WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma skin fat

  1. Plasma skin regeneration technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, M A

    2006-09-01

    Plasma skin regeneration (PSR) technology uses energy delivered from plasma rather than light or radiofrequency. Plasma is the fourth state of matter in which electrons are stripped from atoms to form an ionized gas. The plasma is emitted in a millisecond pulse to deliver energy to target tissue upon contact without reliance on skin chromophores. The technology can be used at varying energies for different depths of effect, from superficial epidermal sloughing to deeper dermal heating. With the Portrait PSR device (Rhytec, Inc.) there are three treatment guidelines termed PSR1, PSR2, and PSR3. The PSR1 protocol uses a series of low-energy treatments (1.0,1.2 Joules) spaced 3 weeks apart. The PSR2 protocol uses one high-energy pass (3.0, 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment, and the PSR3 protocol uses two high-energy passes (3.0 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment. All protocols improve fine lines, textural irregularities, and dyspigmentation; however, skin tightening is probably more pronounced with the high-energy treatments.

  2. Advances in plasma skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K Wade; Moy, Ronald L; Fincher, Edgar F

    2008-09-01

    Plasma skin regeneration (PSR) is a novel method of resurfacing that uses plasma energy to create a thermal effect on the skin. PSR is different from lasers, light sources, and ablative lasers in that it is not chromophore dependent and does not vaporize tissue, but leaves a layer of intact, desiccated epidermis that acts as a natural biologic dressing and promotes wound healing and rapid recovery. Histological studies performed on plasma resurfacing patients have confirmed continued collagen production, reduction of elastosis, and progressive skin rejuvenation beyond 1 year after treatment. PSR has received US Food and Drug Administration 510 (k) clearance for treatment of rhytides of the body, superficial skin lesions, actinic keratoses, viral papillomata, and seborrheic keratoses. PSR also has beneficial effects in the treatment of other conditions including dyschromias, photoaging, skin laxity, and acne scars. The safety profile of PSR is excellent, and there have been no reports of demarcation lines in perioral, periorbital, or jawline areas, as can sometimes be observed following CO2 resurfacing. PSR is effective in improving facial and periorbital rhytides and can be used on nonfacial sites, including the hands, neck, and chest. Numerous treatment protocols with variable energy settings allow for individualized treatments and provide the operator with fine control over the degree of injury and length of subsequent recovery time.

  3. Platlet Rich Plasma (PRP) Improves Fat Grafting Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarressi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer offers many qualities of a ideal soft tissue filler. Main advantages of fat grafting ensue from the fact that the lipoaspirate tissue is an abundant source of regenerative pluripotential cells. However, the reported rates of fat cell survival vary greatly in the medical literature (10-90%). Different techniques of harvesting, processing, and reinjecting the fat cells are so claimed to be responsible for these differences, without any agreement concerning the best way to process. To address this important disadvantage, we propose the addition of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) which is known as a natural reservoir of growth factors stimulating tissue repair and regeneration. This approach is completely autologous and immediately employed without any type of preconditioning. Platelets rich plasma (PRP) preparation included bleeding of 8 ml of blood from patient's peripheral vein in Regen Lab© tubes containing sodium citrate anticoagulant. The whole blood was centrifugated at 1500 g during 3 min. As Regen-tubes contained a special gel separator, 99 % of red blood cells were discarded from the plasma at the bottom of the gel, and >90% of platelets were harvested in 4 ml of plasma on the top of the gel, called the platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The purified fat prepared by Coleman technique was mixed with different amount of PRP for in vitro, in vivo (mice) and clinical experiments: >50% of PRP for skin rejuvenation, superficial scars correction, infraorbital region, ..., and for 20% of PRP with 80% of purified fat for deep filler indication (nasolabial folds, lips, or soft tissue defect). In vitro studies demonstrated that PRP increased fat cells survival rate and stem cells differentiation. Animal models showed that fat graft survival rate was significantly increased by addition of PRP. Several clinical cases confirmed the improvement of wound healing and fat grafting survival in facial reconstruction and aesthetic cases by association of

  4. Trans-esterification of poultry skin fat to produce biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anees, H.; Shah, S.F.A.; Ali, Z.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chicken skin and its fat are sources of solid waste that are usually not utilized and add solid pollution. This research work deals with the production of useful biodiesel from utilizing the waste chicken (fat and its skins). Waste chicken fat and its skins (sourced from local shops of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan) were extracted and trans-estrification was made. The product of trans-estrification was fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) commonly known as biodiesel. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) was used as catalyst and glycerol was obtained as a by-product. The FAME produced was tested for six parameters namely calorific value, cloud point, pour point, flash point, density and viscosity when compared to ASTM E2515-11 standard values. The results of this experiment showed that the calorific value, cloud point, pour point, flash point, density and viscosity values of FAME produced from chicken skin and its fat were close to that of petroleum derived diesel. (author)

  5. Structured Light Scanning of Skin, Muscle and Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; Aanæs, Henrik

    of error that various encoding strategies show, and propose an error correcting model, which can bring down the measurement bias considerably. Samples of raw and unprocessed pig tissue were used with the number of sampled surface points Nmeat = 1.2 * 106, Nskin = 4.0 * 106 and Nfat = 2.1 * 106 from 8......We investigate the quality of structured light 3D scanning on pig skin, muscle and fat. These particular materials are interesting in a number of industrial and medical use-cases, and somewhat challenging because they exhibit subsurface light scattering. Our goal therefor is to quantify the amount...

  6. High-fat diet exacerbates inflammation and cell survival signals in the skin of ultraviolet B-irradiated C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeran, Syed M.; Singh, Tripti; Nagy, Tim R.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation induced by chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases. We formulated the hypothesis that a high-fat diet may influence the UV-induced inflammatory responses in the skin. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet or control diet and exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm 2 ) three times/week for 10 weeks. The mice were then sacrificed and skin and plasma samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. We found that the levels of inflammatory biomarkers were increased in the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-exposed skin of the mice fed the control diet. The levels of inflammatory biomarkers of early responses to UVB exposure (e.g., myeloperoxidase, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin-E 2 ), proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser 473 ) were higher in high-fat-diet-fed mouse skin than control-diet-fed mouse skin. The plasma levels of insulin growth factor-1 were greater in the UVB-irradiated mice fed the high-fat diet than the UVB-irradiated mice fed the control diet, whereas the levels of plasma adiponectin were significantly lower. This pronounced exacerbation of the UVB-induced inflammatory responses in the skin of mice fed a high-fat diet suggests that high-fat diet may increase susceptibility to inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  7. Plasma skin resurfacing: personal experience and long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentkover, Stuart H

    2012-05-01

    This article presents a comprehensive clinical approach to plasma resurfacing for skin regeneration. Plasma technology, preoperative protocols, resurfacing technique, postoperative care, clinical outcomes, evidence-based results, and appropriate candidates for this procedure are discussed. Specific penetration depth and specific laser energy measurements are provided. Nitrogen plasma skin regeneration is a skin-resurfacing technique that offers excellent improvement of mild to moderate skin wrinkles and overall skin rejuvenation. It also provides excellent improvement in uniformity of skin color and texture in patients with hyperpigmentation with Fitzpatrick skin types 1 through 4. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Skin Colour, Abdominal Fat, and Carcass Fat of Male Alabio Duck (Anas plathyrhincos Borneo Fed Azolla Based Ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Samudera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This was conducted to know the effect of Azzola usage in their dietary toward skin color abdomen fat and carcass fat of male Alabio duck. The subject of this research was male Alabio duck attain the age 3 weeks as number 80 tails, with average first body weight 390,82 ± 0,63 g.  The dietary contain 16% protein and 3000 kcal energy.  Observation parameters including abdomen fat percentage, carcass fat, and skin color. Complete Random Design (RAL consist of 4 treatments and 5 repeating was applied.  Each treatment unit consisted of 4 tails of male Alabio duck.  Set as treatment was levels of Azzola pinnata flour usage as much as 0 (A0; 7.5 (A2; 15 (A3; and 22.5% (A4.  The effect of treatment towards abdomen fat (A0, A1, A2, and A3 / 1.50; 1.41; 1.23; 0.92 %, carcass fat (A0, A1, A2, and A3 / 7.99; 7.53; 5.74; 5.25 %, and skin color (A0, A1, A2, and A3 / 2.66; 3.62; 3.94; 4.20.  this research showed result of that treatment influence was significantly difference (P < 0.05.   Conclusion of this research, that azolla usage within dietary is able to decrease abdomen fat degree and carcass fat, reform skin color, thus, produce yellow color or un-pale. (Animal Production 10(3: 164-167 (2008   Key Words: Alabio duck, azolla, skin color, abdomen fat, carcass fat

  9. Triceps skin fold thickness as a measure of body fat in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin fold thickness (SFT) at selected areas offers a simple method of subcutaneous fat assessment and provides a good estimate of obesity and body fat distribution. The triceps SFT has been shown to be one of the best and most popular sites for SFT measurement in children. Objective: To assess the body fat ...

  10. A novel cupping-assisted plasma treatment for skin disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zilan; Graves, David B.

    2017-02-01

    A novel plasma treatment method/plasma source called cupping-assisted plasma treatment/source for skin disinfection is introduced. The idea combines ancient Chinese ‘cupping’ technology with plasma sources to generate active plasma inside an isolated, pressure-controlled chamber attached to the skin. Advantages of lower pressure include reducing the threshold voltage for plasma ignition and improving the spatial uniformity of the plasma treatment. In addition, with reduced pressure inside the cup, skin pore permeability might be increased and it improves attachment of the plasma device to the skin. Moreover, at a given pressure, plasma-generated active species are restricted inside the cup, raising local reactive species concentration and enhancing the measured surface disinfection rate. A surface micro-discharge (SMD) device is used as an example of a working plasma source. We report discharge characteristics and disinfection efficiency as a function of pressure and applied voltage.

  11. Fat, Stem Cells, and Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Isaac B; Coleman, Sydney R; Rubin, J Peter

    2016-07-01

    The ideal filler for aesthetic surgery is inexpensive and easy to obtain, natural in appearance and texture, immunologically compatible, and long lasting without risk of infection. By most metrics, autologous fat grafts meet these criteria perfectly. Although facial fat grafting is now a commonly accepted surgical procedure, there has been a wave of activity applying stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapies to aesthetic practice. This article addresses technical considerations in the use of autologous fat transfer for facial rejuvenation, and also explores the current evidence for these stem cell and PRP therapies in aesthetic practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Triceps skin fold thickness as a measure of body fat in Nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-11-26

    Nov 26, 2012 ... and body fat distribution.2,3 Skin fold thickness measure- ments are a well ... different recognized areas for the measurement of SFT, ..... 'western children.' These .... Asia Pacific J Clin ... sity in children and young people:.

  13. Influence of rendering methods on yield and quality of chicken fat recovered from broiler skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Kun Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective In order to utilize fat from broiler byproducts efficiently, it is necessary to develop an appropriate rendering procedure and establish quality information for the rendered fat. A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the influence of rendering methods on the amounts and general properties of the fat recovered from broiler skin. Methods The yield and quality of the broiler skin fat rendered through high and lower energy microwave rendering (3.6 W/g for 10 min and 2.4 W/g for 10 min for high power microwave rendering (HPMR and high power microwave rendering (LPMR, respectively, oven baking (OB, at 180°C for 40 min, and water cooking (WC, boiling for 40 min were compared. Results Microwave-rendered skin exhibited the highest yields and fat recovery rates, followed by OB, and WC fats (p<0.05. HPMR fat had the highest L*, a*, and b* values, whereas WC fat had the highest moisture content, acid values, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA values (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the acid value, peroxide value, and TBA values between HPMR and LPMR fats. Conclusion Microwave rendering at a power level of 3.6 W/g for 10 min is suggested base on the yield and quality of chicken fat.

  14. Stability of a plasma filament with a skinned current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blekher, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    An effective sufficient condition of existence of ideal helical plasma filament instability in a strong longitUdinal magnetic field for skinned current profiles is deduced in the paper. The results of numerical calculations of current skinned profiles of instability diagrams are presented and these results are compared with the obtained sufficient condition. An analytical solution for one model current profile skinning and this solution also is compared with the sufficient condition of instability

  15. Plasma and skin vitamin E concentrations in canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevnik Kapun, Alja; Salobir, Janez; Levart, Alenka; Tavčar Kalcher, Gabrijela; Nemec Svete, Alenka; Kotnik, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Altered homeostasis of vitamin E has been demonstrated in human atopic dermatitis. Data on plasma and skin vitamin E concentrations in canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) are not available. To determine vitamin E concentrations in plasma and skin of atopic dogs. Vitamin E concentrations in plasma and full-thickness skin biopsies of 15 atopic dogs were related to CAD extent and severity index (CADESI-03) scores and compared to the equivalent concentrations in 17 healthy dogs. Statistically significant differences of measured parameters between the two groups were determined by the nonparametric Mann Whitney U test and correlations between CADESI-03 scores and vitamin E concentrations were evaluated by the Spearman rank test. A value of P vitamin E were significantly lower in atopic dogs than in healthy dogs, with median values of 29.8 and 52.9 μmol/L, respectively. Skin vitamin E values did not differ significantly between patients and healthy controls. The median concentration of skin vitamin E in atopic dogs was higher than that in healthy dogs. No significant correlations were found between CADESI-03 score and plasma vitamin E or skin vitamin E concentrations. Significantly lower plasma vitamin E concentrations in atopic dogs than in healthy controls indicate altered homeostasis of vitamin E in CAD. Further investigation into vitamin E supplementation in CAD is warranted.

  16. Skin-effect in a dense ionizing plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenkov, G.V.; Taranenko, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of multiple ionization and radiation (bremmstrahlung and photorecombination) on skin effect in a dense plasma is investigated. Limiting cases are considered: 1) fast skin-effect, when plasma movement and any types of losses (radiation, electron thermal conductivity) have no time to manifest themselves during short heating times; 2) deceleration of skinning under effect of radiation achieving equilibrium with Joule heating. Self-simulating solutions of the problem for half-space are investigated. The results are applied to analysing experiments with exploding wires. It is shown that under conditions, typical of heavy-current decelerators tubular structures are produced as a result of heat and current skinning under free dispersion of plasma produced during the explosion. Their dimensions are of the order of dozens of microns, and the temperature exceeds 50 eV. The linear power and complete ''tube'' radiation yield at this stage are able to make a substantial contribution to the energy balance in the group

  17. Skin effect of microwaves and transverse pseudowaves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kazuo

    1977-09-01

    Using linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations, the skin effect of microwaves and transverse pseudowaves excited by an idealized grid antenna in plasmas are analyzed. It is shown that the latter is predominant over the former, in such a plasma that ω sub(p) v sub(t)/ωc >= 1, where ω sub(p) and ω are the plasma and microwave angular frequencies, v sub(t) and c are the electron thermal and light velocities, respectively. (auth.)

  18. Physico-chemical characterisation of the fat from red-skin rambutan (Nephellium lappaceum L.) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Yanty Noorziana Abdul; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The seeds (6.9±0.2% by weight of fruit) of the red-skin rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) contain a considerable amount of crude fat (38.0±4.36%) and thus, the aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical properties of this fat for potential applications. The iodine and saponification values, and unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of the seed fat were 50.27 g I2/100g fat, 182.1 mg KOH/g fat, 0.8% and 2.1%, respectively. The fat is pale yellow with a Lovibond color index of 3.1Y+1.1R. The fatty acid profile indicates an almost equal proportion of saturated (49.1%) and unsaturated (50.9%) fatty acids, where oleic (42.0%) and arachidic (34.3%) acids were the most dominant fatty acids. It also contained small amounts of stearic (8.0%), palmitic (4.6%), gadoleic (5.9%), linoleic (2.2%), behenic (2.1%) palmitoleic (0.7%) myristic (0.1%) and erucic (0.1%) acids. HPLC analysis showed that the fat comprised mainly unknown triacylglycerols (TAG) with high retention times indicating they have higher carbon numbers compared with many vegetable oils. The fat has melting and cooling points of 44.2°C and -42.5°C, respectively, making it a semi-solid at room temperature. The solid content at 0°C was 53.5% and the fat melted completely at 40°C. z-Nose analysis showed that the presence of high levels of volatile compounds in red-skin rambutan seed and seed fat.

  19. Utility of abdominal skin plus subcutaneous fat and rectal mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis with renal involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    Full Text Available Skin fat biopsy of the abdominal wall is a simple and safe method for detecting amyloidosis, and rectal mucosal biopsy is also frequently used for screening for the disease; however, the sensitivity of these approaches has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of skin fat biopsy combined with rectal mucosal biopsy as a screening procedure for the diagnosis of systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL amyloidosis.We retrospectively analyzed 224 AL amyloidosis patients confirmed by renal biopsy, including a test group of 165 patients and validation group of 59 patients. Surgical skin fat biopsy from the abdominal wall and rectal mucosal biopsy under endoscopy was performed to obtain specimens. Congo red staining and immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against light chains were performed to type the disease. Pathology reports were reviewed to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of skin fat biopsy and rectal mucosal biopsy. Diagnostic specificity was not examined in the present study, because no healthy volunteers and only few patients with other diseases had performed immunofluorescence staining on skin fat and rectal specimens.Of the 165 patients in the test group, Congo red staining of skin fat and rectal mucosal specimens was associated with a sensitivity of 89.3% and 94.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 98.9% by combining both biopsy methods. Immunofluorescence stains were positive in 81.1% of patients undergoing skin fat biopsy and 84.7% of patients undergoing rectal mucosal biopsy. Immunofluorescence stains yielded positive results in 86.7% of cases combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy. The diagnostic results also performed well in the validation group.Surgical skin biopsy including the subcutaneous fat pad can be performed safely at the bedside and is useful for diagnosing AL amyloidosis. Combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy may identify amyloid deposits in

  20. Treatment of Mesh Skin Grafted Scars Using a Plasma Skin Regeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu Higashimori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Several modalities have been advocated to treat traumatic scars, including surgical techniques and laser resurfacing. Recently, a plasma skin regeneration (PSR system has been investigated. There are no reports on plasma treatment of mesh skin grafted scars. The objective of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of plasma treatment of mesh skin grafted scars in Asian patients. Materials and Methods. Four Asian patients with mesh skin grafted scars were enrolled in the study. The plasma treatments were performed at monthly intervals with PSR, using energy settings of 3 to 4 J. Improvement was determined by patient questionnaires and physician evaluation of digital photographs taken prior to treatment and at 3 months post treatment. The patients were also evaluated for any side effects from the treatment. Results. All patients showed more than 50% improvement. The average pain score on a 10-point scale was 6.9 +/− 1.2 SD and all patients tolerated the treatments. Temporary, localized hypopigmentation was observed in two patients. Hyperpigmentation and worsening of scarring were not observed. Conclusions. Plasma treatment is clinically effective and is associated with minimal complications when used to treat mesh skin grafted scars in Asian patients.

  1. Ways of Noninvasive Facial Skin Tightening and Fat Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Klaus; Salavastru, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    For skin tightening, ablative and nonablative lasers have been used with various parameters full or fractionated. Currently, other energy-based technologies have been developed such as radiofrequency (RF) from mono- to multipolar, microneedling RF, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. They heat up the tissue to a clinical endpoint. Temperatures above 42°C stimulate fibroblasts to produce more collagen and some technologies produce small coagulation points that allow to shrink and to tighten the tissue with less downtime or side effects. Alternative treatments not based on heat can be chemical peels from light to deep and microneedling without RF. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    filtration rate seemed to have a limited influence on the plasma leptin concentration in nondiabetic uremic subjects matched by body fat mass to controls. The plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass, and the leptin level might, therefore, be useful as an indicator of the fat......Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular.......4 (3.1-59.5) ng/ml versus 5.4 (1.6-47.5) ng/ml (median and range in parentheses; p

  3. Roentgenography of the skin and subcutaneous fat in postmastectomy edema of the upper limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshenko, Yu.T.; Moroz, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of radiography of the forearm and shoulder soft tissues in 47 patients with postmastectomy syndrome before and after conservative treatment and in 6 controls made it possible to determine differences in x-ray imaging of a skin and subcutaneous fat layer in limb edema. These differences were determined by lymph flow disorders and the formation of a connective tissue of a connective tissue component in subsutaneous fat and could be used for objective assessment of a degree of edema, determination of tactics of rehabilitation activities and assessment of their effectiveness

  4. Histological study of subcutaneous fat at NIR laser treatment of the rat skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, I. Y.; Svenskaya, Yu. I.; Navolokin, N. A.; Matveeva, O. V.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Gorin, D. A.; Sukhorukov, G. B.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify impact of in vivo photochemical treatment using indocyanine green (ICG) or encapsulated ICG and NIR laser irradiation through skin of rat with obesity by the follow up tissue sampling and histochemistry. After 1 hour elapsed since 1-min light exposure samples of rat skin with subcutaneous tissue of thickness of 1.5-2.5 mm were taken by surgery from rats within marked 4-zones of the skin site. For hematoxylin-eosin histological examination of excised tissue samples, fixation was carried out by 10%-formaldehyde solution. For ICG and encapsulated ICG subcutaneous injection and subsequent 1-min diode laser irradiation with power density of 8 W/cm2, different necrotic regions with lipolysis of subcutaneous fat were observed. The obtained data can be used for safe layer-by-layer laser treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  5. Estimation of Abdominal Fat by Plasma Triglycerides and Carcass Dry Matter in Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Pour-Reza

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to determine the relationship of plasma triglycerides and carcass dry matter with abdominal fat. One of the problems of broiler is carcass fatness, especially abdominal fat due to rapid growth of broilers which is not the consumer preference. Six hundred one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (Lohman were divided into 40 groups, 15 chicks per group. Each one of the 10 experimental diets, in which barley was substituted for corn at levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40%, was fed to 4 groups of chicks for 56 days. All diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Rice hulls was used to make diets isoenergetic. At days 42, 49 and 56, one male and one female were selected from each pen and after blood sampling, the birds were killed, eviscerated and percentages of carcass and amount of abdominal fats were measured. Blood samples were used to determine plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and total lipids. The results showed that increasing abdominal fat reduced carcass moisture content. Correlation between abdominal fat and plasma triglycerides was positive and significant (p<0.05. Correlation between abdominal fat and carcass moisture was negative and significant (P<0.01. The regression equations indicated that abdominal fat can be estimated from plasma triglycerides and carcass moisture content. The equations also indicated that using several parameters for estimating abdominal fat is better than single parameter estimation.

  6. Effect of Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) in Skin with Intrinsic Aging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-de-Sá, Luiz; Gontijo-de-Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Borojevic, Radovan; Benati, Donatella; Bernardi, Paolo; Sbarbati, Andrea; Rigotti, Gino

    2018-02-15

    In previous papers, we demonstrated that the treatment of human photoaged skin with stromal-vascular fraction-enriched fat or expanded adipose-derived stem cells showed a decrease of elastosis and the appearance of new oxytalan elastic fibers in dermis and an increase in the vascular network. The utilization of fat plus platelet-rich plasma (PRP) led to an increase in the vascular permeability and reactivity of the nervous component. The purpose of this study was to analyze the histologic and ultrastructural changes of human skin after the injection of only PRP in the retroauricular area that was not exposed to sun and did not present the photoaging process, in comparison with our previous results. This study was performed in 13 patients who were candidates for facelift and whose ages ranged between 45 and 65 years. The PRP injection was performed in the mastoidea area. Fragments of skin were removed before and 3 months after treatment and analyzed by optical and electron microscopy. After the injection of PRP, we observed an increase of reticular dermis thickness because of the deposition of elastic fibers and collagen, with a fibrotic aspect. A modified pattern of adipose tissue was also found at the dermohypodermal junction. Significative regenerative aspects were not found at histologic and ultrastructural analysis. The presence of foci of moderate inflammation and microangiopathy were observed. Treatment with PRP increased reticular dermis thickness with a fibrotic aspect. In the long term, the presence of inflammation and microangiopathy caused by PRP injection could lead to trophic alteration of the skin and the precocious aging process. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  8. Effects of fat supplementations on milk production and composition, ruminal and plasma parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bailoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on milk yield and quality caused by the same amount (325 g/d/cow of lipids provided by 3 different fat sources (hydrogenate palm fat, HF; calcium salt palm fat, CaSF; full-fat toasted soybean, TS, top dressed to a common total mixed ration, were investigated. Supplementations did not affect feed intake and milk yield, but markedly changed the acidic profile of milk fat. CaSF and TS significantly increased the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat with respect to control and to HF. The 3 fat sources did not affect the concentrations of ammonia and VFA of rumen fluid. TS only slightly increased (P<0.10 plasma urea content because of a higher dietary protein supply, with respect to the other treatments. The use of a low amount of toasted and cracked full fat soybean seem to be interesting to increase the energy concentration of diets in replacement to commercial fat products and it can be use to modify the milk fat quality increasing the fraction with benefit effects on human health.

  9. Mycobacterium Abscessus Skin Infection Following Mesotherapy for Fat Reduction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanawan Iamphonrat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesotherapy is referred to as a minimally invasive technique by using intradermal or subcutaneous injection with liquid containing a mixture of compounds for the treatment of varying medical and cosmetic conditions. Although noninvasive cosmetic procedures gain increasing popularity, mesotherapy remains a controversial treatment according to lack of scientific standpoint, standard formulas, and treatment protocol. In addition, a wide variety of side effects from mesotherapy have been reported. We reported a case of a 30-year-old Thai male, immunocompetent patient, who underwent mesotherapy for facial fat reduction at a private clinic and developed erythematous nodules on both cheeks 3 weeks after injection. The skin biopsy was then performed and histopathology showed mixed cell granuloma in deep dermis. Tissue culture was positive for Mycobacterium abscessus. He received a combination of clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for six months with very good response. The nodules were healed with atrophic scar and post inflammatory hyperpigmentation without recurrence until eight months follow up.

  10. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  11. Differential effects of restricted versus unlimited high-fat feeding in rats on fat mass, plasma hormones and brain appetite regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, T; Chen, H; Morris, M J

    2009-07-01

    The rapid rise in obesity has been linked to altered food consumption patterns. There is increasing evidence that, in addition to total energy intake, the macronutrient composition of the diet may influence the development of obesity. The present study aimed to examine the impact of high dietary fat content, under both isocaloric and hypercaloric conditions, compared with a low fat diet, on adiposity, glucose and lipid metabolism, and brain appetite regulators in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three diets: control (14% fat), ad lib high-fat palatable (HFD, 35% fat) or high-fat palatable restricted (HFD-R, matched to the energy intake of control) and were killed in the fasting state 11 weeks later. Body weight was increased by 28% in unrestricted HFD fed rats, with an almost tripling of caloric intake and fat mass (P < 0.001) and double the plasma triglycerides of controls. Glucose intolerance and increased insulin levels were observed. HFD-R animals calorie matched to control had double their fat mass, plasma insulin and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Only ad lib consumption of the HFD increased the hypothalamic mRNA expression of the appetite-regulating peptides, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin. Although restricted consumption of palatable HFD had no significant impact on hypothalamic appetite regulators or body weight, it increased adiposity and circulating triglycerides, suggesting that the proportion of dietary fat, independent of caloric intake, affects fat deposition and the metabolic profile.

  12. Expanded Stem Cells, Stromal-Vascular Fraction, and Platelet-Rich Plasma Enriched Fat: Comparing Results of Different Facial Rejuvenation Approaches in a Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, Gino; Charles-de-Sá, Luiz; Gontijo-de-Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Amable, Paola Romina; Borojevic, Radovan; Benati, Donatella; Bernardi, Paolo; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that treatment with expanded adipose-derived stem cells or stromal vascular fraction (SVF)-enriched fat modify the pattern of the dermis in human beings, representing a skin rejuvenation effect. Considering that expanded stem cells require a cell factor, the authors wanted to assess similar results by replacing them with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which is easier to obtain and for which an empirical regenerative effect has been already described. To determine if PRP injection could replace the cutaneous regenerative effect of adipose-derived stem cells. This study was performed in 13 patients who were candidates for facelift. The patients underwent sampling of fat by liposuction from the abdomen and submitted to one of three protocols: injection of SVF-enriched fat or expanded adipose-derived stem cells or fat plus PRP in the preauricular areas. Fragments of skin were removed before and 3 months after treatment and analyzed by optical and electron microscopy. The use of fat plus PRP led to the presence of more pronounced inflammatory infiltrates and a greater vascular reactivity, increasing in vascular permeability and a certain reactivity of the nervous component. The addition of PRP did not improve the regenerative effect. The use of PRP did not have significant advantages in skin rejuvenation over the use of expanded adipose-derived stem cells or SVF-enriched fat. The effect of increased vascular reactivity may be useful in pathological situations in which an intense angiogenesis is desirable, such as tissular ischemia. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Urinary catecholamines, plasma insulin and environmental factors in relation to body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, D L; Bergstrom, R W; Shuman, W P; Wahl, P W; Jenner, D A; Harrison, G A; Fujimoto, W Y

    1991-05-01

    The relationship of body fat distribution to insulin and the catecholamines, hormones that affect lipolysis differentially by fat site, was examined within an environmental context, including factors of medication use, physical activity, dietary intake, educational attainment, and age. Four cross-sectional body fat areas (cm2) were determined by three computed tomography (CT) scans (subcutaneous chest fat at the level of the nipples, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat at the level of the umbilicus, and subcutaneous left mid-thigh fat) in 191 second-generation Japanese-American men aged 45-74 years. The site-specific fat measurements were first examined in relation to use of beta-adrenergic antagonists, then to fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels and to urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine levels from a 24-h urine collection made during usual daily activities. Greater fat stores in the intra-abdominal area, even after adjustment for body mass index (BMI, weight/height2) and presence of coronary heart disease, were found to be related to use of beta-adrenergic antagonists. In men taking no adrenergic antagonists (n = 157), after adjustment for BMI, truncal fat measurements of the chest (partial r = -0.16, P less than 0.05) and intra-abdominal area (partial r = -0.21, P less than 0.05) were found to be inversely related to epinephrine, and intra-abdominal fat (partial r = 0.25, P less than 0.01) alone was directly related to fasting plasma insulin. With respect to other environmental variables, the significant inverse relationship of intra-abdominal fat (adjusted for BMI) with physical activity (partial r = -0.17, P less than 0.05) and the significant difference in intra-abdominal fat by educational attainment (college 102.3 +/- 5.7 vs no college 115.7 +/- 6.1 cm2, P = 0.03) became non-significant with adjustment, using multiple regression analysis, for insulin in the case of physical activity and epinephrine in the case of educational attainment. Thus

  14. Ultratrace Measurement of Acetone from Skin Using Zeolite: Toward Development of a Wearable Monitor of Fat Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Hiyama, Satoshi; Toyooka, Tsuguyoshi; Takeuchi, Shoji; Itabashi, Keiji; Okubo, Tatsuya; Tabata, Hitoshi

    2015-08-04

    Analysis of gases emitted from human skin and contained in human breath has received increasing attention in recent years for noninvasive clinical diagnoses and health checkups. Acetone emitted from human skin (skin acetone) should be a good indicator of fat metabolism, which is associated with diet and exercise. However, skin acetone is an analytically challenging target because it is emitted in very low concentrations. In the present study, zeolite was investigated for concentrating skin acetone for subsequent semiconductor-based analysis. The adsorption and desorption characteristics of five zeolites with different structures and those hydrophobicities were compared. A hydrophobic zeolite with relatively large pores (approximately 1.6 times larger than the acetone molecule diameter) was the best concentrator of skin acetone among the zeolites tested. The concentrator developed using zeolite was applied in a semiconductor-based gas sensor in a simulated mobile environment where the closed space was frequently collapsed to reflect the twisting and elastic movement of skin that would be encountered in a wearable device. These results could be used to develop a wearable analyzer for skin acetone, which would be a powerful tool for preventing and alleviating lifestyle-related diseases.

  15. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and

  16. A Systematic Review of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma and Fat Graft Preparation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Joshua; Smith, Oliver J; Mosahebi, Afshin

    2017-12-01

    The addition of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to adipose tissue may improve fat graft survival, although graft retention rates vary markedly between studies. To what extent this outcome heterogeneity reflects differing methodological factors remains unknown. This systematic review aims to synthesize and critically review methodological approaches to autologous PRP and fat cotransplantation in both human and animal studies. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to April 2017. Data were extracted from all in vivo studies involving autologous PRP and fat cotransplantation. A secondary aim was to assess reporting of technical detail; authors were not contacted to provide missing data. From 335 articles, 23 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Some 21 were performed in humans and 2 in rabbits. Six studies were randomized control trials; the remainder reported on observational data. Methods of PRP extraction and activation varied markedly between studies. Fat graft preparation was comparatively more consistent. Methods of PRP and fat mixing differed significantly, especially with regards to relative volume/volume ratios. Our study represents the first systematic review of methodological factors in autologous PRP and fat cotransplantation. It demonstrates that technical factors in graft preparation and administration vary significantly between in vivo studies. Such methodological heterogeneity may explain observed differences in experimental and clinical outcomes. Reporting of key procedural information is inconsistent and often inadequate. These issues make meaningful evaluation of the PRP-enhanced fat grafting literature difficult and may limit its translation into clinical practice.

  17. Stearic acid-rich interesterified fat and trans-rich fat raise the LDL/HDL ratio and plasma glucose relative to palm olein in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karupaiah Tilakavati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary trans-rich and interesterified fats were compared to an unmodified saturated fat for their relative impact on blood lipids and plasma glucose. Each fat had melting characteristics, plasticity and solids fat content suitable for use as hardstock in margarine and other solid fat formulations. Methods Thirty human volunteers were fed complete, whole food diets during 4 wk periods, where total fat (~31% daily energy, >70% from the test fats and fatty acid composition were tightly controlled. A crossover design was used with 3 randomly-assigned diet rotations and repeated-measures analysis. One test fat rotation was based on palm olein (POL and provided 12.0 percent of energy (%en as palmitic acid (16:0; a second contained trans-rich partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO and provided 3.2 %en as trans fatty acids plus 6.5 %en as 16:0, while the third used an interesterified fat (IE and provided 12.5 %en as stearic acid (18:0. After 4 wk the plasma lipoproteins, fatty acid profile, as well as fasting glucose and insulin were assessed. In addition, after 2 wk into each period an 8 h postprandial challenge was initiated in a subset of 19 subjects who consumed a meal containing 53 g of test fat. Results After 4 wk, both PHSO and IE fats significantly elevated both the LDL/HDL ratio and fasting blood glucose, the latter almost 20% in the IE group relative to POL. Fasting 4 wk insulin was 10% lower after PHSO (p > 0.05 and 22% lower after IE (p Conclusion Both PHSO and IE fats altered the metabolism of lipoproteins and glucose relative to an unmodified saturated fat when fed to humans under identical circumstances.

  18. Blood plasma lipidomic signature of epicardial fat in healthy obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Max; Montoliu, Ivan; Qanadli, Salah D; Collino, Sebastiano; Rezzi, Serge; Kussmann, Martin; Giusti, Vittorio; Martin, François-Pierre J

    2015-01-01

    A lipidomic approach was employed in a clinically well-defined cohort of healthy obese women to explore blood lipidome phenotype ascribed to body fat deposition, with emphasis on epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). The present investigation delivered a lipidomics signature of epicardial adiposity under healthy clinical conditions using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 years, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2) ) not showing any metabolic disease traits. Lipidomics analysis of blood plasma was employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of mediastinal fat depots by computerized tomography. All cardiac fat depots correlated to indicators of hepatic dysfunctions (ALAT and ASAT), which describe physiological connections between hepatic and cardiac steatosis. Plasma lipidomics encompassed overall levels of lipid classes, fatty acid profiles, and individual lipid species. EAT and visceral fat associated with diacylglycerols (DAG), triglycerides, and distinct phospholipid and sphingolipid species. A pattern of DAG and phosphoglycerols was specific to EAT. Human blood plasma lipidomics appears to be a promising clinical and potentially diagnostic readout for patient stratification and monitoring. Association of blood lipidomics signature to regio-specific mediastinal and visceral adiposity under healthy clinical conditions may help provide more biological insights into obese patient stratification for cardiovascular disease risks. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  19. Properties of bologna-type sausages with pork back-fat replaced with pork skin and amorphous cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Faria, Miriam; Cipriano, Tayssa Martins; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2015-06-01

    Bologna-type sausages were produced with 50% of their pork back-fat content replaced with gels elaborated with different ratios of pork skin, water, and amorphous cellulose (1:1:0, 1:1:0.1, 1:1:0.2, 1:1:0.3, and 1:1:0.4). The impact of such replacement on the physico-chemical characteristics and the consumer sensory profiling was evaluated. The modified treatments had 42% less fat, 18% more protein, and 8% more moisture than the control group. Treatments with amorphous cellulose had a lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability. High amorphous cellulose content (1:1:0.3 and 1:1:0.4) increased hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. The gel formulated with the ratio of 1:1:0.2 (pork skin: water: amorphous cellulose gel) provided a sensory sensation similar to that provided by fat and allowed products of good acceptance to be obtained. Therefore, a combination of pork skin and amorphous cellulose is useful in improving technological quality and producing healthier and sensory acceptable bologna-type sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Local administration of autologous platelet-rich plasma in a female patient with skin ulcer defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Noskov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical observation of the efficiency of local therapy with autologous platelet-rich plasma for .skin ulcer defect in a female with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

  1. The use of micro-plasma radiofrequency technology in secondary skin graft contraction: 2 case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jin-Ping; Fang, Lin; Wang, Lian-Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Secondary skin graft contraction leading to cosmetic deformity remains a great challenge. These two case reports present serious skin graft contraction and the treatment with micro-plasma radiofrequency technology. Two patients presented with complaints of post-burn depigmentation on the forehead and the hand, respectively, and received dermabrasion and thin split-thickness skin grafting. Then, many localized contraction lesions occurred after 4 weeks. The treatment selected was non-surgical removal using micro-plasma radiofrequency technology with the following energy parameters: a roller tip at 80 watts, three passes in different directions. No complications were observed. The contracted skin was ablated without affecting the pigment distribution. The consequents were that the color, appearance, and texture of the grafted skin matched the adjacent skin well and had better patient acceptance.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association between dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, D; Väisänen, S B; Bouchard, C; Halle, M; Lakka, T A; Baumstark, M W; Alen, M; Berg, A; Rauramaa, R

    2003-07-01

    To investigate the relation between (1) cardiorespiratory fitness and plasma saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and (2) the interactions between cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acid composition. Cross-sectional analysis. The subjects were randomly selected, 127 middle-aged Finnish men participating in the DNASCO exercise intervention study. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined spiroergometrically, dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients by 4-day food records and plasma fatty acids by gas chromatography. The subjects were divided into tertiles of aerobic fitness. Differences between fitness tertiles were not observed for dietary intake of total fat, and saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids (percent of total energy). In contrast, plasma saturated fatty acids were significantly lower (P cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with different levels in plasma saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and lead to modifications in the association between dietary and plasma fatty acids. These findings can perhaps be explained by a reduced hepatic fatty acid and lipoprotein synthesis as well as by an enhanced muscular lipid utilization, which are commonly seen in those who are physically active and who exhibit a higher level of fitness.

  3. Differential effect of corn oil-based low trans structured fat on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile in an atherogenic mouse model: comparison to hydrogenated trans fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hye-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trans fat are not desirable in many aspects on health maintenance. Low trans structured fats have been reported to be relatively more safe than trans fats. Methods We examined the effects of low trans structured fat from corn oil (LC, compared with high trans fat shortening, on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in apo E deficient mice which is an atherogenic animal model. The animals were fed a high trans fat (10% fat: commercial shortening (CS or a low trans fat (LC diet for 12 weeks. Results LC decreased apo B and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride concentration compared to the CS group but significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and fecal lipids with a simultaneous increase in HDL-cholesterol level, apo A-I, and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol (HTR. Reduction of hepatic lipid levels by inclusion of LC intake was observed alongside modulation of hepatic enzyme activities related to cholesterol esterification, fatty acid metabolism and fecal lipids level compared to the CS group. The differential effects of LC intake on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile seemed to be partly due to the fatty acid composition of LC which contains higher MUFA, PUFA and SFA content as well as lower content of trans fatty acids compared to CS. Conclusions We suggest that LC may exert a dual effect on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in an atherogenic animal model. Accordingly, LC, supplemented at 10% in diet, had an anti-atherogenic effect on these apo E-/- mice, and increased fecal lipids, decreased hepatic steatosis, but elevated plasma lipids. Further studies are needed to verify the exact mode of action regarding the complex physiological changes and alteration in lipid metabolism caused by LC.

  4. Differential effect of corn oil-based low trans structured fat on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile in an atherogenic mouse model: comparison to hydrogenated trans fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Trans fat are not desirable in many aspects on health maintenance. Low trans structured fats have been reported to be relatively more safe than trans fats. Methods We examined the effects of low trans structured fat from corn oil (LC), compared with high trans fat shortening, on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in apo E deficient mice which is an atherogenic animal model. The animals were fed a high trans fat (10% fat: commercial shortening (CS)) or a low trans fat (LC) diet for 12 weeks. Results LC decreased apo B and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride concentration compared to the CS group but significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and fecal lipids with a simultaneous increase in HDL-cholesterol level, apo A-I, and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol (HTR). Reduction of hepatic lipid levels by inclusion of LC intake was observed alongside modulation of hepatic enzyme activities related to cholesterol esterification, fatty acid metabolism and fecal lipids level compared to the CS group. The differential effects of LC intake on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile seemed to be partly due to the fatty acid composition of LC which contains higher MUFA, PUFA and SFA content as well as lower content of trans fatty acids compared to CS. Conclusions We suggest that LC may exert a dual effect on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in an atherogenic animal model. Accordingly, LC, supplemented at 10% in diet, had an anti-atherogenic effect on these apo E-/- mice, and increased fecal lipids, decreased hepatic steatosis, but elevated plasma lipids. Further studies are needed to verify the exact mode of action regarding the complex physiological changes and alteration in lipid metabolism caused by LC. PMID:21247503

  5. Effect of boundary conditions on the classical skin depth and nonlocal behavior in inductively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Aman-ur; Pu Yikang

    2005-01-01

    When the finiteness of plasma geometry is taken into account, the expression for classical skin depth is different from the one obtained for an unbounded plasma (for both the planar and cylindrical geometries). This change in the expression of the classical skin depth also changes the nonlocality parameter, which is defined as the square of the ratio of the effective mean free path to the classical skin depth. It is concluded that it is the compactness of the geometry due to the metallic boundary condition (E=0) that impacts nonlocal heating (particularly in the low-frequency regime) rather than the shape of the geometry

  6. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise B.; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations......, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human...... or high content of chlorophyll. RESULTS: There tended to be a difference in plasma phytanic acid (P = 0.0730) concentration after the dietary intervention. Plasma phytanic acid increased significantly within both groups with the highest increase in control group (24%) compared to phytanic acid group (15...

  7. Changes of iron concentrations in skin and plasma of patients with hemochromatosis along therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Alves, L.C.; Neres, M.; Pinheiro, T.; Barreiros, A.; Fleming, R.; Silva, J.N.; Filipe, P.; Silva, R.

    2009-01-01

    Skin as a manageable organ can provide direct or indirect information of tissue iron overload resulting from inherited disorders as hemochromatosis. Patients with hemochromatosis were evaluated at three consecutive phases along the therapy programme. Nuclear microprobe techniques were used to assess skin iron and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence to determine the plasma iron concentrations. Results showed that iron pools were differently correlated at the three therapy phases. These variations highlighted the value of skin iron content to assess organ iron deposition and therapy efficacy. Skin iron content can be used for a better management of patients with iron overload pathologies. (author)

  8. Antibacterial plasma at safe levels for skin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, B.K.H.L.; Hofmann, S.; van Ham, B.T.J.; Bruggeman, P.J.; Middelkoop, E.

    2013-01-01

    Plasmas produce various reactive species, which are known to be very effective in killing bacteria. Plasma conditions, at which efficient bacterial inactivation is observed, are often not compatible with leaving human cells unharmed. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma settings for

  9. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drachmann Tue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. Objective To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 4 wk, parallel intervention study 14 healthy young subjects were given 45 g milk fat/d from test butter and cheese with 0.24 wt% phytanic acid or a control diet with 0.13 wt% phytanic acid. Difference in phytanic acid was obtained by feeding roughage with low or high content of chlorophyll. Results There tended to be a difference in plasma phytanic acid (P = 0.0730 concentration after the dietary intervention. Plasma phytanic acid increased significantly within both groups with the highest increase in control group (24% compared to phytanic acid group (15%. There were no significant effects of phytanic acid on risk markers for the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The results indicate that increased intake of dairy fat modify the plasma phytanic acid concentration, regardless of cows feeding regime and the minor difference in dietary phytanic acid. Whether the phytanic acid has potential to affects the risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human still remain to be elucidated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01343576

  10. Treatment results of combined platelet-rich plasma and fat injection in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Fathi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Velopharyngeal insufficiency causes hypernasal vocal quality and can also result in audible nasal air emission and difficulty in producing pressure consonants. The resulting speech is often socially unacceptable and can be difficult to understand. Platelet-rich plasma is an autologous derivative of whole blood. Today, the importance of clinical use of Platelet-rich plasma in the plastic surgery is considered. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of combined Platelet-rich plasma and fat injection in the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency. Methods: In this prospective clinicaltrial study, of 15 patients including 9 males and 6 females and aged 15-20 years with mild/ moderate velopharyngeal insufficiency who were injected with 5 mL of combined Platelet-rich plasma (1 mL and fat (4 mL in the front volume in the posterior pharyngeal wall in the pre-vertebral fascia under sedation. Speech samples were recorded by nasoendoscopy before the injection, and at 6 weeks and 6 months after the injection. Assessment of pathologic speech was done by speech therapist. Results: Velar displacement showed significantly increased at 6 weeks after the injection (P=0.049. Velopharyngeal gap disappeared in 60% of patients at 6 weeks after the injection (P=0.019. Lateral pharyngeal wall movement showed significantly increased in 73.3% of the patients at 6 months after the injection (P=0.04. After the treatment, aerodynamic assessment showed significantly decreased in nasal air escape during phonation and repeat the words (P<0.05. Assessment speech therapist showed significantly improve quality of phonation in these patients (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that, combined Platelet-rich plasma and fat injection lead to improve voice resonance and reduce nasal air escape in all treated cases. It can be a promising alternative to major procedures, such as velopharyngoplasties, for the treatment of mild/ moderate velopharyngeal insufficiency.

  11. Comparison of atmospheric microplasma and plasma jet irradiation for increasing of skin permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, K; Tran, N A; Hayashida, K; Blajan, M

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma is attracting interest for medical applications such as sterilization, treatment of cancer cells and blood coagulation. Application of atmospheric plasma in dermatology has potential as a novel tool for wound healing, skin rejuvenation and treatment of wrinkles. In this study, we investigated the enhancement of percutaneous absorption of dye as alternative agents of transdermal drugs. Hypodermic needles are often the only way to deliver large-molecule drugs into the dermis, although a safe transdermal drug delivery method that does not require needles would be desirable. We therefore explored the feasibility of using atmospheric microplasma irradiation to enhance percutaneous absorption of drugs, as an alternative delivery method to conventional hypodermic needles. Pig skin was used as a biological sample, exposed to atmospheric microplasma, and analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A tape stripping test, a representative method for evaluating skin barrier performance, was also conducted for comparison. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured and compared with and without atmospheric microplasma irradiation, to quantify water evaporation from the inner body through the skin barrier. The results show that the stratum corneum, the outermost skin layer, could be chemically and physically modified by atmospheric microplasma irradiation. Physical damage to the skin by microplasma irradiation and an atmospheric plasma jet was also assessed by observing the skin surface. The results suggest that atmospheric microplasma has the potential to enhance percutaneous absorption. (paper)

  12. Formulation and Evaluation of Exotic Fat Based Cosmeceuticals for Skin Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Mandawgade, S. D.; Patravale, Vandana B.

    2008-01-01

    Mango butter was explored as a functional, natural supplement and active skin ingredient in skin care formulations. A foot care cream was developed with mango butter to evaluate its medicinal value and protective function in skin repair. Qualitative comparison and clinical case studies of the product were carried out. Wound healing potential of foot care cream was investigated on the rat excision and incision wound models. Results of the clinical studies demonstrated complete repair of worn a...

  13. The Beneficial Effect of Anthocyanidin-Rich Vitis vinifera L. Grape Skin Extract on Metabolic Changes Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mice Involves Antiinflammatory and Antioxidant Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Gisele França; Santos, Izabelle Barcellos; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; Cordeiro, Viviane Silva Cristino; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; de Carvalho, Lenize Costa Reis Marins; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; Resende, Angela Castro; de Moura, Roberto Soares

    2017-10-01

    We hypothesized that a polyphenol-rich extract from Vitis vinifera L. grape skin (GSE) may exert beneficial effects on obesity and related metabolic disorders induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). C57/BL6 mice were fed a standard diet (10% fat, control, and GSE groups) or an HFD (60% fat, high fat (HF), and HF + GSE) with or without GSE (200 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. GSE prevented weight gain; dyslipidemia; insulin resistance; the alterations in plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin; and the deregulation of leptin and adiponectin expression in adipose tissue. These beneficial effects of GSE may be related to a positive modulation of insulin signaling proteins (IR, pIRS, PI3K, pAKT), pAMPK/AMPK ratio, and GLUT4 expression in muscle and adipose tissue. In addition, GSE prevented the oxidative damage, evidenced by the restoration of antioxidant activity and decrease of malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels in muscle and adipose tissue. Finally, GSE showed an anti-inflammatory action, evidenced by the reduced plasma and adipose tissue inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6). Our results suggest that GSE prevented the obesity and related metabolic disorders in HF-fed mice by regulating insulin sensitivity and GLUT4 expression as well as by preventing the oxidative stress and inflammation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Ex vivo human skin evaluation of localized fat reduction and anti-aging effect by TriPollar radio frequency treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisnic, Sylvie; Branchet, Marie Christine

    2010-02-01

    A wide variety of radio frequency (RF) treatments for localized fat and cellulite reduction as well as anti-aging are available nowadays, but only a few have shown the biological mechanism responsible for the clinical results. To determine the biological mechanism of the TriPollar RF device for localized fat and cellulite reduction as well as the collagen remodeling effect. Human skin samples were collected from abdominoplasty surgery and facial lifts, in order to evaluate the lipolytic and anti-aging effects of the apollo device powered by TriPollar RF technology using an ex vivo human skin model. The anti-cellulite effect was evaluated by the dosage of released glycerol and histological analysis of the hypodermis. Skin tightening was evaluated by morphometric analysis of collagen fibers and the dosage of collagen synthesis. Following TriPollar treatment, a significant increase of glycerol release by skin samples was found. The structure of fat cells was altered in shape and a modification of the fibrous tract was also detected in the fat layer. Additional findings indicated stimulation of the dermal fibroblasts with increased collagen synthesis. The detected alteration in the hypodermal layer is manifested by fat and cellulite reduction accompanied by structural and biochemical improvement of dermal collagen, which result in overall skin tightening.

  15. Nanofat-derived stem cells with platelet-rich fibrin improve facial contour remodeling and skin rejuvenation after autologous structural fat transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Hai; Zhu, Mao-Guang; Xu, Fang-Tian; He, Ning; Wei, Xiao-Juan; Li, Hong-Mian

    2017-01-01

    Traditional autologous fat transplantation is a common surgical procedure for treating facial soft tissue depression and skin aging. However, the transplanted fat is easily absorbed, reducing the long-term efficacy of the procedure. Here, we examined the efficacy of nanofat-assisted autologous fat structural transplantation. Nanofat-derived stem cells (NFSCs) were isolated, mechanically emulsified, cultured, and characterized. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) enhanced proliferation and adipogenic differentiation of NFSCs in vitro. We then compared 62 test group patients with soft tissue depression or signs of aging who underwent combined nanofat, PRF, and autologous fat structural transplantation to control patients (77 cases) who underwent traditional autologous fat transplantation. Facial soft tissue depression symptoms and skin texture were improved to a greater extent after nanofat transplants than after traditional transplants, and the nanofat group had an overall satisfaction rate above 90%. These data suggest that NFSCs function similarly to mesenchymal stem cells and share many of the biological characteristics of traditional fat stem cell cultures. Transplants that combine newly-isolated nanofat, which has a rich stromal vascular fraction (SVF), with PRF and autologous structural fat granules may therefore be a safe, highly-effective, and long-lasting method for remodeling facial contours and rejuvenating the skin. PMID:28978136

  16. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25......-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing 25-OH-vitD levels, by clinical categories or by seasonally adjusted tertiles, were associated...... with increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 × 10(-15) and P=3 × 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD 50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH...

  17. Effect of intragastric acid stability of fat emulsions on gastric emptying, plasma lipid profile and postprandial satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Luca; Faulks, Richard; Wickham, Martin S J; Bush, Debbie; Pick, Barbara; Wright, Jeff; Cox, Eleanor F; Fillery-Travis, Annette; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2009-03-01

    Fat is often included in common foods as an emulsion of dispersed oil droplets to enhance the organoleptic quality and stability. The intragastric acid stability of emulsified fat may impact on gastric emptying, satiety and plasma lipid absorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, compared with an acid-unstable emulsion, an acid-stable fat emulsion would empty from the stomach more slowly, cause more rapid plasma lipid absorption and cause greater satiety. Eleven healthy male volunteers received on two separate occasions 500 ml of 15 % (w/w) [13C]palmitate-enriched olive oil-in-water emulsion meals which were either stable or unstable in the acid gastric environment. MRI was used to measure gastric emptying and the intragastric oil fraction of the meals. Blood sampling was used to measure plasma lipids and visual analogue scales were used to assess satiety. The acid-unstable fat emulsion broke and rapidly layered in the stomach. Gastric emptying of meal volume was slower for the acid-stable fat emulsion (P rate of energy delivery of fat from the stomach to the duodenum was not different up to t = 110 min. The acid-stable emulsion induced increased fullness (P distribution of fat emulsions against the gastric acid environment. This could have implications for the design of novel foods.

  18. Influence of surface finish on the plasma formation at the skin explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datsko, I M; Chaikovsky, S A; Labetskaya, N A; Rybka, D V; Oreshkin, V I; Khishchenko, K V

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on experiments to investigate how the quality of surface finish, i.e., surface roughness, influences the plasma formation in a skin explosion of conductors. The experiments were performed on a MIG terawatt generator with a current amplitude of up to 2.5 MA and current rise time of 100 ns. The plasma formation at the conductor surface and the evolution of the plasma boundary was recorded using a four-frame optical camera with an exposure time of 3 ns per frame. It is shown that the quality of surface finish little affects the onset of plasma formation in a skin explosion of stainless steel and St3 steel conductors at a magnetic field of up to 400 T. (paper)

  19. Fat oxidation, hormonal and plasma metabolite kinetics during a submaximal incremental test in lean and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Salvadori, Alberto; Brunani, Amelia; Malatesta, Davide

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare fat oxidation, hormonal and plasma metabolite kinetics during exercise in lean (L) and obese (O) men. Sixteen L and 16 O men [Body Mass Index (BMI): 22.9 ± 0.3 and 39.0 ± 1.4 kg · m(-2)] performed a submaximal incremental test (Incr) on a cycle-ergometer. Fat oxidation rates (FORs) were determined using indirect calorimetry. A sinusoidal model, including 3 independent variables (dilatation, symmetry, translation), was used to describe fat oxidation kinetics and determine the intensity (Fat(max)) eliciting maximal fat oxidation. Blood samples were drawn for the hormonal and plasma metabolite determination at each step of Incr. FORs (mg · FFM(-1) · min(-1)) were significantly higher from 20 to 30% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in O than in L and from 65 to 85% VO2peak in L than in O (p ≤ 0.05). FORs were similar in O and in L from 35 to 60% VO2peak. Fat max was 17% significantly lower in O than in L (poxidation kinetics were characterized by similar translation, significantly lower dilatation and left-shift symmetry in O compared with L (poxidation at high exercise intensities suggest that the difference in the fat oxidation kinetics is likely linked to impaired muscular capacity to oxidize NEFA in O. These results may have important implications for the appropriate exercise intensity prescription in training programs designed to optimize fat oxidation in O.

  20. Effect of modified dairy fat on postprandial and fasting plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandström, B.; Hermansen, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid profile of milk fat can be modified by cow feeding strategies. Our aim was postprandially and after 4 wk to compare the effect of a modified milk fat(M diet) [with 16% of the cholesterolemic saturated fatty acid (C12-16) replaced by mainly oleic and stearic acids] with the effect of D...... diet than M diet (interaction effect, diet x timesP stearic acids may havebeen obscured by the high content of cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids in milk fat...... diet, including aconventional Danish milk fat on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. A side effect of the cow feeding regime was a 5% (w/w) increase in trans fatty acid in M diet.Eighteen subjects were fed for two periods of 4 wk strictly controlled isoenergetic test diets with 40% of energy from total fat...

  1. Gastric emptying in rats following administration of a range of different fats measured as acetaminophen concentration in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    an indirect measure of gastric emptying. Emulsified fats with added acetaminophen were fed by gavage to rats, and the plasma concentration of acetaminophen was followed for 3 h by repeated blood sampling from the carotid artery. The fats administered included rapeseed, corn, and fish oils, lard, and cocoa...... in gastric emptying between the groups fed the different fats, except for the emptying of tridecanoin (tri-10:0) that was statistically significantly slower than that of randomized oil, cocoa butter, and rapeseed oil (p

  2. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (Plevels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (Plevels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (Plevels compared with the HFD (Plevels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (Plevels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction.

  3. Dietary supplementation of grape skin extract improves glycemia and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice fed a Western high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Kadouh, Hoda; Zhou, Kequan

    2011-04-13

    Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity.

  4. Time-related fatty acid profiles of plasma and lymph after gastric administration of fats to rats fed high-fat diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, E. M.; Brand, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    investigated. Although decreasing during the early absorptive phase a continuous contribution of endogenous trans-C18:I and arachidonic acid was observed in plasma. Small differences were observed between the 4 dietary fats. In lymph, the transport of trans-C18:1 rose markedly after butter administration...... partly caused by the content of this fatty acid in butter, while the transport of trans-C18:1 after R/C10 was unchanged although still transported at a reasonable high rate. The transport of arachidonic acid increased after administration of both butter and R/C10. Minor changes were observed in plasma...

  5. Improved penetration of wild ginseng extracts into the skin using low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seoul Hee; Hae Choi, Jeong; Song, Yeon Suk; Lee, Hae-June; Hong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gyoo Cheon

    2018-04-01

    Wild ginseng (WG) is a well-known traditional medicinal plant that grows in natural environments in deep mountains. WG has been thought to exert potent physiological and medicinal effects, and, recently, its use in skin care has attracted much interest. This study investigated the efficient penetration of WG extracts into the skin by means of low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (LTAPP), and its effects on the skin at the cellular and tissue levels. NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and HRM-2 hairless mice were used to confirm the improved absorption of WG extracts into the skin using LTAPP. The gene expression levels in NIH3T3 cells and morphological changes in skin tissues after WG treatment were monitored using both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although WG extracts did not show any significant effects on proliferative activity and cytotoxicity, at a concentration of 1:800, it significantly increased the expression of fibronectin and vascular endothelial growth factor. In the in vivo study, the combinational treatment of LTAPP and WG markedly induced the expression of fibronectin and integrin α6, and it thickened. Our results showed that LTAPP treatment safely and effectively accelerated the penetration of the WG extracts into the skin, thereby increasing the effects of WG on the skin.

  6. The Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Storage of Surplus Harvested Skin Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Ayturk, Nilufer; Sutcu, Mustafa; Keskin, Mustafa; Mudok, Tangul

    2017-02-01

    There is a need for improved methods and storage media to sustain the tissue viability of autologous skin grafts. To compare histological changes in human skin grafts stored in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with those of grafts stored in saline. Eight circular, 3-mm full-thickness skin graft samples were harvested from the abdominal skin of each of 5 patients scheduled to undergo an abdominoplasty procedure. Four of these graft samples were stored in saline, and the other 4 were stored in saline mixed with PRP prepared from the patient's own venous blood. Histological assessment of the microscopic appearance of the samples was performed on days 5, 8, 11, and 14. The integrity of the epidermal-dermal junction, number of keratinocytes with perinuclear halos, collagen organization, and number of fibroblasts per field were assessed. The cellular apoptosis rate was also measured on these same days. On day 5, significant differences were observed microscopically between the PRP- and saline-stored grafts ( P < .05). The grafts preserved in saline exhibited early marked cellular and nuclear swelling with pleomorphism, as well as early nuclear halo formation. The cell viability rate of the PRP group was significantly higher than that of the saline-stored group on day 8 ( P < .05). Platelet-rich plasma and its inherent growth factors supported longer graft survival; however, its effect lasted only until day 8. Platelet-rich plasma may be beneficial if grafts need to be stored for delayed application(s).

  7. Biological stimulation of the Human skin applying health promoting light and plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awakowicz, P.; Bibinov, N. [Center for Plasma Science and Technology, Ruhr-University, Bochum (Germany); Born, M.; Niemann, U. [Philips Research, Aachen (Germany); Busse, B. [Zell-Kontakt GmbH, Noerten-Hardenberg (Germany); Gesche, R.; Kuehn, S.; Porteanu, H.E. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany); Kaemling, A.; Wandke, D. [CINOGY GmbH, Duderstadt (Germany); Kolb-Bachofen, V.; Liebmann, J. [Institute for Immunobiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kovacs, R.; Mertens, N.; Scherer, J. [Aurion Anlagentechnik GmbH, Seligenstadt (Germany); Oplaender, C.; Suschek, C. [Clinic for Plastic Surgery, University Clinic, Aachen (Germany); Vioel, W. [Laser-Laboratorium, Goettingen (Germany); University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    In the frame of BMBF project ''BioLiP'', new physical treatment techniques aiming at medical treatment of the human skin have been developed. The acronym BioLiP stands for ''Desinfektion, Entkeimung und biologische Stimulation der Haut durch gesundheitsfoerdernde Licht- und Plasmaquellen'' (Disinfection, germ reduction and biological stimulation of the human skin by health promoting light and plasma sources). A source applying a low-temperature dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) has been investigated on its effectiveness for skin disinfection and stimulation of biological material. Alternatively an atmospheric plasma source consisting of a microwave resonator combined with a solid state power oscillator has been examined. This concept which allows for a compact and efficient design avoiding external microwave power supply and matching units has been optimized with respect to nitrogen monoxide (NO) production in high yields. In both cases various application possibilities in the medical and biological domain are opened up. Light sources in the visible spectral range have been investigated with respect to the proliferation of human cell types. Intensive highly selective blue light sources based on LED technology can slow down proliferation rates without inducing toxic effects which offers new opportunities for treatments of so-called hyperproliferative skin conditions (e.g. with psoriasis or in wound healing) using UV-free light. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Benefits of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in skin photodamage: clinical response and histological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ley, B; Cuevast, J; Alonso-Castro, L; Calvo, M I; Ríos-Buceta, L; Orive, G; Anitua, E; Jaén, P

    2015-01-01

    Skin ageing is characterized by small and fine wrinkles, roughness, laxity, and pigmentation as a result of epidermal thinning, collagen degradation, dermal atrophy, and fewer fibroblasts. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) is an autologous plasma preparation enriched in proteins obtained from patient's own blood aimed at accelerating tissue repair and regeneration. To evaluate the benefits of PRGF in skin photodamage, 10 healthy volunteers were treated with three consecutive intradermal injections of PRGF in the facial area. Clinical outcomes and histological analysis were performed. A statistically significant increase in the epidermis and papillary dermis thickness was seen after PRGF treatment (p PRGF treatment, a reduction of the average area fraction of solar elastosis was observed in patients with clinical and histological signs of skin photodamage (p PRGF use was 0.75 (9/12) for the group of patients with signs of skin photodamage. Intradermal PRGF infiltration appears to be an effective treatment for the photodamaged skin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. An introduction to application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP in skin rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Banihashemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is an autologous concentration of human platelets contained in a small volume of plasma characterized by haemostatic and tissue repairing effects. Tissue repairing effects and being enriched by various kind of growth factors, has made them the focus of attention for different procedures. PRP has been effective in bony defects, wound healing and recently for aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. The purpose of this review is to evaluate and summarize the applications of PRP in the dermatology literature, with particular focus on rejuvenizaton process, advances and limitations of current PRP therapies. We studied literature related to PRP therapy, these include regeneration of soft tissue, skin aging mechanisms, as well as wound healing. Some studies have shown promising results, with favorable outcomes about PRP clinical application for skin rejuvenization. This article summarizes our current understanding regarding photoaging process and the role of PRP in the skin rejuvenization process. PRP has been shown to be useful in skin rejuvenization. Further studies are needed to elucidate both basic and clinical aspects of PRP therapies. In particular, platelet preparation methods, different application methods, platelet mechanism of action in rejuvenation field, interactions with the skin components, long-term efficacy and safety are necessary to be determined.

  10. Intake of high-fat diet stimulates the risk of ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumors and malignant progression of papillomas to carcinoma in SKH-1 hairless mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that administration of a high-fat diet (HF-diet) to C57BL/6 mice exacerbates their response to short-term UVB radiation-induced inflammation in the skin. To explore the effects of an HF-diet on UVB-induced tumorigenesis, we have used the SKH-1 hairless mouse model in which the mice are exposed to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm{sup 2}) three times a week for 24 weeks. The development of UVB-induced skin tumors was rapid and the tumor multiplicity and tumor size were significantly higher (P < 0.01–0.005) in the mice fed an HF-diet than the mice fed a control-diet (C-diet). Moreover, the malignant progression of UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas was higher in HF-diet-fed mice. On analysis of tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice, we found that administration of an HF-diet significantly enhanced the levels of UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (P < 0.01), and PGE{sub 2} receptors, and activation of NF-κB in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. In addition the HF-diet enhanced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.05) in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that HF-diet enhanced the levels of epidermal cell proliferation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt at Ser{sup 473} in UVB-exposed skin and skin tumors. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the regular consumption of an HF-diet increases the risk of photocarcinogenesis in mice and that this is associated with enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators in the UVB-exposed skin and tumors. - Highlights: • Consumption of high-fat diet increases UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice. • Intake of high-fat diet stimulates progression of UV-induced papilloma to carcinoma. • Intake of high-fat diet enhances inflammation in UV-exposed skin • Regular

  11. Hyperinsulinemia correlates with low levels of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in Japanese men irrespective of fat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakatsuji Hideaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP, a member of the natriuretic peptide family, is a cardiac-derived secretory hormone with natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities. Intraabdominal fat accumulation is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and cardiac dysfunction. Circulating BNP levels are relatively low (within the normal limits in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. However, the relationship between plasma BNP levels and visceral fat accumulation in general population has not been reported. The present study analyzed the relationships between plasma BNP levels and various clinical variables, including insulin, visceral and subcutaneous fat area (VFA and SFA, respectively, in normal Japanese men. Methods The study (Victor-J study subjects were consecutive 500 Japanese male workers, who underwent a health checkup and were measured VFA and SFA by computed tomography. Results Age-adjusted simple linear regression analysis showed that log-BNP correlated positively with HDL-cholesterol, and negatively with VFA, log-immunoreactive insulin (IRI, log-triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol, but not body mass index or SFA. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified log-IRI and HDL-cholesterol as significant determinants of log-BNP. Subjects with IRI ≥5.5 μIU/mL had lower plasma BNP levels than those with IRI 2, visceral fat accumulation (VFA, cutoff value 100 cm2 and subcutaneous fat accumulation (SFA, cutoff value 128 cm2. Conclusions Our study showed that hyperinsulinemia correlated with low levels of plasma BNP in general men, irrespective of fat distribution. Trial registration UMIN 000004318.

  12. Protocol for a systematic review of the efficacy of fat grafting and platelet-rich plasma for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Oliver J; Kanapathy, Muholan; Khajuria, Ankur; Prokopenko, Max; Hachach-Haram, Nadine; Mann, Haroon; Mosahebi, Ash

    2017-06-06

    The use of fat grafting as a reconstructive surgical option is becoming much more common. Adipose-derived stem cells found in fat grafts are believed to facilitate wound healing via differentiation into fibroblasts and keratinocytes and the release of pro-healing growth factors. Several small studies have shown a positive effect of fat grafting in healing of wounds of a variety of aetiologies. When fat is combined with autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), there may be enhanced healing effects. This may be due to the pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of PRP. We aim to synthesise the current evidence on combination fat grafting and PRP for wound healing to establish the efficacy of this technique. We will conduct a comprehensive literature search in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Science Citation Index, and Google Scholar databases (up to July 2017) to identify studies on fat grafting and PRP for wound healing. All primary studies and systematic reviews of these studies will be included, except case reports and case series with fewer than three patients, to evaluate the outcome of fat grafting and PRP on wound healing either on its own or when compared to other studies. Primary outcome measures are expected to be the proportion of total wounds healed at 12 weeks and the average wound healing time (time for 100% re-epithelialisation). Expected secondary outcome measures are the proportion of wounds achieving 50% wound healing, the type of wound benefitting most from fat grafting, economic evaluation, health-related quality of life, and adverse events. Subgroup analysis will be performed for the proportions of wounds healed based on wound aetiology. This review will provide robust evidence of the efficacy of fat grafting and PRP for wound healing. This is an emerging technique, and this review is expected to guide clinical practice and ongoing research aimed at improving wound care. PROSPERO CRD42016049881.

  13. Application of a plasma-jet for skin antisepsis: analysis of the thermal action of the plasma by laser scanning microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, O; Kramer, A; Richter, H; Patzelt, A; Alborova, A; Humme, D; Weltmann, K-D; Hartmann, B; Hinz, P; Koch, S

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it was reported that a plasma-jet could be efficiently applied for the antisepsis of wounds. In this case, the discharge in an argon gas stream was used to produce a so-called ''cold plasma'' on the skin surface. The thermal action of the plasma on the skin was investigated in the present study by means of laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and by histological analysis. Consequently, the plasma beam was moved with a definite velocity at an optimal distance over the skin surface. The structural changes of the tissue were analyzed. It was found by LSM that a thermal damage could be detected only in the upper cell layers of the stratum corneum (SC) at moving velocities of the plasma beam, usually applied in clinical practice. Deeper parts of the SC were not damaged. The structural changes were so superficial that they could be detected only by LSM but not by analysis of the histological sections

  14. Evaluation of effects of platelet-rich plasma on human facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Esra Pancar; Sahin, Gokhan; Aydin, Fatma; Senturk, Nilgun; Turanli, Ahmet Yasar

    2014-10-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used for rapid healing and tissue regeneration in many fields of medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PRP application procedure on human facial skin. PRP was applied thrice at 2-week intervals on the face of ten healthy volunteers. It was applied to individual's forehead, malar area, and jaw by a dermaroller, and injected using a 27-gauge injector into the wrinkles of crow's feet. Participants were asked to grade on a scale from 0 to 5 for general appearance, skin firmness-sagging, wrinkle state and pigmentation disorder of their own face before each PRP procedure and 3 months after the last PRP procedure. While volunteers were evaluating their own face, they were also assessed by three different dermatologists at the same time by the same five-point scale. There was statistically significant difference regarding the general appearance, skin firmness-sagging and wrinkle state according to the grading scale of the patients before and after three PRP applications. Whereas there was only statistically significant difference for the skin firmness-sagging according to the assessment of the dermatologists. PRP application could be considered as an effective procedure for facial skin rejuvenation.

  15. Application of platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin in fat grafting: basic science and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Han-Tsung; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter

    2014-08-01

    Due to the natural properties of fat, fat grafting remains a popular procedure for soft tissue volume augmentation and reconstruction. However, clinical outcome varies and is technique dependent. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains α-granules, from which multiple growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor can be released after activation. In recent years, the scope of PRP therapies has extended from bone regeneration, wound healing, and healing of musculoskeletal injuries, to enhancement of fat graft survival. In this review, we focus on the definition of PRP, the different PRP preparation and activation methods, and growth factor concentrations. In addition, we discuss possible mechanisms for the role of PRP in fat grafting by reviewing in vitro studies with adipose-derived stem cells, preadipocytes, and adipocytes, and preclinical and clinical research. We also review platelet-rich fibrin, a so-called second generation PRP, and its slow-releasing biology and effects on fat grafts compared to PRP in both animal and clinical research. Finally, we provide a general foundation on which to critically evaluate earlier studies, discuss the limitations of previous research, and direct plans for future experiments to improve the optimal effects of PRP in fat grafting.

  16. Platelet-rich plasma-enriched autologous fat graft in regenerative and aesthetic facial surgery: Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, F; Hersant, B; La Padula, S; Meningaud, J-P

    2017-09-01

    The goal of adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to autologous fat graft is to increase the survival rate of the graft. After their activation, platelets release some important growth factors. As a result, PRP may increase the proliferation and differentiation of Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into adipocytes, improve fat graft vascularisation, and may block the apoptosis of grafted adipocytes. The other benefit expected from the addition of PRP to fat graft is the improvement of cutaneous trophicity above the grafted areas. An exhaustive review of the literature retrieved 11 clinical studies on humans and 7 on animals. A statistically significant increase of the survival rate of fat grafts has been found in 9 comparative studies. Our synthesis allowed us to set up the following protocol: addition of 20% of PRP activated with calcium hydrochloride to fat grafts. It may enhance the results of autologous facial fat graft in regenerative and aesthetic facial surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current...

  18. Evaluation of tilapia skin gelatin as a mammalian gelatin replacer in acid milk gels and low-fat stirred yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhihua; Deeth, Hilton; Yang, Hongshun; Prakash, Sangeeta; Bansal, Nidhi

    2017-05-01

    Tilapia skin gelatin (TSG) was studied in a 3-stage process (cooling, annealing, and heating) for pure gelatin gels and in a 4-stage process (acidification, cooling, annealing, and heating) for acid milk gels and cultured yogurt. The aim was to evaluate the use of TSG as a replacement for mammalian gelatin in yogurt. In pure TSG gels, stronger gels with higher melting temperatures were formed with increasing TSG concentrations. Compared with bovine gelatin (BG), which gelled at a concentration of 2.5%, TSG gels had lower gelling (14.1°C) and melting (24°C) temperatures but comparable storage moduli during annealing. In acid milk gels, addition of TSG increased the firmness of the gels with increasing concentration. Gelling and melting points of TSG in milk gels were observed at sufficient concentrations during cooling and heating. Strands and sheets were observed in the electron micrographs of milk gels with 1% TSG and a very dense structure was observed with 2.5% TSG. Yogurt with 0.4% TSG had similar viscosity, consistency, pseudoplasticity, and thixotropy as yogurt containing 0.4% BG; no difference was perceived by sensory panelists according to a triangle test. Addition of 0.4% TSG completely prevented whey separation from the acid milk gel and yogurt. The results suggest that TSG could be a suitable replacement for mammalian gelatin in low-fat stirred yogurt. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma leptin determination in ruminants: effect of nutritional status and body fatness on plasma leptin concentration assessed by a specific RIA in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavaud, C; Bocquier, F; Chilliard, Y; Keisler, D H; Gertler, A; Kann, G

    2000-05-01

    A specific leptin RIA was developed to assess concentrations of leptin in ovine plasma, and was shown to be efficient with bovine and caprine plasma. A specific, high-affinity antibody was generated against recombinant ovine leptin which, when used in a competitive leptin RIA, provided valid estimates of linearity (r=+0.989-0.998), recovery (102%), repeatability (13%) and limit of sensitivity (0.83 ng/ml for 100 microl sample size). Serial dilutions of five ovine, bovine or caprine plasma samples showed good linearity and parallelism with the recombinant ovine leptin standard curve. A comparison of this RIA was made with a commercial 'multi-species' RIA kit using 56 ovine plasma samples. Major differences were found in assay sensitivity. Non-lactating, non-pregnant, ovariectomized ewes were fed a ration for 65 days which provided 90+/-9% (control; n=12) or 39+/-2% of maintenance energy requirements (underfed; n=16) in order to analyse the respective effects of body fatness (estimated by either an in vivo dilution technique or body condition scoring) and of nutritional status on plasma leptin concentration. There was a significant positive correlation between body fatness or body condition score and plasma leptin levels (r=+0.68, Pnutritional status (17%).

  20. Structural modification of the skin barrier by OH radicals: a reactive molecular dynamics study for plasma medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Paal, J; Verlackt, C C; Yusupov, M; Neyts, E C; Bogaerts, A

    2015-01-01

    While plasma treatment of skin diseases and wound healing has been proven highly effective, the underlying mechanisms, and more generally the effect of plasma radicals on skin tissue, are not yet completely understood. In this paper, we perform ReaxFF-based reactive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interaction of plasma generated OH radicals with a model system composed of free fatty acids, ceramides, and cholesterol molecules. This model system is an approximation of the upper layer of the skin (stratum corneum). All interaction mechanisms observed in our simulations are initiated by H-abstraction from one of the ceramides. This reaction, in turn, often starts a cascade of other reactions, which eventually lead to the formation of aldehydes, the dissociation of ceramides or the elimination of formaldehyde, and thus eventually to the degradation of the skin barrier function. (paper)

  1. Treatment of a Refractory Skin Ulcer Using Punch Graft and Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carducci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic ulceration of the lower legs is a relatively common condition amongst adults: one that causes pain and social distress and results in considerable healthcare and personal costs. The technique of punch grafting offers an alternative approach to the treatment of ulcers of the lower limbs. Objective. Combining platelet-rich plasma and skin graft enhances the efficacy of treating chronic diabetic wounds by enhancing healing rate and decreasing recurrence rate. Platelet-rich plasma could, by stimulating dermal regeneration, increase the take rate after skin grafting or speed up reepithelialization. Methods and Materials. The ulcer was prepared by removing fibrin with a curette and the edges of the ulcer were freshened. The platelet-rich plasma has been infiltrated on the bottom and edges of the ulcer. The punch grafts were placed in 5 mm holes arranged. The ulcer was medicated with hydrogel and a pressure dressing was removed after 8 days. Results. After a few days the patient did not report more pain. Granulation tissue appeared quickly between implants. Most of the grafts were viable in 2-3 weeks. The grafts gradually came together to close the ulcer and were completed in four months.

  2. Low trans structured fat from flaxseed oil improves plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in apo E(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yun-Young; Kwon, Eun-Young; Kim, Hye-Jin; Park, Yong-Bok; Lee, Ki-Teak; Park, Taesun; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explicate the effects of feeding low trans structured fat from flaxseed oil (LF) on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism involved in apo E(-/-) mice. The animals were fed a commercial shortening (CS), commercial low trans fat (CL) and LF diet based on AIN-76 diet (10% fat) for 12 weeks. LF supplementation exerted a significant suppression in hepatic lipid accumulation with the concomitant decrease in liver weight. The LF significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol and free fatty acid whereas it significantly increased HDL-C concentration and the HDL-C/total-C ratio compared to the CS group. Reduction of hepatic lipid levels in the LF group was related with the suppression of hepatic enzyme activities for fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, and cholesterol regulating enzyme activity compared to the CS and CL groups. Accordingly, low trans structured fat from flaxseed oil is highly effective for improving hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in apo E(-/-) mice.

  3. The effect of eight weeks endurance training and high-fat diet on appetite-regulating hormones in rat plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Haghshenas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Consumption of high-fat foods is one of the major causes of obesity. Physical exercise is a strategy used to counteract obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks endurance training and high-fat diet (HFD on appetite-regulating hormones in rat plasma. Materials and Methods:Twenty eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group with standard diet (CSD, endurance training with a standard diet (ESD, control group with high-fat diet (CHFD and endurance training with high-fat diet (EHFD. Twenty-four hr after the last training session, the blood samples were obtained and analyzed for hormones levels. Results: The significant increased weight gain and food intake and decreased plasma nesfatin-1 and PYY3-36 levels were observed in CHFD group, while exercise under the HFD antagonized these effects. There were no significant changes in ghrelin, insulin and leptin levels in different groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that exercise can prevent fattening effect of HFD. Probably, performing exercise makes a reduction of food intake and weight gain in rat via the increase in nesfatin-1 and PYY levels. However, further studies are necessary to understand the exact mechanisms involved in this field.

  4. A low-fat high-carbohydrate diet reduces plasma total adiponectin concentrations compared to a moderate-fat diet with no impact on biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a randomized controlled feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Kestin, Mark; Schwarz, Yvonne; Yang, Pamela; Hu, Xiaojun; Lampe, Johanna W; Kratz, Mario

    2016-02-01

    We compared the effects of a eucaloric moderate-fat diet (18% protein, 36% fat, and 46% carbohydrate), a eucaloric low-fat high-carbohydrate diet (18% protein, 18% fat, and 64% carbohydrate), and a low-calorie (33% reduced) low-fat high-carbohydrate diet on biomarkers of systemic inflammation. We randomly assigned 102 participants (age 21-76 years and BMI 19.2-35.5 kg/m(2)) to the three different diets for 6 weeks in a parallel design intervention trial. All foods were provided. Ninety-three participants completed all study procedures; 92 were included in the analyses. Endpoints included plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II (sTNFRI and II), and adiponectin. In the unadjusted primary analyses, none of the endpoints were differentially affected by the dietary interventions despite the significantly greater reductions in body weight and fat mass in participants consuming the low-calorie low-fat diet compared to the eucaloric diets (p loss (time × weight change interaction, p = 0.051). Adjusted for weight change, adiponectin was reduced in the groups consuming the low-fat diets relative to the moderate-fat diet (p = 0.008). No effect of the intervention diets or weight loss on CRP, IL-6, or sTNFRI and II was seen in these secondary analyses. In relatively healthy adults, moderate weight loss had minimal effects on systemic inflammation, and raised plasma adiponectin only modestly. A lower dietary fat and higher carbohydrate content had little impact on measures of systemic inflammation, but reduced adiponectin concentrations compared to a moderate-fat diet. The latter may be of concern given the consistent and strong inverse association of plasma adiponectin with many chronic diseases.

  5. Platelet-rich plasma, the ultimate secret for youthful skin elixir and hair growth triggering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghblawi, Ebtisam

    2017-09-08

    The clinical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is based on the increase in the concentration of growth factors that are released from alpha-granule of the concentrated platelets and in the secretion of proteins which are able to capitalize on the healing process at the cellular level. It has been invented to restore the natural beauty by starting the natural rejuvenation process of the skin and aiming to make it function as a younger one and to keep the skin youthful and maintain it. Besides that, it is also emerged to include hairs as a new injectable procedure to enable stimulating hair growth locally and topically; preventing its fall; improving hair shaft, hair stem, and its caliber; increasing its shine, vitality, and pliability; and declining hair splitting and breakage. Thus, youth is in your blood as it has a magical power imposed in the platelet factors. There is, however, no standardization of the techniques besides insufficient description of the adopted procedures. Not long, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has surfaced strongly in diverse medical specialties including plastic, wound healing and diabetic ulcers, orthopedic, trauma, ocular surgery, dry eye for eyelid injection, urology for urinary incontinence, sexual wellness, cutaneous surgery, sport medicine, dentistry and dermatology, and aesthetic applications. PRP proved to promote wound healing and aid in facelift, volumetric skin, skin rejuvenation, regeneration, and reconstruction; improve wrinkling; stimulate hair growth; increase hair follicle viability and its survival rate; prevent apoptosis; increase and prolong the anagen hair growth stage; and delay the progression to catagen hair cycle stage with increased density in hair loss and hair transplantation. The aims of this extensive review were to cover all PRP application aspects that are carried out in aesthetic dermatology and to assess the literature on platelet-rich plasma outcomes on main aesthetic practices of general

  6. Effects of a diet high in monounsaturated fat and a full Mediterranean diet on PBMC whole genome gene expression and plasma proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Susan; Feskens, Edith; Bos, M.B.; Groot, de Lisette; Vries, de Jeanne; Muller, Michael; Afman, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of replacement of saturated fat (SFA) by monunsaturated fat (MUFA) in a western-type diet and the effects of a full Mediterranean (MED) diet on whole genome PBMC gene expression and plasma protein profiles. Abdominally overweight subjects were randomized to a

  7. Effects of a diet high in monounsaturated fat and a full Mediterranean diet on PBMC whole genome gene expression and plasma proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, van, Susan; Feskens, Edith; Bos, M.B.; Groot, de, Lisette; Vries, de, Jeanne; Muller, Michael; Afman, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of replacement of saturated fat (SFA) by monunsaturated fat (MUFA) in a western-type diet and the effects of a full Mediterranean (MED) diet on whole genome PBMC gene expression and plasma protein profiles. Abdominally overweight subjects were randomized to a 8 wk completely controlled SFA-rich diet, a SFA-by-MUFA-replaced diet (MUFA diet) or a MED diet. Concentrations of 124 plasma proteins and PBMCs whole genome transcriptional profiles were assessed...

  8. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  9. Plasma volume, intravascular albumin and its transcapillary escape rate in patients with extensive skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Worm, A M; Rossing, N

    1976-01-01

    Plasma volume and plasma concentration and transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TER alb), i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin that passes to the extravascular space per unit time, were determined using 125I-labelled human albumin in eight patients with extensive skin disease....... Plasma volume and plasma albumin concentration were reduced (P less than 0-05). Thus the intravascular albumin mass was moderately decreased to an average of 0-55 +/- 0-06 (s.d.) g/cm height compared with a normal mean value of 0-77 +/- 0-07 (s.d.) g/cm. This 29% decrease is statistically significant (P...... less than 0-001). The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TER alb) was significantly elevated, mean 8-6 +/- 1-1 (s.d.) % X h-1, as compared to normal subjects, mean 5-6 +/- 1-1 (s.d.) % X h-1, (+54%, P less than 0-001). The same patients were studied again after a 1-week treatment with prednisone...

  10. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  11. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmon F Grant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  12. Opposite associations of trunk and leg fat depots with plasma ferritin levels in middle-aged and older Chinese men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few data have been published on the associations of ferritin with trunk and leg fat depots. We aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. METHODOLOGY: Trunk fat mass and leg fat mass were determined in a cross-sectional sample of 1,150 Chinese (479 men and 671 women aged 50-70 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Fasting plasma ferritin was measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma ferritin was positively correlated with waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total body fat and trunk fat mass, but inversely correlated with leg fat mass in men (r = 0.16, 0.26, 0.19, 0.22 and -0.12, respectively, all P<0.05 and women (r = 0.16, 0.16, 0.08, 0.17 and -0.12, respectively, all P<0.05. Multivariate regression analysis showed that ferritin levels increased with larger trunk fat mass (β = 0.33 ± 0.08 for men and β = 0.21 ± 0.05 for women, both P<0.001 while decreased with larger leg fat mass (β = -0.12 ± 0.09, P = 0.15 for men; and β = -0.14 ± 0.05, P = 0.005 for women. Moreover, plasma ferritin levels decreased with increasing tertile of leg fat mass among each tertile of trunk fat mass. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report the opposite associations of trunk and leg fat depots with plasma ferritin levels.

  13. CLINICAL RESULTS FROM THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC SKIN WOUNDS WITH PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencho Kossev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To show platelet rich plasma (PRP application of chronic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2009 to December 2014 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients - 5 and female patients - 9. Average age - 48,5 (30-76. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - 4, with decubitus ulcers - 6, traumatic - 8, with infection - 5. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 - 6 months (4,5 on average. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score - 12 p.; Total anatomic score - 10 p., Total score - 17 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  14. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  15. GC and GC-MS studies of the effects of gamma-irradiation on olive oil and chicken skin tissue fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuominen, J.; Kiutamo, T.; Sjoeberg, A.M.; Leinonen

    1991-01-01

    Reduction of the microbial cell count in a frozen packaged chicken by ionizing radiation is an advantageous method with a microbiologically optimum dose of 4 kGy (5). However, the detection of irradiation in poultry is a problem in food analysis. Our study focused on to the possible changes in the fatty acid composition and formation of long-chain hydrocarbons in the chicken fat. The composition of chicken fat is complex. Therefore, our study was started with some pure fatty acids and a vegetable oil consisting mainly of triglycerides of fatty acids and having, qualitatively, the same fatty acids as the chicken. Pure olive oil (a retail oil from Italy) was chosen for the purpose. Later, also fat extracted from chicken skin was analysed. All samples were analysed as irradiated and non-irradiated. The results show that no new radiolytically induced fatty acids or other related compounds could be detected by using a BP-21 polar capillary column and flame ionization detector. Moreover, the composition of the major fatty acids remained constant. In the qualitative analysis of hydrocarbons produced by irradiation, it was shown that there is a distinct difference in the hydrocarbon pattern between non-irradiated and irradiated chicken skin tissues. (5 figs, 2 tabs, 6 refs)

  16. PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP FOR THE TREATMENT OF PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show platelet-rich plasma (PRP application of problematic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 31 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2010 to September 2015 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients– 13 and female patients– 18. Average age– 46,5 (22-82. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes– 10, with decubitus ulcers– 2, traumatic– 29, with infection– 12, acute– 15, chronic– 16. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 – 6 months (4,5 on average. We used platelet rich plasma derived by PRGF Endoret system, applied on the wound bed on a weekly basis. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score – 10 p.; Total anatomic score – 8 p., Total score – 15 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  17. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian; Johansen, Marie Louise; Gustafsson, Finn; Frystyk, Jan; Dela, Flemming; Faber, Jens; Kistorp, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current and former AAS abusers compared with controls. Cross-sectional study among men involved in recreational strength training. Current and former AAS abusers (n=37 and n=33) and controls (n=30) volunteered from the community. We assessed insulin sensitivity by Matsuda index (oral glucose tolerance test). Using overnight fasting blood samples, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Body composition and fat distribution, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Current and former AAS abusers displayed lower Matsuda index than controls (%-difference (95%CI) from controls, -26% (-45; -1) and -39% (-55; -18)). Testosterone was markedly higher among current AAS abusers and subnormal among former AAS abusers compared with controls. Current AAS abusers displayed higher mean VAT than controls (388 (17) vs 293 (12) cm 3 , P<.001) whereas body fat %, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were lower. In contrast, former AAS abusers showed highest leptin concentrations and body fat %. Multivariate linear regressions identified VAT as independent predictor of lower Matsuda index among current AAS abusers compared with controls; while body fat % independently predicted lower Matsuda index among former AAS abusers. Both current and former AAS abusers displayed lower insulin sensitivity which could be mediated by higher VAT and total body fat %, respectively. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging determined visceral fat reduction associates with enhanced IL-10 plasma levels in calorie restricted obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Formoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is characterized by a low grade chronic inflammation state. Indeed circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, are elevated in obese subjects, while anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, appear to be reduced. Cytokines profile improves after weight loss, but how visceral or subcutaneous fat loss respectively affect pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines plasma levels has not been precisely assessed. Therefore in the present study we correlated changes in circulating cytokine profile with quantitative changes in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots measured by an ad hoc Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI protocol before and after weight loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 14 obese subjects, MRI determination of visceral and subcutaneous fat and plasma glucose, insulin, TNF-α IL-6, and IL-10 measurements were performed before and after a caloric restriction induced weight loss of at least 5% of the original body weight. RESULTS: Weight loss improved insulin sensitivity (QUICKI Index: 0.35±0.03 vs 0.37±0.04; P<0.05, increased IL-10 (3.4±1.9 vs 4.6±1.0 pg/mL; P<0.03, and reduced TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels (2.5±1.3 vs 1.6±1.5 pg/mL, P<0.0015, 2.3±0.4 vs 1.6±0.6 pg/mL, P<0.02 respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of visceral fat loss and the percentage reduction in both TNF-α (r = 0.56, p<0.05 and IL-6 (r = 0.19 p<0.05 plasma levels. In a multiple regression analysis, the amount of visceral fat loss independently correlated with the increase in IL-10 plasma levels. CONCLUSION: The reduction in visceral adipose tissue is the main driver of the improved inflammatory profile induced by weight loss.

  19. On the influence of electron heat transport on generation of the third harmonic of laser radiation in a dense plasma skin layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, Vladimir A; Kanavin, Andrey P; Uryupin, Sergey A

    2005-01-01

    The flux density is determined for radiation emitted by a plasma at the tripled frequency of an ultrashort laser pulse, which produces weak high-frequency modulations of the electron temperature in the plasma skin layer. It is shown that heat removal from the skin layer can reduce high-frequency temperature modulations and decrease the nonlinear plasma response. The optimum conditions for the third harmonic generation are found. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  20. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  1. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  2. Effects of combination therapy using basic fibroblast growth factor and mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells on skin graft revascularisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Takashi; Soejima, Kazutaka; Kashimura, Tsutomu; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Morioka, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Although the benefits of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for wound healing and angiogenesis are well known, its effects on the process of skin graft revascularisation have not been clarified. It was hypothesised that bFGF would be beneficial to promote taking of skin grafts, but that the effect might be limited in the case of bFGF monotherapy. Therefore, this study investigated the efficacy of combination therapy using bFGF and dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. DFAT cells have multilineage differentiation potential, including into endothelial cells, similar to the case of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Commercially available human recombinant bFGF was used. DFAT cells were prepared from SD strain rats as an adipocyte progenitor cell line from mature adipocytes. Full-thickness skin was lifted from the back of SD strain rats and then grafted back to the original wound site. Four groups were established prior to skin grafting: control group (skin graft alone), bFGF group (treated with bFGF), DFAT group (treated with DFAT cells), and combination group (treated with both bFGF and DFAT cells). Tissue specimens for histological examination were harvested 48 hours after grafting. The histological findings for the bFGF group showed vascular augmentation in the grafted dermis compared with the control group. However, the difference in the number of revascularised vessels per unit area did not reach statistical significance against the control group. In contrast, in the combination group, skin graft revascularisation was significantly promoted, especially in the upper dermis. The results suggest that replacement of the existing graft vessels was markedly promoted by the combination therapy using bFGF and DFAT cells, which may facilitate skin graft taking.

  3. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, third (HF3 or all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-insulin resistance were also determined. HF3 fetuses were heaviest concomitant with elevated glycemia and insulin resistance (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had elevated plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6 acid proportions (p < 0.05. In the liver, HF3 fetuses displayed elevated linoleic, eicosatrienoic (20:3 n-6 and arachidonic acid proportions (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had reduced hepatic docosatrienoic acid (22:5 n-3 proportions (p < 0.05. High fat maintenance during the final week of fetal life enhances hepatic omega-6 FA profiles in fetuses concomitant with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance thereby presenting a metabolically compromised phenotype.

  4. Heating of a dense plasma by an ultrashort laser pulse in the anomalous skin-effect regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A.A.; Gamalii, E.G.; Novikov, V.N.; Semakhin, A.N.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.

    1992-01-01

    The absorption of laser light in an overdense plasma with a sharp boundary and the heating of the plasma under conditions corresponding to the anomalous skin effect are studied. Heat transfer from the absorption region near the surface into the interior of the plasma is studied in the kinetic approximation. At high intensities of the laser pulse, the electron distribution function is deformed, and the plasma is heated at a rate tens of times that predicted by classical heat-transfer theory, because of the severe limitation on thermal conductivity. The anisotropy of the electron distribution function in the skin layer leads to an increase in the absorption coefficient. The angular distribution and the polarization dependence of the absorption coefficient are discussed

  5. Treating multiple body parts for skin laxity and fat deposits using a novel focused radiofrequency device with an ultrasound component: Safety and efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Suneel; Denjean, Dominique; Fouque, Linda

    2017-12-01

    Growing demand for noninvasive skin tightening and reduction in fat results in an increasing pressure for devices with good clinical efficacy, consistency of results, and high patient comfort. The objective was to validate clinical efficacy and versatility of a novel device, which combines radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasound for treating skin laxity and fat deposits. We treated 34 subjects with facial skin laxity and/or abundant body or arm fat deposits. Subjects were divided based on their indications. Ten subjects received treatments to the face, 7 subjects to arms, 8 subjects to thighs, and 9 subjects on abdomen. All patients received 4 treatments on a weekly basis. Photographs of patients were assessed by blinded evaluators to recognize the baseline images from the 3-month follow-up images. Patient comfort and satisfaction were evaluated using a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire. Any adverse events were recorded. Patient images were correctly recognized in >90% of cases in all study groups. Patient questionnaires showed overall satisfaction with the therapy course and results. On a scale of 1 to 5, the patients agreed (4.1) that they are satisfied with the results that the treatment is comfortable (4.1) and that they are satisfied with the treatment time (4.1). No adverse events were reported. Consistent clinical efficacy was confirmed across all the treated areas, together with high patient comfort and satisfaction. We conclude the device is a highly versatile solution that can deliver results across body parts and different indications. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Histologic Evidence of New Collagen Formulation Using Platelet Rich Plasma in Skin Rejuvenation: A Prospective Controlled Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abuaf, Ozlem Karabudak; Yildiz, Hamza; Baloglu, H?seyin; Bilgili, Memet Ersan; Simsek, Hasan Aktug; Dogan, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    Background Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous concentration of human platelets contained in a small volume of plasma and has recently been shown to accelerate rejuvenate aging skin by various growth factors and cell adhesion molecules. Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intradermal injection of PRP in the human facial rejuvenation. Methods This study was a prospective, single-center, single-dose, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical st...

  7. High-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not increase plasma anandamide levels or potentiate anandamide insulinotropic effect in isolated canine islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcott, Orison O; Richey, Joyce M; Kabir, Morvarid; Chow, Robert H; Iyer, Malini S; Kirkman, Erlinda L; Stefanovski, Darko; Lottati, Maya; Kim, Stella P; Harrison, L Nicole; Ionut, Viorica; Zheng, Dan; Hsu, Isabel R; Catalano, Karyn J; Chiu, Jenny D; Bradshaw, Heather; Wu, Qiang; Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with elevated plasma anandamide levels. In addition, anandamide has been shown to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, suggesting that anandamide might be linked to hyperinsulinemia. To determine whether high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance increases anandamide levels and potentiates the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in isolated pancreatic islets. Dogs were fed a high-fat diet (n = 9) for 22 weeks. Abdominal fat depot was quantified by MRI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Fasting plasma endocannabinoid levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All metabolic assessments were performed before and after fat diet regimen. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated prior to euthanasia to test the in vitro effect of anandamide on islet hormones. mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined in intact islets. The findings in vitro were compared with those from animals fed a control diet (n = 7). Prolonged fat feeding increased abdominal fat content by 81.3±21.6% (mean±S.E.M, Pcanines, high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not alter plasma anandamide levels or further potentiate the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in vitro.

  8. Use of Clotted Human Plasma and Aprotinin in Skin Tissue Engineering: A Novel Approach to Engineering Composite Skin on a Porous Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michelle; Kaur, Pritinder; Herson, Marisa; Cheshire, Perdita; Cleland, Heather; Akbarzadeh, Shiva

    2015-10-01

    Tissue-engineered composite skin is a promising therapy for the treatment of chronic and acute wounds, including burns. Providing the wound bed with a dermal scaffold populated by autologous dermal and epidermal cellular components can further entice host cell infiltration and vascularization to achieve permanent wound closure in a single stage. However, the high porosity and the lack of a supportive basement membrane in most commercially available dermal scaffolds hinders organized keratinocyte proliferation and stratification in vitro and may delay re-epithelization in vivo. The objective of this study was to develop a method to enable the in vitro production of a human skin equivalent (HSE) that included a porous scaffold and dermal and epidermal cells expanded ex vivo, with the potential to be used for definitive treatment of skin defects in a single procedure. A collagen-glycosaminoglycan dermal scaffold (Integra(®)) was populated with adult fibroblasts. A near-normal skin architecture was achieved by the addition of coagulated human plasma to the fibroblast-populated scaffold before seeding cultured keratinocytes. This resulted in reducing scaffold pore size and improving contact surfaces. Skin architecture and basement membrane formation was further improved by the addition of aprotinin (a serine protease inhibitor) to the culture media to inhibit premature clot digestion. Histological assessment of the novel HSE revealed expression of keratin 14 and keratin 10 similar to native skin, with a multilayered neoepidermis morphologically comparable to human skin. Furthermore, deposition of collagen IV and laminin-511 were detected by immunofluorescence, indicating the formation of a continuous basement membrane at the dermal-epidermal junction. The proposed method was efficient in producing an in vitro near native HSE using the chosen off-the-shelf porous scaffold (Integra). The same principles and promising outcomes should be applicable to other biodegradable

  9. Cell death induced on cell cultures and nude mouse skin by non-thermal, nanosecond-pulsed generated plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Duval

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasmas are gaseous mixtures of molecules, radicals, and excited species with a small proportion of ions and energetic electrons. Non-thermal plasmas can be generated with any high electro-magnetic field. We studied here the pathological effects, and in particular cell death, induced by nanosecond-pulsed high voltage generated plasmas homogeneously applied on cell cultures and nude mouse skin. In vitro, Jurkat cells and HMEC exhibited apoptosis and necrosis, in dose-dependent manner. In vivo, on nude mouse skin, cell death occurred for doses above 113 J/cm(2 for the epidermis, 281 J/cm(2 for the dermis, and 394 J/cm(2 for the hypodermis. Using electron microscopy, we characterized apoptosis for low doses and necrosis for high doses. We demonstrated that these effects were not related to thermal, photonic or pH variations, and were due to the production of free radicals. The ability of cold plasmas to generate apoptosis on cells in suspension and, without any sensitizer, on precise skin areas, opens new fields of application in dermatology for extracorporeal blood cell treatment and the eradication of superficial skin lesions.

  10. High-fat diet-induced plasma protein and liver changes in obese rats can be attenuated by melatonin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Klosen, Paul; Pannengpetch, Supitcha; Kitidee, Kuntida; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm

    2017-06-01

    Obesity triggers changes in protein expression in various organs that might participate in the pathogenesis of obesity. Melatonin has been reported to prevent or attenuate such pathological protein changes in several chronic diseases. However, such melatonin effects on plasma proteins have not yet been studied in an obesity model. Using a proteomic approach, we investigated the effect of melatonin on plasma protein profiles after rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. We hypothesized that melatonin would attenuate abnormal protein expression in obese rats. After 10weeks of the HFD, animals displayed increased body weight and fat accumulation as well as increased glucose levels, indicating an obesity-induced prediabetes mellitus-like state. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry revealed 12 proteins whose expression was altered in response to the HFD and the melatonin treatment. The altered proteins are related to the development of liver pathology, such as cirrhosis (α1-antiproteinase), thrombosis (fibrinogen, plasminogen), and inflammation (mannose-binding protein A, complement C4, complement factor B), contributing to liver steatosis or hepatic cell death. Melatonin treatment most probably reduced the severity of the HFD-induced obesity by reducing the amplitude of HFD-induced plasma protein changes. In conclusion, we identified several potential biomarkers associated with the progression of obesity and its complications, such as liver damage. Furthermore, our findings reveal melatonin's beneficial effect of attenuating plasma protein changes and liver pathogenesis in obese rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Platelet growth factors from allogeneic platelet-rich plasma for clinical improvement in split-thickness skin graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonker, Atul; Dubey, Anju; Bhatnagar, Ankur; Chaudhary, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are a source of numerous growth factors which facilitate repair and healing. Thus platelet rich plasma has been increasingly used as a treatment modality in the field of reconstructive surgeries for wound healing. This preliminary study was carried out to explore whether platelet growth factors from platelet rich plasma could be used for enhancement of split thickness skin graft survival. Twenty patients (13 males and 7 females) requiring split thickness skin graft for various clinical reasons were enrolled in the study. Platelet rich plasma was collected by apheresis and frozen at -80° C. It was thawed at room temperature immediately before its intended application. PRP was applied only on one half of the wound, while another half served as control. Patient was followed for 6 weeks. The effect was assessed at first dressing in terms of graft uptake and subsequently as time taken for complete healing. There was 100% uptake of the graft in the area where platelet rich plasma was applied. In the control area, there was complete graft loss in 4 cases, partial loss in 7 cases and complete uptake in 9 cases. This study demonstrated promising results on application of PRP to split thickness skin grafts. Further randomized studies with greater sample size may be undertaken to establish platelet rich plasma as a validated treatment modality.

  12. High-fat diet with stress impaired islets' insulin secretion by reducing plasma estradiol and pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels in rats' proestrus phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, M; Zardooz, H; Khodagholi, F; Rostamkhani, F; Shaerzadeh, F

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether two estrus phases (proestrus and diestrus) in female rats may influence the metabolic response to a high-fat diet and/or stress, focusing on pancreatic insulin secretion and content. Animals were divided into high-fat and normal diet groups, then each group was subdivided into stress and non-stress groups, and finally, each one of these was divided into proestrus and diestrus subgroups. At the end of high-fat diet treatment, foot-shock stress was applied to the animals. Then, blood samples were taken to measure plasma factors. Finally, the pancreas was removed for determination of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) protein levels and assessment of insulin content and secretion of the isolated islets. In the normal and high-fat diet groups, stress increased plasma corticosterone concentration in both phases. In both study phases, high-fat diet consumption decreased estradiol and increased leptin plasma levels. In the high-fat diet group in response to high glucose concentration, a reduction in insulin secretion was observed in the proestrus phase compared with the same phase in the normal diet group in the presence and absence of stress. Also, high-fat diet decreased the insulin content of islets in the proestrus phase compared with the normal diet. High-fat diet and/or stress caused a reduction in islet GLUT2 protein levels in both phases. In conclusion, it seems possible that high-fat diet alone or combined with foot-shock, predispose female rats to impaired insulin secretion, at least in part, by interfering with estradiol levels in the proestrus phase and decreasing pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels.

  13. Autologous Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma Dermal Injections for Facial Skin Rejuvenation: Clinical, Instrumental, and Flow Cytometry Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Cordone, Iole; Abril, Elva; Masi, Serena; Foddai, Maria Laura

    2017-06-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an emerging treatment in dermatology recently proposed for skin rejuvenation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of autologous pure PRP dermal injections on facial skin rejuvenation, investigating the cellularity of PRP samples. Twelve patients underwent 3 sessions of PRP injection at 1-month intervals. The clinical and instrumental outcomes were evaluated before (T0) and 1 month (T1) after the end of treatment by means of transepidermal water loss, corneometry, Cutometer, Visioscan, and Visioface. A flow cytometry characterization on PRP and peripheral blood (PB) samples was performed. Clinical and patient evaluation showed improvement of skin texture. Skin gross elasticity, skin smoothness parameters, skin barrier function, and capacitance were significantly improved. No difference between PRP and PB lymphocyte immunological asset was observed. A leukocyte population (mainly CD3) and neutrophils depletion were documented in all the PRP samples. This instrumental study demonstrated that PRP poor in leukocytes can provide objective improvements in skin biostimulation. Flow cytometry showed no variability among the PRP samples using a reproducible separation system and a low content in proinflammatory cells. Although a pilot study, it may be helpful for future investigations on PRP cellularity.

  14. Pre-diagnostic plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyu Liang

    Full Text Available Recent reports have shown that vitamin D status was inversely associated with the risk of various cancers. However, few studies examined the association between vitamin D levels and risk of skin cancer.We prospectively evaluated the association between baseline plasma 25(OHD levels and the risk of incident squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and basal cell carcinoma (BCC among 4,641 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS and the NHS II with 510 incident BCC cases and 75 incident SCC cases. We used multivariate logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Plasma 25(OHD levels were positively associated with risk of BCC after adjusting for age at blood draw, season of blood draw, lab batch, hair color, burning tendency, the number of sunburns, and ultra-violet B flux of residence at blood collection. Women in the highest quartile of 25(OHD had more than 2-fold increased risk of BCC compared with women in the lowest quartile (OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.52-2.80, P for trend <0.0001. We also found a significantly positive association between plasma 25(OHD levels and SCC risk after adjusting for the same covariates (OR, highest vs. lowest quartile = 3.77, 95% CI = 1.70-8.36, P for trend= 0.0002.In this prospective study of women, plasma vitamin D levels were positively associated with non-melanoma skin cancer risk. Considering that most circulating vitamin D is due to sun exposure, the positive association between plasma vitamin D and non-melanoma skin cancer is confounded by sun exposure. Our data suggest that one-time measurement of plasma vitamin D levels may reasonably reflect long-term sun exposure and predict the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer.

  15. Evaluation of IgG4+ Plasma Cell Infiltration in Patients with Systemic Plasmacytosis and Other Plasma Cell-infiltrating Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Takeoka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Systemic plasmacytosis is a rare skin disorder characterized by marked infiltration of plasma cells in the dermis. IgG4-related disease is pathologically characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis, accompanied by elevated levels of serum IgG4. Reports of cases of systemic plasmacytosis with abundant infiltration of IgG4+ plasma cells has led to discussion about the relationship between systemic plasmacytosis and IgG4-related disease. This study examined IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cell ratios in 4 patients with systemic plasmacytosis and 12 patients with other skin diseases that show marked infiltration of plasma cells. Furthermore, we examined whether these cases met one of the pathological diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease (i.e. IgG4+/IgG plasma cells ratio of over 40%. Only one out of 4 patients with systemic plasmacytosis met the criterion. These results suggest that systemic plasmacytosis and IgG4-related disease are distinct diseases.

  16. Higher intake of fish and fat is associated with lower plasma s-adenosylhomocysteine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Lauritzen, Lotte; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye

    2017-01-01

    . In addition we assessed whole-blood fatty acid composition and plasma alkylresorcinols. Plasma s-adenosylmethionine (SAM), s-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), homocysteine (Hcy) and vitamin B12 was included as one-carbon metabolism markers. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to explore dietary patterns...

  17. Rich plasma platelets employed with surgical sponge in skin grafts in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Morais Pazzini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Pazzini J.M., Serafim E.L., Uscategui R.R.A., de Almeida V.T., Oliva C.A.C., Gartner F., de Carvalho M.F.F., Reis N. de P., Ferreira M.G.P.A., Moraes P.C., de Oliveira J.A. & De Nardi A.B. [Rich plasma platelets employed with surgical sponge in skin grafts in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus.] Emprego de plasma rico em plaquetas associado à esponja cirúrgica em enxertos cutâneos em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:397-405, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Cirurgia Veterinária, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Jaboticabal, Via de Acesso Paulo Donatto Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. E-mail: josipazzini@hotmail.com This work had the purpose to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP gel use associated with surgical sponges improve the integration of skin graft to receptor site. Was conducted a study of 16 rabbits, New Zealand white, female, 60 days old. They were divided into two groups with eight animals each, all of which was undergoing reconstructive surgery technique for making mesh graft. The groups were constituted in Gprpme received PRP gel and Gcme who received 0.9% saline solution combining both surgical sponge as a way of curative. The blood samples the Gprpme group that was done PRP, the mean platelet count after centrifugation was 1,288,750 platelets/uL. The results obtained in the PRP final sample when compared to the inicial were significantly greater. Thus, the double centrifugation protocol for obtaining PRP which was performed in this trial was appropriate, because the platelet concentration after double centrifugation increased three times as compared with the initial count of the blood sample, and it was possible to achieve good therapeutic results. In the macroscopic evaluation of the 3rd day, exudate showed significant differences in Gprpme compared to Gcme. In the evaluations of the 7th and the

  18. Rich plasma platelets employed with surgical sponge in skin grafts in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Morais Pazzini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Pazzini J.M., Serafim E.L., Uscategui R.R.A., de Almeida V.T., Oliva C.A.C., Gartner F., de Carvalho M.F.F., Reis N. de P., Ferreira M.G.P.A., Moraes P.C., de Oliveira J.A. & De Nardi A.B. [Rich plasma platelets employed with surgical sponge in skin grafts in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus.] Emprego de plasma rico em plaquetas associado à esponja cirúrgica em enxertos cutâneos em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:397-405, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Cirurgia Veterinária, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Jaboticabal, Via de Acesso Paulo Donatto Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. E-mail: josipazzini@hotmail.com This work had the purpose to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP gel use associated with surgical sponges improve the integration of skin graft to receptor site. Was conducted a study of 16 rabbits, New Zealand white, female, 60 days old. They were divided into two groups with eight animals each, all of which was undergoing reconstructive surgery technique for making mesh graft. The groups were constituted in Gprpme received PRP gel and Gcme who received 0.9% saline solution combining both surgical sponge as a way of curative. The blood samples the Gprpme group that was done PRP, the mean platelet count after centrifugation was 1,288,750 platelets/uL. The results obtained in the PRP final sample when compared to the inicial were significantly greater. Thus, the double centrifugation protocol for obtaining PRP which was performed in this trial was appropriate, because the platelet concentration after double centrifugation increased three times as compared with the initial count of the blood sample, and it was possible to achieve good therapeutic results. In the macroscopic evaluation of the 3rd day, exudate showed significant differences in Gprpme compared to Gcme. In the evaluations of the 7th and the

  19. Production of ultrahigh ion current densities at skin-layer subrelativistic laser-plasma interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badziak, J [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Glowacz, S [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Jablonski, S [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Parys, P [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Wolowski, J [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Hora, H [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Krasa, J [Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Laska, L [Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Rohlena, K [Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2004-12-01

    Some applications of fast ions driven by a short ({<=}1 ps) laser pulse (e.g. fast ignition of ICF targets, x-ray laser pumping, laboratory astrophysics research or some nuclear physics experiments) require ion beams of picosecond (or shorter) time durations and of very high ion current densities ({approx}10{sup 10} A cm{sup -2} or higher). A possible way of producing ion beams with such extreme parameters is ballistic focusing of fast ions generated by a target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism at relativistic laser intensities. In this paper we discuss another method, where the production of short-pulse ion beams of ultrahigh current densities is possible in a planar geometry at subrelativistic laser intensities and at a low energy ({<=}1 J) of the laser pulse. This method-referred to as skin-layer ponderomotive acceleration (S-LPA)-uses strong ponderomotive forces induced at the skin-layer interaction of a short laser pulse with a proper preplasma layer in front of a solid target. The basic features of the high-current ion generation by S-LPA were investigated using a simplified theory, numerical hydrodynamic simulations and measurements. The experiments were performed with subjoule 1 ps laser pulses interacting with massive or thin foil targets at intensities of up to 2 x 10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2}. It was found that both in the backward and forward directions highly collimated high-density ion beams (plasma blocks) with current densities at the ion source (close to the target) approaching 10{sup 10} A cm{sup -2} are produced, in accordance with the theory and numerical calculations. These ion current densities were found to be comparable to (or even higher than) those estimated from recent short-pulse TNSA experiments with relativistic laser intensities. Apart from the simpler physics of the laser-plasma interaction, the advantage of the considered method is the low energy of the driving laser pulses allowing the production of ultrahigh

  20. Differential Effects of Military Training on Fat-Free Mass and Plasma Amino Acid Adaptations in Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. McClung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fat-free mass (FFM adaptations to physical training may differ between sexes based on disparities in fitness level, dietary intake, and levels of plasma amino acids (AA. This investigation aimed to determine FFM and plasma AA responses to military training, examine whether adaptations differ between male and female recruits, and explore potential associations between FFM and AA responses to training. Body composition and plasma AA levels were assessed in US Army recruits (n = 209, 118 males, 91 females before (baseline and every three weeks during basic combat training (BCT, a 10-week military training course. Body weight decreased in men but remained stable in women during BCT (sex-by-time interaction, P < 0.05. Fifty-eight percent of recruits gained FFM during BCT, with more (P < 0.05 females (88% gaining FFM than males (36%. Total plasma AA increased (P < 0.05 during BCT, with greater (P < 0.05 increases observed in females (17% then in males (4%. Essential amino acids (EAA and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA were increased (P < 0.05 in females but did not change in males (sex-by-time interaction, P < 0.05. Independent of sex, changes in EAA (r = 0.34 and BCAA (r = 0.27 from baseline were associated with changes in FFM (P < 0.05; greater (P < 0.05 increases in AA concentrations were observed for those who gained FFM. Increases in FFM and plasma AA suggest that BCT elicits a more pronounced anabolic response in women compared to men, which may reflect sex-specific differences in the relative intensity of the combined training and physiological stimulus associated with BCT.

  1. Treatment results of combined platelet-rich plasma and fat injection in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Fathi; Farid Fereyduni

    2013-01-01

    Background: Velopharyngeal insufficiency causes hypernasal vocal quality and can also result in audible nasal air emission and difficulty in producing pressure consonants. The resulting speech is often socially unacceptable and can be difficult to understand. Platelet-rich plasma is an autologous derivative of whole blood. Today, the importance of clinical use of Platelet-rich plasma in the plastic surgery is considered. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of combined Platel...

  2. Terapia de bioestimulación con plasma rico en plaquetas para el envejecimiento cutáneo Bioestimulation technique with rich plasma in platelets for skin aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HM Escobar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La bioestimulación con plasma rico en plaquetas es una técnica ambulatoria para la prevención y manejo del envejecimiento cutáneo, se basa en la fisiología de la piel y funciona muy bien sola o dentro de un plan terapéutico combinado. El derivado de sangre autóloga estimula la producción de colágeno, elastina y tejido epidérmico, lo que se traduce en piel más tersa, luminosa y de mejor calidad. Son mínimos los riesgos de formación de hematomas, infección, transmisión de enfermedades o reacciones alérgicas.Biostimulation with rich plasma in platelets is an outpatient technique for the prevention and management of skin aging, which is based on the physiology of the skin, and works very well alone or in a combined treatment plan. Own patient derivate blood stimulates production of collagen, elastin and skin tissue, resulting in a smoother skin, brighter and better quality. Risks of bruising, infection, disease transmission or allergic reactions are minimal.

  3. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  4. Accumulation of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Psoriatic Skin and Changes of Plasma Lipid Levels in Psoriatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Solak Tekin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an accelerated turnover of epidermal cells and an incomplete differentiation in epidermis with lesion. However, the exact etiology of psoriasis is unknown. Abnormalities in essential fatty acid metabolism, free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, and release of lymphokines have been proposed. Objective. Our purpose was to evaluate the plasma lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein accumulation in psoriatic skin lesion in order to ascertain the possible participation of oxidative stress and oxidative modification of lipids in pathogenesis of psoriasis. Methods. The study group included 84 patients with psoriasis, and 40 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Blood lipid profile was determined. Psoriatic and nonlesional skin samples of psoriatic patients were evaluated for the presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by using an immune-fluorescent staining method. Results. The mean levels of lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol in patients with psoriasis were found to be significantly higher than those of healthy subjects. Psoriatic skins were shown positive oxidized low-density lipoprotein staining. There was no staining in nonlesional skin samples of the same individuals. Conclusion. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals is believed to be one of the important causes of cell membrane destruction and cell damage. This study shows for the first time the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in psoriatic skin lesion. We believe that accumulation of ox-LDL in psoriatic skin may have an important role in the immune-inflammatory events that result in progressive skin damage.

  5. The relation between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of body fat composition and plasma ghrelin in patients with end-stage renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Naglaa M.; Hamed, Soha T.; El-Khatib, Mohamed M.; El-Shehaby, Amal M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to clarify the role of ghrelin in malnutrition in uremia and its relationship to fat composition using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This is a cohort study including Group I: 60 patients with end stage renal disease (30 on hemodialysis [group IA] and 30 pre-dialysis [group IB]) and Group II: 20 controls. This study was carried out in Cairo University Hospital, Kasr Al-Aini, Cairo, Egypt in 2007. Body fat composition (total, differential and lean body mass) was assessed using DXA and plasma ghrelin was measured. Ghrelin was significantly higher in hemodialysis and pre-dialysis groups compared to the control group and higher in hemodialysis group compared to the pre-dialysis group. In hemodialysis, ghrelin was negatively correlated with weight, body mass index (BMI), and truncal fat mass, and positively correlated with serum creatinine, lean body mass. In control, plasma ghrelin showed negative correlation with weight, BMI, truncal fat mass and positive correlation with lean body mass. Ghrelin was markedly elevated in renal failure due to its decrease in excretion. Negative correlation between ghrelin and fat mass composition was detected in dialysis patients. Serial evaluation of body fat mass composition using DXA is recommended for assessment of nutritional status of those patients. (author)

  6. [Effects of the body fat mass and blood sugar and plasma resistin to slim exercise prescription for overweight and obesity students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Youping; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Shuangshuang; Sun, Jun; Zheng, Chenfei; Wang, Ke; Qian, Jingjing; Nie, Liuwang

    2013-07-01

    To explore the influences of slim exercise prescription on body fat mass, blood sugar and plasma resistin for overweight and obesity students. Subjects were 9 males and 13 females for simple overweight and obesity students of freshman and junior. The function capacity (FC) were defined after examine of body shape, physical function and exercise capacity. The slim goals and exercise projects were determined according to different objects. The exercise intensity was 60%-70% of FC and 13-15 levels of RPE. Exercise with each time was 60 min, exercise frequency was 5 times perweek, energy metabolism was 500-600 kcal at a time. The relative indexes were detected after 8 weeks. Implementing programmes of slim exercise prescription for 8 weeks, before and after the experiment in the males and females group. The weight, BMI, percentage of body fat (FAT%), waist and hip circumference ratio (WHR), body surface area (BS), fat indexes, the density of body for overweight and obesity the male and female students were significantly decreased (P exercise prescription was safe and sure, and could improve weight, BMI, FAT%, FM, WHR, BS, fat indexes, the density of body, blood sugar, plasma resistin in obesity without the diet control.

  7. Fasting and postprandial remnant-like particle cholesterol concentrations in obese participants are associated with plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance, and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, Anneke M. J.; Saris, Wim H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.

    2008-01-01

    , independently mediated by weight loss, improvements in HOMA(IR), and the fat content of the prescribed diet. However, after inclusion of plasma triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol, and FFA concentrations in the models, HOMA(IR) and WHR no longer significantly predicted fasting RLP-C, although WHR remained...

  8. No genetic footprints of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene in human plasma 1H CPMG NMR metabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldahl, Karin; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise

    2014-01-01

    In this paper it was investigated if any genotypic footprints from the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) SNP could be found in 600 MHz 1H CPMG NMR profiles of around 1,000 human plasma samples from healthy Danish twins. The problem was addressed with a combination of univariate and multivariate...

  9. Supplementation with Vitis vinifera L. skin extract improves insulin resistance and prevents hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Izabelle Barcellos; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; Cordeiro, Viviane Silva Cristino; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; de Carvalho, Lenize Costa Reis Marins; da Rocha, Ana Paula Machado; da Costa, Gisele França; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; de Moura, Roberto Soares; Resende, Angela Castro

    2017-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common complications of obesity. The Vitis vinifera L. grape skin extract (ACH09) is an important source of polyphenols, which are related to its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities. We hypothesized that ACH09 could also exert beneficial effects on metabolic disorders associated with obesity and evaluated ACH09's influence on high-fat (HF) diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were fed a standard diet (10% fat, control) or an HF diet (60% fat, HF) with or without ACH09 (200mg/[kg d]) for 12weeks. Our results showed that ACH09 reduced HF diet-induced body weight gain, prevented hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis, and improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The underlying mechanisms of these beneficial effects of ACH09 may involve the activation of hepatic insulin-signaling pathway because the expression of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phosphorylated Akt serine/threonine kinase 1, and glucose transporter 2 was increased by ACH09 and correlated with improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. ACH09 reduced the expression of the lipogenic factor sterol regulatory-element binding protein-1c in the liver and upregulated the lipolytic pathway (phosphorylated liver kinase B1/phosphorylated adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase), which was associated with normal hepatic levels of triglyceride and cholesterol and prevention of steatosis. ACH09 prevented the hepatic oxidative damage in HF diet-fed mice probably by restoration of antioxidant activity. In conclusion, ACH09 protected mice from HF diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. The regulation of hepatic insulin signaling pathway, lipogenesis, and oxidative stress may contribute to ACH09's protective effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationships of plasma adiponectin level and adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 gene expression to insulin sensitivity and glucose and fat metabolism in monozygotic and dizygotic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Poulsen, Pernille; Ling, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    and muscle AdipoR1/R2 gene expression and the impact of these components on in vivo glucose and fat metabolism. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Plasma adiponectin and muscle gene expression of AdipoR1/R2 were measured before and during insulin infusion in 89 young and 69 elderly monozygotic and dizygotic twins...... influenced by age, sex, abdominal obesity, and aerobic capacity. Intrapair correlations in monozygotic twins indicated a nongenetic influence of birth weight on plasma adiponectin and AdipoR2 expression. Nonoxidative glucose metabolism was associated with AdipoR1 and plasma adiponectin, in young and elderly...

  11. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. PMID:24647074

  12. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Bouchard-Mercier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA. Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187 and ACOX1 (rs17583163 genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

  13. Metabolic fingerprinting of high-fat plasma samples processed by centrifugation- and filtration-based protein precipitation delineates significant differences in metabolite information coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barri, Thaer; Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hermansen, Kjeld; Dragsted, Lars O

    2012-03-09

    Metabolomics and metabolic fingerprinting are being extensively employed for improved understanding of biological changes induced by endogenous or exogenous factors. Blood serum or plasma samples are often employed for metabolomics studies. Plasma protein precipitation (PPP) is currently performed in most laboratories before LC-MS analysis. However, the impact of fat content in plasma samples on metabolite coverage has not previously been investigated. Here, we have studied whether PPP procedures influence coverage of plasma metabolites from high-fat plasma samples. An optimized UPLC-QTOF/MS metabolic fingerprinting approach and multivariate modeling (PCA and OPLS-DA) were utilized for finding characteristic metabolite changes induced by two PPP procedures; centrifugation and filtration. We used 12-h fasting samples and postprandial samples collected at 2h after a standardized high-fat protein-rich meal in obese non-diabetic subjects recruited in a dietary intervention. The two PPP procedures as well as external and internal standards (ISs) were used to track errors in response normalization and quantification. Remarkably and sometimes uniquely, the fPPP, but not the cPPP approach, recovered not only high molecular weight (HMW) lipophilic metabolites, but also small molecular weight (SMW) relatively polar metabolites. Characteristic SMW markers of postprandial samples were aromatic and branched-chain amino acids that were elevated (p<0.001) as a consequence of the protein challenge. In contrast, some HMW lipophilic species, e.g. acylcarnitines, were moderately lower (p<0.001) in postprandial samples. LysoPCs were largely unaffected. In conclusion, the fPPP procedure is recommended for processing high-fat plasma samples in metabolomics studies. While method improvements presented here were clear, use of several ISs revealed substantial challenges to untargeted metabolomics due to large and variable matrix effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High-fat diet-induced insulin resistance does not increase plasma anandamide levels or potentiate anandamide insulinotropic effect in isolated canine islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orison O Woolcott

    Full Text Available Obesity has been associated with elevated plasma anandamide levels. In addition, anandamide has been shown to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, suggesting that anandamide might be linked to hyperinsulinemia.To determine whether high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance increases anandamide levels and potentiates the insulinotropic effect of anandamide in isolated pancreatic islets.Dogs were fed a high-fat diet (n = 9 for 22 weeks. Abdominal fat depot was quantified by MRI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Fasting plasma endocannabinoid levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All metabolic assessments were performed before and after fat diet regimen. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated prior to euthanasia to test the in vitro effect of anandamide on islet hormones. mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors was determined in intact islets. The findings in vitro were compared with those from animals fed a control diet (n = 7.Prolonged fat feeding increased abdominal fat content by 81.3±21.6% (mean±S.E.M, P<0.01. In vivo insulin sensitivity decreased by 31.3±12.1% (P<0.05, concomitant with a decrease in plasma 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (from 39.1±5.2 to 15.7±2.0 nmol/L but not anandamide, oleoyl ethanolamide, linoleoyl ethanolamide, or palmitoyl ethanolamide. In control-diet animals (body weight: 28.8±1.0 kg, islets incubated with anandamide had a higher basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with no treatment. Islets from fat-fed animals (34.5±1.3 kg; P<0.05 versus control did not exhibit further potentiation of anandamide-induced insulin secretion as compared with control-diet animals. Glucagon but not somatostatin secretion in vitro was also increased in response to anandamide, but there was no difference between groups (P = 0.705. No differences in gene expression of CB1R or CB2R between groups were found.In canines, high-fat diet

  15. Plasma Amino Acids During 8 Weeks of Overfeeding: Relation to Diet Body Composition and Fat Cell Size in the PROOF Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A; Redman, Leanne M; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Sutton, Elizabeth F; Smith, Steven R

    2018-02-01

    Different amounts of dietary protein during overfeeding produced similar fat gain but different amounts of gain in fat-free body mass. Protein and energy intake may have differential effects on amino acids during overfeeding. Twenty-three healthy adult men and women were overfed by 40% for 8 weeks with 5%, 15%, or 25% protein diets. Plasma amino acids were measured by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry at baseline and week 8. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, fat cell size (FCS) from subcutaneous fat biopsies, and insulin resistance by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. The following three amino acid patterns were seen: increasing concentration of five essential and three nonessential amino acids with increasing protein intake, higher levels of six nonessential amino acids with the low-protein diet, and a pattern that was flat or "V" shaped. Dietary fat and protein were both correlated with changes in valine, leucine/isoleucine/norleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, but energy intake was not. The change in fat mass and weight was related to the change in several amino acids. Baseline FCS and the interaction between glucose disposal and FCS were associated with changes in several amino acids during overfeeding. Overfeeding dietary protein affects the levels of both essential and nonessential amino acids. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  16. Low-fat diet with omega-3 fatty acids increases plasma insulin-like growth factor concentration in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay R; Kurzer, Mindy S; Thomas, William; Redmon, J Bruce; Raatz, Susan K

    2013-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor pathway plays a central role in the normal and abnormal growth of tissues; however, nutritional determinants of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins in healthy individuals are not well defined. Three test diets-high-fat diet (40% energy as fat), low-fat diet (LF; 20% energy as fat), and a diet with low fat and high omega-3 fatty acid (LFn3; 23% energy as fat)--were tested in a randomized crossover designed controlled feeding trial in healthy postmenopausal women. Plasma IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, glucose, and ratio of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 concentrations were measured in response to diets. Insulin sensitivity was calculated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance We hypothesized that IGF-I, insulin, and glucose concentrations would decrease and IGFBP-3 concentration would increase in response to the low-fat diets. Eight weeks of the LFn3 diet increased circulating IGF-I (P diet increased IGFBP-3 (P = .04), resulting in trends toward an increased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LFn3 diet and a decreased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LF diet (P = .13 for both comparisons). No statistically significant differences were detected between treatments at baseline or 8 weeks for IGF-1, IGFBP-3, or the ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3. Insulin, glucose, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were not altered by the interventions. Low-fat diet with high n-3 fatty acids may increase circulating IGF-I concentrations without adversely affecting insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Use of platelet-rich fibrin and platelet-rich plasma in combination with fat graft: which is more effective during facial lipostructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhan, Seied Omid; Hemmat, Seifollah; Badri, Amir Ali; Abdeshahzadeh, Arshad; Khiabani, Kazem

    2013-03-01

    Fat grafts have always represented a challenge in inducing the necessary neoangiogenesis, which results in significant resorption. This study was designed to compare the efficiency of first- and second-generation platelet-rich plasmas (PRPs) combined with a fat graft during facial lipostructure surgery. To address the research purpose, the investigators designed and implemented a double-blinded prospective clinical trial. The patients underwent bilateral facial lipostructure, a natural long-lasting method of filling and supporting the face using intricate layers of infiltrated autologous fat. The method involved the use of PRP on 1 side and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on the other side. The study population was composed of all patients presenting to the authors' department for the evaluation and management of facial contouring in the cheek and cheekbone areas from June 2008 through December 2010. The primary predictor variable was the type of combination (PRP/fat or PRF/fat). The outcome variables were the amount of resorption, which was estimated by comparing pre- and postsurgical photographic views, pain, edema, and bruising. The statistical evaluation of the findings was performed using SPSS software. Parametric tests (t test and Levene test) were used to compare the treatment efficacy and complications between the groups. Twenty-five patients (8 men and 17 women) underwent bilateral facial lipostructure surgery in the cheek and cheekbone areas using PRP and PRF. One year after the operation, a slight esthetic asymmetry was noticeable, with greater average resorption on the PRP/fat side. This first comparative clinical study highlights the value of using concentrated platelets for adipocyte grafts. The results suggest that the combination of fat and PRF is more effective than the combination of fat and PRP in the context of facial lipostructure surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. The plasma membrane-associated NADH oxidase (ECTO-NOX) of mouse skin responds to blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Morre, Dorothy M.

    2003-01-01

    NADH oxidases of the external plasma membrane surface (ECTO-NOX proteins) are characterized by oscillations in activity with a regular period length of 24 min. Explants of mouse skin exhibit the oscillatory activity as estimated from the decrease in A(340) suggesting that individual ECTO-NOX molecules must somehow be induced to function synchronously. Transfer of explants of mouse skin from darkness to blue light (495 nm, 2 min, 50 micromol m(-1) s(-1)) resulted in initiation of a new activity maximum (entrainment) with a midpoint 36 min after light exposure followed by maxima every 24 min thereafter. Addition of melatonin resulted in a new maximum 24 min after melatonin addition. The findings suggest that the ECTO-NOX proteins play a central role in the entrainment of the biological clock both by light and by melatonin.

  19. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  20. Plasma heating by ultrashort laser pulse in the regime of anomalous skin-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamaly, E.G.; Kiselev, A.E.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of interaction of short laser pulse (light frequency ω 0 pulse duration, τ s /V Ti ; 1 s , skin depth, V Ti , ion velocity) with dense (ω 0 much-lt ω pe ) semi-infinite plasm was solved. The authors formulated the self-consistent problem of obtaining the electron distribution function and space dependence of electric field in skin layer, and solved the problem for the case of absence of the energy losses from the skin layer. The authors found self-similar nonstationary electron distribution function and space dependence of electric field in this case, and basing on these solutions, have calculated mean electron energy, absorption coefficient, bremsstrahlung radiation, time dependent skin depth. This paper discusses the limitations of our theory

  1. Conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and other biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat of cows fed raw or extruded linseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akraim, F; Nicot, M C; Juaneda, P; Enjalbert, F

    2007-07-01

    Thirty lactating dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design to investigate the effects of a raw or extruded blend of linseed and wheat bran (70:30) on plasma and milk fatty-acids (FA). Linseed diets, containing 16.6% linseed blend on a dry-matter basis, decreased milk yield and protein percentage. They decreased the proportions of FA with less than 18 carbons in plasma and milk and resulted in cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 proportions that were more than three and four times higher in plasma and milk, respectively, whereas cis-9, cis-12 18:2 proportions were decreased by 10-15%. The cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 isomer of conjugated linolenic acid was not detected in the milk of control cows, but was over 0.15% of total FA in the milk fat of linseed-supplemented cows. Similarly, linseed increased plasma and milk proportions of all biohydrogenation (BH) intermediates in plasma and milk, including the main isomer of conjugated linoleic acid cis-9, trans-11 18:2, except trans-4 18:1 and cis-11, trans-15 18:2 in plasma lipids. In milk fat, compared with raw linseed, extruded linseed further reduced 6:0-16:0 even-chain FA, did not significantly affect the proportions of 18:0, cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, cis-12 18:2, tended to increase cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3, and resulted in an additional increase in the proportions of most BH intermediates. It was concluded that linseed addition can improve the proportion of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acids, and that extrusion further increases the proportions of intermediates of ruminal BH in milk fat.

  2. Relationship of angiotensin ase and vasopressin ase enzymatic activities between hypothalamus and plasma in an obese rat model by high-fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez-Vías, G.; Segarra Robles, A.B.; Ramirez-Sánchez, M.; Jiménez Serrano, S.

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diets are associated with the development of hypertension. However, a high intake of monounsaturated fat has been proposed to be a dietary factor that can decrease the incidence of hypertension. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and vasopressin interact to regulate blood pressure at central and peripheral level. In this study, we investigated the effect of different degrees of dietary fatty acid saturation in the control of RAS and vasopressin on brain-blood. To improve our understanding of their interaction and their relationship, we analyzed angiotensin- and vasopressin-metabolizing activities in hypothalamus and plasma, collected from Wistar rats fed during 24 weeks with diets enriched with extra virgin olive oil (monounsaturated fat) or butter plus cholesterol (saturated fat) compared with a standard diet. As results no angiotensinase and vasopressinase activities were found in hypothalamus and plasma, however significant correlations between enzymatic activities in both regions were noticed. They indicated that our results do not support the beneficial influence of extra virgin olive oil on central and systemic level to regulate blood pressure. Therefore, the substrates hydrolyzed by these activities as well as their functions may be similarly affected and suggest that these studies should be continued because of beneficial of Mediterranean diet, found previously in different works, which may also be an effective tool in the treatment of hypertension.

  3. Relationship of angiotensinase and vasopressinase enzymatic activities between hypothalamus and plasma in an obese rat model by high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Domínguez-Vías

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diets are associated with the development of hypertension. However, a high intake of monounsaturated fat has been proposed to be a dietary factor that can decrease the incidence of hypertension. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS and vasopressin interact to regulate blood pressure at central and peripheral level. In this study, we investigated the effect of different degrees of dietary fatty acid saturation in the control of RAS and vasopressin on brain-blood. To improve our understanding of their interaction and their relationship, we analyzed angiotensin- and vasopressin-metabolizing activities in hypothalamus and plasma, collected from Wistar rats fed during 24 weeks with diets enriched with extra virgin olive oil (monounsaturated fat or butter plus cholesterol (saturated fat compared with a standard diet. As results no angiotensinase and vasopressinase activities were found in hypothalamus and plasma, however significant correlations between enzymatic activities in both regions were noticed. They indicated that our results do not support the beneficial influence of extra virgin olive oil on central and systemic level to regulate blood pressure. Therefore, the substrates hydrolyzed by these activities as well as their functions may be similarly affected and suggest that these studies should be continued because of beneficial of Mediterranean diet, found previously in different works, which may also be an effective tool in the treatment of hypertension.

  4. Relationship of angiotensin ase and vasopressin ase enzymatic activities between hypothalamus and plasma in an obese rat model by high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domínguez-Vías, G.; Segarra Robles, A.B.; Ramirez-Sánchez, M.; Jiménez Serrano, S.

    2016-07-01

    High-fat diets are associated with the development of hypertension. However, a high intake of monounsaturated fat has been proposed to be a dietary factor that can decrease the incidence of hypertension. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and vasopressin interact to regulate blood pressure at central and peripheral level. In this study, we investigated the effect of different degrees of dietary fatty acid saturation in the control of RAS and vasopressin on brain-blood. To improve our understanding of their interaction and their relationship, we analyzed angiotensin- and vasopressin-metabolizing activities in hypothalamus and plasma, collected from Wistar rats fed during 24 weeks with diets enriched with extra virgin olive oil (monounsaturated fat) or butter plus cholesterol (saturated fat) compared with a standard diet. As results no angiotensinase and vasopressinase activities were found in hypothalamus and plasma, however significant correlations between enzymatic activities in both regions were noticed. They indicated that our results do not support the beneficial influence of extra virgin olive oil on central and systemic level to regulate blood pressure. Therefore, the substrates hydrolyzed by these activities as well as their functions may be similarly affected and suggest that these studies should be continued because of beneficial of Mediterranean diet, found previously in different works, which may also be an effective tool in the treatment of hypertension.

  5. Histologic Evidence of New Collagen Formulation Using Platelet Rich Plasma in Skin Rejuvenation: A Prospective Controlled Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuaf, Ozlem Karabudak; Baloglu, Hüseyin; Bilgili, Memet Ersan; Simsek, Hasan Aktug; Dogan, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    Background Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous concentration of human platelets contained in a small volume of plasma and has recently been shown to accelerate rejuvenate aging skin by various growth factors and cell adhesion molecules. Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intradermal injection of PRP in the human facial rejuvenation. Methods This study was a prospective, single-center, single-dose, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. PRP injected to the upper site of this right infra-auricular area and all face. Saline was injected to the left infra-auricular area. Histopathological examinations were performed before PRP treatment, 28 days after the PRP, and saline (control) treatments. Results Twenty women ranging in age from 40 to 49 years (mean age, 43.65±2.43 years) were enrolled in the study. The mean optical densities (MODs) of collagen in the pre-treatment, control, and PRP-treated area were measured. They were 539±93.2, 787±134.15, 1,019±178, respectively. In the MOD of PRP, 89.05 percent improvement was found when MOD of PRP was compared with MOD of pre-treatment. The mean MOD of collagen fibers was clearly highest on the PRP side (pmesotherapy technique 'point by point'). PRP application could be considered as an effective (even a single application) and safety procedure for facial skin rejuvenation. PMID:27904271

  6. Histologic Evidence of New Collagen Formulation Using Platelet Rich Plasma in Skin Rejuvenation: A Prospective Controlled Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuaf, Ozlem Karabudak; Yildiz, Hamza; Baloglu, Hüseyin; Bilgili, Memet Ersan; Simsek, Hasan Aktug; Dogan, Bilal

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous concentration of human platelets contained in a small volume of plasma and has recently been shown to accelerate rejuvenate aging skin by various growth factors and cell adhesion molecules. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intradermal injection of PRP in the human facial rejuvenation. This study was a prospective, single-center, single-dose, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. PRP injected to the upper site of this right infra-auricular area and all face. Saline was injected to the left infra-auricular area. Histopathological examinations were performed before PRP treatment, 28 days after the PRP, and saline (control) treatments. Twenty women ranging in age from 40 to 49 years (mean age, 43.65±2.43 years) were enrolled in the study. The mean optical densities (MODs) of collagen in the pre-treatment, control, and PRP-treated area were measured. They were 539±93.2, 787±134.15, 1,019±178, respectively. In the MOD of PRP, 89.05 percent improvement was found when MOD of PRP was compared with MOD of pre-treatment. The mean MOD of collagen fibers was clearly highest on the PRP side ( p facial skin rejuvenation.

  7. The effect of topical anesthetic hydration on the depth of thermal injury from the plasma skin regeneration device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Alicia R; Wu, Edward C; Liaw, Lih-Huei L; Garg, Rohit; Gangnes, Richard A

    2014-02-01

    The plasma skin regeneration (PSR) device delivers thermal energy to the skin by converting nitrogen gas to plasma. Prior to treatment, hydration of the skin is recommended as it is thought to limit the zone of thermal damage. However, there is limited data on optimal hydration time. This pilot study aims to determine the effect of topical anesthetic application time on the depth of thermal injury from a PSR device using histology. PSR (1.8 and 3.5 J) was performed after 0, 30, or 60 minutes of topical anesthetic application. Rhytidectomy was then performed and skin was fixed for histologic analysis. Four patients (two control and four treatment sites per patient) undergoing rhytidectomy were recruited for the study. Each patient served as his/her own control (no hydration). A scoring system for tissue injury was developed. Epidermal injury, the presence of vacuolization, blistering, damage to adnexal structures, and depth of dermal collagen changes were evaluated in over 1,400 high-power microscopy fields. There was a significant difference in the average thermal injury score, depth of thermal damage, and epidermal injury when comparing controls to 30 minutes of hydration (P = 0.012, 0.012, 0.017, respectively). There was no statistical difference between controls and 60 minutes of hydration or between 30 and 60 minutes of hydration. Epidermal vacuolization at low energy and patchy distribution of thermal injury was also observed. Topical hydration influences the amount of thermal damage when applied to skin for 30 minutes prior to treatment with the PSR device. There was a trend toward decreasing thermal damage at 60 minutes, and there was no difference between treatment for 30 or 60 minutes. The data suggest that application of topical anesthetic for a short period of time prior to treatment with the PSR device is cost-effective, safe, and may be clinically beneficial. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Plasma lipids and prothrombin time in rats fed palm oil and other commonly used fats in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Mona M.; Salama, Fawzy M.; Ebada, Karina M.

    1993-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a total period of 8 weeks on six diets that were different in the source of their fat content. The fat content was provided either, palm oil or palm olein or corn oil or hydrogenated fat, or frying palm oil and mixture of corn oil + hydrogenated fat in the ratio (1:1). The latter was given to the control group. Animals fed these various experimental diets showed statistically significant differences in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides content amo...

  9. The Appropriateness of the Length of Insulin Needles Based on Determination of Skin and Subcutaneous Fat Thickness in the Abdomen and Upper Arm in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hee Sim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLonger needle and complicated insulin injection technique such as injecting at a 45-degree angle and making skinfolds may decrease patient compliance to insulin injection therapy. In this light, shorter insulin needles have been recently developed. However, it is necessary to ascertain that such shorter needles are appropriate for Korean patients with diabetes as well.MethodsFirst, the diverse demographic and diabetic features of 156 Korean adults with diabetes were collected by a questionnaire and a device unit of body fat measurement. The skin and subcutaneous fat thicknesses of each subject were measured by Ultrasound device with a 7- to 12-MHz probe. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression.ResultsThe mean skin thickness was 2.29±0.37 mm in the abdomen and 2.00±0.34 mm in the upper arms, and the mean subcutaneous fat thickness was to 10.15±6.54 mm in the abdomen and 5.50±2.68 mm in the upper arms. Our analysis showed that the factors affecting the skin thickness of the abdomen and upper arms were gender and body mass index (BMI, whereas the factors influencing the subcutaneous fat thickness in the abdomen were gender and BMI, and the factors influencing the subcutaneous fat thickness in the upper arms were gender, BMI, and age. Insulin fluids may not appear to be intradermally injected into the abdomen and upper arms at any needle lengths. The risk of intramuscular injection is likely to increase with longer insulin needles and lower BMI.ConclusionIt is recommended to fully inform the patients about the lengths of needles for insulin injections. As for the recommended needle length, the findings of this study indicate that needles as short as 4 mm are sufficient to deliver insulin for Korean patients with diabetes.

  10. Consuming High-Carotenoid Fruit and Vegetables Influences Skin Yellowness and Plasma Carotenoids in Young Women: A Single-Blind Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Williams, Rebecca L; Rollo, Megan E; Burrows, Tracy L; Wood, Lisa G; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Collins, Clare E

    2016-08-01

    Consumption of dietary carotenoids from fruits and vegetables (F/V) leads to accumulations in human skin, altering skin yellowness. The influence of the quantity of F/V consumed on skin yellowness and plasma carotenoid concentrations has not been examined previously. To compare the influence of consuming high-carotenoid-containing F/V (HCFV) (176,425 μg beta carotene/wk) vs low-carotenoid F/V (LCFV) (2,073 μg beta carotene/wk) on skin yellowness and plasma carotenoid concentrations, over 4 weeks. A single-blind randomized controlled crossover trial from October 2013 to March 2014. Thirty women were randomized to receive 7 daily servings of HCFV or LCFV for 4 weeks. Following a 2-week washout period they followed the alternate intervention. Skin color (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* color space, where L* represents skin lightness and positive values of a* and b* represent degrees of redness and yellowness, respectively) was assessed by reflectance spectroscopy in both sun-exposed and nonexposed skin areas. Fasting plasma carotenoids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, before and after each intervention period. Linear mixed models were used to determine the HCFV and LCFV response on skin color and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for intervention order, time, and interaction between baseline differences and time. There were no significant differences in mean daily fruit (P=0.42) and vegetable (P=0.17) intakes between HCFV and LCFV groups. Dietary alpha carotene, beta carotene, lutein, and beta cryptoxanthin intakes were significantly different between the two groups (Pcarotenoid concentrations were significantly higher following HCFV than LCFV over 4 weeks. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CONTAMINATED PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS TREATED WITH AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP: A case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP on contaminated problematic skin ulcers in patients with diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 6 patients had been treated within the period from 2012 to 2014; they had various types of problematic wounds and diabetes type 2. Patients’ distribution by sex was as follows: 1 man and 5 women; mean age- 68 years. Ulcer types: acute (2 patients, hard-to-heal (2 patients and chronic (2 patients ulcers. The mean size of the skin and soft tissue defect was 9,5 cm2. Pathogenic microflora was isolated in 4 patients - S. aureus in three and Е. Coli in one. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 – 6 months (4,5 on average. We used platelet rich plasma derived by PRGF Endoret system, applied on the wound bed on a weekly basis. RESULTS: Application of PRP allowed successful closure of all wounds. There were no complications associated with treatment of PRP. Epithelialization of the wound took 15 weeks on average for all patients. One patient presented with hyperkeratosis. Initial score of followed wounds, based on the scales are as follows: Total wound score – 10 p. Total anatomic score – 8 p. Total score – 15 p. at the initial stage. At the end of the treatment period scores were as follows - 0 p., which means excellent results CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of contaminated problematic wounds in diabetic patients. PRP not only stimulates wound healing, but also has antimicrobial properties, which may contribute to the prevention of infections.

  12. Comparison between sensitivity of autologous skin serum test and autologous plasma skin test in patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria for detection of antibody against IgE or IgE receptor (FcεRIα).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Vahid; Movahedi, Masoud; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Aghamohamadi, Asghar; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Ghareguzlou, Mohammad; Shafiei, Alireza; Soheili, Habib; Sanajian, Nahal

    2011-06-01

    Intradermal injection of autologous serum and plasma elicit a cutaneous reactivity in almost 45-60% of patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU). This reactivity is associated with the presence of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptors. This study was carried out to compare the cutaneous reactivity of autologous serum and plasma skin tests in a series of patients with CIU for diagnosis of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptor. Fifty eight patients with CIU were injected intradermally with autologous serum and plasma (anticoagulated by citrate). Histamine was used as positive control and normal saline as negative control. The study group was checked by routine laboratory tests (CBC, U/A etc), allergens with skin prick tests, and serum IgE level, and auto antibodies against thyroid as well. Duration of urticaria was another factor which was assessed.There was no significant difference between positive ASST and positive APST patients for the above mentioned tests. 77.6% of the patients were Positive for APST and 65.5% were ASST positive. Duration of urticaria was longer in patients with positive ASST and APST than ASST and APST negative patients, although the difference was not statistically significant.Autologus serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) could be used for estimation of duration and severity of urticaria and planning for the treatment.

  13. In vivo plasma concentration for lindane after 6 hour exposure in human skin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset is a time course description of lindane disappearance in blood plasma after dermal exposure in human volunteers. This dataset is associated with the...

  14. Skin depth theory explaining anomalous picosecond-terawatt laser plasma interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hora, H.; Osman, F.; Höpfl, R.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Boody, F.; Jungwirth, Karel; Králiková, Božena; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, Suppl. D (2002), s. D349-D359 ISSN 0011-4626. [Plasma Physics and Technology. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser plasma * ion acceleration Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  15. Observation of the skin-like profiles of electron temperature and density of turbulently heated plasmas in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Kazuo; Toi, Kazuo; Itoh, Satoshi

    1980-01-01

    The time evolution of electron temperature and density profiles are measured on the turbulent heating experiment in the TRIAM-1 tokamak. The skin-like profiles of electron temperature and density are observed just after the application of the pulsed electric field for turbulent heating. The width of the skin layer of the electron temperature profile is about 1 cm, and agrees well with the theoretical value. The above mentioned skin heating of electrons just after the heating pulse is also spectroscopically confirmed by the remarkable decrease of the volume emission of visible lines which is localized at the outer plasma region. (author)

  16. Observation of the skin-like profiles of electron temperature and density of turbulently heated plasmas in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Toi, K; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1980-07-01

    The time evolution of electron temperature and density profiles are measured on the turbulent heating experiment in the TRIAM-1 tokamak. The skin-like profiles of electron temperature and density are observed just after the application of the pulsed electric field for turbulent heating. The width of the skin layer of the electron temperature profile is about 1 cm, and agrees well with the theoretical value. The above mentioned skin heating of electrons just after the heating pulse is also spectroscopically confirmed by the remarkable decrease of the volume emission of visible lines which is localized at the outer plasma region.

  17. The effect of mesenchymal stem cells combined with platelet-rich plasma on skin wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian-Sani, Mohammad-Reza; Rafeei, Fatemeh; Amini, Razieh; Saidijam, Massoud

    2018-03-04

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that have the potential of proliferation, high self-renewal, and the potential of multilineage differentiation. The differentiation potential of the MSCs in vivo and in vitro has caused these cells to be regarded as potentially appropriate tools for wound healing. After the burn, trauma or removal of the tumor of wide wounds is developed. Although standard treatment for skin wounds is primary healing or skin grafting, they are not always practical mainly because of limited autologous skin grafting. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO), and Web of Science have been searched. For clinical use of the MSCs in wound healing, two key issues should be taken into account: First, engineering biocompatible scaffolds clinical use of which leads to the least amount of side effects without any immunologic response and secondly, use of stem cells secretions with the least amount of clinical complications despite their high capability of healing damage. In light of the MSCs' high capability of proliferation and multilineage differentiation as well as their significant role in modulating immunity, these cells can be used in combination with tissue engineering techniques. Moreover, the MSCs' secretions can be used in cell therapy to heal many types of wounds. The combination of MSCs and PRP aids wound healing which could potentially be used to promote wound healing. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Non-thermal air plasma promotes the healing of acute skin wounds in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka; Závišková, Kristýna; Uherková, Lenka; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, mar (2017), s. 45183 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA04010449 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : randomized controlled-trial * atmospheric argon plasma * nitric-oxide Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; BO - Biophysics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods; Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  19. The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma on the skin wound healing process: A comparative experimental study in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daikh Badis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The therapeutic evaluation of the biological effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP used as a surgical adjunct to maintain the inflammatory process and to potentiate tissue healing, make the subject of recent research in regenerative medicine. This study was designed to evaluate the healing activity of PRP by its topical application on the skin experimentally injured in a sheep model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 9 adult and clinically healthy males sheep. PRP was obtained by a protocol of double centrifugation of whole blood from each animal. After sterile skin preparation, full-thickness excisional wounds (20 mm x 20 mm were created on the back of each animal. The animals were randomly divided into three equal groups of three sheep for each. In Group I, the wounds were treated with PRP, in Group II; wounds were treated with Asiaticoside; in Group III, wounds were treated with saline solution. The different treatments were administered topically every 3 days. Morphometric measurements of the contraction surface of the wounds and histopathological biopsies were carried out at the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days of healing. Results: The results of the morphometric data obtained revealed that it was significant differences recorded at the 7th and 14th day of healing in favor for animals of Group I. Semi-quantitative histopathological evaluation showed that PRP reduces inflammation during 3 first days post-surgical and promotes epithelialization in 3 weeks of healing. Conclusion: We concluded that topical administration of PRP obtained by double centrifugation protocol could potentially improve the skin healing process in sheep.

  20. Increase in Skin Autofluorescence and Release of Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Plasma Predicts Mortality of Hemodialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsov, Stefan; Trajceska, Lada; van Oeveren, Wim; Smit, Andries J.; Dzekova, Pavlina; Stegmayr, Bernd; Sikole, Aleksandar; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are uremic toxins that accumulate progressively in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year increase in skin autofluorescence (DAF), a measure of AGEs accumulation and plasma markers, as predictors of mortality in HD patients.

  1. Plasma amino acid levels are elevated in young, healthy low birth weight men exposed to short-term high-fat overfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Hellgren, Lars; Brøns, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) individuals exhibit a disproportionately increased, incomplete fatty acid oxidation and a decreased glucose oxidation, compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals, and furthermore have an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We...... and after a 5‐day high‐fat, high‐calorie diet. We demonstrated that LBW and NBW men increased plasma alanine levels and decreased valine and leucine/isoleucine levels in response to overfeeding. Also, LBW men had higher alanine, proline, methionine, citrulline, and total amino acid levels after overfeeding...

  2. A histopathologic evaluation of the Plasma Skin Regeneration System (PSR) versus a standard carbon dioxide resurfacing laser in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, R; Bernstein, E; Iyer, S; Brown, D; Andrews, P; Penny, K

    2008-02-01

    A variety of high energy, pulsed, and scanned carbon dioxide lasers are available to perform cutaneous resurfacing. Rhytec has developed a device for skin regeneration that utilizes energy delivered via a burst of nitrogen plasma. This study was undertaken to benchmark the energy outputs of the plasma skin regeneration device as compared to an ultra-short pulsed carbon dioxide laser (the control device). The two systems were compared for time to complete healing, and the healing response post-treatment. Three Yucatan mini-pigs were utilized for this study. Following anesthesia, five experimental sites were marked along the skin atop the psoas muscle on each side of the spine. Treatment was applied using either the plasma skin regeneration system or the carbon dioxide laser, with one site remaining untreated as a control. Biopsies were taken from all treatment sites 0, 2, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days following treatment and processed to hematoxylin-eosin staining. Histopathologic examination was performed by observers blinded as to the treatment conditions. Skin treated with the plasma skin regeneration device showed a wider range of tissue effects across the energy settings used as compared to the laser treatment. All treatment sites had clinically regenerated epidermis by 7 days after treatment, with active cellular response below the D/E junction noted at the day 30 time-point at energies ranging from 2 to 4 J. The Rhytec PSR system provides an attractive alternative to standard CO2 laser with good remodeling of tissue architecture. Epidermis regenerated after PSR treatment shows a smoother surface profile than adjacent untreated tissue.

  3. [Evaluation of leptin levels in plasma and their reliance on other hormonal factors affecting tissue fat levels in people with various levels of endogenous cotisol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaczyk, Maciej G

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of leptin (LEP) shed new light on mechanisms regulating body fat mass (BFM). In this aspect, interactions between LEP and glucocorticoids at hypothalamic level may be of great importance. Factors that influence plasma LEP levels have not been fully recognized and available data on LEP levels are often inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate absolute and BFM-corrected plasma LEP levels and their diurnal variation, as well as to assess the relationship between LEP levels, body fat distribution, and hormones influencing body fat in subjects with various levels of endogenous cortisol and different nutritional status. Group I was composed of 14 women aged 14-58 yrs, BMI of 23.9-37.1 kg/m2, with hypercortisolism due to ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CUS). 17 women with visceral obesity (OTY) and normal or disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, i.e. impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM), aged 24 do 50 yrs, BMI 30.0-46.1 kg/m2, were included in group II. Group III consisted of 14 women with Addison's disease (AD), aged 18 do 63 yrs, BMI 15.4-31.6 kg/m2. The control group IV (KON) included 17 healthy women with normal BMI. BMI, WHR, body composition, and body fat distribution (DEXA method) were assessed in all subjects. Basal plasma levels of LEP, beta-endorphin (B-EP), cortisol (F), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured with RIA test kits. Plasma adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) levels, serum levels of insulin (IRI) and growth hormone (GH) were measured with IRMA test kits. Blood glucose (G) concentration was determined with an enzymatic method. Adiposity-corrected LEP levels were expressed as LEP/BFM and LEP/%BF indices. Fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) was also calculated. Higher BFM and %BF values were found in the OTY group as compared with CUS KON and AD groups. BFM distribution did not differ in KON and AD groups whereas CUS subjects exhibited a higher accumulation of fat in the trunk

  4. Amelioration of Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Cognitive Impairments in Mice via a Reduction in Dietary Fat Content or Infusion of Non-Diabetic Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance A. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS and type 2 diabetes (T2D are associated with decreased cognitive function. While weight loss and T2D remission result in improvements in metabolism and vascular function, it is less clear if these benefits extend to cognitive performance. Here, we highlight the malleable nature of MetS-associated cognitive dysfunction using a mouse model of high fat diet (HFD-induced MetS. While learning and memory was generally unaffected in mice with type 1 diabetes (T1D, multiple cognitive impairments were associated with MetS, including deficits in novel object recognition, cued fear memory, and spatial learning and memory. However, a brief reduction in dietary fat content in chronic HFD-fed mice led to a complete rescue of cognitive function. Cerebral blood volume (CBV, a measure of vascular perfusion, was decreased during MetS, was associated with long term memory, and recovered following the intervention. Finally, repeated infusion of plasma collected from age-matched, low fat diet-fed mice improved memory in HFD mice, and was associated with a distinct metabolic profile. Thus, the cognitive dysfunction accompanying MetS appears to be amenable to treatment, related to cerebrovascular function, and mitigated by systemic factors.

  5. The Effects of Fat-soluble Vitamin Administration on Plasma Vitamin Status of Nursing Pigs Differ When Provided by Oral Administration or Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Jang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration to sows or newborn pigs on plasma vitamin status. In Exp. 1 and 2, a total of 24 and 43 newborn pigs were allotted to control and vitamin treatments (vitamin D3 with variable addition of vitamins A and E orally or by i.m. injection. In Exp. 3, pigs from Exp. 2 were allotted to 2 treatments (±vitamins D3 and E in drinking water for 14 d postweaning. In Exp. 4, twenty-four gestating sows were used for 2 treatments (±injection of a vitamin D3/A/E product 2 wk prepartum. In Exp. 1 and 2, when vitamin D3 was administrated orally or by i.m. injection on d 1 of age, pigs had increased plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH D3 concentration 10 d after administration compared with control pigs (p<0.05. The injectable administration with vitamin D3 and E was able to achieve higher plasma 25-OH D3 (p<0.05 and α-tocopherol (p<0.05 concentrations than oral administration. At weaning, the pigs in the injection group had higher plasma 25-OH D3 concentration than those in the other groups in both studies (p<0.05. In Exp. 3, water supplementation of vitamin D3 and E postweaning increased plasma 25-OH D3 and α-tocopherol concentrations at d 14 postweaning (p<0.01. In Exp. 4, when sows were injected with the vitamin D3 product prepartum, serum 25-OH D3 concentrations of sows at farrowing (p<0.01, and in their progeny at birth (p<0.01 and weaning (p<0.05 were increased. These results demonstrated that fat-soluble vitamin administration to newborn pigs increased plasma 25-OH D3 concentration regardless of administration routes and α-tocopherol concentration by the injectable route, and that water supplementation of vitamin D3 and E to nursery pigs increased plasma 25-OH D3 and α-tocopherol concentrations. Additionally, injecting sows with vitamin D3 prepartum increased 25-OH D3 in sows and their offspring. If continued research demonstrates that the serum levels of

  6. The Effect of Egg Yolk Chicken Utilization In Fat Liquoring Process to Tensile Strength, Elongation at Break, Water Absorption and Shank Skin Leather Stitch Tear Strength of Combination Tanning (Chrome – Tannine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research were to examine level of egg yolk chicken utilization that effective in fat liquoring process to tensile strength, elongation at break, watter absorptin and stitchtear strength of combination tann (Chrome – tannine of shank skin. The material used were fresh shank skin which seven week old, fresh egg with prserved for not more seven days. Data analyse used  in this study was complete randomice desaign (CRD. The research treatment was level of egg yolk utilization that are 5 % (P1, 7,5 % (P2, 10,0 % (P3 and 12,5 % (P4. Each treatment repeated four times, and the control using 6,0 % paradol HISN oil (%age calculated from the weight of wet blue. The result shown that rates of tensile strength of P1, P2, P3, P4 respectively were 67,93, 88,09, 89,31, 70,00 kg/cm2. Elongation at break by 24,5, 29,5, 30,0, 28,0 %. Watter absorption by 181,54, 146,20, 132,81, 132,56 %, and stritchtear strength by 43,00, 63,80, 69,50, 60,98 kg/cm. The utilization level of egg yolk 10 % could produce a better tensile strength and elongation at break, watter absorption and stitchtearstrength. It was suggested for used as fat liquoring agent in tanning process shsnk., skin leather. Keywords : Fat liquoring, Tensile strength, Elongation at break, Watter absorbtion,Stitchtear strength

  7. Development of an Advanced HPLC–MS/MS Method for the Determination of Carotenoids and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Hrvolová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in human plasma may play a significant role in numerous chronic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and some types of cancer. Although these compounds are of utmost interest for human health, methods for their simultaneous determination are scarce. A new high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS method for the quantification of selected carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in human plasma was developed, validated, and then applied in a pilot dietary intervention study with healthy volunteers. In 50 min, 16 analytes were separated with an excellent resolution and suitable MS signal intensity. The proposed HPLC–MS/MS method led to improvements in the limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ for all analyzed compounds compared to the most often used HPLC–DAD methods, in some cases being more than 100-fold lower. LOD values were between 0.001 and 0.422 µg/mL and LOQ values ranged from 0.003 to 1.406 µg/mL, according to the analyte. The accuracy, precision, and stability met with the acceptance criteria of the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists International. According to these results, the described HPLC-MS/MS method is adequately sensitive, repeatable and suitable for the large-scale analysis of compounds in biological fluids.

  8. Development of an Advanced HPLC–MS/MS Method for the Determination of Carotenoids and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Human Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrvolová, Barbora; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Colmán-Martínez, Mariel; Hurtado-Barroso, Sara; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Kalina, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in human plasma may play a significant role in numerous chronic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and some types of cancer. Although these compounds are of utmost interest for human health, methods for their simultaneous determination are scarce. A new high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the quantification of selected carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in human plasma was developed, validated, and then applied in a pilot dietary intervention study with healthy volunteers. In 50 min, 16 analytes were separated with an excellent resolution and suitable MS signal intensity. The proposed HPLC–MS/MS method led to improvements in the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for all analyzed compounds compared to the most often used HPLC–DAD methods, in some cases being more than 100-fold lower. LOD values were between 0.001 and 0.422 µg/mL and LOQ values ranged from 0.003 to 1.406 µg/mL, according to the analyte. The accuracy, precision, and stability met with the acceptance criteria of the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) International. According to these results, the described HPLC-MS/MS method is adequately sensitive, repeatable and suitable for the large-scale analysis of compounds in biological fluids. PMID:27754400

  9. Evaluation of subcutaneous infiltration of autologous platelet-rich plasma on skin-wound healing in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghali, Haithem A; AbdElKader, Naglaa A; Khattab, Marwa S; AbuBakr, Huda O

    2017-04-28

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is known to be rich in growth factors and cytokines, which are crucial to the healing process. This study investigate the effect of subcutaneous (S/C) infiltration of autologous PRP at the wound boundaries on wound epithelization and contraction. Five adult male mongrel dogs were used. Bilateral acute full thickness skin wounds (3 cm diameter) were created on the thorax symmetrically. Right side wounds were subcutaneously infiltrated with activated PRP at day 0 and then every week for three consecutive weeks. The left wound was left as control. Wound contraction and epithelization were clinically evaluated. Expression of collagen type I (COLI) A2, (COLIA2),histopathology and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of COLI α1 (COLIA1) were performed on skin biopsies at first, second and third weeks. The catalase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 (MMP-9) activity were assessed in wound fluid samples. All data were analysed statistically. The epithelization percent significantly increased in the PRP-treated wound at week 3. Collagen was well organized in the PRP-treated wounds compared with control wounds at week 3. The COLIA2 expression and intensity of COLIA1 significantly increased in PRP-treated wounds. MDA concentration was significantly decreased in PRP-treated wound at week 3. The catalase activity exhibited no difference between PRP treated and untreated wounds. The activity of MMP-9 reached its peak at the second week and was significantly high in the PRP-treated group. S/C infiltration of autologous PRP at the wound margins enhances the wound epithelization and reduces the scar tissue formation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Generation of highly collimated high-current ion beams by skin-layer laser-plasma interaction at relativistic laser intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S.; Glowacz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Generation of fast ion beams by laser-induced skin-layer ponderomotive acceleration has been studied using a two-dimensional (2D) two-fluid relativistic computer code. It is shown that the key parameter determining the spatial structure and angular divergence of the ion beam is the ratio d L /L n , where d L is the laser beam diameter and L n is the plasma density gradient scale length. When d L >>L n , a dense highly collimated megaampere ion (proton) beam of the ion current density approaching TA/cm 2 can be generated by skin-layer ponderomotive acceleration, even with a tabletop subpicosecond laser

  11. Background diet and fat type alters plasma lipoprotein response but not aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Alice; Matthan, Nirupa R; Spartano, Nicole L; Butkowski, Ann E; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-12-01

    Dietary modification alters plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion progression in humans and some animal models. Variability in response to diet induced atherosclerosis has been reported in hamsters. Assessed was the interaction between background diet composition and dietary fat type on aortic cholesterol accumulation, lipoprotein profiles, hepatic lipids and selected genes. F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (20/group) were fed (12 weeks) semi-purified or non-purified diets containing either 10 % (w/w) coconut oil or safflower oil and 0.15 % (w/w) cholesterol. The non-purified diets relative to semi-purified diets resulted in significantly higher TC (72 % [percent difference] and 38 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) and nHDL-C (84 and 61 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively), and lower HDL-C (-47 and -45 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) concentrations. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in the hamsters fed the non-purified coconut oil-supplemented diets were three- to fourfold higher than non-purified safflower oil-supplemented, and both semi-purified diets. With the exception of HDL-C, a significant effect of fat type was observed in TC, nHDL-C and triacylglycerol (all P < 0.05) concentrations. Regardless of diet induced differences in lipoprotein profiles, there was no significant effect on aortic cholesterol accumulation. There was an inverse relationship between plasma nHDL-C and triacylglycerol, and hepatic cholesteryl ester content (P < 0.001). Diet induced differences in hepatic gene transcription (LDL receptor, apoB-100, microsomal transfer protein) were not reflected in protein concentrations. Although hamsters fed non-purified and/or saturated fatty acid-supplemented diets had more atherogenic lipoprotein profiles compared to hamsters fed semi-purified and/or polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented diets these differences were not reflected in aortic cholesterol accumulation.

  12. Fabrication of High-Temperature Heat Exchangers by Plasma Spraying Exterior Skins on Nickel Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, P.; Yugeswaran, S.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.; Coyle, T. W.

    2016-06-01

    Thermal-sprayed heat exchangers were tested at high temperatures (750 °C), and their performances were compared to the foam heat exchangers made by brazing Inconel sheets to their surface. Nickel foil was brazed to the exterior surface of 10-mm-thick layers of 10 and 40 PPI nickel foam. A plasma torch was used to spray an Inconel coating on the surface of the foil. A burner test rig was built to produce hot combustion gases that flowed over exposed face of the heat exchanger. Cooling air flowed through the foam heat exchanger at rates of up to 200 SLPM. Surface temperature and air inlet/exit temperature were measured. Heat transfer to air flowing through the foam was significantly higher for the thermally sprayed heat exchangers than for the brazed heat exchangers. On an average, thermally sprayed heat exchangers show 36% higher heat transfer than conventionally brazed foam heat exchangers. At low flow rates, the convective resistance is large (~4 × 10-2 m2 K/W), and the effect of thermal contact resistance is negligible. At higher flow rates, the convective resistance decreases (~2 × 10-3 m2 K/W), and the lower contact resistance of the thermally sprayed heat exchanger provides better performance than the brazed heat exchangers.

  13. Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Inhibits Ultraviolet B Induced Photoageing of the Skin in Human Dermal Fibroblast Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pino, Ander; Orive, Gorka

    Ultraviolet irradiation is able to deeply penetrate into the dermis and alter fibroblast structure and function, leading to a degradation of the dermal extracellular matrix. The regenerative effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on skin ageing was investigated using UVB photo-stressed human dermal fibroblasts as an in vitro culture model. PRGF was assessed over the main indicative features of ultraviolet B irradiation, including ROS formation, cell viability and death detection, apoptosis/ necrosis analysis and biosynthetic activity measurement. Four different UV irradiation protocols were tested in order to analyze the beneficial effects of PRGF. Ultraviolet irradiation exhibited a dose dependent cytotoxicity and dose of 400mJ/cm2 was selected for subsequent experiments. PRGF increased the cell viability and decreased the cell death comparing to the non-treated group. The apoptosis and necrosis were significantly lower in PRGF treated fibroblasts. ROS production after UV irradiation was significantly reduced in the presence of PRGF. Procollagen type I, hyaluronic acid and TIMP-1 levels were higher in the when treated with PRGF. This preliminary in vitro study suggests that PRGF is able to prevent UVB derived photooxidative stress and to diminish the cell damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation.

  14. The development and application of a cold atmospheric plasma generator for treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, O. A.; Petrova, N. O.; Smirnova, N. V.; Shemet, M. V.

    2017-08-01

    We describe a device for obtaining cold plasma in air at atmospheric pressure using a system of positive high-voltage pin electrodes, which is intended for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals. Plasma is generated due to the development of periodic pulsed discharge of nanosecond duration at current pulse amplitudes 10-20 mA, characteristic frequencies 10-20 kHz, and applied voltages within 8-10 kV. The high efficacy of the proposed device and method is confirmed by the good clinical results of treating large domestic animals with traumatic injuries.

  15. A radioimmunoassay of chicken growth hormone using growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology: validation and observations of plasma hormone variations in genetically fat and lean chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picaper, G.; Leclercq, B.; Saadoun, A.; Mongin, P.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) of chicken growth hormone (c-GH) has been developed using growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology. The best rabbit antiserum was used at 1/300,000 final dilution. Hormone labelling by iodine-125, achieved by chloramine T, allowed a specific activity of 3.7 MBq/μg. The equilibrium curves show that optimal conditions of incubation were reached at room temperature for 24h. This RIA used a second sheep antibody which precipitated the whole c-GH bound to the first antibody in the presence of polyethylene glycol solution (6%) at room temperature for 30 min. In our conditions, sensitivity was about 30 pg of c-GH per tube. Coefficient of variation was around 10%. No cross reaction was found with avian LH and prolactin. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) injection to young chickens induced 20-fold higher plasma c-GH concentrations. Simultaneous injection of somatostatin and TRH slightly reduced these concentrations. Hypoglycemia induced by insulin led to a drop of the plasma c-GH concentration. Conversely, refeeding or glucose load induced slight increases of the c-GH level. Genetically fat chickens tended to exhibit higher plasma c-GH concentrations than lean chickens

  16. Plasma ceramide levels are altered in low and normal birth weight men in response to short-term high-fat overfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2018-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) individuals have an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. We hypothesised that LBW individuals exhibit an increased fatty acid flux into lipogenesis in non-adipose tissue with a resulting...... accumulation of lipotoxic lipids, including ceramides, in the blood. Therefore, we measured fasting plasma levels of 27 ceramides in 18 young, healthy, LBW men and 25 NBW controls after an isocaloric control diet and a 5-day high-fat, high-calorie diet by HPLC-HRMS. LBW men did not show elevated plasma......:0–18:1/d18:1–18:0 and d18:1–24:2/d18:2–24:1 levels and increased the d18:0–24:1a level in response to overfeeding. Plasma d18:0–24:1a and total ceramide levels were positively associated with the fasting blood glucose level and endogenous glucose production after the control diet, and the total ceramide...

  17. Comparison of the antiseptic efficacy of tissue-tolerable plasma and an octenidine hydrochloride-based wound antiseptic on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Schanzer, S; Patzelt, A; Thiede, G; Kramer, A; Weltmann, K-D; Hartmann, B; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B

    2012-01-01

    Colonization and infection of wounds represent a major reason for the impairment of tissue repair. Recently, it has been reported that tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) is highly efficient in the reduction of the bacterial load of the skin. In the present study, the antiseptic efficacy of TTP was compared to that of octenidine hydrochloride with 2-phenoxyethanol. Both antiseptic methods proved to be highly efficient. Cutaneous treatment of the skin with octenidine hydrochloride and 2-phenoxyethanol leads to a 99% elimination of the bacteria, and 74% elimination is achieved by TTP treatment. Technical challenges with an early prototype TTP device could be held responsible for the slightly reduced antiseptic properties of TTP, compared to a standard antiseptic solution, since the manual treatment of the skin surface with a small beam of the TTP device might have led to an incomplete coverage of the treated area. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya [Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28{+-}0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.).

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, congener profiles, and ratios in the fat tissue, eggs, and plasma of snapping turtles (Chelydra s. serpentina) from the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, H; Fisher, S W; Estenik, J; Kidekhel, R; Stromberg, P

    2006-08-01

    Concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in three tissues of adult snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from six locations in the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie to characterize tissue variation and geographic trends. The locations included the Ohio Areas of Concern, i.e., the Ashtabula, Black, and Maumee Rivers; the Ottawa River near Toledo; and two reference sites. Mean total PCBs were greatest in turtles from the Ottawa River followed by the Maumee, Ashtabula, and Black Rivers. All three types of samples-fat tissue (FT), eggs, and plasma-showed the same geographic trend in PCB levels. On a wet-weight basis, mean concentrations ranged from 2,148 to 18,669 ng/g in FT, from 183 to 3,683 ng/g in eggs, and from 18 to 201 ng/g in plasma. Across all sites, total PCB concentrations between the tissues were significantly correlated (0.001 40 congeners (0.001 < p < 0.05). The distribution ratios determined for these congeners from the slope of the regression lines averaged 1.235 +/- 0.279, 0.430 +/- 0.170, and 0.387 +/- 0.115, respectively. The plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized concentration ratios for these congeners averaged 0.012 +/- 0.006. Both egg-FT and plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized ratios regressed against log K(ow) showed significant decreases, with increasing log K(ow), indicating greater accumulation of highly chlorinated congeners in FT than in other compartments. The estimated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents ranged from 0.007 ng/g at reference sites to 0.060 ng/g at contaminated sites and from 0.099 to 1.992 ng/g in plasma and eggs, respectively. In both plasma and eggs, coplanar-CBs were the major contributors to total toxic equivalents (TEQs). Eggs from all contaminated sites had TEQs that exceeded the lowest observed effect level TEQs proposed for bald eagle chicks, in addition to high SigmaPCB levels at some of these sites, especially the Ottawa and Maumee River sites, indicate

  20. Plasma lipids and prothrombin time in rats fed palm oil and other commonly used fats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein, Mona M.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a total period of 8 weeks on six diets that were different in the source of their fat content. The fat content was provided either, palm oil or palm olein or corn oil or hydrogenated fat, or frying palm oil and mixture of corn oil + hydrogenated fat in the ratio (1:1. The latter was given to the control group. Animals fed these various experimental diets showed statistically significant differences in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides content among all group. Increased HDL-cholesterol content was evident in animals fed on palm-olein and palm oil. The frying oil fed group showed lowest HDL-cholesterol content. In these experiments palm olein fed animals showed highest ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol while the lowest ratio was shown in rats fed on frying oil. Prothrombin (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT showed higher values In palm oil, palm olein and corn oil diets as compared to all groups with each other.

    Ratas Sprague-Dawley fueron alimentadas durante un periodo total de 8 semanas con seis dietas diferentes en su contenido graso. El contenido graso fue proporcionado por aceite de palma u oleína de palma o aceite de maíz o grasa hidrogenada o aceite de palma de fritura y mezcla de aceite de maíz + grasa hidrogenada en la relación (1:1. El último fue dado al grupo de control. Los animales alimentados con las diferentes dietas experimentales mostraron diferencias significativas estadísticamente en el contenido en colesterol y triglicéridos en suero entre todos los grupos. El aumento en contenido HDL-colesterol fue evidente en animales alimentados con oleína de palma y aceite de palma. El grupo alimentado con aceite de fritura mostró el más bajo contenido en HDL-colesterol. En estos experimentos, los animales alimentados con oleína de palma mostraron la mayor relación de HDL-colesterol a colesterol total, mientras que la relación más baja fue mostrada

  1. Anesthesia and bariatric surgery gut preparation alter plasma acylcarnitines reflective of mitochondrial fat and branched-chain amino acid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The period around bariatric surgery offers a unique opportunity to characterize metabolism responds to dynamic shifts in energy, gut function, and anesthesia. We analyzed plasma acylcarnitines in obese women (n=17) sampled in the overnight fasted/postabsorptive state ca. 1-2 weeks prior to surgery ...

  2. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  3. Effects of prepartum fat supplementation on plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, adropin, insulin, and leptin in periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Rizaldy C; Salehi, Reza; Ambrose, Divakar J; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fat supplementation during the periparturient period is one strategy to increase energy intake and attenuate the degree of negative energy balance during early lactation; however, little is known of the underlying hormonal and metabolic adaptations. We evaluated the effects of prepartum fat supplementation on energy-balance parameters and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), adropin, insulin, leptin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid in dairy cows. Twenty-four pregnant dairy cows were randomized to diets containing either rolled canola or sunflower seed at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed supplementation, during the last 5 wk of gestation and then assigned to a common lactation diet postpartum. Blood samples were collected at -2, +2, and +14 h relative to feeding, at 2 wk after the initiation of the diets, and at 2 wk postpartum. Dietary canola and sunflower supplementation alone did not affect energy balance, body weight, and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, insulin, leptin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid; however, canola decreased and sunflower tended to decrease dry matter intake. We also observed that the physiological stage had a significant, but divergent, effect on circulating hormones and metabolite concentrations. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations were greater postpartum than prepartum, whereas glucose, insulin, leptin, body weight, and energy balance were greater prepartum than postpartum. Furthermore, the interaction of treatment and stage was significant for leptin and adropin, and tended toward significance for PYY and insulin; only insulin exhibited an apparent postprandial increase. Postpartum PYY concentrations exhibited a strong negative correlation with body weight, suggesting that PYY may be associated with body weight regulation during

  4. Effect of GABA on oxidative stress in the skeletal muscles and plasma free amino acids in mice fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z X; Xia, S F; Qiao, Y; Shi, Y H; Le, G W

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of plasma free amino acids (pFAAs) can disturb the blood glucose levels in patients with obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS) and are associated with enhanced protein oxidation. Oxidation of proteins, especially in the muscles, can promote protein degradation and elevate the levels of pFAAs. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a food additive, can reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycaemia; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GABA on protein oxidation and pFAAs changes. One hundred male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups that were fed with control diet, HFD and HFD supplied with 0.2%, 0.12% and 0.06% GABA in drinking water for 20 weeks respectively. HFD feeding led to muscular oxidative stress, protein oxidation, pFAA disorders, hyperglycaemia and augmented plasma GABA levels. Treatment with GABA restored normally fasting blood glucose level and dose-dependently inhibited body weight gains, muscular oxidation and protein degradation. While medium and low doses of GABA mitigated HFD-induced pFAA disorders, the high dose of GABA deteriorated the pFAA disorders. Medium dose of GABA increased the levels of GABA, but high dose of GABA reduced the levels of plasma GABA and increased the activity of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Therefore, treatment with GABA mitigated HFD-induced hyperglycaemia probably by repairing HFD-induced muscular oxidative stress and pFAA disorders in mice. Our data also suggest that an optimal dose of GABA is crucial for the prevention of excess GABA-related decrease in the levels of pFAA and GABA as well as obesity. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Comparison between Conventional Mechanical Fixation and Use of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in Wound Beds Prior to Resurfacing with Split Thickness Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Waiker, Veena; Shivalingappa, Shanthakumar

    2015-01-01

    Platelet rich plasma is known for its hemostatic, adhesive and healing properties in view of the multiple growth factors released from the platelets to the site of wound. The primary objective of this study was to use autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in wound beds for anchorage of skin grafts instead of conventional methods like sutures, staplers or glue. In a single center based randomized controlled prospective study of nine months duration, 200 patients with wounds were divided into two equal groups. Autologous PRP was applied on wound beds in PRP group and conventional methods like staples/sutures used to anchor the skin grafts in a control group. Instant graft adherence to wound bed was statistically significant in the PRP group. Time of first post-graft inspection was delayed, and hematoma, graft edema, discharge from graft site, frequency of dressings and duration of stay in plastic surgery unit were significantly less in the PRP group. Autologous PRP ensured instant skin graft adherence to wound bed in comparison to conventional methods of anchorage. Hence, we recommend the use of autologous PRP routinely on wounds prior to resurfacing to ensure the benefits of early healing.

  6. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya

    1995-01-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28±0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.)

  7. Two meals with different carbohydrate, fat and protein contents render equivalent postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan; Roth, Bodil; Höglund, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin between a control breakfast and a moderately low-carbohydrate test breakfast, given randomly after 10-h fast. Blood samples were collected before and repeatedly after the meal. Plasma calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin were analyzed. The total area under the curve (tAUC) and change in AUC from baseline (dAUC) were calculated. Ratios between the test and control values were calculated to investigate equivalence. Healthy volunteers (8 men and 12 women; 46.0 ± 14.5 years) were included. tAUCs of cortisol and triglycerides did not differ between the breakfasts (p = 0.158 versus p = 0.579). Cortisol dAUCs were decreased and triglyceride dAUCs were increased after both breakfasts, with no differences between the breakfasts (p = 0.933 versus p = 0.277). Calprotectin and zonulin levels were unaffected. The meals were bioequivalent for cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin, but not for calprotectin.

  8. Prospective Internally Controlled Blind Reviewed Clinical Evaluation of Cryolipolysis Combined With Multipolar Radiofrequency andVaripulseTechnology for Enhanced Subject Results in Circumferential Fat Reduction and Skin Laxity of the Flanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Julius; Gold, Michael; Sadick, Neil

    2016-11-01

    satisfaction with both treatment results, but there was a 10% statistically significant higher satisfaction rating of the outcomes in the flank treated with the combination treatment. Procedures were well tolerated, side effects were transient and self-resolving and no unexpected adverse effects were reported for the duration of the study. The results of this study show that the combination of multipolar RF with PEMF/suction following cryolipolysis is a safe, effective, and painless approach to enhance skin tightening following fat reduction procedures in the flanks. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1354-1358..

  9. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... donor site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  10. Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Enhances Wound Healing and Protects from Photo-oxidative Stress in Dermal Fibroblasts and 3D Skin Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pino, Ander; Jaen, Pedro; Orive, Gorka

    2016-01-01

    Optimal skin repair has been a desired goal for many researchers. Recently, plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) has gained importance in dermatology proving it is beneficial effects in wound healing and cutaneous regeneration. The anti-fibrotic, pro-contractile and photo-protective effect of PRGF on dermal fibroblasts and 3D skin models has been evaluated. The effect against TGFβ1 induced myofibroblast differentiation was tested. Cell contractile activity over collagen gel matrices was analyzed and the effect against UV derived photo-oxidative stress was assessed. The effectiveness of PRGF obtained from young aged and middle aged donors was compared. Furthermore, 3D organotypic skin explants were used as human skin models with the aim of analyzing ex vivo cutaneous preventive and regenerative photo-protection after UV exposure. TGFβ1 induced myofibroblast levels decreased significantly after treatment with PRGF while the contractile activity increased compared to the control group. After UV irradiation, cell survival was promoted while apoptotic and ROS levels were noticeably reduced. Photo-exposed 3D explants showed higher levels of metabolic activity and lower levels of necrosis, cell damage, irritation and ROS formation when treated with PRGF. The histological integrity and connective tissue fibers showed lower signals of photodamage among PRGF injected skin models. No significant differences for the assessed biological outcomes were observed when PRGF obtained from young aged and middle aged donors were compared. These findings suggest that this autologous approach might be useful for antifibrotic wound healing and provide an effective protection against sun derived photo-oxidative stress regardless the age of the patient.

  11. Platelet-rich plasma-containing fragmin-protamine micro-nanoparticles promote epithelialization and angiogenesis in split-thickness skin graft donor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Yuki; Ishihara, Masayuki; Sumi, Yuki; Takikawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Shingo; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains multiple growth factors, and fragmin-protamine micro-nanoparticles (F-P M-NPs) significantly enhance and stabilize growth factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of PRP-containing F-P M-NPs (PRP&F-P M-NPs) on wound repair in split-thickness skin graft (STSG-) donor sites (DS). A total of 56 inbred male rats were anesthetized and split-thickness skin graft donor site (STSG-DS) were created with a Padgett dermatome. PRP&F-P M-NPs, F-P M-NPs, PRP, and saline (control) were then intradermally injected evenly into the STSG-DSs. On 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10 d after creation of STSG-DS, skin sample sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate reepithelialization and angiogenesis. Treatment of STSG-DS with PRP&F-P M-NPs effectively promoted epithelialization and new vessel formation compared with those treated with PRP, F-P M-NPs, and control (saline). The intradermal injection of PRP&F-P M-NPs promotes epithelialization and angiogenesis in STSG-DS wounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D predicts the change in insulin sensitivity in response to a low-fat but not a low-carbohydrate diet in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dona L; O'Brien, Kevin D; D'Alessio, David A; Brehm, Bonnie J; Deeg, Mark A

    2008-04-01

    Although circulating glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD), a minor high-density lipoprotein-associated protein, is elevated in patients with insulin resistance or high triglycerides, no information is available on the effect of weight loss or changes in insulin sensitivity on circulating GPI-PLD levels. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of weight loss and changes in insulin sensitivity on plasma GPI-PLD levels. Forty-two nondiabetic obese women were included in the study, which involved a 3-month dietary intervention randomizing patients to a low-fat or a low-carbohydrate diet. The study's main outcome measures were plasma GPI-PLD levels and insulin sensitivity as estimated by the homeostasis model assessment. The very low carbohydrate diet group lost more weight after 3 months (-7.6 +/- 3.2 vs -4.2 +/- 3.5 kg, P low-fat diet, whereas baseline insulin sensitivity correlated with the change in insulin sensitivity in response to the low-carbohydrate diet. Plasma GPI-PLD may serve as a clinical tool to determine the effect of a low-fat diet on insulin sensitivity.

  13. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.

  14. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corn oil Safflower oil Walnuts Sunflower, sesame, and pumpkin seeds; flaxseed Fatty fish (salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring, ... pork) Chicken with the skin Whole-fat dairy products (cream/milk) Butter Palm and coconut oil (snack ...

  15. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  16. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  17. Fat heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

    This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure...

  18. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  19. Reduction of pain via platelet-rich plasma in split-thickness skin graft donor sites: a series of matched pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John D.; Rankin, Timothy M.; Hua, Natalie T.; Ontiveros, Tina; Giovinco, Nicholas A.; Mills, Joseph L.; Armstrong, David G.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy has seen increasingly widespread integration into medical specialties. PRP application is known to accelerate wound epithelialization rates, and may also reduce postoperative wound site pain. Recently, we observed an increase in patient satisfaction following PRP gel (Angel, Cytomedix, Rockville, MD) application to split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor sites. We assessed all patients known to our university-based hospital service who underwent multiple STSGs up to the year 2014, with at least one treated with topical PRP. Based on these criteria, five patients aged 48.4±17.6 (80% male) were identified who could serve as their own control, with mean time of 4.4±5.1 years between operations. In both therapies, initial dressing changes occurred on postoperative day (POD) 7, with donor site pain measured by Likert visual pain scale. Paired t-tests compared the size and thickness of harvested skin graft and patient pain level, and STSG thickness and surface area were comparable between control and PRP interventions (p>0.05 for all). Donor site pain was reduced from an average of 7.2 (±2.6) to 3 (±3.7), an average reduction in pain of 4.2 (standard error 1.1, p=0.0098) following PRP use. Based on these results, the authors suggest PRP as a beneficial adjunct for reducing donor site pain following STSG harvest. PMID:25623477

  20. Reduction of pain via platelet-rich plasma in split-thickness skin graft donor sites: a series of matched pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Miller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy has seen increasingly widespread integration into medical specialties. PRP application is known to accelerate wound epithelialization rates, and may also reduce postoperative wound site pain. Recently, we observed an increase in patient satisfaction following PRP gel (Angel, Cytomedix, Rockville, MD application to split-thickness skin graft (STSG donor sites. We assessed all patients known to our university-based hospital service who underwent multiple STSGs up to the year 2014, with at least one treated with topical PRP. Based on these criteria, five patients aged 48.4±17.6 (80% male were identified who could serve as their own control, with mean time of 4.4±5.1 years between operations. In both therapies, initial dressing changes occurred on postoperative day (POD 7, with donor site pain measured by Likert visual pain scale. Paired t-tests compared the size and thickness of harvested skin graft and patient pain level, and STSG thickness and surface area were comparable between control and PRP interventions (p>0.05 for all. Donor site pain was reduced from an average of 7.2 (±2.6 to 3 (±3.7, an average reduction in pain of 4.2 (standard error 1.1, p=0.0098 following PRP use. Based on these results, the authors suggest PRP as a beneficial adjunct for reducing donor site pain following STSG harvest.

  1. Examining the effects of platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin on autologous full thickness skin graft survival in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorahmad Latifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Graft survival has been considered the major problem in reconstructive surgery. Clinical studies have helped us to understand the role of PRP in increasing skin survival. Our goal in this study was to examine the treatment effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF on autologous full thickness skin graft survival in male rats. Methods: This experimental study was performed on 36 rats of Sprague-Dawley race with weighing approximately 250 to 300 gr on May 2015 in animal laboratory of Hazrat Fatima Hospital. After anesthesia, rats were divided into 3 groups. We injected platelet-rich plasma (PRP in the first group, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF in the second and saline in the third group after removing the skin. Microscopic analysis was performed with camera (Canon powershot SX200, Tokyo, Japan on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 after surgery. We used image analysis system (ImageJ, ver. 1.45 to examine necrosis and survival rate. Samples were studied with H&E staining on day 28 microscopically for histological analysis of vascular density and angiogenesis. Results: Our findings showed the area of necrosis in animals injected with PRP on days 7 and 14, was meaningfully less than control group (P= 0.0001. There was no meaningful difference between control and PRP groups (P> 0.05. The area of necrosis in animals injected with PRF did not have any significant difference with control group from beginning to 21st day (P< 0.0001. there was no meaningful difference in vascular density between control and PRP group, whereas in animals injected with PRF the vascular density was significantly less than control group (P= 0.002. Conclusion: According to our results in this study, we can conclude that using autologous PRP can enhance the process of healing soft tissue injury and be affective at increasing graft survival. This method is suggested to be conducted for patients highly at risk of graft loss and also for those who are in need of

  2. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Skin KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Skin What's in this ... body) are really dead skin cells. Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  3. Dietary alpha-cyclodextrin lowers LDL-C and alters plasma fatty acid profile in LDLr-KO mice on a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Elke M.; Catherine Jen, K-L; Artiss, Joseph D.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2008-01-01

    High dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, and elevated low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are some of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) when given orally has been shown in rats to increase fecal saturated fat excretion, and to reduce blood total cholesterol levels in obese hypertriglyceridemic subjects with type 2 diabetes. In this study, the effects of dietary α-CD on lipid metabolism in LDL receptor knock-out (L...

  4. Comparative study between fibrin glue and platelet rich plasma in dogs skin grafts Estudo comparativo entre a cola de fibrina e o plasma rico em plaquetas em enxertos cutâneos em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Correa Hermeto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Compare fibrin glue (Tissucol® and platelet-rich plasma in full-thickness mesh skin grafts in dogs. METHODS: Eighteen dogs were used, divided into two groups: fibrin glue (FG and platelet-rich plasma (PRP. In all the animals, a full-thickness 3x3 cm mesh skin graft was implanted. In the left limb, the biomaterial was place between the graft and the receptor bed, according to the group, while the right limb served as the control group. All the animals were evaluated clinically every 48 hours until the 14th day, using the variables of exudation, coloration, edema and cosmetic appearance. Three animals were evaluated histologically, on the third, seventh and tenth postoperative days, using the variables of fibroblasts, collagen, granulation tissue, microscopic integration-adherence and acute inflammation. RESULTS: Clinical evaluations showed that the group CF showed better scores for all variables compared to PRP group. On the histological evaluations PRP group had a higher presence of fibroblasts in the seventh and fourteenth days. CONCLUSION: The fibrin glue group was clinically superior to the platelet-rich group when used on full-thickness skin grafts in dogs.OBJETIVO: Comparar a cola de fibrina (Tissucol® e o plasma rico em plaquetas em enxertos cutâneos de espessura completa em malha em cães. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 cães, distribuídos em dois grupos, cola de fibrina (CF e plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP. Em todos os animais foi realizado um enxerto cutâneo de 3x3 cm, em malha de espessura completa. No membro esquerdo foi colocado o biomaterial entre o enxerto e o leito receptor, cada qual em seu grupo, o membro direito serviu como grupo controle. Todos os animais foram avaliados clinicamente a cada 48 horas até o décimo quarto dia, através das variáveis: exsudação, coloração, edema e aspecto cosmético; histologicamente em três animais, no terceiro, sétimo e décimo quarto dia de pós-operatório através das

  5. Terapia de bioestimulación con plasma rico en plaquetas para el envejecimiento cutáneo Bioestimulation technique with rich plasma in platelets for skin aging

    OpenAIRE

    HM Escobar

    2012-01-01

    La bioestimulación con plasma rico en plaquetas es una técnica ambulatoria para la prevención y manejo del envejecimiento cutáneo, se basa en la fisiología de la piel y funciona muy bien sola o dentro de un plan terapéutico combinado. El derivado de sangre autóloga estimula la producción de colágeno, elastina y tejido epidérmico, lo que se traduce en piel más tersa, luminosa y de mejor calidad. Son mínimos los riesgos de formación de hematomas, infección, transmisión de enfermedades o reaccio...

  6. Healing of skin wounds with a chitosan-gelatin sponge loaded with tannins and platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bitao; Wang, Tianyou; Li, Zhiquan; Dai, Fangying; Lv, Lingmei; Tang, Fengling; Yu, Kun; Liu, Jiawei; Lan, Guangqian

    2016-01-01

    A chitosan-gelatin sponge (CSGT) was prepared using a chitosan/ascorbic acid solution blend containing gelatin, followed by crosslinking with tannin acid and freeze-drying, thereby combining the chitosan sponge and gelatin sponge. The structure of the CSGT was observed by scanning electron microscopy and was shown to have uniform and abundant pores measuring about 145-240μm in size. We also characterized the sponges by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, mechanical property tests, swelling behavior analysis, water retention capacity tests, antibacterial property analysis, and cytotoxicity tests. Our data showed that the CSGT had good thermostability and mechanical properties as well as efficient water absorption and retention capacities. Moreover, the CSGT could effectively inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with low toxicity. In animal experiments, macroscopic observations and histological examinations showed that the wound covered by the CSGT healed quickly. Additionally, loading of the CSGT with platelet-rich plasma resulted in further acceleration of wound healing. Therefore, the CSGT and the CSGT with platelet-rich plasma were suitable for application as a wound dressing and may have potential for use in various biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Scallop protein with endogenous high taurine and glycine content prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity and improves plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Keenan, Alison H.; Madsen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    High-protein diets induce alterations in metabolism that may prevent diet-induced obesity. However, little is known as to whether different protein sources consumed at normal levels may affect diet-induced obesity and associated co-morbidities. We fed obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice high-fat, high......-fed mice, but otherwise no changes in lean body mass were observed between the groups. Feed efficiency and apparent nitrogen digestibility were reduced in scallop-fed mice suggesting alterations in energy utilization and metabolism. Overnight fasted plasma triacylglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids......, glycerol and hydroxy-butyrate levels were significantly reduced, indicating reduced lipid mobilization in scallop-fed mice. The plasma HDL-to-total-cholesterol ratio was higher, suggesting increased reverse cholesterol transport or cholesterol clearance in scallop-fed mice in both fasted and non-fasted...

  8. A high-fat diet and the threonine-encoding allele (Thr54) polymorphism of fatty acid–binding protein 2 reduce plasma triglyceride–rich lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Thr54 allele of the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) DNA polymorphism is associated with increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and insulin resistance. We investigated whether the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein response to diets of varied fat content is affected by the fatty acid binding pr...

  9. Effect of low-carbohydrate diets high in either fat or protein on thyroid function, plasma insulin, glucose, and triglycerides in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H; Peters, P J; Albrink, M J

    1985-01-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet, frequently used for treatment of reactive hypoglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity may affect thyroid function. We studied the effects of replacing the deleted carbohydrate with either fat or protein in seven healthy young adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive seven days of each of two isocaloric liquid-formula, low-carbohydrate diets consecutively. One diet was high in polyunsaturated fat (HF), with 10%, 55%, and 35% of total calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate, respectively. The other was high in protein (HP) with 35%, 30%, and 35% of total calories derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline and on day 8 of each diet. A meal tolerance test representative of each diet was given on day 7. The triiodothyronine (T3) declined more (P less than .05) following the HF diet than the HP diet (baseline 198 micrograms/dl, HP 138, HF 113). Thyroxine (T4) and reverse T3 (rT3) did not change significantly. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) declined equally after both diets. The insulin level was significantly higher 30 minutes after the HP meal (148 microU/ml) than after the HF meal (90 microU/ml). The two-hour glucose level for the HP meal was less, 85 mg/dl, than after the HF meal (103 mg/dl). Serum triglycerides decreased more after the HF diet (HF 52 mg/dl, HP 67 mg/dl). Apparent benefits of replacing carbohydrate with polyunsaturated fat rather than protein are less insulin response and less postpeak decrease in blood glucose and lower triglycerides. The significance of the lower T3 level is unknown.

  10. Combined platelet-rich plasma and lipofilling treatment provides great improvement in facial skin-induced lesion regeneration for scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virzì, Francesco; Bianca, Paola; Giammona, Alessandro; Apuzzo, Tiziana; Di Franco, Simone; Mangiapane, Laura Rosa; Colorito, Maria Luisa; Catalano, Dario; Scavo, Emanuela; Nicotra, Annalisa; Benfante, Antonina; Pistone, Giuseppe; Caputo, Valentina; Dieli, Francesco; Pirrello, Roberto; Stassi, Giorgio

    2017-10-23

    The use of stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), for regenerative medicine is gaining interest for the clinical benefits so far obtained in patients. This study investigates the use of adipose autologous tissue in combination with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to improve the clinical outcome of patients affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc). Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) and PRPs were purified from healthy donors and SSc patients. The multilineage differentiation potential of AD-MSCs and their genotypic-phenotypic features were investigated. A cytokine production profile was evaluated on AD-MSCs and PRPs from both healthy subjects and SSc patients. The adipose tissue-derived cell fraction, the so-called stromal vascular fraction (SVF), was coinjected with PRP in the perioral area of SSc patients. Histopathological and phenotypical analysis of adipose tissue from SSc patients revealed a disorganization of its distinct architecture coupled with an altered cell composition. Although AD-MSCs derived from SSc patients showed high multipotency, they failed to sustain a terminally differentiated progeny. Furthermore, SVFs derived from SSc patients differed from healthy donors in their MSC-like traits coupled with an aberrant cytokine production profile. Finally, the administration of PRP in combination with autologous SVF improved buccal's rhyme, skin elasticity and vascularization for all of the SSc patients enrolled in this study. This innovative regenerative therapy could be exploited for the treatment of chronic connective tissue diseases, including SSc.

  11. Combined platelet-rich plasma and lipofilling treatment provides great improvement in facial skin-induced lesion regeneration for scleroderma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Virzì

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, for regenerative medicine is gaining interest for the clinical benefits so far obtained in patients. This study investigates the use of adipose autologous tissue in combination with platelet-rich plasma (PRP to improve the clinical outcome of patients affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc. Methods Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs and PRPs were purified from healthy donors and SSc patients. The multilineage differentiation potential of AD-MSCs and their genotypic–phenotypic features were investigated. A cytokine production profile was evaluated on AD-MSCs and PRPs from both healthy subjects and SSc patients. The adipose tissue-derived cell fraction, the so-called stromal vascular fraction (SVF, was coinjected with PRP in the perioral area of SSc patients. Results Histopathological and phenotypical analysis of adipose tissue from SSc patients revealed a disorganization of its distinct architecture coupled with an altered cell composition. Although AD-MSCs derived from SSc patients showed high multipotency, they failed to sustain a terminally differentiated progeny. Furthermore, SVFs derived from SSc patients differed from healthy donors in their MSC-like traits coupled with an aberrant cytokine production profile. Finally, the administration of PRP in combination with autologous SVF improved buccal’s rhyme, skin elasticity and vascularization for all of the SSc patients enrolled in this study. Conclusions This innovative regenerative therapy could be exploited for the treatment of chronic connective tissue diseases, including SSc.

  12. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  13. Plasma proteins in a standardised skin mini-erosion (I: permeability changes as a function of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Terence J

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A standardised technique using a suction-induced mini-erosion that allows serial sampling of dermal interstitial fluid (IF for 5 to 6 days has been described. In the present study, we studied permeability changes as a function of time. Methods We examined IF concentrations of total protein concentration and the concentration of insulin (6.6 kDa, prealbumin (55 kDa, albumin (66 kDa, transferrin (80 kDa, IgG (150 kDa and alpha-2-macroglobulin (720 kDa as a function of time, using an extraction pressure of 200 mmHg below atmospheric. Results At 0 h after forming the erosion, mean total IF protein content (relative to plasma was 26 ± 13% (SD. For the individual proteins, the relative mean concentrations were 65 ± 36% for insulin, 48 ± 12% for albumin, 30 ± 19% for transferrin, 31 ± 15%for IgG and 19.5 ± 10% for alpha-2-macroglobulin. At 24 h, the total IF protein content was higher than at 0 h (56 ± 26% vs 26 ± 13%; p Conclusions The results indicate that fluid sampled at 0 h after forming the erosion represents dermal IF before the full onset of inflammation. From 24 h onward, the sampled fluid reflects a steady state of increased permeability induced by inflammation. This technique is promising as a tool for clinically sampling substances that are freely distributed in the body and as a model for studying inflammation and vascular permeability.

  14. Effect of different levels of feed restriction and fish oil fatty acid supplementation on fat deposition by using different techniques, plasma levels and mRNA expression of several adipokines in broiler breeder hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namya Mellouk

    Full Text Available Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented.We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens.We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1.7 times greater than animals on the restricted diet unsupplemented, RS: Rt supplemented, and AS: Ad supplemented. The fish oil supplement was used at 1% of the total diet composition.Hens fed with the Rt diet had a significantly (P < 0.0001 lower growth than Ad hens, while the fish oil supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and the fat ultrasonographic examinations produced similar results to the other methods that required animals to be killed (carcass analysis and weight of adipose tissue. In addition, the Rt diet significantly (P < 0.05 decreased plasma levels of triglycerides, phospholipids, glucose and ADIPOQ, and fish oil supplementation decreased plasma levels of RARRES2. We also showed a positive correlation between insulin values and ADIPOQ or NAMPT or RARRES2 values, and a negative correlation of fat percentage to RARRES2 values. Moreover, the effects of the Rt diet and fish oil supplementation on the mRNA expression depended on the factors tested and the hen age.Rt diet and fish oil supplementation are able to modulate metabolic parameters and the expression of adipokines and their receptors in metabolic tissue.

  15. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  16. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which

  17. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat-free ...

  18. Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Miguel A; Zakaria, Alan; Nizran, Parminder

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer accounts for most malignancies across the globe. They are primarily divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin malignancies. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Fair skin and chronic ultraviolet B exposure are the most important risk factors. Primary prevention is achieved by avoiding sun exposure and tanning beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. An Interaction of the Pre- and Post-Weaning Diets Rich in Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fats Alters Plasma Lipids, Hepatic Gene Expression and Aortic Vascular Reactivity in Adult 057Bl/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanta Chechi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate the effects of diets rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA fed during pre- and post-weaning time periods on the lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity in adult C57Bl/6 mice, in order to assess the impact of maternal nutrition and its interaction with the offspring diet on the metabolism of adult offspring. Methods Female C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet enriched with n-6 PUFA (P or control diet (C for 2-weeks before, during mating, gestation and lactation, while their pups received either P or C for 8-weeks post-weaning. Results A significant interaction between the maternal and post-weaning diets was observed for the offspring body weight, food-, caloric-intake, plasma lipids, hepatic mRNA expression of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, aortic contractile and relaxation responses ( P < 0.05. Conclusion The overall metabolic and physiological outcome in the offspring is dependent upon the interaction between the pre- and post-weaning dietary environments.

  1. A dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products and low consumption of refined cereals is positively associated with plasma adiponectin levels in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Melistas, Labros; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Malagaris, Ioannis; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2008-06-01

    In light of the potential beneficial effects of adiponectin on insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk, it is becoming increasingly important to identify all modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, that may affect circulating adiponectin concentrations. The aim of the present study was to explore potential associations between dietary patterns and plasma adiponectin levels using principal component analysis (PCA) in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. Two hundred twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were performed in all subjects. Blood samples were taken, and adiponectin concentrations were measured. Food intake was evaluated by 3-day food diaries, and PCA was used for the identification of the participants' dietary patterns. The PCA identified 10 dietary components explaining 82% of the total variance in food intake. Bivariate correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and dietary components revealed a positive significant association only with the first component that was characterized by high intake of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products as well as low intake of refined cereals (P = .04). This association remained unchanged after controlling for potential confounders (standardized beta coefficient = 0.18, P = .03). A dietary pattern characteristic of consumption of alcoholic beverages was found to be marginally related to adiponectin levels in the multivariate model (standardized beta coefficient = 0.14, P = .10). Our data indicate that a dietary pattern characterized by a high consumption of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products is modestly positively associated with adiponectin concentrations.

  2. Combined Measurement of 6 Fat-Soluble Vitamins and 26 Water-Soluble Functional Vitamin Markers and Amino Acids in 50 μL of Serum or Plasma by High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midttun, Øivind; McCann, Adrian; Aarseth, Ove; Krokeide, Marit; Kvalheim, Gry; Meyer, Klaus; Ueland, Per M

    2016-11-01

    Targeted metabolic profiling characterized by complementary platforms, multiplexing and low volume consumption are increasingly used for studies using biobank material. Using liquid-liquid extraction, we developed a sample workup suitable for quantification of 6 fat- and 26 water-soluble biomarkers. 50 μL of serum/plasma was mixed with dithioerythritol, ethanol, and isooctane/chloroform. The organic layer was used for analysis of the fat-soluble vitamins all-trans retinol (A), 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, α-tocopherol (E), γ-tocopherol (E), and phylloquinone (K1) by LC-MS/MS. The remaining aqueous fraction was mixed with ethanol, water, pyridine, and methylchloroformate (in toluene) to derivatize the water-soluble biomarkers. The resulting toluene layer was used for GC-MS/MS analysis of alanine, α-ketoglutarate, asparagine, aspartic acid, cystathionine, total cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, total homocysteine, isoleucine, kynurenine, leucine, lysine, methionine, methylmalonic acid, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, sarcosine, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine. Isotope-labeled internal standards were used for all analytes. Chromatographic run times for the LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS were 4.5 and 11 min, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) for the low-concentration analytes (25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and phylloquinone) were 25, 17, and 0.33 nM, respectively, while all other analytes demonstrated sensitivity significantly lower than endogenous concentrations. Recoveries ranged from 85.5-109.9% and within- and between-day coefficients of variance (CVs) were 0.7-9.4% and 1.1-17.5%, respectively. This low-volume, high-throughput multianalyte assay is currently in use in our laboratory for quantification of 32 serum/plasma biomarkers in epidemiological studies.

  3. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trans fat is a type of dietary fat . Of all the fats, trans fat is the worst for your health. Too much ... from solid margarine to soft margarine. Ask what type of fats foods are cooked in when you eat out ...

  4. Diet and diet combined with chronic aerobic exercise decreases body fat mass and alters plasma and adipose tissue inflammatory markers in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhdar, Nadia; Denguezli, Myriam; Zaouali, Monia; Zbidi, Abdelkrim; Tabka, Zouhair; Bouassida, Anissa

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 months aerobic exercise and diet alone or in combination on markers of inflammation (MOI) in circulation and in adipose abdominal tissue (AT) in obese women. Thirty obese subjects were randomized into a 24-week intervention: (1) exercise (EX), (2) diet (DI), and (3) exercise and diet (EXD). Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 12 and 24 weeks. AT biopsies were obtained only at baseline and after 24 weeks. In the EXD and DI groups, the fat loss was after 12 weeks was -13.74 and -7.8 % (P exercise was found to have no effects on circulating and AT MOI despite an increased VO2max. Rather important body composition modifications were found to have beneficial effects on circulating and AT MOI in these obese women.

  5. High fat diet induced atherosclerosis is accompanied with low colonic bacterial diversity and altered abundances that correlates with plaque size, plasma A-FABP and cholesterol: a pilot study of high fat diet and its intervention with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or telmisartan in ApoE-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yee Kwan; Brar, Manreetpal Singh; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V; Chen, Yan; Peng, Jiao; Li, Daxu; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-11-08

    Atherosclerosis appears to have multifactorial causes - microbial component like lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and other pathogen associated molecular patterns may be plausible factors. The gut microbiota is an ample source of such stimulants, and its dependent metabolites and altered gut metagenome has been an established link to atherosclerosis. In this exploratory pilot study, we aimed to elucidate whether microbial intervention with probiotics L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) or pharmaceuticals telmisartan (TLM) could improve atherosclerosis in a gut microbiota associated manner. Atherosclerotic phenotype was established by 12 weeks feeding of high fat (HF) diet as opposed to normal chow diet (ND) in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE -/- ) mice. LGG or TLM supplementation to HF diet was studied. Both LGG and TLM significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque size and improved various biomarkers including endotoxin to different extents. Colonial microbiota analysis revealed that TLM restored HF diet induced increase in Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decrease in alpha diversity; and led to a more distinct microbial clustering closer to ND in PCoA plot. Eubacteria, Anaeroplasma, Roseburia, Oscillospira and Dehalobacteria appeared to be protective against atherosclerosis and showed significant negative correlation with atherosclerotic plaque size and plasma adipocyte - fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cholesterol. LGG and TLM improved atherosclerosis with TLM having a more distinct alteration in the colonic gut microbiota. Altered bacteria genera and reduced alpha diversity had significant correlations to atherosclerotic plaque size, plasma A-FABP and cholesterol. Future studies on such bacterial functional influence in lipid metabolism will be warranted.

  6. Skin Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Skin Complications Diabetes can affect every part of the ... lipoidica diabeticorum, diabetic blisters, and eruptive xanthomatosis. General Skin Conditions Bacterial Infections Several kinds of bacterial infections ...

  7. Cryotherapy - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare ...

  8. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  9. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  10. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... like these: skin rashes or conditions, such as eczema or psoriasis skin infections, such as staph diseases, ...

  11. Comparison of fat maintenance in the face with centrifuge versus filtered and washed fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilian, Ali; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Iraji, Razieh

    2014-06-01

    Autogenous fat injection of the face is a viable and lasting remedy for soft tissue loss and has become a mainstay in facial rejuvenation. Fat transfer as either a stand-alone technique or as an adjunct to other filler technique and lifting depending on patient needs. Although soft tissue augmentation with autologous fat transfer has been increasingly used by esthetic surgeon, but there is no agreement concerning the best way of processing the harvested fat before injection. This study compared the clinical results obtained using simple filtered and washed fat via metal sieve with those achieved by means of pure centrifuged fat. A prospective single-blind analysis on 32 healthy patients undergoing nasolabial fold fat transplantation from 2009 to 2011 (simple sampling). Patients assigned in two groups randomly. The face of half (16 subjects) was injected with centrifuged, another half with simple filtered and washed fat to evaluate the effect of preparation methods on fat graft viability. Objective method was used to evaluate the results, involving the evaluation of postoperative photographs (in month 1, 6 and 12) by an esthetic surgeon (according to the nasolabial scale). Subjective method was a self-assessment obtained from patients about general level of satisfaction and improvement of skin texture, statistical analysis were performed by means of the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney test. Acquired data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 and a value of P > 0.05 was considered as significant. There was no significant difference in the survival of grafted fat between the Group 1 (fat-processing with centrifuge at 3400 rpm for 1-min) and Group 2 (washing the fat in the sieve). Our data suggest that the centrifuge of the fat does not enhance survival of grafted fat (P > 0.05).

  12. Skin Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

  13. Effects of growth hormone administration on the body composition and hormone levels of genetically fat sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, S.M.; Jopson, N.B.; Littlejohn, R.P.; Stuart, S.K.; Veenvliet, B.A.; Young, M.J.; Suttie, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Coopworth sheep selected for low (lean) or high (fat) backfat have large differences in plasma GH profiles. Fat genotype ram lambs (5 months old) were treated with growth hormone (GH) to simulate the plasma GH profiles of lean sheep and investigate whether exogenous GH could modify carcass fatness. For 77 days, bovine GH was administered at 25mug/kg live weight per day either as a single, daily subcutaneous bolus (fat bolus) or via portable pulsatile infusion pumps (fat pump) which delivered GH solution at 90-min intervals into a jugular catheter. Measurements of body composition were made by computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonic scanning during the trial, with linear carcass measurements and proximate analysis undertaken at the end of the experiment. Before treatments began, mean plasma GH levels were lower (P < 0.01) in fat control (0.34 mug/l) than in lean lambs (1.1 mug/l). Several weeks after the start of the trial, mean plasma GH had increased in both fat bolus (1.2mug/l) and fat pump (0.45mug/l) treatment lambs with major changes in the pulsatility relative to the fat control lambs. Although these changes were maintained in the fat bolus lambs, by the end of the trial there was no significant difference in mean plasma GH between fat pump and fat control sheep. Throughout the trial, plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in fat bolus, fat pump and lean lambs than in fat control lambs. Analysis of body composition data over the GH treatment period revealed that the slope of the allometric equation for total fat relative to empty body weight was lower in the fat bolus lambs (1.07) than in the lean lambs (1.50) with fat control and fat pump treatment lambs intermediate (1.30 and 1.36, respectively). Subcutaneous fat was later maturing in lean lambs than in fat control and bolus treatment lambs when regressed against total fat, with the fat pump treatment lambs being intermediate. Linear carcass measurements revealed changes due to GH administration in the

  14. Metabolomic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in the Plasma of High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats after Treatment with Isoflavones Extract of Radix Puerariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of total isoflavones from Radix Puerariae (PTIF in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg. At 26 weeks onwards, PTIF 421 mg/kg was administrated to the rats once daily consecutively for 10 weeks. Metabolic profiling changes were analyzed by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS. The principal component discriminant analysis (PCA-DA, partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA were used for multivariate analysis. Moreover, free amino acids in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD. Additionally, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Eleven potential metabolite biomarkers, which are mainly related to the coagulation, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, have been identified. PCA-DA scores plots indicated that biochemical changes in diabetic rats were gradually restored to normal after administration of PTIF. Furthermore, the levels of BCAAs, glutamate, arginine, and tyrosine were significantly increased in diabetic rats. Treatment with PTIF could regulate the disturbed amino acid metabolism. Consequently, PTIF has great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DM by improving metabolism disorders and inhibiting oxidative damage.

  15. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  16. Effect of a Diet Enriched with Fresh Coconut Saturated Fats on Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition in Normal Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashree, Rokkam Shankar; Manjunath, N K; Indu, M; Ramesh, M; Venugopal, V; Sreedhar, P; Pavithra, N; Nagendra, Hongasandra R

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) (provided by fresh coconut) versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intake (provided by a combination of groundnuts and groundnut oil) on plasma lipids and erythrocyte fatty acid (EFA) composition in healthy adults. Fifty-eight healthy volunteers, randomized into 2 groups, were provided standardized diet along with 100 g fresh coconut or groundnuts and groundnut oil combination for 90 days in a Yoga University. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the intervention period for the measurement of plasma lipids and EFA profile. Coconut diet increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels significantly. In contrast, the groundnut diet decreased total cholesterol (TC), mainly due to a decrease in HDL levels. There were no differences in the major SFA of erythrocytes in either group. However, coconut consumption resulted in an increase in C14:0 and C24:0 along with a decrease in levels of C18:1 n9 (oleic acid). There was a significant increase in levels of C20:3 n6 (dihomo-gamma linolenic acid, DGLA). Consumption of SFA-rich coconut for 3 months had no significant deleterious effect on erythrocytes or lipid-related factors compared to groundnut consumption. On the contrary, there was an increase in the anti-atherogenic HDL levels and anti-inflammatory precursor DGLA in erythrocyte lipids. This suggests that coconut consumption may not have any deleterious effects on cardiovascular risk in normal subjects.

  17. Effect of different levels of feed restriction and fish oil fatty acid supplementation on fat deposition by using different techniques, plasma levels and mRNA expression of several adipokines in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Namya; Ramé, Christelle; Marchand, Maxime; Staub, Christophe; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Venturi, Éric; Mercerand, Frédéric; Travel, Angélique; Chartrin, Pascal; Lecompte, François; Ma, Linlin; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2018-01-01

    Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented. We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens. We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt) unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1.7 times greater than animals on the restricted diet) unsupplemented, RS: Rt supplemented, and AS: Ad supplemented. The fish oil supplement was used at 1% of the total diet composition. Hens fed with the Rt diet had a significantly (P hens, while the fish oil supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the fat ultrasonographic examinations produced similar results to the other methods that required animals to be killed (carcass analysis and weight of adipose tissue). In addition, the Rt diet significantly (P hen age. Rt diet and fish oil supplementation are able to modulate metabolic parameters and the expression of adipokines and their receptors in metabolic tissue.

  18. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  19. Matriptase and prostasin are expressed in human skin in an inverse trend over the course of differentiation and are targeted to different regions of the plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsin Lai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Matriptase and prostasin, acting as a tightly coupled proteolytic cascade, were reported to be required for epidermal barrier formation in mouse skin. Here we show that, in human skin, matriptase and prostasin are expressed with an inverse pattern over the course of differentiation. Matriptase was detected primarily in epidermal basal keratinocytes and the basaloid cells in the outer root sheath of hair follicles and the sebaceous gland, where prostasin was not detected. In contrast, prostasin was detected primarily in differentiated cells in the epidermal granular layer, the inner root sheath of hair follicles, and the sebaceous gland, where matriptase expression is negligible. While co-expressed in the middle stage of differentiation, prostasin was detected as polarized patches, and matriptase at intercellular junctions. Targeting to different subcellular localizations is also observed in HaCaT human keratinocytes, in which matriptase was detected primarily at intercellular junctions, and prostasin primarily on membrane protrusion. Furthermore, upon induction of zymogen activation, free active prostasin remains cell-associated and free active matriptase is rapidly shed into the extracellular milieu. Our data suggest that matriptase and prostasin likely function as independent entities in human skin rather than as a tightly coupled proteolytic cascade as observed in mouse skin.

  20. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  1. Plasma lipoproteins as mediators of the oxidative stress induced by UV light in human skin: a review of biochemical and biophysical studies on mechanisms of apolipoprotein alteration, lipid peroxidation, and associated skin cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe, Paulo; Morlière, Patrice; Silva, João N; Mazière, Jean-Claude; Patterson, Larry K; Freitas, João P; Santus, R

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous studies concerning the effect of UVB light on skin cells but fewer on other skin components such as the interstitial fluid. This review highlights high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as important targets of UVB in interstitial fluid. Tryptophan residues are the sole apolipoprotein residues absorbing solar UVB. The UVB-induced one-electron oxidation of Trp produces (•)Trp and (•)O2 (-) radicals which trigger lipid peroxidation. Immunoblots from buffered solutions or suction blister fluid reveal that propagation of photooxidative damage to other residues such as Tyr or disulfide bonds produces intra- and intermolecular bonds in apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and B100. Partial repair of phenoxyl tyrosyl radicals (TyrO(•)) by α -tocopherol is observed with LDL and HDL on millisecond or second time scales, whereas limited repair of α -tocopherol by carotenoids occurs in only HDL. More effective repair of Tyr and α -tocopherol is observed with the flavonoid, quercetin, bound to serum albumin, but quercetin is less potent than new synthetic polyphenols in inhibiting LDL lipid peroxidation or restoring α -tocopherol. The systemic consequences of HDL and LDL oxidation and the activation and/or inhibition of signalling pathways by oxidized LDL and their ability to enhance transcription factor DNA binding activity are also reviewed.

  2. Plasma Lipoproteins as Mediators of the Oxidative Stress Induced by UV Light in Human Skin: A Review of Biochemical and Biophysical Studies on Mechanisms of Apolipoprotein Alteration, Lipid Peroxidation, and Associated Skin Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Filipe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies concerning the effect of UVB light on skin cells but fewer on other skin components such as the interstitial fluid. This review highlights high-density lipoprotein (HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL as important targets of UVB in interstitial fluid. Tryptophan residues are the sole apolipoprotein residues absorbing solar UVB. The UVB-induced one-electron oxidation of Trp produces •Trp and O2•- radicals which trigger lipid peroxidation. Immunoblots from buffered solutions or suction blister fluid reveal that propagation of photooxidative damage to other residues such as Tyr or disulfide bonds produces intra- and intermolecular bonds in apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and B100. Partial repair of phenoxyl tyrosyl radicals (TyrO• by α-tocopherol is observed with LDL and HDL on millisecond or second time scales, whereas limited repair of α-tocopherol by carotenoids occurs in only HDL. More effective repair of Tyr and α-tocopherol is observed with the flavonoid, quercetin, bound to serum albumin, but quercetin is less potent than new synthetic polyphenols in inhibiting LDL lipid peroxidation or restoring α-tocopherol. The systemic consequences of HDL and LDL oxidation and the activation and/or inhibition of signalling pathways by oxidized LDL and their ability to enhance transcription factor DNA binding activity are also reviewed.

  3. Skin effects, ion acoustic turbulence and anomalous transport in a non-isothermal solid-state plasma, produced by a power femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, N.B.

    2001-01-01

    Results of the experiments, wherein the absorption of the laser intensive radiation with duration of 400 fs in aluminium target was studied, are explained. It is shown that electro-conductivity of the nonisothermal solid-state aluminium plasma was determined in these experiments by the ion-acoustic oscillations (ion-acoustic turbulence). Possible ways of theoretical description of the ion-acoustic turbulence and interaction of the nonisothermal solid-state plasma with powerful ultrashort laser radiation are discussed [ru

  4. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-01-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with 125 I or 131 I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return

  5. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and, in severe cases, symptoms of malnutrition and vitamin deficiency. If the condition prevents the digestion and/or absorption of fats from the diet, then excess fat is present in the stool and the ...

  6. Fluoroscopically Guided Interventional Procedures: A Review of Radiation Effects on Patients’ Skin and Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    severe radiation injuries can extend into the subcutaneous fat and muscle ( 21 ). Patients may face years of associated pain , multiple surgical...skin injury has been reviewed in detail ( 9 ). Tissues at risk include the skin, hair, subcutaneous fat, and muscle . The expression of this injury...bleomycin, epirubicin, and gemcitabine), antibiot- ics (cefotetan), statins (simvastatin), and herbal preparations (hypericin, otherwise known as St

  7. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  8. Hyperelastic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Genetic counseling may ...

  9. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunlamps. There are 2 types of UV rays: UVA rays (long-wave) – UVA rays penetrate clouds and glass. They penetrate the ... to cancer. But studies have shown that both UVA and UVB damage the skin and can cause ...

  10. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  11. Evaluating the relationship between plasma and skin carotenoids and reported dietary intake in elementary school children to assess fruit and vegetable intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate assessment of dietary intake of children can be challenging due to the limited reliability of current dietary assessment methods in children. While plasma carotenoid concentrations has been used to assess fruit and vegetable intake, this testing is rarely conducted in school settings in chi...

  12. Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serlie Mireille J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC, unsaturated fat (UF or starch (S in an eucaloric dietary intervention study. Results Fasting plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were 3-5 fold higher (p 2 = 0.95. Retroperitoneal fat depot weight (g was intermediate in SFC (260 ± 72, lowest in S (135 ± 51 and highest (p Conclusion Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol induces inflammation, atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition whereas an equally high dietary unsaturated fat load does not induce these abnormalities and shows beneficial effects on postprandial glycaemia in diabetic pigs.

  13. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21...... % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...

  14. [Fat grafting in facial burns sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, R; Bouguila, J; Voulliaume, D; Comparin, J-P; Dionyssopoulos, A; Foyatier, J-L

    2012-06-01

    Fat graft is now part of the armamentarium in face plastic surgery. It is successfully used in burn scars. The aim of our study is the discussion of the value of this technique in optimizing cosmetic result of burns face sequelae. Fifteen adult patients (10 females and five males) with scars resulting from severe burns 2 to 9 years previously were selected. The patients were treated by injection of adipose tissue harvested from abdominal subcutaneous fat and processed according to Coleman's technique. Two to three injections were administered at the dermohypodermal junction. Ages, sexes, aetiology of burn, facial burn sequelae, recipient sites, quantity of fat injected, aesthetic results are discussed. Patient age ranged from 21 to 55 years (average: 38). The mean follow-up of the study was 66 months (23-118). Patients received 7.5 (5-11) facial restorative surgeries before fat graft. Patients underwent two sessions of fat transfer, 33cc average per session. We did not report any complications. The clinical appearance, discussed by three surgeons and subjective patient feelings, after a 6-month follow-up period, suggests considerable improvement in the mimic features, skin texture, and thickness. The result is good in 86% of cases and acceptable in the other cases. Burns sequelae offer local conditions which justify special cannula can cross fibrosis and explaining the value of multiplying the sessions. Indications for lipostructure include four distinct nosological situations, sometimes combined. Lipostructure can restore a missing relief, filling a localized depression, reshape a lack of face volume or smooth a scarring skin. Fat graft seems to complete and improve the results of the standard surgical approach in burned face. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Tear trough – Anatomy and treatment by autologous fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yung Chia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tear trough is the main irregularity at midface, of which treatment is difficult. There is no agreement in literature about its anatomy and best treatment. The author presented an anatomical study and personal autologous fat grafting technique for tear trough treatment. Anatomical dissections were done on two fresh cadavers to examine the skin, subcutaneous, muscle and bone layers, spaces, and attachments. Safety and efficacy were evaluated via retrospective analysis of the last 200 consecutive procedures performed by the author. Tear trough is caused by the abrupt transition of the palpebral orbicular oculi muscle (OOM (i.e., thin skin without subcutaneous fat compartment to the orbital OOM (i.e., thicker skin with malar fat compartment. The tear trough region is located at the OOM bony origin at the medial canthus where no specific ligament was found. The grafted fat volume stabilized at two or three months after the procedure, instead of six months as stated in literature, with excellent results and no severe complications. Tear trough is a personal characteristic, a natural anatomical depression caused by subcutaneous irregularity and can worsen with age. The lack of volume is not effectively corrected by surgeries and thus it must be filled. Fat grafting has several advantages over alloplastic fillers, although it may be more difficult. Fat graft is autologous and abundant, and tissue transplantation could enhance skin quality. Fat grafting is a simple, safe, and effective solution for adding extra volume to correct the deflation phenomenon of the midface aging process. There is no specific anatomical plane for volume injection; the fat graft must be evenly distributed in the deep and superficial plane for uniformity.

  16. The Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Balance on Skin Structure in Aging Male and Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Aisling C.; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Ballard, J. William O.; Le Couteur, David G.; Nicholls, Caroline; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K. M.; Wang, Yiwei; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition influences skin structure; however, a systematic investigation into how energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) affects the skin has yet to be conducted. We evaluated the associations between macronutrients, energy intake and skin structure in mice fed 25 experimental diets and a control diet for 15 months using the Geometric Framework, a novel method of nutritional analysis. Skin structure was associated with the ratio of dietary macronutrients eaten, not energy intake, and the nature of the effect differed between the sexes. In males, skin structure was primarily associated with protein intake, whereas in females carbohydrate intake was the primary correlate. In both sexes, the dermis and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were inversely proportional. Subcutaneous fat thickness varied positively with fat intake, due to enlarged adipocytes rather than increased adipocyte number. We therefore demonstrated clear interactions between skin structure and macronutrient intakes, with the associations being sex-specific and dependent on dietary macronutrient balance. PMID:27832138

  17. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  18. Combined platelet-rich plasma and lipofilling treatment provides great improvement in facial skin-induced lesion regeneration for scleroderma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Virzì, Francesco; Bianca, Paola; Giammona, Alessandro; Apuzzo, Tiziana; Di Franco, Simone; Mangiapane, Laura Rosa; Colorito, Maria Luisa; Catalano, Dario; Scavo, Emanuela; Nicotra, Annalisa; Benfante, Antonina; Pistone, Giuseppe; Caputo, Valentina; Dieli, Francesco; Pirrello, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), for regenerative medicine is gaining interest for the clinical benefits so far obtained in patients. This study investigates the use of adipose autologous tissue in combination with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to improve the clinical outcome of patients affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) and PRPs were purified from healthy donors and SSc patients. The multiline...

  19. EFFECTS OF DIETARY CORN AND OLIVE OIL VERSUS COCONUT FAT ON BILIARY CHOLESTEROL SECRETION IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, MJ; WOLTERS, H; TEMMERMAN, AM; KUIPERS, F; BEYNEN, AC; VONK, RJ

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the effects of dietary corn and olive oil versus coconut fat on bile formation and fluidity of hepatic plasma membranes in rats. After 4 weeks of feeding the purified diets containing 9% (w/w) of the test fats, there was no difference in plasma cholesterol concentration between the

  20. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  1. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  2. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  3. PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC AND HARD-TO-HEAL SKIN WOUNDS. A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years various methods are being applied in the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP during treatment in different orthopedic disease. They allow improvement of local biological condition and regeneration of different types of tissues. PRP is a modern treatment strategy with worldwide recognition. There is a high concentration of platelet growth factors in small amounts of plasma. PRP and its various forms have become one of the best methods to support the healing process of various tissues. PRP is used in regenerative medicine, because it provides two of three components (growth factors and scaffolds necessary for complete tissue regeneration. The particular reason for the appearance of lesions is important in order to select an appropriate treatment method and technical application. PRP may be used for treatment of various chronic and hard-to-heal cutaneous wounds, especially when standard conventional therapy is not good enough and surgical treatment is not possible. It reduces the duration, cost of treatment and the hospital stay. There is reduction of wound pain after starting the treatment, reduced risk of blood-borne disease transmission, wound healing is restored, and local immunity is activated.

  4. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  5. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  6. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  7. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  8. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  9. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-01-01

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7–15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free...

  10. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  11. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  12. Collection of trace evidence of explosive residues from the skin in a death due to a disguised letter bomb. The synergy between confocal laser scanning microscope and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Monaci, Fabrizio; Neri, Margherita; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Baroni, Davide; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2010-04-15

    In most deaths caused by explosive, the victim's body becomes a depot for fragments of explosive materials, so contributing to the collection of trace evidence which may provide clues about the specific type of device used with explosion. Improvised explosive devices are used which contain "homemade" explosives rather than high explosives because of the relative ease with which such components can be procured. Many methods such as chromatography-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, stereomicroscopy, capillary electrophoresis are available for use in the identification of explosive residues on objects and bomb fragments. Identification and reconstruction of the distribution of explosive residues on the decedent's body may give additional hints in assessing the position of the victim in relation to the device. Traditionally these residues are retrieved by swabbing the body and clothing during the early phase, at autopsy. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other analytical methods may be used to analyze the material swabbed from the victim body. The histological examination of explosive residues on skin samples collected during the autopsy may reveal significant details. The information about type, quantity and particularly about anatomical distribution of explosive residues obtained utilizing confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) together with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), may provide very significant evidence in the clarification and reconstruction of the explosive-related events. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Skin Aging Remedies in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirbeigi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Traditional persian medicine (TPM is an ancient temperamental medicine with a rich literature about aging mechanism. Temperament has an important function in maintaining the ideal healthy status of human body. Aging process and skin aging could be postponed by applying herbal medicine and some specific traditional rules. Evidence Acquisition The aim of this review study was gathering and discussing the mechanism of whole body aging and skin aging from perspective of TPM and introducing remedies to prevent it. Skin aging is caused by external and internal factors. According to TPM, loss of fat and water content in different skin layers is the main cause of skin aging and it could be avoided by considering simple essential commands. Results Skin aging begins with whole body aging process and entire body gets cold and dry in elderly. Wrinkle formation is highly associated with loss of “skin natural moisture”. In the management, specific food supplements, simple massage therapy as well as herbal drugs were suggested. The current investigation was performed to show the knowledge of ancient Iranian scientists on aging process and related interventions. Conclusions Reported herbal drugs might be beneficial for further studies for the management of skin aging and aging process.

  14. Effects of platelet-rich plasma gel on skin healing in surgical wound in horses Efeitos do gel de plasma rico em plaquetas na cicatrização de feridas cirúrgicas na pele de cavalos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael DeRossi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish a low-cost method to prepare platelet-rich plasma (PRP and evaluates the potential of platelet derived factors to enhance wound healing in the surgical wounds in equine. METHODS: To obtain a PRP gel, calcium gluconate and autologous thrombin were added to platelet-rich plasma. For the tests six saddle horses were used and two surgical incisions were made in each animal. Wounds were treated with PRP gel or untreated. Sequential wound biopsies collected at Treatment 1: at days 5 and 30 and Treatment 2: at days 15 and 45 post wounding permitted comparison of differentiation markers and wound repair. RESULTS: The optimal platelets enrichment over 4.0 time's baseline values was obtained using 300 g for 10 min on the first centrifugation and 640 g for 10 min on the second centrifugation. CONCLUSION: Wounds treated with PRP gel exhibit more rapid epithelial differentiation and enhanced organization of dermal collagen compared to controls in equineOBJETIVO: Estabelecer um método econômico na preparação de plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP e avaliar se os fatores derivados destas plaquetas aceleram a cicatrização de feridas cirúrgicas em cavalos. MÉTODOS: Gluconato de cálcio e trombina autógena foram adicionados ao PRP para a obtenção do gel de PRP. Foram usados seis cavalos de sela, cada um dos quais sofreu duas incisões cirúrgicas. Uma destas incisões foi tratada com gel de PRP e a outra suturada de maneira tradicional (controle. A biópsia das feridas foi coletada de maneira seqüencial; Tratamento 1. nos dias 5 e 30 e Tratamento 2. nos dias 15 e 45 do período pós-operatório permitindo uma comparação na diferenciação epitelial e no reparo das feridas. RESULTADOS: O enriquecimento das plaquetas obtido através de uma primeira centrifugação usando 300 g por 10 minutos e uma segunda 640 g por 10 minutos acelerou quatro vezes a reparação tecidual em relação ao controle. CONCLUSÃO: As feridas tratadas com gel

  15. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  16. Pulmonary fat embolism: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douvlou, E.; Vakhnina-Vassila, O.; Vlahou, I.; Petrocheilou, G.; Markantonatos, D.; Petinelli, A.; Stathopoulou, S.; Kokkinis, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Fat embolism is a clinical syndrome that usually occurs from the first to third day after a bone fracture or/and an orthopaedic surgery. The target organs are the lungs and more rarely the brain and the skin. Objectives and tasks: The aim of this presentation is to discuss the imaging diagnostic criteria of lung fat embolism in CT on the occasion of a case. Material and methods: A 30-years-old male patient was admitted to the Orthopaedic Department after a motorbike accident. A fracture of the head of his right femur was diagnosed and the patient underwent a surgery 3 days later. During the first postoperative day, the patient presented severe dyspnoea, tachycardia, a significant fall of PO 2 (59 mmHg) and a parallel increase in d-Dimmers (7.8 mg/l). The patient was then referred for a chest CT scan. Results: Contrast enhanced CT excluded the presence of thrombus in the pulmonary arteries and raised the diagnosis of lung fat embolism (septal thickening with a nodular pattern and diffuse ground-glass opacities along with the presence of small quantity of bilateral pleural effusions). Conclusion: Chest CT prior and the use of intravenous contrast media after is the most reliable diagnostic method to confirm or exclude pulmonary fat embolism syndrome

  17. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  18. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  19. Letter to the editor: healthy alternatives to trans fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulin Julie

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumption of trans fats is associated with an increase of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. To comply with regulatory policies and public health authorities recommendations, trans fats should be replaced in food products. The study by Sundram et al. (Nutrition & Metabolism 2007, 4:3 reporting the effect on CVD risk factors of interesterified fat (IE and partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO compared to palm olein (POL has been critically analyzed. The study design and in particular the composition of the tested fats was not suitable to properly answer the question raised regarding the effect of alternative ingredients to trans fats on plasma lipids. The observed effects are divergent with predicted data derived from the literature model consolidated using the individual results of 60 randomized clinical trials. The results of the study published by Sundram and co-workers have to be considered with awareness.

  20. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They're mainly found in fish such as salmon, trout and herring, avocados, olives, walnuts and liquid ... fats are found in many fried foods and baked goods such as pastries, pizza dough, pie crust, ...

  1. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... albacore tuna, and trout Corn oil Soybean oil Safflower oil To get the health benefits, you need to ... sunflower seeds to salads. Cook with corn or safflower oil instead of butter and solid fats.

  2. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat......The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper...

  3. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  4. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Dragsted, L. O.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    dismutase or catalase. Likewise, no effect was found on 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) residues, a plasma protein oxidation product, or on malondialdehyde in plasma or in LDL, which are markers of lipoprotein oxidation. A marginal effect of grape-skin intervention was observed on plasma ascorbate levels...

  5. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  6. Olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, K; Ishikawa, T; Shige, H; Tomiyasu, K; Yoshida, H; Ito, T; Nakajima, K; Yonemura, A; Sawada, S; Nakamura, H

    1997-10-01

    The acute effects of olive oil, milk fat and safflower oil on postprandial lipemia and remnant lipoprotein metabolism were investigated. Eight Healthy male volunteers randomly underwent three types of oral fat-vitamin A loading tests. The test drink was a mixture of retinyl palmitate (RP)(50,000 IU of aqueous vitamin A/m2 body surface area) and one of the three types of oils (40 g of fat/m2 body surface area): olive oil (70.7% oleic acid of total fatty acids); milk fat (69.3% saturated fatty acid); safflower oil (74.2% linoleic acid). Olive oil significantly increased plasma triacylglycerol and RP concentrations 4 hours after fat loading, as compared to other fats. Increases of remnant like particle concentrations were higher after olive oil than after the other two fats. These results show that olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

  7. Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Handayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diet (HFD induces obesity. This study examined the effects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy efficiency, and body fat index induced by HFD. Rats were given a low, medium, and high (7, 20, 60 g/kg = LD-M, MD-M, HD-M Shiitake mushroom powder in their high-fat (50% in kcal diets for 6 weeks. The results showed that the rats on the HD-M diet had the lowest body weight gain compared to MD-M and LD-M groups (P<0.05. The total fat deposition was significantly lower (−35%, P<0.05 in rats fed an HD-M diet than that of HFD group. Interestingly, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG level was significantly lower (−55%, P<0.05 in rats on HD-M than HFD. This study also revealed the existence of negative correlations between the amount of Shiitake mushroom supplementation and body weight gain, plasma TAG, and total fat masses.

  8. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  9. Role of Plasma Temperature and Residence Time in Stagnation Plasma Synthesis of c-BN Nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    7 A plasma ion source creates the ions, which are then separated by magnetic mass separation to guide the separate beams into a deposition...generator is the soul contributor to sustaining the plasma. Figure 3.3 Plasma synthesis setup. Solid powder-form precursors are sublimated and...operation frequency gives the proper magnetic field skin depth to match the overall plasma torch diameter. The magnetic field skin depth is inversely

  10. Aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Forget

    1975-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis aimed at investigating some aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism in children. In the introduction general aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism are presented. Chapter 1 reviews recent litterature data on the intravenous fat tolerance test and on plasma postheparin

  11. Histological changes associated with mesotherapy for fat dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul T; Morgan, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Mesotherapy is a form of medical therapy popular in Europe and South America. It is used for treating a variety of medical conditions, including the treatment of localized fat deposits and cellulite. Phosphatidylcholine/deoxycholate injections are a popular technique to treat localized fat accumulations and have recently become synonymous with mesotherapy, although their history and technique are distinct. To treat localized fat deposits, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and deoxycholate (DC) are utilized. To date, there have been no published histological studies that explain the mechanism of action of PC and DC.Method. In this study the authors have obtained skin biopsies from a patient who had undergone mesotherapy with PC and DC. Punch biopsies were taken at one and two weeks after the procedure.Results. Each of the biopsies taken at one and two weeks after treatment with PC and DC showed a normal epithelium and dermis, with a mixed septal and lobular panniculitis. The fat lobules were infiltrated by increased numbers of lymphocytes and, in particular, macrophages. The macrophages consisted of conventional forms, foam cells, and multinucleated fat-containing giant cells. The inflammation was associated with serous atrophy and microcyst formation.Conclusion. This study demonstrates that mesotherapy with PC and DC affects the subcutaneous fat. We theorize that the reduction of subcutaneous fat likely follows inflammatory-mediated necrosis and resorption.

  12. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  13. Histoplasma skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histoplasmosis skin test ... health care provider cleans an area of your skin, usually the forearm. An allergen is injected just below the cleaned skin surface. An allergen is a substance that causes ...

  14. Skin Condition Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  15. Skin Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Skin Complications of IBD Go Back Skin Complications of IBD Email Print + Share After arthritis, ... about 5% of people with inflammatory bowel disease. SKIN DISORDERS COMMONLY SEEN IN IBD ERHTHEMA NODOSUM The ...

  16. Skin Peeling Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rajeev

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peeling of the skin is an uncommonly encountered disorder. Occurrence of vesicles and bullae in peeling skin syndrome is very rare. We report a case of idiopathic peeling skin syndrome with vesicular lesions.

  17. Brain fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Hisato; Yanagimoto, Masahiro; Goto, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    Recently CT and MR imaging have demonstrated that cerebral edema is present in cases of fat embolism syndrome. To simulate this we have made a model of brain-fat embolism in rats under MR imaging. In 20 rats, we did intravenous injection of heparinized blood, 1.5 ml·kg -1 taken from femoral bone marrow cavity. Twenty four hours after the injection, we examined the MR images (1.5 tesla, spin-echo method) of brains and histologic findings of brains and lungs were obtained. In 5 of 20 rats, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images were observed in the area of the unilateral cerebral cortex or hippocampus. These findings showed edema of the brains. They disappeared, however, one week later. Histologic examinations showed massive micro-fat emboli in capillaries of the deep cerebral cortex and substantia nigra, but no edematous findings of the brain were revealed in HE staining. In pulmonary arteries, we also found large fat emboli. We conclude that our model is a useful one for the study of brain fat embolism. (author)

  18. Fat oxidation at rest predicts peak fat oxidation during exercise and metabolic phenotype in overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M; Nordby, P; Nielsen, L B

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate if fat oxidation at rest predicts peak fat oxidation during exercise and/or metabolic phenotype in moderately overweight, sedentary men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.Subjects:We measured respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at rest in 44 moderately overweight, normotensive...... the International Diabetes Federation criteria, we found that there was a lower accumulation of metabolic risk factors in L-RER than in H-RER (1.6 vs 3.5, P=0.028), and no subjects in L-RER and four of eight subjects in H-RER had the metabolic syndrome. Resting RER was positively correlated with plasma...... triglycerides (Pexercise was positively correlated with plasma free fatty acid concentration at rest (Pexercise and a healthy metabolic...

  19. Breast Reconstruction after a Bilateral Mastectomy Using the BRAVA Expansion System and Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Mestak, MD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fat graft breast reconstruction following a mastectomy is always limited by the size of the skin envelope, which affects the amount of graft that can be injected in 1 session. Because the fat graft naturally resorbs in all patients, several sessions of fat grafting are necessary. BRAVA’s negative pressure causes a “reverse” expansion of the skin envelope, thus permitting more space for the fat graft. This allows decreasing number of required procedures for an adequate breast reconstruction. We operated on a 38-year-old patient 4 years after bilateral mastectomy without irradiation for breast cancer. Before the procedure, the patient was instructed to wear the BRAVA system for 12 hours daily for 2 months before the first session, at all times between the sessions and for 1 month following the last fat grafting session. We performed 3 fat grafting sessions, as planned. Altogether, we injected 840 cm3 of fat on the right side and 790 cm3 of fat on the left side. Four months after the last operation, the patient was very satisfied with her new breasts. The breasts were soft, with good sensation and a natural feel. Using the BRAVA external expansion system for the enhancement of fat grafting is a suitable technique for breast reconstruction after a mastectomy. This technique produces soft and natural feeling breasts in fewer operative sessions, with a minimal risk of complications. Patient compliance, however, is greatly needed to achieve the desired results.

  20. Effects of mechanical massage, manual lymphatic drainage and connective tissue manipulation techniques on fat mass in women with cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakci Tunay, V; Akbayrak, T; Bakar, Y; Kayihan, H; Ergun, N

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of three different noninvasive treatment techniques on fat mass and regional fat thickness of the patients with cellulites. Sixty subjects were randomized into three groups. Group 1 (n = 20) treated with mechanical massage (MM), group 2 (n = 20) treated with manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) and group 3 (n = 20) treated with connective tissue manipulation (CTM) techniques. Subjects were evaluated by using standardized photographs, body composition analyzer (TBF 300) (body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), fat %, fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW)), circumference measurement from thigh, waist-hip ratio (WHR), fat thickness measurements from abdomen, suprailium and thigh regions with skin fold caliper. All groups had an improvement in thinning of the subcutaneous fat after the treatment (P techniques are effective in decreasing the regional fat values of the patients with cellulites.

  1. Autologous fat grafting for cosmetic enhancement of the perioral region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgold, Mark; Lam, Samuel M; Glasgold, Robert

    2007-11-01

    The role of volume loss in the progression of facial aging is widely accepted as an important cause. The aging appearance of the perioral region and lower face is significantly affected by this volume loss, which contributes to the development of labiomental folds, the loss of definition of the jawline, and worsening of skin texture, among other manifestations. Autologous fat transfer can effectively replace this lost volume and contribute to any facial rejuvenation plan. Fat can replace larger volumes than off-the-shelf fillers and provides a potentially permanent solution.

  2. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jessie R. Wilburn; Jeffrey Bourquin; Andrea Wysong; Christopher L. Melby

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs) in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight ...

  3. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Chou, Yii-Her; Lin, Hung-Yu; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. (orig.)

  4. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Chou, Yii-Her [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Hung-Yu [Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); E-Da Hospital/ I-Shou University, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Yang, Yi-Hsin [Kaohsiung Medical University, Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Kaohsiung (China); Shih, Paul Ming-Chen [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chuang, Shu-Mien [Yuh-Ing Junior College of Health Care and Management, Kaohsiung (China); Shen, Jung-Tsung [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Juan, Yung-Shun [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China)

    2012-08-15

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. (orig.)

  5. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  6. Fats for diabetics. (Letter).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

  7. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  8. Effects of low-fat or full-fat fermented and non-fermented dairy foods on selected cardiovascular biomarkers in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Paul J; Mellett, Natalie; Pally, Suzana; Wong, Gerard; Barlow, Chris K; Croft, Kevin; Mori, Trevor A; Meikle, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    The association between consumption of full-fat dairy foods and CVD may depend partly on the nature of products and may not apply to low-fat dairy foods. Increased circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers after consumption of dairy product-rich meals suggest an association with CVD. In the present study, we tested the effects of low-fat and full-fat dairy diets on biomarkers associated with inflammation, oxidative stress or atherogenesis and on plasma lipid classes. Within full-fat dairy diets, we also compared fermented v. non-fermented products. In a randomised cross-over study, twelve overweight/obese subjects consumed during two 3-week periods two full-fat dairy diets containing either yogurt plus cheese (fermented) or butter, cream and ice cream (non-fermented) or a low-fat milk plus yogurt diet, with the latter being consumed between and at the end of the full-fat dairy dietary periods. The concentrations of six inflammatory and two atherogenic biomarkers known to be raised in CVD were measured as well as those of plasma F2-isoprostanes and lipid classes. The concentrations of six of the eight biomarkers tended to be higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet and the concentrations of two plasmalogen lipid classes reported to be associated with increased oxidisability were also higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet (Pfermented dairy diet than on that of the low-fat dairy diet (Pdairy products did not lead to a more favourable biomarker profile associated with CVD risk compared with the full-fat dairy products, suggesting that full-fat fermented dairy products may be the more favourable.

  9. Dissociated incretin hormone response to protein versus fat ingestion in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, O; Carr, RD; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    kcal/kg) fat (olive oil) or protein (whey protein) was ingested by non-diabetic obese male volunteers [body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2) ; n = 12] and plasma GIP and GLP-1 were determined. We found no difference in the early GIP or GLP-1 responses to fat versus protein. However, the total 300-min GIP...

  10. Administration of phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol liposomes partially reconstitutes fat absorption in chronically bile-diverted rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishioka, T; Havinga, R; Tazuma, S; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Verkade, HJ

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: Intestinal bile deficiency in cholestatic patients leads to fat malabsorption. We addressed the potency of model bile, bile salts and phosphatidylcholine (PC)-cholesterol (CH) liposomes to reconstitute fat absorption in permanently bile-diverted (BD) rats. Methods: The plasma

  11. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks.

  12. Cold exposure enhances fat utilization but not non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol or catecholamines availability during submaximal walking and running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Daniel Gagnon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cold exposure modulates the use of carbohydrates and fat during exercise. This phenomenon has mostly been observed in controlled cycling studies, but not during walking and running when core temperature and oxygen consumption are controlled, as both may alter energy metabolism. This study aimed at examining energy substrate availability and utilization during walking and running in the cold when core temperature and oxygen consumption are maintained. Ten lightly clothed male subjects walked or ran for 60-min, at 50% and 70% of maximal oxygen consumption, respectively, in a climatic chamber set at 0°C or 22°C. Thermal, cardiovascular, and oxidative responses were measured every 15-min during exercise. Blood samples for serum non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma catecholamines, and serum lipids were collected immediately prior, and at 30- and 60-min of exercise. Skin temperature strongly decreased while core temperature did not change during cold trials. Heart rate was also lower in cold trials. A rise in fat utilization in the cold was seen through lower respiratory quotient (-0.03 ± 0.02, greater fat oxidation (+0.14 ± 0.13 g•min-1 and contribution of fat to total energy expenditure (+1.62 ± 1.99 kcal•min-1. No differences from cold exposure were observed in blood parameters. During submaximal walking and running, a greater reliance on derived fat sources occurs in the cold, despite the absence of concurrent alterations in non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol, or catecholamine concentrations. This disparity may suggest a greater reliance on intra-muscular energy sources such as triglycerides during both walking and running.

  13. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin, Hair, and Nails KidsHealth / For Parents / Skin, Hair, and ... piel, el cabello y las uñas About Skin, Hair and Nails Skin is our largest organ. If ...

  14. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  15. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your skin ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin less ...

  16. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  17. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our growth and activities — everything from solving a math problem to racing up and down the soccer ... saturated fat and trans fat raise blood cholesterol levels, increasing a person's chances of developing heart disease, ...

  18. Evaluation of the microdialysis technique in the dog fat pad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, Bente; Madsen, J; Galbo, H

    1999-01-01

    In the present study the microdialysis technique was evaluated in an isolated autoperfused dog fat pad. Concentrations of glucose, lactate, and glycerol were measured in interstitial fluid by microdialysis and simultaneously in arterial and adipose venous plasma. Adipose tissue blood flow...

  19. High-fat meals rich in EPA plus DHA compared with DHA only have differential effects on postprandial lipemia and plasma 8-isoprostane F2α concentrations relative to a control high-oleic acid meal: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Robert; Latham, Sally H; Botham, Kathleen M; Hall, Wendy L; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P D

    2014-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation has beneficial cardiovascular effects, but postprandial influences of these individual fatty acids are unclear. The primary objective was to determine the vascular effects of EPA + DHA compared with DHA only during postprandial lipemia relative to control high-oleic acid meals; the secondary objective was to characterize the effects of linoleic acid-enriched high-fat meals relative to the control meal. We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial of 4 high-fat (75-g) meals containing 1) high-oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS; control), 2) HOS + fish oil (FO; 5 g EPA and DHA), 3) HOS + algal oil (AO; 5 g DHA), and 4) high-linoleic acid sunflower oil (HLS) in 16 healthy men (aged 35-70 y) with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations (mean ± SD triacylglycerol, 1.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L). Elevations in triacylglycerol concentration relative to baseline were slightly reduced after FO and HLS compared with the HOS control (P acids after a mixed meal was inhibited after AO (Δ 0-3 h, P DHA-rich fish oil compared with DHA-rich AO, but these differences were not associated with consistent effects on postprandial vascular function or lipemia. More detailed analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipid mediators are required to determine possible divergent functional effects of single meals rich in either DHA or EPA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01618071.

  20. Fat metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Orngreen, Mette Cathrine; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    . Fat metabolism was determined by means of indirect calorimetry and stable isotope technique in patients and healthy subjects. Patients carried various types and loads (mean [SE], 72% [5%]) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in skeletal muscle. All subjects exercised at the same absolute workload......OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with defects of the respiratory chain have metabolic adaptations that promote a preferential use of fats or carbohydrates, similar to what is observed in metabolic myopathies affecting glycolysis or fat oxidation. DESIGN: Causation and case-control study...... (mean [SE], 65 [10] W), corresponding to 72% (in patients) and 30% (in healthy subjects) of maximum oxygen consumption. SETTING: Neuromuscular research unit. PARTICIPANTS: Ten patients with mtDNA mutations and 10 sex-matched healthy subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fat turnover, plasma concentrations...

  1. Optimize fat Replacers in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M HassaniMoosaAbadi

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: In order to solve some problems related to the elimination or reduction of fat , cardiovascular diseases prevention and health improvement, it is possible to use fat alternatives in communities’ food, furthermore, the obtained results indicated that the production of low-calorie foods is similar to the texture of high fat products.

  2. Anomalous Skin Effect for Anisotropic Electron Velocity Distribution Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Gennady Shvets

    2004-01-01

    The anomalous skin effect in a plasma with a highly anisotropic electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) is very different from skin effect in a plasma with the isotropic EVDF. An analytical solution was derived for the electric field penetrated into plasma with the EVDF described as a Maxwellian with two temperatures Tx >> Tz, where x is the direction along the plasma boundary and z is the direction perpendicular to the plasma boundary. The skin layer was found to consist of two distinctive regions of width of order nTx/w and nTz/w, where nTx,z/w = (Tx,z/m)1/2 is the thermal electron velocity and w is the incident wave frequency

  3. Depth of the graft bed influences split-skin graft contraction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensik, I.; Lamme, E.N.; Brychta, P.

    2003-01-01

    Contraction of a split-thickness skin graft used for coverage of large defects remains a great problem in plastic, burn and reconstructive surgery. In this study we evaluated healing of split-thickness skin grafts transplanted in wounds on the subcutaneous fat and muscle fascia in pigs. Four young

  4. Autologous Fat Transfer in a Patient with Lupus Erythematosus Profundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimi Yoon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lupus erythematosus profundus, a form of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus, is a rare inflammatory disease involving in the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissues. It primarily affects the head, proximal upper arms, trunk, thighs, and presents as firm nodules, 1 to 3 cm in diameter. The overlying skin often becomes attached to the subcutaneous nodules and is drawn inward to produce deep, saucerized depressions. We present a rare case of lupus erythematosus profundus treated with autologous fat transfer.

  5. Effect of body fat and gender on body temperature distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that body composition can influence peripheral heat loss and skin temperature. That the distribution of body fat is affected by gender is well known; however, there is little information on how body composition and gender influences the measure of skin temperature. This study evaluated skin temperature distribution according to body fat percentage (BF%) and gender. A sample of 94 apparently healthy volunteers (47 women and 47 men) was assessed with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and infrared thermography (mean, maximum and minimum temperatures - T Mean , T Max and T Min ). The sample was divided into groups, according to health risk classification, based on BF%, as proposed by the American College of Sports Medicine: Average (n = 58), Elevated (n = 16) or High (n = 20). Women had lower T Mean in most regions of interest (ROI). In both genders, group High had lower temperature values than Average and Elevated in the trunk, upper and lower limbs. In men, palms and posterior hands had a tendency (p temperature along with increased BF%. T Mean , T Max and T Min of trunk, upper and lower limbs were negatively correlated with BF% and the fat percentage of each segment (upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk). The highest correlations found in women were between posterior trunk and BF% (rho = -0.564, p temperature than men, which was related with higher BF%. Facial temperature seems not to be influenced by body fat. With the future collection of data on the relationship between BF% and skin temperature while taking into account factors such as body morphology, gender, and ethnicity, we conclude that measurement of BF may be reliably estimated with the use of thermal imaging technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. p120-catenin mediates inflammatory responses in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Moreno, Mirna; Davis, Michael A; Wong, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    but no overt disruption in barrier function or intercellular adhesion. As the mice age, however, they display epidermal hyperplasia and chronic inflammation, typified by hair degeneration and loss of body fat. Using skin engraftments and anti-inflammatory drugs, we show that these features are not attributable...

  7. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Sawada, Yusuke; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Nishide, Kazuyuki; Yoshioka, Toshiharu

    1982-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  8. Quality enhancement of chicken baked without skin using honey marinades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; McWatters, K H; Hung, Y C

    1999-12-01

    Chicken (bone-in, skinless, split breast) injected with lemon-pepper poultry pump marinade containing 20 or 30% honey was compared with chicken (with and without skin) marinated without honey. The objectives were to 1) determine moisture and fat contents and instrumental color and texture measurements, 2) characterize the sensory profiles of marinated chicken baked with and without skin, and 3) investigate the effect of honey marinades on the sensory characteristics of chicken baked without skin. Chicken was roasted at 177 C for one h to an internal temperature of 80 C. A trained panel (n = 13) evaluated the roasted chicken. Results showed that skin could be removed from premarinated chicken breast before baking without significantly affecting the amount of marinade uptake, moisture content, fat content, texture (force required to shear), or most instrumental measurements of color. With regard to sensory characteristics, skin removal before baking resulted in a less glossy and moist appearance, less brown color, and more intense pepper flavor in the roasted product than when the skin was not removed. Addition of honey to the marinade restored, to some extent, the intensities of moist and glossy appearance and brown color that were reduced by removal of the skin before baking.

  9. A comparative study on the transdermal penetration effect of gaseous and aqueous plasma reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Gan, Lu; Ma, Mingyu; Zhang, Song; Liu, Jingjing; Chen, Hongxiang; Liu, Dawei; Lu, Xinpei

    2018-02-01

    To improve the depth of plasma active species in the skin, it is very important to develop skin disease treatment using plasma. In this article, an air plasma source was used to work directly with the skin of a mouse. A tortuous pathway, hair follicles, electroporation and a microneedle do not aid the transdermal delivery of gaseous plasma active species, therefore these gaseous plasma active species cannot penetrate mouse skin with a thickness of ~0.75 mm. The plasma activated water (PAW) produced by the air plasma source was used to study the transdermal penetration of the aqueous plasma activated species. This aqueous plasma activated species can penetrate the skin through hair follicles, intercellular and transcellular routes. The pH of the PAW did not affect the penetration efficiency of the aqueous plasma active species.

  10. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L

    2015-02-03

    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (pskin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Benefits of volumetric to facial rejuvenation. Part 1: Fat grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, P; Lepage, C

    2017-10-01

    For a number of years, a volumetric approach using autologous fat injection has been implemented to improve cosmetic outcome in face-lift procedures and to achieve lasting rejuvenation. Autologous fat as filling tissue has been used in plastic surgery since the late 19th century, but has only recently been associated to face lift procedures. The interest of the association lies on the one hand in the pathophysiology of facial aging, involving skin sag and loss of volume, and on the other hand in the tissue induction properties of grafted fat, "rejuvenating" the injected area. The strict methodology consisting in harvesting, treating then injecting an autologous fat graft is known as LipoStructure ® or lipofilling. We here describe the technique overall, then region by region. It is now well known and seems simple, effective and reproducible, but is nevertheless delicate. For each individual, it is necessary to restore a harmonious face with well-distributed volumes. By associating volumetric to the face lift procedure, the plastic surgeon plays a new role: instead of being a tailor, cutting away excess skin, he or she becomes a sculptor, remodeling the face to restore the harmony of youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is associated with lower LDL but unhealthy fat distribution, independent of insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cathrine Laustrup; Vistisen, Dorte; Færch, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    was measured by fasting plasma lipids and obesity including abdominal fat distribution assessed by ultrasonography. GIP and insulin were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (0, 30 and 120 minutes). Linear regression analysis was used to study the associations between GIP, plasma lipids and obesity...... was associated with 0.13 cm less (0.01;0.25) subcutaneous fat but with more visceral abdominal fat (0.45 cm (0.12;0.78)) and higher waist-hip ratio (0.011 (0.004;0.019)). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to what was previously thought, GIP may be associated with improved LDL clearance but with an unhealthy fat distribution...

  13. Oily skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Thais H; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Oily skin (seborrhea) is a common cosmetic problem that occurs when oversized sebaceous glands produce excessive amounts of sebum giving the appearance of shiny and greasy skin. This paper overviews the main concepts of sebaceous gland anatomy and physiology, including the biosynthesis, storage and release of sebum, as well as its relationship to skin hydration and water barrier function. We also address how skin oiliness may vary according to diet, age, gender, ethnicity and hot humid climates. The deeper understanding of this skin type provides the opportunity to better guide patients regarding skin care and also assist in the development of sebosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Influence of variation in eumelanin content on absorbance spectra of liquid skin-like phantoms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available are often always limited. Hence the use of skin-like phantoms. Bashkatov et al. (25) measured the optical properties of gelatin skin-like phantoms prepared from different concentrations of synthetic and natural (from Sepia officianalis) melanin. Fat... emulsions like Intralipid are commonly used to mimic light propagation in turbit media (26) and hence Shimada et al. (27) used similar gelatin and Sepia melanin phantoms and added Intralipid to mimic the scattering properties of human skin. The purpose...

  15. High-fat but not sucrose intake is essential for induction of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Højland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Rolin, Bidda

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia are closely related. Diet plays an important role in the progression of these diseases, but the role of specific dietary components is not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of dietary sucrose and fat....../cholesterol on the development of dyslipidemia and NAFLD. Methods Seventy female guinea pigs were block-randomized (based on weight) into five groups and fed a normal chow diet (control: 4 % fat), a very high-sucrose diet (vHS: 4 % fat, 25 % sucrose), a high-fat diet (HF: 20 % fat, 0.35 % cholesterol), a high......-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHS: 20 % fat, 15 % sucrose, 0.35 % cholesterol) or a high-fat/very high-sucrose diet (HFvHS: 20 % fat, 25 % sucrose, 0.35 % cholesterol) for 16 and 25 weeks. Results All three high-fat diets induced dyslipidemia with increased concentrations of plasma cholesterol (p 

  16. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  17. Examine Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  18. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  19. Bleeding into the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003235.htm Bleeding into the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bleeding into the skin can occur from broken blood ...

  20. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.

  1. Skin graft - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100100.htm Skin graft - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... entire body, and acts as a protective barrier. Skin grafts may be recommended for: Extensive wounds Burns Specific ...

  2. Laser surgery - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bleeding Problem not going away Infection Pain Scarring Skin color changes Some laser surgery is done when you are asleep and ... TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... lasers, lights, and tissue interactions. In: Hruza GJ, Avram ...

  3. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  4. Field enhancement due to anomalous skin effect inside a target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, G.; Tan, W.

    1996-01-01

    A new method based on Fourier transformation to study the skin effects is presented. Using this method, the field amplitude in plasma is represented in terms of electric conductivity, and the normal and anomalous skin effects are described through one formula by omitting the plasma dispersion or not. The results are in agreement with other publications [e.g., J. P. Matte and K. Aguenaou, Phys. Rev. A 45, 2558 (1992)] for equivalent parameters. But for deeper positions inside a target, which have not been studied by others, it is found that the field amplitude is considerably enhanced due to an anomalous skin effect, even for constant collision frequency. In addition, the skin absorptions and some calculations on an anomalous skin effect for different collision frequencies are also presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Measurement of interstitial cetirizine concentrations in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Church, M K; Rihoux, J P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to measure the concentrations of cetirizine in the extracellular water compartment in intact human skin and assess simultaneously inhibition of histamine-induced wheal and flare reactions. METHODS: Skin cetirizine levels were collected...... by the microdialysis technique and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Skin levels in 20 subjects were compared to plasma levels for 4 h after a single oral dose of 10 or 20 mg of cetirizine. Skin prick tests were performed with histamine 100 mg/ml. RESULTS: Plasma...... cetirizine levels increased within 30 min to reach peak values of 315+/-10 and 786+/-45 ng/ml 90-120 min after administration of 10 and 20 mg of cetirizine. This was followed by a slow decline. In the skin, dialysate cetirizine levels (non-protein-bound fraction only) peaked at 1.6+/-0.1 and 2.4+/-0.3 ng...

  6. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  7. STUDIES ON THE SYNDROME OF FAT EMBOLIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPROULE, B J; BRADY, J L; GILBERT, J A

    1964-05-30

    Three patients, all of whom were well-muscled young adult males who had suffered fractures of long bones, were studied by means of measurement of ventilatory function and arterial blood gases. They had degrees of mental change varying from mild confusion to stupor. Anemia, hypocalcemia, skin petechiae and radiologic pulmonary infiltrates were demonstrated in all three.In the absence of any clinical cyanosis, profound arterial O(2) desaturation was demonstrated in all. Physiologic studies indicated that the desaturation was the result of a diffusion defect early in the course of the syndrome and later from venous admixture. The lungs were stiff and the work of breathing was increased. The anemia appeared to be hemolytic in type.It is suggested that anemia, hypocalcemia and arterial O(2) desaturation may contribute significantly to the cerebral symptomatology associated with the syndrome of fat embolization.

  8. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Checking your skin regularly can help you notice any unusual changes. Follow your health care provider's recommendations on how often to ...

  9. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during pregnancy. For most skin changes, however, health care providers are not sure of the exact cause. Why do dark spots and patches appear on the skin during pregnancy? Dark spots and patches are caused by an increase in the body’s melanin—a natural substance that gives color to the skin and ...

  10. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  11. Skin layer mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, M.

    2010-01-01

    The human skin is composed of several layers, each with an unique structure and function. Knowledge about the mechanical behavior of these skin layers is important for clinical and cosmetic research, such as the development of personal care products and the understanding of skin diseases. Until

  12. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chou, Yii-Her; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2012-08-01

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. • Unenhanced CT is now widely used to assess ureteric calculi. • The same CT protocol can provide measurements of abdominal fat distribution. • Ureteric calculi are usually treated by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). • Greater intra-abdominal fat stores are generally associated with poorer SWL results.

  13. Isolation of Precursor Cells from Waste Solid Fat Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Diane; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2009-01-01

    A process for isolating tissue-specific progenitor cells exploits solid fat tissue obtained as waste from such elective surgical procedures as abdominoplasties (tummy tucks) and breast reductions. Until now, a painful and risky process of aspiration of bone marrow has been used to obtain a limited number of tissue- specific progenitor cells. The present process yields more tissue-specific progenitor cells and involves much less pain and risk for the patient. This process includes separation of fat from skin, mincing of the fat into small pieces, and forcing a fat saline mixture through a sieve. The mixture is then digested with collagenase type I in an incubator. After centrifugation tissue-specific progenitor cells are recovered and placed in a tissue-culture medium in flasks or Petri dishes. The tissue-specific progenitor cells can be used for such purposes as (1) generating three-dimensional tissue equivalent models for studying bone loss and muscle atrophy (among other deficiencies) and, ultimately, (2) generating replacements for tissues lost by the fat donor because of injury or disease.

  14. Taking Care of Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Skin KidsHealth / For Kids / Taking Care of Your Skin ... you're in. Why Be Nice to Your Skin? Like the heart, stomach, and brain, your skin ...

  15. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    was that fat oxidation during exercise might be differentially preserved in leg and arm muscles after weight loss.Methods:Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from musculus...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling...... and the relative workload at which it occurred (FatMax) were higher in PO and O than in C. During arm cranking, peak fat oxidation was higher in O than in C, and FatMax was higher in O than in PO and C. Similar fibre-type composition was found between groups. Plasma adiponectin was higher in PO than in C and O...

  16. Effects of dietary fat quality and quantity on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Bladbjerg, E.-M.; Jespersen, J.

    1997-01-01

    , monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats differed regarding postprandial activation of FVII. Eighteen healthy young men participated in the study. On 6 separate days each participant consumed two meals (times, 0 and 1 3/4 hours) enriched with 70 g (15 and 55 g) of either rapeseed oil, olive oil, sunflower oil......, palm oil, or butter (42% of energy from fat) or isoenergetic low-fat meals (6% of energy from fat). Fasting and series of nonfasting blood samples (the last at time 8 1/2 hours) were collected. Plasma triglycerides, FVIIc, FVIIa, and free fatty acids were analyzed. There were marked effects of the fat......Acute elevation of the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVIIc) is observed after consumption of high-fat meals. This elevation is caused by an increase in the concentration of activated FVII (FVIIa). In a randomized crossover study, we investigated whether saturated...

  17. Application of platelet-rich plasma in plastic surgery: clinical and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, Valerio; Gentile, Pietro; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Grimaldi, Monica; Casciani, Carlo Umberto; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Orlandi, Augusto

    2009-12-01

    The clinical use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for a wide variety of application has been reportedly employed most prevalently in problematic wounds, maxillofacial and hemi-facial atrophy, Romberg Syndrome, and diabetic foot ulcers. To our knowledge, PRP has never been described in the enhancement of fat grafting during tissue-engineering application in vivo. The authors describe the preparation of PRP and its use in a series of 43 patients who underwent plastic, reconstructive, and maxillofacial surgery for chronic lower extremity ulcers (n = 18) and multiple facial applications (n = 25). PRP mixed with fat grafting was used in 76% patients affected by multiple facial diseases and in 88.9% patients affected by lower extremity ulcers. PRP injection alone was used in the remaining patients. The authors observed that after a 7.1-week and 9.7-week (average) course of twice-daily wound treatment with PRP suspended on a collagen base, 61.1% and 88.9% of chronic lower extremity ulcers underwent to 100% reepithelization compared with 40% and 60% of controls (n = 10) treated with hyaluronic acid and collagen medication. In patients treated with reconstructing three-dimensional projection of face by fat grafting and PRP, we observed a 70% maintenance of contour restoring and three-dimensional volume after 1 year compared to only 31% of controls (n = 10) treated with fat grafting alone. In vitro, PRP induced a significant increase in the number of adipose-tissue-derived stem cells compared to control cultures. These results documented that PRP accelerates chronic skin ulcer reepithelization and improves maintenance and function of fat graft in patients who underwent plastic reconstructive surgery, possibly by stimulating adipose-tissue-derived stem cell proliferation.

  18. The Ratios of Pre-emulsified Duck Skin for Optimized Processing of Restructured Ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Yun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Ahn, Kwang-Il; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of duck ham formulated with duck skin through the pre-emulsification process. The experiments to investigate the quality characteristics of duck ham were carried out to measure proximate composition, cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics. Duck ham was prepared with various ratios of duck skin in pre-emulsion as follows: Control (duct skin 30%), T1 (duck skin 20% + pre-emulsified duck skin 10%), T2 (duck skin 15% + pre-emulsified duck skin 15%), T3 (duck skin 10% + pre-emulsified duck skin 20%), and T4 (pre-emulsified duck skin 30%). As the ratio of duck skin to pre-emulsified skin changed, the quality of duck ham in terms of moisture content, fat content, cooking loss, emulsion stability, lightness, textural analysis, apparent viscosity, and overall acceptability changed. The moisture content of T2 was the highest ( p ham and 1:1 ratio of duck skin and pre-emulsified skin was the proper ratio to improve the quality characteristics of duck ham.

  19. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye-Rin; Shin, Sae-Ron; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. Methods We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and sub...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals altered distribution of hepatic fat in children with type 1 diabetes compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnell, Simon E; Peterson, Pernilla; Trinh, Lena; Broberg, Per; Leander, Peter; Lernmark, Åke; Månsson, Sven; Elding Larsson, Helena

    2015-08-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes have been identified as a risk group for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim was to compare total hepatic fat fraction and fat distribution across Couinaud segments in children with type 1 diabetes and controls and the relation of hepatic fat to plasma and anthropometric parameters. Hepatic fat fraction and fat distribution across Couinaud segments were measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 22 children with type 1 diabetes and 32 controls. Blood tests and anthropometric data were collected. No children had NAFLD. Children with type 1 diabetes had a slightly lower hepatic fat fraction (median 1.3%) than controls (median 1.8%), and their fat had a different segmental distribution. The fat fraction of segment V was the most representative of the liver as a whole. An incidental finding was that diabetes patients treated with multiple daily injections of insulin (MDI) had a fat distribution more similar to controls than patients with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). In children with type 1 diabetes, NAFLD may be less common than recent studies have suggested. Children with type 1 diabetes may have a lower fat fraction and a different fat distribution in the liver than controls. Diabetes treatment with MDI or CSII may affect liver fat, but this needs to be confirmed in a larger sample of patients. The heterogeneity of hepatic fat infiltration may affect results when liver biopsy is used for diagnosing fatty liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P mass (r = -0.68, P mass (r = -0.576, P mass (r = -0.439, P mass, visceral fat mass and percentage fat mass were lower in the HFDE group than the HFD group (all P values mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  2. Extraction and characterization of elastin from poultry skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadalian, Mehdi; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Babji, Abdul Salam [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Azman, Mohd Azri [Strategic Livestock Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, MARDI Headquarters, 43400, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Poultry by-products have a great economic potential that need to be exploited. Poultry skin could be utilized to produce elastin, which is often incorporated in the production of functional food or medicine due to its antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the physicochemical and microstructural characteristics of elastins isolated from broiler and spent hen skin. Analyses including proximate and amino acid composition along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out. In this study, elastin was successfully extracted from broiler and spent hen skin using three successive solvents extract of NaCl, acetone and NaOH respectively. It was apparent that the fat content of extracted elastin from broiler skin was higher (P < 0.05) than spent hen’s, with both samples recording less than 1% fat. Moreover, broiler skin elastin also had a higher protein content (68.3%) than spent hen’s (67.8%). Both skin sources contained glycine as the major amino acid (19–20%), followed by glutamic acid, proline, alanine and arginine. The results of TEM indicated that the use of collagenase enzyme or further purification efforts should be incorporated along with the extraction methods used because of the presence of collagen and other debris in the resultant elastin.

  3. Extraction and characterization of elastin from poultry skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadalian, Mehdi; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Babji, Abdul Salam; Azman, Mohd Azri

    2013-01-01

    Poultry by-products have a great economic potential that need to be exploited. Poultry skin could be utilized to produce elastin, which is often incorporated in the production of functional food or medicine due to its antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the physicochemical and microstructural characteristics of elastins isolated from broiler and spent hen skin. Analyses including proximate and amino acid composition along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out. In this study, elastin was successfully extracted from broiler and spent hen skin using three successive solvents extract of NaCl, acetone and NaOH respectively. It was apparent that the fat content of extracted elastin from broiler skin was higher (P < 0.05) than spent hen’s, with both samples recording less than 1% fat. Moreover, broiler skin elastin also had a higher protein content (68.3%) than spent hen’s (67.8%). Both skin sources contained glycine as the major amino acid (19–20%), followed by glutamic acid, proline, alanine and arginine. The results of TEM indicated that the use of collagenase enzyme or further purification efforts should be incorporated along with the extraction methods used because of the presence of collagen and other debris in the resultant elastin

  4. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Hellgren, Lars; Petersen, M.

    2004-01-01

    , a solid dietary fat containing (n-3) PUFA decreased plasma TAG, VLDL, and IDL cholesterol, and redistributed lipoprotein subclasses in LDL and HDL, with a higher concentration of the larger and less atherogenic subfractions. These changes took place without an increase in oxidative stress as measured...... of F than O fat (P oxidation measured as the ratio of plasma isoprostanes F-2 to arachidonic acid and urinary isoprostanes, whereas the vitamin E activity/plasma total lipids ratio was higher after intake of F than O (P = 0.008). In conclusion...

  5. SKIN CARE IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is a complex organ in its structure. Numerous functions of the skin may be impaired in its pathology. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of the skin in children predispose to common diseases of the skin. Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. Diapered skin is exposed to friction and excessive hydration, has a higher pH than nondiapered skin, and is repeatedly soiled with feces that contains enzymes with high irritation potential for the skin. Diaper dermatitis may vary in clinical severity and course. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important. Appropriate skin care can help to prevent the occurrence of diaper dermatitis and to speed up the healing of affected skin. This includes frequent diaper changes and aeration, gentle cleansing, and the use of a barrier cream. For the treatment of diaper dermatitis agents selected depending on the presence and severity of complications. For prevention and treatment of uncomplicated diaper dermatitis effective means of containing dexpantenol.

  6. Nutrition and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Apostolos; Liakou, Aikaterini; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, including all of its possible aspects from beauty to its integrity and even the aging process. Multiple pathways within skin biology are associated with the onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, such as acne, atopic dermatitis, aging, or even photoprotection. These conditions have been shown to be critically affected by nutritional patterns and dietary interventions where well-documented studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of essential nutrients on impaired skin structural and functional integrity and have restored skin appearance and health. Although the subject could be vast, the intention of this review is to provide the most relevant and the most well-documented information on the role of nutrition in common skin conditions and its impact on skin biology.

  7. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  8. Maternal obesity influences the relationship between location of neonate fat mass and total fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, H R; Thornton, J; Paley, C; Navder, K; Gallagher, D

    2015-08-01

    It is suggested that maternal obesity perpetuates offspring obesity to future generations. To determine whether location of neonate fat mass (FM: central vs. peripheral) is related to total neonate FM and whether maternal obesity influences this relationship. Neonate body composition and skin-fold thicknesses were assessed in healthy neonates (n = 371; 1-3 days old). Linear regression models examined the relationship between total FM and location of FM (central vs. peripheral). Location of FM was calculated by skin-folds: peripheral was the sum of (biceps and triceps)/2 and central was represented by the subscapular skin-fold. A significant interaction was found for location of FM and maternal obesity. Holding all predictors constant, in offspring born to non-obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 15 g greater total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 66 g greater total FM. However, in offspring born to obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 56 g total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 14 g greater total FM. The relationship between total FM and location of FM is influenced by maternal obesity. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  9. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  10. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peanut butter and peanut oil Polyunsaturated fat: Polyunsaturated fat, another type of unsaturated fat, protects your heart. Sources of ... paste • safflower oil • walnuts • salad dressings Omega-3 fats: This type of fat helps prevent clogging of the arteries. ...

  11. Quantitative Lesion-to-Fat Elasticity Ratio Measured by Shear-Wave Elastography for Breast Mass: Which Area Should Be Selected as the Fat Reference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Gweon, Hye Mi; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the diagnostic performance of lesion-to-fat elasticity ratio (Eratio) was affected by the location of the reference fat. For 257 breast masses in 250 women who underwent shear-wave elastography before biopsy or surgery, multiple Eratios were measured with a fixed region-of-interest (ROI) in the mass along with multiple ROIs over the surrounding fat in different locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine that Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (depth, laterality, and distance from lesion or skin). Mean (Emean) and maximum (Emax) elasticity values of fat were divided into four groups according to their interquartile ranges. Diagnostic performance of each group was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). False diagnoses of Eratio were reviewed for ROIs on areas showing artifactual high or low stiffness and analyzed by logistic regression analysis to determine variables (associated palpable abnormality, lesion size, the vertical distance from fat ROI to skin, and elasticity values of lesion or fat) independently associated with false results. Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (P<0.0001). Among four groups of fat elasticity values, the AUC showed no significant difference (<25th percentile, 25th percentile~median, median~75th percentile, and ≥75th percentile; 0.973, 0.982, 0.967, and 0.954 for Emean; 0.977, 0.967, 0.966, and 0.957 for Emax). Fat elasticity values were independently associated with false results of Eratio with the cut-off of 3.18 from ROC curve (P<0.0001). ROIs were set on fat showing artifactual high stiffness in 90% of 10 false negatives and on lesion showing vertical striped artifact or fat showing artifactual low stiffness in 77.5% of 71 false positives. Eratio shows good diagnostic performance regardless of the location of reference fat, except when it is placed in areas of artifacts.

  12. Quantitative Lesion-to-Fat Elasticity Ratio Measured by Shear-Wave Elastography for Breast Mass: Which Area Should Be Selected as the Fat Reference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Youk

    Full Text Available To investigate whether the diagnostic performance of lesion-to-fat elasticity ratio (Eratio was affected by the location of the reference fat.For 257 breast masses in 250 women who underwent shear-wave elastography before biopsy or surgery, multiple Eratios were measured with a fixed region-of-interest (ROI in the mass along with multiple ROIs over the surrounding fat in different locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine that Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (depth, laterality, and distance from lesion or skin. Mean (Emean and maximum (Emax elasticity values of fat were divided into four groups according to their interquartile ranges. Diagnostic performance of each group was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC. False diagnoses of Eratio were reviewed for ROIs on areas showing artifactual high or low stiffness and analyzed by logistic regression analysis to determine variables (associated palpable abnormality, lesion size, the vertical distance from fat ROI to skin, and elasticity values of lesion or fat independently associated with false results.Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (P<0.0001. Among four groups of fat elasticity values, the AUC showed no significant difference (<25th percentile, 25th percentile~median, median~75th percentile, and ≥75th percentile; 0.973, 0.982, 0.967, and 0.954 for Emean; 0.977, 0.967, 0.966, and 0.957 for Emax. Fat elasticity values were independently associated with false results of Eratio with the cut-off of 3.18 from ROC curve (P<0.0001. ROIs were set on fat showing artifactual high stiffness in 90% of 10 false negatives and on lesion showing vertical striped artifact or fat showing artifactual low stiffness in 77.5% of 71 false positives.Eratio shows good diagnostic performance regardless of the location of reference fat, except when it is placed in areas of

  13. Responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J van Dijk

    Full Text Available The ability of subjects to respond to nutritional challenges can reflect the flexibility of their biological system. Nutritional challenge tests could be used as an indicator of health status but more knowledge on metabolic and immune responses of different subjects to nutritional challenges is needed. The aim of this study was to compare the responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes.In a cross-over design 42 men (age 50-70 y consumed three high-fat shakes containing saturated fat (SFA, monounsaturated fat (MUFA or n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA. Men were selected on BMI and health status (lean, obese or obese diabetic and phenotyped with MRI for adipose tissue distribution. Before and 2 and 4 h after shake consumption blood was drawn for measurement of expression of metabolic and inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, plasma triglycerides (TAG, glucose, insulin, cytokines and ex vivo PBMC immune response capacity. The MUFA and n-3 PUFA challenge, compared to the SFA challenge, induced higher changes in expression of inflammation genes MCP1 and IL1β in PBMCs. Obese and obese diabetic subjects had different PBMC gene expression and metabolic responses to high-fat challenges compared to lean subjects. The MUFA challenge induced the most pronounced TAG response, mainly in obese and obese diabetic subjects.The PBMC gene expression response and metabolic response to high-fat challenges were affected by fat type and metabolic risk phenotype. Based on our results we suggest using a MUFA challenge to reveal differences in response capacity of subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00977262.

  14. Role of plasma adiponectin /C-reactive protein ratio in obesity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences ... Objective(s): We examined relations between fasting plasma adiponectin (ADIP), C-reactive protein (CRP) ... Methods: Fasting plasma ADIP, CRP, Insulin (IN), HOMA-IR, lipid profiles, body fat percent (%BF), waist ...

  15. Anthropometric Characteristics and Sex Influence Magnitude of Skin Cooling following Exposure to Whole Body Cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (−60°C for 30 seconds, −110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (ΔT sk) were calculated. ΔT sk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = −3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ΔT sk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ΔT sk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612

  16. Central and peripheral fat body mass have a protective effect on osteopenia or osteoporosis in adults and elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, P M S S; Garcia Rosa, M L; Gomes, A M; Wahrlich, V; Di Luca, D G; da Cruz Filho, R A; da Silva Correia, D M; Faria, C A; Yokoo, E M

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional study involves randomly selected men aged 50 to 99 years and postmenopausal women. Either central fat mass or peripheral fat mass were associated to osteoporosis or osteopenia independently from fat-free body mass and other confounding factors. Obesity and osteoporosis are public health problems that probably share common pathophysiological mechanisms. The question if body fat mass, central or peripheral, is protective or harmful for osteoporosis or osteopenia is not completely resolved. This study aims to investigate the association between osteoporosis or osteopenia, and fat body mass (central and peripheral) independently from fat-free body mass, in men aged 50 to 99 years old and postmenopausal women randomly selected in the community. This is a cross-sectional investigation with a random sample of registered population in Niterói Family Doctor Program (FDP), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bone mineral density (BMD) and fat-free mass were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There was statistically significant bivariate association between bone loss with gender, age, skin color, alcohol consumption at risk dose, use of thiazide, fat-free body mass, and fat body mass (central and peripheral). In the multiple analysis of fat-free body mass, central and peripheral fat body mass showed an independent and protective effect on the presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia (p value obesity and osteoporosis are public health problems worldwide, strategies aimed at preventing both conditions should be encouraged during aging.

  17. Dietary Fat and Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer Risk Among African Americans and Africans: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A; Smith, Ernest; Malin, Alecia; Zhao, Barbara; Osime, Usifo; Stain, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The role of dietary fat and vitamin E in prostate cancer risk among African-Americans, African migrants and Africans is being investigated using a dietary assessment tool and by measuring plasma fatty...

  18. Dietary Fat and Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer Risk Among African Americans and West Africans: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A; Smith, Ernest; Malin, Alecia; Zhao, Barbara; Osime, Usifo; Stain, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The role of dietary fat and vitamin E in prostate cancer risk among African-Americans, African migrants and Africans is being investigated using a dietary assessment tool and by measuring plasma fatty...

  19. Distribuição de gordura corporal, pressão arterial e níveis de lipídios-lipoproteínas plasmáticas Body fat distribution, blood pressure and plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    1998-02-01

    used in the study. The adipose tissue distribution was based on the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR. Body fat content was estimated by the body mass index (BMI, and physical activity was assessed by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max. Partial correlation analyses were used to determine the strength of the associations. RESULTS: After correction for BMI there was a significant partial correlation between centripetal adipose tissue distribution and serum triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol levels, and blood pressure. However, controlling for VO2max, there was no significant association between WHR and any serum variable and blood pressure. CONCLUSION: The centripetal adipose tissue distribution, independent of body fat content, was related to lipid and lipoprotein plasma concentrations and to blood pressure levels in both sexes. Physical activity seems to be an important modifier of this relationship, emphasizing its role in the control of cardiovascular risk factors.

  20. Variations in insulin responsiveness in rat fat cells are due to metabolic differences rather than insulin binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Mølgård; Nilsson, Poul; Sonne, Ole

    1983-01-01

    -insulin to fat cells. Insulin binding was not correlated to the plasma insulin level which however was reflected in the lipoprotein lipase activity in the adipose tissue. In conclusion, these results indicate that variations in insulin responsiveness in fat cells are due to alterations in cellular metabolism...

  1. Effects of a meal rich in medium-chain saturated fat on postprandial lipemia in relatives of type 2 diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietraszek, Anna; Hermansen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Steen B.

    2013-01-01

    tissue in REL and CON. METHODS: Seventeen REL and 17 CON received a fat-rich meal (79 energy percent from fat) based on medium-chain SFA (coconut oil). Plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TG), free-fatty acids, insulin, glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulintropic peptide...

  2. Coenzyme Q Metabolism Is Disturbed in High Fat Diet-Induced Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Botham

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is believed to be a major contributory factor in the development of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the most common liver disorder worldwide. In this study, the effects of high fat diet-induced NAFLD on Coenzyme Q (CoQ metabolism and plasma oxidative stress markers in rats were investigated. Rats were fed a standard low fat diet (control or a high fat diet (57% metabolizable energy as fat for 18 weeks. The concentrations of total (reduced + oxidized CoQ9 were increased by > 2 fold in the plasma of animals fed the high fat diet, while those of total CoQ10 were unchanged. Reduced CoQ levels were raised, but oxidized CoQ levels were not, thus the proportion in the reduced form was increased by about 75%. A higher percentage of plasma CoQ9 as compared to CoQ10 was in the reduced form in both control and high fat fed rats. Plasma protein thiol (SH levels were decreased in the high fat-fed rats as compared to the control group, but concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and low density lipoprotein (LDL conjugated dienes were unchanged. These results indicate that high fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats is associated with altered CoQ metabolism and increased protein, but not lipid, oxidative stress.

  3. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  4. Recommendations for skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Further to the reecommendations for determining the surface contamination of the skin and estimating the radiation exposure of the skin after contamination (SAAS-Mitt--89-16), measures for skin decontamination are recommended. They are necessary if (1) after simple decontamination by means of water, soap and brush without damaging the skin the surface contamination limits are exceeded and the radiation exposure to be expected for the undamaged healthy skin is estimated as to high, and if (2) a wound is contaminated. To remove skin contaminations, in general universally applicable, non-aggressive decontamination means and methods are sufficient. In special cases, nuclide-specific decontamination is required taking into account the properties of the radioactive substance

  5. Noninvasive radio frequency for skin tightening and body contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    The medical use of radio frequency (RF) is based on an oscillating electrical current forcing collisions between charged molecules and ions, which are then transformed into heat. RF heating occurs irrespective of chromophore or skin type and is not dependent on selective photothermolysis. RF can be delivered using monopolar, bipolar, and unipolar devices, and each method has theoretical limits of depth penetration. A variant of bipolar delivery is fractional RF delivery. In monopolar configurations, RF will penetrate deeply and return via a grounding electrode. Multiple devices are available and are detailed later in the text. RF thermal stimulation is believed to result in a microinflammatory process that promotes new collagen. By manipulating skin cooling, RF can also be used for heating and reduction of fat. Currently, the most common uses of RF-based devices are to noninvasively manage and treat skin tightening of lax skin (including sagging jowls, abdomen, thighs, and arms), as well as wrinkle reduction, cellulite improvement, and body contouring.

  6. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in morbidly obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, A; Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations and liver morphology were investigated in 45 morbidly obese subjects (median overweight 88%) and in 42 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. A significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentration (median 464 mg/l, range 276-862 mg...... in their liver biopsies (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05). Significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated plasma fibronectin concentrations even in obese subjects without hepatic fatty change indicate that liver fat accumulation is no prerequisite of the obesity-related elevation of plasma fibronectin. Raised plasma...

  7. Reduced lymphoid response to skin allotransplants in cows with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, G H; van den Ingh, T S; Rutten, V P; Müller, K E; Wensing, T

    1999-04-01

    The immune responsiveness of cows with hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver) in comparison to control cows with a normal liver fat content was tested by applying skin allotransplants to the skin of the back of cows on day 3 after parturition. Immunoreactivity was determined by semiquantitative counting of the number of infiltrating lymphocytes in the recipient skin adjacent to the allotransplants during a period of 21 days. There were more invading lymphocytes in samples from control cows than there were in samples from cows with hepatic lipidosis. It was concluded that cows with hepatic lipidosis have a reduced lymphoid response to skin allotransplants.

  8. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  9. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  10. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  11. Serum glycated albumin is inversely influenced by fat mass and visceral adipose tissue in Chinese with normal glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that body mass index (BMI inversely influenced serum glycated albumin (GA, which may cause an underestimation of GA-monitored short-term hyperglycemic control. OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the association between anthropometric variables (BMI and waist circumference (W and accurate adiposity variables (percentage of body fat (%fat, fat mass, free fat mass (FFM, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and visceral fat area (VFA with serum GA. DESIGN: A total of 2563 subjects (1037 men, 593 premenopausal women, and 933 postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance underwent bioelectrical impedance body fat content measurement and magnetic resonance imaging. Serum GA and absolute value of GA (aGA were measured by enzymatic assay. RESULTS: Compared to the BMI <25.0 kg/m(2 group, the BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2 group had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, and body fat parameters including W, %fat, fat mass, FFM, SFA, and VFA, but significantly lower aGA, and GA in all the three sex- and menopause-stratified groups (all P<0.05. GA decreased with the increment of fat mass for all three groups (all P for trend <0.001. In the same BMI category, men and postmenopausal women with elevated %fat (men, ≥25%; women, ≥35% still had significantly lower GA than those with normal %fat (men, <25%; women, <35% (all P<0.05. Multiple stepwise regression showed that %fat, fat mass, and VFA were independently associated with GA. CONCLUSIONS: Serum GA was inversely influenced by fat mass and visceral adipose tissue in Chinese with normal glucose tolerance.

  12. Comparative Study Using Autologous Fat Grafts Plus Platelet-Rich Plasma With or Without Fractional CO2 Laser Resurfacing in Treatment of Acne Scars: Analysis of Outcomes and Satisfaction With FACE-Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenna, S; Cogliandro, A; Barone, M; Panasiti, Vincenzo; Tirindelli, M; Nobile, Carolina; Persichetti, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    A multitude of options are traditionally used for the treatment of acne scars; however, newer treatment modalities are emerging to decrease the propensity for post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and upregulate new collagen production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nanofat and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) infiltration alone and combined with fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing to improve atrophic scars of the face. From March 2014 to June 2015, 30 patients with atrophic acne scars on the cheeks were selected for this study. Patients were evaluated pre- and postoperatively by physical examination, photographs and ultrasound with a 22-MHz probe to measure subcutaneous tissue thickness. All patients were treated with infiltration of nanofat plus PRP. The production of PRP was achieved using the RegenLab THT tube ® method. In 15 randomly chosen patients, a fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing at 15 W was also performed right after the infiltration. An Italian version of the FACE-Q postoperative module was administered to analyze each patient's satisfaction and aesthetic perception of the result. The average preoperative thickness of subcutaneous tissue of patients from group A was 0.532 cm, while the average preoperative thickness of subcutaneous tissue of patients from group B was 0.737 cm. The average postoperative thickness of subcutaneous tissue was 1.201 cm in group A and 1.367 cm in group B. The improvement of thickness of subcutaneous tissue was 0.668 cm in group A and 0.63 cm in group B. We applied a t test on unpaired data, comparing the difference in thickness obtained with the treatment in both group A and in group B, with a p value =0.7289 (not significant). All patients in both groups had a treatment benefit, confirmed with FACE-Q postoperative module, but without a significant difference between the two groups. Subcutaneous infiltration with nanofat and PRP seems to be effective to improve atrophic scars, either alone or combined

  13. A study of percentage body fat in children via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Shoji; Yagi, Shinichi; Fujino, Mitsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tetsuro; Fukunaga, Masao

    1994-01-01

    Percentage body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skin fold calipers on 26 children (nine in obesity group, 12 in healthy group and 5 in steroid treated group). Mean percent body fat did not differ significantly between methods in the whole subjects as well as the healthy group and the steroid treated group. However, the mean percent body fat using skin fold caliper was higher for the obesity group than the other two. The measurements of all cases in the obesity group by DEXA were higher than those of BIA. There were high correlations among the percent body fat obtained by each technique. According to the analysis of mean regional percent fat, the percent fat of legs was the highest in the healthy and steroid treated group, while there was no regional difference in the obesity group. It should be possible to classify each case in the obesity group into upper segment and lower segment obesity by DEXA. (author)

  14. Autologous fat injection into the pectoralis major as an adjunct to surgical correction of gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilanci, Ozgur; Basaran, Karaca; Aydin, Hasan Utkan; Cortuk, Oguz; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

    2015-03-01

    Correction of gynecomastia in males is a frequently performed aesthetic procedure. Various surgical options involving the removal of excess skin, fat, or glandular tissue have been described. However, poor aesthetic outcomes, including a flat or depressed pectoral area, limit the success of these techniques. The authors sought to determine patient satisfaction with the results of upper chest augmentation by direct intrapectoral fat injection in conjunction with surgical correction of gynecomastia. In this prospective study, 26 patients underwent liposuction and glandular excision, glandular excision alone, or Benelli-type skin excision. All patients received intramuscular fat injections in predetermined zones of the pectoralis major (PM). The mean volume of fat injected was 160 mL (range, 80-220 mL per breast) bilaterally. Patients were monitored for an average of 16 months (range, 8-24 months). Hematoma formation and consequent infraareolar depression was noted in 1 patient and was corrected by secondary lipografting. Mean patient satisfaction was rated as 8.4 on a scale of 1 (unsatisfactory) to 10 (highly satisfactory). Autologous intrapectoral fat injection performed simultaneously with gynecomastia correction can produce a masculine appearance. The long-term viability of fat cells injected into the PM needs to be determined. 4 Therapeutic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  17. Fat and fatty acid composition of cooked meat from UK retail chickens labelled as from organic and non-organic production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dalziel, C. J.; Kliem, Kirsty E.; Givens, D. Ian

    2015-01-01

    This study compared fat and fatty acids in cooked retail chicken meat from conventional and organic systems. Fat contents were 1.7, 5.2, 7.1 and 12.9 g/100 g cooked weight in skinless breast, breast with skin, skinless leg and leg with skin respectively, with organic meat containing less fat overall (P < 0.01). Meat was rich in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, although organic meat contained less than did conventional meat (1850 vs. 2538 mg/100 g; P < 0.001). Organic meat was also lower (P < ...

  18. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B. Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFA) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the interrelationships between body fat, sex and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, non-diabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0–56.0 % body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: 1) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass and total FFA Ra (µmol·min−1); 2) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, Pfashion with increasing FM (r=−0.806; P<0.001); 4) FFA Ra in relationship to fat-free mass was greater in obese than lean subjects and greater in women than in men; 5) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects. PMID:19629053

  19. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Emile; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Masen, Marc Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is

  20. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, PhD, Professor of Dermatology, Brown University, for permission to use this video. UPDATED: ... Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention ...

  1. Lipoprotein lipase activity and chylomicron clearance in rats fed a high fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.M.; Layman, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The relationships of tissue and plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities to tissue uptake and plasma clearance of 14 C-labeled chylomicron-triglyceride ( 14 C-CM-TG) were studied in female rats fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous control (12% kJ from fat) or high fat diets (72% kJ from fat) for 8 wk. Animals fed the high-fat diet had higher levels of fasting plasma triglycerides and lower LPL activities in heart, renal adipose tissue and post-heparin plasma. Changes in LPL activities of skeletal muscles varied among muscles with higher values in the soleus and plantaris (32-61%) and no differences in the gastrocnemius. The lower LPL activity in renal adipose tissue was associated with lower uptake of fatty acids from 14 C-CM-TG by adipose. Fatty-acid uptake from labeled TG was not associated with tissue LPL activity in other tissues. Clearance of 14 C-CM-TG from plasma and the half-lives of 14 C-CM-TG were similar in both dietary groups. These data indicate that tissue and plasma LPL activities are not a direct index of uptake of fatty acids by tissues or clearance of chylomicron triglycerides

  2. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  3. An Effective Algorithm for Management of Noses with Thick Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyuron, Bahman; Lee, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    Thicker nasal skin blunts the definition of the underlying osseocartilaginous frame and the delicate topography of the nose posing additional challenges in producing desirable tip definition. Despite the recognized challenge in this patient population, there is a paucity of literature on how to overcome this problem. The goal of this article is to provide a systematic algorithm to manage patients with thick nasal skin. Approach to the thick nasal skin patient begins with an evaluation of the etiology of their skin thickness. Skin thickness secondary to sebaceous overactivity is diminished with the use of retinoic acid derivatives, lasers or isotretinoin (Accutane), commonly under the advice of the dermatologist. Rhinoplasty maneuvers include open technique, raising a healthy and reasonably thick skin flap overlying the tip, removing the remaining fat overlying and between the domes, creating a firm cartilaginous frame and eliminating dead space using the supratip suture reported by the senior author, and trimming redundant nasal skin envelope when indicated. This systematic approach has been greatly effective in achieving often predictable and aesthetically pleasing rhinoplasty results. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  4. Treatment of Skin Avulsion Injuries with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Matsumine, MD, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This report describes favorable outcomes in 9 patients with skin avulsion injuries of the extremities who underwent full-thickness skin grafting and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF application. Following removal of contaminated subcutaneous fat tissue on the inside of skin, the avulsed skin was processed into a full-thickness skin graft, with as much of the skin used as possible irrespective of damage. Several drainage holes (5–10 mm in diameter were made on the graft for drainage from the graft bed and to prevent seroma and hematoma formation. Genetically recombinant human bFGF was sprayed at a dose of 1 μg/cm2 onto the graft bed, which was then covered with the graft and sutured. Pressure immobilization with ointment gauzes and elastic bandages was administered for 1 week postoperatively, and the surface of the skin grafts that did not take was scraped away, preserving the revascularized dermal component on the debrided raw surface as much as possible. bFGF was sprayed again onto the debrided surface to promote epithelialization. Wound closure was achieved in all cases with conservative therapy. The surgical procedure was effective in preventing postoperative ulcer formation and scar contracture and resulted in wound healing with the formation of good-quality, flexible scars.

  5. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature on b...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  6. Fat in the dural sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiguchi, S.; Ando, K.; Tsuchiya, T.; Ito, J.

    1986-01-01

    Fat density in the dural sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in eight cases. Of the eight cases, five had fat deposit in the torcular Herophili, and three in the superior sagittal sinus. This finding was incidentally found by CT and there was no common underlying disease in these cases. It is suggested that this finding represents normal adipose tissue in the dural sinus. (orig.)

  7. The Relative Utility of Skin Resistance and Skin Conductance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barland, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of two circuits (constant current = skin resistance; constant voltage = skin conductance) used for measuring electrodermal activity during a psychophysiological detection of deception...

  8. Mechanism of acute depletion of plasma fibronectin following thermal injury in rats. Appearance of a gelatinlike ligand in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deno, D.C.; McCafferty, M.H.; Saba, T.M.; Blumenstock, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin was depleted within 15 min following sublethal burn, followed by partial recovery at 8 h and complete restoration by 24 h in anesthetized rats. Radiolabeled 75 Se-plasma fibronectin, injected intravenously before burn, was rapidly sequestered in burn skin as well as the liver. Fibronectin levels at 2 h postburn as detected by immunoassay vs. 75 Se-plasma fibronectin indicated that more fibronectin was in the plasma than detected by electroimmunoassay. Crossed immunoelectrophoretic analysis of fibronectin in early postburn plasma demonstrated a reduced electrophoretic mobility of the fibronectin antigen. Addition of heparin or fibrin, both of which have affinity for fibronectin, to normal plasma was unable to reproduce this altered fibronectin electrophoretic pattern. In contrast, addition of gelatin or native collagen to normal plasma reproduced the abnormal electrophoretic pattern of fibronectin seen in burn plasma. Extracts of burned skin, but not extracts of normal skin, when added to normal plasma, elicited a similar altered electrophoretic pattern for fibronectin. By gel filtration, fibronectin in burn plasma had an apparent molecular weight approximately 40% greater than that observed in normal plasma. These data suggest the release into the blood of a gelatinlike ligand from burned skin, which complexes with plasma fibronectin. Thus, fibronectin deficiency acutely postburn appears mediated by (a) its accumulation at the site of burn injury; (b) its removal from the circulation by the liver; and (c) its presence in the plasma in a form that is less detectable by immunoassay

  9. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. Take short, warm baths or showers. Limit your ... gentle skin cleansers or soap with added moisturizers. Only use ...

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  11. Cryogen therapy of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular cryogen therapy of skin cancer. They noted that cryogen therapy of skin cancer carried new possibilities and improved results of neoplasms treatment

  12. Heterogeneous Stem Cells in Skin Homeostatis and Wound Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meilana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The skin protects mammals from insults, infection and dehydration and enables thermoregulation and sensory perception. Various skin-resident cells carry out these diverse functions. Constant turnover of cells and healing upon injury necessitate multiple reservoirs of stem cells. The skin is a complex organ harboring several distinct populations of stem cells and a rich array of cell types. Advances in genetic and imaging tools have brought new findings about the lineage relationships between skin stem cells and their progeny. Such knowledge may offer novel avenues for therapeutics and regenerative medicine. CONTENT: In the past years, our view of the mechanisms that govern skin homeostasis and regeneration have markedly changed. New populations of stem cells have been identified that behave spatio-temporally differently in healthy tissues and in situations of damage, indicating that a great level of stem cell heterogeneity is present in the skin. There are believed to be distinct populations of stem cells in different locations. The lineages that they feed are normally constrained by signals from their local environment, but they can give rise to all epidermal lineages in response to appropriate stimuli. Given the richness of structures such as blood vessels, subcutaneous fat, innervation and the accumulation of fibroblasts under the upper parts of the rete ridges (in the case of human skin, it is reasonable to speculate that the microenvironment might be essential for interfollicular epidermal homeostasis. The bloodstream is probably the main source of long-range signals reaching the skin, and cues provided by the vascular niche might be essential for skin homeostasis. SUMMARY: A key function of the interfollicular epidermis is to act as a protective interface between the body and the external environment, and it contains several architectural elements that enable it to fulfill this function. All elements of the epidermis play

  13. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  14. The effects of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom to the preadipocyte proliferation and lipolysis of adipocyte, localized fat accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Ki Kim; Si Hyeong, Lee; Jo Young Shin; Kang San Kim; Nam Guen Cho; Ki Rok Kwon; Tae Jin Rhim

    2007-01-01

    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom to the primary cultured preadipocyte, adipocytes, and localized fat tissue. Methods : Decreased preadipocyte proliferation and decreased lipogenesis are mechanisms to reduce obesity. So, preadipocytes and adipocytes were performed on cell cultures using Sprague-Dawley Rats and treated with 0.01-1mg/㎖ Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom. And porcine skin including fat tissue after treated Bee Ve...

  15. Clinical and histopathological results following TriPollar radiofrequency skin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Haim; Gat, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Skin laxity, wrinkles and cellulite are common aesthetic problems associated with the aging process. These symptoms are due to the weakening and thinning of dermal connective tissue and the enlargement of hypodermal fat cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the TriPollar RF technology in reducing fat and collagen regeneration. Twelve healthy patients underwent weekly treatments on different body sites using the TriPollar technology. Treatment areas were photographed and measured and patient satisfaction was monitored. One abdominal patient consented to a series of TriPollar treatments prior to her scheduled abdominoplasty. A controlled histopathology analysis was performed on skin samples taken during the abdominoplasty procedure. Histopathological examination revealed marked differences between treated and non-treated abdominal skin areas. An increase of 49% in dermal thickness, focal thickening of collagen fibers and focal shrinkage of fat cells was shown following TriPollar treatments. Average patient satisfaction indicated clear satisfaction with the clinical results achieved. The TriPollar is a safe and effective non-invasive technology leading to skin tightening and body shaping. Histology results indicate changes at the dermal and fat layers following TriPollar treatments resulting in increased collagen regeneration and stimulated fat metabolism.

  16. Differential effects of high-carbohydrate and high-fat diets on hepatic lipogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Damiano, Fabrizio; Siculella, Luisa; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic fatty acid synthesis is influenced by several nutritional and hormonal factors. In this study, we have investigated the effects of distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrate or in fat on hepatic lipogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed distinct experimental diets enriched in carbohydrates (70% w/w) or in fat (20 and 35% w/w). Activity and expression of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase were analyzed through the study with assessments at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Liver lipids and plasma levels of lipids, glucose, and insulin were assayed in parallel. Whereas the high-carbohydrate diet moderately stimulated hepatic lipogenesis, a strong inhibition of this anabolic pathway was found in animals fed high-fat diets. This inhibition was time-dependent and concentration-dependent. Moreover, whereas the high-carbohydrate diet induced an increase in plasma triglycerides, the high-fat diets determined an accumulation of triglycerides in liver. An increase in the plasmatic levels of glucose and insulin was observed in all cases. The excess of sucrose in the diet is converted into fat that is distributed by bloodstream in the organism in the form of circulating triglycerides. On the other hand, a high amount of dietary fat caused a strong inhibition of lipogenesis and a concomitant increase in the level of hepatic lipids, thereby highlighting, in these conditions, the role of liver as a reservoir of exogenous fat.

  17. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-10-25

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7-15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, time of SB (screen time or doing homework) was positively related to %BF, FMI, and FFMI ( p 0.09), while time of doing homework was positively related to %BF and FMI ( p = 0.03). Sedentary behaviors might be positively and independently related to fat mass among Chinese children, and were more pronounced in girls.

  18. Fat Grafting for Facial Filling and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sydney R; Katzel, Evan B

    2015-07-01

    Plastic surgeons have come to realize that fat grafting can rejuvenate an aging face by restoring or creating fullness. However, fat grafting does much more than simply add volume. Grafted fat can transform or repair the tissues into which it is placed. Historically, surgeons have hesitated to embrace the rejuvenating potential of fat grafting because of poor graft take, fat necrosis, and inconsistent outcomes. This article describes fat grafting techniques and practices to assist readers in successful harvesting, processing, and placement of fat for optimal graft retention and facial esthetic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  20. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  1. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  2. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  3. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of dietary saturated fat on LDL subclasses and apolipoprotein CIII in men

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihnia, Nastaran; Mangravite, Lara M.; Chiu, Sally; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives Small dense LDL particles and apolipoprotein (apo) CIII are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that can be modulated by diet, but there is little information regarding the effects of dietary saturated fat on their plasma levels. We tested the effects of high vs. low saturated fat intake in the context of a high beef protein diet on levels and composition of LDL subclasses and on apoCIII levels in plasma and LDL. Subjects/Methods Following consumption of a base...

  5. Dietary fats, cerebrovasculature integrity and Alzheimer's disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, R; Galloway, S; Pallebage-Gamarallage, M M S; Lam, V; Mamo, J C L

    2010-04-01

    An emerging body of evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that dietary fats influence Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, but less clear is the mechanisms by which this occurs. Alzheimer's is an inflammatory disorder, many consider in response to fibrillar formation and extracellular deposition of amyloid-beta (Abeta). Alternatively, amyloidosis could notionally be a secondary phenomenon to inflammation, because some studies suggest that cerebrovascular disturbances precede amyloid plaque formation. Hence, dietary fats may influence AD risk by either modulating Abeta metabolism, or via Abeta independent pathways. This review explores these two possibilities taking into consideration; (i) the substantial affinity of Abeta for lipids and its ordinary metabolism as an apolipoprotein; (ii) evidence that Abeta has potent vasoactive properties and (iii) studies which show that dietary fats modulate Abeta biogenesis and secretion. We discuss accumulating evidence that dietary fats significantly influence cerebrovascular integrity and as a consequence altered Abeta kinetics across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Specifically, chronic ingestion of saturated fats or cholesterol appears to results in BBB dysfunction and exaggerated delivery from blood-to-brain of peripheral Abeta associated with lipoproteins of intestinal and hepatic origin. Interestingly, the pattern of saturated fat/cholesterol induced cerebrovascular disturbances in otherwise normal wild-type animal strains is analogous to established models of AD genetically modified to overproduce Abeta, consistent with a causal association. Saturated fats and cholesterol may exacerbate Abeta induced cerebrovascular disturbances by enhancing exposure of vessels of circulating Abeta. However, presently there is no evidence to support this contention. Rather, SFA and cholesterol appear to more broadly compromise BBB integrity with the consequence of plasma protein leakage into brain, including lipoprotein associated Abeta

  6. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  7. The physico-chemical properties of pangas catfish (Pangasius pangasius) skin gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradarameswari, K. A.; Zaelani, K.; Waluyo, E.; Nurdiani, R.

    2018-04-01

    Gelatin can be used as emulsifier and stabilizer in food products. Until now, the most widely used raw materials for the production of gelatin industry are cow bone, cow skin and pig skin. Fish gelatin has been highlighted as a better alternative to replace mammals gelatin based on ethical and religious perspective. Fish gelatin was extracted from Pangas catfish skin to determine its physico-chemical properties. Different temperatures (45 °C, 50 °C, 55 °C) were employed during gelatin extraction. Higher temperature increased the yield and fat contents of Pangas catfish skin gelatin. In contrary, higher water, protein, ash contents were observed during lower temperature. Temperature significantly (p fish skin gelatin. Based on the FTIR spectrum catfish skin gelatin functional groups can be identified as N-H, O-H, C = H, C-O and C-H.

  8. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran

    2008-01-01

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  9. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  10. Modulation of cAMP levels by high fat diet and curcumin and regulatory effects on CD36/FAT scavenger receptor/fatty acids transporter gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcumin, a polyphenol from turmeric (Curcuma longa), reduces inflammation, atherosclerosis, and obesity in several animal studies. In Ldlr-/- mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), curcumin reduces plasma lipid levels, therefore contributing to a lower accumulation of lipids and to reduced expression of f...

  11. Innovative usage of accessory auricles as full-thickness skin graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elankumar Subbarayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory auricles are relatively rare malformations arising from the first branchial arch which contains skin, fat and cartilage. The treatment is usually surgical removal for the cosmetic purpose. We are sharing our experience of utilising the accessory auricle skin as full thickness graft for post.burn reconstruction of the fingers contracture of a child. Even though this type of association is rare, it is an innovative idea following Sir Harold Gilles’ principle ‘Never throw anything away’.

  12. Development and validation of a tokamak skin effect transformer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, J.A.; Moret, J.-M.; Coda, S.; Felici, F.; Garrido, I.

    2012-01-01

    A lumped parameter, state space model for a tokamak transformer including the slow flux penetration in the plasma (skin effect transformer model) is presented. The model does not require detailed or explicit information about plasma profiles or geometry. Instead, this information is lumped in system variables, parameters and inputs. The model has an exact mathematical structure built from energy and flux conservation theorems, predicting the evolution and non-linear interaction of plasma current and internal inductance as functions of the primary coil currents, plasma resistance, non-inductive current drive and the loop voltage at a specific location inside the plasma (equilibrium loop voltage). Loop voltage profile in the plasma is substituted by a three-point discretization, and ordinary differential equations are used to predict the equilibrium loop voltage as a function of the boundary and resistive loop voltages. This provides a model for equilibrium loop voltage evolution, which is reminiscent of the skin effect. The order and parameters of this differential equation are determined empirically using system identification techniques. Fast plasma current modulation experiments with random binary signals have been conducted in the TCV tokamak to generate the required data for the analysis. Plasma current was modulated under ohmic conditions between 200 and 300 kA with 30 ms rise time, several times faster than its time constant L/R ≈ 200 ms. A second-order linear differential equation for equilibrium loop voltage is sufficient to describe the plasma current and internal inductance modulation with 70% and 38% fit parameters, respectively. The model explains the most salient features of the plasma current transients, such as the inverse correlation between plasma current ramp rates and internal inductance changes, without requiring detailed or explicit information about resistivity profiles. This proves that a lumped parameter modelling approach can be used to

  13. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  14. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  15. Cure of skin cancer. Surgical cure of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular the surgical cure of skin cancer. They noted that surgical cure of skin cancer is remain one of the primary and most important methods in treatment of skin cancer

  16. Artificial skin and patient simulator comprising the artificial skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an artificial skin (10, 12, 14), and relates to a patient simulator (100) comprising the artificial skin. The artificial skin is a layered structure comprising a translucent cover layer (20) configured for imitating human or animal skin, and comprising a light emitting layer

  17. A case of fat necrosis with ulceration after breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Yuki; Kijima, Yuko; Hirata, Munetsugu; Shinden, Yoshiaki; Arima, Hideo; Nakajo, Akihiro; Hiraki, Tsubasa; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2017-01-01

    An 82 year-old woman was diagnosed with right breast cancer, and partial mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in another hospital. Lateral subcutaneous fat was mobilized and used to fill mammary gland defect. Two months after surgery, she received postoperative radiation therapy and endocrine therapy. Two years and six months after surgery, induration of the left breast was marked and skin redness appeared. It then became exposed, and the lesion was diagnosed as fat necrosis and abscess the core needle biopsy. Conservative observation was then conducted. Pain developed and pus exudatation continued from the necrotic tissue. Two years and nine months after surgery, she was admitted to our hospital for treatment. Deformity, induration with a fistula, and skin redness were found in the surgically treated and irradiated right breast. The lesion was diagnosed as fat necrosis based on several imaging examinations. Simple mastectomy was performed for pain reduction and to treat the continuous fistula leakage. Since the mass showed firm adhesion with the major pectoral muscle, a part of the muscle was excised. Histology revealed necrotic fat and an abscess with a skin fistula, but not malignancy. The endocrine therapy has been continued, and she has survived without recurrent disease for a year and eight months since surgery. (author)

  18. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and symptoms. Medications can interfere with results Before scheduling a skin test, bring your doctor a list ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  19. Caring for Tattooed Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  20. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  1. Impairments in Skin Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Rose W

    2017-09-01

    Altered skin integrity increases the chance of infection, impaired mobility, and decreased function and may result in the loss of limb or, sometimes, life. Skin is affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors can include altered nutritional status, vascular disease issues, and diabetes. Extrinsic factors include falls, accidents, pressure, immobility, and surgical procedures. Ensuring skin integrity in the elderly requires a team approach and includes the individual, caregivers, and clinicians. The twenty-first century clinician has several online, evidence-based tools to assist with optimal treatment plans. Understanding best practices in addressing skin integrity issues can promote positive outcomes with the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  3. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma Treatment: Stages I & II Melanoma Treatment: Stage III Melanoma ...

  4. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... We Are Be On Our PAGE MIF Staff Programs & Services Scientific Advisory Board Advisory Board Patrons & Sponsors ... us for One-on-One Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video ...

  5. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, V; Aalto-Korte, K; Alfonso, J H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...... in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks...

  6. Skin care and incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin care; Incontinence - pressure sore; Incontinence - pressure ulcer Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Images Male urinary system References Holroyd S. Incontinence-associated dermatitis: identification, prevention and care. Br J Nurs . 2015;24( ...

  7. Healthy Skin Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin. If you’re helping out in the kitchen, make sure you use hot pads or wear ... in humans, plants, and animals, while others are essential for a healthy life. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) ( ...

  8. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidance for XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains Data & Statistics ... The Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) is the standard method of determining whether a person is infected ...

  9. [Currently available skin substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcová, Darina; Koller, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. Autologous split or full-thickness skin graft are the best definitive burn wound coverage, but it is constrained by the limited available sources, especially in major burns. Donor site morbidities in term of additional wounds and scarring are also of concern of the autograft application. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. This paper reviews currently available skin substitutes, produced in not for-profit skin banks as well as commercially available. They are divided according to type of material included, as biological, biosynthetic and synthetic and named respectively.

  10. Parasites and the skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... those conditions that are encountered in daily practice and to remind you of those ... care conditions. Parasitic infections can be solely confined to the skin, as seen ..... endemic areas or may become chronic and disseminate.

  11. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  12. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  13. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card Events, Webinars & Videos Events, Webinars & Videos Melanoma Patient Video Events Host an Event Past Webinars Upcoming ...

  14. Allergic Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common types are atopic dermatitis (often called eczema) and contact dermatitis. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) Eczema is a chronic ... contact with your skin, they may cause a rash called contact dermatitis. There are two kinds of contact dermatitis: ...

  15. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Light treatment to the skin and Restylane to tear troughs and outer eyebrow. Photo courtesy of Rebecca Fitzagerald, MD - Los Angeles, California Possible risks Soreness Mild bruising Temporary weakness of surrounding muscles Headache Drooping eyelid Why choose neuromodulators for aging ...

  16. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card ...

  17. Enzymatically interesterified fats based on mutton tallow and walnut oil suitable for cosmetic emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, M; Mendrycka, M; Zbikowska, A; Stawarz, S

    2015-02-01

    Formation of emulsion systems based on interesterified fats was the objective of the study. Enzymatic interesterification was carried out between enzymatic mutton tallow and walnut oil in the proportions 2 : 3 (w/w) to produce fats not available in nature. At the beginning of the interesterification process, the balance between the interesterification and fat hydrolysis was intentionally disturbed by adding more water to the catalyst (Lipozyme IR MR) of the reaction to produce more of the polar fraction monoacylglycerols [MAGs] and diacylglycerols [DAGs]. To obtain a greater quantity of MAGs and DAGs in the reaction environment via hydrolysis, water was added (11, 13, 14, 16 w-%) to the enzymatic preparation. The obtained fats were used to form emulsions. The emulsions were evaluated with respect to sensory and skin moisturizing properties by 83 respondents. Determination of emulsion stability using temperature and centrifugal tests was carried out. Morphology and the type of emulsions were determined. The respondents described the skin to which the emulsions in testing were applied as smooth, pleasant to touch and adequately moisturized. The work has demonstrated that interesterification of a mutton tallow and walnut oil blend resulted in new fats with very interesting characteristics of triacylglycerols that are not present in the environment. The results of the present work indicate the possibility of application of fats with the largest quantity of MAGs and DAGs as a fat base of emulsions in the cosmetic industries. The hypothesis assumed in this work of producing additional quantities of MAGs and DAGs (in the process of enzymatic interesterification) responsible for the stability of the system was confirmed. It should be pointed out that the emulsions based on interesterified fats exhibited a greater level of moisturization of the skin than the emulsions containing non-interesterified fat. Also, in the respondents' opinion, the emulsion containing fat, which

  18. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Growing Rats Fed Irradiated Full-Fat Rice Bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Niely, H.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran at dose levels of 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy were used in the diets of growing rats to evaluate their effect on plasma and liver lipid profile. Comparison was also done with the use of a standard casein diet. After 49 days of feeding trail, food intake and wt gain were found to be highest with rats received casein diet in comparison with those fed on rice bran diets. Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran diets, fed to rats caused a significant reduction in the level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), while a significant elevation in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in plasma was recorded compared to those fed on casein diet. Also, similar changes were observed in liver. There was a significant increase in plasma and liver HDL-c/ TC ratio and LDL-c/ HDL-c ratio. Relative liver wt of rats fed on raw and irradiated full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy was lower compared to those fed on control diet (casein diet). The casein group had the highest total plasma and liver total protein (TP) compared to the other experimental groups. Among the experimental groups, raw and processed full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy, induced no significant effect on TP content of plasma and liver

  19. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples...... that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may activate prokallikrein. Neither plasma triglycerides nor kallikrein and activated FVII were statistically associated. This may suggest that additional factors are involved in the postprandial FVII activation. No clear evidence for a role of tissue factor expression...... by monocytes, factor XII or insulin in postprandial FVII activation was observed. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor and prothrombin fragment 1+2, a marker of thrombin generation, were not affected postprandially after either the high-fat or the low-fat meals. Our findings indicate that triglyceride...

  20. [Autologous fat grafting in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Bertrand, B; Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D

    2016-10-01

    Lipofilling or fat grafting transfer is defined as a technique of filling soft tissue by autologous fat grafting. The basic principle of lipofilling is based on a harvest of adipose tissue, followed by a reinjection after treatment. Lipofilling main objective is a volume defect filling, but also improving cutaneous trophicity. Lipofilling specificities among children is mainly based on these indications. Complications of autologous fat grafting among children are the same as those in adults: we distinguish short-term complications (intraoperative and perioperative) and the medium and long-term complications. The harvesting of fat tissue is the main limiting factor of the technique, due to low percentage of body fat of children. Indications of lipofilling among children may be specific or similar to those in adults. There are two types of indications: cosmetic, in which the aim of lipofilling is correcting a defect density, acquired (iatrogenic, post-traumatic scar) or malformation (otomandibular dysplasia, craniosynostosis, Parry Romberg syndrom, Poland syndrom, pectus excavatum…). The aim of functional indications is correcting a velar insufficiency or lagophthalmos. In the paediatric sector, lipofilling has become an alternative to the conventional techniques, by its reliability, safety, reproducibility, and good results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Fat Quantification in the Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cheng William; Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Hooker, Jonathan C; Hamilton, Gavin; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-12-01

    Fatty liver disease is characterized histologically by hepatic steatosis, the abnormal accumulation of lipid in hepatocytes. It is classified into alcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and is an increasingly important cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Assessing the severity of hepatic steatosis in these conditions is important for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as hepatic steatosis is potentially reversible if diagnosed early. The criterion standard for assessing hepatic steatosis is liver biopsy, which is limited by sampling error, its invasive nature, and associated morbidity. As such, noninvasive imaging-based methods of assessing hepatic steatosis are needed. Ultrasound and computed tomography are able to suggest the presence of hepatic steatosis based on imaging features, but are unable to accurately quantify hepatic fat content. Since Dixon's seminal work in 1984, magnetic resonance imaging has been used to compute the signal fat fraction from chemical shift-encoded imaging, commonly implemented as out-of-phase and in-phase imaging. However, signal fat fraction is confounded by several factors that limit its accuracy and reproducibility. Recently, advanced chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging methods have been developed that address these confounders and are able to measure the proton density fat fraction, a standardized, accurate, and reproducible biomarker of fat content. The use of these methods in the liver, as well as in other abdominal organs such as the pancreas, adrenal glands, and adipose tissue will be discussed in this review.

  2. ReciPlySkin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; Andersen, Mikkel; Munk-Andersen, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report.......The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report....

  3. Adnexal Tumours Of Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parate Sanjay N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total 120 cases of epidermal appendage tumours of skin were analysed and classified according to the classification provided by WHO’. Epidermal appendage tumours accounted for 12.87% of all skin tumours, of which 29.17% were benign and 70.83% were malignant. Most of the tumours (75.83% were in the head and face region. The most common tumour was basal cell epithelioma (55%.

  4. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  5. Stressed skin panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-07-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of stressed skin panels, also known as structural insulated panels (SIPs), are discussed as material and labour-saving alternatives to traditional stick framing. Stressed skin panels are manufactured 'sandwich' assemblies with a rigid insulating polystyrene foam core, whose interior and exterior surfaces are bonded into panels. The skins distribute and carry the structural loading while the bonded foam core provides insulation and keeps the two skins aligned. Since there are fewer framing members, there is little thermal bridging and the R-value remains high. SIPs are usually manufactured in four feet by eight feet panels, although some manufacturers can produce panels up to eight feet by forty feet. SIPs are resource efficient as they use less wood than conventional framing (about 25 per cent less); can structurally cover large spans, requiring less supplementary framing. Use of SIPs eliminate the need for headers over small openings; provide the ability to nail anywhere; create less scrap and waste; lessen vulnerability to unfavourable weather and other job-site hazards, can reduce delays, and often can produce significant savings in material and labour costs. Limitations include the more complex approaches to plumbing and electrical systems, although this can be minimized by designers by incorporating much of the plumbing and electrical work on interior (non-panel) walls. Most stressed skin panels require one-half inch interior gypsum drywall. If become wet, stressed skin panels take a long time to dry out and may harbour mold growth. Larger stressed-skin panels used in floors and roofs, may require cranes or other machinery for handling because of their weight. Although not without some environmental impact, overall, stressed skin panels are judged to be a resource-efficient building technology with significant energy-efficiency benefits and distinct advantages over stick framing. 3 photos.

  6. Helminths and skewed cytokine profiles increase tuberculin skin test positivity in Warao Amerindians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L. M.; Hermans, P. W. M.; Warris, A.; de Groot, R.; Maes, M.; Villalba, J. A.; del Nogal, B.; van den Hof, S.; Mughini Gras, L.; van Soolingen, D.; Pinelli, E.; de Waard, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The immune regulatory mechanisms involved in the acquisition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children are largely unknown. We investigated the influence of parasitic infections, malnutrition and plasma cytokine profiles on tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity in Warao Amerindians in

  7. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to simply reduce your portion sizes. “Choose more lean meats, like poultry without the skin. Eat more ... and Use the Nutrition Facts Label (FDA) NIH Office of Communications and Public Liaison Building 31, Room ...

  8. Fat-Soluble Vitamin Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, G.; Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is a form of elder mistreatment. The systematic characterization of self-neglecting individuals is the goal of the CREST project. Reported here is the evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects were recruited and consented following referral from Adult Protective Services. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status, as possible. We report here on 47 SN subjects (age 77 plus or minus 7, mean plus or minus SD; body weight 76 kg plus or minus 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 y plus or minus 7, 79 kg plus or minus 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of fat-soluble vitamin status. Plasma retinol (p less than 0.01) was lower in SN subjects. Plasma tocopherol tended (p less than 0.06) to be lower in SN subjects, while gamma-tocopherol was unchanged. SN subjects tended to have lower serum 25-OH vitamin D (p less than 0.11), and to be vitamin D deficient (26% below 23 mmol/L). Hypercalcemia occurred more often in SN subjects (23% had values above 2.56 mmol/L), as did elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations (p less than 0.05). These data demonstrate that many nutrients are affected in the self-neglecting elderly, and that long-term deficits are evident by the nature of changes in fat soluble vitamins.

  9. Optimization of a chemical method for skinning of sardines (Sardina pilchardus during canning processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Vaz Velho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches is used for canning purposes. The most common product presentation is a beheaded sardine with skin and bones packed in a tin can. Canned sardines can also be presented skinless and boneless. For this last type of product, after beheading and evisceration, sardines are placed in trays, cooked and then skinned by hand, one by one, and placed in the tins, a process involving high labour costs. The aim of this work was to develop a chemical process for peeling raw sardines and its subsequent application in a canning industry processing line just after the beheading and evisceration step and before cooking. Potassium hydroxide treatments (pellets a.r. 85% KOH were applied at concentrations of 2, 3 and 4% (v/v, distilled water. Frozen sardines were beheaded and eviscerated after thawing and immersed in the different potassium hydroxide solutions at 93ºC (pH respectively 13, 13 and 13.02 for 3 min and further washed with distilled water at 100°C. In this first set of experiments, fat sardines were used (average of 9.86% of fat, w/w. The best performance, with respect to skin removal, was achieved with the 2% potassium hydroxide immersion (pH 13. With this treatment the skin was totally removed after immersion. With the other tested concentrations portions of skin were always visible and in some cases changes in texture with breakdown of muscle structure and changes of colour occurred. It was decided to perform a second set of experiments using the 2% KOH treatment, but this time applied to low fat sardines (average of 4.77% of fat, w/w, following the same subsequent procedures. The results showed that the lower fat sardines are more prone to surface changes of colour and major muscle breaks than fat sardines after the potassium hydroxide treatment. In the canning industry for this type of product (skinless and boneless only fat sardines are used to assure the total removal of skin. This treatment of 2% KOH

  10. Liver fat reduction with niacin is influenced by DGAT-2 polymorphisms in hypertriglyceridemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Miao; Chu, Winnie Chiu Wing; Yamashita, Shizuya; Yeung, David Ka Wai; Shi, Lin; Wang, Defeng; Masuda, Daisaku; Yang, Yaling; Tomlinson, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Niacin reduces plasma triglycerides, but it may increase free fatty acids and insulin resistance during long-term treatment. We examined the effect of extended-release niacin on liver fat content in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia and whether the common diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) polymorphisms influenced this effect. The 39 patients (baseline liver fat content: 12.8 ± 7.6%, triglycerides: 3.30 ± 1.67 mmol/l) were treated with niacin, gradually increasing the dose to 2 g/day for a total of 23 weeks. The liver fat content and visceral/subcutaneous fat was measured before and after treatment. Subjects were genotyped for the DGAT2 rs3060 and rs101899116 polymorphisms. There were significant (P < 0.001) reductions in plasma triglycerides (-34.9 ± 37.6%), liver fat content (-47.2 ± 32.8%), and visceral fat (-6.3 ± 15.8%, P < 0.05) after niacin treatment. Mean body weight decreased by 1.46 ± 2.7% (1.17 ± 2.44 kg, P < 0.001) during the study, but liver fat changes remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, and body weight changes [mean absolute change (95% CI): -6.1% (-8.0, -4.3), P < 0.001]. The DGAT2 variant alleles were associated with a smaller reduction in liver fat content in response to niacin after adjustment for other covariates (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that niacin treatment may reduce liver fat content in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia and that the mechanism may involve inhibition of DGAT2. However, the findings might have been confounded by the small but significant reductions in body weight during the study. Future large randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these findings.

  11. Long-term high-physiological-dose growth hormone reduces intra-abdominal fat in HIV-infected patients with a neutral effect on glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B R; Haugaard, S B; Jensen, Frank Krieger

    2010-01-01

    , glucose tolerance, and total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly change during intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Daily 0.7 mg rhGH treatment for 40 weeks reduced abdominal visceral fat and trunk fat mass in HIV-infected patients. This treatment appeared to be safe with respect to glucose......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long-term high-physiological-dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy on fat distribution and glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Forty-six HIV-infected Caucasian men on highly active antiretroviral...... between 1 and 3 pm for 40 weeks. Endpoints included changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), limb fat mass, percentage of limb fat, plasma lipids, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. RESULTS: VAT and trunk fat mass decreased significantly in the GH group compared...

  12. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  13. Fat and fat-free mass at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2011-01-01

    LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because they und......LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because...... they undergo nutritional transition. There is a need for data on birth BC and its predictors from low-income countries in transition. We assessed absolute FM and FFM at birth and examined the role of gender, parity, GA, and LBW as predictors of birth BC. FM and FFM were assessed within 48 h of birth on 350...... Ethiopian newborns using air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Female gender and being an infant of primi- or secundiparous mothers predicted lower BW and lower birth FFM but not FM, compared with male gender and infants of multiparous mothers, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship...

  14. Revisiting the Anomalous rf Field Penetration into a Warm Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Polomarov, Oleg V.; Theodosiou, Constantine E.

    2005-01-01

    Radio-frequency [rf] waves do not penetrate into a plasma and are damped within it. The electric field of the wave and plasma current are concentrated near the plasma boundary in a skin layer. Electrons can transport the plasma current away from the skin layer due to their thermal motion. As a result, the width of the skin layer increases when electron temperature effects are taken into account. This phenomenon is called anomalous skin effect. The anomalous penetration of the rf electric field occurs not only for transversely propagating to the plasma boundary wave (inductively coupled plasmas) but also for the wave propagating along the plasma boundary (capacitively coupled plasmas). Such anomalous penetration of the rf field modifies the structure of the capacitive sheath. Recent advances in the nonlinear, non-local theory of the capacitive sheath are reported. It is shown that separating the electric field profile into exponential and non-exponential parts yields an efficient qualitative and quantitative description of the anomalous skin effect in both inductively and capacitively coupled plasma

  15. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high- versus low-fat content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M; Taylor, M A; Saris, W H M

    2006-01-01

    :Obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) adult subjects (n = 771), from eight European centers. MEASUREMENTS: Body weight loss, dropout rates, proportion of subjects who lost more than 10% of initial body weight, blood lipid profile, insulin and glucose. RESULTS: The dietary fat energy percent was 25% in the low-fat group...... and 40% in the high-fat group (mean difference: 16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17)%). Average weight loss was 6.9 kg in the low-fat group and 6.6 kg in the high-fat group (mean difference: 0.3 (95% CI -0.2 to 0.8) kg). Dropout was 13.6% (n = 53) in the low-fat group and 18.3% (n = 70) in the high......-fat group than in the high-fat group. Fasting plasma insulin and glucose were lowered equally by both diets. CONCLUSIONS: The low-fat diet produced similar mean weight loss as the high-fat diet, but resulted in more subjects losing >10% of initial body weight and fewer dropouts. Both diets produced...

  16. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  17. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima E Souza, Rodrigo; Apgaua, Bruno Tavares; Milhomens, João Daniel; Albuquerque, Francisco Tadeu Motta; Carneiro, Luiz Antônio; Mendes, Márcio Henrique; Garcia, Tiago Carvalho; Paiva, Clerisson; Ladeia, Felipe; Jeunon, Deiler Célio

    2016-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures) or plastic surgery (liposuction), compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to balanced general anesthesia with basic monitoring and controlled ventilation. After 45min of procedure, there was a sudden and gradual decrease of capnometry, severe hypoxemia and hypotension. The patient was immediately monitored for MAP and central catheter, treated with vasopressors, inotropes, and crystalloid infusion, stabilizing her condition. Arterial blood sample showed pH=7.21; PCO2=51mmHg; PO2=52mmHg; BE=-8; HCO3=18mEqL(-1), and lactate=6.0mmolL(-1). Transthoracic echocardiogram showed PASP=55mmHg, hypocontractile VD and LVEF=60%. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. After 24h of intensive treatment, the patient developed anisocoria and coma (Glasgow coma scale=3). A brain CT was performed which showed severe cerebral hemispheric ischemia with signs of fat emboli in right middle cerebral artery; transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale. Finally, after 72h of evolution, the patient progressed to brain death. Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs in young people. Treatment is based mainly on the infusion of fluids and vasoactive drugs, mechanical ventilation, and triggering factor correction (early fixation of fractures or suspension of liposuction). The multiorgânico involvement indicates a worse prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous Occurrence of Periodontal and Skin Abscesses in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-operative quantitative analysis of plasma CRP was 1500mg/l, moderate growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Porphyromonas gingivalis were isolated from the skin and periodontal pus respectively and basic heamatological values were within normal range. Intensive non-surgical periodontal therapy was done at ...

  19. The diverse applications of plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukul; Dubey, Shivani; Darwhekar, Gajanan; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  20. The diverse applications of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mukul; Darwhekar, Gajanan; Dubey, Shivani; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences

  1. The diverse applications of plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mukul, E-mail: mukulsharma@acropolis.edu.in; Darwhekar, Gajanan, E-mail: gdarwhekar@acropolis.edu.in [Acropolis Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Indore MP India (India); Dubey, Shivani, E-mail: dubeyshivani08@rediffmail.com [Mata Gujri College of Professional Studies, Indore MP India (India); Jain, Sudhir Kumar, E-mail: sudhirkjain1@rediffmail.com [School of Studies in Microbiology, Vikram University, Ujjain MP India (India)

    2015-07-31

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  2. Analysis of the suitableness of some enzymatic tests for estimation the degree of radiational injury of skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyushichev, V.B.; Kornikov, V.V.; Taratukhin, V.R.; Timofeeva, O.E.; Vereshchagina, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Possibilities to characterize the degree of skin injury of white male-rats on the 14th day after external 85 Kr #betta#-irradiation at 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 krad doses by activity levels of alkali and acid DNA-ases of skin and blood plasma as well as skin and plasma alpha-amylase have been studied using the methods of factor analysis. It has been ascertained that alkali and acid DNA-ases of skin have the best indicating properties. Other tests in the main only supplement the general picture. The combined accounting of properties of alkali and acid DNA-ases of skin as well as acid DNA-ase and alpha-amylase of blood plasma permits to demarkate individuals completely according to the degree (zero - 3d) of skin injuries. These indicators can be used in practical dosimetry

  3. High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    Full Text Available Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation.To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks.Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin - acetic acid; guar gum - propionic acid; or a mixture - butyric acid. At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks.Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet.

  4. Lymphedema Fat Graft: An Ideal Filler for Facial Rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Nicoli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema is a chronic disorder characterized by lymph stasis in the subcutaneous tissue. Lymphatic fluid contains several components including hyaluronic acid and has many important properties. Over the past few years, significant research has been performed to identify an ideal tissue to implant as a filler. Because of its unique composition, fat harvested from the lymphedema tissue is an interesting topic for investigation and has significant potential for application as a filler, particularly in facial rejuvenation. Over a 36-month period, we treated and assessed 8 patients with lymphedematous limbs who concurrently underwent facial rejuvenation with lymphedema fat (LF. We conducted a pre- and post-operative satisfaction questionnaire survey and a histological assessment of the harvested LF fat. The overall mean general appearance score at an average of 6 months after the procedure was 7.2±0.5, demonstrating great improvement. Patients reported significant improvement in their skin texture with a reading of 8.5±0.7 and an improvement in their self-esteem. This study demonstrates that LF as an ideal autologous injectable filler is clinically applicable and easily available in patients with lymphedema. We recommend the further study and clinical use of this tissue as it exhibits important properties and qualities for future applications and research.

  5. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) had a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.

  6. Screening for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T

    2001-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to a lesser extent prevent mortality. Current recommendations from professional societies regarding screening for skin cancer vary. To examine published data on the effectiveness of routine screening for skin cancer by a primary care provider, as part of an assessment for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality reviews. We used reference lists and expert recommendations to locate additional articles. Two reviewers independently reviewed a subset of 500 abstracts. Once consistency was established, the remainder were reviewed by one reviewer. We included studies if they contained data on yield of screening, screening tests, risk factors, risk assessment, effectiveness of early detection, or cost effectiveness. We abstracted the following descriptive information from full-text published studies of screening and recorded it in an electronic database: type of screening study, study design, setting, population, patient recruitment, screening test description, examiner, advertising targeted at high-risk groups or not targeted, reported risk factors of participants, and procedure for referrals. We also abstracted the yield of screening data including probabilities and numbers

  7. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...

  8. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  9. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  10. Epigenome-wide association study of triglyceride postprandial responses to high-fat dietary challenge in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postprandial lipemia (PPL), the increased plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration after consuming a high-fat meal, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Individual responses to a meal high in fat vary greatly, depending on genetic and lifestyle factors. However, only a few ...

  11. Effects of Persian leek (Allium ampeloprasum) on hepatic lipids and the expression of proinflammatory gene in hamsters fed a high-fat/ high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoorechi, Vahideh; Rismanchi, Marjan; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Persian leek is one of the most widely used herbal foods among Iranians. In this study, effects of oral administration of Persian leek on plasma and liver lipids were examined in hamster. Male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into three groups: control (standard diet), high fat control (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet), Persian leek (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet + 1% per weight of diet from dried powdered Persian leek) for 14 weeks. High fat diet increased plasma and liver lipids as compared to standard diet. Adding Persian leek to the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet resulted in no significant changes in the concentration of the plasma lipids or liver cholesterol. However, liver triglycerides (TG), plasma Alanine aminotransferase and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor- α were decreased in hamsters fed high-fat diet containing Persian leek as compared to high-fat diet only. Persian leek might be considered as a herbal food that can reduce liver TG accumulation induced by high fat diets.

  12. [A case of skin autograft for skin ulcers in ichthyosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiwei; Yang, Xiaodong; Liu, Lijun; Tang, Xueyang

    2017-10-28

    Ichthyosis refers to a group of skin diseases characterized by abnormal keratinization of the epidermis, resulting in dryness, roughness and scale of the skin. A girl with ichthyosis, who presented with skin ulcers and infection of the right dorsal foot, was admitted to our department. An autologous razor-thin skin grafting procedure was performed to repair the skin ulcers after debridement and vacuum sealing drain. After 8 months of follow-up, both the donor and recipient site healed well and there were no newly formed ulcers or infections. Although the skin quality of ichthyosis is poor, the lesion area can still be used as donor or recipient cite.

  13. Differentiation of lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat by GCMS and EA-IRMS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Nizar, Nina Naquiah; Nazrim Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed; Hashim, Dzulkifly Mat

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to differentiate lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analyzer-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The comparison of overall fatty acid data showed that lard and chicken fat share common characteristics by having palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid as major fatty acids while beef and mutton fats shared common characteristics by possessing palmitic, stearic and oleic acid as major fatty acids. The direct comparisons among the fatty acid data, therefore, may not be suitable for discrimination of different animal fats. When the fatty acid distributional data was subjected to Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was demonstrated that stearic, oleic and linoleic acids as the most discriminating parameters in the clustering of animal fats into four subclasses. The bulk carbon analysis of animal fats using EA-IRMS showed that determination of the carbon isotope ratios (δ¹³C) would be a good indicator for discriminating lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. This would lead to a faster and more efficient method to ascertain the source of origin of fats used in food products.

  14. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  15. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  16. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  17. Thyroid and skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Alka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of thyroid disorders with skin manifestations is complex. Both hypothryoidism and hyperthyroidism are known to cause these changes. In order to study this association of skin changes in relation to hypothyroidism, a study was carried out in the outpatients department of Dermatology of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, over a period of 3 months from Jan-March 2005. Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study and parameters were noted regarding history, general symptoms, cutaneous signs and associated diseases. We found gain in weight (71.85% and lethargy (65.62% to be the most common complaints. On cutaneous examination, dry, coarse texture of the skin (56%, pigmentary disorders (37.5% and telogen effluvium (40.62% were the most common findings. Other associated disorders were vitiligo, melasma, pemphigus, alopecia areata, xanthelasma palpebrarum, etc.

  18. Environment and the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suskind, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury

  19. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore......There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...

  20. High-fat feeding increases hepatic vitamin C synthesis and its circulatory mobilization in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Tranberg; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    , glucose and vitC concentrations. Hepatic vitC concentration and gulonolactone oxidase (GLO) capacity, as a measure of vitC de novo biosynthesis, were analyzed in liver homogenates. RESULTS: HF diet significantly increased plasma concentrations of vitC compared with a control diet low in fat (P ... to modulate their vitC homeostasis during high-fat (HF) feeding. METHODS: Twenty-five male 5-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed high- or low-fat diets for 14 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after 12 weeks of intervention. Terminal fasting plasma samples were analyzed for insulin.......05). Hepatic de novo biosynthesis of vitC was upregulated (P glucose and insulin concentrations...