. Average age– 46,5 (22-82. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes– 10, with decubitus ulcers– 2, traumatic– 29, with infection– 12, acute– 15, chronic– 16. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 – 6 months (4,5 on average. We used platelet rich plasma derived by PRGF Endoret system, applied on the wound bed on a weekly basis. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score – 10 p.; Total anatomic score – 8 p., Total score – 15 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  5. [The relationship between the skin allergy test and house dust mites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atambay, Metin; Aycan, Ozlem M; Yoloğlu, Saim; Karaman, Ulkü; Daldal, Nilgün

    2006-01-01

    Since 1960 it has been known that house dust mites are related to allergy and that they cause pulmonary tract diseases. There are various house dust mites and among these Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes, 1961) are best known with regard to their medical importance and morphological characteristics. Skin tests are used to determine the role of mites in allergic diseases. The tests are performed by using D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae antigens. In order to study, the concordance between the skin test results and the presence of house dust mites, dust samples from the houses of 49 patients diagnosed with allergic diseases who underwent skin tests were taken to investigate the presence of mites in dust. House dust mites were determined in 23 (46.3%) of the houses. Mites were found in the houses of 15 (50.0%) of 30 patients with positive skin test results and 8 (42.0%) of 19 patients with negative skin test results. There was no significant difference between the skin test positivity and negativity in the presence of house dust mites (P>0,005). In conclusion, we thought that it was necessary to evaluate the presence of mites in the houses of people who have allergic symptoms even if they had negative skin test results.

  6. Skin test screening for tuberculosis among healthcare students: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, G B; Antoniozzi, T; Ortis, M; Pippia, V; Sernia, S

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to document the baseline prevalence of healthcare students positive to tuberculosis skin tests screening. Between 2008-2010, students admitted to healthcare courses (medicine, nursing, physiotherapy...) at Sapienza university in Rome were requested to carry out personal tuberculosis skin test screening in their local district or town healthcare centers according to the italian guidelines. At the time interferongamma release assays (IGRA) testing was not adopted for large screening. Demographic characteristics, tuberculosis screening results, healthcare course, tuberculosis vaccination status were recorded. A cohort of 2,500 university healthcare students were screened by several Italian Hygiene Offices using tuberculin skin test and Tine test. Overall 131 (5.2%) healthcare students resulted positive to some tuberculosis skin test screening. Tuberculin skin test was carried out on 2,029 students (81.2%) and conversion was observed in 107 (5.3%), whereas Tine test was carried out on 498 students (19.9%) and positive result was observed in 24 (4.8%). The Tine test use and non optimal (skin tests was related mostly to some healthcare centers in Lazio and Campania regions. Previous BCG vaccination was reported by 27 healthcare students (1.1%), and only two of them showed tuberculin skin test conversion, whereas the large majority 105 (98.1%) of Mantoux positives had not been vaccinated. In univariate analysis positive tuberculin skin test was associated to growing students age (29.2 ± 10.3 vs. 23.1 ± 6.0; pskin test was recorded in 25 (20.3%) foreign and 82 (4.3%) italian students showing a higher risk for International students (RR 4.72; 95%CI 3.14 - 7.11; pskin test rate for tuberculosis among healthcare students in their first university year, showing a higher risk for the international group and revealed some problematic screening practices which need to be improved in the future screening programs.

  7. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-11-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO.

  8. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  9. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.K. Addo; S. van den Hof; G.I. Mensah; A. Hesse; C. Bonsu; K.A. Koram; F.K. Afutu; F.A. Bonsu

    2010-01-01

    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged

  10. A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addo, K.K.; van den Hof, S.; Mensah, G.I.; Hesse, A.; Bonsu, C.; Koram, K.A.; Afutu, F.K.; Bonsu, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Ghana has not conducted a national tuberculin survey or tuberculosis prevalence survey since the establishment of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. The primary objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin sensitivity in Ghanaian school children aged

  11. Respiratory allergies and skin test reactivity in high school students in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos Alonso, E; Fernández-Caldas, E; Seleznick, M J; Lockey, R F

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of skin test reactivity to 22 aeroallergens and of allergic respiratory diseases was determined in 501 high school students on the island of Tenerife, Spain. Two hundred seventy-seven students (55.2%) had at least one positive prick skin test (wheal > or = 2 mm). Two hundred sixteen students (43.1%) had symptoms of upper or lower respiratory tract allergies [24 (4.7%) had asthma with or without rhinitis and 192 (38.3%) seasonal or perennial rhinitis alone]. Two hundred eighty-five students (56.8%) were asymptomatic. One hundred per cent of the students with asthma, 87.5% of the students with rhinitis and 27.7% of the asymptomatic students had at least one positive skin test. The prevalence of positive skin tests was significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic students (p = 0.0001). One hundred seventy students (33.9%) had a family history of respiratory allergic diseases. The prevalence of positive skin tests among these students was significantly higher than in students without such history (p = 0.0001). Thus, there is a high prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases and skin test reactivity to aeroallergens among high school students in Tenerife. Significant correlations were found between family history, positive skin tests and respiratory allergic symptoms.

  12. High-pressure ignition plasma torch for aerospace testing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, D. I.; Kulikov, Yu M.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh; Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Son, E. E.

    2016-11-01

    The present paper discusses the issues of implementation of high-pressure ignition plasma torch in terms of discharge phenomena in compressed gases, dense nitrogen plasma properties and stable arcing power requirements. Contact ignition has been tested in a pressure range p = 1-25 bar and has proved to be a reliable solution for pilot arc burning.

  13. Reconstructed human epidermis for skin absorption testing: results of the German prevalidation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Bock, Udo; Gamer, Armin; Haberland, Annekathrin; Haltner-Ukomadu, Eleonore; Kaca, Monika; Kamp, Hennicke; Kietzmann, Manfred; Korting, Hans Christian; Krächter, Hans-Udo; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Liebsch, Manfred; Mehling, Annette; Netzlaff, Frank; Niedorf, Frank; Rübbelke, Maria K; Schäfer, Ulrich; Schmidt, Elisabeth; Schreiber, Sylvia; Schröder, Klaus-Rudolf; Spielmann, Horst; Vuia, Alexander

    2006-06-01

    Exposure to chemicals absorbed by the skin can threaten human health. In order to standardise the predictive testing of percutaneous absorption for regulatory purposes, the OECD adopted guideline 428, which describes methods for assessing absorption by using human and animal skin. In this study, a protocol based on the OECD principles was developed and prevalidated by using reconstructed human epidermis (RHE). The permeation of the OECD standard compounds, caffeine and testosterone, through commercially available RHE models was compared to that of human epidermis and animal skin. In comparison to human epidermis, the permeation of the chemicals was overestimated when using RHE. The following ranking of the permeation coefficients for testosterone was obtained: SkinEthic > EpiDerm, EPISKIN > human epidermis, bovine udder skin, pig skin. The ranking for caffeine was: SkinEthic, EPISKIN > bovine udder skin, EpiDerm, pig skin, human epidermis. The inter-laboratory and intra-laboratory reproducibility was good. Long and variable lag times, which are a matter of concern when using human and pig skin, did not occur with RHE. Due to the successful transfer of the protocol, it is now in the validation process.

  14. A survey on leishmaniasis and the leishman_in skin test profile

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leishmanin skin test is an immunological procedure resembling the .... g of the skin over the volar surface of the forearm ... angles, to get a two»dimensional measurement of the .... of vegetation shelter. with lower density of Ph/ebolomus.

  15. Skin signs in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: clinical tests and para-clinical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remvig, L; Duhn, Ph; Ullman, S

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) should be reliable. Examination for general joint hypermobility has high reliability but there is only sparse information on the reliability of skin tests, and no information on the level of normal skin extensibility...

  16. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Meropenem, Administered at 500 Milligrams Every 8 Hours, in Plasma and Cantharidin-Induced Skin Blister Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Maglio, Dana; Teng, Renli; Thyrum, Per T.; Nightingale, Charles H.; Nicolau, David P.

    2003-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic disposition of meropenem, administered at 500 mg every 8 h, in plasma and cantharidin-induced blister fluid is described. Peak meropenem concentrations in blister fluid lagged behind peak meropenem concentrations in plasma, while a lower elimination rate from blister fluid was also noted. The mean penetration of meropenem into blister fluid was 67%. The pharmacokinetic profile of meropenem in blister fluid supports the utility of this dose in the management of skin and sof...

  17. Pharmacokinetic profile of meropenem, administered at 500 milligrams every 8 hours, in plasma and cantharidin-induced skin blister fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Dana; Teng, Renli; Thyrum, Per T; Nightingale, Charles H; Nicolau, David P

    2003-05-01

    The pharmacokinetic disposition of meropenem, administered at 500 mg every 8 h, in plasma and cantharidin-induced blister fluid is described. Peak meropenem concentrations in blister fluid lagged behind peak meropenem concentrations in plasma, while a lower elimination rate from blister fluid was also noted. The mean penetration of meropenem into blister fluid was 67%. The pharmacokinetic profile of meropenem in blister fluid supports the utility of this dose in the management of skin and soft tissue infections.

  18. The use of reconstructed human epidermis for skin absorption testing: Results of the validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Bock, Udo; Diembeck, Walter; Düsing, Hans-Jürgen; Gamer, Armin; Haltner-Ukomadu, Eleonore; Hoffmann, Christine; Kaca, Monika; Kamp, Hennicke; Kersen, Silke; Kietzmann, Manfred; Korting, Hans Christian; Krächter, Hans-Udo; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Liebsch, Manfred; Mehling, Annette; Müller-Goymann, Christel; Netzlaff, Frank; Niedorf, Frank; Rübbelke, Maria K; Schäfer, Ulrich; Schmidt, Elisabeth; Schreiber, Sylvia; Spielmann, Horst; Vuia, Alexander; Weimer, Michaela

    2008-05-01

    A formal validation study was performed, in order to investigate whether the commercially-available reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) models, EPISKIN, EpiDerm and SkinEthic, are suitable for in vitro skin absorption testing. The skin types currently recommended in the OECD Test Guideline 428, namely, ex vivo human epidermis and pig skin, were used as references. Based on the promising outcome of the prevalidation study, the panel of test substances was enlarged to nine substances, covering a wider spectrum of physicochemical properties. The substances were tested under both infinite-dose and finite-dose conditions, in ten laboratories, under strictly controlled conditions. The data were subjected to independent statistical analyses. Intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory variability contributed almost equally to the total variability, which was in the same range as that in preceding studies. In general, permeation of the RHE models exceeded that of human epidermis and pig skin (the SkinEthic RHE was found to be the most permeable), yet the ranking of substance permeation through the three tested RHE models and the pig skin reflected the permeation through human epidermis. In addition, both infinite-dose and finite-dose experiments are feasible with RHE models. The RHE models did not show the expected significantly better reproducibility, as compared to excised skin, despite a tendency toward lower variability of the data. Importantly, however, the permeation data showed a sufficient correlation between all the preparations examined. Thus, the RHE models, EPISKIN, EpiDerm and SkinEthic, are appropriate alternatives to human and pig skin, for the in vitro assessment of the permeation and penetration of substances when applied as aqueous solutions.

  19. Study of neuropeptide Y in the plasma and skin tissue of patients with vitiligo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Wei-hui; TANG Sheng-shun; ZHENG Yan; LEI Xiao-bing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Methods: The levels of NPY in the plasma from patients with vitiligo and healthy volunteers were measured by 125 I RIA Kit. The expression of NPY in normal skin tissues, uninvolved tissues and lesional tissues of vitiligo was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: The levels of NPY in the patients with vitiligo of all types were significantly higher than that in the normal controls. In all types, the levels in active stage were significantly higher than those in stable stage. The expression of NPY was upregulated in lesions of patients with active vitiligo ( P < 0.01) compared with those in normal skin tissues and uninvolved tissues.There was significant difference of NPY expression between active stage and stable stage (P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: These findings support the concept of neuropeptide involvement in vitiligo, especially in active vitiligo, and suggest that NPY may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease.

  20. Skin signs in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: clinical tests and para-clinical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remvig, Lars; Duhn, Ph; Ullman, S

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The criteria for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) should be reliable. Examination for general joint hypermobility has high reliability but there is only sparse information on the reliability of skin tests, and no information on the level of normal skin ...... measurements. We suggest that skin consistency is withdrawn as a diagnostic criterion. The upper level for normal skin extensibility should be 3 cm. SC and STSM are promising para-clinical methods, but their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity need to be determined.......Objective: The criteria for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) should be reliable. Examination for general joint hypermobility has high reliability but there is only sparse information on the reliability of skin tests, and no information on the level of normal skin...... extensibility. The present study aimed to assess skin signs by means of clinical and para-clinical methods. Methods: A total of 31 EDS patients and 28 healthy controls were examined blinded and in random order. Inter-examiner analysis of clinical tests for skin extensibility, consistency, scarring, and bruising...

  1. Effects of platelet-rich plasma gel on skin healing in surgical wound in horses

    OpenAIRE

    DeRossi, Rafael; Coelho,Anna Carolina Anciliero de Oliveira; Mello,Gisele Silveira de; Frazílio,Fabrício de Oliveira; Leal,Cássia Rejane Brito; Facco,Gilberto Gonçalves; Brum,Karine Bonucielli

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish a low-cost method to prepare platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and evaluates the potential of platelet derived factors to enhance wound healing in the surgical wounds in equine. METHODS: To obtain a PRP gel, calcium gluconate and autologous thrombin were added to platelet-rich plasma. For the tests six saddle horses were used and two surgical incisions were made in each animal. Wounds were treated with PRP gel or untreated. Sequential wound biopsies collected at Treatment 1: at...

  2. Cell death induced on cell cultures and nude mouse skin by non-thermal, nanosecond-pulsed generated plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Duval

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasmas are gaseous mixtures of molecules, radicals, and excited species with a small proportion of ions and energetic electrons. Non-thermal plasmas can be generated with any high electro-magnetic field. We studied here the pathological effects, and in particular cell death, induced by nanosecond-pulsed high voltage generated plasmas homogeneously applied on cell cultures and nude mouse skin. In vitro, Jurkat cells and HMEC exhibited apoptosis and necrosis, in dose-dependent manner. In vivo, on nude mouse skin, cell death occurred for doses above 113 J/cm(2 for the epidermis, 281 J/cm(2 for the dermis, and 394 J/cm(2 for the hypodermis. Using electron microscopy, we characterized apoptosis for low doses and necrosis for high doses. We demonstrated that these effects were not related to thermal, photonic or pH variations, and were due to the production of free radicals. The ability of cold plasmas to generate apoptosis on cells in suspension and, without any sensitizer, on precise skin areas, opens new fields of application in dermatology for extracorporeal blood cell treatment and the eradication of superficial skin lesions.

  3. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... workers and consumers exposed to skin-sensitizing chemicals and products. Pesticides and other marketed... relationship (SAR) models to predict skin sensitization. NICEATM collaboration with industry scientists to... sensitization. Participating in validation management groups sponsored by ICATM partner organizations to...

  4. Skin test reactivity to female sex hormones in women with primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaithy, Mohamed I; Fathi, Hesham M; Farres, Mohamed N; Taha, Marwa S

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to examine the hypothesis that primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss might be associated with an inappropriate immunologically mediated response to progesterone and/or estrogen. This prospective study included 47 women with two or more documented consecutive early pregnancy losses of unknown etiology, and no previous history of deliveries. Intradermal skin testing was performed in the luteal phase of the cycle (days 16-20) using estradiol benzoate, progesterone, and a placebo of refined sesame oil. Immediate (20 min) and late (24h and 1 week) skin test readings for all cases were compared with those of 12 parous women of comparable age with no history of spontaneous miscarriages, premenstrual disorders, pregnancy, or sex hormone-related allergic or autoimmune diseases. Main outcome measure was skin test reactivity to estradiol and/or progesterone. Immediate skin test reactivity to both hormones was observed among half of the cases at 20 min. A papule after 24h, which persisted for up to 1 week, was observed among 32 (68.1%) and 34 (72.3%) cases at the sites of estrogen and progesterone injection, respectively. 55.3% of cases had combined skin test reactivity to both estradiol and progesterone at 1 week. All women in the control group showed absence of skin test reactivity for both estradiol and progesterone at 20 min, 24h, and 1 week. None of the subjects in either group showed skin test reactivity to placebo. There is an association between primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss and skin test reactivity to female sex hormones.

  5. The Phenion (R) Full-Thickness Skin Model for Percutaneous Absorption Testing

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In recent years many efforts have been made to replace dermal toxicity testing of chemicals in the animal by in vitro assays. As a member of a German research consortium, we have previously contributed to the validation of an in vitro test protocol for percutaneous absorption studies on the basis of reconstructed human epidermis and both human and pig skin ex vivo. Aiming to assess the barrier properties of a newly developed reconstructed skin model, this protocol has now been transferred to ...

  6. [Practice patterns in Mexican allergologists about skin tests with allergens during 2005-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée; Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo Guidos; Cruz, Alfredo Arias

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been practiced since over a hundred years. The exact composition of the immunotherapy concentrate, with which the patient is treated, depends partly on the results of the skin prick tests applied to the allergic patient. As such, the effectiveness of the immunotherapy depends heavily on the quality of the skin prick test. The detailed recommendations for the realization of the skin prick tests have evolved and changed over the years, leading to multiple variations in its application in Mexico. We tried to get a picture of the daily practice patterns of the members of CMICA and CoMPedIA concerning the application of skin prick tests. Aquestionnaire was sent in various occasions to all members of the Colegio Mexicano de Inmunologia Clinica y Alergia (CMICA) and of the Colegio Mexicano de Pediatras, Especialistas en Inmunologia y Alergia (CoMPedIA). The results are presented descriptively and by calculation of the frequency/percentages of intervals of replies, in the case of numerical responses. A response rate of 61 (17%) was obtained of the College members, showing consistency in some replies but a wide variation in others, for example in the time certain medication has to be suspended before the execution of the skin prick test. Comparing the replies obtained with recent recommendations in international publications, some discrepancy can be detected. In some aspects of the survey there is coincidence of the skin test practices among the participants; however, in other items there is an important variation.

  7. Sympathetic skin response: a new test to diagnose erectile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-You ZHU; Yan SHEN

    2001-01-01

    Electrophysiological monitoring of the activity of the penile sympathetic skin responses (PSSR) in healthy men and patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: PSSR were recorded from the skin of penis with disk electrodes at the time of electric stimulation of left median nerves. Results: PSSR were recorded from all the healthy men and almost all the patients. In healthy men the latency of P0, the latency of N1, the duration of N1 and the amplitude of N1 were 1249 ± 111 ms, 2239 ± 286 ms, 1832 ± 505 ms and 470 μV (median), respectively. In ED patients the latency of P0, the latency of N1, the duration of N1 and the amplitude of N1 were 1467 ± 183 ms ( P < 0.01), 2561±453 ms (P <0.05), 2560±861 ms (P <0.01) and 91 μV (P <0.01), respectively. The normal latency of P0 was less than 1471 ms. The normal amplitude of N1 was more than 235 μV. According to this normal value, of 20 patients 11 showed longer latency of P0, and 14 showed lower amplitude of N1 as compared with those of normal subjects.Conclusion: PSSR can be used as an electrophysiological method in assisting the diagnosis of ED.

  8. Influence of the skin effect in a rail gun on the parameters of the moving plasma piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuferev, V. S.; Gnedina, M. L.; Gnedin, N. Iu.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of the motion of the plasma piston in a rail gun launcher is solved with allowance for the skin effect using plane geometry and the quasi-stationary approximation. The temperature along the piston is assumed to be constant, and the piston is assumed to move as a whole at a velocity equal to that of the accelerated projectile. It is shown that current displacement toward the rear of the piston due to the skin effect leads to an increase in the gasdynamic pressure in the plasma, with a resulting reduction in the extension of the plasmoid. The latter effect is particularly pronounced when the mass of the plasma exceeds that of the piston.

  9. Plasma lens experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barletta, B. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chattopadhyay, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chen, P. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1993-04-01

    We intend to carry out a series of plasma lens experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam facility at SLAC. These experiments will be the first to study the focusing of particle beams by plasma focusing devices in the parameter regime of interest for high energy colliders, and is expected to lead to plasma lens designs capable of unprecedented spot sizes. Plasma focusing of positron beams will be attempted for the first time. We will study the effects of lens aberrations due to various lens imperfections. Several approaches will be applied to create the plasma required including laser ionization and beam ionization of a working gas. At an increased bunch population of 2.5 {times} 10{sup 10}, tunneling ionization of a gas target by an electron beam -- an effect which has never been observed before -- should be significant. The compactness of our device should prove to be of interest for applications at the SLC and the next generation linear colliders.

  10. GA(2)LEN skin test study II: clinical relevance of inhalant allergen sensitizations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbach, G J; Heinzerling, L M; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance...... was used to determine the clinical relevance of sensitizations against the 18 most frequent inhalant allergens in Europe. The study population consisted of patients referred to one of the 17 allergy centres in 14 European countries (n = 3034, median age = 33 years). The aim of the study was to assess...... the clinical relevance of positive skin prick test reactions against inhalant allergens considering the predominating type of symptoms in a pan-European population of patients presenting with suspected allergic disease. METHODS: Clinical relevance of skin prick tests was recorded with regard to patient history...

  11. Multi-chamber microfluidic platform for high-precision skin permeation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, M; Dancik, Y; Sriram, G; Wu, B; Teo, Y L; Feng, Z; Bigliardi-Qi, M; Wu, R G; Wang, Z P; Bigliardi, P L

    2017-05-02

    The established in vitro tool used for testing the absorption and penetration of chemicals through skin in pharmacology, toxicology and cosmetic science is the static Franz diffusion cell. While widespread, Franz cells are relatively costly, low-throughput and results may suffer from poor reproducibility. Microfluidics has the potential to overcome these drawbacks. In this paper, we present a novel microfluidic skin permeation platform and validate it rigorously against the Franz cell by comparing the transport of 3 model chemicals of varying lipophilicity: caffeine, salicylic acid and testosterone. Permeation experiments through silicone membranes show that the chip yields higher sensitivity in permeant cumulative amounts and comparable or lower coefficients of variation. Using a skin organotypic culture, we show that the chip decreases the effect of unstirred water layers that can occur in static Franz cells. The validation reported herein sets the stage for efficient skin permeation and toxicity screening and further development of microfluidic skin-on-chip devices.

  12. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rakesh, E-mail: rs05h@fsu.ed [Departments of Chemical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2010-07-21

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  13. Skin age testing criteria: characterization of human skin structures by 500 MHz MRI multiple contrast and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-07-01

    Ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) image characteristics are reported in human skin samples in different age groups. Human excised skin samples were imaged using a custom coil placed inside a 500 MHz NMR imager for high-resolution microimaging. Skin MRI images were processed for characterization of different skin structures. Contiguous cross-sectional T1-weighted 3D spin echo MRI, T2-weighted 3D spin echo MRI and proton density images were compared with skin histopathology and NMR peaks. In all skin specimens, epidermis and dermis thickening and hair follicle size were measured using MRM. Optimized parameters TE and TR and multicontrast enhancement generated better MRI visibility of different skin components. Within high MR signal regions near to the custom coil, MRI images with short echo time were comparable with digitized histological sections for skin structures of the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in 6 (67%) of the nine specimens. Skin % tissue composition, measurement of the epidermis, dermis, sebaceous gland and hair follicle size, and skin NMR peaks were signatures of skin type. The image processing determined the dimensionality of skin tissue components and skin typing. The ex vivo MRI images and histopathology of the skin may be used to measure the skin structure and skin NMR peaks with image processing may be a tool for determining skin typing and skin composition.

  14. Suitability of skin integrity tests for dermal absorption studies in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Katharina; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Fabian, Eric; Landsiedel, Robert; van Ravenzwaay, Ben

    2015-02-01

    Skin absorption testing in vitro is a regulatory accepted alternative method (OECD Guideline 428). Different tests can be applied to evaluate the integrity of the skin samples. Here, we compared the pre- or post-run integrity tests (transepidermal electrical resistance, TEER; transepidermal water loss, TEWL; absorption of the reference compounds water, TWF, or methylene blue, BLUE) and additionally focused on co-absorption of a (3)H-labeled internal reference standard (ISTD) as integrity parameter. The results were correlated to absorption profiles of various test compounds. Limit values of 2kΩ, 10 gm(-2)h(-1) and 4.5∗10(-3)cmh(-1) for the standard methods TEER, TEWL and TWF, respectively, allowed distinguishing between impaired and intact human skin samples in general. Single skin samples did, however, not, poorly and even inversely correlate with the test-compound absorption. In contrast, results with ISTD (e.g. (3)H-testosterone) were highly correlated to the absorption of (14)C-labeled test compounds. Importantly, ISTD did not influence analytics or absorption of test compounds. Therefore, ISTD, especially when adjusted to the physico-chemical properties of test compounds, is a promising concept to assess the integrity of skin samples during the whole course of absorption experiments. However, a historical control dataset is yet necessary for a potential routine application.

  15. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  16. Bovine Tuberculosis: Effect of the Tuberculin Skin Test on In vitro Interferon gamma Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a disease of zoonotic and economic importance. In many countries, control is based on test and slaughter policies and/or abattoir surveillance. For testing, cell mediated immune- (CMI-) based assays (i.e., Tuberculin skin test (TST) supplemented by the interferon gamma (...

  17. Construction of Tests in the Cognitive and Psychomotor Domains for Skin and Scuba Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jean

    The fundamental purposes of this study were to develop mastery tests in the cognitive and psychomotor domains for skin and scuba diving and to establish validity and reliability for the tests. A table of specifications was developed for each domain, and a pilot study refined the initial test batteries into their final form. In the main study,…

  18. 75 FR 47592 - Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... AGENCY Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other... Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other Arthropods Test Guidelines... ``Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insects and Other Arthropods'' (OPPTS...

  19. Space Station Freedom solar array panels plasma interaction test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Donald F.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Power System will make extensive use of photovoltaic (PV) power generation. The phase 1 power system consists of two PV power modules each capable of delivering 37.5 KW of conditioned power to the user. Each PV module consists of two solar arrays. Each solar array is made up of two solar blankets. Each solar blanket contains 82 PV panels. The PV power modules provide a 160 V nominal operating voltage. Previous research has shown that there are electrical interactions between a plasma environment and a photovoltaic power source. The interactions take two forms: parasitic current loss (occurs when the currect produced by the PV panel leaves at a high potential point and travels through the plasma to a lower potential point, effectively shorting that portion of the PV panel); and arcing (occurs when the PV panel electrically discharges into the plasma). The PV solar array panel plasma interaction test was conceived to evaluate the effects of these interactions on the Space Station Freedom type PV panels as well as to conduct further research. The test article consists of two active solar array panels in series. Each panel consists of two hundred 8 cm x 8 cm silicon solar cells. The test requirements dictated specifications in the following areas: plasma environment/plasma sheath; outgassing; thermal requirements; solar simulation; and data collection requirements.

  20. [Optimization of emollient formulation for treating atopic dermatitis by skin physiological index testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song-Gen; Yang, Xi-Xiao; Mo, Li-Qian; Zhou, Xian-Yi

    2017-07-20

    To optimize the formulation of an emollient for treatment of atopic dermatitis prepared using ceramide, sodium hyaluronate, paeonol, and camellia-seed oil. The emollients with different ratios of the 4 components were designed according to the L9(34)orthogonal table with 4 factors and 3 levels. The efficacy of the prepared emollients was tested in 4-6 week-old BALB/c mouse models of atopic dermatitis to determine the optimal formulation of the emollient by evaluating skin water content, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), pharmacodynamics and skin irritation. Range analysis of the orthogonal table and analysis of variance showed that ceramide and camellia seed oil contents had the greatest impact on the skin water content and TEWL, respectively, and the optimal composition of the emollient contained the 4 components at the ratios of D1E1F1G1. Pharmacodynamic experiments showed that at high, medium and low doses, the emollient with the optimal formulation significantly improved the skin water content, pH and TEWL in the mice (Peffects in the positive control group (P>0.05) and a skin irritation test score of 0. The emollient we prepared can significantly improve skin water content, pH and TEWL in the mouse model of atopic dermatitis without skin irritations.

  1. Use of recombinant purified protein derivative (PPD) antigens as specific skin test for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavri, Henriette; Bucurenci, Nadia; Ulea, Irina; Costache, Adriana; Popa, Loredana; Popa, Mircea Ioan

    2012-11-01

    Purified protein derivative (PPD) is currently the only available skin test reagent used worldwide for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to develop a Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific skin test reagent, without false positive results due to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination using recombinant antigens. Proteins in PPD IC-65 were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry and compared to proteins in M. tuberculosis culture filtrate; 54 proteins were found in common. Top candidates MPT64, ESAT 6, and CFP 10 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli expression strains and purified as recombinant proteins. To formulate optimal immunodiagnostic PPD cocktails, the antigens were evaluated by skin testing guinea pigs sensitized with M. tuberculosis H37Rv and BCG. For single antigens and a cocktail mixture of these antigens, best results were obtained using 3 μg/0.1 ml, equivalent to 105 TU (tuberculin units). Each animal was simultaneously tested with PPD IC-65, 2 TU/0.1 ml, as reference. Reactivity of the multi-antigen cocktail was greater than that of any single antigen. The skin test results were between 34.3 and 76.6 per cent the level of reactivity compared to that of the reference when single antigens were tested and 124 per cent the level of reactivity compared to the reference for the multi-antigen cocktail. Our results showed that this specific cocktail could represent a potential candidate for a new skin diagnostic test for TB.

  2. Comparison of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Toluidine Red Unheated Serum Test and the CSF Rapid Plasma Reagin Test with the CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test for Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis among HIV-Negative Syphilis Patients in China

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commer...

  3. The effects of cyclic tensile and stress-relaxation tests on porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remache, D; Caliez, M; Gratton, M; Dos Santos, S

    2017-09-11

    When a living tissue is subjected to cyclic stretching, the stress-strain curves show a shift down with the increase in the number of cycles until stabilization. This phenomenon is referred to in the literature as a preconditioning and is performed to obtain repeatable and predictable measurements. Preconditioning has been routinely performed in skin tissue tests; however, its effects on the mechanical properties of the material such as viscoelastic response, tangent modulus, sensitivity to strain rate, the stress relaxation rate, etc….remain unclear. In addition, various physical interpretations of this phenomenon have been proposed and there is no general agreement on its origin at the microscopic or mesoscopic scales. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the cyclical stretching and the stress-relaxation tests on the mechanical properties of the porcine skin. Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests at large and constant strain were performed on different skin samples. The change in the reaction force, and skin's tangent modulus as a function of the number of cycles, as well as the strain rate effect on the mechanical behavior of skin samples after cycling were investigated. Stress-relaxation tests were also performed on skin samples. The change in the reaction force as a function of relaxation time and the strain rate effect on the mechanical behavior of skin samples after the stress-relaxation were investigated. The mechanical behavior of a skin sample under stress-relaxation test was modeled using a combination of hyperelasticity and viscoelasticity. Overall, the results showed that the mechanical behavior of the skin was strongly influenced by cycling and stress relaxation tests. Indeed, it was observed that the skin's resistance decreased by about half for two hours of cycling; the tangent modulus degraded by nearly 30% and skin samples became insensitive to the strain rates and accumulated progressively an inelastic deformation over time during

  4. Feed gas humidity: a vital parameter affecting a cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and plasma-treated human skin cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J.; Wende, K.; Masur, K.; Iseni, S.; Dünnbier, M.; Hammer, M. U.; Tresp, H.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Reuter, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the effect of feed gas humidity on the reactive component generation of an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet and its effect on human skin cells are investigated. Feed gas humidity is identified as one key parameter that strongly influences stability and reproducibility of plasma medical studies. The plasma jet is investigated by absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared spectral region for its ozone production depending on the humidity concentration in the feed gas. By optical emission spectroscopy the dependence of present excited plasma species such as hydroxyl radicals, molecular nitrogen, argon and atomic oxygen on the feed gas humidity is investigated. As an interface layer between the plasma jet effluent and the biological cell, a buffer solution is treated and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production is studied with two independent colorimetric assays as a function of humidity admixture to the feed gas. Ultimately, the effect of varying feed gas humidity on the cell viability of indirect plasma treated adherent HaCAT cells is investigated. The highest viability is found for the driest feed gas condition. Furthermore, this work shows answers for the relevance of unwanted—or intended—feed gas humidity in plasma medical experiments and their comparatively large relevance with respect to ambient humidity. The findings will lead to more reproducible experiments in the field of plasma medicine.

  5. Surfactant-induced dermatitis: comparison of corneosurfametry with predictive testing on human and reconstructed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Goffin, V; Hermanns-Lê, T; Arrese, J E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    1995-09-01

    Surfactants elicit alterations in the stratum corneum. Predictive tests that avoid animal experimentation are needed. This study compares three methods of rating and predicting shampoo-induced irritation. Corneosurfametry entails collection of stratum corneum followed by brief contact with diluted surfactants and measurement of variations in staining of samples. Corneosurfametry appears to correlate well with in vivo testing in volunteers with sensitive skin. However, corneosurfametry presents less interindividual variability than in vivo testing and allows better discrimination among mild products. Morphologic information about surfactant-induced loosening of corneocytes may be increased by testing surfactants on human skin equivalent. Results are similar to those provided by specimens used for corneosurfametry. The corneosurfametric prediction of surfactant irritancy correlates with in vivo testing and with in vitro evaluation on human skin equivalent.

  6. [Assessment of hypersensitivity to honey-bee venom in beekeepers by skin tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Ángeles, Martín; Núñez-Velázquez, Marco; Marín-Martínez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Beekeepers are exposed to frequent honey-bee stings, and have the risk to develop hypersensitivity to bee venom, but long-term exposure can induce immune tolerance in them. Up to 30% of beekeepers show positive skin tests with honey-bee venom. The prevalence of systemic reactions to bee stings in beekeepers is from 14% to 42%. To know the prevalence of hypersensitivity to honeybee venom in Mexican beekeepers and non-beekeepers by the use of skin tests. A group of 139 beekeepers and a group of 60 non-beekeeper volunteers had a history and physical related to age, sex, family and personal atopic history and time of exposure to bee stings. Both groups received intradermal skin tests with honey-bee venom, 0.1 mcg/mL and 1 mcg/mL, and histamine sulphate 0.1 mg/mL and Evans solution as controls. The skin tests results of both groups were compared by chi-squared test. Of the group of beekeepers, 116 were men (83%) and 23 women, average age was 39.3 years, had atopic family history 28% and personal atopy 13%, average time of exposure to bee stings was 10.9 years, skin tests with honey-bee venom were positive in 16.5% and 11% at 1 mcg/mL and 0.1 mcg/mL, respectively. In the non-beekeepers group venom skin tests were positive in 13.3% and 6.7% at 1 mcg/mL and 0.1 mcg/mL. We did not find significant differences between the two venom concentrations tested in both groups, neither in the number of positive skin tests between the two groups. We found hypersensivity to honey-bee venom slightly higher in the beekeepers than in the group apparently not exposed. Both honey-bee venom concentrations used did not show difference in the results of the skin tests. The similarity of skin tests positivity between both groups could be explained by immune tolerance due to continued exposure of beekeepers.

  7. The use of ex vivo human skin tissue for genotoxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reus, Astrid A.; Usta, Mustafa [TNO Triskelion BV, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE, Zeist (Netherlands); Krul, Cyrille A.M., E-mail: cyrille.krul@tno.nl [TNO, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist (Netherlands)

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the chemical legislation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and the Seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, which prohibits animal testing in Europe for cosmetics, alternative methods for safety evaluation of chemicals are urgently needed. Current in vitro genotoxicity assays are not sufficiently predictive for the in vivo situation, resulting in an unacceptably high number of misleading positives. For many chemicals and ingredients of personal care products the skin is the first site of contact, but there are no in vitro genotoxicity assays available in the skin for additional evaluation of positive or equivocal responses observed in regulatory in vitro genotoxicity assays. In the present study ex vivo human skin tissue obtained from surgery was used for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals by using the comet assay. Fresh ex vivo human skin tissue was cultured in an air–liquid interface and topically exposed to 20 chemicals, including true positive, misleading positive and true negative genotoxins. Based on the results obtained in the present study, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ex vivo skin comet assay to predict in vivo genotoxicity were 89%, 90% and 89%, respectively. Donor and experimental variability were mainly reflected in the magnitude of the response and not the difference between the presence and absence of a genotoxic response. The present study indicates that human skin obtained from surgery is a promising and robust model for safety evaluation of chemicals that are in direct contact with the skin. -- Highlights: ► We use human skin obtained from surgery for genotoxicity evaluation of chemicals. ► We use the comet assay as parameter for genotoxicity in ex vivo human skin. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to predict in vivo genotoxins are determined. ► Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 89%, 90% and 90%, respectively. ► The method

  8. Positive Skin Test or Specific IgE to Penicillin Does Not Reliably Predict Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tannert, Line Kring; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: According to guidelines, patients are diagnosed with penicillin allergy if skin test (ST) result or specific IgE (s-IgE) to penicillin is positive. However, the true sensitivity and specificity of these tests are presently not known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance......, but deemed allergic on the basis of a recent anaphylactic reaction or delayed reactions to skin testing. Another sample of convenience of 18 patients, 17 overlapping with the 25 challenged, with initial skin testing and s-IgE (median, 25; range, 3-121), months earlier (T-1), was repeat skin tested and had s......-IgE measured (T0), and then skin tested and had s-IgE measured 4 weeks later (T1). RESULTS: Only 9 (36%) of 25 were challenge positive. There was an increased probability of being penicillin allergic if both ST result and s-IgE were positive at T0. Positive ST result or positive s-IgE alone did not predict...

  9. ESAT-6/CFP10 skin test predicts disease in M. tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldingh, Karin; Andersen, Peter

    2008-04-23

    Targeted preventive chemotherapy of individuals with progressive subclinical (incipient) disease before it becomes contagious would break the chain of tuberculosis transmission in high endemic regions. We have studied the ability of a skin test response to ESAT-6 and CFP10 (E6/C10) to predict later development of tuberculosis disease in the guinea pig model. Guinea pigs, either vaccinated with BCG or unvaccinated, were infected with a low dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the aerosol route and the development of delayed type hypersensitivity responses to E6/C10 and to purified protein derivative (PPD) were followed until the onset of clinical disease. We demonstrated a negative correlation between the size of the skin test response and the time to the onset of clinical disease; a large E6/C10 skin test response correlated to a shorter survival time post skin testing, while a small E6/C10 skin test reaction correlated with a longer survival time (r = -0.6 and Pskin test based on E6/C10 that will allow the identification of individuals with incipient disease, who have the highest risk of developing active tuberculosis in the near future.

  10. Design and testing of miniaturized plasma sensor for measuring hypervelocity impact plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, A., E-mail: ashish09@stanford.edu; Tarantino, P. M.; Lauben, D. S.; Close, S. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    An increasingly notable component of the space environment pertains to the impact of meteoroids and orbital debris on spacecraft and the resulting mechanical and electrical damages. Traveling at speeds of tens of km/s, when these particles, collectively referred to as hypervelocity particles, impact a satellite, they vaporize, ionize, and produce a radially expanding plasma that can generate electrically harmful radio frequency emission or serve as a trigger for electrostatic discharge. In order to measure the flux, composition, energy distribution, and temperature of ions and electrons in this plasma, a miniaturized plasma sensor has been developed for carrying out in-situ measurements in space. The sensor comprises an array of electrostatic analyzer wells split into 16 different channels, catering to different species and energy ranges in the plasma. We present results from numerical simulation based optimization of sensor geometry. A novel approach of fabricating the sensor using printed circuit boards is implemented. We also describe the test setup used for calibrating the sensor and show results demonstrating the energy band pass characteristics of the sensor. In addition to the hypervelocity impact plasmas, the plasma sensor developed can also be used to carry out measurements of ionospheric plasma, diagnostics of plasma propulsion systems, and in other space physics experiments.

  11. Design and testing of miniaturized plasma sensor for measuring hypervelocity impact plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, A.; Tarantino, P. M.; Lauben, D. S.; Close, S.

    2015-04-01

    An increasingly notable component of the space environment pertains to the impact of meteoroids and orbital debris on spacecraft and the resulting mechanical and electrical damages. Traveling at speeds of tens of km/s, when these particles, collectively referred to as hypervelocity particles, impact a satellite, they vaporize, ionize, and produce a radially expanding plasma that can generate electrically harmful radio frequency emission or serve as a trigger for electrostatic discharge. In order to measure the flux, composition, energy distribution, and temperature of ions and electrons in this plasma, a miniaturized plasma sensor has been developed for carrying out in-situ measurements in space. The sensor comprises an array of electrostatic analyzer wells split into 16 different channels, catering to different species and energy ranges in the plasma. We present results from numerical simulation based optimization of sensor geometry. A novel approach of fabricating the sensor using printed circuit boards is implemented. We also describe the test setup used for calibrating the sensor and show results demonstrating the energy band pass characteristics of the sensor. In addition to the hypervelocity impact plasmas, the plasma sensor developed can also be used to carry out measurements of ionospheric plasma, diagnostics of plasma propulsion systems, and in other space physics experiments.

  12. Standardization of food allergen extracts for skin prick test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Skov, P S

    2001-01-01

    had a history of allergic symptoms upon ingestion of either cow's milk (n=3), hen's egg (n=9), wheat (n=4), hazelnut (n=14) or cod (n=6). They also had specific IgE in serum to the food in question and a positive SPT with a fresh preparation of the food. The diagnosis had been confirmed by a double...... the Nordic Council on Medicine. Regression analysis of the skin wheal areas was performed for each patient and the median protein concentration of allergen preparation (median Ch10) eliciting a wheal area of the same size as histamine 10 mg/ml was calculated. The median Ch10 was 0.56 mg/ml for milk, 0.88 mg....../ml for egg, 5.4 mg/ml for wheat, 2.1 mg/ml for hazelnut and 0.017 mg/ml for the cod extract. The sensitivity of the median Ch10 estimated from the SPT data was 1 for milk, 0.98 for egg, 1 for wheat, 1 for hazelnut and 0.87 for the cod extract. The allergenic activity of the hazelnut extract was further...

  13. Noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) through maternal plasma DNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Yifan; Li, Xuchao

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we...... developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels...... paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future....

  14. Optical coherence tomography applied to tests of skin care products in humans--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Pinto, L M C; Maldonado, E P; Raele, M P; Amaral, M M; de Freitas, A Z

    2015-02-01

    When evaluating skin care products for human skin, quantitative test methods need to be simple, precise and reliable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), provides high-resolution sectional images of translucent materials to a depth of a few millimeters, a technique usually applied to medical measurements in ophthalmology and dermatology. This study aimed to demonstrate the application of OCT as the main technique for monitoring changes in skin topography during tests of a wrinkle-reduction product in humans. We used a commercial OCT apparatus to perform clinical examinations of skin roughness in treated and non-treated sites in the periorbital region of thirty human voluntaries who were using an anti-aging product commercially available: Natura Chronos® Flavonóides de Passiflora 45+ FPS15, from Natura Cosméticos, Brazil. Measurements were performed days 0, 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. Equipment and software allowed real-time recording of skin roughness parameters and wrinkle depths. The OCT measurements have allowed the monitoring of changes in skin roughness, which have shown reduction in treated sites around 10%. The obtained depth distributions also indicate reduction in the occurrence of wrinkles deeper than 170 μm. The verified results are consistent with those typically obtained after successful treatment with modern anti-aging products. By using the OCT technique, it was possible to quantify changes in skin roughness and in the distribution of depths of skin wrinkles, with adequate sensitivity. OCT imaging allows the direct visualization of the skin topography with resolution of micrometers, a reliable and interactive tool for clinical use. Therefore, for the first time, we demonstrated the use of OCT technique to verify the efficacy of cosmetic products in real time. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of a new rapid plasma reagin card test as a screening test for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    This study evaluates the American Dade (Biokit Laboratories) rapid plasma reagin (Dade RPR) card test, currently used in Spain for the diagnosis of syphilis, which has been recently released to the U.S. market. Used as a basis for comparison with the Dade card test were the 18-mm standard rapid plasma reagin (standard RPR) card test and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test, using both fresh sera obtained from 505 individuals and paired serum-plasma specimens from 174 ind...

  16. Testing THEMIS wave measurements against the cold plasma theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubenschuss, Ulrich; Santolik, Ondrej; Le Contel, Olivier; Bonnell, John

    2016-04-01

    The THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) mission records a multitude of electromagnetic waves inside Earth's magnetosphere and provides data in the form of high-resolution electric and magnetic waveforms. We use multi-component measurements of whistler mode waves and test them against the theory of wave propagation in a cold plasma. The measured ratio cB/E (c is speed of light in vacuum, B is magnetic wave amplitude, E is electric wave amplitude) is compared to the same quantity calculated from cold plasma theory over linearized Faraday's law. The aim of this study is to get estimates for measurement uncertainties, especially with regard to the electric field and the cold plasma density, as well as evaluating the validity of cold plasma theory inside Earth's radiation belts.

  17. Terapia de bioestimulación con plasma rico en plaquetas para el envejecimiento cutáneo Bioestimulation technique with rich plasma in platelets for skin aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HM Escobar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La bioestimulación con plasma rico en plaquetas es una técnica ambulatoria para la prevención y manejo del envejecimiento cutáneo, se basa en la fisiología de la piel y funciona muy bien sola o dentro de un plan terapéutico combinado. El derivado de sangre autóloga estimula la producción de colágeno, elastina y tejido epidérmico, lo que se traduce en piel más tersa, luminosa y de mejor calidad. Son mínimos los riesgos de formación de hematomas, infección, transmisión de enfermedades o reacciones alérgicas.Biostimulation with rich plasma in platelets is an outpatient technique for the prevention and management of skin aging, which is based on the physiology of the skin, and works very well alone or in a combined treatment plan. Own patient derivate blood stimulates production of collagen, elastin and skin tissue, resulting in a smoother skin, brighter and better quality. Risks of bruising, infection, disease transmission or allergic reactions are minimal.

  18. Controlling tuberculosis in a llama (Lama glama) herd using clinical signs, tuberculin skin testing and serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, D F; Collins, R; Cranwell, M P; Crawshaw, T R; Higgins, R J; Dean, G S; Vordermeier, H M; Hollingdale, A; de la Rua-Domenech, R

    2012-05-01

    An outbreak of tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was investigated in a small herd of llamas (Lama glama). Based on three ante-mortem diagnostic methods (clinical signs, tuberculin skin test reactions, and 'Rapid Test' serology), 12 llamas were selected for examination post-mortem. Grossly visible lesions suspicious of TB were observed in eight animals, four of which had exhibited clinical signs, one was a skin test 'reactor', and three had been seropositive. M. bovis was isolated from seven of these eight animals. Clinical signs combined with serology were found to be useful in identifying infected animals, but tuberculin skin testing had limited negative predictive value as four llamas that were subsequently confirmed as infected were not detected using this assay. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of genotoxicity information in the development of integrated testing strategies (ITS) for skin sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekenyan, Ovanes; Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrova, Gergana; Kuseva, Chanita; Todorov, Milen; Stoeva, Stoyanka; Kotov, Stefan; Donner, E Maria

    2010-10-18

    Skin sensitization is an end point of concern for various legislation in the EU, including the seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive and Registration Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Since animal testing is a last resort for REACH or banned (from 2013 onward) for the Cosmetics Directive, the use of intelligent/integrated testing strategies (ITS) as an efficient means of gathering necessary information from alternative sources (e.g., in vitro, (Q)SARs, etc.) is gaining widespread interest. Previous studies have explored correlations between mutagenicity data and skin sensitization data as a means of exploiting information from surrogate end points. The work here compares the underlying chemical mechanisms for mutagenicity and skin sensitization in an effort to evaluate the role mutagenicity information can play as a predictor of skin sensitization potential. The Tissue Metabolism Simulator (TIMES) hybrid expert system was used to compare chemical mechanisms of both end points since it houses a comprehensive set of established structure-activity relationships for both skin sensitization and mutagenicity. The evaluation demonstrated that there is a great deal of overlap between skin sensitization and mutagenicity structural alerts and their underlying chemical mechanisms. The similarities and differences in chemical mechanisms are discussed in light of available experimental data. A number of new alerts for mutagenicity were also postulated for inclusion into TIMES. The results presented show that mutagenicity information can provide useful insights on skin sensitization potential as part of an ITS and should be considered prior to any in vivo skin sensitization testing being initiated.

  20. Sympathetic skin response test in essential hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Abdel Kader

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion Although SSR has a low diagnostic value in patients with essential hypertension, it might be a good diagnostic test particularly in the presence of signs and symptoms of sympathetic overactivity such as tachycardia and sweating.

  1. Accumulation of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Psoriatic Skin and Changes of Plasma Lipid Levels in Psoriatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Solak Tekin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an accelerated turnover of epidermal cells and an incomplete differentiation in epidermis with lesion. However, the exact etiology of psoriasis is unknown. Abnormalities in essential fatty acid metabolism, free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, and release of lymphokines have been proposed. Objective. Our purpose was to evaluate the plasma lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein accumulation in psoriatic skin lesion in order to ascertain the possible participation of oxidative stress and oxidative modification of lipids in pathogenesis of psoriasis. Methods. The study group included 84 patients with psoriasis, and 40 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Blood lipid profile was determined. Psoriatic and nonlesional skin samples of psoriatic patients were evaluated for the presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by using an immune-fluorescent staining method. Results. The mean levels of lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol in patients with psoriasis were found to be significantly higher than those of healthy subjects. Psoriatic skins were shown positive oxidized low-density lipoprotein staining. There was no staining in nonlesional skin samples of the same individuals. Conclusion. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals is believed to be one of the important causes of cell membrane destruction and cell damage. This study shows for the first time the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in psoriatic skin lesion. We believe that accumulation of ox-LDL in psoriatic skin may have an important role in the immune-inflammatory events that result in progressive skin damage.

  2. Measurement of O and OH radical produced by an atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet nearby rat skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemori, Seiya; Ono, Ryo

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet is getting much attention because it enables many kinds of plasma applications including biomedical application such as sterilization and cancer treatment. In biomedical plasma applications, it is though that active species like ions and radicals play important role. Especially, OH radical and O atom is very chemically reactive that they are deemed as major factors in cancer treatment. In this study, O and OH density distribution and its temporal behavior nearby rat skin were measured to demonstrate actual application. Plasma discharge was under AC10 kVp-p, 10 kHz with 1.5 slm (standard litter per minute) of helium gas flow. OH density was around 1 ppm and O atom density was around 10 ppm at maximum. We also measured time-evolution of OH and O atom density. Both OH and O density was almost constant between discharge pulses because lifetime of active species could be prolonged in helium. And density distribution of both species varied depending on helium flow rate and water concentration on the surface; on rat skin or on the grass surface. Those results suggest the production mechanisms and provision mechanisms of O atom and OH radical by an atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet. This work is partially supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Science Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology.

  3. Plasma cell dyscrasia with polyneuropathy--POEMS syndrome presenting with vasculitic skin lesions and responding to combination chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Y; Raanani, P; Shenkar, A; Thaler, M; Grossman, E

    2000-12-01

    We report a 61-year-old male patient who presented with severe sensorimotor neuropathy, leg edema and skin lesions with M-paraprotein and 50% plasma cells in the bone marrow. The POEMS (Crow-Fukase) syndrome was diagnosed and the skin lesions were compatible with vasculitis according to the histopathology. The patient was treated with aggressive combined chemotherapy, which induced improvement in both the clinical and laboratory parameters of his disease. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a vasculitic process underlying the skin changes in the POEMS syndrome. Our findings may shed light on the unknown pathogenesis of this syndrome and the successful results of treatment support the adoption of an aggressive therapeutic approach in symptomatic patients.

  4. Comparison of quantiferon test with tuberculin skin test for the detection of tuberculosis infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onur, Hatice; Hatipoğlu, Sami; Arıca, Vefik; Hatipoğlu, Nevin; Arica, Seçil Gunher

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of Quantiferon-TB gold test (QFT-GIT) remains to be documented in pediatric population. Tuberculin skin test (TST) is a conventional test available for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We aimed to investigate the concordance between QFT-GIT and TST in children with and without tuberculosis infection. Ninety-seven patients, aged 3 months-14 years, admitted to pediatric outpatient clinics of Dr. Sadi Konuk Training Hospital Bakırköy, Turkey between March 2008 and April 2009 were recruited. Demographic features, TST results, history of exposure to active tuberculosis (TB), chest X-ray findings, clinical history, presence of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination scar were recorded. Patients were categorized into four groups namely, active TB, LTBI, no TB and healthy. It was found that BCG scar positivity did not influence QFT-GIT results. There was a statistically significant agreement between QFT-GIT and TST results (κ = 0.486; p < 0.01). In patients ≥ 5 years of age, TST positivity and QFT positivity had a significant relationship (p < 0.01). In all patient groups, sensitivity and specificity was 65.85 % and 82.14 %, respectively. In active TB group, TST and QFT-GIT results demonstrated significant agreement ratio of 40.8 % (κ = 0.364; p < 0.01). Sensitivity and specificity was 100 % and 30 %, respectively. Utilization of QFT-GIT in the diagnosis of LTBI reduces false-positive results and prevents unnecessary treatment with INH and its adverse effects.

  5. A 3D-psoriatic skin model for dermatological testing: The impact of culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Duque-Fernandez

    2016-12-01

    psoriatic skin substitutes.•Potential and veratility of a 3d-reconstructed model to perform dermatological testing.

  6. Penicillin hypersensitivity: value of clinical history and skin testing in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Gregoriou, Stamatios; Papaioannou, Dimitrios; Mousatou, Vassiliki; Katsarou-Katsari, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    Penicillin often is excluded as a treatment option based on patients' self-reported history of an adverse reaction to penicillin. The objective of this prospective study was to determine the likelihood of true penicillin allergy in patients with vague and convincing histories of penicillin allergy and to evaluate the diagnostic value added by appropriate skin testing. Six hundred thirty-eight patients with prior beta-lactam intake had a current indication for penicillin therapy and were referred for testing with the major (benzylpenicilloyl polylysine) and minor (minor determinant mixture) penicillin determinants from the inpatient and outpatient service of Athens University Dermatological hospital from January 2000 to December 2002. The prevalence of positive skin tests in the total group and in those patients with vague and convincing histories of penicillin allergy was determined. Positive skin tests were observed in 19/638 (3%) of the total group, 5 out of 542 (0.9%) patients without any history of penicillin allergy, 14 out of 96 (14.6%) patients with vague history (confidence interval [CI] 95% = 5.95-59.92), and 13 out of 18 (72.2%) patients with a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity reaction (chi2 = 286.3: odds ratio = 281.3: CI 95% = 62.19-1440.8). Patients with a vague history of penicillin allergy are 18 times more likely to have a positive penicillin skin test, and a convincing reaction history increases the likelihood by 281-fold compared with patients without a history of penicillin allergy. However, the fact that 5 of 18 (27.8%) patients with a convincing history were negative when skin tested points out that skin testing is helpful if the need for penicillin administration is compelling.

  7. Practical guide to skin prick tests in allergy to aeroallergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Heinzerling, L; Bachert, C

    2012-01-01

    tests in allergic rhinitis-conjunctivitis and asthma in daily practice. This pocket guide is meant to give simple answers to the most frequent questions raised by practitioners in Europe, including 'practicing allergists', general practitioners and any other physicians with special interest...

  8. Experimental tests for carbon nanomaterial synthesis using DC plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, H.; Łabȩdź, O.; Tylska, I.; Huczko, A.; Bystrzejewski, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the frame of this work some experimental tests were performed in the plasma jet. Pure ethanol vapour alone or with the addition of fine iron powder were used to synthesize few-layer graphene or carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles, respectively.

  9. Test for bacterial resistance build-up against plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, J. L.; Shimizu, T.; Schmidt, H.-U.; Li, Y.-F.; Morfill, G. E.; Isbary, G.

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that the evolution of resistance of microorganisms to a range of different antibiotics presents a major problem in the control of infectious diseases. Accordingly, new bactericidal ‘agents’ are in great demand. Using a cold atmospheric pressure (CAP) plasma dispenser operated with ambient air, a more than five orders of magnitude inactivation or reduction of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; resistant against a large number of the tested antibiotics) was obtained in less than 10 s. This makes CAP the most promising candidate for combating nosocomial (hospital-induced) infections. To test for the occurrence and development of bacterial resistance against such plasmas, experiments with Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus mundtii) were performed. The aim was to determine quantitative limits for primary (naturally) or secondary (acquired) resistance against the plasma treatment. Our results show that E. coli and E. mundtii possess no primary resistance against the plasma treatment. By generating four generations of bacteria for every strain, where the survivors of the plasma treatment were used for the production of the next generation, a lower limit to secondary resistance was obtained. Our results indicate that CAP technology could contribute to the control of infections in hospitals, in outpatient care and in disaster situations, providing a new, fast and efficient broad-band disinfection technology that is not constrained by bacterial resistance mechanisms.

  10. Pulse testing in the presence of wellbore storage and skin effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogbe, D.O.; Brigham, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    A pulse test is conducted by creating a series of short-time pressure transients in an active (pulsing) well and recording the observed pressure response at an observation (responding) well. Using the pressure response and flow rate data, the transmissivity and storativity of the tested formation can be determined. Like any other pressure transient data, the pulse-test response is significantly influenced by wellbore storage and skin effects. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of wellbore storage and skin effects on interference testing in general and on pulse-testing in particular, and to present the type curves and procedures for designing and analyzing pulse-test data when wellbore storage and skin effects are active at either the responding well or the pulsing well. A mathematical model for interference testing was developed by solving the diffusivity equation for radial flow of a single-phase, slightly compressible fluid in an infinitely large, homogeneous reservoir. When wellbore storage and skin effects are present in a pulse test, the observed response amplitude is attenuated and the time lag is inflated. Consequently, neglecting wellbore storage and skin effects in a pulse test causes the calculated storativity to be over-estimated and the transmissivity to be under-estimated. The error can be as high as 30%. New correlations and procedures are developed for correcting the pulse response amplitude and time lag for wellbore storage effects. Using these correlations, it is possible to correct the wellbore storage-dominated response amplitude and time lag to within 3% of their expected values without wellbore storage, and in turn to calculate the corresponding transmissivity and storativity. Worked examples are presented to illustrate how to use the new correction techniques. 45 references.

  11. Use of lyophilized skin for testing the bactericidal activity of teat disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, A J; Hogben, E M

    1983-02-01

    The bactericidal activities of various concentrations of 3 disinfectants commonly used for teat disinfection were compared in vitro using small discs of pig skin previously contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus. Solutions containing 40 g/l Na hypochlorite, 25 or 50 g/l chlorhexidine digluconate or iodophor containing 5 g/l iodine were found to have equivalent or superior bactericidal activity to a solution containing 10 g/l Na hypochlorite. This in vitro technique offers a convenient alternative to in vivo tests for teat disinfectants and with minor modifications could be applicable to the testing of skin antiseptics in general.

  12. GA(2)LEN skin test study I: GA(2)LEN harmonization of skin prick testing: novel sensitization patterns for inhalant allergens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinzerling, L M; Burbach, G J; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. However, different allergen extracts and different testing procedures have been applied by European allergy centres. Thus, it has been difficult to compare results from different centres or studies across Europe....... It was, therefore, crucial to standardize and harmonize procedures in allergy diagnosis and treatment within Europe. AIMS: The Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN), with partners and collaborating centres across Europe, was in a unique position to take on this task. The current study...

  13. A study of skin sensitivity to various allergens by skin prick test in patients of nasobronchial allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study skin sensitivity to various allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy. Materials and Methods: 2880 skin prick tests with 60 allergens were performed in 48 patients of nasobronchial allergy. Results: Most common offending allergens were insects (21.2%, followed by dusts (12.0%, pollens (7.8%, animal dander (3.1%, and fungi (1.3%. The common insect antigen were locust female (33.3% followed by locust male (25%, grasshopper (20.8%, cricket (16.7%, cockroach female (16.7% and cockroach male (14.6%. Common dust allergens were house dust, wheat dust, cotton mill and paper dust. Among pollens, Amaranthus spinosus, Argemone mexicana, Adhatoda vasica, Ailanthus and Cannabis were found to be common allergens. In animal danders common offending allergens were cow dander and dog dander. Among fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria teneis and Fusarium sodani were common allergens. Patients of bronchial asthma had associated allergic rhinitis in 80% cases. Conclusion: Common allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy were identified. The data may prove useful in of allergen avoidance and immunotherapy in these patients.

  14. Tannins from Potentilla officinalis display antiinflammatory effects in the UV erythema test and on atopic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wölfle, Ute; Schempp, Christoph M; Casetti, Federica

    2016-09-01

    Rich in tannins, the rhizome of Potentilla officinalis (PO) has traditionally been used in the topical treatment of inflammatory disorders of the skin and mucous membranes. The objective of the present study was to examine the antiinflammatory effects of PO in the UV erythema test as well as in patients with atopic skin. Using the UV erythema test, the antiinflammatory effects of a PO extract (2 %) - compared to 1 % hydrocortisone acetate - were assessed in a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled double-blind study of 40 healthy volunteers. In the context of a prospective non-controlled trial, the efficacy and tolerability of 2 % PO cream (applied to defined test areas twice daily for two weeks) was evaluated in twelve adults and twelve children with atopic skin using a partial SCORAD. In addition, the effects on the degree of erythema in the test areas was measured photometrically. In the UV erythema test, PO cream significantly reduced the erythema index compared to the vehicle. The antiinflammatory effects of PO cream were comparable to those of 1 % hydrocortisone acetate cream. The clinical study with atopic patients revealed a significant reduction in the partial SCORAD as well as erythema in the test areas. No adverse events were recorded. PO cream displays antiinflammatory effects in vivo. It is effective in and well tolerated by patients with atopic skin. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A new model for preclinical testing of dermal substitutes for human skin reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Biedermann, Thomas; Braziulis, Erik; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2013-05-01

    Currently, acellular dermal substitutes used for skin reconstruction are usually covered with split-thickness skin grafts. The goal of this study was to develop an animal model in which such dermal substitutes can be tested under standardized conditions using a bioengineered dermo-epidermal skin graft for coverage. Bioengineered grafts consisting of collagen type I hydrogels with incorporated human fibroblasts and human keratinocytes seeded on these gels were produced. Two different dermal substitutes, namely Matriderm(®), and an acellular collagen type I hydrogel, were applied onto full-thickness skin wounds created on the back of immuno-incompetent rats. As control, no dermal substitute was used. As coverage for the dermal substitutes either the bioengineered grafts were used, or, as controls, human split-thickness skin or neonatal rat epidermis were used. Grafts were excised 21 days post-transplantation. Histology and immunofluorescence was performed to investigate survival, epidermis formation, and vascularization of the grafts. The bioengineered grafts survived on all tested dermal substitutes. Epidermis formation and vascularization were comparable to the controls. We could successfully use human bioengineered grafts to test different dermal substitutes. This novel model can be used to investigate newly designed dermal substitutes in detail and in a standardized way.

  16. Lack of Correlation between Severity of Clinical Symptoms, Skin Test Reactivity, and Radioallergosorbent Test Results in Venom-Allergic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington RJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To retrospectively examine the relation between skin test reactivity, venom-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE antibody levels, and severity of clinical reaction in patients with insect venom allergy. Method Thirty-six patients (including 15 females who presented with a history of allergic reactions to insect stings were assessed. The mean age at the time of the reactions was 33.4 ± 15.1 years (range, 4-76 years, and patients were evaluated 43.6 ± 90 months (range, 1-300 months after the reactions. Clinical reactions were scored according to severity, from 1 (cutaneous manifestations only to 3 (anaphylaxis with shock. These scores were compared to scores for skin test reactivity (0 to 5, indicating the log increase in sensitivity from 1 μg/mL to 0.0001 μg/mL and radioallergosorbent test (RAST levels (0 to 4, indicating venom-specific IgE levels, from undetectable to >17.5 kilounits of antigen per litre [kUA/L]. Results No correlation was found between skin test reactivity (Spearman's coefficient = 0.15, p = .377 or RAST level (Spearman's coefficient = 0.32, p = .061 and the severity of reaction. Skin test and RAST scores both differed significantly from clinical severity (p p = .042. There was no correlation between skin test reactivity and time since reaction (Spearman's coefficient = 0.18, p = .294 nor between RAST and time since reaction (r = 0.1353, p = .438. Elimination of patients tested more than 12 months after their reaction still produced no correlation between skin test reactivity (p = .681 or RAST score (p = .183 and the severity of the clinical reaction. Conclusion In venom-allergic patients (in contrast to reported findings in cases of inhalant IgE-mediated allergy, there appears to be no significant correlation between the degree of skin test reactivity or levels of venom-specific IgE (determined by RAST and the severity of the clinical reaction.

  17. Using ELISPOT to expose false positive skin test conversion in tuberculosis contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Hill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeat tuberculin skin tests may be false positive due to boosting of waned immunity to past mycobacterial exposure. We evaluated whether an ELISPOT test could identify tuberculosis (TB contacts with boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted tuberculin and ELISPOT tests in 1665 TB contacts: 799 were tuberculin test negative and were offered a repeat test after three months. Those with tuberculin test conversion had an ELISPOT, chest X-ray and sputum analysis if appropriate. We compared converters with non-converters, assessed the probability of each of four combinations of ELISPOT results over the two time points and estimated boosting with adjustment for ELISPOT sensitivity and specificity. 704 (72% contacts had a repeat tuberculin test; 176 (25% had test conversion, which increased with exposure to a case (p = 0.002, increasing age (p = 0.0006 and BCG scar (p = 0.06. 114 tuberculin test converters had ELISPOT results: 16(14% were recruitment positive/follow-up positive, 9 (8% positive/negative, 34 (30% negative/positive, and 55 (48% were negative/negative. There was a significant non-linear effect of age for ELISPOT results in skin test converters (p = 0.038. Estimates of boosting ranged from 32%-41% of skin test converters with increasing age. Three converters were diagnosed with TB, two had ELISPOT results: both were positive, including one at recruitment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We estimate that approximately one third of tuberculin skin test conversion in Gambian TB case contacts is due to boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether ELISPOT can reliably identify case contacts with tuberculin test conversion that would benefit most from prophylactic treatment.

  18. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  19. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.

  20. Long-term repeatability of the skin prick test is high when supported by history or allergen-sensitivity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Jacobsen, C R; Poulsen, L K;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term reproducibility of the skin-prick test (SPT) has been questioned. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical relevance of SPT changes. METHODS: SPT to 10 common inhalation allergens was performed annually from 1999 to 2001 in 25 nonsensitized and 21 sensitized...

  1. Plasma Vehicle Charging Analysis for Orion Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, B.; Norgard, J.

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the upcoming experimental test flight for the Orion crew module, considerable interest was raised over the possibility of exposure to elevated levels of plasma activity and vehicle charging both externally on surfaces and internally on dielectrics during the flight test orbital operations. Initial analysis using NASCAP-2K indicated very high levels of exposure, and this generated additional interest in refining/defining the plasma and spacecraft models used in the analysis. This refinement was pursued, resulting in the use of specific AE8 and AP8 models, rather than SCATHA models, as well as consideration of flight trajectory, time duration, and other parameters possibly affecting the levels of exposure and the magnitude of charge deposition. Analysis using these refined models strongly indicated that, for flight test operations, no special surface coatings were necessary for the Thermal Protection System (TPS), but would definitely be required for future GEO, trans-lunar, and extra-lunar missions.

  2. Initial Plasma Startup Test on SUNIST Spherical Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ying(王莹); Zeng Li(曾立); He Yexi(何也熙); SUMST Team

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Sino-United Spherical Tokamak (SUNIST) at Tsinghua University is to extend the understanding of toroidal plasma physics at a low aspect ratio (R/a ≈ 1.3) and to demonstrate a maintainable target plasma by non-inductive startup. The SUNIST device is designed to operate with up to 13 kA of ohmic heating field current, and to 0.15 T of toroidal field at 10 kA of discharge current. All of the poloidal fields can provide 30 mVs of Volt-seconds transformer. Experimental results of plasma startup show that SUNIST has remarkable characteristics of high ramp rate (dIp/dt ≈ 50 MA/s ), high normalized current IN of about 2.8 (IN = Ip/aBT),and high-efficiency (Ip/IROD ≈ 0.4) production of plasma current while operating at a low toroidal field. Major disruption phenomena have not been observed from magnetic diagnostics of all testing shots. Initial discharges with 52 kA of plasma current (exceeding the designed value of 50 kA),2 ms of pulse length and 50 MA/s of ramp rate have been achieved easily with pre-ionized filament.

  3. Testing of viable human skin cell dilution cultures as an approach to validating microsampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainger, Stephen A; Yong, X L Hilary; Soyer, H Peter; Sturm, Richard A

    2017-05-01

    Skin biopsies are a valuable technique in the diagnosis of cutaneous inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. We were interested to test the minimal size or equivalent volume by dilution of proteolytically disassociated skin tissue required to allow the isolation and propagation of cutaneous cells, for freezing, storage and biochemical analysis. It was possible to propagate with 100% efficiency fibroblast and melanocytic cells from a 0.1 to 0.5 mm(3) equivalent neonatal foreskin sample using a combination of DispaseII and CollagenaseIV. The smallest tissue dilution that allowed melanocytic cell culture was 0.01 mm(3), which equated to approximately 16 cells based on the average skin density of melanocytes. However, passaging of cells to create frozen stocks was achieved routinely only from 1 mm(3) skin, equating to 1560 cells. Tissue-specific antigen expression of these cultures was tested by western blot of total protein extracts. There was no pigmentation antigen expression in fibroblast cultures; however, smooth muscle actin protein expression was high in fibroblast but absent from melanocytic cell strains. Melanocytic cells expressed pigmentation antigens and E-cadherin, but these were not detected in fibroblasts. Moreover, maturation of these melanocytic cells resulted in a decrease of Dopachrome Tautomerase antigen expression and induction of Tyrosinase protein consistent with the differentiation potential seen in cell cultures derived routinely from large sections of skin tissue.

  4. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  5. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, P-J; Burbach, G; Heinzerling, L M

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient...... as sensitized using results of the new Pan-European GA(2)LEN skin prick test study. Method: In a large Pan-European multicenter (17 centers in 14 countries) patient based study, a standardized panel of 18 allergens has been prick tested using a standardized procedure. Conditional approach allowed to determine...... the allergens selection. Result: Among the 3034 patients involved, 1996 (68.2%) were sensitized to at least one allergen. Overall, eight allergens (grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, birch pollen, cat dander, Artemisia, olive pollen, Blatella and Alternaria) allowed to identified more than 95...

  6. Anaphylaxis to Spirulina confirmed by skin prick test with ingredients of Spirulina tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thuy-My; Knulst, André C; Röckmann, Heike

    2014-12-01

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), blue-green microalgae, has high content in proteins, γ-linoleic acid and vitamins and therefore gained popularity as food supplement. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Spirulina is also an interesting alternative and sustainable protein source with the growing world population. We present a case of a 17-year-old male, who developed anaphylaxis the first time he ingested a Spirulina tablet. Skin prick test with diluted Spirulina tablet was positive. Further skin prick testing with separated ingredients (Spirulina platensis algae, silicon dioxide, inulin and magnesium stearate) was only positive for Spirulina platensis algae and negative in controls, confirming the allergy was caused by Spirulina and not by one of the additives. This case report shows that diagnosis of Spirulina allergy can safely be made by skin prick test with dilutions of the A. platensis or even more simple by skin prick test with the diluted tablet. Since Spirulina has gained popularity as food and nutritional supplement, it is important to realize the potential risk of this dietary supplement. Before Spirulina is produced and consumed on a wider scale, allergenicity risk assessment should be performed, including investigation of potential crossreactivity with well-known inhalant allergens and foods.

  7. A comparison of two skin test methodologies and allergens from two different manufacturers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodius, R; Wickens, K; Cheng, S; Crane, J

    2002-01-01

    Background: Skin prick tests (SPTs) are a frequently used method for evaluation of atopy. A variety of standard allergen preparations are available, together with a number of different methods of application. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare SPT reactivity 1) using Soluprick SQ

  8. Sympathetic skin response: simple test for evaluation of autonomic function in patients with diabetes mellitus?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srinivasa Jayachandra; Maxim Pinto; Urban J. A. D'Souza

    2005-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: We read with interest the excellent article by Huang YN et al.1 This important and carefully conducted study illustrates the sympathetic skin response (SSR) test can detect early dysfunction of the small sympathetic fibers in people affected by diabetes mellitus.

  9. Development and characterisation of an in vitro photomicronucleus test using ex vivo human skin tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, A.A.; Meeuwen, R.N.C. van; Vogel, N. de; Maas, W.J.M.; Krul, C.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Photosafety testing is of concern for the evaluation of personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Current regulatory guidance state that photosafety should be evaluated for compounds that absorb radiation between 290 and 700 nm with relevant exposure in the skin or eyes. However, oversensitivity a

  10. United States Air Force Health Care Provider Practices: Skin Testing for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-03

    91 -12/90 •8/90 -11/89 Clinical Manager, International Referral Center Approximately 200 IVF , GIFT, ZIFT Cases Armually; 600 lUI Annually...are not useful for skin testing (Simone, 1995). Tuberculoprotein, when diluted in a buffer has several important characteristics which affect it’s

  11. The Space Station Photovoltaic Panels Plasma Interaction Test Program: Test plan and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Felder, Marian C.; Sater, Bernard L.; Staskus, John V.

    1989-01-01

    The Plasma Interaction Test performed on two space station solar array panels is addressed. This includes a discussion of the test requirements, test plan, experimental set-up, and test results. It was found that parasitic current collection was insignificant (0.3 percent of the solar array delivered power). The measured arcing threshold ranged from -210 to -457 V with respect to the plasma potential. Furthermore, the dynamic response of the panels showed the panel time constant to range between 1 and 5 microsec, and the panel capacitance to be between .01 and .02 microF.

  12. The Space Station photovoltaic panels plasma interaction test program - Test plan and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Felder, Marian C.; Sater, Bernard L.; Staskus, John V.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma Interaction Test performed on two space station solar array panels is addressed. This includes a discussion of the test requirements, test plan, experimental set-up, and test results. It was found that parasitic current collection was insignificant (0.3 percent of the solar array delivered power). The measured arcing threshold ranged from -210 to -457 V with respect to the plasma potential. Furthermore, the dynamic response of the panels showed the panel time constant to range between 1 and 5 microsec, and the panel capacitance to be between .01 and .02 microF.

  13. Comparison of skin prick allergy test in urban and rural children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Widyanto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Children who grow up in rural areas have a lower incidence of atopy and other allergic manifestations than children in urban areas. Several recent studies have suggested that agricultural exposure may protect children from developing asthma and atopy, but these findings are inconsistent. Objective To examine an association between living in rural or urban areas and skin prick allergy test results in children and to detennine associated risk factors for atopy. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in Karo district (rural and Medan (urban in October-December 2009. We enrolled primary school children who had a history of atopy in their families. Skin prick testing was done on the volar side of the forearm and included eight aero-allergens: house dust mites, house dust, cotton, chicken feathers, cat dander, cockroaches, mould, and pollen. We analyzed the folloMng risk factors for association Mth atopy: tobacco smoke, pets, livestock exposure, and having older sibling(s. Results We recruited 49 children from the Karo district and 52 children from the city of Medan. There were significant associations between living in an urban area and positive skin prick test results for house dust mites and house dust compared to living in a rural area (P=0.04, 95% CI: 1.11 to 5.91; P=0.04, 95% CI: 1.13 to 12.45, respectively. The reverse was true for cockroach allergens (P=0.02, 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.81. Tobacco smoke and livestock exposure were associated Mth negative skin prick test results in rural children (P=O.03, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.81 and P=0.002, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.42, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that lack of livestock exposure was the major risk factor associated Mth any positive skin prick test results in rural children (P=0.004; 95% CI ; 0.02 to 0.49. Conclusion There were differing associations between living in rural and urban areas to various skin prick test results in children. Lack of livestock exposure was the risk

  14. Comparing changes in plasma and skin autofluorescence in low-flux versus high-flux hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsauer, Bernd; Engels, Gerwin; Arsov, Stefan; Hadimeri, Henrik; Sikole, Aleksandar; Graaff, Reindert; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE) are increased in hemodialysis (HD) patients, especially those with cardiovascular complications. Skin autofluorescence (skin-AF) can noninvasively estimate the accumulation of AGE in tissue. The aim was to clarify whether HD using a high-flux

  15. [Skin test: guide of post-marketed re-evaluation of clinical safety in traditional Chinese medicine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xu; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    Anaphylaxis is the most common adverse reaction caused by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injection, the most serious of which is type I, so post-marketed safety re-evaluation is necessary. Skin test can be used to screen type I allergy reaction, which is of great significance for TCM injection safe use. Skin test is not only able to find the population sensitization situation of TCM injection, but also is a way of understanding the mechanism of allergy reaction. TCM injection varieties that often occur type I anaphylaxis are applicable to skin test, and study population include healthy volunteers and patients whose disease is listed in the drug specification, intracutaneous test and prick test are the alternative method. The concentration of skin-test solution may influence the positive rate of skin test, penicillin skin-test solution preparation method can be used as the reference in TCM injection. Different doses of TCM injection skin-test solution,glucose injection and normal saline, histamine hydrochloride are comprised in comparison. Given the characteristics of type I allergy reaction,we should be pay close attention to skin test reaction in half an hour, and observation index need be designed based on post-marketed re-evaluation of clinical safety.

  16. The adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitisation: Moving closer to replacing animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Terry W; Dimitrova, Gergana; Dimitrov, Sabcho; Mekenyan, Ovanes G

    2016-10-01

    This article outlines the work of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that led to being jointly awarded the 2015 Lush Black Box Prize. The award-winning work centred on the development of 'The Adverse Outcome Pathway for Skin Sensitisation Initiated by Covalent Binding to Proteins'. This Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) has provided the mechanistic basis for the integration of skin sensitisation-related information. Recent developments in integrated approaches to testing and assessment, based on the AOP, are summarised. The impact of the AOP on regulatory policy and on the Three Rs are discussed. An overview of the next generation of the skin sensitisation AOP module in the OECD QSAR Toolbox, based on more-recent work at the Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry, is also presented. 2016 FRAME.

  17. Skin Test Reactivity to Fungal Aeroallergens in Asthmatic Children in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Amin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of asthma appears to involve interplay between host factors and environmental exposures. The most important environmental factors are viral respiratory infections and airborne allergens in consist of sensitization to fungal aeroallergens [1]. Exposure to fungal aeroallergens was reported to be a cause of asthma in many parts of the world.There are few data on the prevalence of allergy to molds in Iran. This study was performed to determine the positive skin prick test to molds and their related risk factors in asthmatic children in Shiraz, southern Iran (Table 1.Skin prick test was done in two hundred and thirty asthmatic children with five types of common fungal aeroallergens (Aspergillus fumigatus, Caldosporium herbarum, Penicillium, Alternaria and Rhizopus.Out of 230 asthmatic children (175 boys, 55 girls with mean age 6.34±3 years, 25 (10.9% had positive skin test to molds. In other studies this rate was reported to be different between 2% to 80%[2]. Of 25 children with positive skin test to molds, the common fungal aeroallergen was Aspergillus followed by Cladosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Amin R et al studied airborne fungal spores in Shiraz. The most important fungi, in order of numbers, had been Altenaria, Aspergilus, Rhizopus and Penicillium[3]. With regard to results of skin prick test in our study, it seems that Alternia is the most common outdoor fungus, but Aspergillus could be the most important indoor fungus.Another study showed in asthmatic patients that main skin test reactivity to fungi was for Aspergillus but most frequent cultured fungus was Cladosporium[4].Of 25 subjects with positive skin test to molds, 5 (20% were females, 20 (80% were residents of urban areas and 4 (56% lived in homes older than ten years. There was no significant correlation between the prevalence of mold skin test positivity in males and females, rural and urban habitats and age of homes.There was no difference in the

  18. Spectroscopy Measurements on Ablation Testing in High Enthalpy Plasma Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    stagnation point, are located on the ablative material sample. 3.5 InfraRed THERMOGRAPHY Surface temperature measurement is a topic of great concern...high temperature material at two different narrow wavelengths. The temperature is calculated by building the ratio of the radiation intensities. The...this work is to develop the capability of testing and characterization of ablative materials exposed to high enthalpy plasma flows including both

  19. Skin prick/puncture testing in North America: a call for standards and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Fatteh, Shahnaz; Rekkerth, Donna J.; Hadley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Background Skin prick/puncture testing (SPT) is widely accepted as a safe, dependable, convenient, and cost-effective procedure to detect allergen-specific IgE sensitivity. It is, however, prone to influence by a variety of factors that may significantly alter test outcomes, affect the accuracy of diagnosis, and the effectiveness of subsequent immunotherapy regimens. Proficiency in SPT administration is a key variable that can be routinely measured and documented to improve the predictive val...

  20. Antibiotic skin testing accompanied by provocative challenges in children is a useful clinical tool

    OpenAIRE

    Kavadas, Fotini D; Kasprzak, Anna; Atkinson, Adelle R

    2013-01-01

    Background Diagnostic testing to antibiotics other than to penicillin has not been widely available, making the diagnosis of antibiotic allergy difficult and often erroneous. There is often reluctance in performing challenges to antibiotics when standardized testing is lacking. However, while the immunogenic determinants are not known for most antibiotics, a skin reaction at a non-irritating concentration (NIC) may mean that antibodies to the native form are present in the circulation. While ...

  1. The lancet weight determines wheal diameter in response to skin prick testing with histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Lundgaard, Anna Charlotte; Sohrt Petersen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test (SPT) is a common test for diagnosing immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies. In clinical routine, technicalities, human errors or patient-related biases, occasionally results in suboptimal diagnosis of sensitization. OBJECTIVE: Although not previously assessed...... with potential diagnostic implications. This warrants additional research of the optimal lancet weight in relation to SPT-guidelines to improve the specificity and sensitivity of the procedure....

  2. Life Cycle Tests on a Hollow Cathode Based Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster with a mission duration of 12 days. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta II second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma, and a Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (HCPC) emits the collected electrons from the Delta II, completing the electrical circuit to the ambient plasma. The HCPC for the ProSEDS mission have made it necessary to turn off the HCPC once a minute throughout the entire mission. Because of the unusual operating requirements by the ProSEDS mission, an engineering development unit of the HCPC was built to demonstrate the HCPC design would start reliably for the life of the ProSEDS mission. During the life test the engineering unit cycled for over 10,000 on/off cycles without missing a single start, and during that same test the HCPC unit demonstrated the capability to emit 0 to 5 A electron emission current. The performance of the HCPC unit during this life test will be discussed.

  3. Evaluation of autologous serum skin test and skin prick test reactivity to house dust mite in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU is a common skin disorder with etiology that is not well understood. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of autologous serum skin test (ASST and skin prick testing (SPT to house dust mite (HDM in 862 CSU cases in China. Clinical features, courses and treatment responses were also recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive ASST was 46.3%, and patients aged 30-39 years had the highest positive rate (52.1%. Positive SPT to HDM was seen in 153 patients (17.7% with the highest positive rate (34.2% in patients aged 20 or less. Patients with positive ASST had higher urticaria activity scores (UAS (4.18±0.65 vs. 3.67±0.53 but lower positive rates of HDM (24.6% vs. 37.6%, as compared with those with negative ASST (odds ratio (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38-2.47. Patients could be categorized into four groups based on the results of ASST and SPT to HDM and patients with positive ASST and positive SPT to HDM had the highest disease activity scores, experienced higher frequencies of angioedema, diseases duration, and required higher dosage of loratadine every month, compared with other subgroups (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CSU showed varied responses of positive ASST and varied sensitivity to HDM, Patients with positive ASST and/or positive SPT had more disease activity compared with patients with negative ASST and/or negative SPT. Further classification can be made based on the result of SPT and ASST.

  4. Material testing facilities and programs for plasma-facing component testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsmeier, Ch.; Unterberg, B.; Coenen, J. W.; Doerner, R. P.; Greuner, H.; Kreter, A.; Linke, J.; Maier, H.

    2017-09-01

    Component development for operation in a large-scale fusion device requires thorough testing and qualification for the intended operational conditions. In particular environments are necessary which are comparable to the real operation conditions, allowing at the same time for in situ/in vacuo diagnostics and flexible operation, even beyond design limits during the testing. Various electron and neutral particle devices provide the capabilities for high heat load tests, suited for material samples and components from lab-scale dimensions up to full-size parts, containing toxic materials like beryllium, and being activated by neutron irradiation. To simulate the conditions specific to a fusion plasma both at the first wall and in the divertor of fusion devices, linear plasma devices allow for a test of erosion and hydrogen isotope recycling behavior under well-defined and controlled conditions. Finally, the complex conditions in a fusion device (including the effects caused by magnetic fields) are exploited for component and material tests by exposing test mock-ups or material samples to a fusion plasma by manipulator systems. They allow for easy exchange of test pieces in a tokamak or stellarator device, without opening the vessel. Such a chain of test devices and qualification procedures is required for the development of plasma-facing components which then can be successfully operated in future fusion power devices. The various available as well as newly planned devices and test stands, together with their specific capabilities, are presented in this manuscript. Results from experimental programs on test facilities illustrate their significance for the qualification of plasma-facing materials and components. An extended set of references provides access to the current status of material and component testing capabilities in the international fusion programs.

  5. Changes in skin test reactivity among adults with atopic disease: a 3-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslund, N.; Thomsen, S.F.; Molgaard, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Our knowledge about longtudinal predictors of atopy is limited. Objectives: To describe changes in skin test reactivity during a 3-year period in a sample of adolescents and adults with atopic disease and to identify factors of importance for these changes. Methods: From a sample of 1......, 186 candidates, ranging in age from 14 to 44 years, who in a screening questionnaire reported symptoms suggestive of respiratory allergic disease, 344 individuals with a positive skin prick test (SPT) result concomitantly with asthma and/or rhinitis were clinically studied on 2 occasions, 3 years...... apart. Results: In total, 134 (39% of the Study population) had a different SPT result at follow-up compared with baseline, based on a diagnostic criterion of 3 min for a positive test result 77 (22%) developed de novo sensitizations to I or more allergens, 45 (13%) had remission of 1 or more...

  6. Natural Rubber Latex Hypersensitivity with Skin Prick Test in Operating Room Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hessamedin Nabavizadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber latex have increased recently, especially among people with high exposure to latex allergens. Hypersensitivity reactions to latex are related to many conditions like occupational asthma. Our study was performed to determine the prevalence of hypersensitivity to natural rubber latex and potential food cross reactions in operation room personnel in Shiraz hospitals. In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, 580 operation room personnel filled out our questionnaire which included data about their personal history, symptoms of latex hypersensitivity, and other related allergies such as food hypersensitivity. An informed consent was obtained and skin prick tests were performed for natural rubber latex and potential food cross reactions (kiwi, banana, and potato. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS and Chi-square test.Results: 104 (17.9% of the operating room personnel showed positive latex skin tests. We revealed a significant correlation between those with positive skin tests to latex with atopia, urthicaria, and food hypersensitivity. The prevalence did not vary by sex, age, education, surgical and non-surgical gloves users, or history of contact dermatitis. Latex hypersensitivity is common among operation room personnel. Evaluation of symptoms and prediction of future diseases necessitate screening tests in individuals at risk.

  7. Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Simon C.; Maas, Wilfred J. M.; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    conditions was measured using flow through cells for 8-24 h. Saline (adjusted to pH 7.4) was used as receptor fluid, with BSA added for studies with testosterone and propoxur. Following exposure, the remaining surface dose was removed by swabbing and the skin digested prior to scintillation counting. Results......Abstract   Objectives: To determine the effect of skin thickness on the percutaneous penetration and distribution of test compounds with varying physicochemical properties using in vitro systems. Studies were carried out in accordance with OECD guidelines on skin absorption tests. Methods......: Percutaneous penetration of caffeine (log P -0.01), testosterone (log P 3.32), propoxur (log P 1.52) (finite dose in ethanol to water vehicle ratio) and butoxyethanol (log P 0.83) (undiluted finite dose or as an infinite dose 50% [v/v] aqueous solution) through skin of varying thicknesses under occluded...

  8. Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, Simon C.; Maas, Wilfred J. M.; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract   Objectives: To determine the effect of skin thickness on the percutaneous penetration and distribution of test compounds with varying physicochemical properties using in vitro systems. Studies were carried out in accordance with OECD guidelines on skin absorption tests. Methods......: Percutaneous penetration of caffeine (log P -0.01), testosterone (log P 3.32), propoxur (log P 1.52) (finite dose in ethanol to water vehicle ratio) and butoxyethanol (log P 0.83) (undiluted finite dose or as an infinite dose 50% [v/v] aqueous solution) through skin of varying thicknesses under occluded...... conditions was measured using flow through cells for 8-24 h. Saline (adjusted to pH 7.4) was used as receptor fluid, with BSA added for studies with testosterone and propoxur. Following exposure, the remaining surface dose was removed by swabbing and the skin digested prior to scintillation counting. Results...

  9. VZV skin-test reaction, but not antibody, is an important predictive factor for postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Kyoko; Okazaki, Aiko; Onishi, Fumitake; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Okeda, Masayuki; Yano, Shuichiro; Takao, Yukiko; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamanishi, Koichi; Asada, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    The decline of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is thought to be related to the risk of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) as well as herpes zoster (HZ). However, the relationship between immunological condition and the incidence of PHN is still unclear. We conducted a large-scale prospective cohort study to clarify the relationship between immunological factors for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and the incidence of PHN. We carried out a cohort study on VZV immunity in a population living on an island cluster, Shozu County in Japan, and examined the people who developed HZ during a follow-up period of 3 years, with a focus on the relationship between cell-mediated and humoral immunity and the incidence of PHN. A total of 12,522 people over the age of 50 were enrolled in this study, and 401 registrants were diagnosed with HZ, including 79 PHN cases. We evaluated anatomical location and severity of skin lesion, acute pain severity, presence or absence of abnormal sensations, CMI assessed by VZV skin test, and VZV-specific antibody titer measured by serological tests. The incidence of PHN was significantly associated with a weak response to the VZV skin test, as well as facial or lumbosacral localization of skin rash, severe skin lesion, severe acute pain, and presence of abnormal sensations, but not related to VZV-specific antibody titer. The incidence of PHN is significantly associated with the decline of VZV-specific CMI, but not related to VZV-specific humoral immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CONTAMINATED PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS TREATED WITH AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP): A case series study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on contaminated problematic skin ulcers in patients with diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 6 patients had been treated within the period from 2012 to 2014; they had various types of problematic wounds and diabetes type 2. Patients’ distribution by sex was as follows: 1 man and 5 women; mean age- 68 years. Ulcer types: acute (2 patients), hard-to-heal (2 patients) and chronic (2 patients) ulcers. The mean size of the ski...

  11. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.

  12. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study. 2008 FRAME.

  13. Active tuberculosis among Iraqi schoolchildren with positive skin tests and their household contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kubaisy, W; Al Dulayme, A; Hashim, D S

    2003-07-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Iraq, schoolchildren with a positive tuberculin skin test during the nationwide survey in 2000 were followed up in 2002 to determine prevalence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and risk factors among household contacts. Of 205 children, 191 remained skin-test positive in 2002. Based on X-ray and clinical examination, 9 children (4.4%) were active TB cases. Among 834 household contacts, there were 144 new TB cases, giving a cumulative incidence of 17.3%. Risk factors for TB among household contacts were: age > or = 15 years; technical/professional job; smoking; low body mass index; diabetes mellitus; steroid therapy; and closeness of contact with the index cases. Based on past history of TB in index children and their contacts, 77.2% of new TB cases were attributable to household contacts.

  14. Maternal Plasma DNA and RNA Sequencing for Prenatal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, Saskia; van Maarle, Merel; Henneman, Lidewij; Oudejans, Cees B M; Cornel, Martina C; Sistermans, Erik A

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing has recently become indispensable in diagnostic testing and screening. In the prenatal setting, this type of testing is often called noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). With a number of techniques, using either next-generation sequencing or single nucleotide polymorphism-based approaches, fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma can be analyzed to screen for rhesus D genotype, common chromosomal aneuploidies, and increasingly for testing other conditions, including monogenic disorders. With regard to screening for common aneuploidies, challenges arise when implementing NIPT in current prenatal settings. Depending on the method used (targeted or nontargeted), chromosomal anomalies other than trisomy 21, 18, or 13 can be detected, either of fetal or maternal origin, also referred to as unsolicited or incidental findings. For various biological reasons, there is a small chance of having either a false-positive or false-negative NIPT result, or no result, also referred to as a "no-call." Both pre- and posttest counseling for NIPT should include discussing potential discrepancies. Since NIPT remains a screening test, a positive NIPT result should be confirmed by invasive diagnostic testing (either by chorionic villus biopsy or by amniocentesis). As the scope of NIPT is widening, professional guidelines need to discuss the ethics of what to offer and how to offer. In this review, we discuss the current biochemical, clinical, and ethical challenges of cfDNA testing in the prenatal setting and its future perspectives including novel applications that target RNA instead of DNA.

  15. Comparison of tuberculin skin test and quantiferon-TB gold in tube test for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in health care workers: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkanat, Erkan; Kaya, Hatice; Sezer, Ogun; Caliskan, Tayfun; Kilic, Erol; Ciftci, Faruk; Gumus, Seyfettin; Kartaloglu, Zafer

    2016-03-01

    To compare the diagnostic efficacy and agreement of the traditional tuberculin skin test with QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test for latent tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers. The cross-sectional analytical study was conducted between March 1 and 31, 2008, at a specialist tuberculosis hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, and comprised healthcare workers who had been employed for at least one year at the hospital and volunteered to take part. Tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test were both performed simultaneously and their results were compared Using SPSS 12. Out of 34 subjects, 20(58.8%) had a positive tuberculin skin test, and 7(20.6%) had a positive QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test. The two tests agreed in only 15(44.1%) cases and disagreed in 19(55.9%). In 16(47.1%) subjects, the QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test was negative and tuberculin skin testwas positive, while in 3(8.8%) participants QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test was positive and tuberculin skin test was negative. Kappa test revealed discordance between the two tests (k=-0.13; p=0.92). Latent tuberculosis infection prevalence was higher based on tuberculin skin test than QuantiFERON-Tuberculosis Gold In-Tube test. The results of the two tests were discordant.

  16. Skin Test Reactivity to Indoor Allergens Correlates with Asthma Severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshak Emad A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increased emphasis on the role of indoor allergens in asthma. Objective To examine the spectrum of skin test reactivity (sensitization to indoor allergens and its correlation with asthma severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods Asthmatic patients referred to the allergy clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH in Jeddah were studied. Measures of clinical severity were adopted from national and international asthma guidelines. The degree of sensitization was assessed by the wheal size (positive ≥ 3 mm from standard skin-prick tests for the following common indoor inhalant allergens: house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [Dp] and Dermatophagoides farinae [Df], cat, and cockroach. Results Skin test results from 113 of 151 (74.8% asthmatic patients were positive for one or more allergens. The patients' ages ranged between 9 and 63 years (mean, 30 ± 13 years, and females constituted 65.5%. The predominant asthma severity level was moderate persistent (55.8%, followed by mild persistent (33.6%. The prevalences of sensitization to indoor allergens were as follows: Dp, 87% (3-25 mm [mean, 7 mm]; Df, 84% (3-20 mm [mean, 7 mm]; cat, 44% (3-15 mm [mean, 6 mm]; and cockroach, 33% (3-12 mm [mean, 4 mm]. Higher asthma severity levels were significantly correlated with the number of allergens with positive sensitization (R = 0.3, p Dp [degrees of freedom {df} = 16, p Df [df = 17, p df = 10, p df = 8, p Conclusions Immunoglobulin E-mediated skin test reactivity to indoor allergens, particularly to house dust mites, was common in asthmatic patients from Jeddah at KAUH. Increased sensitization was associated with higher levels of asthma severity, which is compatible with the literature. This emphasizes the importance of identifying sensitization to relevant indoor allergens in the clinical evaluation of asthmatic persons.

  17. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial antigen in the diagnosis of human filariasis by skin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrahmanyam M

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial antigen was investigated in skin test on: (1 Microfilaria carriers, (2 Amicrofilaraemic cases from endemic villages with and without intestinal helminths, (3 Cases having apparent symptoms and signs of filariasis. The anti-gen reacted with specificity in cases having apparent symptoms and signs of filariasis. In microfilaria carriers and amicrofilaraemic individuals from endemic areas no reaction was seen. The diag-nostic value o f W. bancrofti microflarial antigen in chronic cases has been discussed.

  18. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  19. Tests of Flammability of Cotton Fabrics and Expected Skin Burns in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jane M.; Torvi, David A.; Gabriel, Kamiel S.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    During a shuttle launch and other portions of space flight, astronauts wear specialized flame resistant clothing. However during most of their missions on board the Space Shuttle or International Space Station, astronauts wear ordinary clothing, such as cotton shirts and pants. As the behaviour of flames is considerably different in microgravity than under earth s gravity, fabrics are expected to burn in a different fashion in microgravity than when tested on earth. There is interest in determining how this change in burning behaviour may affect times to second and third degree burn of human skin, and how the results of standard fabric flammability tests conducted under earth s gravity correlate with the expected fire behaviour of textiles in microgravity. A new experimental apparatus was developed to fit into the Spacecraft Fire Safety Facility (SFSF), which is used on NASA s KC-135 low gravity aircraft. The new apparatus was designed to be similar to the apparatus used in standard vertical flammability tests of fabrics. However, rather than using a laboratory burner, the apparatus uses a hot wire system to ignite 200 mm high by 80 mm wide fabric specimens. Fabric temperatures are measured using thermocouples and/or an infrared imaging system, while flame spread rates are measured using real time observations or video. Heat flux gauges are placed between 7 and 13 mm away from the fabric specimen, so that heat fluxes from the burning fabric to the skin can be estimated, along with predicted times required to produce skin burns.

  20. The results of intradermal skin tests (IDST) in dogs with atopic dermatitis from the Lublin voivodeship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taszkun, I

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the positive immediate reactions received from intradermal skin tests (IDST) which confirmed the presence of IgE-dependent hypersensitivity in dogs with atopic dermatitis, which were patients of the Dermatology Consulting Section at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin between 2007 and 2009. Intradermal skin tests were performed on 142 dogs (72 females and 70 males) from the Lublin voivodeship of different breeds ranging in age from 1 to 6 years (average 2.8 years). The allergen set used in this study was the Artuvetrin Test (ARTU Biologicals Europe B.V, Holland). The owners of 84 dogs observed the presence of skin lesions all year round regardless of season, while 58 dog owners noted them only in spring and summer. Most immediate positive reactions were ascertained from mite allergens (70.61%), fewer from pollen allergens (19.55%), and the fewest from animal (4.15%) and mould allergens (1.66%). Immediate positive reactions for a flea allergen (4.03% of all positive reactions) were also ascertained. In 98.6% of dogs polysensitization was found.

  1. Skin testing and drug challenge outcomes in antibiotic-allergic patients with immediate-type hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhirt, Stephanie L; Fonacier, Luz S; Calixte, Rose; Davis-Lorton, Mark; Aquino, Marcella R

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation of antibiotic immediate-type hypersensitivity is intricate because of nonstandardized skin testing and challenge method variability. To determine the safety outcomes and risk factors for antibiotic challenge reactions in patients reporting a history of antibiotic immediate-type hypersensitivity. A 5-year retrospective review of patients evaluated for immediate-type antibiotic allergy was conducted. Data analyzed included patient demographics, index reaction details, and outcomes of skin testing and challenges, classified as single-step or multistep. Antibiotic hypersensitivity history was identified in 211 patients: 78% to penicillins, 10% to fluoroquinolones, 7.6% to cephalosporins, and 3.8% to carbapenems. In total, 179 patients completed the challenges (median age 67 years, range 50-76 years, 56% women), and compared with nonchallenged patients, they reported nonanaphylactic (P antibiotic allergies (P = .005). No correlation was detected between the reported index and observed challenge reaction severities (κ = -0.05, 95% confidence interval -0.34 to 0.24). Anaphylactic rates were similar during single-step and multistep challenges (3.6% vs 3.3%). In the present population, younger women with multiple reported antibiotic allergies were at greatest risk for challenge reactions. Negative skin testing results did not exclude reactions, and index severity was not predictive of challenge outcome. The multistep and full-dose methods demonstrated a comparable reaction risk for anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance of QuantiFERON TB gold test compared with the tuberculin skin test for detecting latent tuberculosis infection in lung and heart transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani, Masoud; Farshidpour, Maham; Nekoonam, Mohsen; Varahram, Fatemeh; Najafizadeh, Katayoon; Mohammadi, Nazila; Sharifkashani, Babak; Gachkar, Latif; Farokhzad, Banafsheh; Droudinia, Atousa; Javanmard, Pedram; Tabarsi, Payam

    2014-04-01

    Evaluation for latent tuberculosis infection is advised before organ transplant. The interferon-gamma release assay has been shown to be more specific than the tuberculin skin test for screening for latent tuberculosis infection. We compared the tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test for screening for latent tuberculosis infection and agreement between the tests in heart and lung transplant recipients before transplant. Fifty-five adult patients who had been evaluated for heart and lung transplant between September 2011 and September 2012 at Masih Daneshvari Hospital in Iran were prospectively enrolled. We performed the tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test. Of the 55 patients, 3 (5%) had positive tuberculin skin test results, and 11 (20%) had positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test results. Agreement between the tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test was fair (Kappa=0.061; 95% CI: - 0.185-0.307) (P = .56). The positivity for QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test was greater than the positivity for the tuberculin skin test, and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test more accurately determined the risk for latent tuberculosis infection. However, a further longitudinal study is necessary to verify that the QFT-G test would predict developing tuberculosis after heart and lung transplant.

  3. Pilot test and optimization of plasma based deNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Chen, Weifeng; Michelsen, Poul

    The NOx reduction of flue gas by plasma generated ozone was investigated in pilot test experiments at two industrial power plants running on natural gas (Ringsted) and biomass (Haslev). Reduction rates higher than 95% have been achieved for a molar ratio O3:NOx of 1.56. Fourier transform infrared....... Experiments are in good agreement with numerical simulations. An optimized oxidation scheme for NOx reduction processes with time dependent combustion, such as the biomass power plants, was developed. Ozone production by micro-hollow and capillary discharges at atmospheric pressures was investigated...

  4. Histologic Evidence of New Collagen Formulation Using Platelet Rich Plasma in Skin Rejuvenation: A Prospective Controlled Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuaf, Ozlem Karabudak; Baloglu, Hüseyin; Bilgili, Memet Ersan; Simsek, Hasan Aktug; Dogan, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    Background Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous concentration of human platelets contained in a small volume of plasma and has recently been shown to accelerate rejuvenate aging skin by various growth factors and cell adhesion molecules. Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intradermal injection of PRP in the human facial rejuvenation. Methods This study was a prospective, single-center, single-dose, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. PRP injected to the upper site of this right infra-auricular area and all face. Saline was injected to the left infra-auricular area. Histopathological examinations were performed before PRP treatment, 28 days after the PRP, and saline (control) treatments. Results Twenty women ranging in age from 40 to 49 years (mean age, 43.65±2.43 years) were enrolled in the study. The mean optical densities (MODs) of collagen in the pre-treatment, control, and PRP-treated area were measured. They were 539±93.2, 787±134.15, 1,019±178, respectively. In the MOD of PRP, 89.05 percent improvement was found when MOD of PRP was compared with MOD of pre-treatment. The mean MOD of collagen fibers was clearly highest on the PRP side (p<0.001). The PRP-to-saline improvement ratio (89.05% to 46.01%) was 1.93:1. No serious side effects were detected. Conclusion PRP increases dermal collagen levels not only by growth factors, but also by skin needling (the mesotherapy technique 'point by point'). PRP application could be considered as an effective (even a single application) and safety procedure for facial skin rejuvenation. PMID:27904271

  5. Degree of skin denervation and its correlation to objective thermal sensory test in leprosy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Alves Rodrigues Júnior

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an infectious disease affecting skin and peripheral nerves resulting in increased morbidity and physical deformities. Early diagnosis provides opportune treatment and reduces its complications, relying fundamentally on the demonstration of impaired sensation in suggestive cutaneous lesions. The loss of tactile sensitivity in the lesions is preceded by the loss of thermal sensitivity, stressing the importance of the thermal test in the suspicious lesions approach. The gold-standard method for the assessment of thermal sensitivity is the quantitative sensory test (QST. Morphological study may be an alternative approach to access the thin nerve fibers responsible for thermal sensitivity transduction. The few studies reported in leprosy patients pointed out a rarefaction of thin dermo-epidermal fibers in lesions, but used semi-quantitative evaluation methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work aimed to study the correlation between the degree of thermal sensitivity impairment measured by QST and the degree of denervation in leprosy skin lesions, evaluated by immunohistochemistry anti-PGP 9.5 and morphometry. Twenty-two patients were included. There were significant differences in skin thermal thresholds among lesions and contralateral skin (cold, warm, cold induced pain and heat induced pain. The mean reduction in the density of intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers in lesions was 79.5% (SD = 19.6 and 80.8% (SD = 24.9, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed a good correlation between intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers deficit, but no correlation between these variables and those accounting for the degree of impairment in thermal thresholds, since the thin fibers rarefaction was homogeneously intense in all patients, regardless of the degree of sensory deficit. We believe that the homogeneously intense denervation in leprosy lesions should be objective of further investigations focused on its

  6. An evaluation of the diagnostic value of different skin tests with egg in clinically egg-allergic children having atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine K; Høst, Arne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Skin testing is a common diagnostic procedure in food allergy, but the final diagnosis of food allergy is based on the clinical response to food challenge. We studied the value of the skin prick-prick test (SPT), skin application food test (SAFT) and atopy patch test (APT) with fresh egg extract...

  7. Sorption-desorption test for functional assessment of skin treated with a lipid system that mimics epidermal lamellar bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner, Verónica; Fernández, Estibalitz; Del Pozo, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Gelen; Cócera, Mercedes; de la Maza, Alfonso; López, Olga

    2017-07-01

    Many skin diseases are associated with either increases or decreases in lamellar body secretion, or dysfunctional lamellar bodies. Consequently, diseased skin is characterized by reduced barrier function and altered lipid composition and organization. Human skin is commonly evaluated in vivo with non-invasive biophysical techniques. The dynamic functions of the skin are evaluated with repeat measurements such as the sorption-desorption test (SDT). The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo skin hydration-dehydration kinetics after treatment with a lipid system that mimics the morphology, structure and composition of lamellar bodies in both healthy and irritated human skin. A patch with an aqueous solution of 2% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was used to irritate the skin of the volunteers. The SDT was performed with the CM 820 corneometer. After treatment with this system, both healthy and SLS-irritated skin increased their ability to retain water and to release water slowly during the desorption phase. Treatment with this system seems to reinforce the barrier function in both healthy and SLS-irritated human skin. Therefore, the present study provides evidence that this system could be of interest for developing future treatments for protecting and repairing the skin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. CONTAMINATED PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS TREATED WITH AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP: A case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP on contaminated problematic skin ulcers in patients with diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 6 patients had been treated within the period from 2012 to 2014; they had various types of problematic wounds and diabetes type 2. Patients’ distribution by sex was as follows: 1 man and 5 women; mean age- 68 years. Ulcer types: acute (2 patients, hard-to-heal (2 patients and chronic (2 patients ulcers. The mean size of the skin and soft tissue defect was 9,5 cm2. Pathogenic microflora was isolated in 4 patients - S. aureus in three and Е. Coli in one. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 – 6 months (4,5 on average. We used platelet rich plasma derived by PRGF Endoret system, applied on the wound bed on a weekly basis. RESULTS: Application of PRP allowed successful closure of all wounds. There were no complications associated with treatment of PRP. Epithelialization of the wound took 15 weeks on average for all patients. One patient presented with hyperkeratosis. Initial score of followed wounds, based on the scales are as follows: Total wound score – 10 p. Total anatomic score – 8 p. Total score – 15 p. at the initial stage. At the end of the treatment period scores were as follows - 0 p., which means excellent results CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of contaminated problematic wounds in diabetic patients. PRP not only stimulates wound healing, but also has antimicrobial properties, which may contribute to the prevention of infections.

  9. Rubbing test responses of the skin to man-made mineral fibres of different diameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam-Westerveld, E B; Coenraads, P J; van der Valk, P G; de Jong, M C; Fidler, V

    1994-07-01

    The irritant potency of 5 types of insulation wools (2 types of rockwool and 3 types of glasswool) were studied on the basis of their differences in diameter by a standardized rubbing test. Assessment was done by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and erythema scores. Insulation wools show a wide distribution of the diameter around the mean. Of the rockwool material, 30% consisted of small grains, called "shot". The control test site did not change over time; thus, the rubbing procedure itself does not seem to contribute to the skin reactions. All fibre types proved to be irritant to the skin. The irritant reactions did not correspond with the mean diameter, although the fibre type with the smallest diameter was the least irritant and the fibre type with the largest diameter the strongest. The presence of "shot" had a significant effect on the LDF responses. "Shot" and the distribution around the mean diameter may play a role in eliciting the skin irritation by insulation wools.

  10. In vivo plasma concentration for lindane after 6 hour exposure in human skin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset is a time course description of lindane disappearance in blood plasma after dermal exposure in human volunteers. This dataset is associated with the...

  11. Aero-allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia based on 1000 intradermal skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Bettenay, S V; Tideman, L

    2000-06-01

    To determine the most relevant aero-allergens involved in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and provide information about these aero-allergens to the general practitioner. Dogs presented to the Animal Skin & Allergy Clinic with history and clinical signs of atopic dermatitis were injected intradermally with 38 different allergens and negative and positive control. Intradermal skin tests in 1000 dogs were retrospectively evaluated. One third of all patients reacted to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. Allergens reacting in more than 15% of the patients were wheat (Triticum aestivum), sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum), English couch (Agropyron repens), yellow dock (Rumex crispus), Mexican tea (Chenopodium ambrosioides), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) and peppercorn (Schimus spp). House dust mites are the most common allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and D farinae is involved most frequently. However, a number of grass, weed and tree pollens also are involved regularly.

  12. The EpiDerm test protocol for the upcoming ECVAM validation study on in vitro skin irritation tests--an assessment of the performance of the optimised test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandárová, Helena; Liebsch, Manfred; Gerner, Ingrid; Schmidt, Elisabeth; Genschow, Elke; Traue, Dieter; Spielmann, Horst

    2005-08-01

    During the past decade, several validation studies have been conducted on in vitro methods for discriminating between skin irritating and non-irritating chemicals. The reconstructed human skin models, EpiDerm and EPISKIN, provided the most promising results. Based on experience of the similar performance of the two skin models, it was suggested that a common test protocol and prediction model should be developed for the prediction of skin irritation potential with the two models. When the EPISKIN protocol was applied with the EpiDerm model, an acceptable specificity (80%) was achieved, whereas the sensitivity (60%) was low. In 2003, the EPISKIN protocol was further refined by extending the post-incubation period following exposure to test chemicals. This extension and additional technical improvements to the EpiDerm protocol were evaluated with 19 chemicals from the prevalidation study. With the new test design, high sensitivity (80%) and specificity (78%) were obtained. The statistical probability for correct classifications was high, so the test was considered to be ready for formal validation. However, since test optimisation had been conducted with the same test chemicals as were used in the ECVAM prevalidation study, it was decided that the optimisation of the protocol had to be verified with a new set of chemicals. Thus, in the current study, 26 additional chemicals (10 rabbit irritants and 16 non-irritants), which had previously been selected and tested by LOREAL with EPISKIN, were evaluated in three independent experiments with EpiDerm. With this unbalanced testing set, a specificity of 94%, and a sensitivity of 60% were obtained, while the positive and negative predictivity and accuracy remained almost unchanged (around 80%) in comparison to the in vivo rabbit data. Overall, 45 chemicals (20 irritants and 25 non-irritants) were tested according to the final protocol. The resulting high positive (82%) and negative predictive values (79%) confirmed the

  13. Ranitidine (150 mg daily) inhibits wheal, flare, and itching reactions in skin-prick tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczyk, Maciej; Kupryś, Izabela; Bocheńska-Marciniak, Małgorzata; Górski, Paweł; Kuna, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    H(1)-receptor antagonists are known to suppress reactions in skin-prick tests (SPTs); however, the effect of H(2)-receptor antagonists, which are widely used in our everyday practice, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of ranitidine on wheal, flare, and itching sensation in SPTs. Twenty-one atopic patients (5 women and 16 men) with an average age of 28.04 years (SD, +/-8.24) were tested with histamine, codeine, negative control solution, and standard allergen extracts. Ranitidine (150 mg daily), loratadine (10 mg daily), or placebo were given to the volunteers for 5 days in a double-blind manner with 14 days of washout period. SPTs were applied to the volar surface of a forearm. There was no difference in wheal, flare, and itching between SPTs performed after placebo and washout period. The analysis revealed a statistically significant suppression of wheal and flare by ranitidine and loratadine (p = 0.013 and solutions tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). We found a significant suppression of itching induced by ranitidine (reduction of 26.85%; p = 0.005) and loratadine (29.6%; p = 0.005) as compared with placebo (p = 0.068 versus washout). Our data show a suppressive effect of ranitidine on the wheal, flare, and itching sensation in SPT. Because the sensitivity and specificity of skin testing requires withholding medication that could change the skin reactivity, it seems important to take into account the possible influence of H(2)-receptor antagonists on allergy diagnosis and therapy.

  14. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Kianifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. Results: The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9% and skin (48.8%. 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow’s milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. Conclusions: The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  15. Comparison of sensitivity of QuantiFERON-TB gold test and tuberculin skin test in active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Kanwal Fatima; Ambreen, Asma; Butt, Tariq

    2013-09-01

    To compare the sensitivity of tuberculin skin test (TST) and quantiFERON-TB gold test (QFT-G) in active pulmonary tuberculosis. Analytical study. Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July 2011 to January 2012. QuantiFERON-TB gold test (QFT-G) was evaluated and compared it with tuberculin skin test (TST) in 50 cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, in whom tuberculous infection was suspected on clinical, radiological and microbiological grounds. Sensitivity was determined against postive growth for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Out of 50 cases, 43 were females and 7 were males. The mean age was 41.84 ± 19.03 years. Sensitivity of QFT-G was 80% while that of TST was 28%. QFT-G has much higher sensitivity than TST for active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is unaffected by prior BCG administration and prior exposure to atypical mycobacteria. A positive QFT-G result can be an adjunct to diagnosis in patients having clinical and radiological data compatible with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  16. Reduction of pain via platelet-rich plasma in split-thickness skin graft donor sites: a series of matched pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Miller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy has seen increasingly widespread integration into medical specialties. PRP application is known to accelerate wound epithelialization rates, and may also reduce postoperative wound site pain. Recently, we observed an increase in patient satisfaction following PRP gel (Angel, Cytomedix, Rockville, MD application to split-thickness skin graft (STSG donor sites. We assessed all patients known to our university-based hospital service who underwent multiple STSGs up to the year 2014, with at least one treated with topical PRP. Based on these criteria, five patients aged 48.4±17.6 (80% male were identified who could serve as their own control, with mean time of 4.4±5.1 years between operations. In both therapies, initial dressing changes occurred on postoperative day (POD 7, with donor site pain measured by Likert visual pain scale. Paired t-tests compared the size and thickness of harvested skin graft and patient pain level, and STSG thickness and surface area were comparable between control and PRP interventions (p>0.05 for all. Donor site pain was reduced from an average of 7.2 (±2.6 to 3 (±3.7, an average reduction in pain of 4.2 (standard error 1.1, p=0.0098 following PRP use. Based on these results, the authors suggest PRP as a beneficial adjunct for reducing donor site pain following STSG harvest.

  17. Unexpected high responses to tuberculin skin-test in farmed red deer: implications for tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiros, J; Alvarez, J; Carta, T; Mateos, A; Ortiz, J A; Fernández-de-Mera, I G; Martín-Hernando, M P; Gortázar, C

    2012-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in deer is a serious zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. Detection of infected animals is usually performed using single or comparative skin-testing (SST/CST), although false responses due to sensitization to other mycobacteria may occur, hampering diagnostic specificity. We describe the evolution of the responses to the SST, CST and to an in-house serological assay in a red deer farm subjected to regular TB testing in southern Spain in an attempt to understand the dynamics of possible non-specific reactions occurring under field conditions. We performed 2288 skin-tests and ELISAs in nine sampling periods between May 2009 and January 2011. In May 2010, a strong increase in skin fold thickness in response to avian purified protein derivative (PPD) (mean=4.0mm, 95% CI=3.5-4.5) and bovine PPD (mean=1.8mm, 95% CI=1.6-2.0) was observed in yearling deer hinds (n=150), compared to values recorded for the same individuals in November 2009 (avian PPD: mean=0.7 mm, 95% CI=0.6-0.8 and bovine PPD: mean=0.7 mm, 95% CI=0.6-0.7) and in January 2011 (avian PPD: mean=2.2mm, 95% CI=1.9-2.4 and bovine PPD: mean=1.1mm, 95% CI=1.0-1.2). Using SST, 54 animals (36%) of the yearlings tested in May 2010 would have been classified as positive reactors, while none of them was positive in the CST. The five animals with highest skin fold increases to mycobacterial antigens were culled and subjected to post-mortem analysis, which confirmed the absence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infection but demonstrated the presence of environmental mycobacteria and closely related bacteria in four out of the five analyzed animals. Our results demonstrated how non-specific responses to mycobacterial antigens can adversely affect the specificity of TB diagnosis based on the SST. Thus, once TB infection has been ruled out using confirmatory techniques, application of comparative diagnostic tests is highly advisable to maximize test specificity and avoid the slaughter

  18. Food Sensitivity in Children with Acute Urticaria in Skin Prick Test: Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Eke Gungor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Families of children with acute urticaria often think that there is food allergy in children with urticaria and insist for skin tests. In this study, it was aimed to determine whether skin prick tests are necessary in cases presented with acute urticaria, in whom other causes of acute urticaria are excluded. Material and Method: A test panel involving cow milk, egg white, wheat, hazelnut, peanut, soybean, walnut, sesame, and tuna fish antigens was applied to the children presented with acute urticaria between 1 August 2013 and 1 August 2014, in whom other causes of acute urticaria were excluded and suspected food allergy was reported by parents. Results: Overall, 574 children aged 1-14 years were included to the study. Of the patients, sensitization against at least one food antigen was detected in 22.3% (128/574 of the patients. This rate was found to be 31.9% among those younger than 3 years, while 19.3% in those older than 3 years. Overall, sensitization rates against food allergen in panel were as follows: egg white, 7.3%; wheat, 3.3%; cow milk, 2.7%,; sesame, 2.8%; hazelnut, 2.4%; soybean, 2.3%; peanut, 1.9%, walnut, 1.6%; tuna fish, 1.6%. In general, the history of patients wasn%u2019t compatible with food sensitization detected. Discussion: Sensitization to food allergens is infrequent in children presented with acute urticaria, particularly among those older than 3 years despite expressions of parent and skin prick tests seems to be unnecessary unless strongly suggestive history is present.

  19. Stability Testing of a Wide Bone-Anchored Device after Surgery without Skin Thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malou Hultcrantz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To longitudinally follow the osseointegration using Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA for different lengths of abutment on a new wide bone-anchored implant, introduced with the non-skin thinning surgical technique. Study Design. A single-center, prospective 1 year study following adults with bone-anchored hearing implants. Materials and Methods. Implantation was performed and followed for a minimum of 1 year. All patients were operated on according to the tissue preserving technique. A 4.5 mm wide fixture (Oticon Medical with varying abutments (9 to 12 mm was used and RFA was tested 1 week, 7 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months later. Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ, was measured from 1 to 100. Stability was compared to a group of patients (N=7 implanted with another brand (Cochlear BI400 of 4.5 mm fixtures. Results. All 10 adults concluded the study. None of the participants lost their implant during the test period indicating a good anchoring of abutments to the wide fixture tested. Stability testing was shown to vary depending on abutment length and time after surgery and with higher values for shorter abutments and increasing values over the first period of time. One patient changed the abutment from 12 to 9 mm and another from a 9 to a 12 during the year. No severe skin problems, numbness around the implant, or cosmetic problems arose. Conclusion. After 1 year of follow-up, combination of a wide fixture implant and the non-skin thinning surgical technique indicates a safe procedure with good stability and no abutment losses.

  20. The ECVAM international validation study on in vitro tests for acute skin irritation: selection of test chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Cole, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Worth, Andrew; Cockshott, Amanda; Gerner, Ingrid; Zuang, Valérie

    2007-12-01

    The ECVAM-funded skin irritation validation study (SIVS) was initiated in 2003, with the aim to evaluate whether the EpiDerm, EPISKIN and the SIFT alternative methods were able to reliably identify skin irritant and non-irritant chemicals, and could therefore be candidates for replacing the rabbit Draize test for skin irritation. The primary goal of the study was to evaluate the predictive capacity of the assays with regard to the EU classification system, which employs the risk phrases, "R38", for skin irritants, and "no label" for non-irritants. A secondary objective was the retrospective analysis of the data, to assess whether the in vitro tests would be able to discriminate between strong irritants (category 2), mild irritants (category 3) and non-irritants (no category), as defined by the OECD and United Nations proposal for a Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for the classification and labelling of dermal irritancy. A Chemicals Selection Sub-Committee (CSSC) was appointed to identify test chemicals to be used in the SIVS, for which existing, high quality in vivo data were available, with which to correlate the in vitro measurements. Since chemicals from the European Centre for the Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) database of reference chemicals for skin irritation/skin corrosion had been extensively used in preceding studies, the CSSC made use of novel sources for potential test chemicals. The first source of chemicals screened was the New Chemicals Database (NCD), which is the central archive within the EU notification scheme for 'new' commercial chemicals. Data registered in the NCD originate from standard assays, submitted in compliance with the legislation which regulates the marketing of industrial chemicals, and are subject to quality assurance by the competent authorities of the EU Member States. In addition, to obtain 'existing' chemicals which were readily available from major manufacturing and/or distribution sources, additional

  1. Assessment of skin test with varicella-zoster virus antigen for predicting the risk of herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Y; Takao, Y; Miyazaki, Y; Ohnishi, F; Okeda, M; Yano, S; Kumihashi, H; Gomi, Y; Maeda, K; Ishikawa, T; Mori, Y; Asada, H; Iso, H; Yamanishi, K

    2013-04-01

    The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study was designed to clarify the incidence of and predictive and immunological factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based Japanese population. As part of this series, a total of 5683 residents aged ≥50 years received a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin test with VZV antigen, and 48 h later, the erythema and oedema were assessed by measuring the longest diameter. The diameters of both the erythema and oedema decreased with the increasing age of the subject. Sixty-three subjects contracted herpes zoster within a year after receiving the VZV skin test. Analysis of the herpes zoster incidence rate vs. the skin test reaction revealed that the shorter the diameter of erythema or oedema, the greater the likelihood of herpes zoster. These results demonstrated that the VZV skin test is an excellent surrogate marker for predicting the risk of herpes zoster.

  2. Application of surface-enhanced Raman in skin cancer by plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, W. Z.; Guo, Z. Y.; Zhuang, Z. F.; Liu, S. H.; Xiong, K.; Chen, S. J.

    2012-05-01

    We have developed a mouse squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) model by diniethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and ultraviolet (UVB). A silver colloid as SERS-active substrates is used for detecting the blood plasma of mouse. The relative intensity of the band at 942 and 1499 cm-1 is higher in SCC model than in healthy one. Therefore, it can be used as an important "fingerprint" in order to diagnose these diseases. Results show us how to get high signal-to-noise ratio of biological macromolecules surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra in blood plasma. And also offer useful help for understanding the rich molecular structure information in biological tissues. It provides a molecular spectroscopy way for early detection of disease in blood plasma.

  3. 579 The Frequency of Positivity in Autologous Serum Skin Test in Patients with Chronic Idiopatic Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Filho, Silvio Lima

    2012-01-01

    Background Describe the frequency of positive results in autologus serum skin test among patients with cronic urticaria. Methods Trans-sectional study of patients with CIU refered to traitment in policlínica geral do Rio de Janeiro, brazil. Autologus serum intradermal injections were used to estabilished the sensitivity. Negative and positive controls were made with 0.9% intradermal saline solution and skin prick test with histamina 1:100 solution. Autoreactivity was considered positive when ...

  4. Strength and leak testing of plasma activated bonded interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, M.M.; Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De

    2002-01-01

    Bond strength and hermeticity of plasma activated bonded (PAB) Si-Si interfaces are reported. Bonding of 100 mm Si(1 0 0) wafers was performed. An average bond strength of 9.0+/-3.9 MPa was achieved without performing any annealing steps. Cavities bonded in vacuum were found to be hermetic based...... on detection of changes in membrane deflections. The detection limit for leak was 8E-13 mbar l/s. For comparison, strength and leak tests were also performed with regular fusion bonded wafers annealed at 1100 degreesC. The PAB was found to withstand post-processing steps such as RCA cleaning, 24 h in de......-ionised water (DIW), 24 h in 2.5% HF, 24 h in acetone and 60 s in a resist developer. By analysing the thin silicon oxide present on the surfaces to be bonded with optical methods, the influence of pre-cleaning and activation process parameters was investigated....

  5. Clinical relevance is associated with allergen-specific wheal size in skin prick testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahtela, T.; Burbach, G. J.; Bachert, C.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundWithin a large prospective study, the Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) has collected skin prick test (SPT) data throughout Europe to make recommendations for SPT in clinical settings. ObjectiveTo improve clinical interpretation of SPT results for inhalant allergens...... SPT reactions had a smaller risk of sensitizations being clinically relevant compared with adults. The 80% PPV varied from 3 to 10mm depending on the allergen. ConclusionThese reading keys' for 18 inhalant allergens can help interpret SPT results with respect to their clinical significance. A SPT form...

  6. Immediate hypersensitivity to penicillins with negative skin tests--the value of specific IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R; Cruz, L; Botelho, C; Castro, E; Cadinha, S; Castel-Branco, M G; Rodrigues, J

    2009-08-01

    The determination of specific IgE in patients with history of penicillins hypersensitivity is simple, safe and widely available. The positive and negative predictive values of this determination, however, are not yet established. In order to evaluate them, we performed specific IgE determination and diagnostic drug challenges in a group of 22 patients with a clear history of immediate penicillins hypersensitivity but negative skin tests. In this sample, the positive and negative predictive values were 29% and 87%, respectively. This seems to indicate that a positive specific IgE is not enough to confirm the diagnosis, and further study is necessary.

  7. Testing Human Skin and Respiratory Sensitizers—What Is Good Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anki Malmborg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods for accurate in vitro assessment of skin and respiratory sensitizers are urgently needed. Sensitization is a complex biological process that cannot be evaluated accurately using single events or biomarkers, since the information content is too restricted in these measurements. On the contrary, if the tremendous information content harbored in DNA/mRNA could be mined, most complex biological processes could be elucidated. Genomic technologies available today, including transcriptional profiling and next generation sequencing, have the power to decipher sensitization, when used in the right context. Thus, a genomic test platform has been developed, denoted the Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD assay. Due to the high informational content of the GARD test, accurate predictions of both the skin and respiratory sensitizing capacity of chemicals, have been demonstrated. Based on a matured dendritic cell line, acting as a human-like reporter system, information about potency has also been acquired. Consequently, multiparametric diagnostic technologies are disruptive test principles that can change the way in which the next generation of alternative methods are designed.

  8. Skin prick testing with standardized extracts from 3 different manufacturers. A comparative randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H; Launbjerg, J; Biering, I; Søborg, M

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare skin reactivity to routine allergen prick test with panels of allergens, supplied by three different manufacturers. The allergens comprised ten aero-allergens commonly used for skin prick test in Northern Europe, and included pollen, dander, house dust mites, and moulds. Two hundred consecutive patients were tested. The methods for standardization of allergen extracts, declaration of allergenic potency, and recommended lancets differed. The equipment were Soluprick SQ (Allergologisk Laboratorium A/S, Denmark) (ALK), Alphatest (Dome/Hollister-Stier, U.K.) (DHS), and Phazet (Pharmacia, Sweden) (PHA). The coefficient of variation for the allergen coated PHA (same lancet was applied twice) was 0.31, and for ALK and DHS allergen extracts 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The frequencies of patients with positive reactions to the various allergens were generally similar, although DHS appeared to elicit less positive reactions to Timothy, dog, and Dermatophagoides pteronnyssinus. For the individual physician, it may be important to know the allergenic activity of the different allergens in his routine panel compared to the activity in other similar panels.

  9. Value of sympathetic skin response test in the early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄一宁; 贾志荣; 石昕; 孙相如

    2004-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathy is common in diabetes mellitus. The early stage of diabetic neuropathy is often symptomless and difficult to be treated. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between the results of the sympathetic skin response (SSR) test and the development of diabetic neuropathy, and explore the use of SSR as an objective basis for the early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy.Methods The latencies and amplitudes of initiation and of the N and P waves were determined by SSR testing of the extremities of 80 diabetic patients and 30 healthy controls. Results The latencies of initiation and of the N and P waves were significantly (P0.05). All but two patients (97.5%) demonstrated abnormal SSR in at least one limb. Conclusions SSR can detect early dysfunction of the small sympathetic fibers in people affected by diabetes mellitus, and may be a useful electrophysiological test for the early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy.

  10. Comparison of an automated rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test with the conventional RPR card test in syphilis testing

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective We compared the automated non-treponemal reagin (rapid plasma reagin (RPR)) test with the conventional RPR card test for usefulness in clinical applications. Setting A comparative study of laboratory methods using clinical specimens in a single institute. Participants A total of 112 serum samples including 59 Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA)-positive and 53 TPPA-negative specimens were evaluated. Outcome measures HiSens Auto RPR LTIA (HBI, Anyang, Korea) was compared...

  11. The Plasma Interaction Experiment (PIX) description and test program. [electrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignaczak, L. R.; Haley, F. A.; Domino, E. J.; Culp, D. H.; Shaker, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The plasma interaction experiment (PIX) is a battery powered preprogrammed auxiliary payload on the LANDSAT-C launch. This experiment is part of a larger program to investigate space plasma interactions with spacecraft surfaces and components. The varying plasma densities encountered during available telemetry coverage periods are deemed sufficient to determine first order interactions between the space plasma environment and the biased experimental surfaces. The specific objectives of the PIX flight experiment are to measure the plasma coupling current and the negative voltage breakdown characteristics of a solar array segment and a gold plated steel disk. Measurements will be made over a range of surface voltages up to plus or minus kilovolt. The orbital environment will provide a range of plasma densities. The experimental surfaces will be voltage biased in a preprogrammed step sequence to optimize the data returned for each plasma region and for the available telemetry coverage.

  12. Increase in Skin Autofluorescence and Release of Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Plasma Predicts Mortality of Hemodialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsov, Stefan; Trajceska, Lada; van Oeveren, Wim; Smit, Andries J.; Dzekova, Pavlina; Stegmayr, Bernd; Sikole, Aleksandar; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    2013-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are uremic toxins that accumulate progressively in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year increase in skin autofluorescence (DAF), a measure of AGEs accumulation and plasma markers, as predictors of mortality in HD patients.

  13. Tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test reactivity in pediatric patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urganci, Nafiye; Kalyoncu, Derya

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine tuberculin skin test reactivity and associated factors in pediatric patients with celiac disease (CD). Tuberculin skin test (TST) was performed on 28 patients with CD aged from 1 year to 15 years (mean, 6.64±4.8) and 28 healthy age and sex-matched children. The association between TST reactivity and parameters such as age, gender, malnutrition, clinical presentation, compliance to gluten free diet and response to hepatitis A and B vaccinations were determined. No difference was observed in TST reactivity (induration size) between the patients with CD and healthy controls. Thirty-two percent (9/28) of the patients were anergic, and one-third of these nine patients had malnutrition. No significant difference was observed between TST-positive and TST-negative patients in terms of age, gender, malnutrition, compliance to gluten-free diet and response to hepatitis A and B vaccinations (P>0.05). One of 11 patients with positive TST had tuberculosis disease and 10 had latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), whereas none of the controls had LTBI or tuberculosis disease (P=0.0007). Although based on a small number of cases, it seems that children with CD are more susceptible to tuberculosis than healthy children. TST can be used to identify BCG-vaccinated children with CD who are probably infected with M. tuberculosis, similarly to healthy children.

  14. A Simple Data Analysis Method for a Pumping Test with Skin and Wellbore Storage Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shyun Chen and Chuan-Gui Lan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pumping test conducted in a con fined aquifer in northern Taiwan, drawdown in the observation well was subject to wellbore storage of its own and the combined effect of wellbore storage and skin of the nearby pumping well. For such a complicated pumping test condition, the appropriate well hydraulics solutions are complicated in mathematics and involve five unknown a priori parameters; namely, the aquifer transmissivity, the aquifer storage coefficient, the skin factor of the pumping well, and the wellbore storage co efficients of the pumping and observation wells. The conventional trial-and-er ror procedure for a simul taneous determination of these five parameters is not easy to apply. Here, a simple data analysis method is de veloped, which takes advantage of the late-time characteristics of drawdown data and the late-time asymptotic behavior of the appropriate wellhy draulics solutions. As a re sult, some currently available graphic techniques are proven us ful for the determination of these parameters. Validity of this approach is verified by the excellent agree ment between the calculated drawdown using the appropriate well hydraulics solutions with the parameter estimates obtained from the field drawdown data.

  15. Association Between Aeroallergens and Allergic Diseases Based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of allergic diseases is growing in the world and Iran. Allergens play an important role in creating these diseases. Since inhalation allergens are an important part of these allergens the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of aeroallergens and their association with allergic diseases based on skin prick test (SPT. Material and Methods: In this study, the frequency of these allergens were examined by using 22 aeroallergens and based on Skin Prick Test in 1100 patients with allergic diseases who referred to Shohadaye- Khalije- Fars university hospital. Results: The reaction severity of SPT and the severity of disease associated with inhaled allergens with Russian thistle (21.1%, P꞊0.001, Chenopodium album pollen (14%, P꞊0.001 and Dermatophagoid Pteronyssinus (9%, P꞊0.001 respectively. Also, in these patients, the frequency of inhalation allergens were House Dust Mite (HDM (69%, feather (60.8%, Russian this tle (59.9% pollen and Alternaria mold (59.6% respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that outdoors inhaled allergens  such as Russian thistle and Chenopodium album pollen have the most allergenicity in patients with allergic and asthma in Bushehr province, Meanwhile, the prevalence of indoor aeroallergens such as HDM, feather and mold were high in these patients.

  16. EAACI position paper: skin prick testing in the diagnosis of occupational type I allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; de Blay, F; Folletti, I; Kobierski, P; Moscato, G; Olivieri, M; Quirce, S; Sastre, J; Walusiak-Skorupa, J; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing (SPT) in combination with the clinical history of the patient is one important step in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated occupational allergies. However, skin test performance is related to the quality of allergen extracts. The present consensus document was prepared by an EAACI Task Force consisting of an expert panel of allergologists and occupational physicians from Germany, Italy, Spain, France, Austria, and Poland. All members of the panel were also involved in the data collection within the European multicentre study STADOCA (Standard diagnosis for occupational allergy). The aim of this Task Force was the assessment of the quality of commercially available SPT solutions for selected occupational allergens under standardized procedure conditions in different European centres and institutes of Occupational Medicine. The data evaluation shows a wide variability among SPT solutions and also indicates that the sensitivity of several SPT solutions is low. Therefore, improvement and standardization of SPT solutions for occupational allergens is highly recommended. Clinical practitioners should also not presume that their SPT solutions are fully reliable. The main objective of the document is to issue consensus suggestions for the use of SPT with occupational allergens based on the European multicentre study STADOCA, on existing scientific evidence and the expertise of a panel of allergologists.

  17. Assessment of drug hypersensitivity with non-irritating concentrations of antibacterial agents for allergic skin tests: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritam Biswas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity reactions to antibiotics are common with a prevalence of 6-10% of all adverse reactions. There is a lack of guidelines and standardization of skin tests for the screening of hypersensitivity to all antibiotics, in terms of the methodology, dose and time of evaluation of the tests. Literature from Europe and America suggests the use of non-irritating concentration (NIC of antibiotics for skin testing such as intra dermal test (IDT, skin prick test (SPT. These are concentrations at which the drug is unlikely to produce irritation by virtue of its chemical nature resulting in false positive reactions. These concentrations have been validated by trials in their populations. Due to the increase of antibiotic resistance in our country, declaring a patient allergic to a specific class of antibiotics based on positive skin tests can further narrow the therapeutic armory. These individuals have an increased incidence of infections with resistant organisms as well as increased cost of hospitalization. This is due to the use of alternative broad spectrum antibiotics. Therefore, there is a need for a standardized protocol for the use of skin tests in screening of hypersensitivity, with validated NIC of all antibacterial agents. The aim of this article is to review literature of protocols for assessment of drug hypersensitivity with NIC of antibacterial drugs for SPT, IDT and also establish the need for research in this area in our country. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(4.000: 586-590

  18. Intraoperative anaphylaxis to sugammadex and a protocol for intradermal skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, P H M; Russell, T; Clarke, R C; Maycock, E; Platt, P R

    2014-01-01

    Sugammadex is a selective binding agent for aminosteroid neuromuscular blockers whose use is increasing in anaesthetic practice. We present three cases of severe anaphylaxis coincident with sugammadex administration. Subsequent intradermal testing confirmed sugammadex as the triggering agent, with all patients having positive skin responses to a 1:100 dilution of the standard 100 mg/ml solution and two out of three having a positive response to a 1:1000 dilution. As all patients were administered sugammadex to reverse neuromuscular blockade with rocuronium, we considered that sugammadex-rocuronium complexes were a potential unique allergen. In the two patients who were additionally tested with a rocuronium-sugammadex (3.6:1 molecular ratio) mixture, the wheal-and-flare response was significantly attenuated.

  19. Development of an in vitro dendritic cell-based test for skin sensitizer identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Bruno Miguel; Rosa, Susana Carvalho; Martins, João Demétrio; Silva, Ana; Gonçalo, Margarida; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa

    2013-03-18

    The sensitizing potential of chemicals is currently assessed using animal models. However, ethical and economic concerns and the recent European legislative framework triggered intensive research efforts in the development and validation of alternative methods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an in vitro predictive test based on the analysis and integration of gene expression and intracellular signaling profiles of chemical-exposed skin-derived dendritic cells. Cells were treated with four known sensitizers and two nonsensitizers, and the effects on the expression of 20 candidate genes and the activation of MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathways were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Genes Trxr1, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Cxcl10 and the p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways were identified as good predictor variables and used to construct a dichotomous classifier. For validation of the model, 12 new chemicals were then analyzed in a blind assay, and from these, 11 were correctly classified. Considering the total of 18 compounds tested here, 17 were correctly classified, representing a concordance of 94%, with a sensitivity of 92% (12 of 13 sensitizers identified) and a specificity of 100% (5 of 5 nonsensitizers identified). Additionally, we tested the ability of our model to discriminate sensitizers from nonallergenic but immunogenic compounds such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS was correctly classified as a nonsensitizer. Overall, our results indicate that the analysis of proposed gene and signaling pathway signatures in a mouse fetal skin-derived dendritic cell line represents a valuable model to be integrated in a future in vitro test platform.

  20. Sensitization to Aeroallergens in Patients with Respiratory Allergies Based on Skin-Prick Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bejtullahu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to identify the most common aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis.Methods: The study enrolled 102 participants including 64 patients with respiratory allergies (among them 15 were clinically diagnosed as asthma patients, 41 with rhinitis, 8 were both and 38 healthy controls. All of participants were subject of skin prick tests (SPT with series of common allergenic extracts. Sera from all participants were tested for total IgE and eosinophil count. To measure airflow limitation and reversibility in asthma patients the pulmonary function testing were carried out.Results: M/F ratio was 1:1.6 in patients and 1:0.7 in control group with mean age 28.88 year (SD 13.16; range 6 – 55year and 20.47 respectively (SD 1.16; range 19-23 year. The most common risk factors in these patients were total IgE more than 100 IU/ml, eosinophils above 4% and positive family history of atopy. Skin prick testing results showed prevalence rates for allergen groups in this manner: house dust mites 81.3 %, pollens 57.8 %, animal dandruff12.5% and moulds 4.9%. Polysensitization was common in 51.6% of all sensitized patients being positive to more than one group of allergens.Conclusion: House dust mites are the main sensitizing allergens among our allergic patients as well as healthy controls. Next in importance, in all participants, are grasses. This pattern of prevalence was expected based on herbal geography, climate and specially lifestyle. It was also compatible with the results from studies carried out in places with the same habitat.

  1. Multiple Skin Colored Nodules on both Legs in Patient with Positive QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi Soo; Hong, Seung Phil; Park, Byung Cheol; Kim, Myung Hwa

    2017-02-01

    Nodular tuberculid (NT) was originally described by Jordaan et al. in 2000 in 4 patients from South Africa. It appeared as nodules on the legs; the pathologic changes were situated in the deep dermis and adjacent subcutaneous fat. A 34-year-old woman visited our hospital with subcutaneous skin-colored or slightly erythematous round to oval nodules. Skin biopsies revealed granulomatous inflammation at the dermo-subcutaneous junction with vasculitis. Chest X-ray, tuberculosus (TB)-polymerase chain reaction and TB culture of the skin specimen were normal. A QuantiFERON®-TB Gold test (QUIAGEN, Germany) was positive, which suggested a diagnosis of latent TB infection. The patient was treated with anti-TB medication and her condition has not recurred. Herein, we report a case of a patient with latent TB diagnosed by a positive QuantiFERON®-TB Gold test whose skin lesions had the clinical and histopathologic features of NT.

  2. Design and Testing of a Small Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam K.; Eskridge, Richard H.; Dominguez, Alexandra; Polzin, Kurt A.; Riley, Daniel P.; Kimberlin, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    The design and testing of a small inductive pulsed plasma thruster (IPPT), shown in Fig. 1 with all the major subsystems required for a thruster of this kind are described. Thrust measurements and imaging of the device operated in rep-rated mode are presented to quantify the performance envelope of the device. The small IPPT described in this paper was designed to serve as a test-bed for the pulsed gas-valves and solid-state switches required for a IPPTs. A modular design approach was used to permit future modifications and upgrades. The thruster consists of the following sub-systems: a) a multi-turn, spiral-wound acceleration coil (27 cm o.d., 10 cm i.d.) driven by a 10 microFarad capacitor and switched with a high-voltage thyristor, b) a fast pulsed gas-valve, and c.) a glow-discharge pre-ionizer (PI) circuit. The acceleration-coil circuit may be operated at voltages up to 4 kV (the thyristor limit is 4.5 kV). The device may be operated at rep-rates up to 30 Hz with the present gas-valve. Thrust measurements and imaging of the device operated in rep-rated mode will be presented. The pre-ionizer consists of a 0.3 microFarad capacitor charged to 4 kV and connected to two annular stainless-steel electrodes bounding the area of the coil-face. The 4 kV potential is held across them and when the gas is puffed in over the coil, the PI circuit is completed, and a plasma is formed. Even at the less than optimal base-pressure in the chamber (approximately 5 × 10(exp -4) torr), the PI held-off the applied voltage, and only discharged upon command. For a capacitor charge of 2 kV the peak coil current is 4.1 kA, and during this pulse a very bright discharge (much brighter than from the PI alone) was observed (see Fig. 2). Interestingly, for discharges at this charge voltage the PI was not required as the current rise rate, dI/dt, of the coil itself was sufficient to ionize the gas.

  3. Plasma Plume Characterization of the HERMeS during a 1722-hr Wear Test Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wensheng; Williams, George J.; Peterson, Peter Y.; Kamhawi, Hani; Gilland, James H.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    A 1722-hour wear test campaign of NASAs 12.5 kilowatt Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding was completed. This wear test campaign, completed in 2016, was divided into four segments including an electrical configuration characterization test, two short duration tests, and one long wear test. During the electrical configuration characterization test, the plasma plume was examined to provide data to support the down select of the electrical configuration for further testing. During the long wear tests, the plasma plume was periodically examined for indications of changes in thruster behavior. Examination of the plasma plume data from the electrical configuration characterization test revealed a correlation between the plume properties and the presence of a conduction path through the front poles. Examination of the long wear test plasma plume data revealed that the plume characteristics remained unchanged during testing to within the measurement uncertainty.

  4. Comparison of mantoux and tine tuberculin skin tests in BCG-vaccinated children investigated for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenli; Matizirofa, Lyness; Workman, Lesley; Hawkridge, Tony; Hanekom, Willem; Mahomed, Hassan; Hussey, Gregory; Hatherill, Mark

    2009-11-30

    Tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) are long-established screening methods for tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to compare agreement between the intradermal Mantoux and multipuncture percutaneous Tine methods and to quantify risk factors for a positive test result. 1512 South African children younger than 5 years of age who were investigated for tuberculosis (TB) during a Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) trial were included in this analysis. Children underwent both Mantoux and Tine tests. A positive test was defined as Mantoux >or=15 mm or Tine >or= Grade 3 for the binary comparison. Agreement was evaluated using kappa (binary) and weighted kappa (hierarchical). Multivariate regression models identified independent risk factors for TST positivity. The Mantoux test was positive in 430 children (28.4%) and the Tine test in 496 children (32.8%, ptuberculosis, Mantoux was positive in 49.1% and Tine in 54.9%, p<0.0001 (kappa 0.70). Evidence of digit preference was noted for Mantoux readings at 5 mm threshold intervals. After adjustment for confounders, a positive culture, suggestive chest radiograph, and proximity of TB contact were risk factors for a positive test using both TST methods. There were no independent associations between ethnicity, gender, age, or over-crowding, and TST result. The Tine test demonstrated a higher positive test rate than the Mantoux, with substantial agreement between TST methods among young BCG-vaccinated children. TB disease and exposure factors, but not demographic variables, were independent risk factors for a positive result using either test method. These findings suggest that the Tine might be a useful screening tool for childhood TB in resource-limited countries.

  5. Testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata com o evoluir da idade Positive skin test and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliação da positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata em crianças com asma brônquica e/ou rinite alérgica em diferentes faixas etárias. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: foi observada a positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata, por testes de puntura, frente a diferentes alérgenos de mesma procedência: poeira total e Dermatophagóides sp, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae e Blomia tropicalis, Penicillium sp, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarium, Aspergillus fumigatus, grama bermuda, capim de pasto, epitélio de cão, epitélio de gato, penas, Blatella germanica, lã. Foram selecionadas 713 crianças divididas em grupos conforme a faixa etária: grupo I (6 a 11 meses, II (1 a 3 anos e 11 meses, III (4 a 8 anos e 11 meses e IV (9 a 15 anos. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o cálculo do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: o total de diferenças significativas entre os vários grupos foi: I e II = 5; II e III = 5; II e IV = 5; III e IV = 6; I e III = 10 e I e IV = 10 CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que a positividade ao teste de hipersensibilidade imediata foi maior com o evoluir da idade, havendo positividade já aos doze meses de vida, sendo esta positividade significativamente maior a partir de quatro anos de idade.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate positive responses to skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity to allergens in children with asthma and rhinitis at different ages. METHOD: we observed positive skin test reactivity in prick tests using fifteen allergens of same origin (total dust and Dermatophagoides sp.; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farinae; Blomia tropicalis; Penicillium sp; Alternaria alternata; Cladosporium herbarium; Aspergillus fumigatus; Bermuda grass; forage grass; dog and cat epithelia; feathers; Blatella germanica and wool. We placed 713 selected patients into different age groups - Group I: 6 to 11 months; Group II: 1 to 3 years and 11

  6. Cytoprotective effects of mild plasma-activated medium against oxidative stress in human skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, Minori; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) has recently been applied to living cells and tissues and has emerged as a novel technology for medical applications. NTAPP affects cells not only directly, but also indirectly with previously prepared plasma-activated medium (PAM). The objective of this study was to demonstrate the preconditioning effects of “mild PAM” which was prepared under relatively mild conditions, on fibroblasts against cellular injury generated by a high dose of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We observed the preconditioning effects of mild PAM containing approximately 50 μM H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide needs to be the main active species in mild PAM for it to exert preconditioning effects because the addition of catalase to mild PAM eliminated these effects. The nuclear translocation and recruitment of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to antioxidant response elements (ARE) in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) promoters and the up-regulation of HO-1 were detected in fibroblasts treated with mild PAM. The addition of ZnPP, a HO-1-specific inhibitor, or the knockdown of Nrf2 completely abrogated the preconditioning effects. Our results demonstrate that mild PAM protects fibroblasts from oxidative stress by up-regulating HO-1, and the H2O2-induced activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway needs to be involved in this reaction. PMID:28169359

  7. Comparative assessment of the acute skin irritation potential of detergent formulations using a novel human 4-h patch test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael K; Kruszewski, Francis H; Al-Atrash, Jenan; Blazka, Mark E; Gingell, Ralph; Heitfeld, Fred A; Mallon, David; Snyder, Neil K; Swanson, Judith E; Casterton, Phillip L

    2005-12-01

    Predictive skin irritation test methods, which do not require use of animals, are needed for the pre-market assessment of detergent formulations. The utility of a novel and ethical human acute skin irritation patch test method, originally developed for chemical skin irritation assessment, was evaluated. In this IRB-approved method, subjects were patched under occlusion for increasing periods of time up to 4h in duration. The total incidence of positive skin reactions for test products was compared to a positive control (20% aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]). Acutely irritating formulas were defined as those showing a significantly increased or equal incidence of positive responders compared with that of SDS. The time of exposure required for 50% of subjects to show a positive skin reaction (TR50 value) was calculated for each product and enabled test product comparisons within and between studies. Using this approach, 24 detergent formulations of various types were tested in seven individual studies. The skin irritation profiles were generally consistent within product types, which could be categorized as follows (by decreasing irritancy): mold/mildew removers (average TR50 = 0.37 h) > disinfectants/sanitizers (0.64 h) > fabric softener concentrate (1.09 h) = aluminum wash (1.20 h) > 20% SDS (1.81 h) > liquid laundry detergents (3.48 h) > liquid dish detergents (4.16 h) = liquid fabric softeners (4.56 h) = liquid hand soaps (4.58 h) = shampoos (5.40 h) = hard surface cleaners (6.34 h) > powder automatic dish detergents (>16 h) = powder laundry detergents (>16 h). In addition to formulation effects, some seasonal effects were noted; particularly greater winter-time reactivity to 20% SDS and the hard surface cleaner and liquid laundry formulations. These results demonstrate the utility of this patch test method for the comparative skin irritation assessment of these different product types.

  8. Skin biopsy and quantitative sensory testing do not predict response to lidocaine patch in painful neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, David N; Pannoni, Valerie; Barbano, Richard L; Pennella-Vaughan, Janet; Dworkin, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Predictors of response to neuropathic pain treatment in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies are lacking. The 5% lidocaine patch is believed to exert its effects on neuropathic pain via a local stabilizing effect on cutaneous sensory afferents. As such, it provides a model to assess whether the status of epidermal innervation as determined by skin biopsy or quantitative sensory testing (QST) of small- and large-diameter sensory afferents might serve as predictors of response to topical, locally active treatment. In this study we assessed associations between epidermal nerve fiber (ENF) densities, sensory nerve conduction studies (NCS), QST, and response to a 5% lidocaine patch in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies. We observed no association between distal leg epidermal and subepidermal innervation and response to the lidocaine patch. Several patients with complete loss of distal leg ENF showed a response to the lidocaine patch. Similarly we observed no consistent association between treatment response and QST for vibration, cooling, warm, heat-pain, and cold-pain thresholds, or distal sensory NCS. Thus, distal-leg skin biopsy, QST, and sensory NCS cannot be used to identify patients with painful polyneuropathy likely to respond to a lidocaine patch in clinical practice. Further studies are required to clarify precisely the mechanism and site of action of the lidocaine patch in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.

  9. On the analysis of well test data influenced by wellbore storage, skin, asnd bottomwater drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, W.C.; Chen, J.C.; Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.

    1984-11-01

    The combined influence of wellbore storage, wellbore damage, and partial penetration on the analysis of pressure data is discussed. The effect of a gas cap or bottomwater aquifer (constant pressure boundary) also is documented. The authors demonstrate that the magnitude of the wellbore storage constant dictates the type and amount of information that can be gleaned from a pressure test during the storage dominated period. For small values of the dimensionless storage constant and large values of dimensionless well length, the flow capacity of the perforated (open) interval and the skin factor, which reflects impediments to flow around the sand face, can be determined from data affected by wellbore storage. This information can be obtained from the wellbore storage type curves (the complete penetration solutions) available in the literature. Values of the dimensionless well length and storage constant for which this information can be obtained are specified in the paper. For other cases, the flow capacity of the entire interval and the total skin factor can be estimated. Again, storage type curves for the complete penetration solutions can be used to obtain this information if both boundaries are sealed. If one of the boundaries is at a constant pressure (water drive or gas cap), then the new solution presented in this paper should be used.

  10. The quark gluon plasma: Lattice computations put to experimental test

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sourendu Gupta

    2003-11-01

    I describe how lattice computations are being used to extract experimentally relevant features of the quark gluon plasma. I deal specifically with relaxation times, photon emissivity, strangeness yields, event-by-event fluctuations of conserved quantities and hydrodynamic flow. Finally I give evidence that the plasma is rather liquid-like in some ways.

  11. Skin Depth vs. Relativistics Self-focusing at ps Laser-Plasma Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Heinrich; Peng, Hansheng; Zhang, Weiyan; Osman, Frederick

    2002-03-01

    Highly charged MeV ions from target irradiated by laser longer than 0.1 ns, can be explained by relativistic self-focusing and subsequent acceleration by the nonlinear (ponderomotive) force [1]. In strong contrast to this, same laser intensities of ps pulses produced hundred times less energetic ions if the contrast ratio for suppression of prepulses was sufficiently high [1]. It was remarkable that the number of ions was constant and the ion energy linear on the laser intensity. We developed a model to explain the measurements as interactions within the skin layer of the target in contrast to relativistic self-focusing. However, if there is an appropriate prepulse applied, the MeV ions appear as before with the ns pulses which can be explained by the then possible relativistic self focusing. Consequences for the fast ignitor laser fusion scheme are elaborated. [1] J. Badziak, et al. Laser and Particle Beams 17, 323 (1999); E. Woryna, J. Wolowski, B. Kralikowa, J. Kraska, L. Laska, M. Pfeifer, K. Rohlena, J. Skala, V. Perina, R. Höpfl, & H. Hora, Rev. Scient. Instrum. 71, 949 (2000).

  12. Disagreement between skin prick test and specific IgE in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, BLK; Følsgaard, N V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test (SPT) and measurement of serum-specific IgE (sIgE) level are important tools for the clinician to diagnose allergic sensitization. However, little is known about the agreement between the two methods in young children. METHODS: SPT and sIgE levels were assessed...... simultaneously for 16 common inhalant and food allergens at age ½, 1½, 4, and 6 years in 389 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000 ) at-risk birth cohort. Agreement between the two methods for diagnosing inhalant and food allergic sensitization at the four age...... points was analyzed using kappa statistics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inhalant allergen sensitization increased during childhood diagnosed by both sIgE levels (0.6% to 4.2% to 18.1% to 24.8%, P

  13. Skin prick test results of atopic asthmatic subjects in a chest disease clinic in Sanliurfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Koç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Skin prick test (SPT is used widely to determine the allergens in atopic patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the spectrum of aeroallergen sensitivity of atopic asthmatic subjects in Şanlıurfa district. Methods: We evaluated clinical, demographic findings and SPT results of 95 male and 162 female in a total 257 patients who had asthma and allergic symptoms. Results: Most common allergens causing a sensitivity reaction detected in our clinic were as follows; cockroach (56.8%, wheat pollen (53.3%, corn pollen (47.4%, grass pollen (36.5%, poplar tree pollen (26%, house dust mite (19.4%, pepper (16.7% and cat dander (15.1%. Conclusion: High levels of sensitivity to wheat and corn pollens and relatively low sensitivity levels of cat dander results meet our expectations in the area of agricultural land and where pet ownership is not common.

  14. Comparison of T-Spot.TB and tuberculin skin test among silicotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, C C; Yam, W C; Yew, W W; Ho, P L; Tam, C M; Law, W S; Wong, M Y; Leung, M; Tsui, D

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, T-Spot.TB and the tuberculin skin test (TST) were compared in the screening of latent tuberculosis infection among silicotic patients. A conditional probability model was used to compare the potential clinical utilities of T-Spot.TB and TST performed on 134 silicotic subjects from December 1, 2004 to January 31, 2007. Data from a historical cohort were also reanalysed for further comparison. Agreement with T-Spot.TB was best using a TST cut-off of 10 mm. Age >or=65 yrs independently predicted a tuberculin reaction Spot.TB response. Lower measures of agreement were observed among current smokers and those aged >or=65 yrs. Tuberculin reaction size was well correlated with both early secretary antigenic target 6 and culture filtrate protein 10 spot counts, except among current smokers. Within the current estimates of sensitivity (88-95%) and specificity (86-99%) for T-Spot.TB, the positive likelihood ratio for T-Spot.TB test would be substantially higher (6.29-95.0 versus 1.65-1.94) and negative likelihood ratio substantially lower (0.05-0.14 versus 0.32-0.41) than the corresponding ratios for the tuberculin test. A low tuberculosis risk differential was similarly observed between tuberculin-negative and untreated tuberculin-positive subjects in the historical cohort. T-Spot.TB is likely to perform better than tuberculin test in the screening of latent tuberculosis infection among silicotic subjects.

  15. Tuberculin Skin Tests versus Interferon-Gamma Release Assays in Tuberculosis Screening among Immigrant Visa Applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella O. Chuke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Use of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs and interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs as part of tuberculosis (TB screening among immigrants from high TB-burden countries has not been fully evaluated. Methods. Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTBI based on TST, or the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-G, was determined among immigrant applicants in Vietnam bound for the United States (US; factors associated with test results and discordance were assessed; predictive values of TST and QFT-G for identifying chest radiographs (CXRs consistent with TB were calculated. Results. Of 1,246 immigrant visa applicants studied, 57.9% were TST positive, 28.3% were QFT-G positive, and test agreement was 59.4%. Increasing age was associated with positive TST results, positive QFT-G results, TST-positive but QFT-G-negative discordance, and abnormal CXRs consistent with TB. Positive predictive values of TST and QFT-G for an abnormal CXR were 25.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Conclusion. The estimated prevalence of MTBI among US-bound visa applicants in Vietnam based on TST was twice that based on QFT-G, and 14 times higher than a TST-based estimate of MTBI prevalence reported for the general US population in 2000. QFT-G was not better than TST at predicting abnormal CXRs consistent with TB.

  16. Rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) as a model for chemically induced skin irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappinen, Sari; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Suhonen, Marjukka; Tammi, Raija; Urtti, Arto

    2005-11-01

    The potential of rat epidermal keratinocyte (REK) organotypic culture (ROC) with proper stratum corneum barrier as a model for screening skin irritants was evaluated. The test chemicals were selected from ECETOC database (1995) and the observed in vitro irritation potential was compared to ECETOC in vivo primary irritation index (PII), to EU risk phrases, and to the harmonized OECD criteria. Chemicals were applied onto the stratum corneum surface of ROC for 30 min and samples were taken from the underlying medium at 4 and 8 h after exposure. Cell membrane integrity (determined by LDH assay) and pro-inflammatory effect (determined by IL-1alpha release) were verified at both time points and correlated to PII values. The best correlation (R(2) = 0.831) was seen with LDH leakage test. Based on obtained data, chemicals were classified according to criteria defined by EU and OECD. From 12 chemicals, only two were incorrectly classified according to OECD criteria when using LDH leakage and IL-1alpha release as irritation markers. At the end of experiment, chemical-treated ROC cultures were fixed and histological changes were assessed. Typical signs for irritation were lightly stained cytoplasm, condensed nuclei, cellular vacuolization, eosinophilic cytoplasms, and blebbing. These irritation effects of chemicals were graded visually into four classes (A-D). The extent of morphological perturbations of the cultures mostly correlated with PII. The present results indicate the validity of the ROC model in predicting skin irritation potential of chemicals and show that the use of set of irritation markers with different mechanistic responses gives more information on irritation than if only one marker was used.

  17. School based screening for tuberculosis infection in Norway: comparison of positive tuberculin skin test with interferon-gamma release assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winje, Brita Askeland; Oftung, Fredrik; Korsvold, Gro Ellen; Mannsåker, Turid; Ly, Ingvild Nesthus; Harstad, Ingunn; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne Margarita; Heldal, Einar

    2008-01-01

    Background In Norway, screening for tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin test (TST) has been offered for several decades to all children in 9th grade of school, prior to BCG-vaccination. The incidence of tuberculosis in Norway is low and infection with M. tuberculosis is considered rare. QuantiFERON®TB Gold (QFT) is a new and specific blood test for tuberculosis infection. So far, there have been few reports of QFT used in screening of predominantly unexposed, healthy, TST-positive children, including first and second generation immigrants. In order to evaluate the current TST screening and BCG-vaccination programme we aimed to (1) measure the prevalence of QFT positivity among TST positive children identified in the school based screening, and (2) measure the association between demographic and clinical risk factors for tuberculosis infection and QFT positivity. Methods This cross-sectional multi-centre study was conducted during the school year 2005–6 and the TST positive children were recruited from seven public hospitals covering rural and urban areas in Norway. Participation included a QFT test and a questionnaire regarding demographic and clinical risk factors for latent infection. All positive QFT results were confirmed by re-analysis of the same plasma sample. If the confirmatory test was negative the result was reported as non-conclusive and the participant was offered a new test. Results Among 511 TST positive children only 9% (44) had a confirmed positive QFT result. QFT positivity was associated with larger TST induration, origin outside Western countries and known exposure to tuberculosis. Most children (79%) had TST reactions in the range of 6–14 mm; 5% of these were QFT positive. Discrepant results between the tests were common even for TST reactions above 15 mm, as only 22 % had a positive QFT. Conclusion The results support the assumption that factors other than tuberculosis infection are widely contributing to positive TST results in

  18. Operation of a microwave plasma source for electron heating and antenna testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughman, J. B. O.; Bigelow, T. S.; Diem, S. J.; Goulding, R. H.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Schaich, C. R.; White, T. L.

    2011-10-01

    One of the major challenges for magnetic fusion is the interaction of the plasma with materials. Linear plasma-material interaction test stands can benefit from additional electron heating of the high-density source plasma to increase the total plasma heat flux at the target to better simulate fusion reactor conditions (10-20 MW/m2). A microwave-based plasma experiment has begun at ORNL to study electron heating of over-dense plasmas and to provide a plasma environment for antenna testing. The plasma is generated by high-field launched whistler waves at 18 GHz to create a moderate-density plasma (ne ~1018/m3). Electron heating of the over-dense plasma is provided by either whistler waves or electron Bernstein waves at 6 GHz. In addition, a single strap mockup antenna, designed to operate at 40-50 MHz, is being constructed to study near-field plasma interactions. The antenna will be placed in the experiment's central vacuum chamber, which will act as an rf test facility. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  19. Size-based molecular diagnostics using plasma DNA for noninvasive prenatal testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, S.C.; Chan, K.C.; Zheng, Y.W.; Jiang, P.; Liao, G.J.; Sun, H; Akolekar, R.; Leung, T.Y.; Go, A.T.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Minekawa, R.; Oudejans, C.B.; Nicolaides, K.H.; Chiu, R.W.; Lo, Y.M.

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing using fetal DNA in maternal plasma is an actively researched area. The current generation of tests using massively parallel sequencing is based on counting plasma DNA sequences originating from different genomic regions. In this study, we explored a different approach th

  20. [Canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis by immunohistochemistry and PCR in skin tissues in association with IFAT and ELISA-test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Nina M G P; de Assis, Juliana; Oliveira, Trícia M F S; Machado, Rosângela Z; Nunes, Cáris M; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the immunohistochemistry (IMHC) and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) tests for Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis and compare the results with serological tests such as the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), ELISA and a parasitological test (microscopic direct examination of the parasite stained with haematoxylin and eosin--HE). For this study, samples of healthy or lesion skin tissues were obtained from 34 CVL naturally infected dogs classified in three groups: asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and polisymptomatic. Not only lesion (56.5%) but also healthy skins (31.8%) were positives by IMHC and confirmed by PCR in 97.8% of skin samples. In asymptomatic group, 87.5% dogs were negatives by serological tests, but positives by IMHC in 50% and by PCR in 100%. In oligosymptomatic group, 100%, 85.7% and 28.6% of dogs were positives, respectively by PCR, serological and IMHC tests. In addition, 91.7% of polisymptomatic dogs were serum positive and had intact parasites in the skin. In general, PCR showed higher positivity (100%). The efficiency of each test varied with the evolution of the disease. IMHC may be used to confirm the results of the serology and PCR in inconclusive cases after HE and IMHC. The association of techniques proposed in this study may increase the positivity and contributed to the control of this canine disease.

  1. A Comparison of Two-Step Tuberculin Skin Test between Health-Care Workers and Nonhospital Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nikokar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tuberculin test is widely used to identify tuberculosisinfection. Some individuals infected with Mycobacteriumtuberculosis may have an initial negative skin test reactionto tuberculin. The two step purified protein derivative skin testcan decrease misinterpretation of tuberculin test .This study wasaimed at comparing the two- step tuberculin skin test and boosterphenomenon in health care workers and non hospital employees.Methods: One hundred and eighty five health service employeesfrom Razi University Hospital and 181 non hospitalemployees were subjected to an initial tuberculin skin test.Those who were negative on the first test underwent a secondone 2 weeks later. The reactions to the tests were measured 72hours later. Tests with an induration of ≥ 10 mm was consideredpositive. Moreover, second tests with an induration of atleast 6 mm increase relative to the relevant first tests wereconsidered positive.Results: Compared to non hospital employees (n=79, 43.6%, asignificantly higher number of health care workers (n=113,61.1% were positive on the first tuberculin test. 18.5 % of healthcare workers and 31.5% of non hospital employees demonstrateda boosted reaction after the second tuberculin test. The occurrenceof boosted reaction was significantly associated with ageboth groups. There was no association between the presence ofBCG scars and the occurrence of boosted reaction.Conclusion: the present study shows that the prevalence of TBwas higher among health care worker than non hospital employees.Moreover, it demonstrated that non hospital employeeshad a higher age-associated booster reaction to the second tuberculinskin test than health care workers. Therefore, to avoidmissing false negative cases, it would be necessary to do a secondtuberculin test for subjects with a negative reaction to theinitial test, especially in subjects older than 40 years.

  2. Association Between Allergic Diseases and Food Allergens Based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Keshvari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Frequency of allergic diseases is growing in recent years. Identification of frequency of food allergens in different areas play an important role in diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine frequency and association of common food allergens in patients with allergic diseases based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr province. Material and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 1100 patients were enrolled with allergic diseases which had a sensitivity to at least one allergen.  This test was carried out with 21 common food allergens extract. Results: In all patients, association between the severity of the reaction prick allergy test and severity of allergic diseases with shrimp, cow's Milk and peanuts were (P= 0.01, (P= 0.02 and (P=0.04 respectively. In this study, the frequency of allergic rhinitis, asthma, chronic and acute urticaris and atopic eczema were 54.2%, 23%, 12.4%, 4.1% and 12%, respectively. While the the most common food allergens were peanuts (46.6%, egg yolk (43.1% and shrimp (42% respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that food allergens such as shrimp, cow's Milk and peanuts have a greater role in severity of allergic diseases and this food allergens showed the highest frequency in patients.

  3. Skin autoreactivity in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients without urticaria: autologous serum skin test positivity correlation with thyroid antibodies, sonographical volume and grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Zafer; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Ozlem; Can, Burce; Kavala, Mukaddes; Tamer, Gonca; Ulucay, Vasfiye; Akyer, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an association between anti-thyroid antibodies and autologous serum skin test (ASST) positive urticaria patients. However, a connection between thyroid and this reliable skin test for mast cell autoreactivity, ASST, has not been reported yet. We investigated ASST in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) without urticaria and compared the results with laboratory and sonographical findings of HT. 154 HT patients, 100 healthy volunteers without HT as a first control group and 46 patients with multinodular goitre but without autoimmune thyroid disease as a second control group underwent testing with ASST. ASST was applied to these groups according to two criteria, first as ASST(new): autologous serum red wheal response 1.5 mm bigger than negative control; second as ASST(old): serum red wheal response 5 mm bigger than negative control accepted as positive. Free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg) levels were measured. ASST(old), ASST(new) scored positive in 51.3-60.4% of HT patients, with statistically significant differences. Thyroid volume grades were inversely proportional with ASST(old) and (new) positivity. Moderate (+) titers of anti-Tg in ASST(old) and (new) (+) cases were significantly higher than the same titers of anti-Tg in ASST(old) and (new) (-) cases. The prevalence of ASST positivity in HT patients was not affected by the following factors: gender, age at screening, laboratory measurements of thyroid function tests, anti-TPO antibodies and thyroid ultrasound (US) echogenicity. Positivity of ASST in HT has shown that there is a skin mast cell autoreactivity in HT patients independent of autoreactive chronic urticaria (ACU).

  4. Relationship between Serum Specific IgE and Allergen Skin Test in Allergic Patients of Wuhan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the relationship between serum specific IgE (sIgE) and allergen skin test, allergen skin tests and detections of sIgE in 220 allergic patients of Wuhan area were analyzed.The coherent rate of the two methods was beyond 70 % (P<0.01). It was concluded that the in vitro and in vivo detection methods of allergens have a high coherence and can be used as the effective ways to diagnose the allergic diseases in clinical practice.

  5. 改良破伤风皮试液配制方法对皮试阳性率的影响%Impact of improved tetanus skin test liquid dispensing method on skin test positive rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜红宇; 龚牡丽; 吴素蓉; 王文艺; 纪军

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨改良破伤风皮试液配制方法对皮试阳性率的影响。方法选取2012年3月—2014年11月井冈山大学医务所收治的外伤患者159例,随机分为观察组(81例)与对照组(78例)。对照组患者予以传统破伤风皮试液配制方法,观察组患者予以改良皮试液配制方法。观察两组患者皮试阳性率。结果观察组患者皮试阳性率低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05)。结论改良破伤风皮试液配制方法能降低患者皮试阳性率,减轻患者的痛苦。%Objective To explore the impact of improved tetanus skin test liquid dispensing method on skin test posi-tive rate. Methods A total of 159 patients with trauma were selected in Clinic of Jinggangshan University from March 2012 to November 2014,they were randomly divided into observation group(81 cases)and control group(78 cases). Control group were given traditional tetanus skin test liquid dispensing method,observation group were given improved tetanus skin test liquid dispensing method. Skin reaction positive rate between the two groups was compared. Results Skin reaction positive rate of ob-servation group was lower than that of control group(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion Improved tetanus skin test liquid dispensing method can reduce the skin test positive rate and reduce the pain of the patients.

  6. 578 Comparison of the Modified Autologous Serum Skin Test and the Cd63 Basophil Activation Test in Chronic Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Irinyi, B; Gyimesi, E.; Garaczi, E.; Bata, Zs.; Hodosi, K.; Zeher, M; Remenyik, É.; Szegedi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The modified CD63 basophil activation test in the diagnosis of chronic autoimmun urticaria was first described in 2004 by Szegedi et al. We demonstrated that the strongly sensitized basophils of atopic donors can be successfully used without the addition of IL-3 for the in vitro evaluation of autoimmun urticaria. Positive correlation was found between the basophil CD63 expression test and the autolog serum skin test (ASST), and between the CD63 test and the gold standard histamine ...

  7. Concordant or discordant results by the tuberculin skin test and the quantiFERON-TB test in children reflect immune biomarker profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhanasekaran, S; Jenum, S; Stavrum, R

    2014-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB-Gold-In-tube (QFTGIT) are adjunctive tests used in the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB). Neither test can rule out TB; however, a positive test usually triggers preventive treatment in TB contacts aged ...-endemic region with routine neonatal BCG vaccination) who were referred to a TB case verification ward on suspicion of TB. Two hundred and ten children aged

  8. The development and application of a cold atmospheric plasma generator for treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, O. A.; Petrova, N. O.; Smirnova, N. V.; Shemet, M. V.

    2017-08-01

    We describe a device for obtaining cold plasma in air at atmospheric pressure using a system of positive high-voltage pin electrodes, which is intended for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals. Plasma is generated due to the development of periodic pulsed discharge of nanosecond duration at current pulse amplitudes 10-20 mA, characteristic frequencies 10-20 kHz, and applied voltages within 8-10 kV. The high efficacy of the proposed device and method is confirmed by the good clinical results of treating large domestic animals with traumatic injuries.

  9. Comparison of the antiseptic efficacy of tissue-tolerable plasma and an octenidine hydrochloride-based wound antiseptic on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Schanzer, S; Patzelt, A; Thiede, G; Kramer, A; Weltmann, K-D; Hartmann, B; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B

    2012-01-01

    Colonization and infection of wounds represent a major reason for the impairment of tissue repair. Recently, it has been reported that tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) is highly efficient in the reduction of the bacterial load of the skin. In the present study, the antiseptic efficacy of TTP was compared to that of octenidine hydrochloride with 2-phenoxyethanol. Both antiseptic methods proved to be highly efficient. Cutaneous treatment of the skin with octenidine hydrochloride and 2-phenoxyethanol leads to a 99% elimination of the bacteria, and 74% elimination is achieved by TTP treatment. Technical challenges with an early prototype TTP device could be held responsible for the slightly reduced antiseptic properties of TTP, compared to a standard antiseptic solution, since the manual treatment of the skin surface with a small beam of the TTP device might have led to an incomplete coverage of the treated area. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The ECVAM international validation study on in vitro tests for acute skin irritation: report on the validity of the EPISKIN and EpiDerm assays and on the Skin Integrity Function Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, Horst; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Liebsch, Manfred; Botham, Phil; Fentem, Julia H; Eskes, Chantra; Roguet, Roland; Cotovio, José; Cole, Thomas; Worth, Andrew; Heylings, Jon; Jones, Penny; Robles, Catherine; Kandárová, Helena; Gamer, Armin; Remmele, Marina; Curren, Rodger; Raabe, Hans; Cockshott, Amanda; Gerner, Ingrid; Zuang, Valérie

    2007-12-01

    ECVAM sponsored a formal validation study on three in vitro tests for skin irritation, of which two employ reconstituted human epidermis models (EPISKIN, EpiDerm), and one, the skin integrity function test (SIFT), employs ex vivo mouse skin. The goal of the study was to assess whether the in vitro tests would correctly predict in vivo classifications according to the EU classification scheme, "R38" and "no label" (i.e. non-irritant). 58 chemicals (25 irritants and 33 non-irritants) were tested, having been selected to give broad coverage of physico-chemical properties, and an adequate distribution of irritancy scores derived from in vivo rabbit skin irritation tests. In Phase 1, 20 of these chemicals (9 irritants and 11 non-irritants) were tested with coded identities by a single lead laboratory for each of the methods, to confirm the suitability of the protocol improvements introduced after a prevalidation phase. When cell viability (evaluated by the MTT reduction test) was used as the endpoint, the predictive ability of both EpiDerm and EPISKIN was considered sufficient to justify their progression to Phase 2, while the predictive ability of the SIFT was judged to be inadequate. Since both the reconstituted skin models provided false predictions around the in vivo classification border (a rabbit Draize test score of 2), the release of a cytokine, interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), was also determined. In Phase 2, each human skin model was tested in three laboratories, with 58 chemicals. The main endpoint measured for both EpiDerm and EPISKIN was cell viability. In samples from chemicals which gave MTT assay results above the threshold of 50% viability, IL-1alpha release was also measured, to determine whether the additional endpoint would improve the predictive ability of the tests. For EPISKIN, the sensitivity was 75% and the specificity was 81% (MTT assay only); with the combination of the MTT and IL-1alpha assays, the sensitivity increased to 91%, with a

  11. Applicability of in vitro tests for skin irritation and corrosion to regulatory classification schemes: substantiating test strategies with data from routine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Susanne N; Sullivan, Kristie M; Mehling, Annette; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Skin corrosion or irritation refers to the production of irreversible or reversible damage to the skin following the application of a test substance, respectively. Traditionally, hazard assessments are conducted using the in vivo Draize skin test, but recently in vitro tests using reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) models have gained regulatory acceptance. In this study, skin corrosion (SCT) and irritation tests (SIT) using a RhE model were implemented to reduce the number of in vivo tests required by regulatory bodies. One hundred and thirty-four materials were tested from a wide range of substance classes included 46 agrochemical formulations. Results were assessed according to UN GHS, EU-CLP, ANVISA and US EPA classification schemes. There was high correlation between the two in vitro tests. Assessment of the SCT sensitivity was not possible due to the limited number of corrosives in the data set; SCT specificity and accuracy were 89% for all classification systems. Accuracy (63-76%) and sensitivity (53-67%) were low in the SIT. Specificity and concordance for agrochemical formulations alone in both the SCT and SIT were comparable to the values for the complete data set (SCT: 91% vs. 89% specificity, 91% vs. 89% accuracy and SIT: 64-88% vs. 70-85% specificity, 56-75% vs. 63-76% accuracy).

  12. Skin Prick Test Analysis in Allergic Rhinitis Patients: A Preliminary Study in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. U. Ibekwe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is prevalent in Nigeria, though little information exists on the allergen. We assessed the clinical features of AR patients in our environment based on the allergic rhinitis impact on asthma (ARIA classification. Only patients with positive skin prick test (SPT were recruited. Seventy-four patients participated in the study. AR and asthma comorbidity were observed in 13.5%. The proportion of “sneezers-runners” was higher than “blockers” with significantly more “sneezers-runners” having persistent AR (P=0.007. No relationship was established between these predominant symptoms and the aeroallergens used in this study. Intermittent mild and moderate/severe AR were evident in 13.5% and 31.1%, while persistent mild and moderate/severe were seen in 20.3% and 35.1%, respectively. House dust mites allergen yielded the highest number of positive responses (22.6% followed by tree pollen (16.8%. No relationship was observed between the allergens tested and AR severity. Majority of patients were oligosensitive (33.8% and polysensitive (35.1% and were not significantly associated with AR severity (P=0.07. Most AR patients presenting for treatment in Abuja, Nigeria, had moderate-severe persistent AR and showed similar SPT sensitization pattern with countries having similar climatic conditions. Sensitization patterns were not related to ARIA classification or predominant AR symptoms.

  13. [Evaluation of the specificity of skin allergy tests in cattle with IBR-IPV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I E; Arsov, R; Sizov, I; Terziev, S

    1983-01-01

    An allergic and serologic investigation was carried out by the skin allergic test (SAT) and the virus neutralization test (VNT) to demonstrate the presence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis -- infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR-IPV) in cattle divided into three groups according to age, treated with the live attenuated vaccine MK25 against Aujeszky's disease. It was found that this vaccine induced the production of specific antibodies against the virus of IBR-IPV, which could be demonstrated through VNT (beta-variant) in low titers (2-2.5 log10), while through VNT (alfa-variant) no specific antibodies could be found. On the other hand, the virus of Aujeszky's disease did not usually lead or on very rare occasions (massive virus doses and continuous antigenic challenge) led to allergization of the body of cattle for IBR-IPV as well as to a positive SAT. Out of a total of 30 investigated calves only one proved positive by SAT, and 2 others were suspected of being carriers of infection. The problem is discussed of the specificity of SAT and its diagnostic value in IBR-IPV under some epizootiologic circumstances.

  14. Cytotoxicity testing of silver-containing burn treatments using primary and immortal skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkaew, Benjawan; Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2014-12-01

    A novel burn wound hydrogel dressing has been previously developed which is composed of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid sodium salt with silver nanoparticles (silver AMPS). This study compared the cytotoxicity of this dressing to the commercially available silver products; Acticoat™, PolyMem Silver(®) and Flamazine™ cream. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT and primary HEK) and normal human fibroblasts (NHF) were exposed to dressings incubated on Nunc™ polycarbonate inserts for 24, 48 and 72h. Four different cytotoxicity assays were performed including; Trypan Blue cell count, MTT, Celltiter-Blue™ and Toluidine Blue surface area assays. The results were expressed as relative cell viability compared to an untreated control. The cytotoxic effects of Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ cream were dependent on exposure time and cell type. After 24h exposure, Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ cream were toxic to all tested cell lines. Surprisingly, HaCaTs treated with Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ had an improved ability to survive at 48 and 72h while HEKs and NHFs had no improvement in survival with any treatment. The novel silver hydrogel and PolyMem Silver(®) showed low cytotoxicity to all tested cell lines at every time interval and these results support the possibility of using the novel silver hydrogel as a burn wound dressing. Researchers who rely on HaCaT cells as an accurate keratinocyte model should be aware that they can respond differently to primary skin cells.

  15. Association between tuberculin skin test result and clinical presentation of tuberculosis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Sara C; Click, Eleanor S; Heilig, Charles M; Miramontes, Roque; Cain, Kevin P; Bisson, Gregory P; Mac Kenzie, William R

    2013-10-04

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) is used to test for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and support the diagnosis of active TB. However, little is known about the relationship between the TST result and the clinical presentation of TB disease. We analyzed US TB surveillance data, 1993-2010, and used multinomial logistic regression to calculate the association between TST result (0-4 mm [negative], 5-9 mm, 10-14 mm, and  ≥ 15 mm) and clinical presentation of disease (miliary, combined pulmonary and extrapulmonary, extrapulmonary only, non-cavitary pulmonary, and cavitary pulmonary). For persons with pulmonary disease, multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of having acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive sputum. There were 64,238 persons with culture-confirmed TB included in the analysis, which was stratified by HIV status and birthplace (US- vs. foreign-born). Persons with a TST ≥ 15 mm were less likely to have miliary or combined pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease, but more likely to have cavitary pulmonary disease than non-cavitary pulmonary disease. Persons with non-cavitary pulmonary disease with a negative TST were significantly more likely to have AFB positive sputum. Clinical presentation of TB disease differed according to TST result and persons with a negative TST were more likely to have disseminated disease (i.e., miliary or combined pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Further study of the TST result may improve our understanding of the host-pathogen relationship in TB disease.

  16. The predictive value of skin prick testing for challenge-proven food allergy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Rachel L; Gurrin, Lyle C; Allen, Katrina J

    2012-06-01

    Immunoglobulin E-mediated (IgE) food allergy affects 6-8% of children, and the prevalence is believed to be increasing. The gold standard of food allergy diagnosis is oral food challenges (OFCs); however, they are resource-consuming and potentially dangerous. Skin prick tests (SPTs) are able to detect the presence of allergen-specific IgE antibodies (sensitization), but they have low specificity for clinically significant food allergy. To reduce the need for OFCs, it has been suggested that children forgo an OFC if their SPT wheal size exceeds a cutoff that has a high predictability for food allergy. Although data for these studies are almost always gathered from high-risk populations, the 95% positive predictive values (PPVs) vary substantially between studies. SPT thresholds with a high probability of food allergy generated from these studies may not be generalizable to other populations, because of highly selective samples and variability in participant's age, test allergens, and food challenge protocol. Standardization of SPT devices and allergens, OFC protocols including standardized cessation criteria, and population-based samples would all help to improve generalizability of PPVs of SPTs.

  17. Healing of skin wounds with a chitosan-gelatin sponge loaded with tannins and platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bitao; Wang, Tianyou; Li, Zhiquan; Dai, Fangying; Lv, Lingmei; Tang, Fengling; Yu, Kun; Liu, Jiawei; Lan, Guangqian

    2016-01-01

    A chitosan-gelatin sponge (CSGT) was prepared using a chitosan/ascorbic acid solution blend containing gelatin, followed by crosslinking with tannin acid and freeze-drying, thereby combining the chitosan sponge and gelatin sponge. The structure of the CSGT was observed by scanning electron microscopy and was shown to have uniform and abundant pores measuring about 145-240μm in size. We also characterized the sponges by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, mechanical property tests, swelling behavior analysis, water retention capacity tests, antibacterial property analysis, and cytotoxicity tests. Our data showed that the CSGT had good thermostability and mechanical properties as well as efficient water absorption and retention capacities. Moreover, the CSGT could effectively inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with low toxicity. In animal experiments, macroscopic observations and histological examinations showed that the wound covered by the CSGT healed quickly. Additionally, loading of the CSGT with platelet-rich plasma resulted in further acceleration of wound healing. Therefore, the CSGT and the CSGT with platelet-rich plasma were suitable for application as a wound dressing and may have potential for use in various biomedical applications.

  18. The Role of Human Adult Peripheral and Umbilical Cord Blood Platelet-Rich Plasma on Proliferation and Migration of Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyedeh-Sara; Mahmoodi, Mahdokht; Rafati, Ali Reza; Manafi, Farzad; Mehrabani, Davood

    2017-05-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process following damage in tissue structures. Due to extensive skin damage caused by burn injuries, this study determined the role of human adult peripheral and umbilical cord blood platelet-rich plasma on proliferation and migration in human skin fibroblasts. Platelet-rich plasma (5, 10, 15, 20 and 50% PRP) from human umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood were provided and added to fibroblasts cultured from a human skin sample. Migration and proliferation of fibroblasts were assessed in comparison to 10% FBS and by the fibroblast responses to a concentration gradient. All components of the umbilical cord blood PRP significantly stimulated the growth of fibroblasts when compared to the negative control. Fibroblast growth was enhanced in a dose dependent manner. All fibroblast cultures retained normal morphology. No significant difference was noted between umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood PRP preparations regarding cell proliferation and migration, but the difference to 10% FBS was significant. 1% and 50% PRP reduced cellular proliferation. The 20% umbilical cord blood PRP and 10% adult peripheral blood PRP had a significant stimulatory effect on the migration of the skin fibroblast cells in comparison with 10% FBS. As PRP could promote the migration and proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, it can be safely added in cultures when treatment of chronic wounds without triggering the immune response is needed.

  19. Study on the RF power necessary to ignite plasma for the ICP test facility at HUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Haikun [School of Electronic Information and Communications, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Li, Dong; Wang, Chenre; Li, Xiaofei; Chen, Dezhi; Liu, Kaifeng; Zhou, Chi; Pan, Ruimin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2015-10-15

    An Radio-Frequency (RF) Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) ion source test facility has been successfully developed at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). As part of a study on hydrogen plasma, the influence of three main operation parameters on the RF power necessary to ignite plasma was investigated. At 6 Pa, the RF power necessary to ignite plasma influenced little by the filament heating current from 5 A to 9 A. The RF power necessary to ignite plasma increased rapidly with the operation pressure decreasing from 8 Pa to 4 Pa. The RF power necessary to ignite plasma decreased with the number of coil turns from 6 to 10. During the experiments, plasma was produced with the electron density of the order of 10{sup 16}m{sup -3} and the electron temperature of around 4 eV. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. [Skin tuberculin test (STT) for screening tuberculosis in contacts of tuberculosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, N O; Dia, Y; Diatta, A; Ndiaye, E H M; Thiam, K; Niang, A; Fall, N; Kane, M; Mbae, F; Cisse, A; Hane, A A

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have underlined the theorical and practical role of Skin Tuberculin Test (STT) as an important tool for the diagnosis and for the screening of tuberculosis in the population. This prospective study evaluated STT in 51 smear positive tuberculosis patients and 108 contacts tuberculosis patients apparently in a good health condition. Twenty seven patients have disappeared before the end of the study and 7 patients were excluded for non suitable results. So we analysed only 73 cases. The mean age was 34 years, with extreme of 1 and 77 years. There were 33 male and 40 female patients for a sex-ratio of 0,8. BCG vaccination scar was found in 64% of patients. We calculated the Body-Mass-Index and we found a proteinocaloric malnutrition (BMISTT induration was 12,3mm with extremes of 7 and 20mm. Considering a STT STT and 69 (95%) a positive STT. 13 of these 69 patients had a STT > 15mm. The age group of the 10 to 50 years had more positive STT. Meanwhile, according to the sexe and to the nutritional status, there was no statistical difference. All patients with a negative STT received BCG vaccination after 2 months of follow-up. Those with STT>15mm were examinated and had a chest X-ray the day of their enrolment, at the second month and at the sixth month and we didn't find any evolutive tuberculosis. According to these results, we can conclude that STT is not an important test for the screening of pulmonary tuberculosis in contact patients. Clinical examination, chest X-ray and sputum smear remain very important for the diagnosis. Despite these results, STT remain the only validated technic between the different tuberculin tests. Its interest was twofold: the research of an acquired immunity against tuberculosis after BCG immunisation and it is clinical test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children.

  1. Autologous serum skin test reactivity and basophil histamine release test in patients with nasal polyposis: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambetti, G; Ciofalo, A; Soldo, P; Fusconi, M; Romeo, R; Greco, A; Altissimi, G; Macri, G F; Marinelli, C; Pagliuca, G; De Vincentiis, M

    2010-01-01

    An eosinophilic inflammatory process is generally observed in patients suffering from nasal polyposis (NP), however its onset has not yet been defined. It has been suggested that immune activation of inflammatory cells may be the cause. The aim of this study is to verify whether autoantibodies and/or histamine-releasing factors are present in the serum of patients suffering from NP. In fact, we assume that autoantibodies and/or histamine-releasing factors, as already demonstrated in chronic idiopathic urticaria and asthma, may be involved in the pathogenesis of NP. In this case-control analytical study 40 patients with NP and 27 control subjects underwent the in vivo autologous serum skin test (ASST). The sera from 6 patients suffering from NP and 9 control group subjects, who had all been previously studied and randomly selected, underwent basophil histamine release assay from normal donor as a pilot study. The ASST showed positive results in 55% of patients suffering from NP versus 8% of the control group (p= .00006), the basophil histamine release test (BHRT) turned out positive in all patients tested and in 11% of the control group. We found a weak positive correlation between the percentage of histamine release and the wheal diameter. ASST reactivity is very frequent in patients suffering from NP, thus suggesting the presence of histamine-releasing factors in the blood stream. The BHRT was positive in the serum of all patients, thus suggesting the presence of anti-FcepsilonRI, anti-IgE autoantibodies and/or other histamine-releasing factors, the presence of which can play a role in triggering and maintaining the eosinophilic inflammatory process in NP.

  2. [Value of combining the thermal test with laser Doppler measurement of skin hemodynamics. Study of vascular acrosyndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccalon, H; Marguery, M C; Ginestet, M C; Puel, P

    1987-01-01

    Different exploratory investigations of vascular acrosyndromes have failed to define their physiopathology. Capillaroscopy studies the specific morphologic aspects of certain connective tissue diseases, hemodynamic tests usually determine a global parameter, and those tests investigating cutaneous physiology alone come up against difficulties limiting their diffusion. The laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF) measures global skin flow in a reproducible, continuous simple manner, and was combined with standardized provocation tests during a prospective study to assess its value in angiology. The protocol involved a prospective study of 100 subjects during the winter 1984-1985: 21 healthy volunteers, 11 cases of acrocyanosis, 9 of acrorhigosis, 48 of Raynaud's phenomenon (22 primary and 26 secondary), 11 of connective tissue disease without Raynaud's phenomenon (table I). The LDD test measures skin microcirculation flow continuously in parallel with skin thermometry. Provocation tests included a standardized thermal test (fig. 1); the temperature is automatically reduced to 0 degree C in 15 minutes and then increased to 25 degrees C in 10 minutes in a jar into which the hand and forearm of the patients and any measuring captor are introduced. Respiratory provocation and additional pharmacologic tests were also completed. Interpretation of results involved calculation of the mean skin flow, Dm, pulsatile skin flow, Dp (fig. 2 and 3), at the basal state and then during temperature variations. The reference value of Dm is 2.741 +/- 0.378 V and is decreased in acrorhigosis, acrocyanosis and severe Raynaud's phenomenon. At 0 degrees C the decrease in Dm is 33 +/- 13% in healthy subjects. Specific values for different acrosyndromes and particularly the various types of Raynaud's phenomenon do not exist.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Safety and efficacy assessment of two new leprosy skin test antigens: randomized double blind clinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky L Rivoire

    Full Text Available New tools are required for the diagnosis of pre-symptomatic leprosy towards further reduction of disease burden and its associated reactions. To address this need, two new skin test antigens were developed to assess safety and efficacy in human trials.A Phase I safety trial was first conducted in a non-endemic region for leprosy (U.S.A.. Healthy non-exposed subjects (n = 10 received three titrated doses (2.5 µg, 1.0 µg and 0.1 µg of MLSA-LAM (n = 5 or MLCwA (n = 5 and control antigens [Rees MLSA (1.0 µg and saline]. A randomized double blind Phase II safety and efficacy trial followed in an endemic region for leprosy (Nepal, but involved only the 1.0 µg (high dose and 0.1 µg (low dose of each antigen; Tuberculin PPD served as a control antigen. This Phase II safety and efficacy trial consisted of three Stages: Stage A and B studies were an expansion of Phase I involving 10 and 90 subjects respectively, and Stage C was then conducted in two parts (high dose and low dose, each enrolling 80 participants: 20 borderline lepromatous/lepromatous (BL/LL leprosy patients, 20 borderline tuberculoid/tuberculoid (BT/TT leprosy patients, 20 household contacts of leprosy patients (HC, and 20 tuberculosis (TB patients. The primary outcome measure for the skin test was delayed type hypersensitivity induration.In the small Phase I safety trial, reactions were primarily against the 2.5 µg dose of both antigens and Rees control antigen, which were then excluded from subsequent studies. In the Phase II, Stage A/B ramped-up safety study, 26% of subjects (13 of 50 showed induration against the high dose of each antigen, and 4% (2 of 50 reacted to the low dose of MLSA-LAM. Phase II, Stage C safety and initial efficacy trial showed that both antigens at the low dose exhibited low sensitivity at 20% and 25% in BT/TT leprosy patients, but high specificity at 100% and 95% compared to TB patients. The high dose of both antigens showed lower specificity (70% and 60

  4. Safety and Efficacy Assessment of Two New Leprosy Skin Test Antigens: Randomized Double Blind Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoire, Becky L.; Groathouse, Nathan A.; TerLouw, Stephen; Neupane, Kapil Dev; Ranjit, Chaman; Sapkota, Bishwa Raj; Khadge, Saraswoti; Kunwar, Chatra B.; Macdonald, Murdo; Hawksworth, Rachel; Thapa, Min B.; Hagge, Deanna A.; Tibbals, Melinda; Smith, Carol; Dube, Tina; She, Dewei; Wolff, Mark; Zhou, Eric; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Mason, Robin; Sizemore, Christine; Brennan, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Background New tools are required for the diagnosis of pre-symptomatic leprosy towards further reduction of disease burden and its associated reactions. To address this need, two new skin test antigens were developed to assess safety and efficacy in human trials. Methods A Phase I safety trial was first conducted in a non-endemic region for leprosy (U.S.A.). Healthy non-exposed subjects (n = 10) received three titrated doses (2.5 µg, 1.0 µg and 0.1 µg) of MLSA-LAM (n = 5) or MLCwA (n = 5) and control antigens [Rees MLSA (1.0 µg) and saline]. A randomized double blind Phase II safety and efficacy trial followed in an endemic region for leprosy (Nepal), but involved only the 1.0 µg (high dose) and 0.1 µg (low dose) of each antigen; Tuberculin PPD served as a control antigen. This Phase II safety and efficacy trial consisted of three Stages: Stage A and B studies were an expansion of Phase I involving 10 and 90 subjects respectively, and Stage C was then conducted in two parts (high dose and low dose), each enrolling 80 participants: 20 borderline lepromatous/lepromatous (BL/LL) leprosy patients, 20 borderline tuberculoid/tuberculoid (BT/TT) leprosy patients, 20 household contacts of leprosy patients (HC), and 20 tuberculosis (TB) patients. The primary outcome measure for the skin test was delayed type hypersensitivity induration. Findings In the small Phase I safety trial, reactions were primarily against the 2.5 µg dose of both antigens and Rees control antigen, which were then excluded from subsequent studies. In the Phase II, Stage A/B ramped-up safety study, 26% of subjects (13 of 50) showed induration against the high dose of each antigen, and 4% (2 of 50) reacted to the low dose of MLSA-LAM. Phase II, Stage C safety and initial efficacy trial showed that both antigens at the low dose exhibited low sensitivity at 20% and 25% in BT/TT leprosy patients, but high specificity at 100% and 95% compared to TB patients. The high dose of both antigens

  5. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  6. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reisinger, K.; Hoffmann, S.; Alépée, N.; Ashikaga, T.; Barroso, J.; Elcombe, C.; Gellatly, N.; Galbiati, V.; Gibbs, S.; Groux, H.; Hibatallah, J.; Keller, D.; Kern, P.; Klaric, M.; Kolle, S.; Kuehnl, J.; Lambrechts, N.; Lindstedt, M.; Millet, M.; Martinozzi-Teissier, S.; Natsch, A.; Petersohn, D.; Pike, I.; Sakaguchi, H.; Schepky, A.; Tailhardat, M.; Templier, M.; van Vliet, E; Maxwell, G.

    2015-01-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has define

  7. A basic plasma test for gyrokinetics: GDC turbulence in LAPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, M. J.; Rossi, G.; Told, D.; Terry, P. W.; Jenko, F.; Carter, T. A.

    2017-02-01

    Providing an important step towards validating gyrokinetics under comparatively little-explored conditions, simulations of pressure-gradient-driven plasma turbulence in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) are compared with experimental observations. The corresponding signatures confirm the existence of a novel regime of turbulence, based on the recently-discovered gradient-driven drift coupling (GDC) instability, which is thus confirmed as a candidate mechanism for turbulence in basic, space and astrophysical plasmas. Despite the limitations of flux-tube gyrokinetics for this scenario, when accounting for box size scaling by applying a scalar factor η =6, agreement between simulations and experiment improves to within a factor of two for key observables: compressional magnetic, density, and temperature fluctuations, both in amplitude and structure. Thus, a first, strong indication is presented that the GDC instability seen in gyrokinetics appears to operate in the experiment and that the essential instability physics is present in the numerical model. Overall, the gyrokinetic framework and its numerical implementation in the Gene code therefore perform well for LAPD plasmas very different from their brethren in fusion experiments.

  8. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-01-01

    The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma), for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma ...

  9. Detection of immunosuppression caused by Trypanosoma evansi infection and malnutrition in experimental buffaloes with skin sensitisation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Partoutomo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main impacts of T. evansi infection in cattle and buffaloes include weight losses, deaths, and reduction of productivity, morover immunosuppressive conditions as a result of this parasite infection are commonly found. Dinitrochlorobenzene skin contact sensitisation (DNCB, phytohaemagglutinin skin (PHA and homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (HPCA tests have been used for diagnosis of immunosuppression in man. The purposes of these experiments were to detect immunosuppression caused by T. evansi infection and malnutrition in normal and malnutrition buffaloes. Sixteen male and female buffaloes, 12-18 months of ages were divided into 4 groups, Group1 fed with high grade of ration and infected with T. evansi, Group2 fed with high grade of ration not infected, Group3 fed with low grade of ration and infected with T. evansi, and Group4 fed with low grade of ration and not infected. Buffaloes fed with high grade of ration are assumed as normal animals, while buffaloes fed with low grade of ration are assumed as malnutrion animals. These buffaloes were kept in fly proof fences in the Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Bogor. The experimental results indicated that normal buffaloes produced significantly (P<0,05 wider and thicker inflammation areas in DNCB and PHA test respectively than malnutrition and T. Evansi infected buffaloes one week after T. evansi infection. The widest skin reaction of 33 + 4.7 mm2 in DCCB and the thickest skin reaction of 45 + 1,0 in PHA test was obtained in 24 hours after DNCB challenge or PHA injection. Thereafter both DNCB and PHA test showed the reduction of the skin reactions, however they were still positive in 48 hours and becoming negative in 72 hours later. PHA test was able to differenciate the intensity of either the combined effects of malnutrition and T. evansi infection, T. evansi infection, or malnutrition alone. HPCA test showed inconsistent results.

  10. Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockow, K; Garvey, L H; Aberer, W

    2013-01-01

    search on skin test drug concentration in MEDLINE and EMBASE, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. Where the literature is poor, we have taken into consideration the collective experience of the group...

  11. Mold-specific IgE antibodies in relation to exposure and skin test data in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Taskinen

    2001-01-01

    Conclusions: Mold allergy, as assessed by IgE measurements or skin tests, is rare in children. School- aged asthmatic boys having exposed to indoor air dampness seem to form a susceptible group for mold allergy, being at risk for worsening of their asthma.

  12. Eosinophilia and positive skin tests predict cardiovascular mortality in a general population sample followed for 30 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, JJ; Rijcken, P; Schouten, JP; Postma, DS; Weiss, ST

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated whether two objective allergy markers, peripheral blood eosinophilia and skin tests for common aeroallergens, were associated with cardiovascular death. Of 5,382 subjects in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen Study (the Netherlands) with data on allergy markers in 1965-1972, 507

  13. Skin and Environmental Contamination in Patients Diagnosed With Clostridium difficile Infection but Not Meeting Clinical Criteria for Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrapu, Sirisha; Sunkesula, Venkata; Tomas, Myreen; Donskey, Curtis J

    2015-11-01

    Of 134 patients diagnosed with Clostridium difficile infection, 30 (22%) did not meet clinical criteria for testing because they lacked significant diarrhea or had alternative explanations for diarrhea and no recent antibiotic exposure. For these patients, skin and/or environmental contamination was common only in those with prior antibiotic exposure.

  14. Plasma test on industrial diamond powder in hydrogen and air for fracture strength study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Rohit Asuri Sudharshana

    Diamonds are the most precious material all over the world. Ever since their discovery, the desire for natural diamonds has been great; recently, the demand has steeply increased, leading to scarcity. For example, in 2010, diamonds worth $50 billion were marketed. This increased demand has led to discovering alternative sources to replace diamonds. The diamond, being the hardest material on earth, could be replaced with no other material except another diamond. Thus, the industrial or synthetic diamond was invented. Because of extreme hardness is one of diamond's properties, diamonds are used in cutting operations. The fracture strength of diamond is one of the crucial factors that determine its life time as a cutting tool. Glow discharge is one of the techniques used for plasma formation. The glow discharge process is conducted in a vacuum chamber by ionizing gas atoms. Ions penetrate into the atomic structure, ejecting a secondary electron. The objective of this study is to determine the change in fracture strength of industrial diamond powder before and after plasma treatment. This study focuses mainly on the change in crystal defects and crushing strength (CS) of industrial diamond powder after the penetration of hydrogen gas, air and hydrogen-air mixture ions into the sample powder. For this study, an industrial diamond powder sample of 100 carats weight, along with its average fracture strength value was received from Engis Corporation, Illinois. The sample was divided into parts, each weighing 10-12 carats. At the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), a plasma test was conducted on six sample parts for a total of 16 hours on each part. The three gas types mentioned above were used during plasma tests, with the pressure in vacuum chamber between 200 mTorr and 2 Torr. The plasma test on four sample parts was in the presence of hydrogen-air mixture. The first sample had chamber pressures between 200 mTorr and 400 mTorr. The remaining three samples had chamber

  15. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, T. A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  16. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruse, T.A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  17. Display of Antigens on Polyester Inclusions Lowers the Antigen Concentration Required for a Bovine Tuberculosis Skin Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlane, Natalie A; Chen, Shuxiong; Jones, Gareth J; Vordermeier, H Martin; Wedlock, D Neil; Rehm, Bernd H A; Buddle, Bryce M

    2015-10-28

    The tuberculin skin test is the primary screening test for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB), and use of this test has been very valuable in the control of this disease in many countries. However, the test lacks specificity when cattle have been exposed to environmental mycobacteria or vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Recent studies showed that the use of three or four recombinant mycobacterial proteins, including 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT6), 10-kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP10), Rv3615c, and Rv3020c, or a peptide cocktail derived from those proteins, in the skin test greatly enhanced test specificity, with minimal loss of test sensitivity. The proteins are present in members of the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex but are absent in or not expressed by the majority of environmental mycobacteria and the BCG vaccine strain. To produce a low-cost skin test reagent, the proteins were displayed at high density on polyester beads through translational fusion to a polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase that mediates the formation of antigen-displaying inclusions in recombinant Escherichia coli. Display of the proteins on the polyester beads greatly increased their immunogenicity, allowing for the use of very low concentrations of proteins (0.1 to 3 μg of mycobacterial protein/inoculum) in the skin test. Polyester beads simultaneously displaying all four proteins were produced in a single fermentation process. The polyester beads displaying three or four mycobacterial proteins were shown to have high sensitivity for detection of M. bovis-infected cattle and induced minimal responses in animals exposed to environmental mycobacteria or vaccinated with BCG.

  18. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-04-08

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high j{sub H{sup −}}, low j{sub e}) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H{sup −}, its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H{sup −} density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa)

  19. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high jH-, low je) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H-, its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H- density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa).

  20. Tuberculin skin test positivity in pediatric allogeneic BMT recipients and donors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavil, Betul; Gulhan, Bora; Ozcelik, Ugur; Cetin, Mualla; Tezcan, Ilhan; Tuncer, Murat; Uckan, Duygu

    2007-06-01

    The preliminary study was performed to determine the frequency of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity among 26 patients and their donors screened by TST to investigate whether tuberculin positivity of a recipient or donor influenced the rate of tuberculosis disease, transplant-related events, and to evaluate the effectiveness of isoniazide (INAH) prophylaxis administered to those with positive TST. The frequency of TST positivity was 23% (n = 6) among recipients and also 23% (n = 6) among donors. Two recipients and five donors with positive TST received INAH prophylaxis for six months. Our use of INAH prophylaxis in transplant patients was very conservative because of the risk of drug interaction. The transplantation procedure was not postponed for either recipient or donor TST positivity. Despite the high frequency of tuberculosis in our country, we have not detected any case of tuberculosis in our center, either among the purified protein derivative-screened (n = 26) or non-screened (n = 128) patients except for disseminated tuberculosis infection because of BCG vaccination in two patients with severe combined immunodeficiency. In conclusion, TST positivity in either recipient or donor may not be a contraindication for bone marrow transplantation and the procedure may not be postponed. Pretransplantation TST screening may be needed in countries where tuberculosis is common in the general population.

  1. Food intolerance and skin prick test in treated and untreated irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dae-Won Jun; Sang-Hoen Cho; Oh-Young Lee; Ho-Joo Yoon; Seok-Hwa Lee; Hang-Lak Lee; Ho-Soon Choi; Byung-Chul Yoon; Min-Ho Lee; Dong-Hoo Lee

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To correlate the clinical features of treated and untreated patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to the results of skin prick test (SPT) for food and inhalant allergens.METHODS: We recruited 105 subjects to form three different target groups: treated group (n =44) undergoing treatment for IBS, untreated group (n =31) meeting the Rome Ⅱ criteria without treatment for IBS, control group (n = 30) with no IBS symptoms.RESULTS: SPT results were different among the three groups in which SPT was positive in 17 (38.6%) treated patients, in 5 (16.1%) untreated patients and in 1 (3.3%) control (P<0.01). The number of positive SPTs was greater in the IBS group than in the control group (P<0.001). The number of positive food SPTs was higher in the treated IBS group than in the untreated IBS group (P=0.03).CONCLUSION: Positive food SPT is higher in IBS patients than in controls.

  2. Prevalence of positive tuberculosis skin tests during 5 years of screening in a Swiss remand prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C; Elger, B S

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) screening in prisons is recommended, but the appropriate methods remain controversial. Studies evaluating screening in remand prisons are scarce. Between 1997 and 2001, voluntary screening based on the tuberculin skin test (TST) was offered to all prisoners on entry into the largest remand prison in Switzerland. Prisoners with positive results underwent chest X-rays. We analysed this information collected in an anonymous database. A total of 4890 prisoners entered the prison and were eligible for screening; 3779 (77.3%) had TST performed on average 9 days after arrival: 46.9% were positive (induration ≥ 10 mm). Positive TST rates were similar over the 5 years. Women were more likely to have a negative TST (60.4%) than men (47.7%; P < 0.001, Pearson's (2) 16.5). Positive TSTs varied according to the prisoner's country of origin (64% for sub-Saharan Africa, 57% for Eastern Europe, 56% for North Africa, 51% for Asia and 34% for North and West Europe). The percentage of TST-positive subjects was high, and most did not receive preventive treatment for latent TB. The usefulness of systematic TST for all prisoners on entry is limited, as diagnosis of TB disease usually remains the priority in prisons.

  3. Tuberculin skin test positivity without tuberculosis contact: A major challenge in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Ahmet Hakan; Cakir, Erkan; Donmez, Tugrul; Ari, Engin; Koksalan, Orhan Kaya

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) commonly give false positive results for those who had been given the Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin vaccine such as is routinely administered in Turkey. This study aimed to evaluate the patients referred to us who had positive TSTs despite lack of tuberculosis (TB) disease contacts. Between September 2011 and September 2012, 183 patients were prospectively evaluated for differential diagnosis of TST positivity despite lack of TB disease contact. They were then followed up by us to determine an accurate diagnosis. Among our patients' most common symptoms indicating a need for TST were chronic cough, productive cough or sputum expectoration, and recurrent or persistent wheezing. Chest x-rays were taken of all patients, and the findings were noted. Interferon gamma release assays were performed on 75% of the patients, of which 96% were negative for TB. The most common final diagnoses were asthma (44%), allergic rhinitis (13%), bronchopneumonia (11%) and reactive lymphadenitis (6.5%). Further evaluations for TB were required of 36 patients, and TB disease was established in 12 of them (6.5%). In patients who had had no known TB contact, the most common symptom indicating need for TST was chronic cough; the most common diagnoses were asthma and allergic rhinitis. Cavitary lesions, haemoptysis, persistent infiltration, pleural effusion and thoracic lymphadenopathy despite antibiotherapy should alert physicians to the possibility of TB. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Modulation of atopy patch test reactions by topical treatment of human skin with a fatty acid-rich emollient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmann-Eberwein, C; Rippke, F; Ruzicka, T; Krutmann, J

    2002-01-01

    Measures directed at improving the skin barrier function are thought to be effective in preventing reexacerbation of atopic dermatitis, but direct proof of a prophylactic effect of emollients has been elusive. In the present study, the atopy patch test has been employed as a model for the initiation phase of atopic dermatitis in order to assess whether pretreatment of non-lesional skin with a fatty acid-rich emollient (Eucerin Omega Creme) has a prophylactic effect in patients with atopic dermatitis. Pretreatment of test sites with Eucerin Omega Creme either prevented or diminished the development of eczema, as compared with untreated control test sites in the same patients (n = 38). These studies indicate that the use of fatty acid-rich emollients prevents the development of atopic eczema. They also demonstrate that the atopy patch test can be used to assess the capacity of a given regimen to exert prophylactic effects in this disease. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Biochemical and immunological analysis of mould skin prick test solution: current status of standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kespohl, S; Maryska, S; Zahradnik, E; Sander, I; Brüning, T; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2013-11-01

    Sensitization prevalence to moulds reached from less than 10% in the general population to more than 25% in atopic and/or asthmatic subjects. To diagnose IgE-mediated mould sensitization, skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) measurement are recommended. However, concordance of SPT and sIgE results is often less than 50% and standardization of the extracts is required to achieve reliable test results. The aim of our study was to analyse mould SPT solutions (SPTs) with respect to quantity and quality of protein, antigen and human IgE-binding content as a prerequisite for further in vivo studies. Commercial SPTs of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium chrysogenum from six manufacturers as well as two in-house extracts from Aspergillus versicolor were investigated. Protein-, antigen- and IgE-binding contents were quantified by Bradford assay, sandwich ELISA and IgE-ImmunoCAP-inhibition tests. Protein composition and IgE and IgG binding were analysed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, respectively. Median protein concentrations were similar in all mould SPT extracts (90-110 μg/mL). In contrast, antigen contents and IgE-binding capacity showed a high variability with median antigen values from 4 to 118 μg/mL and IgE inhibition results between 30 to 95%. Whereas almost all SPTs of A. alternata and A. versicolor showed complete sIgE inhibition with mean values > 80%, only three extracts for A. fumigatus, two extracts for C. herbarum and none of the tested extracts for P. chrysogenum exceeded 50% sIgE reduction. Quantitative amounts of protein, antigenic and IgE-binding structures were not comparable with the quality of the corresponding protein or immunoblot pattern, with the exception of A. alternata SPTs. Commercially available mould SPT extracts showed high variability raising the question of comparability and reliability of SPT results. Possible consequences for diagnostic test outcome will be investigated

  6. Open source software implementation of an integrated testing strategy for skin sensitization potency based on a Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Jason R; Smith, Marjolein; Kleinstreuer, Nicole C; Burns, Thomas A; Strickland, Judy; Dancik, Yuri; Morris, Richard; Rinckel, Lori A; Casey, Warren; Jaworska, Joanna S

    2014-01-01

    An open-source implementation of a previously published integrated testing strategy (ITS) for skin sensitization using a Bayesian network has been developed using R, a free and open-source statistical computing language. The ITS model provides probabilistic predictions of skin sensitization potency based on in silico and in vitro information as well as skin penetration characteristics from a published bioavailability model (Kasting et al., 2008). The structure of the Bayesian network was designed to be consistent with the adverse outcome pathway published by the OECD (Jaworska et al., 2011, 2013). In this paper, the previously published data set (Jaworska et al., 2013) is improved by two data corrections and a modified application of the Kasting model. The new data set implemented in the original commercial software package and the new R version produced consistent results. The data and a fully documented version of the code are publicly available (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/its).

  7. Tuberculin skin test distribution following a change in BCG vaccination policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei Won Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data regarding tuberculin skin test (TST responses are an important basis for TB control strategies. This study analyzed TST responses in Korea, which experienced a rapid change in BCG vaccination status. METHODS: TST responses in young adults were examined over 5 years. Participants with active TB lesions were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 5,552 participants were enrolled with median age of 21 years. When an induration diameter ≥10 mm was used as the criterion for a positive test, TST positivity fell (from 28.0% in 2005 to 15.3% in 2009; however, they remained steady when the criterion was ≥15-20 mm. A positive TST was associated with a personal or family of TB, the presence of a Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar, and age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 4.03 [2.61-6.22], 2.91 [1.80-4.71], 1.50 [1.31-1.72], and 1.15 [1.09-1.20], respectively. Among these factors, the decrease of participants with BCG scars was the most prominent change, which appeared to be associated with the change of TST positivity rate. CONCLUSION: Overall, the rate of TST positivity in Korea decreased. However, this trend seems associated with the change of BCG vaccination strategy rather than successful control of LTBI. This study showed that change in BCG vaccination strategy can have great impact on TB epidemiologic survey based on TST.

  8. Sub-categorisation of skin corrosive chemicals by the EpiSkin™ reconstructed human epidermis skin corrosion test method according to UN GHS: revision of OECD Test Guideline 431.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alépée, N; Grandidier, M H; Cotovio, J

    2014-03-01

    The EpiSkin™ skin corrosion test method was formally validated and adopted within the context of OECD TG 431 for identifying corrosive and non-corrosive chemicals. The EU Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulation (EU CLP) system requires the sub-categorisation of corrosive chemicals into the three UN GHS optional subcategories 1A, 1B and 1C. The present study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of the validated EpiSkin™ test method to identify skin corrosive UN GHS Categories 1A, 1B and 1C using the original and validated prediction model and adapted controls for direct MTT reduction. In total, 85 chemicals selected by the OECD expert group on skin corrosion were tested in three independent runs. The results obtained were highly reproducible both within (>80%) and between (>78%) laboratories when compared with historical data. Moreover the results obtained showed that the EpiSkin™ test method is highly sensitive (99%) and specific (80%) in discriminating corrosive from non-corrosive chemicals and allows reliable and relevant identification of the different skin corrosive UN GHS subcategories, with high accuracies being obtained for both UN GHS Categories 1A (83%) and 1B/1C (76%) chemicals. The overall accuracy of the test method to subcategorise corrosive chemicals into three or two UN GHS subcategories ranged from 75% to 79%. Considering those results, the revised OECD Test Guideline 431 permit the use of EpiSkin™ for subcategorising corrosive chemicals into at least two classes (Category 1A and Category 1B/1C).

  9. De-labelling self-reported penicillin allergy within the emergency department through the use of skin tests and oral drug provocation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwood, Joseph; Aguirrebarrena, Gonzalo; Kerr, Stephen; Welch, Susan A; Rimmer, Janet

    2017-04-05

    Self-reported penicillin allergy is common among patients attending the ED, but is a poor predictor of true immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillin. We hypothesise that with a combination of skin testing and drug provocation testing, selected patients can be safely de-labelled of their allergy. This prospective study enrolled a sample of patients presenting to an urban academic ED between 2011 and 2016 with a self-reported allergy to penicillin. Standardised skin prick and intradermal testing with amoxicillin and both major and minor determinants of penicillin was performed in the department. If negative, testing was followed by a graded oral challenge of amoxicillin over 9 days. The primary end point was the allergy status of participants at the end of the study. A total of 100 patients (mean age 42; standard deviation 14 years; 54% women) completed the testing. Of these, 81% (95% confidence interval 71.9-88.2) showed no hypersensitivity to penicillin and were labelled non-allergic. The majority (16/19) of allergies were confirmed by skin testing, with three suspected allergies detected by the oral challenge. Women were more likely than men to have a true penicillin allergy, with odds ratio of 4.0 (95% confidence interval 1.23-13.2). There were no serious adverse events. Selected patients in the ED who self-report an allergy to penicillin can be safely tested there for penicillin allergy, using skin tests and oral drug provocation testing. This testing allows a significant de-labelling of penicillin allergy, with the majority of these patients able to tolerate penicillin without incident. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  10. Agreement between QuantiFERON(R)-TB Gold In-Tube and the tuberculin skin test and predictors of positive test results in Warao Amerindian pediatric tuberculosis contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Maes, M.; Villalba, J.A.; d'Alessandro, A.; Rodriguez, L.P.; Espana, M.F.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Waard, J.H. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma release assays have emerged as a more specific alternative to the tuberculin skin test (TST) for detection of tuberculosis (TB) infection, especially in Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinated people. We determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

  11. Follow-up to the ECVAM prevalidation study on in vitro tests for acute skin irritation. The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods Skin Irritation Task Force report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuang, Valérie; Balls, Michael; Botham, Philip A; Coquette, Alain; Corsini, Emanuela; Curren, Rodger D; Elliott, Graham R; Fentem, Julia H; Heylings, Jon R; Liebsch, Manfred; Medina, Jesús; Roguet, Roland; van de Sandt, Johannes J M; Wiemann, Christianne; Worth, Andrew P

    2002-01-01

    The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) Skin Irritation Task Force was established in 1996, to review the status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion, and to identify appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human skin irritation that were sufficiently well-developed to be prevalidated and validated by ECVAM. The EpiDerm method, based on a reconstituted human skin model, was proposed as being sufficiently well advanced to enter a prevalidation (PV) study. Based on a review of test protocols, prediction models (PMs), and data submitted by test developers on ten specified chemicals, with 20% sodium lauryl sulphate as a reference standard, the task force recommended the inclusion of four other tests: EPISKIN and PREDISKIN, based on reconstituted human epidermis or on human skin; the non-perfused pig-ear test, based on pig skin; and the skin integrity function test (SIFT), with ex vivo mouse skin. The prevalidation study on these methods was funded by ECVAM, and took place during 1999-2000. The outcome of the PV study was that none of the methods was ready to enter a formal validation study, and that the protocols and PMs of the methods had to be improved in order to increase their predictive abilities. Improved protocols and PMs for the EpiDerm and EPISKIN methods, the pig ear test, and the SIFT were presented at an extended Task Force meeting held in May 2001. It was agreed that, in the short term, the performance of the revised and harmonised EpiDerm and EPISKIN methods, as well as the modified SIFT, should be evaluated in a further study with a new set of 20 test chemicals. In addition, it was decided that the SIFT and the pig ear test would be compared to see if common endpoints (transepidermal water loss, methyl green-pyronine stain) could be identified.

  12. First-in-man open clinical trial of a combined rdESAT-6 and rCFP-10 tuberculosis specific skin test reagent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstedt, Winnie; Tingskov, Pernille N; Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit;

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculin is still the only available skin test reagent for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. The product has a remarkable sensitivity, but poor specificity. Previous studies, including two human phase I clinical trials, have indicated that rdESAT-6 has a potential as an improved skin test...

  13. Association of skin test reactivity, specific IgE, total IgE, and eosinophils with nasal symptoms in a community-based population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, JHJ; Kerkhof, M; deMonchy, JGR; Schouten, JP; Rijcken, B

    1996-01-01

    Background: Skin prick tests and measurement of specific IgE are important markers possible allergic causes of disorders of the upper respiratory tract. Objective: In this study we investigated the association of skin test reactivity and specific IgE positivity to five common aeroallergens separatel

  14. Interferon-gamma release assays and tuberculin skin testing for diagnosing latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in at-risk groups in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczak, Katarzyna; Mastalerz, Lucyna; Sładek, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    The diagnostics of latent tuberculosis infection in Poland using the tuberculin skin test is challenging due to the obligatory Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccinations. Interferon-gamma release assays are still very rarely used for diagnostics. We compared the tuberculin skin test and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test to evaluate the degree of latent tuberculosis infection in at-risk groups for tuberculosis (homeless, close contacts, periodic contacts, nursing-home attendees) and in healthy individuals. QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube tests were carried out on 785 individuals from the homeless (n=150), close contacts (n=171), periodic contacts (n=163), nursing-home attendees (n=152), and healthy individuals (n=149). The tuberculin skin test was performed on 129, 156, 147, 148, and 121 participants, respectively. We evaluated the (a) correlation between serum concentrations of interferon gamma and the tuberculin-skin-test induration diameter; (b) between the number of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube-positive results and the tuberculin-skin-test diameter in the studied groups; and (c) agreement between both tests and the kappa coefficient using the tuberculin-skin-test diameters of 5, 10, and 15mm. Larger tuberculin-skin-test induration diameters were associated with elevated serum concentrations of interferon gamma. We found a positive correlation between the number of positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube screening results and the tuberculin-skin-test induration diameter. The agreement between QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and tuberculin-skin-test screening results improved with increasing tuberculin-skin-test induration diameter. Based on measures of tuberculin-skin-test induration diameter alone, it is difficult to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection with certainty. The agreement of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test increases with the tuberculin-skin-test diameter. Tuberculin-skin-test diameters larger than 15mm are more likely to be associated with active infection

  15. Comparison of the 2-step tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-Tube test in the screening of latent tuberculosis infection in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala A. Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Hematological malignancy group (HMgroup had significantly more positive TSTII results followed by the breast cancer group (p = 0.01. Similarly, QFT-GIT positive values were significantly more frequent in the HM group. This study suggests that the QFT-GIT test maintains its sensitivity and performance in immunocompromised cancer patients, identifying a large number of truly infected patients being anergy to the tuberculin skin test.

  16. Evaluation of leishmanin skin test reaction in different variants of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Sadeghian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic disease which has different clinical forms. The aim of this study is to compare the response to leishmanin skin test (LST in three forms of CL including plaque type, lupoid type, and sporotrichoid type. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The patients enrolled in this study had three clinical forms of CL confirmed by positive smear of their lesions and then LST was performed for them. Results were categorized as negative (0-5 mm induration, positive (6-14 mm, and strongly positive (≥15 mm. The data were documented in the patients′ files and analyzed with SPSS windows software version 16 (Inc.Chicago, USA. Results: 200 patients were enrolled in the study. In the group with plaque type, 86% had a positive LST, 13.3% were negative, and 0.7% were strongly positive. In the lupoid group, these figures were 45.8%, 8.4%, 45.8%, respectively. In the sporotrichoid group, LST was positive in 27.3%, negative in 72.7%, and none of the patients had a strongly positive reaction ( P < 0.05. Discussion: The most of the positive LST were belong to plaque and lupoid groups, the most of strongly positive were belong to lupoid, and the most of negative LST were related with sporotrichoid type. Conclusion: It can be suggested that lupoid and sporotrichoid types of CL are parts of a continuous spectrum of the disease with an enhanced cellular immunity in lupoid form and a decreased state in sporotrichoid type.

  17. Skin prick test results in patients with atopic symptoms in Yozgat district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çölgeçen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Skin prick test (SPT is used widely and fastly to determine the allergens in atopic disease. We aimed in this study to analysis the relationship between total serum IgE (T.IgE and allergens that found by SPT and looking over the frequency of allergens. Methods: We evaluated clinical findings and SPT results and T.IgE levels of 190 patients who admitted to dermatology outpatient clinic, retrospectively. Rsults: 53 (27.9% patients had idiopathic generalized pruritus (IGP, 41 (21.6% had atopic dermatitis (AD, 40 (21.1% had chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU, 38 (20% had allergic rhinitis (AR, and 18 (9.5% had allergic asthma (AA. 123 (64.7% patients had positive reaction to at least one or more allergen on SPT. Of these patients 28 were IGP, 30 were AD, 20 were CIU, 28 were AR, and 17 were AA. The most common allergens were pine pollen (25.3%, wheat pollen (18.4%, and dog epithelium (15.8%. The mean levels of T.IgE was 382.61 ± 517.28 IU/ml (1-2500. T.IgE is higher 54.9% of patients. It was seen that DPT positivity was significantly more frequent in patients with increased T.IgE levels than those with normal total serum IgE level (p<0.05. Conclusion: We think that pine tree and wheat pollens are the most commonly encountered allergens at Yozgat area. Moreover, our findings indicated to the requirement and benefits of DPT in patients with AD, AR and AA in addition to the those KİU and İJP, particularly in patients with increased T.IgE levels, although further studies with larger sample size are needed. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 64-68

  18. Comparison and Evaluation of Several Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus Allergen Extracts for Skin Prick Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-lu Sun; Rui-qi Wang; Jia Yin; Liang-lu Wang; Hong-yu Zhang; Hong Li; Yu-xiang Zhi; Li-ping Wen; Kai Guan; Jian-qing Gu; Hai-juan He; Ying Zhao; Wei Zhang; Guo-qiang Sun

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of several Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen extracts for skin prick test (SPT) in patients allergic to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.Methods Two hundred and nineteen patients enrolled in Peking Union Medical College Hospital underwent SPT and serum specific IgE assay to detect the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen. Three kinds of house dust mite allergen extracts were used for SPT, including the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract prepared by our laboratory (group A), standardized Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract (group B), and mixed extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoidesfarinae (group C). Human serum spe-cific IgE result was regarded as the reference standard for diagnosis of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergy.The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of SPT with the extracts of three groups.Results SPT results showed that the median wheal diameter of group A, group B, and group C was 0.43, 0.35, and 0.28 cm, respectively, with significant difference among three groups (P0.05). There was no local urticaria or systemic allergic reactions following the procedure of SPT. Local reaction was observed in 5 patients and delayed reaction was in 2 patients of group A. As for group B and C, local reaction occurred in 3 cases and delayed reaction in 2 cases in each group. The area un-der ROC curve of SPT with extract in group A, group B, and group C was 0.765, 0.801, and 0.782, respec-tively. Based on the detection results of serum specific IgE, the sensitivity of SPT in diagnosis of Dermato-phagoides pteronyssinus allergy with extract of group A, group B, and group C was 92.40/0, 87.00/0, and 81.5%,and the specificity was 60.6%, 73.2%, and 74.8%, respectively.

  19. The rapid plasma reagin test cannot replace the venereal disease research laboratory test for neurosyphilis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Christina M; Tantalo, Lauren C; Maxwell, Clare L; Ho, Emily L; Sahi, Sharon K; Jones, Trudy

    2012-06-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is a mainstay for neurosyphilis diagnosis, but it lacks diagnostic sensitivity and is logistically complicated. The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test is easier to perform, but its appropriateness for use on CSF is controversial. RPR reactivity was determined for CSF from 149 individuals with syphilis using 2 methods. The CSF-RPR was performed according to the method for serum. The CSF-RPR-V was performed using the method recommended for the CSF-VDRL. Laboratory-defined neurosyphilis included reactive CSF-fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test and CSF white blood cells >20/uL. Symptomatic neurosyphilis was defined as vision loss or hearing loss. CSF-VDRL was reactive in 45 (30.2%) patients. Of these, 29 (64.4%) were CSF-RPR reactive and 37 (82.2%) were CSF-RPR-V reactive. There were no instances where the CSF-VDRL was nonreactive but the CSF-RPR or CSF-RPR-V was reactive. Among the 28 samples that were reactive in all 3 tests, CSF-VDRL titers (median [IQR], 1:4 [1:4-1:16]) were significantly higher than CSF-RPR (1:2 [1:1-1:4], P = 0.0002) and CSF-RPR-V titers (1:4 [1:2-1:8], P = 0.01). The CSF RPR and the CSF-RPR-V tests had lower sensitivities than the CSF-VDRL: 56.4% and 59.0% versus 71.8% for laboratory-diagnosed neurosyphilis and 51.5% and 57.6% versus 66.7% for symptomatic neurosyphilis. Compared with the CSF-VDRL, the CSF-RPR has a high false-negative rate, thus not improving upon this known limitation of the CSF-VDRL for neurosyphilis diagnosis. Adapting the RPR procedure to mimic the CSF-VDRL decreased, but did not eliminate, the number of false negatives and did not avoid all the logistical complications of the CSF-VDRL.

  20. The rapid plasma reagin (circle) card test in biological false positive and leprosy sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, M. F.; Backhouse, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) circle card and the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory (VDRL) slide test results were compared on a group of sera known to show biological false positive (BFP) reactions to reagin detection tests for syphilis. The RPR test was more specific than the VDRL test on the sera selected, ie, it gave fewer false positive results than the VDRL test. However, in a group of presumed normal sera, the RPR test gave BFP reactions while the VDRL test gave none. The RPR test gave fewer BFP reactions than the VDRL test in 269 sera from patients with lepromatous leprosy. PMID:5086221

  1. Mathematical model to predict skin concentration of drugs: toward utilization of silicone membrane to predict skin concentration of drugs as an animal testing alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugibayashi, Kenji; Todo, Hiroaki; Oshizaka, Takeshi; Owada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    To calculate the skin concentration of active ingredients in cosmetics and topical pharmaceuticals using silicone membrane permeation. A series of parabens were used as model ingredients. Skin concentration of parabens was calculated using silicone membrane permeability. Their partition coefficient from formulations to the silicone membrane was determined by the membrane permeation profiles, and used to calculate their silicone membrane concentration, under an assumption that the membrane is one homogenous diffusion layer. The same procedure was applied for hairless rat skin. The calculated concentration of parabens in silicone membrane was very close to their observed values. However, the skin concentration calculated by skin permeability was not similar to the observed concentration. Re-calculation was performed under the assumption that the skin consists of two diffusion layers. This modification using permeation data through full-thickness and stripped skin enabled precise prediction of the skin concentration of parabens. In addition, the partition coefficient to the silicone membrane was useful to estimate their skin concentration. Ingredient concentration in skin can be precisely predicted using diffusion equations and partition coefficients through permeation experiments using a silicone membrane. The calculated in-skin concentration is useful for formulation studies of cosmetics and topical pharmaceuticals.

  2. Assessing the Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis among Health Care Providers in Zagazig City, Egypt Using Tuberculin Skin Test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sokkary, Rehab H; Abu-Taleb, Ashwak M; El-Seifi, Omnia S; Zidan, Haidy E; Mortada, Eman M; El-Hossary, Dalia; Farag, Salama E

    2015-12-01

    Early detection of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) will prevent development of active TB among health care providers. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of LTBI among health care providers and compare the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QFT-GIT) and Tuberculin skin test in efforts to detect LTBI and to investigate possible associated risk factors of infection. A cross sectional study was carried out during the period of 6 months in the Chest Hospital in Zagazig city and the Nephrology Unit at Zagazig University Hospitals in 132 randomly selected health care providers who were examined for LTBI by QFT-GIT and Tuberculin skin test and for the associated risk factors as well. The prevalence of LTBI identified by QFT-GIT and by Tuberculin skin test was 28.8% and 59.1%, respectively. Poor agreement was observed between the two tests (kappa=0.10). Working more than 10 years, being nurse, diabetic and smoker were risk factors significantly associated with LTBI (p<0.05). QFT-GIT is considered a useful tool in detecting LTBI cases, especially in a country where BCG vaccination is a national policy (as in Egypt). Duration of work, profession, diabetes and smoking are the risk factors for LTBI. Active surveillance and infection control measures are recommended to reduce the risk of LTBI. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  3. On the analysis of well test data influenced by wellbore storage skin and bottom water drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, W.C.; Reynolds, A.C.; Raghavan, R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses procedures to analyze pressure data in partially penetrating wells influenced by storage and skin effects. The effect of a gas cap or a bottom-water aquifer is also documented. Type curves are presented to analyze data influenced by storage, skin, partial penetration, and the influence of a constant pressure boundary. The main advantage of this work is that anisotropy (ratio of horizontal to vertical permeability) and penetration ratio are incorporated in a simple way. Procedures to minimize the problems of obtaining a unique type curve matching are also discussed. 16 refs.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: an analysis of 68 patients tested at the Skin and Cancer Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D K; Freeman, S

    1997-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to plant allergens is a common problem in Australia. We present the cumulative experience of the Contact Dermatitis Clinic of the Skin and Cancer Foundation (Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia) a tertiary referral clinic. Results from a series of 68 patients with positive patch tests to 88 plant allergens are reported. We found that Grevillea species, Compositae, Rhus, Alstroemeria and various timber sawdusts were the most common plant allergens.

  5. The use of different concentrations of leishmanial antigen in skin testing to evaluate delayed hypersensitivity in american cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    César A. Cuba Cuba

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three concentrations of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis sonicated whole promastigote antigen (30, 9.6 and 3 ug N in 0.1 ml wereprepared and 0.1 ml of each inoculated intradermally intopatients who live in one endemic leishmaniasis region in Brazil. Patients were divided into groups with active cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML, and Controls (C. Skin reactions were recorded by measuring induration 48 hours after inoculation. Skin tests using 9.6 ugN/0.1 mlyielded the best diagnostic resultssince 97% of 30 patients with active lesions (cutaneous or mucosal and 83% with HCL showed reactions of 5 mm orgreater as compared with 4% Controls. Tests using 30ug N/O. 1 ml causedan unacceptable levei of skin reactions with necrosis (10% of ACL patients tested and 17% of HCL, respectively. Tests using 3 ug N/O. 1 ml were less sensitive since only 87% of patients with active lesions and 68% with HCL had reactions of 5mm orgreater. The 3 ug N/O. 1 ml dose was utilized to ask the questions whether skin delayed hypersensitivity decreased with time after the initial lesion and whether mucosal involvement is associated with enhaced hypersensitivity to leishmanial antigen. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity was noted only in those patients who had an initial lesion more than 30 years ago. The mean induration of the reaction in 10 patients with ML was 11.3 mm ± 7.15, in 41 patients with HCL, 9.27 mm ± 6.78 and in 20patients with ACL 10. 7 mm ± 6.10 mm. The percent of patients with 5 mm orgreater induration was ML 80%, HCL 71%, ACL 90%. Thus, we could not confirm an association between enhanced delayed hypersensitivity and mucosal involvement in leishmaniasis.

  6. The use of different concentrations of leishmanial antigen in skin testing to evaluate delayed hypersensitivity in american cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Cuba Cuba

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three concentrations of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis sonicated whole promastigote antigen (30, 9.6 and 3 ug N in 0.1 ml wereprepared and 0.1 ml of each inoculated intradermally intopatients who live in one endemic leishmaniasis region in Brazil. Patients were divided into groups with active cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML, and Controls (C. Skin reactions were recorded by measuring induration 48 hours after inoculation. Skin tests using 9.6 ugN/0.1 mlyielded the best diagnostic resultssince 97% of 30 patients with active lesions (cutaneous or mucosal and 83% with HCL showed reactions of 5 mm orgreater as compared with 4% Controls. Tests using 30ug N/O. 1 ml causedan unacceptable levei of skin reactions with necrosis (10% of ACL patients tested and 17% of HCL, respectively. Tests using 3 ug N/O. 1 ml were less sensitive since only 87% of patients with active lesions and 68% with HCL had reactions of 5mm orgreater. The 3 ug N/O. 1 ml dose was utilized to ask the questions whether skin delayed hypersensitivity decreased with time after the initial lesion and whether mucosal involvement is associated with enhaced hypersensitivity to leishmanial antigen. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity was noted only in those patients who had an initial lesion more than 30 years ago. The mean induration of the reaction in 10 patients with ML was 11.3 mm ± 7.15, in 41 patients with HCL, 9.27 mm ± 6.78 and in 20patients with ACL 10. 7 mm ± 6.10 mm. The percent of patients with 5 mm orgreater induration was ML 80%, HCL 71%, ACL 90%. Thus, we could not confirm an association between enhanced delayed hypersensitivity and mucosal involvement in leishmaniasis.

  7. Increase in skin autofluorescence and release of heart-type fatty acid binding protein in plasma predicts mortality of hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsov, Stefan; Trajceska, Lada; van Oeveren, Wim; Smit, Andries J; Dzekova, Pavlina; Stegmayr, Bernd; Sikole, Aleksandar; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    2013-07-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are uremic toxins that accumulate progressively in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year increase in skin autofluorescence (ΔAF), a measure of AGEs accumulation and plasma markers, as predictors of mortality in HD patients. One hundred sixty-nine HD patients were enrolled in this study. Skin autofluorescence was measured twice, 1 year apart using an AGE Reader (DiagnOptics Technologies BV, Groningen, The Netherlands). Besides routine blood chemistry, additional plasma markers including superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxydase, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), and von Willebrand factor were measured at baseline. The mortality of HD patients was followed for 36 months. Skin autofluorescence values of the HD patients at the two time points were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of healthy subjects of the same age. Mean 1-year ΔAF of HD patients was 0.16 ± 0.06, which was around seven- to ninefold higher than 1-year ΔAF in healthy subjects. Multivariate Cox regression showed that age, hypertension, 1-year ΔAF, hs-CRP, ICAM-1, and H-FABP were independent predictors of overall mortality. Hypertension, 1-year ΔAF, hs-CRP, and H-FABP were also independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. One-year ΔAF and plasma H-FABP, used separately and in combination, are strong predictors of overall and cardiovascular mortality in HD patients.

  8. Full-field bulge test for planar anisotropic tissues: part I--experimental methods applied to human skin tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Theresa K; Atlan, Lorre S; Voo, Liming M; Nguyen, Thao D

    2013-04-01

    The nonlinear anisotropic properties of human skin tissue were investigated using bulge testing. Full-field displacement data were obtained during testing of human skin tissues procured from the lower back of post-mortem human subjects using 3-D digital image correlation. To measure anisotropy, the dominant fiber direction of the tissue was determined from the deformed geometry of the specimen. Local strains and stress resultants were calculated along both the dominant fiber direction and the perpendicular direction. Variation in anisotropy and stiffness was observed between specimens. The use of stress resultants rather than the membrane stress approximation accounted for bending effects, which are significant for a thick nonlinear tissue. Of the six specimens tested, it was observed that specimens from older donors exhibited a stiffer and more isotropic response than those from younger donors. It was seen that the mechanical response of the tissue was negligibly impacted by preconditioning or the ambient humidity. The methods presented in this work for skin tissue are sufficiently general to be applied to other planar tissues, such as pericardium, gastrointestinal tissue, and fetal membranes. The stress resultant-stretch relations will be used in a companion paper to obtain material parameters for a nonlinear anisotropic hyperelastic model. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deuterium--tritium plasmas in novel regimes in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, M.G.; Batha, S.; Beer, M.; Bell, R.E.; Belov, A.; Berk, H.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Breizman, B.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.; Bush, C.E.; Callen, J.; Cauffman, S.; Chang, C.S.; Chang, Z.; Cheng, C.Z.; Darrow, D.S.; Dendy, R.O.; Dorland, W.; Duong, H.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ernst, D.; Evenson, H.; Fisch, N.J.; Fisher, R.; Fonck, R.J.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Fu, G.Y.; Furth, H.P.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Goloborodko, V.Y.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L.R.; Hammett, G.W.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Heidbrink, W.; Herrmann, H.W.; Herrmann, M.C.; Hill, K.W.; Hogan, J.; Hooper, B.; Hosea, J.C.; Houlberg, W.A.; Hughes, M.; Jassby, D.L.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kesner, J.; Kim, J.S.; Kissick, M.; Krasilnikov, A.V.; Kugel, H.; Kumar, A.; Lam, N.T.; Lamarche, P.; LeBlanc, B.; Levinton, F.M.; Ludescher, C.; Machuzak, J.; Majeski, R.P.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Mauel, M.; Mazzucato, E.; McChesney, J.; McCune, D.C.; McKee, G.; McGuire, K.M.; Meade, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Mirnov, S.V.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Navratil, G.A.; Nazikian, R.; Okabayashi, M.; Osakabe, M.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.K.; Park, W.; Paul, S.F.; Petrov, M.P.; Phillips, C.K.; Phillips, M.; Phillips, P.; Ramsey, A.T.; Rice, B.; Redi, M.H.; Rewoldt, G.; Reznik, S.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rogers, J.; Ruskov, E.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Sasao, M.; Schilling, G.; Schmidt, G.L.; Scott, S.D.; Semenov, I.; Senko, T.; Skinner, C.H.; Stevenson, T.; Strait, E.J.; Stratton, B.C.; Strachan, J.D.; Stodiek, W.; Synakowski, E.; Takahashi, H.; Tang, W.; Taylor, G.; Thompson, M.E.; von Goeler, S.; Von Halle, A.; Walters, R.T.; Wang, S.; White, R.; Wieland, R.M.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J.R.; Wong, K.L.; Wurden, G.A.; Yamada, M.; Yavorski, V.; Young, K.M.; Zakharov, L.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Zweben, S.J. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Phys. Plasmas {bold 2}, 2176 (1995)] have explored several novel regimes of improved tokamak confinement in deuterium{endash}tritium (D--T) plasmas, including plasmas with reduced or reversed magnetic shear in the core and high-current plasmas with increased shear in the outer region (high l{sub i}). New techniques have also been developed to enhance the confinement in these regimes by modifying the plasma-limiter interaction through {ital in situ} deposition of lithium. In reversed-shear plasmas, transitions to enhanced confinement have been observed at plasma currents up to 2.2 MA (q{sub a}{approx}4.3), accompanied by the formation of internal transport barriers, where large radial gradients develop in the temperature and density profiles. Experiments have been performed to elucidate the mechanism of the barrier formation and its relationship with the magnetic configuration and with the heating characteristics. The increased stability of high-current, high-l{sub i} plasmas produced by rapid expansion of the minor cross section, coupled with improvement in the confinement by lithium deposition has enabled the achievement of high fusion power, up to 8.7 MW, with D--T neutral beam heating. The physics of fusion alpha-particle confinement has been investigated in these regimes, including the interactions of the alphas with endogenous plasma instabilities and externally applied waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. In D--T plasmas with q{sub 0}{gt}1 and weak magnetic shear in the central region, a toroidal Alfvn eigenmode instability driven purely by the alpha particles has been observed for the first time. The interactions of energetic ions with ion Bernstein waves produced by mode conversion from fast waves in mixed-species plasmas have been studied as a possible mechanism for transferring the energy of the alphas to fuel ions. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Performance of skin tests with allergens from B. melitensis B115 and rough B. abortus mutants for diagnosing swine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieste-Pérez, L; Blasco, J M; De Miguel, M J; Marín, C M; Barberán, M; Conde-Álvarez, R; Moriyón, I; Muñoz, P M

    2014-01-10

    Swine brucellosis by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease whose control is based on serological testing and culling. However, current serological tests detect antibodies to the O-polysaccharide (O/PS) moiety of Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS), and thus lack specificity when infections by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and other gram-negative bacteria carrying cross-reacting O/PS occur. The skin test with the protein-rich brucellin extract obtained from rough B. melitensis B115 is assumed to be specific for discriminating these false positive serological reactions (FPSR). However, B115 strain, although unable to synthesize S-LPS, accumulates O/PS internally, which could cause diagnostic problems. Since the brucellin skin test has been seldom used in pigs and FPSR are common in these animals, we assessed its performance using cytosoluble protein extracts obtained from B. abortus rough mutants in manBcore or per genes (critical for O/PS biosynthesis) and B. melitensis B115. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined in B. suis biovar 2 culture positive and brucellosis free sows, and apparent prevalence in sows of unknown individual bacteriological and serological status belonging to B. suis biovar 2 naturally infected herds. Moreover, the specificity in discriminating brucellosis from FPSR was assessed in brucellosis free boars showing FPSR. The skin test with B. abortus ΔmanBcore and B. melitensis B115 allergens performed similarly, and the former one resulted in 100% specificity when testing animals showing FPSR in indirect ELISA, Rose Bengal and complement fixation serological tests. We conclude that O/PS-free genetically defined mutants represent an appropriate alternative to obtain Brucella protein extracts for diagnosing swine brucellosis.

  11. Advanced laboratory for testing plasma thrusters and Hall thruster measurement campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelecka Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma engines are used for space propulsion as an alternative to chemical thrusters. Due to the high exhaust velocity of the propellant, they are more efficient for long-distance interplanetary space missions than their conventional counterparts. An advanced laboratory of plasma space propulsion (PlaNS at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM specializes in designing and testing various electric propulsion devices. Inside of a special vacuum chamber with three performance pumps, an environment similar to the one that prevails in space is created. An innovative Micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster (LμPPT with liquid propellant was built at the laboratory. Now it is used to test the second prototype of Hall effect thruster (HET operating on krypton propellant. Meantime, an improved prototype of krypton Hall thruster is constructed.

  12. Pendulum support of the W7-X plasma vessel: Design, tests, manufacturing, assembly, critical aspects, status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missal, B., E-mail: bernd.missal@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Leher, F.; Schiller, T. [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Werftstraße 17, 94469 Deggendorf (Germany); Friedrich, P. [Universität Rostock, FB Maschinenbau und Schiffstechnik, Albert-Einsteins-Straße 2, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Capriccioli, A. [ENEA Frascati, Fusion Technology Unit, Frascati (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Plasma vessel support has to allow vertical adjustment and horizontal passive movement. • Planar sliding tables with PTFE do not fulfill all requirements. • Pendulums can fulfill all requirements. • Geometry and material of spherical bearings had to be optimized in calculations and tests. • Optimized pendulums were manufactured and assembled. - Abstract: The superconducting helical advanced stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) in Greifswald, Germany. The three dimensional shape of plasma will be generated by 50 non-planar magnetic coils. The plasma vessel geometry follows exactly this three dimensional shape of plasma. To ensure the superconductivity of coils a cryo vacuum has to be generated. Therefore the coils and their support structure are enclosed within the outer vessel. Plasma vessel, coil structures and outer vessel have to be supported separately. This paper will describe the vertical supports of plasma vessel which have to fulfill two special requirements, vertical adjustability and horizontal mobility. These two tasks will be carried out by plasma vessel supports (PVS) with hydraulic cylinders, special sliding tables during assembly and pendulum supports during operating phase. The paper will give an overview of design, calculation, tests, fabrication, assembly, critical aspects and status of PVS.

  13. Proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUPO Palmira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat confirmed by the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo, and one human death. The need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (SST and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (EU-UHFMRP-USP, a reference hospital for the application of heterologous sera. In view of our positive experience of several years with the abolition of SST and of the use of premedication before the application of antivenom sera, we used a similar schedule for ERIG application. Of the 1489 victims of animal bites, 1054 (71% received ERIG; no patient was submitted to SST and all received intravenously anti-histamines (anti-H1 + anti-H2 and corticosteroids before the procedure. The patients were kept under observation for 60 to 180 minutes and no adverse reaction was observed. On the basis of these results, since December 1995 ERIG application has been decentralized in Ribeirão Preto and has become the responsibility of the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital and the Central Basic Health Unit, where the same routine is used. Since then, 4216 patients have received ERIG (1818 at the Basic Health Unit and 2398 at the EU-UHFMRP, with no problems. The ideal would be the routine use of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG in public health programs, but this is problematic, because of their high cost. However, while this does not occur, the use of SST is no longer justified at the time of application of ERIG, in view of the clinical evidence of low predictive value and low sensitivity of SST involving the application of heterologous sera. It is very important to point out

  14. Plasma tests of diagnostic mirrors for ITER purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukolov, K.Yu., E-mail: vukolov@nfi.kiae.ru [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mukhammedzyanov, T.R.; Andreenko, E.N. [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Arkhipov, I.I. [A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, RAS, Leninsky pr. 31, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Orlovskiy, I.I.; Tobengauz, A.M.; Vukolov, D.K. [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Prototype of ITER H-alpha endoscope with 1 mm pupil is tested in T-10 tokamak. •Three molybdenum mirrors either preserved their reflectivity or were locally damaged. •First mirror assembly with 4 mm pupil was tested in ITER-like conditions. •Mirrors preserved their reflectivity after 40 h test treated as 400 pulses. •Small entrance pupil is vital for lifetime of the first mirror. -- Abstract: One of the main problems of ITER optical diagnostics is the degradation of collecting mirrors by erosion or impurity deposition. It is suggested to reduce the degradation by small entrance pupil in optical system. The prototype of endoscope optical system for H-alpha ITER diagnostics is under testing in T-10 tokamak. It has entrance pupil of 1 mm diameter. Three molybdenum mirrors were tested between 1 and 3 years. In spite of local degradation or surface damages appeared after 2 years of operation, the diagnostics remained functional. In parallel, the first mirror assembly (FMA) with 4 mm pupil was tested in a magnetron sputtering installation. Deuterium pressure was 0.7 Pa during magnetron discharge with 1 A current. Estimated flux of aluminum and carbon atoms was about 10{sup 14} at cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} on the FMA entrance pupil. As a result, FMA molybdenum mirrors preserved their reflectivity after 40 h of exposure which can be considered as 400 ITER pulses. Thereby small entrance pupil appears as a good solution for first mirror protection.

  15. Performance Test of Korea Heat Load Test Facility (KoHLT-EB) for the Plasma Facing Components of Fusion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk-Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The main components of the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the tokamak are the blanket first wall and divertor, which include the armour materials, the heat sink with the cooling mechanism, and the diagnostics devices for the temperature measurement. The Korea Heat Load Test facility by using electron beam (KoHLT-EB) has been operating for the plasma facing components to develop fusion engineering. This electron beam facility was constructed using a 300 kW electron gun and a cylindrical vacuum chamber. Performance tests were carried out for the calorimetric calibrations with Cu dummy mockup and for the heat load test of large Cu module. For the simulation of the heat load test of each mockup, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses with ANSYS-CFX were performed. For the development of the plasma facing components in the fusion reactors, test mockups were fabricated and tested in the high heat flux test facility. To perform a beam profile test, an assessment of the possibility of electron beam Gaussian power density profile and the results of the absorbed power for that profile before the test starts are needed. To assess the possibility of a Gaussian profile, for the qualification test of the Gaussian heat load profile, a calorimeter mockup and large Cu module were manufactured to simulate real heat. For this high-heat flux test, the Korean high-heat flux test facility using an electron beam system was constructed. In this facility, a cyclic heat flux test will be performed to measure the surface heat flux, surface temperature profile, and cooling capacity.

  16. Dissociation between skin test reactivity and anti-aeroallergen IgE: Determinants among urban Brazilian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Rafael V.; Ponte, João C. M.; da Cunha, Sérgio S.; Simões, Silvia M.; Cruz, Álvaro A.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Matos, Sheila M.; Silva, Thiago Magalhães; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L.; Cooper, Philip J.; Barreto, Maurício L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The dissociation between specific IgE and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens, a common finding in populations living in low and middle-income countries, has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Few studies have investigated the determinants of this dissociation. In the present study, we explored potential factors explaining this dissociation in children living in an urban area of Northeast Brazil, focusing in particular on factors associated with poor hygiene. Methods Of 1445 children from low income communities, investigated for risk factors of allergies, we studied 481 with specific IgE antibodies to any of Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica allergens. Data on demographic, environmental and social exposures were collected by questionnaire; serum IgG and stool examinations were done to detect current or past infections with viral, bacterial, protozoan and intestinal helminth pathogens. We measured atopy by skin prick testing (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to aerollergens in serum (by ImmunoCAP). SIgE reactivity to B. tropicalis extract depleted of carbohydrates was measured by an in-house ELISA. Total IgE was measured by in house capture ELISA. SNPs were typed using Illumina Omni 2.5. Results Negative skin prick tests in the presence of specific IgE antibodies were frequent. Factors independently associated with a reduced frequency of positive skin prick tests were large number of siblings, the presence of IgG to herpes simplex virus, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections, living in neighborhoods with infrequent garbage collection, presence of rodents and cats in the household and sIgE reactivity to glycosylated B. tropicalis allergens. Also, SNP on IGHE (rs61737468) was negatively associated with SPT reactivity. Conclusions A variety of factors were found to be associated with decreased frequency of SPT such as unhygienic

  17. Ground-Based Tests of Spacecraft Polymeric Materials under OXY-GEN Plasma-Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernik, Vladimir; Novikov, Lev; Gaidar, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Spacecraft LEO mission is accompanied by destruction of polymeric material surface under influence of atomic oxygen flow. Sources of molecular, plasma and ion beams are used for the accelerated ground-based tests of spacecraft materials. In the work application of oxygen plasma accelerator of a duoplasmatron type is described. Plasma particles have been accelerated up to average speed of 13-16 km/s. Influence of such beam on materials leads to more intensive destruction of polymers than in LEO. This fact allows to execute tests in the accelerated time scale by a method of an effective fluence. Special measures were given to decrease a concentration of both gaseous and electrode material impurities in the oxygen beam. In the work the results of simulative tests of spacecraft materials and experiments on LEO are considered. Comparison of plasma beam simulation with LEO data has shown conformity for structures of a number of polymeric materials. The relative erosion yields (normalized with respect to polyimide) of the tested materials are shown practically equal to those in LEO. The obtained results give grounds for using the plasma-generation mode with ion energies of 20-30 eV to accelerated testing of spacecraft materials for long -term LEO missions.

  18. A cold plasma jet accelerates wound healing in a murine model of full-thickness skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anke; Bekeschus, Sander; Wende, Kristian; Vollmar, Brigitte; von Woedtke, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Cold plasma has been successfully applied in several fields of medicine that require, for example, pathogen inactivation, implant functionalization or alteration of cellular activity. Previous studies have provided evidence that plasma supports the healing of wounds owing to its beneficial mixtures of reactive species and modulation of inflammation in cells and tissues. To investigate the wound healing activity of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet in vivo, we examined the cold plasma's efficacy on dermal regeneration in a murine model of dermal full-thickness ear wound. Over 14 days, female mice received daily plasma treatment. Quantitative analysis by transmitted light microscopy demonstrated a significantly accelerated wound re-epithelialization at days 3-9 in comparison with untreated controls. In vitro, cold plasma altered keratinocyte and fibroblast migration, while both cell types showed significant stimulation resulting in accelerated closure of gaps in scratch assays. This plasma effect correlated with the downregulation of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 which is thought to be important in the regulation of wound healing. In addition, plasma induced profound changes in adherence junctions and cytoskeletal dynamics as shown by downregulation of E-cadherin and several integrins as well as actin reorganization. Our results theorize cold plasma to be a beneficial treatment option supplementing existing wound therapies.

  19. Case of the month: The skin wrinkle test: a simple nerve injury test for paediatric and uncooperative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, A; Dawood, R; Povlsen, B

    2006-11-01

    Assessment of the distal neurological status after injuries to the hand and fingers is one of the most frequent parts of standard trauma practice. Two-point discrimination as clinical examination is often sufficient to identify such lesions, but difficulties occur in the comatose, young or otherwise uncooperative patient. This article describes a simple pain-free alternative method of assessing digital nerve integrity by submerging the finger tip in water and observing if wrinkles develop on the skin.

  20. Quantitative thermal sensory testing and sympathetic skin response in primary Restless legs syndrome - A prospective study on 57 Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Shukla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with restless leg syndrome present with sensory symptoms similar to peripheral neuropathy. While there is evidence of abnormalities of dopaminergic pathways, the peripheral nervous system has been studied infrequently. We studied conventional nerve conduction studies, quantitative thermal sensory testing and sympathetic skin response in 57 patients with primary restless leg syndrome. Almost two third patients demonstrated abnormalities in the detailed testing of the peripheral nervous system. Sbtle abnormalities of the peripheral nervous system may be more common than previously believed.

  1. Skin Irritation to Glass Wool or Continuous Glass Filaments as Observed by a Patch Test among Human Japanese Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    TSUNODA, Masashi; KIDO, Takamasa; MOGI, Sachiyo; SUGIURA, Yumiko; MIYAJIMA, Eriko; KUDO, Yuichiro; KUMAZAWA, Tatenao; AIZAWA, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Glass wool and continuous glass filaments have been used in industry. We examined the irritability of those among Japanese. A patch test was performed on 43 volunteers for the followings: glass wool for non-residential use with and without a urea-modified phenolic resin binder, that for residential use with and without the binder, and continuous glass filaments with diameters of 4, 7, 9, and 13 µm. Materials were applied to an upper arm of each volunteer for 24 h. The skin was observed at 1 and 24 h after the removal. At 1 h after removal, slight erythema was observed on the skin of a woman after the exposure to glass wool for residential use without the binder. Erythema was observed on the skin of another woman at 1 h after a 24-h exposure to glass wool for non-residential use without the binder. There were no reactions at 24 h after the removal. The low reactions in the patch test suggested that the irritability caused by glass wool, irrespective of a resin component, could be induced mechanically, and that the irritability caused by continuous glass filaments with resin could be slight and either mechanical or chemical. PMID:25070402

  2. Skin irritation to glass wool or continuous glass filaments as observed by a patch test among human Japanese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Masashi; Kido, Takamasa; Mogi, Sachiyo; Sugiura, Yumiko; Miyajima, Eriko; Kudo, Yuichiro; Kumazawa, Tatenao; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Glass wool and continuous glass filaments have been used in industry. We examined the irritability of those among Japanese. A patch test was performed on 43 volunteers for the followings: glass wool for non-residential use with and without a urea-modified phenolic resin binder, that for residential use with and without the binder, and continuous glass filaments with diameters of 4, 7, 9, and 13 µm. Materials were applied to an upper arm of each volunteer for 24 h. The skin was observed at 1 and 24 h after the removal. At 1 h after removal, slight erythema was observed on the skin of a woman after the exposure to glass wool for residential use without the binder. Erythema was observed on the skin of another woman at 1 h after a 24-h exposure to glass wool for non-residential use without the binder. There were no reactions at 24 h after the removal. The low reactions in the patch test suggested that the irritability caused by glass wool, irrespective of a resin component, could be induced mechanically, and that the irritability caused by continuous glass filaments with resin could be slight and either mechanical or chemical.

  3. Deuterium-tritium plasmas in novel regimes in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, M.G.; Beer, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Plasma Physics Lab.; Batha, S. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Torrance, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have explored several novel regimes of improved tokamak confinement in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas, including plasmas with reduced or reversed magnetic shear in the core and high-current plasmas with increased shear in the outer region (high-l{sub i}). New techniques have also been developed to enhance the confinement in these regimes by modifying the plasma-limiter interaction through in-situ deposition of lithium. In reversed-shear plasmas, transitions to enhanced confinement have been observed at plasma currents up to 2.2 MA (q{sub a} {approx} 4.3), accompanied by the formation of internal transport barriers, where large radial gradients develop in the temperature and density profiles. Experiments have been performed to elucidate the mechanism of the barrier formation and its relationship with the magnetic configuration and with the heating characteristics. The increased stability of high-current, high-l{sub i} plasmas produced by rapid expansion of the minor cross-section, coupled with improvement in the confinement by lithium deposition has enabled the achievement of high fusion power, up to 8.7 MW, with D-T neutral beam heating. The physics of fusion alpha-particle confinement has been investigated in these regimes, including the interactions of the alphas with endogenous plasma instabilities and externally applied waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. In D-T plasmas with q{sub 0} > 1 and weak magnetic shear in the central region, a toroidal Alfven eigenmode instability driven purely by the alpha particles has been observed for the first time. The interactions of energetic ions with ion Bernstein waves produced by mode-conversion from fast waves in mixed-species plasmas have been studied as a possible mechanism for transferring the energy of the alphas to fuel ions.

  4. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P

    1996-01-01

    : In a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...... of the experimental skin test antigens had properties superior to tuberculin PPD RT23 in humans. The failure of MPT-64 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the majority of tuberculosis patients is discussed, in view of the potent reactivity to MPT-64 in tuberculous guinea pigs.......SETTING: Department of Pulmonary Medicine P, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MPT-64 and MPT-59 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions following intradermal administration. DESIGN...

  5. Noninvasive Prenatal Paternity Testing (NIPAT) through Maternal Plasma DNA Sequencing: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Yifan; Li, Xuchao; Ge, Huijuan; Deng, Yongqiang; Mu, Haofang; Feng, Xiaoli; Yin, Lu; Du, Zhou; Chen, Fang; He, Nongyue

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels in order to verify the performance in clinical cases. Combining targeted deep sequencing of selective SNP and informative bioinformatics pipeline, we calculated the combined paternity index (CPI) of 17 cases to determine paternity. Sequencing-based NIPAT results fully agreed with invasive prenatal paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future.

  6. Effect of locally injected autologous platelet-rich plasma on second intention wound healing of acute full-thickness skin defects in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannopoulou, M; Psalla, D; Kazakos, G; Loukopoulos, P; Giannakas, N; Savvas, I; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M; Chantes, A; Papazoglou, L G

    2015-01-01

    Second intention wound healing may be impaired by wound and host factors and thus more advanced therapies are required for a fast and satisfactory outcome. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), rich in growth factors and cytokines essential for tissue repair, could improve wound healing. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of locally injected autologous PRP on second intention healing of acute full-thickness skin defects in dogs. Three 2 x 2 cm full-thickness skin defects were created bilaterally on the dorsolateral area of the trunk of six Beagle dogs. The wounds of one randomly selected side received PRP treatment, whereas the contralateral wounds were left untreated (controls). Wound healing was evaluated by planimetry, laser-Doppler flowmetry measurements of tissue perfusion, and histologically. The rate of wound healing did not differ significantly between the two groups. Tissue perfusion was significantly higher in the PRP-treated group (p = 0.008) compared to controls on day 10. Histological evaluation revealed a trend towards greater collagen production and a significantly better collagen orientation (p = 0.019) in PRP-treated wounds on day 20. Locally injected autologous PRP does not accelerate the healing process, but increases tissue perfusion and may promote the formation of organized collagen bundles in acute full-thickness skin defects in dogs.

  7. Size-based molecular diagnostics using plasma DNA for noninvasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Stephanie C Y; Chan, K C Allen; Zheng, Yama W L; Jiang, Peiyong; Liao, Gary J W; Sun, Hao; Akolekar, Ranjit; Leung, Tak Y; Go, Attie T J I; van Vugt, John M G; Minekawa, Ryoko; Oudejans, Cees B M; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Chiu, Rossa W K; Lo, Y M Dennis

    2014-06-10

    Noninvasive prenatal testing using fetal DNA in maternal plasma is an actively researched area. The current generation of tests using massively parallel sequencing is based on counting plasma DNA sequences originating from different genomic regions. In this study, we explored a different approach that is based on the use of DNA fragment size as a diagnostic parameter. This approach is dependent on the fact that circulating fetal DNA molecules are generally shorter than the corresponding maternal DNA molecules. First, we performed plasma DNA size analysis using paired-end massively parallel sequencing and microchip-based capillary electrophoresis. We demonstrated that the fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma could be deduced from the overall size distribution of maternal plasma DNA. The fetal DNA fraction is a critical parameter affecting the accuracy of noninvasive prenatal testing using maternal plasma DNA. Second, we showed that fetal chromosomal aneuploidy could be detected by observing an aberrant proportion of short fragments from an aneuploid chromosome in the paired-end sequencing data. Using this approach, we detected fetal trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 with 100% sensitivity (T21: 36/36; T18: 27/27) and 100% specificity (non-T21: 88/88; non-T18: 97/97). For trisomy 13, the sensitivity and specificity were 95.2% (20/21) and 99% (102/103), respectively. For monosomy X, the sensitivity and specificity were both 100% (10/10 and 8/8). Thus, this study establishes the principle of size-based molecular diagnostics using plasma DNA. This approach has potential applications beyond noninvasive prenatal testing to areas such as oncology and transplantation monitoring.

  8. Plasma Panel Detectors for MIP Detection for the SLHC and a Test Chamber Design

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Robert; Etzion, Erez; Friedman, Peter S; Levin, Daniel S; Moshe, Meny Ben; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Zhou, Bing

    2010-01-01

    Performance demands for high and super-high luminosity at the LHC (up to 10^35 cm^(-2) sec^(-1) after the 2017 shutdown) and at future colliders demand high resolution tracking detectors with very fast time response and excellent temporal and spatial resolution. We are investigating a new radiation detector technology based on Plasma Display Panels (PDP), the underlying engine of panel plasma television displays. The design and production of PDPs is supported by four decades of industrial development. Emerging from this television technology is the Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS), a novel variant of the micropattern radiation detector. The PPS is fundamentally an array of micro-Geiger plasma discharge cells operating in a non-ageing, hermetically sealed gas mixture . We report on the PPS development program, including design of a PPS Test Cell.

  9. Skin sensitisation--moving forward with non-animal testing strategies for regulatory purposes in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Alépée, Nathalie; Casati, Silvia; Crozier, Jonathan; Eigler, Dorothea; Griem, Peter; Hubesch, Bruno; de Knecht, Joop; Landsiedel, Robert; Louekari, Kimmo; Manou, Irene; Maxwell, Gavin; Mehling, Annette; Netzeva, Tatiana; Petry, Thomas; Rossi, Laura H

    2013-12-01

    In a previous EPAA-Cefic LRI workshop in 2011, issues surrounding the use and interpretation of results from the local lymph node assay were addressed. At the beginning of 2013 a second joint workshop focused greater attention on the opportunities to make use of non-animal test data, not least since a number of in vitro assays have progressed to an advanced position in terms of their formal validation. It is already recognised that information produced from non-animal assays can be used in regulatory decision-making, notably in terms of classifying a substance as a skin sensitiser. The evolution into a full replacement for hazard identification, where the decision is not to classify, requires the generation of confidence in the in vitro alternative, e.g. via formal validation, the existence of peer reviewed publications and the knowledge that the assay(s) are founded on key elements of the Adverse Outcome Pathway for skin sensitisation. It is foreseen that the validated in vitro assays and relevant QSAR models can be organised into formal testing strategies to be applied for regulatory purposes by the industry. To facilitate progress, the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to animal testing (EPAA) provided the platform for cross-industry and regulatory dialogue, enabling an essential and open debate on the acceptability of an in vitro based integrated strategy. Based on these considerations, a follow up activity was agreed upon to explore an example of an Integrated Testing Strategy for skin sensitisation hazard identification purposes in the context of REACH submissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Challenge of Producing Skin Test Antigens with Minimal Resources Suitable for Human Application against a Neglected Tropical Disease; Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoire, Becky L.; TerLouw, Stephen; Groathouse, Nathan A.; Brennan, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    True incidence of leprosy and its impact on transmission will not be understood until a tool is available to measure pre-symptomatic infection. Diagnosis of leprosy disease is currently based on clinical symptoms, which on average take 3–10 years to manifest. The fact that incidence, as defined by new case detection, equates with prevalence, i.e., registered cases, suggests that the cycle of transmission has not been fully intercepted by implementation of multiple drug therapy. This is supported by a high incidence of childhood leprosy. Epidemiological screening for pre-symptomatic leprosy in large endemic populations is required to facilitate targeted chemoprophylactic interventions. Such a test must be sensitive, specific, simple to administer, cost-effective, and easy to interpret. The intradermal skin test method that measures cell-mediated immunity was explored as the best option. Prior knowledge on skin testing of healthy subjects and leprosy patients with whole or partially fractionated Mycobacterium leprae bacilli, such as Lepromin or the Rees' or Convit' antigens, has established an acceptable safety and potency profile of these antigens. These data, along with immunoreactivity data, laid the foundation for two new leprosy skin test antigens, MLSA-LAM (M. leprae soluble antigen devoid of mycobacterial lipoglycans, primarily lipoarabinomannan) and MLCwA (M. leprae cell wall antigens). In the absence of commercial interest, the challenge was to develop these antigens under current good manufacturing practices in an acceptable local pilot facility and submit an Investigational New Drug to the Food and Drug Administration to allow a first-in-human phase I clinical trial. PMID:24874086

  11. The challenge of producing skin test antigens with minimal resources suitable for human application against a neglected tropical disease; leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky L Rivoire

    Full Text Available True incidence of leprosy and its impact on transmission will not be understood until a tool is available to measure pre-symptomatic infection. Diagnosis of leprosy disease is currently based on clinical symptoms, which on average take 3-10 years to manifest. The fact that incidence, as defined by new case detection, equates with prevalence, i.e., registered cases, suggests that the cycle of transmission has not been fully intercepted by implementation of multiple drug therapy. This is supported by a high incidence of childhood leprosy. Epidemiological screening for pre-symptomatic leprosy in large endemic populations is required to facilitate targeted chemoprophylactic interventions. Such a test must be sensitive, specific, simple to administer, cost-effective, and easy to interpret. The intradermal skin test method that measures cell-mediated immunity was explored as the best option. Prior knowledge on skin testing of healthy subjects and leprosy patients with whole or partially fractionated Mycobacterium leprae bacilli, such as Lepromin or the Rees' or Convit' antigens, has established an acceptable safety and potency profile of these antigens. These data, along with immunoreactivity data, laid the foundation for two new leprosy skin test antigens, MLSA-LAM (M. leprae soluble antigen devoid of mycobacterial lipoglycans, primarily lipoarabinomannan and MLCwA (M. leprae cell wall antigens. In the absence of commercial interest, the challenge was to develop these antigens under current good manufacturing practices in an acceptable local pilot facility and submit an Investigational New Drug to the Food and Drug Administration to allow a first-in-human phase I clinical trial.

  12. Sensitivity of C-Tb: a novel RD-1-specific skin test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Soren T; Peter, Jonathan G; Theron, Grant; Pascoe, Mellissa; Tingskov, Pernille N; Aggerbeck, Henrik; Kolbus, Daniel; Ruhwald, Morten; Andersen, Peter; Dheda, Keertan

    2016-03-01

    C-Tb, a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target/10-kDa culture filtrate protein (ESAT-6/CFP-10)-specific skin test, has high specificity in bacille Calmette-Guerin-vaccinated healthy controls. However, the sensitivity of C-Tb has hitherto not been determined. The objective was to determine the sensitivity of C-Tb in patients with active tuberculosis (TB) in comparison with the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT).C-Tb and TST were randomly administered in a double-blinded fashion to one or the other forearm in 253 patients with active TB with or without HIV co-infection. QFT-GIT testing was performed prior to skin testing.Using a receiver operating characteristic curve-derived cut-point of 5 mm, C-Tb sensitivity was similar to QFT-GIT (73.9 (95% CI 67.8-79.3) versus 75.1 (95% CI 69.3-80.2)), and similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients (76.7 (95% CI 69.0-83.3) versus 69.5 (95% CI 59.2-78.5)). However, sensitivity was significantly diminished in HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts tuberculosis infection. Sensitivity was reduced only in HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. Further studies in different settings are required to validate the proposed 5 mm cut-point. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  13. Procoagulant snake venoms have differential effects in animal plasmas: Implications for antivenom testing in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduwage, Kalana P; Scorgie, Fiona E; Lincz, Lisa F; O'Leary, Margaret A; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2016-01-01

    Animal models are used to test toxic effects of snake venoms/toxins and the antivenom required to neutralise them. However, venoms that cause clinically relevant coagulopathy in humans may have differential effects in animals. We aimed to investigate the effect of different procoagulant snake venoms on various animal plasmas. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen and D-dimer levels were measured in seven animal plasmas (human, rabbit, cat, guinea pig, pig, cow and rat). In vitro clotting times were then used to calculate the effective concentration (EC50) in each plasma for four snake venoms with different procoagulant toxins: Pseudonaja textilis, Daboia russelli, Echis carinatus and Calloselasma rhodostoma. Compared to human, PT and aPTT were similar for rat, rabbit and pig, but double for cat and cow, while guinea pig had similar aPTT but double PT. Fibrinogen and D-dimer levels were similar for all species. Human and rabbit plasmas had the lowest EC50 for P. textilis (0.1 and 0.4 μg/ml), D. russelli (0.4 and 0.1 μg/ml), E. carinatus (0.6 and 0.1 μg/ml) venoms respectively, while cat plasma had the lowest EC50 for C. rhodostoma (11 μg/ml) venom. Cow, rat, pig and guinea pig plasmas were highly resistant to all four venoms with EC50 10-fold that of human. Different animal plasmas have varying susceptibility to procoagulant venoms, and excepting rabbits, animal models are not appropriate to test procoagulant activity. In vitro assays on human plasma should instead be adopted for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [The diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in children in XXI century. Is tuberculin skin test still up to date?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Teresa; Komorowska-Piotrowska, Anna; Mazur, Agnieszka; Feleszko, Wojciech

    2015-10-13

    Tuberculosis morbidity rates in Poland have been gradually decreasing. Nevertheless, there are approximately 8 thousand cases being registered annually, which includes almost 3 thousand massively infectious patients. In the last 3 years, around 100 cases/year have been reported among children below 14 years of age. Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be considered in all patients who present symptoms suggesting tuberculosis, have had recent contact with a person suffering from lung tuberculosis or are planned to undergo an immunosuppressive treatment. HIV infected patients are also supposed to have screening tests for M. tuberculosis infection performed. For over a 100 years tuberculin skin test (TST) was the only test capable of confirming tuberculous infection. TST is based on the assessment of skin reaction to intracutaneous injection of tuberculin. Due to cross-reaction to the injected tuberculin in BCG vaccinated individuals, the correct interpretation of the test is difficult. Since 13 years new immunological assays have been available. They are based on detecting interferon gamma (Interferon Gamma Release Assay - IGRA) concentration in blood serum, which has previously been incubated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens absent in the BCG strain. In infected individuals interferon gamma is intensively produced by memory cells in reaction to the contact with previously met Mycobacterium antigens. Many trials have proved IGRA's high sensitivity and, higher than TST, specificity. Recent guidelines promote the usage of IGRAs, even in children.

  15. A path to stable low-torque plasma operation in ITER with test blanket modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctot, M. J.; Snipes, J. A.; Reimerdes, H.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Logan, N.; Hanson, J. M.; Buttery, R. J.; deGrassie, J. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gray, T. K.; Grierson, B. A.; King, J. D.; Kramer, G. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Pace, D. C.; Park, J.-K.; Salmi, A.; Shiraki, D.; Strait, E. J.; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    New experiments in the low-torque ITER Q  =  10 scenario on DIII-D demonstrate that n  =  1 magnetic fields from a single row of ex-vessel control coils enable operation at ITER performance metrics in the presence of applied non-axisymmetric magnetic fields from a test blanket module (TBM) mock-up coil. With n  =  1 compensation, operation below the ITER-equivalent injected torque is successful at three times the ITER equivalent toroidal magnetic field ripple for a pair of TBMs in one equatorial port, whereas the uncompensated TBM field leads to rotation collapse, loss of H-mode and plasma current disruption. In companion experiments at high plasma beta, where the n  =  1 plasma response is enhanced, uncorrected TBM fields degrade energy confinement and the plasma angular momentum while increasing fast ion losses; however, disruptions are not routinely encountered owing to increased levels of injected neutral beam torque. In this regime, n  =  1 field compensation leads to recovery of a dominant fraction of the TBM-induced plasma pressure and rotation degradation, and an 80% reduction in the heat load to the first wall. These results show that the n  =  1 plasma response plays a dominant role in determining plasma stability, and that n  =  1 field compensation alone not only recovers most of the impact on plasma performance of the TBM, but also protects the first wall from potentially damaging heat flux. Despite these benefits, plasma rotation braking from the TBM fields cannot be fully recovered using standard error field control. Given the uncertainty in extrapolation of these results to the ITER configuration, it is prudent to design the TBMs with as low a ferromagnetic mass as possible without jeopardizing the TBM mission.

  16. Initial Tests of a Plasma Beam Combiner at NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, R. K.; Turnbull, D. P.; Chapman, T. D.; Wilks, S. C.; London, R. A.; Berger, R. L.; Michel, P. A.; Divol, L.; Dunlop, W. H.; MacGowan, B. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Blue, B. E.; NIF Team

    2016-10-01

    The seeded forward SBS process that is known to effectively amplify beams in ignition targets has recently been used to design and test a target to combine the power and energy of many beams of the NIF facility into a single beam by intersecting them in an ionized gas. The demand for high-power beams for a variety of applications at NIF makes a demonstration of this process attractive. We will describe experiments using a gas-filled balloon heated by 10 quads of beams, and pumped by additional frequency-tuned quads to amplify a single beam. The beam energy is indicated by gated x-ray images of both the spots produced by the transmitted pump and probe beams and the spot produced by a non-interacting quad of beams when they terminate on a foil. The first experiment produced a high brightness seed beam with significant reductions in brightness of the pumping beams, consistent with their depletion by energy transfer to the seed. Additional experiments studying spot brightness with varying pump power to determine total delivered seed beam energy and power will be discussed as available. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Simulating plastic surgery: from human skin tensile tests, through hyperelastic finite element models to real-time haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeer, R J; Gasson, P D; Karri, V

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we provide a summary of a number of experiments we conducted to arrive at a prototype real-time simulator for plastic surgical interventions such as skin flap repair and inguinal herniotomy. We started our research with a series of in-vitro tensile stress tests on human skin, harvested from female patients undergoing plastic reconstructive surgery. We then used the acquired stress-strain data to fit hyperelastic models. Three models were considered: General Polynomial, Reduced Polynomial and Ogden. Only Reduced Polynomial models were found to be stable, hence they progressed to the next stage to be used in an explicit finite element model aimed at real-time performance in conjunction with a haptic feedback device. A total Lagrangian formulation with the half-step central difference method was employed to integrate the dynamic equation of motion of the mesh. The mesh was integrated into two versions of a real-time skin simulator: a single-threaded version running on a computer's main central processing unit and a multi-threaded version running on the computer's graphics card. The latter was achieved by exploiting recent advances in programmable graphics technology.

  18. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Akiba, M. [Naka Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop of plasma facing components which can resist these. Then, we have established electron beam heat facility ({open_quotes}OHBIS{close_quotes}, Oarai Hot-cell electron Beam Irradiating System) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30kV (constant) and 1.7A, respectively. The loading time of electron beam is more than 0.1ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the mainly dimensions are 500mm in inner diameter, 1000mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10{sup -4}Pa. At present, the facility for thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. And performance estimation on the electron beam is being conducted. Presently, the devices for heat loading tests under steady state will be added to this facility.

  19. The Effect of Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccination at Birth on Tuberculin Skin Test Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedighi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The World Health Organization estimates that 1.3 million Tubercu-losis cases occur in children each year. Due to the lack of sputum examination in children, the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis is based on three criteria; close contact history, chest x ray finding and positive tuberculin skin test..On the other hand, BCG vaccine that in our na-tional immunization schedule, routinely administered is able to make a positive skin test. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tuberculin skin test reactions in children who have re-ceived BCG vaccine. Materials & Methods: This analytic cross sectional study was performed on 564 cases of 1-6 year old children previously vaccinated with BCG at birth and chosen by cluster sampling. Data of each child obtained for age, sex and retained BCG scar. In the second step informed parental consent was obtained then TST was administered by injecting 0.1 ml of 5 units puri-fied protein derivated (PPD into the volar surface of the forearm.The TST induration was measured 48-72 hours after injection of PPD .TST administration and measurement of indu-ration were done by trained healthcare workers. Data were analyzed with One-Way ANOVA and t-test by SPSS version14. Results: In our study, out of 564 children, 288 were male and 278 were female. 319(56.4% cases didn’t show any reaction . Out of all, 228 cases (40.6% had TST reaction 1-10mm 9 cases (1.6% had TST 10-15 mm and only 8 cases (1.4% had TST induration>15 mm . Mean indurations diameter was 2.9±1.8 mm and according to the definition of positive TST only 12 cases (2.1% had positive TST. There was no statistically sexual preference in TST reaction but with increasing of age induration diameter of TST decreased meaning that there is an inverse relationship between age and TST reaction. Conclusion: According to our results, BCG vaccination at birth did not have any major effect in tuberculin skin test and each child with positive TST

  20. Is trimellitic anhydride skin testing a sufficient screening tool for selectively identifying TMA-exposed workers with TMA-specific serum IgE antibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Ghosh, Debajyoti; Sublett, Wesley J; Wells, Heather; Levin, Linda

    2011-10-01

    Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) can elicit specific IgE-mediated immune responses leading to asthma. This single-blinded study investigated the ability of TMA skin testing to identify workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. Forty TMA-exposed workers who were previously screened for the presence of TMA-IgG and/or IgE serum specific antibodies were skin tested to a TMA-human serum albumin reagent by nurses blinded to their antibody responses. Findings from skin-prick tests were positive in 8 of 11 workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. Intracutaneous testing, performed only on skin prick testing-negative workers, was positive in two additional workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. A significant correlation was found between serum and skin test dilutions eliciting positive responses (ρ = 0.87, P TMA skin testing provides an alternative and potentially more practical method for monitoring TMA-exposed workers for developing IgE sensitization.

  1. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral alle...... a detailed case history about symptoms of oral allergy syndrome combined with a SPT with fresh apple peel or A72 will be useful.......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...... allergy syndrome to apple and 10 control subjects were included. All were tested with SPT, SCT, HR and specific IgE [CAP, Pharmacia, Sweden and Magic Lite (ML), ALK-ABELLO, Denmark]. RESULTS: The SPT with apple, acetone extract of apple (A72) and commercial apple extract showed sensitivities of 0.80, 0...

  2. 甘露聚糖肽皮试液不同浓度对皮试结果的影响%Impact of Different Concentrations of Mannatide Skin Test Solution on Skin Test Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开莲; 汤妹娥

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨甘露聚糖肽注射液皮试液的最安全、可靠的浓度。方法:921例住院肿瘤患者按随机数字表法分为低浓度组、中浓度组和高浓度组,各307例,分别皮内注入0.1ml低浓度皮试液、中浓度皮试液、高浓度皮试液,观察记录皮肤(或皮内)敏感试验(皮试)结果。高浓度组皮试阳性患者和低浓度组皮试阴性患者者再用中浓度做皮试。结果:低浓度组皮试结果阳性率低于中浓度组,但两组比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=2.26,P=0.13)。高浓度组皮试结果阳性率明显高于中浓度组,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(χ2=13.01,P=0.0007)。低浓度皮试结果阴性患者和高浓度皮试结果阳性患者以中浓度皮试液进行第二次皮试,发现低浓度组假阴性率为0.98%,高浓度组假阳性率为3.26%。中浓度皮试阴性患者在静脉滴注甘露聚糖肽注射液过程和滴注24小时内,无一例Ⅰ型超敏反应。结论:将甘露聚糖肽注射液原液稀释100倍作为皮试液,能最大程度的筛选出甘露聚糖肽过敏患者,是最为合适的皮试液浓度。%Objective:To investigate the reliable concentration with highest security of Mannatide injection for skin test. Methods:921 cases of hospitalized cancer patients were randomly divided into low-dose group,middle dose group and high dose group,307 cases in each group,respectively.Each group were given intradermal injection of 0.1ml skin test in low concentration,moderate concentration and high concentration,the results of skin tests were observed and recorded.The test-positive patients in high concentration group and the test-negative patients in low concentration group were given additional moderate concentration test.Results:Patients with positive skin test results in low concentration group were less than that of the concentration group,but the difference was not statistically significant (χ2=2.26,P=0.13).Patients with negative skin test results

  3. First-in-man open clinical trial of a combined rdESAT-6 and rCFP-10 tuberculosis specific skin test reagent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstedt, Winnie; Tingskov, Pernille N; Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculin is still the only available skin test reagent for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. The product has a remarkable sensitivity, but poor specificity. Previous studies, including two human phase I clinical trials, have indicated that rdESAT-6 has a potential as an improved skin test...... reagent. Animal studies have shown that the sensitivity may be increased by inclusion of the genetically related CFP-10 antigen in the preparation without loosing specificity....

  4. Rapid screening test for primary hyperaldosteronism: ratio of plasma aldosterone to renin concentration determined by fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perschel, F.H.; Schemer, R.; Seiler, L.; Reincke, M.; Deinum, J.; Maser-Gluth, C.; Mechelhoff, D.; Tauber, R.; Diederich, S.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ratio of plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity (PAC/PRA) is the most common screening test for primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA), but it is not standardized among laboratories. We evaluated new automated assays for the simultaneous measurement of PAC and plasma ren

  5. Comparison of a new rapid plasma reagin card test with the standard rapid plasma reagin 18-mm circle card test and the venereal disease research laboratory slide test for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test manufactured by Beckman Instruments, Inc., was compared, qualitatively and quantitatively, with the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test and the standard RPR 18-mm circle card tests for the serodiagnosis of syphilis. Sera from 638 individuals were used in this study. Two pilot lots and two production lots of antigen were submitted by Beckman Instruments, Inc., for evaluation. Qualitative agreement among the three RPR card tests was 98....

  6. Freqüência de positividade em teste cutâneo para aeroalérgenos Frequency of positive skin tests for airborne allergic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Godinho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da prevalência das rinopatias tem sido descrito na literatura médica e a rinite alérgica continua sendo a mais freqüente. O teste cutâneo é importante no diagnóstico diferencial das doenças nasais e na determinação do padrão de sensibilização da população. Esta permite a promoção de medidas de redução de exposição, sendo fundamental para o tratamento adequado da rinite alérgica. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Com o objetivo de determinar a freqüência de positividade no teste cutâneo para aeroalérgenos específicos, avaliamos os prontuários de 398 pacientes com sintomas nasais sugestivos de alergia ou outras queixas otorrinolaringológicas que necessitavam deste teste para esclarecimento diagnóstico. RESULTADOS: A poeira doméstica (74,9%, o dermatofagóide (58,4% e o mofo (36,5% foram os alérgenos mais freqüentes, seguidos do pêlo de cão (32,7%, gramínea (22,4%, pêlo de gato (16,9%, penas (16,4% e lã (15,6%. Apenas 3,5% com positividade para pena de periquito e 1,5% para flores. 39 pacientes (9,8% apresentaram teste cutâneo negativo, 10 (2,5% apresentaram reação ao extrato da solução e 8 (2% não reagiram à histamina. Não foram encontradas complicações à aplicação do teste. CONCLUSÃO: A poeira doméstica foi o aeroalérgeno mais freqüente. Os testes cutâneos devem ser realizados no contexto da história clínica e os resultados apresentados nos orientam para o adequado diagnóstico e tratamento das rinopatias.Medical literature has reported on the increase in the prevalence of nose diseases, and allergic rhinitis still leads the statistics. The skin test is important in the differential diagnosis of nose diseases and to determine the sensitivity pattern of the population in order to establish measures to reduce exposure. This is fundamental for adequate handling allergic rhinitis. STUDY DESIGN: Transversal cohorte. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In order to determine the

  7. Use of a smart phone based thermo camera for skin prick allergy testing: a feasibility study (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barla, Lindi; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Klaessens, John; van der Veen, Albert

    2016-02-01

    Allergy testing is usually performed by exposing the skin to small quantities of potential allergens on the inner forearm and scratching the protective epidermis to increase exposure. After 15 minutes the dermatologist performs a visual check for swelling and erythema which is subjective and difficult for e.g. dark skin types. A small smart phone based thermo camera (FLIR One) was used to obtain quantitative images in a feasibility study of 17 patients Directly after allergen exposure on the forearm, thermal images were captured at 30 seconds interval and processed to a time lapse movie over 15 minutes. Considering the 'subjective' reading of the dermatologist as golden standard, in 11/17 pts (65%) the evaluation of dermatologist was confirmed by the thermo camera including 5 of 6 patients without allergic response. In 7 patients thermo showed additional spots. Of the 342 sites tested, the dermatologist detected 47 allergies of which 28 (60%) were confirmed by thermo imaging while thermo imaging showed 12 additional spots. The method can be improved with user dedicated acquisition software and better registration between normal and thermal images. The lymphatic reaction seems to shift from the original puncture site. The interpretation of the thermal images is still subjective since collecting quantitative data is difficult due to motion patient during 15 minutes. Although not yet conclusive, thermal imaging shows to be promising to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of allergy testing using a smart phone based camera.

  8. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  9. Plasma metanephrines: a novel and cost-effective test for pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Eisenhofer

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytomas are rare chromaffin cell tumors that nevertheless must be excluded in large numbers of patients who develop sustained or episodic hypertension as well as in many others with suggestive symptoms or with a familial history of pheochromocytoma. Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma depends importantly on biochemical evidence of excess catecholamine production by a tumor. Imperfect sensitivity and specificity of commonly available biochemical tests and the low incidence of the tumor among the tested population mean that considerable time and effort can be expended in confirming or ruling out pheochromocytoma in patients where the tumor is suspected. Measurements of plasma free metanephrines provide a superior test compared to other available tests for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. In particular, the high sensitivity of plasma free metanephrines means that a normal test result reliably excludes all but the smallest of pheochromocytomas so that no other tests are necessary. Measurements of plasma free metanephrines, when systematically combined with other diagnostic procedures outlined in this review, provide a more efficient, reliable and cost-effective approach for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma than offered by previously available approaches.

  10. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newson, R. B.; Jones, M.; Forsberg, B.;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundCross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) on the immune system. ObjectiveWe wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases...... with serum adipokine levels and to find whether the associations with asthma were strong enough to rule out the possibility that they are secondary to the association of fatness measures with asthma. MethodsThe Global Asthma and Allergy Network of Excellence (GA(2)LEN) clinical follow-up survey is a clinical...... measures of fatness including body mass index and waist/hip ratio, current asthma, and specific skin prick and IgE sensitisation. We used inverse sampling-probability-weighted rank and regression statistics to measure population associations of disease outcomes with adipokines in males and females...

  11. Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Raymond W.

    2012-07-30

    This project, Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine was established at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT). The associated CRADA was established with Campbell Applied Physics (CAP) located in El Dorado Hills, California. This project extends an earlier project involving both CAP and KIPT conducted under a separate CRADA. The initial project developed the basic Plasma Chemical Reactor (PCR) for generation of ozone gas. This project built upon the technology developed in the first project, greatly enhancing the output of the PCR while also improving reliability and system control.

  12. High heat flux testing of divertor plasma facing materials and components using the HHF test facility at IPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Yashashri; Khirwadkar, S. S.; Belsare, Sunil; Swamy, Rajamannar; Tripathi, Sudhir; Bhope, Kedar; Kanpara, Shailesh

    2016-02-01

    The High Heat Flux Test Facility (HHFTF) was designed and established recently at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR) in India for testing heat removal capability and operational life time of plasma facing materials and components of the ITER-like tokamak. The HHFTF is equipped with various diagnostics such as IR cameras and IR-pyrometers for surface temperature measurements, coolant water calorimetry for absorbed power measurements and thermocouples for bulk temperature measurements. The HHFTF is capable of simulating steady state heat load of several MW m-2 as well as short transient heat loads of MJ m-2. This paper presents the current status of the HHFTF at IPR and high heat flux tests performed on the curved tungsten monoblock type of test mock-ups as well as transient heat flux tests carried out on pure tungsten materials using the HHFTF. Curved tungsten monoblock type of test mock-ups were fabricated using hot radial pressing (HRP) technique. Two curved tungsten monoblock type test mock-ups successfully sustained absorbed heat flux up to 14 MW m-2 with thermal cycles of 30 s ON and 30 s OFF duration. Transient high heat flux tests or thermal shock tests were carried out on pure tungsten hot-rolled plate material (Make:PLANSEE) with incident power density of 0.49 GW m-2 for 20 milliseconds ON and 1000 milliseconds OFF time. A total of 6000 thermal shock cycles were completed on pure tungsten material. Experimental results were compared with mathematical simulations carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics for transient high heat flux tests.

  13. Comparison of Interferon gamma inducible protein-10 and Interferon gamma based QuantiFERON TB Gold assays with tuberculin skin test in HIV infected subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basirudeen, S; Rajasekaran, S; Alamelu, R

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to compare the positivity of the QuantiFERON TB gold in-tube (QFT-IT antigens) specific Interferon gamma (IFN-γ/QFT-IT) and IFN-γ nducible protein-10 (IP-10/QFT-IT) assays with tuberculin skin test (TST) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in a TB endemic setting. A total of 180 HIV infected subjects, with no evidence of active TB were recruited. IFN-γ nd IP-10 levels specific to QFT-IT antigens were measured in plasma from QFT-IT tubes. The overall positivity of TST at 5mm cut-off point (19%) was significantly lower when compared to IFN-γ/QFT-IT (38%) and IP-10/QFT-IT (45%) assays. The positivity of IP-10/QFT-IT was significantly higher than IFN-γ/QFT-IT (p=0.038). Indeterminate results for IFN-γ/QFT-IT and IP-10/QFT-IT were more frequent in subjects with CD4 count 100 cells/µl. IFN-γ/QFT-IT (9%) yielded significantly higher number of indeterminate results than IP-10/QFT-IT (5%). The frequency of these responses is higher than the proportion of individuals with positive TST results. However, 6 IFN-γ/QFT-IT or IP-10/QFT-IT negative subjects were positive for TST at 5mm cut-off point. Prospective and prognostic studies are required to clarify the significance of these data. PMID:21996360

  14. Delayed-type hypersensitivity, contact sensitivity, and phytohemagglutinin skin-test responses of heat- and cold-stressed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K W; Greenfield, R E; Evermann, J F; Parish, S M; Perryman, L E

    1982-05-01

    Three-week-old Holstein bull calves were used to investigate the effect of a 2-week chronic heat (35 C) or cold (-5 C) exposure on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to purified protein derivative after sensitization with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, contact sensitivity (CS) reactions to 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin tests. Heat exposure reduced expression of DTH reactions by 42% and CS reactions by 38% at 24 hours after elicitation of the responses. The PHA-induced skin tests were not affected after 1 week of heat exposure, but this reaction was reduced by 20% after 2 weeks of heat exposure. The immune response of calves exposed to cold air temperatures was more complex. Cold exposure suppressed CS reactions by 39% at the end of both the 1st and 2nd weeks. The PHA response was reduced by 39% after 2 weeks of cold exposure. The DTH response depended on duration of cold exposure. The DTH reaction was increased by 42% after 1 week, but was reduced by 14% after 2 weeks. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental stressors alter host resistance by affecting the immune system. Furthermore, these stress-induced changes in immune events depend on the type of immune response, the nature of the environmental stressor, and the length of time that calves are exposed to the stressor.

  15. Randomised clinical trial investigating the specificity of a novel skin test (C-Tb) for diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggerbeck, Henrik; Giemza, Rafaela; Joshi, Paulatsya; Tingskov, Pernille N; Hoff, Søren T; Boyle, Julia; Andersen, Peter; Lewis, David J M

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculin skin testing is simple and relatively inexpensive, but the specificity of PPD is affected by BCG vaccination. Determine optimal dose and specificity of recombinant ESAT-6 and CFP-10 (C-Tb) produced in Lactococcus lactis for diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection. In a dose finding phase I trial 0.01 or 0.1 µg preserved and unpreserved C-Tb was injected by Mantoux technique in 38 patients with active tuberculosis and induration responses measured. In a phase II specificity trial in 151 uninfected, BCG vaccinated participants 0.1 µg C-Tb was compared to 2 TU PPD. 0.1 µg C-Tb gave a median induration of 15 mm after 2 days. Phenol preservation did not affect the response. The specificity of C-Tb was 99.3% (95% CI 96-100%) regarding indurations ≥5 mm as a positive outcome. This was higher than the specificity of PPD (63% using a cut-off of 5 mm or 92% using a cut-off of 15 mm to adjust for non-specific BCG responses). Local adverse reactions following C-Tb injection included transient itching and discomfort as expected components of the immune response. C-Tb offers a simple and convenient skin test to diagnose M. tuberculosis infection using a single, universal cut-off unaffected by BCG vaccination. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01033929 and NCT01241188.

  16. Plasma paraoxonase, oxidative status level, and their relationship with asthma control test in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, O; Hasan, A; Rusen, D M

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of asthma with a control test has been suggested as a relevant approach in recent years. However, no biomarker of systemic inflammation has been included in the assessment of asthma control. To evaluate plasma paraoxonase (PON1), total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels in children with asthma according to the disease control, and the performance in the identification of uncontrolled patients. Stable asthmatic children (n=85) and healthy controls (n=55) were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected for plasma PON1, TOS, and TAS measurements. Any contributing factors that may affect plasma PON1, TAS, and TOS levels were excluded from both groups. The diagnostic potential of these measures was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Comparing the asthmatic children with the control group, plasma TAS and TOS levels were significantly higher (TAS; 6.9 ± 2.1, 1.05 ± 0.32, Pasthma, respectively. Asthma Control Test (ACT) presented an AUC of 0.972 for the identification of uncontrolled asthma. PON1 and TOS levels may be systemic markers of uncontrolled asthma in children. Combined use of these two biomarkers with asthma control test may identify patients with uncontrolled asthma in children. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Roughness threshold for cell attachment and proliferation on plasma micro-nanotextured polymeric surfaces: the case of primary human skin fibroblasts and mouse immortalized 3T3 fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourkoula, A.; Constantoudis, V.; Kontziampasis, D.; Petrou, P. S.; Kakabakos, S. E.; Tserepi, A.; Gogolides, E.

    2016-08-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces have been micro-nanotextured in oxygen plasmas with increasing ion energy, leading to micro-nanotopography characterized by increased root mean square roughness, correlation length and fractal dimension. Primary human skin fibroblasts and mouse immortalized 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured on these surfaces and the number of adhering cells, their proliferation rate and morphology (cytoplasm and nucleus area) were evaluated as a function of roughness height, correlation length, and fractal dimension. A roughness threshold behavior was observed for both types of cells leading to dramatic cell number decrease above this threshold, which is almost similar for the two types of cells, despite their differences in size and stiffness. The results are discussed based on two theoretical models, which are reconciled and unified when the elastic moduli and the size of the cells are taken into account.

  18. Slowly moving test charge in two-electron component non-Maxwellian plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Quaid-e-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Eliasson, B. [SUPA, Physics Department, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Potential distributions around a slowly moving test charge are calculated by taking into account the electron-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma. Considering a neutralizing background of static positive ions, the supra-thermal hot and cold electrons are described by the Vlasov equations to account for the Kappa (power-law in velocity space) and Maxwell equilibrium distributions. Fourier analysis further leads to the derivation of electrostatic potential showing the impact of supra-thermal hot electrons. The test charge moves slowly in comparison with the hot and cold electron thermal speeds and is therefore shielded by the electrons. This gives rise to a short-range Debye-Hückel potential decaying exponentially with distance and to a far field potential decaying as inverse third power of the distance from the test charge. The results are relevant for both laboratory and space plasmas, where supra-thermal hot electrons with power-law distributions have been observed.

  19. Slowly moving test charge in two-electron component non-Maxwellian plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S.; Eliasson, B.

    2015-08-01

    Potential distributions around a slowly moving test charge are calculated by taking into account the electron-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma. Considering a neutralizing background of static positive ions, the supra-thermal hot and cold electrons are described by the Vlasov equations to account for the Kappa (power-law in velocity space) and Maxwell equilibrium distributions. Fourier analysis further leads to the derivation of electrostatic potential showing the impact of supra-thermal hot electrons. The test charge moves slowly in comparison with the hot and cold electron thermal speeds and is therefore shielded by the electrons. This gives rise to a short-range Debye-Hückel potential decaying exponentially with distance and to a far field potential decaying as inverse third power of the distance from the test charge. The results are relevant for both laboratory and space plasmas, where supra-thermal hot electrons with power-law distributions have been observed.

  20. Vacuum Testing of a Miniaturized Switch Mode Amplifier Powering an Electrothermal Plasma Micro-Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Charles

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A structurally supportive miniaturized low-weight (≤150 g radiofrequency switch mode amplifier developed to power the small diameter Pocket Rocket electrothermal plasma micro-thruster called MiniPR is tested in vacuum conditions representative of space to demonstrate its suitability for use on nano-satellites such as “CubeSats.” Argon plasma characterization is carried out by measuring the optical emission signal seen through the plenum window vs. frequency (12.8–13.8 MHz and the plenum cavity pressure increase (indicative of thrust generation from volumetric gas heating in the plasma cavity vs. power (1–15 Watts with the amplifier operating at atmospheric pressure and a constant flow rate of 20 sccm. Vacuum testing is subsequently performed by measuring the operational frequency range of the amplifier as a function of gas flow rate. The switch mode amplifier design is finely tuned to the input impedance of the thruster (~16 pF to provide a power efficiency of 88% at the resonant frequency and a direct feed to a low-loss (~10 % impedance matching network. This system provides successful plasma coupling at 1.54 Watts for all investigated flow rates (10–130 sccm for cryogenic pumping speeds of the order of 6,000 l.s−1 and a vacuum pressure of the order of ~2 × 10−5 Torr during operation. Interestingly, the frequency bandwidth for which a plasma can be coupled increases from 0.04 to 0.4 MHz when the gas flow rate is increased, probably as a result of changes in the plasma impedance.

  1. Comparison of the tuberculin skin test and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test in detecting latent tuberculosis in health care workers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Nasehi, Mahshid; Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Esmaeili, Saber; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Sharafi, Saeed; Doosti-Irani, Amin

    2016-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT) are used to identify latent tuberculosis infections (LTBIs). The aim of this study was to determine the agreement between these two tests among health care workers in Iran. This cross-sectional study included 177 tuberculosis (TB) laboratory staff and 67 non-TB staff. TST indurations of 10 mm or more were considered positive. The Student's t-test and the chi-square test were used to compare the mean score and proportion of variables between the TB laboratory staff and the non-TB laboratory staff. Kappa statistics were used to evaluate the agreement between these tests, and logistic regression was used to assess the risk factors associated with positive results for each test. The prevalence of LTBIs according to both the QFT and the TST was 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12% to 21%) and 16% (95% CI, 11% to 21%), respectively. The agreement between the QFT and the TST was 77.46%, with a kappa of 0.19 (95% CI, 0.04 to 0.34). Although the prevalence of LTBI based on the QFT and the TST was not significantly different, the kappa statistic was low between these two tests for the detection of LTBIs.

  2. Evaluation of distal symmetric polyneuropathy: the role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy (an evidence-based review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J D; Gronseth, G S; Franklin, G; Carter, G T; Kinsella, L J; Cohen, J A; Asbury, A K; Szigeti, K; Lupski, J R; Latov, N; Lewis, R A; Low, P A; Fisher, M A; Herrmann, D; Howard, J F; Lauria, G; Miller, R G; Polydefkis, M; Sumner, A J

    2009-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common variety of neuropathy. Since the evaluation of this disorder is not standardized, the available literature was reviewed to provide evidence-based guidelines regarding the role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy for the assessment of polyneuropathy. A literature review using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and Current Contents was performed to identify the best evidence regarding the evaluation of polyneuropathy published between 1980 and March 2007. Articles were classified according to a four-tiered level of evidence scheme and recommendations were based on the level of evidence. (1) Autonomic testing may be considered in the evaluation of patients with polyneuropathy to document autonomic nervous system dysfunction (Level B). Such testing should be considered especially for the evaluation of suspected autonomic neuropathy (Level B) and distal small fiber sensory polyneuropathy (SFSN) (Level C). A battery of validated tests is recommended to achieve the highest diagnostic accuracy (Level B). (2) Nerve biopsy is generally accepted as useful in the evaluation of certain neuropathies as in patients with suspected amyloid neuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex due to vasculitis, or with atypical forms of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, the literature is insufficient to provide a recommendation regarding when a nerve biopsy may be useful in the evaluation of DSP (Level U). (3) Skin biopsy is a validated technique for determining intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and may be considered for the diagnosis of DSP, particularly SFSN (Level C). There is a need for additional prospective studies to define more exact guidelines for the evaluation of polyneuropathy.

  3. A systematic review of the influence of skin pigmentation on changes in the concentrations of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in plasma/serum following experimental UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fan; Lucas, Robyn; de Gruijl, Frank; Norval, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Defining whether skin pigmentation influences vitamin D photosynthesis is important for delivering accurate public health messages. Current evidence is contradictory. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature to examine the association between skin pigmentation and change in blood concentrations of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D following experimental UV irradiation. Twelve studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria: human study in vivo with non-diseased participants; controlled artificial UV radiation; vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D measured in serum or plasma; full text in English. In seven studies, vitamin D photosynthesis was reduced in dark-skinned compared with fairer-skinned individuals. In the remaining five studies, only one of which was published after 1990, there was no difference in vitamin D photosynthesis according to skin type. The disparities in these results may be due to small sample sizes and variations in study methodology, including the source, dose and frequency of UV irradiation, phototype classification, and analysis of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Of these, the spectrum emitted by the UV lamps may be significant. No study considered potential modifying factors, such as relevant genetic polymorphisms. On balance, we conclude that pigmented skin has less effective photoproduction of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The quantity of sun exposure needed for dark-skinned, compared with light-skinned, people to achieve vitamin D sufficiency remains uncertain.

  4. Plasma grid design for optimized filter field configuration for the NBI test facility ELISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocentini, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85740 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: riccardo.nocentini@ipp.mpg.de; Gutser, R.; Heinemann, B.; Froeschle, M.; Riedl, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85740 Garching (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Maintenance-free RF sources for negative hydrogen ions with moderate extraction areas (100-200 cm{sup 2}) have been successfully developed in the last years at IPP Garching in the test facilities BATMAN and MANITU. A facility with larger extraction area (1000 cm{sup 2}), ELISE, is being designed with a 'half-size' ITER-like extraction system, pulsed ion acceleration up to 60 kV for 10 s and plasma generation up to 1 h. Due to the large size of the source, the magnetic filter field (FF) cannot be produced solely by permanent magnets. Therefore, an additional magnetic field produced by current flowing through the plasma grid (PG current) is required. The filter field homogeneity and the interaction with the electron suppression magnetic field have been studied in detail by finite element method (FEM) during the ELISE design phase. Significant improvements regarding the field homogeneity have been introduced compared to the ITER reference design. Also, for the same PG current a 50% higher field in front of the grid has been achieved by optimizing the plasma grid geometry. Hollow spaces have been introduced in the plasma grid for a more homogeneous PG current distribution. The introduction of hollow spaces also allows the insertion of permanent magnets in the plasma grid.

  5. Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: T.SPOT.TB versus Tuberculin Skin Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Del Mar Arenas Miras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early studies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE reported increased incidence of tuberculosis. The tuberculin skin test (TST is the technique of choice to detect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI but has several limitations. Objectives. We compared TST and the newer T.SPOT.TB test to diagnose LTBI in SLE patients. Methods. In this observational cohort study conducted between August 2009 and February 2012, we recruited 92 patients from those attending the SLE clinic of our university hospital. Data recorded were epidemiological and sociodemographic characteristics. Laboratory analyses included TST and T.SPOT.TB tests. Results. Of the patients studied, 92% were women with an average age of 42.7 years. Overall, the degree of correlation between the two tests was low (Kappa index = 0.324 but was better in patients not receiving corticosteroids (CTC/immunosuppressive (IS therapy (Kappa = 0.436 and in those receiving hydroxychloroquine (Kappa = 0.473. While TST results were adversely affected by those receiving CTC and/or IS drugs (P=0.021, the T.SPOT.TB results were not. Conclusion. Although the TST test remains a useful tool for diagnosing LTBI in SLE patients, the T.SPOT.TB test is perhaps better employed when the patient is receiving CTC and/or IS drugs.

  6. Performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold and tuberculin skin test relative to subjects' risk of exposure to tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Sharon E; Pegues, David A; Shofer, Frances S; Sheller, Alexandra C; Wiener, Evelyn B

    2014-05-01

    Performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) has not been compared in a US college population with varying risk of tuberculosis exposure. We performed a retrospective chart review of students tested for tuberculosis at the University of Pennsylvania Student Health Service between 2009 and 2011. We stratified students into high-, low-, and no-risk categories for exposure to tuberculosis and compared QFT-GIT and TST performance in risk groups adjusting demographic characteristics. During the study period, 15 936 tuberculosis tests were performed in 9483 college students. Coming from a tuberculosis-endemic country was the only risk factor significantly associated with having a positive result (odds ratio [OR] 12.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.2-16.5). Test specificity was higher for TST than QFT-GIT (99.7% vs 91.4%; P tuberculosis testing and the use of risk-stratified interpretation for students who are tested with QFT-GIT.

  7. Teste de pele em caprinos vacinados e infectados com Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Skin test of goats vaccinated and infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Selmo Fernandes Alves

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Dez caprinos foram vacinados com toxóide a 3%, outros dez com uma bacterina e mais dois grupos-controle de cinco animais cada, submetidos à inoculação de infusão de cérebro e coração e solução salina, respectivamente. Todos os animais foram examinados e avaliados com um teste de pele. Tanto o toxóide quanto a bacterina foram produzidos a partir de amostra de Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Todos os caprinos foram desafiados com C. pseudotuberculosis, trinta dias após as vacinações. Nenhuma das vacinas induziu reação de hipersensibilidade na pele dos caprinos antes do desafio. Após o desafio, todos os animais desenvolveram reações mensuráveis na primeira, quinta e décima semana em resposta ao teste de pele. Os diâmetros da reação dérmica aumentaram do décimo dia à quinta semana após o desafio. As medidas alcançaram tamanho maior na décima semana. O resultado deste estudo indica que antígeno específico do C. pseudotuberculosis pode ser utilizado em caprinos no diagnóstico da linfadenite caseosa como teste de pele ou como instrumento experimental para monitorar o desenvolvimento da doença.Ten goats were vaccinated with a 3% toxoid, ten vaccinated with a bacterin and two control groups (five animals each inoculated with brain heart infusion and saline solution, respectively. All animals were skin tested with a crude antigen of formalin-killed Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bacterial cells. All goats were challenged with a virulent C. pseudotuberculosis thirty days after vaccination. Neither the vaccinated nor control goats responded to the skin test prior to infection. After the challenge, dermal reactions were demonstrated in all animals at one week, five and ten weeks. The diameters increased from the first week, five and ten weeks. The reactions were more proeminent at ten weeks. The results of this study indicate that skin testing with a specific bacterial antigen of C. pseudotuberculosis may be useful

  8. Estimating Tuberculin Skin Test Reactions among Children and Teenagers Who Received the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Vaccination at Birth: A Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Abedi, Siavosh; Afshari, Mahdi; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Tuberculin skin reaction size is one indicator of bacillus Calmette-Gu?rin (BCG) vaccine efficacy and a way to diagnose latent infection. Several primary studies have examined this issue. Combining the results of these studies using a meta-analysis will provide reliable evidence regarding this indicator for policymakers. This study aimed to estimate the total frequency of different tuberculin skin test reactions among Iranian children and teenagers who received the BCG vaccination ...

  9. How Is Melanoma Skin Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Melanoma Skin Cancer Most melanomas are brought to a doctor’s attention ... Melanoma Skin Cancer, by Stage More In Melanoma Skin Cancer About Melanoma Skin Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  10. Examining the effects of platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin on autologous full thickness skin graft survival in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorahmad Latifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Graft survival has been considered the major problem in reconstructive surgery. Clinical studies have helped us to understand the role of PRP in increasing skin survival. Our goal in this study was to examine the treatment effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF on autologous full thickness skin graft survival in male rats. Methods: This experimental study was performed on 36 rats of Sprague-Dawley race with weighing approximately 250 to 300 gr on May 2015 in animal laboratory of Hazrat Fatima Hospital. After anesthesia, rats were divided into 3 groups. We injected platelet-rich plasma (PRP in the first group, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF in the second and saline in the third group after removing the skin. Microscopic analysis was performed with camera (Canon powershot SX200, Tokyo, Japan on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after surgery. We used image analysis system (ImageJ, ver. 1.45 to examine necrosis and survival rate. Samples were studied with H&E staining on day 28 microscopically for histological analysis of vascular density and angiogenesis. Results: Our findings showed the area of necrosis in animals injected with PRP on days 7 and 14, was meaningfully less than control group (P= 0.0001. There was no meaningful difference between control and PRP groups (P> 0.05. The area of necrosis in animals injected with PRF did not have any significant difference with control group from beginning to 21st day (P< 0.0001. there was no meaningful difference in vascular density between control and PRP group, whereas in animals injected with PRF the vascular density was significantly less than control group (P= 0.002. Conclusion: According to our results in this study, we can conclude that using autologous PRP can enhance the process of healing soft tissue injury and be affective at increasing graft survival. This method is suggested to be conducted for patients highly at risk of graft loss and also for those who are in need of

  11. Reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Krog, Grethe Risum; Rieneck, Klaus;

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis.......The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis....

  12. Risk of Unexpected Adverse Effects Resulting from the Use of a Skin Test with Recombinant Tuberculosis Allergen in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kryvohizh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report reviews clinical cases, and their possible causes of unexpected local and systemic adverse effects associated with a novel skin test using recombinant tuberculosis allergen (RTA, Diaskintest in 2—11 years old children. This preparation consists of a M. tuberculosis ESAT6/CFP10 fusion protein produced in E. coli, and, in Russia, it has been used as a tool for preventive screening for tuberculosis since 2009. The most common side effects developed within 1 to 12 h after injection and were represented as local or non-life threatening systemic symptoms: fever up to 39°C lasting up to 24 h, painful excessive edema with reddening on the forearm, and, sometimes herpes-like blisters on the skin. In 72 h, the papula at the injection site was moderate, but the hyperemia around it was considerable. We argue that the most likely reason for this type of response could be the development of Type III hypersensitivity (associated with immune complexes, and/or antibody-independent anaphylactoid response to the ESAT6/CFP10 protein or contaminating bacterial culture components. To prevent possible side effects, we recommend to observe the patients for not less than 15 min after the injection of RTA, and to be ready to respond in case of anaphylaxis development.

  13. Proficiency testing of skin prick testers as part of a quality assurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Allesen-Holm, Pernille; Karved, Lisbeth Sys

    2016-01-01

    of variation (CV 0.85) based on blinded octuplicate histamine testing using histamine 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/ml. RESULTS: Fourteen trained allergy nurses participated in the proficiency testing. More than 95 % of the nurses, generated coefficient of variation...... less than 40 %, and for around 35 % of testers the CV were below 20 % based on wheal area. Regarding the linearity (coefficient of regression), only two nurses produced tests with a value below 0.85. On the contrary, 79 % of testers demonstrated a coefficient of regression >0.95. Depending...... on the gentleness of the prick procedure, the inter-nurse variability in wheal area varied more than twofold corresponding to a 10-doubling of histamine concentration. This would never have been detected without using a proficiency testing system. CONCLUSION: The described histamine testing provides an objective...

  14. Effects of AT1 Receptor Blockade on Plasma Thromboxane A2 (TXA2 Level and Skin Microcirculation in Young Healthy Women on Low Salt Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cavka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of AT1 receptor antagonism on skin microcirculation and plasma level of thromboxane A2 (TXA2. Methods: Healthy women (n=20 maintained 7 days low salt (LS diet (intake 2 metabolite thromboxane B2 (TXB2 and plasma renin activity (PRA aldosterone concentration, electrolytes (Na+, K+, as well as blood pressure and heart rate were determined before and after study protocols. Results: PRA and aldosterone increased significantly after 7 days of both LS diet and LS diet+losartan. LS diet or LS diet+losartan administrations had no significant effect on post-occlusion hyperemia While there was no change in TXB2 after LS diet TXB2 significantly increased after one week of LS+losartan compared to control levels (cTXB2 pg/mL control 101±80 vs. LS diet+losartan 190±116, pConclusion: These data suggest that inhibition of AT1 receptors could lead to activation of AT2 receptors, which maintain hyperemia, despite the increased level of vasoconstrictor TXA2. These findings also suggest an important role of crosstalk between renin-angiotensin system (RAS and arachidonic acid metabolites in the regulation of microcirculation under physiological conditions.

  15. ASSASYING THE NEED OF COMMERCIAL PLASMA VIRAL LOAD TESTING IN RESOURCE LIMITED SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaw

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Around nine million Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infected individuals are on antiretroviral therapy (ART. People living with HIV/AIDS in resource - limited settings where HIV burden is usually high, there is an urgent need of affordable, accessible and inexpensive tests to monitor response to treatment. Quite a few commercially available assay has been introduced to measure Plasma Viral Load (PVL as testing can increase adherence to ART and facilitate timely switching of failing regimens and thus minimizing the development of resistance. We analyzed Nucleic Acid Test (NAT based assay and Non Nucleic Acid Test based assay for PVL testing. Though both the assay has its own advantage and disadvantages, but the use of Non Nucleic Acid Test has an upper hand in resource limited settings. It is the duty of administration, clinicians, microbiologist and health care personnel to introduce appropriate laboratory monitoring assays in resource - limited settings.

  16. Magnetospheric plasma boundaries: a test of the frozen-in magnetic field theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lundin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of frozen-in magnetic field originates from H. Alfvén, the result of a work on electromagnetic-hydrodynamic waves published in 1942. After that, the notion of frozen-in magnetic field, or ideal MHD, has become widely used in space plasma physics. The controversy on the applicability of ideal MHD started in the late 1950s and has continued ever since. The applicability of ideal MHD is particularly interesting in regions where solar wind plasma may cross the magnetopause and access the magnetosphere. It is generally assumed that a macroscopic system can be described by ideal MHD provided that the violations of ideal MHD are sufficiently small-sized near magnetic x-points (magnetic reconnection. On the other hand, localized departure from ideal MHD also enables other processes to take place, such that plasma may cross the separatrix and access neighbouring magnetic flux tubes. It is therefore important to be able to quantify from direct measurements ideal MHD, a task that has turned out to be a major challenge.

    An obvious test is to compare the perpendicular electric field with the plasma drift, i.e. to test if E=–v×B. Yet another aspect is to rule out the existence of parallel (to B electric fields. These two tests have been subject to extensive research for decades. However, the ultimate test of the "frozen-in" condition, based on measurement data, is yet to be identified. We combine Cluster CIS-data and FGM-data, estimating the change in magnetic flux (δB/δt and the curl of plasmav×B(∇×(v×B, the terms in the "frozen-in equation". Our test suggests that ideal MHD applies in a macroscopic sense in major parts of the outer magnetosphere, for instance, in the external cusp and in the high-latitude magnetosheath. However, we also find significant departures from ideal MHD, as expected on smaller scales, but also on larger scales, near

  17. Comparative study of positive versus negative autologous serum skin test in chronic spontaneous urticaria and its treatment outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadalla Hari Kishan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic urticaria (CU is defined as urticaria persisting daily or almost daily for more than 6 weeks and affecting 0.1% of the population. Mast cell degranulation and histamine release are of central importance in the pathogenesis of CU. About 40-50% of the patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU or chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU demonstrates an immediate wheal and flare response to intradermal injected autologous serum. This led to the concept of autoimmune urticaria (AIU. Aims: To determine the occurrence, clinical features, associated clinical conditions, comorbidities of AIU, and to compare this with CSU. This study aimed to find the frequency of autologous serum skin test (ASST-positive patients among patients with CSU and to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters associated with positive ASST and to compare the treatment outcome. Materials and Methods: A prospective correlation study in 110 patients with CSU was conducted, after screening 200 CU patients attending the outpatient Department of Dermatology during from January 2012 to May 2013. Patients were subjected to ASST, complete blood counts, urine routine examination, liver function tests, renal function tests, thyroid function tests (T3, T4, and TSH, and urine analysis. Results: Out of 200 CU patients screened, 90 patients had excludable causes based on detailed history and skin prick test, and the remaining 110 patients were considered to have CSU. These 110 patients were further subjected to ASST, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. ASST was positive in 48 patients and negative in 62 patients. Frequency of urticarial attacks and associated diseases such as abnormal thyroid function tests in both ASST-positive and ASST-negative patients did not show any statistical significance. Only attacks of angioedema in ASST-positive individuals were higher and were statistically significant. In the ASST-positive group, 31 (81

  18. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, R B; Jones, M; Forsberg, B; Janson, C; Bossios, A; Dahlen, S-E; Toskala, E M; Al-Kalemji, A; Kowalski, M L; Rymarczyk, B; Salagean, E M; van Drunen, C M; Bachert, C; Wehrend, T; Krämer, U; Mota-Pinto, A; Burney, P; Leynaert, B; Jarvis, D

    2014-02-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) on the immune system. We wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases with serum adipokine levels and to find whether the associations with asthma were strong enough to rule out the possibility that they are secondary to the association of fatness measures with asthma. The Global Asthma and Allergy Network of Excellence (GA(2) LEN) clinical follow-up survey is a clinical survey, embedded in a larger multi-centre cross-sectional postal survey, involving, with a case/control design, enrichment of the sample with subjects with asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We recorded serum leptin or adiponectin in 845 men and 1110 women in 15 centres and also anthropometric measures of fatness including body mass index and waist/hip ratio, current asthma, and specific skin prick and IgE sensitisation. We used inverse sampling-probability-weighted rank and regression statistics to measure population associations of disease outcomes with adipokines in males and females, adjusting for confounders (area, age, smoking history, and number of elder siblings) and also mutually adjusting associations with adipokines and fatness measures. One thousand nine hundred and fifty-five subjects aged 16-77 years had information on leptin or adiponectin levels. Leptin and leptin/adiponectin ratio were positively associated with the level of asthma, especially in females (Somers' D of leptin by asthma score, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08-0.30; P = 0.00079). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for confounders and became non-significant after additionally adjusting for fatness measures and multiple comparisons. Asthma levels are positively associated with serum leptin. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that this association is secondary to associations of both with fatness

  19. Usefulness of the rK39-Immunochromatographic Test, Direct Agglutination Test, and Leishmanin Skin Test for Detecting Asymptomatic Leishmania Infection in Children in a New Visceral Leishmaniasis Focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis–endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test. PMID:22556076

  20. Usefulness of the rK39-immunochromatographic test, direct agglutination test, and leishmanin skin test for detecting asymptomatic Leishmania infection in children in a new visceral leishmaniasis focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-05-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis-endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test.

  1. Screening for tuberculosis infection among newly arrived asylum seekers: Comparison of QuantiFERON®TB Gold with tuberculin skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winje, Brita Askeland; Oftung, Fredrik; Korsvold, Gro Ellen; Mannsåker, Turid; Jeppesen, Anette Skistad; Harstad, Ingunn; Heier, Berit Tafjord; Heldal, Einar

    2008-01-01

    Background QuantiFERON®TB Gold (QFT) is a promising blood test for tuberculosis infection but with few data so far from immigrant screening. The aim of this study was to compare results of QFT and tuberculin skin test (TST) among newly arrived asylum seekers in Norway and to assess the role of QFT in routine diagnostic screening for latent tuberculosis infection. Methods The 1000 asylum seekers (age ≥ 18 years) enrolled in the study were voluntarily recruited from 2813 consecutive asylum seekers arriving at the national reception centre from September 2005 to June 2006. Participation included a QFT test and a questionnaire in addition to the mandatory TST and chest X-ray. Results Among 912 asylum seekers with valid test results, 29% (264) had a positive QFT test whereas 50% (460) tested positive with TST (indurations ≥ 6 mm), indicating a high proportion of latent infection within this group. Among the TST positive participants 50% were QFT negative, whereas 7% of the TST negative participants were QFT positive. There was a significant association between increase in size of TST result and the likelihood of being QFT positive. Agreement between the tests was 71–79% depending on the chosen TST cut-off and it was higher for non-vaccinated individuals. Conclusion By using QFT in routine screening, further follow-up could be avoided in 43% of the asylum seekers who would have been referred if based only on a positive TST (≥ 6 mm). The proportion of individuals referred will be the same whether QFT replaces TST or is used as a supplement to confirm a positive TST, but the number tested will vary greatly. All three screening approaches would identify the same proportion (88–89%) of asylum seekers with a positive QFT and/or a TST ≥ 15 mm, but different groups will be missed. PMID:18479508

  2. First-in-man open clinical trial of a combined rdESAT-6 and rCFP-10 tuberculosis specific skin test reagent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Bergstedt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculin is still the only available skin test reagent for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. The product has a remarkable sensitivity, but poor specificity. Previous studies, including two human phase I clinical trials, have indicated that rdESAT-6 has a potential as an improved skin test reagent. Animal studies have shown that the sensitivity may be increased by inclusion of the genetically related CFP-10 antigen in the preparation without loosing specificity. METHODOLOGY: In this study a Lactococcus fermented, recombinant skin test reagent consisting of a 1ratio1 wt/wt of rdESAT-6 and CFP-10 was manufactured according to GMP standards and tested for the first time in 42 healthy adult volunteers. The two doses of 0.01 microg or 0.1 microg were injected intradermally by the Mantoux technique with 6 or 12 weeks interval. No serious adverse events and only mild adverse reactions were reported. The reagent elicited a positive skin test reaction after the first injection in one participant, who most likely was latently infected with M. tuberculosis as indicated by an appreciable IFN gamma response just below the Quantiferon(R cut-off level at the screening visit. None of the remaining participants in the four groups had any skin test reactions and sensitisation by the reagent could therefore be excluded. CONCLUSION: The investigational skin test reagent rdESAT-6 and CFP-10 appeared safe and non-sensitising in this first-in-man clinical trial in human volunteers and can now be tested in larger clinical trials involving individuals with latent M. tuberculosis infection or active TB disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793702.

  3. First-in-man open clinical trial of a combined rdESAT-6 and rCFP-10 tuberculosis specific skin test reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstedt, Winnie; Tingskov, Pernille N; Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit; Hoff, Søren T; Aggerbeck, Henrik; Thomsen, Vibeke O; Andersen, Peter; Andersen, Aase B

    2010-06-25

    Tuberculin is still the only available skin test reagent for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. The product has a remarkable sensitivity, but poor specificity. Previous studies, including two human phase I clinical trials, have indicated that rdESAT-6 has a potential as an improved skin test reagent. Animal studies have shown that the sensitivity may be increased by inclusion of the genetically related CFP-10 antigen in the preparation without loosing specificity. In this study a Lactococcus fermented, recombinant skin test reagent consisting of a 1ratio1 wt/wt of rdESAT-6 and CFP-10 was manufactured according to GMP standards and tested for the first time in 42 healthy adult volunteers. The two doses of 0.01 microg or 0.1 microg were injected intradermally by the Mantoux technique with 6 or 12 weeks interval. No serious adverse events and only mild adverse reactions were reported. The reagent elicited a positive skin test reaction after the first injection in one participant, who most likely was latently infected with M. tuberculosis as indicated by an appreciable IFN gamma response just below the Quantiferon(R) cut-off level at the screening visit. None of the remaining participants in the four groups had any skin test reactions and sensitisation by the reagent could therefore be excluded. The investigational skin test reagent rdESAT-6 and CFP-10 appeared safe and non-sensitising in this first-in-man clinical trial in human volunteers and can now be tested in larger clinical trials involving individuals with latent M. tuberculosis infection or active TB disease. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793702.

  4. Dragon Skin - How It Changed Body Armor Testing in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    to testing, the subject test sample will be visually inspected. The hard armor plate is then inserted into the carrier (vest or shoot pack), the...rebutting claims of unfair treatment by Mr. Neal. Michael Turner, Ohio, stated, “Mr. Neil , I have got to tell you, I have been on this committee five...to do a thorough mission analysis and develop sound courses of action. From a mission analysis perspective, the following areas immediately stand

  5. Noninvasive Prenatal Paternity Testing (NIPAT) through Maternal Plasma DNA Sequencing: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huijuan; Deng, Yongqiang; Mu, Haofang; Feng, Xiaoli; Yin, Lu; Du, Zhou; Chen, Fang; He, Nongyue

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels in order to verify the performance in clinical cases. Combining targeted deep sequencing of selective SNP and informative bioinformatics pipeline, we calculated the combined paternity index (CPI) of 17 cases to determine paternity. Sequencing-based NIPAT results fully agreed with invasive prenatal paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future. PMID:27631491

  6. Plasma glucose, insulin and catecholamine responses to a Wingate test in physically active women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Sophie; Berthon, Phanélie; Zouhal, Hassane; Moussa, Elie; Catheline, Michel; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of gender on the glucose response to exercise remains contradictory. Moreover, to our knowledge, the glucoregulatory responses to anaerobic sprint exercise have only been studied in male subjects. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare glucoregulatory metabolic (glucose and lactate) and hormonal (insulin, catecholamines and estradiol only in women) responses to a 30-s Wingate test, in physically active students. Eight women [19.8 (0.7) years] and eight men [22.0 (0.6) years] participated in a 30-s Wingate test on a bicycle ergometer. Plasma glucose, insulin, and catecholamine concentrations were determined at rest, at the end of both the warm-up and the exercise period and during the recovery (5, 10, 20, and 30 min). Results showed that the plasma glucose increase in response to a 30-s Wingate test was significantly higher in women than in men [0.99 (0.15) versus 0.33 (0.20) mmol l(-1) respectively, Pwomen than in men [14.7 (2.9) versus 2.3 (1.9) pmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. However, there was no gender difference concerning the catecholamine response. The study indicates a gender-related difference in post-exercise plasma glucose and insulin responses after a supramaximal exercise.

  7. Comparison of a new rapid plasma reagin card test with the standard rapid plasma reagin 18-mm circle card test and the venereal disease research laboratory slide test for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambie, E A; Larsen, S A; Perryman, M W; Pettit, D E; Mullally, R L; Whittington, W

    1983-02-01

    The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test manufactured by Beckman Instruments, Inc., was compared, qualitatively and quantitatively, with the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test and the standard RPR 18-mm circle card tests for the serodiagnosis of syphilis. Sera from 638 individuals were used in this study. Two pilot lots and two production lots of antigen were submitted by Beckman Instruments, Inc., for evaluation. Qualitative agreement among the three RPR card tests was 98.1%; between the Beckman RPR card and the VDRL slide tests, 95.0%; and between the reference RPR card and the VDRL slide tests, 95.5%. The Beckman RPR card test was 95.3% specific, whereas the specificities of the reference RPR card and the VDRL slide tests were 98.8% and 96.1%, respectively. Sensitivities of the three nontreponemal tests were: Beckman RPR card test production lots, 94.7%; reference RPR card test, 96.8%; and VDRL slide test, 90.6%. Quantitative agreement +/- 1 dilution among the three RPR card tests was 93.0%, whereas quantitative agreement was approximately 40% when both RPR card tests were compared with the VDRL slide test. We found the Beckman RPR card test comparable to the standard RPR card tests. Therefore, the decision of which test to use for the serodiagnosis of syphilis is at the discretion of the user.

  8. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...

  9. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Skin KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Skin Print A A ... are really dead skin cells. continue Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  10. Clinical evaluation of MPT-64 and MPT-59, two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for skin test reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T; Jensen, B N; Ravn, P;

    1996-01-01

    SETTING: Department of Pulmonary Medicine P, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of two proteins secreted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MPT-64 and MPT-59 to induce delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions following intradermal administration. DESIGN......: In a small scale clinical investigation, skin reactions to these antigens were compared to reactions to tuberculin PPD RT23 in 1) patients with active tuberculosis, 2) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects with close contact with tuberculous patients, and 3) BCG vaccinated healthy subjects without contact...... with tuberculous patients. Tests for in vitro reactivity to these antigens were carried out in similar groups. RESULTS: All subjects gave positive reaction to tuberculin PPD RT23, whereas approximately half of the subjects in each of the three groups reacted to MPT-59. Two subjects (one patient with tuberculosis...

  11. Integrated Testing Strategies for Skin Sensitization Hazard and Potency Assessment—State of the Art and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jaworska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of existing Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS for assessing hazard and potency of skin sensitization. The ITS research is active, diverse and constantly evolving as new assays are being developed and new mechanistic insights are discovered. Despite the need to assess potency, the majority of the ITS approaches developed to date assess hazard only. Reasons for this situation are analyzed and include, for example, the dynamic range of existing alternative assays versus the range of in vivo responses, but also sporadic use of kinetic information and molar units. Depending on the application, regulatory or product development, standardized and nonstandard ITS approaches will be developed. Challenges to practical applications, with focus on regulatory are discussed.

  12. Monitoring changes in the scattering properties of mouse skin with optical coherence tomography during an in vivo glucose tolerance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, M.; Tausta, S.; Myllylä, R.; Vainio, S.

    2007-05-01

    A non-invasive glucose monitoring technique would make evaluation of blood glucose values easier and more convenient. This would help diabetic patients to control their blood glucose values more regularly. A few years ago optical coherence tomography (OCT) was proposed as a non-invasive sensor for monitoring changes in blood glucose concentration. The method is based on monitoring glucose-induced changes in the scattering properties of the target. This article describes how OCT was used to monitor changes in the scattering properties of mouse skin during an in vivo glucose tolerance test. The results show that OCT has the potential to register glucose-induced changes in the optical properties of the sample. However, a commercial OCT device with a probe designed for imaging is not very suitable for non-invasive monitoring of glucose-induced changes in scattering. The problems confronted in this study, possibly originating from the small size of the animals, are discussed in the article.

  13. Purified protein derivative skin testing on HIV/AIDS patients and logistic regression analysis of its risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengren Liu; Jianjun Ye; Changfu Xiong; Jiguo Yin; Weihua He; Gaobo Li; Dingyuan Zhao; Linxiang Ye

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To understand the reactivity of purified protein derivative skin test(PPD test) in HIV-infected persons and to determine the influential factors associated with PPD. Methods: 174 HIV/AIDS patients registered in the local center for disease control and prevention(CDC) participated this study from April to June in 2006. Questionnaire, CD4 count and thoracic roentgenogram were performed for all participants. Results: In this study, response rate of questionnaires was 83.65%. The majority of these participants had a different degree of immunodeficiency that accounted for 93.64%. Female patients had a higher CD4 count than that of males. The total positive rate of PPD was 38.15%. Analysis of single factor in our study indicated that CD4 count, previous tuberculosis history, tuberculosis contact history and thoracic roentgenogram manifestation of patients were related to their PPD diameters. Further analysis of multiple factors also supports the previous conclusion that CD4 count and previous tuberculosis history of patients were risk factors in the PPD test. Conclusion: The PPD test of HIV/AIDS patients could be affected by several factors. For persons infected with HIV, the confirmation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should be considered the combination effect of previous MTB infection and body cellular immune function.

  14. Ongoing Capabilities and Developments of Re-Entry Plasma Ground Tests at EADS-ASTRIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullien, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    During re-entry, spacecrafts are subjected to extreme thermal loads. On mars, they may go through dust storms. These external heat loads are leading the design of re-entry vehicles or are affecting it for spacecraft facing solid propellant jet stream. Sizing the Thermal Protection System require a good knowledge of such solicitations and means to model and reproduce them on earth. Through its work on European projects, ASTRIUM has developed the full range of competences to deal with such issues. For instance, we have designed and tested the heat-shield of the Huygens probe which landed on Titan. In particular, our plasma generators aim to reproduce a wide variety of re-entry conditions. Heat loads are generated by the huge speed of the probes. Such conditions cannot be fully reproduced. Ground tests focus on reproducing local aerothermal loads by using slower but hotter flows. Our inductive plasma torch enables to test little samples at low TRL. Amongst the arc-jets, one was design to test architecture design of ISS crew return system and others fit more severe re-entry such as sample returns or Venus re-entry. The last developments aimed in testing samples in seeded flows. First step was to design and test the seeding device. Special diagnostics characterizing the resulting flow enabled us to fit it to the requirements.

  15. Comparative study between fibrin glue and platelet rich plasma in dogs skin grafts Estudo comparativo entre a cola de fibrina e o plasma rico em plaquetas em enxertos cutâneos em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Correa Hermeto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Compare fibrin glue (Tissucol® and platelet-rich plasma in full-thickness mesh skin grafts in dogs. METHODS: Eighteen dogs were used, divided into two groups: fibrin glue (FG and platelet-rich plasma (PRP. In all the animals, a full-thickness 3x3 cm mesh skin graft was implanted. In the left limb, the biomaterial was place between the graft and the receptor bed, according to the group, while the right limb served as the control group. All the animals were evaluated clinically every 48 hours until the 14th day, using the variables of exudation, coloration, edema and cosmetic appearance. Three animals were evaluated histologically, on the third, seventh and tenth postoperative days, using the variables of fibroblasts, collagen, granulation tissue, microscopic integration-adherence and acute inflammation. RESULTS: Clinical evaluations showed that the group CF showed better scores for all variables compared to PRP group. On the histological evaluations PRP group had a higher presence of fibroblasts in the seventh and fourteenth days. CONCLUSION: The fibrin glue group was clinically superior to the platelet-rich group when used on full-thickness skin grafts in dogs.OBJETIVO: Comparar a cola de fibrina (Tissucol® e o plasma rico em plaquetas em enxertos cutâneos de espessura completa em malha em cães. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 cães, distribuídos em dois grupos, cola de fibrina (CF e plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP. Em todos os animais foi realizado um enxerto cutâneo de 3x3 cm, em malha de espessura completa. No membro esquerdo foi colocado o biomaterial entre o enxerto e o leito receptor, cada qual em seu grupo, o membro direito serviu como grupo controle. Todos os animais foram avaliados clinicamente a cada 48 horas até o décimo quarto dia, através das variáveis: exsudação, coloração, edema e aspecto cosmético; histologicamente em três animais, no terceiro, sétimo e décimo quarto dia de pós-operatório através das

  16. Skin prick test predictive value on the outcome of a first known egg exposure in milk-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diéguez, M C; Cerecedo, I; Muriel, A; Zamora, J; Sánchez-Cano, M; De la Hoz, B

    2008-06-01

    Children with milk allergy have higher incidence of other food allergies, especially egg allergy. The objective of this study was to ascertain the accuracy of the prick test in children with IgE-mediated milk allergy for diagnosing egg allergy. Children under the age of 1 yr who came consecutively to Allergy Department 2003-05, and were diagnosed with IgE-mediated milk allergy were selected for this study. Egg introduction was completely avoided until the age of 14 months when clinical history, skin prick tests (SPT), specific-IgE antibodies determination and egg challenge test were performed. One hundred and four milk-allergic children were included. At least one positive prick test to any egg allergen was found in 65 out of the 104 (62.5%). Thirty-eight (36.5%) were allergic to egg proteins as well. Prick tests with egg white and ovomucoid (OVM) had the best diagnostic performances showing the largest areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The optimal diagnosis cut-off point was 6 mm for egg white and 5 mm for OVM. The positive likelihood ratios for these cut-off points were: 2.95 (95% CI: 1.74-4.99) for egg white prick test, and 20 (95% CI: 2.9-143.7) for OVM prick test. Children with specific IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy must be closely followed as a risk group for egg allergy. Early diagnosis is necessary and the SPT has shown itself to be a very useful tool for diagnosing immediate IgE reactions to egg on first known exposure.

  17. Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thruster Development and Testing at NASA-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2013-01-01

    THE inductive pulsed plasma thruster (IPPT) is an electrodeless space propulsion device where a capacitor is charged to an initial voltage and then discharged producing a high current pulse through a coil. The field produced by this pulse ionizes propellant, inductively driving current in a plasma located near the face of the coil. Once the plasma is formed it can be accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity by the electromagnetic Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the induced plasma current and the magnetic field produced by the current in the coil. In the present work, we present a summary of the IPPT research and development conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). As a higher-power, still relatively low readiness level system, there are many issues associated with the eventual deployment and use of the IPPT as a primary propulsion system on spacecraft that remain to be addressed. The present program aimed to fabricate and test hardware to explore how these issues could be addressed. The following specific areas were addressed within the program and will be discussed within this paper. a) Conical theta-pinch IPPT geometry thruster configuration. b) Repetition-rate multi-kW thruster pulsing. c) Long-lifetime pulsed gas valve. d) Fast pulsed gas valve driver and controller. e) High-voltage, repetitive capacitor charging power processing unit. During the course of testing, a number of specific tests were conducted, including several that, to our knowledge, have either never been previously conducted (such as multi-KW repetition-rate operation) or have not been performed since the early 1990s (direct IPPT thrust measurements).2 Conical theta-pinch IPPT thrust stand measurements are presented in Fig. 1 while various time-integrated and time

  18. Catch-up validation study of an in vitro skin irritation test method based on an open source reconstructed epidermis (phase II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeber, F; Schober, L; Schmid, F F; Traube, A; Kolbus-Hernandez, S; Daton, K; Hoffmann, S; Petersohn, D; Schäfer-Korting, M; Walles, H; Mewes, K R

    2016-10-01

    To replace the Draize skin irritation assay (OECD guideline 404) several test methods based on reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) have been developed and were adopted in the OECD test guideline 439. However, all validated test methods in the guideline are linked to RHE provided by only three companies. Thus, the availability of these test models is dependent on the commercial interest of the producer. To overcome this limitation and thus to increase the accessibility of in vitro skin irritation testing, an open source reconstructed epidermis (OS-REp) was introduced. To demonstrate the capacity of the OS-REp in regulatory risk assessment, a catch-up validation study was performed. The participating laboratories used in-house generated OS-REp to assess the set of 20 reference substances according to the performance standards amending the OECD test guideline 439. Testing was performed under blinded conditions. The within-laboratory reproducibility of 87% and the inter-laboratory reproducibility of 85% prove a high reliability of irritancy testing using the OS-REp protocol. In addition, the prediction capacity was with an accuracy of 80% comparable to previous published RHE based test protocols. Taken together the results indicate that the OS-REp test method can be used as a standalone alternative skin irritation test replacing the OECD test guideline 404.

  19. Parasitic infection may be associated with discordant responses to QuantiFERON and tuberculin skin test in apparently healthy children and adolescents in a tuberculosis endemic setting, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassie, Liya; Aseffa, Abraham; Abebe, Markos; Gebeyehu, Michael Z; Zewdie, Martha; Mihret, Adane; Erenso, Girum; Chanyalew, Menberwork; Tilahun, Hiwot; Yamuah, Lawrence K; Andersen, Peter; Doherty, Mark T

    2013-06-05

    M. tuberculosis remains one of the world's deadliest pathogens in part because of its ability to establish persistent, latent infections, which can later reactivate to cause disease. In regions of the globe where disease is endemic, as much as 50% of the population is thought to be latently infected, complicating diagnosis and tuberculosis control. The tools most commonly used for diagnosis of latent M. tuberculosis infection are the tuberculin skin test and the newer interferon-gamma release assays, both of which rely on an antigen-specific memory response as an indicator of infection. It is clear that the two tests, do not always give concordant results, but the factors leading to this are only partially understood. In this study we examined 245 healthy school children aged from 12 to 20 years from Addis Ababa, a tuberculosis-endemic region, characterised them with regard to response in the tuberculin skin test and QuantIFERON™ test and assessed factors that might contribute to discordant responses. Although concordance between the tests was generally fair (90% concordance), there was a subset of children who had a positive QuantIFERON™ result but a negative tuberculin skin test. After analysis of multiple parameters the data suggest that discordance was most strongly associated with the presence of parasites in the stool. Parasitic gut infections are frequent in most regions where M. tuberculosis is endemic. This study, while preliminary, suggests that the tuberculin skin test should be interpreted with caution where this may be the case.

  20. RUBBING TEST RESPONSES OF THE SKIN TO MAN-MADE MINERAL FIBERS OF DIFFERENT DIAMETERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STAMWESTERVELD, EB; COENRAADS, PJ; VANDERVALK, PGM; DEJONG, MCJM; FIDLER, [No Value

    The irritant potency of 5 types of insulation wools (2 types of rockwool and 3 types of glasswool) were studied on the basis of their differences in diameter by a standardized rubbing test. Assessment was done by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and erythema scores. Insulation wools show a wide

  1. Evaluation of skin prick test sensitivity for 37 allergen extracts in atopic patients with nasal polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z A Ashour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion Negative SPT does not exclude allergy in atopic patients with nasal polyposis. Thus, before delivering a diagnosis of nonallergic rhinitis in patients with negative SPT to common allergen, further tests are needed. We recommend further studies to evaluate the prevalence, immunopathology, and management of local allergic rhinitis.

  2. Effect of skin test on serum antibody responses to Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, several serologic tests designed to detect immunodominant antibodies to M. bovis antigens (e.g., MPB83, MPB70, ESAT-6, and CFP10) have emerged for potential use with samples from cattle. Of these, a commercial ELISA to MPB83/MPB70 (M. bovis antibody ELISA) has gained approval for use in ca...

  3. Bovine Tuberculosis: Effect of the Tuberculin Skin Test on the Interferon Gamma Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a disease of zoonotic and economic importance. Despite intensive eradication efforts over decades, bTB continues to be a problem with global perspective. The control of bTB is based on a test and slaughter policy and/or abattoir surveillance. Two types of tu...

  4. RUBBING TEST RESPONSES OF THE SKIN TO MAN-MADE MINERAL FIBERS OF DIFFERENT DIAMETERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STAMWESTERVELD, EB; COENRAADS, PJ; VANDERVALK, PGM; DEJONG, MCJM; FIDLER, [No Value

    1994-01-01

    The irritant potency of 5 types of insulation wools (2 types of rockwool and 3 types of glasswool) were studied on the basis of their differences in diameter by a standardized rubbing test. Assessment was done by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and erythema scores. Insulation wools show a wide distrib

  5. Utilization of horse plasma in coagulase test for Staphylococci isolated from raw milk/ Utilização de plasma de cavalo no teste de coagulase em Estafilococos isolados de leite cru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Bilia de Moraes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are frequently related to food poisoning outbreaks that are caused by their enterotoxins. The enterotoxins production is highly correlated to coagulase production, which one is detected in identification of pathogenic strains. Usually the coagulase test is conducted using lyophilized rabbit plasma, or even fresh rabbit blood, separated by sedimentation. The lyophilized plasma has high costs and the fresh material is obtained in small volumes from the animals, what made it unpractical. The objective of this work was evaluating the utilization of an alternative material to rabbit plasma, in this case the horse plasma, in coagulase test for staphylococci isolated from raw milk. So, 410 typical and atypical staphylococci colonies were tested for coagulase production using both plasmas. The results showed 284 (69.26% positives for coagulase production and 126 (30.73% negatives, with 100% of concordance between both plasmas. These results indicate the viability in using horse plasma in coagulase test for staphylococci isolated from raw milk, and complementary studies are necessary with strains from different types of food.Estafilococos têm grande importância na indústria de alimentos por serem associados a surtos de intoxicação alimentar, pela ação de suas enterotoxinas. A produção dessas substâncias tem alta correlação com a produção da enzima coagulase, que é detectada na identificação de cepas potencialmente patogênicas. Esse teste é tradicionalmente realizado com plasma de coelho liofilizado ou pela sua separação de sangue coletado de coelhos. O plasma liofilizado tem alto custo e a punção cardíaca, além de ser bastante cruenta, permite a obtenção apenas de pequenos volumes de material. Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar a viabilidade da utilização de um material alternativo ao plasma de coelho, neste caso o plasma de cavalo, no teste de coagulase para estafilococos isolados de leite cru. Assim

  6. Smear grading and the Mantoux skin test can be used to predict sputum smear conversion in patients suffering from tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffari, Mahmood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Smear scores and induration sizes resulting from the PPD (tuberculin purified protein derivative test can serve as indicators of whether a patient suffering from tuberculosis shows smear conversion or not. Methods: Using microbiological methods smear and sputum tests, patients diagnosed as infected with between 2002 and 2015 were included in this study. All of the assumed factors that may have a role in smear conversion were studied, in addition to the prolongation of tuberculosis. Results: 398 of 512 patients fulfilled all the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of this study. 215 patients (54% were females and 183 (46% were males. The median age for both men and women was 36 years. We found a statistically significant difference between the size of induration resulting from the PPD skin test and the rate of non-conversion (=0.002. Further univariate analysis also showed that smear grading and an induration size of ≥10 mm were independently associated with delayed smear conversion. Patients with cavitary lesions showed a higher rate of non-conversion after two months, which was not significant. We could not find any association between some of the variables, such as age, sex, weight, smoking, alcoholism, addictions, respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, alternative anti-TB treatment, and smear conversion. Conclusion: Intensified treatment and precautions against transmission should be especially considered for TB patients with high smear grading and an induration size of more than 10 mm.

  7. Designing validation studies more efficiently according to the modular approach: retrospective analysis of the EPISKIN test for skin corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    It is claimed that the modular approach to validation, which involves seven independent modules, will make the assessment of test validity more flexible and more efficient. In particular, the aspects of between-laboratory variability and predictive capacity are formally separated. Here, the main advantage of the approach is to offer the opportunity for reduced labour, and thus to allow study designs to be more time efficient and cost effective. The impact of this separation was analysed by taking the ECVAM validation study on in vitro methods for skin corrosivity as an example of a successful validation study - two of its methods triggered new OECD test guidelines. Lean study designs, which reduced the number of tests required by up to 60%, were simulated with the original validation data for the EPISKIN model. By using resampling techniques, we were able to demonstrate the effects of the lean designs on three between-laboratory variability measures and on the predictive capacity in terms of sensitivity and specificity, in comparison with the original study. Overall, the study results, especially the levels of confidence, were only slightly affected by the lean designs that were modelled. It is concluded that the separation of the two modules is a promising way to speed-up prospective validation studies and to substantially reduce costs, without compromising study quality.

  8. Interferon-gamma release assay versus tuberculin skin test for latent tuberculosis infection among HIV patients in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussen, Gislene Maria Botão; Dalla-Costa, Libera Maria; Rossoni, Andrea; Raboni, Sonia Mara

    2016-01-01

    Patients HIV+ attending in a reference clinic, Southern Brazil. To compare the interferon-gamma-release assay (IGRA - QuantiFERON(®) TB Gold In-Tube) with the tuberculin skin test (TST - PPD-Rt 23) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in patients with HIV. Cohort study. Patients were simultaneously submitted to the TST and blood collection for the IGRA. A total of 140 subjects were included. Nine (6.4%) were IGRA+/TST+, 12 (8.6%) were IGRA+/TST-, 4 (3%) were IGRA-/TST+, and 115 (82%) IGRA-/TST-. There was poor agreement between tests (kappa=0.2), and no correlation between these results and CD4+ T lymphocyte counts. During follow-up, one patient with negative results on both tests died from sepsis, and another with discordant results (IGRA+/TST-) exhibited TST seroconversion. Compared to the TST, IGRA showed a sensitivity and specificity of 69% and 90%, respectively. The IGRA detected 8% more positive results than the TST. All patients were followed up for 2 years. The higher accuracy of the IGRA would result in LTBI treatments being administered to patients who would have otherwise been overlooked, decreasing the number of active tuberculosis cases. The long-term survival of HIV carriers requires further evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Occupational skin allergies: testing and treatment (the case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, D Linn

    2014-02-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis, including occupational allergic contact dermatitis, is one of the most common occupational diseases. Making a timely and accurate diagnosis is important to improving the outcome. Taking a work history and patch testing are essential elements in the diagnostic process. Management, based on an accurate diagnosis, must include both medical treatment to address the disease and workplace modifications as appropriate to reduce exposure the causative agents.

  10. Skin Prick Test Results of Canakkale Onsekizmart University Faculty of Medicine Dermatology Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Isik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aimed to evaluate the prick test results of the patients with chronic urticaria, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis who attended to dermatology department of Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Medicine. Material and Method: The prick test results of 583 patients with chronic urticaria, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis were assessed retrospectively for this study. 50 standard allergens including pollens, grass, weed, fungal allergens, latex, cat fur, dog hair, house dust mites and foods were performed to the patients. Results: The ages of the patients were between 3 and 70 (mean age was 30.6±17.5. At least one positive prick test result to any allergen were obtained in 359 patients (61.6%. The most common allergens were; house dust mites (50.5%, weed(28.8%, polen grains(29%, tomato (13.7%, coffee (13.1%, chicken meat (13.0% and chocolate (12.7%, respectively. Discussion: We think that our study will help to contribute to the allergen map of our country.

  11. Risk of sensitization in healthy adults following repeated administration of rdESAT-6 skin test reagent by the Mantoux injection technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebaek, Troels; Bergstedt, Winnie; Tingskov, Pernille N;

    2009-01-01

    1 open clinical trial was to assess the sensitization risk and safety of repeated administration of rdESAT-6 reagent in 31 healthy adult volunteers. Three groups of volunteers received two fixed doses of 0.1 microg rdESAT-6 28, 56 or 112 days apart, respectively. After the second injection......Limited specificity of the tuberculin skin test incited the development of the intradermal Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific rdESAT-6 skin test. Animal studies have shown, however, that there is a possible risk of sensitization when repeated injections of rdESAT-6 are given. The aim of this phase...

  12. Applicability of an exaggerated forearm wash test for efficacy testing of two corticosteroids, tacrolimus and glycerol, in topical formulations against skin irritation induced by two different irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, T K

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Alternatives to corticosteroids in the treatment of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) are needed and may include glycerol and topical immunomodulators like tacrolimus. Because the efficacy of different treatments in experimentally induced ICD may vary depending on the irritant......, respectively) in a cumulative wash test. Induction of ICD was obtained by three daily washings for 7 days, followed by a maintenance phase with two daily washings for 12 days. Treatment (triamcinolone acetonide, clobetasol propionate, tacrolimus and glycerol ointment) was started at day 7 and applied...... toward worsened irritancy by tacrolimus on SLS-irritated skin. Explained variance in the experiment by anova revealed a very small effect of treatments compared with an immense and significant subject effect. Conclusion: No claims of effective anti-irritant properties for any of the ointments can...

  13. Life Testing of the Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor for the ProSEDS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta 11 unmanned expendable booster. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma. A hollow cathode plasma contactor emits the collected electrons from the Delta II, completing the electrical circuit with the ambient plasma. The current flowing through the tether generates thrust based on the Lorentz Force Law. The thrust will be generated opposite to the velocity vector, slowing down the spacecraft and causing it to de-orbit in approximately 14 days compared to the normal 6 months. A 10-km non-conductive tether is between the conductive tether and an endmass containing several scientific instruments. The ProSEDS mission lifetime was set at I day because most of the primary objectives can be met in that time. The extended ProSEDS mission will be for as many days as possible, until the Delta 11 second stage burns up or the tether is severed by a micrometeoroid or space debris particle. The Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (HCPC) unit has been designed for a 12-day mission. Because of the science requirements to measure the background ambient plasma, the HCPC must operate on a duty cycle. Later in the ProSEDS mission, the HCPC is operated in a manner to allow charging of the secondary battery. Due to the unusual operating requirements by the ProSEDS mission, a development unit of the HCPC was built for thorough testing. This developmental unit was tested for a simulated ProSEDS mission, with measurements of the ability to start and stop during the duty cycle. These tests also provided valuable data for the ProSEDS software requirements. Qualification tests of the HCPC flight hardware are also discussed.

  14. Green-Kubo relation for viscosity tested using experimental data for a 2D dusty plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Bin; Cohen, E G D

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical Green-Kubo relation for viscosity is tested using experimentally obtained data. In a dusty plasma experiment, micron-size dust particles are introduced into a partially-ionized argon plasma, where they become negatively charged. They are electrically levitated to form a single-layer Wigner crystal, which is subsequently melted using laser heating. In the liquid phase, these dust particles experience interparticle electric repulsion, laser heating, and friction from the ambient neutral argon gas, and they can be considered to be in a nonequilibrium steady state. Direct measurements of the positions and velocities of individual dust particles are then used to obtain a time series for an off-diagonal element of the stress tensor and its time autocorrelation function. This calculation also requires the interparticle potential, which was not measured experimentally, but was obtained using a Debye-H\\"{u}ckel-type model with experimentally determined parameters. Integrating the autocorrelation functi...

  15. The correlation between intradermal testing and serum specific IgE to house dust mite in negative skin prick test allergic rhinitis adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn; Danpornprasert, Piyanart; Ngaotepprutaram, Premyot; Assanasen, Paraya; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Thinkhamrop, Bandit

    2015-12-01

    Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) is based on history, physical examination, and skin prick test (SPT) while intradermal (ID) test can be performed to confirm the diagnosis in case of negative result of SPT. However, the ID test is not recommended for cat and timothy grass allergy because of its high false positive rate. As a result, the "quantitative" technique of serum specific IgE (sIgE) measurement might be helpful to diagnose AR with more confidence. To evaluate the correlation between ID tests and sIgE in the diagnosis of house dust mite (HDM)-sensitive AR patients. Patients with chronic rhinitis (CR) were recruited and SPT was performed. If SPT was negative, ID test and sIgE to HDM [Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp)] measurement were performed. Eighty-two patients with chronic rhinitis (CR), whose SPTs were negative for Dp, were included. There were 39 males (47.6%) and 43 females (52.4%) aged between 18 and 76 years old (mean age = 43.3 years). The ID test was positive in 13 patients (15.9%), and was negative in 69 patients (84.1 %). sIgE to HDM was positive ( ≥ 0.35 kUA/l) in 2 patients (2.4%). There was a fair to moderate correlation between the size of wheal of ID test and sIgE to HDM (r = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.67, p correlation with sIgE Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and it can be used in CR patients with negative SPT where sIgE is not feasible.

  16. T-Spot.TB outperforms tuberculin skin test in predicting development of active tuberculosis among household contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi Chiu; Yam, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Leung; Yew, Wing Wai; Chan, Chi Kuen; Law, Wing Sze; Lee, Shuk Nor; Chang, Kwok Chiu; Tai, Lai Bun; Tam, Cheuk Ming

    2015-04-01

    In Hong Kong, neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination is practiced with 99% coverage. This study was to compare the performance of T-Spot.TB and tuberculin skin test (TST) in predicting tuberculosis (TB) among household contacts. From 1 March 2006 to 31 July 2010, 1049 asymptomatic household contacts of smear-positive patients were simultaneously tested with T-Spot.TB and TST, and then followed for up to 5 years for development of TB. Attending clinicians and subjects were blinded to the results of T-Spot.TB. T-Spot.TB gave a significantly higher positive rate (32.7% vs 22.1%) and better association with exposure time than TST at the 15 mm cut-off. Agreement between T-Spot.TB and TST using cut-offs of 5, 10 and 15 mm were relatively poor (kappa 0.25-0.41) irrespective of presence or absence of BCG scar. Only T-Spot.TB positivity was negatively associated with BCG scar. Both T-Spot.TB (incidence rate ratio between test-positive and test-negative subjects, IRR: 8.2) and TST (IRR: 4.1, 6.1 and 2.8, using cut-offs of 5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm, respectively) helped to predict TB. Using a TST cut-off of 15 mm, 56% of future TB cases and 62.5% of bacteriologically confirmed cases were missed. Lowering the TST cut-off to 10 mm or 5 mm could achieve sensitivity comparable with that of T-Spot.TB, but at the expense of lower specificities, with more positive tests (thus requiring treatment) per case of TB predicted. T-Spot.TB outperformed TST in predicting TB among household contacts in a high-income area with widespread BCG vaccination coverage. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. Tuberculin skin test and interferon-γ release assay show better correlation after the tuberculin 'window period' in tuberculosis contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibarro, Luis; Trigo, Matilde; Villaverde, Carlos; Pena, Alberto; González-Fernández, Africa

    2011-07-01

    T-cell interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have been shown to be effective tools for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, offering an enhanced specificity compared to the tuberculin skin test (TST). Most tuberculosis (TB) contact studies have shown a better correlation of IGRA with the intensity of M. tuberculosis exposure than that obtained using the TST. However, the correlation between tests performed before and after the tuberculin 'window period' (time between infection and when the immunological response becomes measurable) remains to be studied. A longitudinal prospective analysis was performed in TB contacts. We analyzed the correlation between a commercially available IGRA (QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-Tube, QFT) and the TST before and after the tuberculin window period (2 months). Concordance between both tests was assessed using the Kappa coefficient (κ). Correlation of both tests with the degree of TB exposure was also analyzed. One hundred and fifty-two TB contacts were included in the study. Agreement between the TST and IGRA was better after the window period (κ = 0.60 at the first visit and κ = 0.73 after 2 months), especially for non-BCG vaccinated subjects (κ = 0.81). Both a positive TST and QFT were correlated, after the window period, with the size of place of contact (the smaller the place of contact, the higher the probability of having a positive test) (p = 0.022 and p = 0.02, respectively) and with the total numbers of hours spent with the index case (p = 0.006 for TST and p = 0.007 for QFT). IGRAs are a good alternative to the TST in contact tracing studies, especially after the tuberculin window period.

  18. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Transfer Rate Using a Thin-Skin Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the design and use of a thin metallic calorimeter for measuring heat transfer rate (also called heat flux). Thermocouples are attached to the unexposed surface of the calorimeter. A one-dimensional heat flow analysis is used for calculating the heat transfer rate from the temperature measurements. Applications include aerodynamic heating, laser and radiation power measurements, and fire safety testing. 1.2 Advantages 1.2.1 Simplicity of ConstructionThe calorimeter may be constructed from a number of materials. The size and shape can often be made to match the actual application. Thermocouples may be attached to the metal by spot, electron beam, or laser welding. 1.2.2 Heat transfer rate distributions may be obtained if metals with low thermal conductivity, such as some stainless steels, are used. 1.2.3 The calorimeters can be fabricated with smooth surfaces, without insulators or plugs and the attendant temperature discontinuities, to provide more realistic flow conditions for ...

  19. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from Radio Frequency plasma) experiment: tests in BATMAN (BAvarian Test Machine for Negative ions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombin, M; Spolaore, M; Serianni, G; Pomaro, N; Taliercio, C; Dalla Palma, M; Pasqualotto, R; Schiesko, L

    2014-11-01

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors' holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  20. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombin, M., E-mail: matteo.brombin@igi.cnr.it; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Schiesko, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors’ holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  1. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombin, M.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-11-01

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors' holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  2. Interferon-Gamma Release Assays versus Tuberculin Skin Testing for the Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: An Overview of the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A profusion of articles have been published on the accuracy and uses of interferon-gamma releasing assays. Here we review the clinical applications, advantages, and limitations of the tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays and provide an overview of the most recent systematic reviews conducted for different indications for the use of these tests. We conclude that both tests are accurate to detect latent tuberculosis, although interferon-gamma release assays have higher speci...

  3. The value of counting BCG scars for interpretation of tuberculin skin tests in a tuberculosis hyperendemic shanty-town, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M.; Bautista, C. T.; Gilman, R. H.; Bowering, A.; Levy, M. Z.; Evans, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING The tuberculin skin test (TST) is widely used as a diagnostic or screening test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. A peri-urban shanty-town in the desert hills of south Lima, Peru, highly endemic for tuberculosis, and where bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine had been given in multiple doses until 1995. OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of multiple BCG vaccines on TST in a community-based setting. DESIGN Point-prevalence survey of TST reactions of 572 people aged 6–26 years from 255 households. TST reactions were compared to the observed number of BCG scars and other potential risk factors (age, living with a TST-positive person, and contact with active tuberculosis). RESULT People with two or more scars had significantly larger reactions, even after adjusting for potential risk factors. The adjusted population attributable fraction of being TST-positive and having two or more BCG scars was 26%. CONCLUSION There is no demonstrated benefit of repeat BCG vaccination. We therefore recommend that physicians take into consideration the number of BCG scars when interpreting the TST and that programs give no more than one BCG vaccination. PMID:15260275

  4. Positive tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma release assay in patients with radiographic lesion suggesting old healed tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Yoon, Soonho; Koo, Hyeon-kyoung; Lim, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Ji Sun; Lee, Sang-Min; Yang, Seok-Chul; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young-Whan; Han, Sung-Koo; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2012-07-01

    Radiographic lesions suggesting old healed tuberculosis (TB) is considered a risk factor for the subsequent development of active TB. The aim of this study was to estimate the positive rates of tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) in persons with old healed TB. Participants with lesions suggesting old healed TB on chest images and controls without such lesions were prospectively enrolled between January 1, 2010, and January 31, 2011. TST and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) were performed. In total, 193 participants with old healed TB and 126 controls were recruited. The rates of positive TST and QFT-GIT among patients with old healed TB were 54.6% and 77.7%, respectively. The rates of positive TST and QFT-GIT among patients without old healed TB were 38.9% and 61.9%. Sixteen percent of participants with old healed TB showed negative results by both TST and QFT-GIT. The positive rate of TST waned among participants with old healed TB who were older than 60 yr, whereas QFT-GIT positivity was unaffected by age. The positive rates of TST and IGRA among participants with radiographic lesions suggesting old healed TB was higher than without those lesions. In addition, IGRA may be more accurate than TST for the detection of latent TB infection, especially in populations of individuals older than 60 yr.

  5. Autologous serum skin test as an indicator of chronic autoimmune urticaria in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaikalampillai Ganapathy Vikramkumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autologous serum skin test (ASST is a simple in-vivo clinical test for the detection of basophil histamine releasing activity and to diagnose chronic autoimmune urticaria (CAU among chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU patients. Diagnosing these patients is also important as they may need high doses of antihistamines and systemic corticosteroids during acute exacerbations. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of CAU among cases of CSU by using ASST. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done among 48 patients presenting with CSU. Detailed history, physical examination and routine investigations were recorded for all patients. ASST was done on all the 48 patients. Results: Of the 48 patients included in the study, 20 patients (41.6% were ASST positive, while the remaining 28 (58% were ASST negative. The median duration of disease in both ASST positive and negative patients was 1 year. ASST positivity was higher (66.6% among patients with a history of round shaped weals, though not statistically significant. ASST positivity was seen in 5 (71.4% out of seven patients with systemic involvement, which was again not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study did not show any significant difference between patients with and without antibodies regarding mean age and sex distribution, clinical morphology of individual weals, duration, severity, systemic symptoms, angioedema, atopy, and association with other autoimmune conditions.

  6. Evaluation of fibrin-based dermal-epidermal organotypic cultures for in vitro skin corrosion and irritation testing of chemicals according to OECD TG 431 and 439.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Mariana; Pérez, David; Correa, Luis; Restrepo, Luz

    2016-10-01

    Reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) models have been used for in vitro testing of the potential harmful effects of exposure to chemical compounds on health. In the past, skin irritation and corrosion were evaluated in animal models; however, in recent years, due to the bioethics implications of the method and, to minimize the use of experimental animals, alternative procedures have been proposed. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in its test guidelines (TG) 431 and 439 indicates the requirements for validating new methods for the evaluation of skin corrosion and irritation, respectively. Here, we present an in-house human dermal-epidermal model, useful for the performance of these tests. Using the methods described in this work, it was possible to obtain human fibrin-based dermal-epidermal organotypic skin cultures (ORGs) displaying similar histological characteristics to native skin and expressing specific differentiation epithelial proteins. The end points to classify a substance as irritant or corrosive were cell viability evaluated by MTT assay, and cytokine release measured by BD CBA for human inflammatory cytokines. According to the MTT test, the ORGs correctly classified irritating and corrosive substances. Moreover, the cytokine release assay was difficult to interpret in the context of testing chemical hazard classification. Further experiments are needed to validate this new model for the evaluation of surfactants because the fibrin matrix was affected in the presence of these substances.

  7. Tuberculin Skin Test and QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube Test for Diagnosing Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Thai Healthcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Rudeeaneksin, Janisara; Srisungngam, Sopa; Bunchoo, Supranee; Phetsuksiri, Benjawan

    2016-05-20

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on the performance of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-IT) for detecting latent tuberculosis infection among Thai healthcare workers (HCWs). Each HCW underwent both the TST and QFT-IT during the annual health screening. Among the 260 HCWs enrolled, the median age was 30 years (range 19-60 years), 92% were women, 64% were nurses and nurse assistants, 78% were Bacillus Calmette Guérin vaccinated, and 37% had previously taken the TST. Correlation between TST reaction size and the interferon-γ level was weak (r = 0.29; P tuberculosis diagnosis, the cut-off for TST reactivity with the best performance was ≥13 mm with a sensitivity, specificity, false positivity, and false negativity of 71%, 70%, 30%, and 29%, respectively (area under the curve 0.73; P < 0.001). The independent factor associated with a false reactive TST was a previous TST (adjusted odds ratio 1.83; P = 0.04). Our findings suggest that the QFT-IT may be the preferred test among HCWs with previous TST. In settings where the QFT-IT is not available, appropriate cut-offs for TST reactivity should be evaluated for use among HCWs.

  8. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests. PMID:21824406

  9. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrekt Ann-Sofie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests.

  10. Periodic Exposure of Keratinocytes to Cold Physical Plasma: An In Vitro Model for Redox-Related Diseases of the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress illustrates an imbalance between radical formation and removal. Frequent redox stress is critically involved in many human pathologies including cancer, psoriasis, and chronic wounds. However, reactive species pursue a dual role being involved in signaling on the one hand and oxidative damage on the other. Using a HaCaT keratinocyte cell culture model, we investigated redox regulation and inflammation to periodic, low-dose oxidative stress after two, six, eight, ten, and twelve weeks. Chronic redox stress was generated by recurrent incubation with cold physical plasma-treated cell culture medium. Using transcriptome microarray technology, we identified both acute ROS-stress responses as well as numerous adaptions after several weeks of redox challenge. We determined a differential expression (2-fold, FDR < 0.01, p<0.05 of 260 genes that function in inflammation and redox homeostasis, such as cytokines (e.g., IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, growth factors (e.g., CSF2, FGF, and IGF-2, and antioxidant enzymes (e.g., HMOX, NQO1, GPX, and PRDX. Apoptotic signaling was affected rather modestly, especially in p53 downstream targets (e.g., BCL2, BBC3, and GADD45. Strikingly, the cell-protective heat shock protein HSP27 was strongly upregulated (p<0.001. These results suggested cellular adaptions to frequent redox stress and may help to better understand the inflammatory responses in redox-related diseases.

  11. Comparison of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) toluidine red unheated serum test and the CSF rapid plasma reagin test with the CSF venereal disease research laboratory test for diagnosis of neurosyphilis among HIV-negative syphilis patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Gu, Xin; Peng, Rui-Rui; Wang, Cuini; Gao, Zixiao; Zhou, Pingyu; Gao, Ying; Shi, Mei; Guan, Zhifang; Seña, Arlene C

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commercial RPR antigen diluted 1:2 in 10% saline) test, the toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Specificities, sensitivities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and kappa values were calculated to determine the performances of the tests. We compared results of the CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST among patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic neurosyphilis who had reactive CSF-Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test results. Overall, the CSF-VDRL test was reactive in 261 patients (23.1%). There were no cases in which the CSF-VDRL was nonreactive and CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, or CSF-TRUST was reactive. Agreement between the results of CSF-TRUST and CSF-RPR was almost perfect (κ=0.861), with substantial agreement between the results of CSF-RPR and CSF-RPR-V (κ=0.740). The sensitivities of CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST were 81.4%, 76.2%, 79.5%, and 76.2%, respectively. Compared to CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST had comparable PPVs and NPVs. However, the specificity of CSF-VDRL (90.3%) was significantly lower than those of the other tests (92.7 to 93.4%). Therefore, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST can be considered alternative tests for neurosyphilis diagnosis in HIV-negative populations, particularly when the CSF-VDRL is not available.

  12. Randomized Clinical Trial of the Innovative Bilayered Wound Dressing Made of Silk and Gelatin: Safety and Efficacy Tests Using a Split-Thickness Skin Graft Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhontha Hasatsri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed the novel silk fibroin-based bilayered wound dressing for the treatment of partial thickness wounds. And it showed relevant characteristics and accelerated the healing of full-thickness wounds in a rat model. This study is the clinical evaluation of the bilayered wound dressing to confirm its safety and efficacy for the treatment of split-thickness skin donor sites. The safety test was performed using a patch model and no evidence of marked and severe cutaneous reactions was found. The efficacy test of the bilayered wound dressing was conducted on 23 patients with 30 split-thickness skin graft donor sites to evaluate healing time, pain score, skin barrier function, and systemic reaction in comparison to Bactigras. We found that the healing time of donor site wounds treated with the bilayered wound dressing (11 ± 6 days was significantly faster than those treated with Bactigras (14 ± 6 days (p=10-6. The wound sites treated with the bilayered wound dressing showed significantly less pain and more rapid skin functional barrier recovery than those treated with Bactigras (p=10-5. Therefore, these results confirmed the clinical safety and efficacy of the bilayered wound dressing for the treatment of split-thickness skin graft donor sites.

  13. Reaction-in-Flight Neutrons as a Test of Stopping Power in Degenerate Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C; Schulz, A E; Boswell, M; Fowler, M M; Grim, G; Klein, A; Rundberg, R S; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilson, D

    2014-01-01

    We present the first measurements of reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons in an inertial confinement fusion system. The experiments were carried out at the National Ignition Facility, using both Low Foot and High Foot drives and cryogenic plastic capsules. In both cases, the high-energy RIF ($E_n>$ 15 MeV) component of the neutron spectrum was found to be about $10^{-4}$ of the total. The majority of the RIF neutrons were produced in the dense cold fuel surrounding the burning hotspot of the capsule and the data are consistent with a compressed cold fuel that is moderately to strongly coupled $(\\Gamma\\sim$0.6) and electron degenerate $(\\theta_\\mathrm{Fermi}/\\theta_e\\sim$4). The production of RIF neutrons is controlled by the stopping power in the plasma. Thus, the current RIF measurements provide a unique test of stopping power models in an experimentally unexplored plasma regime. We find that the measured RIF data strongly constrain stopping models in warm dense plasma conditions and some models are ruled out b...

  14. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  15. Laser-Plasma Interactions on NIKE and the Fusion Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lee; Weaver, James

    2008-11-01

    Recent proposed designs for a Fusion Test Facility (FTF) (Obenchain et al., Phys. Plasmas 13 056320 (2006)) for direct-drive ICF targets for energy applications involve high implosion velocities combined with higher laser irradiances. The use of high irradiances increases the likelihood of deleterious laser plasma instabilities (LPI) but the proposed use of a 248 nm KrF laser to drive these targets is expected to minimize the LPI risk. We examine, using simulation results from NRL's FAST hydrocode, the proposed operational regimes of the FTF in relation to the thresholds for the SRS, SBS, and 2-plasmon instabilities. Simulations are also used to help design and interpret ongoing experiments being conducted at NRL's NIKE facility for the purpose of generating and studying LPI. Target geometries and laser pulseshapes were devised in order to create plasma conditions with long scalelengths and low electron temperatures that allow the growth of parametric instabilities. These simulations include the effects of finite beam angles through the use of raytracing.

  16. Thickness measurement approach for plasma sprayed coatings using ultrasonic testing technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Li; LI Xi-meng; XU Zhi-hui; LEI Ming-kai

    2004-01-01

    The special ultrasonic testing system has been developed for thickness measurement of plasma sprayed coatings. The ultrasonic immersion method was used to obtain stable coupling condition and avoid other disadvantages of contact method. Spherical acoustic lens were designed to focus ultrasonic beam so as to improve beam directivity and concentrate ultrasonic energy. To increase testing precision and avoid mussy wave signals, moderate pulse width and frequency of the transducer has been selected. The displacement of transducer in X-Y-Z directions was precisely manipulated by step-controlled system to insure the accuracy of focus length and repetition of measurement. Optimized testing conditions (with the transducer of center frequency of 10 MHz and crystal diameter of 8 mm, focus length of 9.5 mm, diameter of focal column of 0. 1 mm and length of focal column of 0.27 mm) were selected to determine the thickness between 285 -414 μm of ZrO2 coatings plasma sprayed on the nickel based superalloy. The frequency interval of the periodic extremums in ultrasonic power spectra decreases with increasing coating thickness. The ultrasonic results accord with those of metallographical method.

  17. Thermal Conductivity Analysis and Lifetime Testing of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying (SPS has become an interesting method for the production of thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine components. The development of the SPS process has led to structures with segmented vertical cracks or column-like structures that can imitate strain-tolerant air plasma spraying (APS or electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD coatings. Additionally, SPS coatings can have lower thermal conductivity than EB-PVD coatings, while also being easier to produce. The combination of similar or improved properties with a potential for lower production costs makes SPS of great interest to the gas turbine industry. This study compares a number of SPS thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with vertical cracks or column-like structures with the reference of segmented APS coatings. The primary focus has been on lifetime testing of these new coating systems. Samples were tested in thermo-cyclic fatigue at temperatures of 1100 °C for 1 h cycles. Additional testing was performed to assess thermal shock performance and erosion resistance. Thermal conductivity was also assessed for samples in their as-sprayed state, and the microstructures were investigated using SEM.

  18. Comparing interferon-gamma release assays to tuberculin skin test in Thai children with tuberculosis exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Van Tieu

    Full Text Available Data on the performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs, QuantiFERON TB Gold In-tube (QFNGIT and T-Spot.TB, in diagnosing tuberculosis (TB are limited in Southeast Asia. This study aims to compare the performances of the two IGRAs and TST in Thai children with recent TB exposure.This multicenter, prospective study enrolled children with recent exposure to active TB adults. Children were investigated for active TB. TST was performed and blood collected for T-Spot.TB and QFNGIT.158 children were enrolled (87% TB-exposed and 13% active TB, mean age 7.2 years. Only 3 children had HIV infection. 66.7% had TST≥10 mm, while 38.6% had TST≥15 mm. 32.5% had positive QFNGIT; 29.9% had positive T-Spot.TB. QFNGIT and T-Spot.TB positivity was higher among children with active TB compared with TB-exposed children. No indeterminate IGRA results were detected. No statistically significant differences between the performances of the IGRAs and TST at the two cut-offs with increasing TB exposure were detected. Concordance for positive IGRAs and TST ranged from 42-46% for TST≥10 mm and 62-67% for TST≥15 mm. On multivariable analyses, exposure to household primary/secondary caregiver with TB was associated with positive QFNGIT. Higher TB contact score and active TB were associated with positive T-Spot.TB.Both QFNGIT and T-Spot.TB performed well in our Thai pediatric study population. No differences in the performances between tests with increasing TB exposure were found. Due to accessibility and low cost, using TST may more ideal than IGRAs in diagnosing latent and active TB in healthy children in Thailand and other similar settings.

  19. Autologous serum skin test response in chronic spontaneous urticaria and respiratory diseases and its relationship with serum interleukin-18 level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Emel; Aktas, Ayse; Aksu, Kurtulus; Keren, Metin; Dokumacioglu, Ali; Goss, Christopher H; Alatas, Ozkan

    2011-11-01

    Autologous serum skin test (ASST) is mostly used in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) to show autoreactivity. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has also been shown to be involved in autoimmune conditions. To investigate the role of autoreactivity assessed by ASST in CSU and respiratory diseases and to investigate whether this autoreactive state is related to IL-18 level or other clinical covariates. Fifty-five patients with CSU (mean age: 40.3 ± 12.3 years), 70 patients with persistent asthma (mean age: 43.7 ± 9.6 years), 21 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) (mean age: 35.5 ± 11.8 years) and 20 normal controls (mean age: 37.7 ± 9.8) were included. All subjects underwent a laboratory examination and skin prick test. ASST was performed and serum IL-18 levels were measured in all subjects. Positive response to ASST and serum IL-18 levels were higher in CSU patients than those with respiratory diseases (asthma and SAR) (P = 0.034 and 0.002, respectively) and normal controls (P = 0.004 and 0.031, respectively). Considering all patients, IL-18 levels were higher in patients with positive ASST (301.8 ± 194.4 vs. 241.8 ± 206.3 pg/ml, P = 0.036) than ASST negative patients. ASST response was associated with disease severity in CSU (P = 0.037) and asthma patients (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that positive response to ASST was significantly associated with diagnosis of CSU (OR: 3.13, 95% CI: 1.25-7.87) and female gender (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.19-13.38). ASST response could be related with activity of the disease. A positive ASST response found in respiratory diseases patients suggests that it may occur as a result of some inflammatory events during the diseases' process.

  20. Derivation and Testing of Computer Algorithms for Automatic Real-Time Determination of Space Vehicle Potentials in Various Plasma Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-31

    COMPUTER ALGORITHMS FOR AUTOMATIC REAL-TIME DETERMINATION OF SPACE VEHICLE POTENTIALS IN VARIOUS PLASMA ENVIRONMENTS May 31, 1988 Stanley L. Spiegel...crrnaion DiviSiofl 838 12 2 DERIVATION AND TESTING OF COMPUTER ALGORITHMS FOR AUTOMATIC REAL-TIME DETERMINATION OF SPACE VEHICLE POTENTIALS IN VARIOUS...S.L., "Derivation and testing of computer algorithms for automatic real time determination of space vehicle poteuatials in various plasma

  1. Tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube Test for latent tuberculosis in Thai HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Phetsuksiri, Benjawan; Rudeeaneksin, Janisara; Srisungngam, Sopa; Mundy, Linda M

    2015-02-01

    Limited data exist for the performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube Test (QFT-IT) in comparison to tuberculin skin test (TST) for detecting latent tuberculosis (LTB) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection from tuberculosis (TB)-endemic Asia-Pacific countries. A cohort study of Thai HIV-infected patients without history of TB or LTB treatment was conducted from March 2012 through March 2013. Each patient underwent simultaneous TST and QFT-IT. Among the 150 enrolled subjects, the median age was 40 years (range 17-65), 53% were male, and the median CD4 count was 367 cells/μL (range 8-1290). Reactive TST and positive QFT-IT were 16% and 13%, respectively, with low concordance between tests (kappa = 0.26); correlation between TST reaction size and level of interferon-γ was moderate (r = 0.34). Independent factors associated with discordant results were long-term smoking (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.74; P = 0.002) for TST-reactive, QFT-IT-negative subjects, and age greater than 52 years (aOR 5.56; P = 0.02) and female gender (aOR 4.40; P = 0.04) for TST non-reactive, QFT-IT-positive subjects. The level of agreement between both tests improved when using a TST cut-off of ≥ 10 mm (kappa = 0.39). In our setting where QFT-IT is available but has limited use due to cost, TST with a cut-off of 10 mm for reactivity should be the initial LTB test. HIV-infected women and persons older than 52 years with non-reactive TST and long-term smokers with reactive TST may benefit from subsequent QFT-IT. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  2. Absorption of ethanol, acetone, benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane through human skin in vitro: a test of diffusion model predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajjar, Rachna M.; Kasting, Gerald B., E-mail: Gerald.Kasting@uc.edu

    2014-11-15

    The overall goal of this research was to further develop and improve an existing skin diffusion model by experimentally confirming the predicted absorption rates of topically-applied volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on their physicochemical properties, the skin surface temperature, and the wind velocity. In vitro human skin permeation of two hydrophilic solvents (acetone and ethanol) and two lipophilic solvents (benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane) was studied in Franz cells placed in a fume hood. Four doses of each {sup 14}C-radiolabed compound were tested — 5, 10, 20, and 40 μL cm{sup −2}, corresponding to specific doses ranging in mass from 5.0 to 63 mg cm{sup −2}. The maximum percentage of radiolabel absorbed into the receptor solutions for all test conditions was 0.3%. Although the absolute absorption of each solvent increased with dose, percentage absorption decreased. This decrease was consistent with the concept of a stratum corneum deposition region, which traps small amounts of solvent in the upper skin layers, decreasing the evaporation rate. The diffusion model satisfactorily described the cumulative absorption of ethanol; however, values for the other VOCs were underpredicted in a manner related to their ability to disrupt or solubilize skin lipids. In order to more closely describe the permeation data, significant increases in the stratum corneum/water partition coefficients, K{sub sc}, and modest changes to the diffusion coefficients, D{sub sc}, were required. The analysis provided strong evidence for both skin swelling and barrier disruption by VOCs, even by the minute amounts absorbed under these in vitro test conditions. - Highlights: • Human skin absorption of small doses of VOCs was measured in vitro in a fume hood. • The VOCs tested were ethanol, acetone, benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane. • Fraction of dose absorbed for all compounds at all doses tested was less than 0.3%. • The more aggressive VOCs absorbed at higher levels than

  3. Plasma proteins in a standardised skin mini-erosion (I: permeability changes as a function of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Terence J

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A standardised technique using a suction-induced mini-erosion that allows serial sampling of dermal interstitial fluid (IF for 5 to 6 days has been described. In the present study, we studied permeability changes as a function of time. Methods We examined IF concentrations of total protein concentration and the concentration of insulin (6.6 kDa, prealbumin (55 kDa, albumin (66 kDa, transferrin (80 kDa, IgG (150 kDa and alpha-2-macroglobulin (720 kDa as a function of time, using an extraction pressure of 200 mmHg below atmospheric. Results At 0 h after forming the erosion, mean total IF protein content (relative to plasma was 26 ± 13% (SD. For the individual proteins, the relative mean concentrations were 65 ± 36% for insulin, 48 ± 12% for albumin, 30 ± 19% for transferrin, 31 ± 15%for IgG and 19.5 ± 10% for alpha-2-macroglobulin. At 24 h, the total IF protein content was higher than at 0 h (56 ± 26% vs 26 ± 13%; p Conclusions The results indicate that fluid sampled at 0 h after forming the erosion represents dermal IF before the full onset of inflammation. From 24 h onward, the sampled fluid reflects a steady state of increased permeability induced by inflammation. This technique is promising as a tool for clinically sampling substances that are freely distributed in the body and as a model for studying inflammation and vascular permeability.

  4. Comparison of T-SPOT.TB assay and tuberculin skin test for the evaluation of young children at high risk for tuberculosis in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Mark P; Davies, Mary-Ann; Wood, Kathryn; Hatherill, Mark; Workman, Lesley; Hawkridge, Anthony; Eley, Brian; Wilkinson, Katalin A; Wilkinson, Robert J; Hanekom, Willem A; Beatty, David; Hussey, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    We wished to compare the sensitivity of an enzyme-linked immunospot assay (T-SPOT.TB; Oxford Immunotec, Oxford, United Kingdom) and the tuberculin skin test for the detection of tuberculosis infection in very young children being evaluated for active tuberculosis in a rural community setting. Children with a history of exposure to tuberculosis and children presenting to a local clinic or hospital with symptoms suggesting tuberculosis were admitted to a dedicated case verification ward. T-SPOT.TB testing was performed, and children were evaluated with a clinical examination, a tuberculin skin test, chest radiographs, and cultures of induced sputum and gastric lavage specimens. The diagnosis was determined by using a clinical algorithm. A total of 243 children (median age: 18 months) were recruited, of whom 214 (88%) had interpretable T-SPOT.TB results. Children > or =12 months of age were more likely than younger children to have positive T-SPOT.TB results, whereas tuberculin skin test results were unaffected by age. The sensitivity of the T-SPOT.TB was no better than that of the tuberculin skin test for culture-confirmed tuberculosis (50% and 80%, respectively) and was poorer for the combined group of culture-confirmed and clinically probable tuberculosis (40% and 52%, respectively). For the 50 children clinically categorized as not having tuberculosis, the specificity of both the T-SPOT.TB and the tuberculin skin test was 84%. For young children presenting in a community setting after exposure to tuberculosis or with symptoms suggesting tuberculosis, T-SPOT.TB cannot be used to exclude active disease. The sensitivity of this assay may be impaired for very young children.

  5. [Development of a computer-assisted thermoelectric Peltier cold test procedure with integrated photoplethysmography unit for noninvasive evaluation of acral skin circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyscz, T; Hahn, M; Beck, W; Blazek, V; Rassner, G; Jünger, M

    1997-09-01

    Local cold provocation tests are an important, non-invasive diagnostic tool for collecting information about skin perfusion during exposure to cold. In patients suffering from vasospastic circulatory disorders such as Raynaud's phenomenon, it is of particular importance to be able to collect data about acral circulation during the cooling