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Sample records for plasma retinol levels

  1. Plasma levels of osteocalcin and retinol binding protein-4 in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma

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    Jabar Lotfi

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: According to difference between plasma levels of osteocalcin and retinol binding protein-4 in patients suffered of medullary thyroid carcinoma comparison with normal subjects, it can be said that, probably medullary thyroid carcinoma has effect on bone and adipose tissue metabolism, so osteocalcin and retinol binding protein-4 hormones have potential to be used for confirmation of diagnosis or following treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

  2. Increased plasma retinol binding protein 4 levels in patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathy.

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    Bobbert, Peter; Weithäuser, Alice; Andres, Janin; Bobbert, Thomas; Kühl, Uwe; Schultheiss, Heinz Peter; Rauch, Ursula; Skurk, Carsten

    2009-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with a higher risk for diabetes mellitus. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP 4) is an adipose tissue-derived protein with pro-diabetogenic effects. A complete understanding of the association of CHF and insulin resistance remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between CHF and diabetes mellitus. Plasma levels of RBP 4, insulin, and interleukins (IL) 2, 8, and 10, were assessed in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 53), dilated inflammatory cardiomyopathy (DCMi, n = 54), and controls (n = 20). In addition, a possible mechanism of RBP 4 regulation was examined in adipocytes in vitro. Plasma levels of RBP 4 and insulin were measured by a specific ELISA. Interleukin concentrations were obtained by multiplex ELISA. Cell culture with 3T3-L1 adipocytes was performed to measure RBP 4 mRNA expression after stimulation with IL-8. RBP 4 levels were significantly increased in patients with DCMi (52.95 +/- 20.42 microg/mL) compared with DCM (35.54 +/- 23.08 microg/mL) and the control group (27.3 +/- 18.51 microg/mL). RBP 4 was positively correlated with IL-8 (r=0.416, P < 0.05) in human plasma in patients with DCMi. Moreover, increased insulin resistance was observed in patients with DCMi compared with the control and DCM groups. In vitro, IL-8 induced a significant upregulation of RBP 4 mRNA expression in adipocytes. Elevated RBP 4 plasma concentrations, induced by IL-8, might be one mechanism leading to a higher incidence of diabetes in patients with DCMi.

  3. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk

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    Jeurnink, S.M.; Ros, M.M.; Leenders, M.; Duijnhoven, F.J. van; Siersema, P.D.; Jansen, E.H.; Gils, C.H. van; Bakker, M.F.; Overvad, K.; Roswall, N.; Tjonneland, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Racine, A.; Cadeau, C.; Grote, V.; Kaaks, R.; Aleksandrova, K.; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulou, A.; Benetou, V.; Valanou, E.; Palli, D.; Krogh, V.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Mattiello, A.; Weiderpass, E.; Skeie, G.; Castano, J.M.; Duell, E.J.; Barricarte, A.; Molina-Montes, E.; Arguelles, M.; Dorronsoro, M.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Crowe, F.L.; Khaw, K.T.; Jenab, M.; Fedirko, V.; Riboli, E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-

  4. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: A nested case-control study : Plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, S.M.; Ros, M.M.; Leenders, M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case–

  5. Effect of zinc added to multi-vitamin supplementation containing low-dose vitamin A on plasma retinol level in children--a double-blind randomized, controlled trial.

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    Sazawal, Sunil; Dhingra, Usha; Deb, Saikat; Bhan, Maharaj K; Menon, Venugopal P; Black, Robert E

    2007-03-01

    In a community-based double-blind randomized trial in children aged 6-35 months, both intervention and control groups received a multi-vitamin syrup containing vitamin A, while the intervention group had zinc gluconate (equivalent to 10 mg of elemental zinc) additional in the syrup. There was a significant decrease in diarrhoea and pneumonia in the intervention group. This study was undertaken to investigate if addition of zinc to vitamin A had improved plasma retinol levels, which, in turn, was responsible for the effects observed in the intervention group. In a randomly-selected subsample of 200 children--100 each from the intervention and the control group, plasma retinol levels after 120 days of supplementation were measured. There was no difference in the mean plasma retinol levels [the difference in the mean 0.46 microg/dL (95% confidence interval -1.42-2.36)] between the two groups following supplementation. No difference in plasma retinol levels was observed in the subgroups based on base-line nutritional status and plasma zinc levels. Addition of zinc to low-dose vitamin A in this study did not improve the vitamin A status of children and cannot explain morbidity effects of the intervention.

  6. Retinol and Alpha-Tocopherol Levels Among Hemodialysis Patients.

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    Awatif M. Abd El Maksoud*, Asmaa M. Abd Allah*, Waleed Massoud

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma retinol, alpha tocopherol, total cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in 40 patients aged 27-65 years, under regular hemodialysis (HD for 1.8-13 years at Ahmed Maher teaching Hospital and in 28 healthy age and sex matched control. Predialysis and postdialysis measurements were also, done for a subset of 13 hemodialytic patients. Among hemodialytic patients ,all values ( Plasma retinol ,alpha- tocopherol, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher ( p 100 ug /dl except for one patient . On the other hand ,alpha-tocopherol level in hemodialytic patients was ranged between deficiency ( 1080 ug/dl. Comparing predialysis and postdialysis measurements , the hemodialytic patients showed non significant difference concerning retinol level , while alpha tocopherol was significantly decreased in postdialytic state .In conclusion ; further studies are needed to answer, if hemodialytic patients are at risk for symptomatic vitamin A toxicity?. Even with normal or low plasma vitamin E, it is needed as an antioxidant accessory therapy in hemodialytic patients.

  7. Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components

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    Marcia Teske

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2. Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL, lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides, oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62% and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57% subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10% and 36/61 (59%, respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [β=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents.

  8. Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols levels and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: a nested case-control study: plasma micronutrients and pancreatic cancer risk.

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    Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Ros, Martine M; Leenders, Max; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Siersema, Peter D; Jansen, Eugene H J M; van Gils, Carla H; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Cadeau, Claire; Grote, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Valanou, Elisavet; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Castaño, José María Huerta; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Argüelles, Marcial; Dorronsoro, Mire; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Sund, Malin; Crowe, Francesca L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B

    2015-03-15

    Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), α- and γ-tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, waist circumference, cotinine levels and diabetes status. Inverse associations with pancreatic cancer risk were found for plasma β-carotene (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.52, 95%CI 0.31-0.88, p for trend = 0.02), zeaxanthin (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.53, 95%CI 0.30-0.94, p for trend = 0.06) and α-tocopherol (IRR highest vs. lowest quartile 0.62, 95%CI 0.39-0.99, p for trend = 0.08. For α- and β-carotene, lutein, sum of carotenoids and γ-tocopherol, heterogeneity between geographical regions was observed. In conclusion, our results show that higher plasma concentrations of β-carotene, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, but further studies are warranted.

  9. 汕头市区281名3~5岁儿童血浆视黄醇水平测定%Plasma Retinol Levels of Preschool Children Aged 3~5 Years in Shantou City of China

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    李慧; 罗文鸿; 陈玲; 张源; 黄再强; 常丽梅

    2000-01-01

    Objactive:To assess the vitamin A nutritional status of preschool children in Shantou city,Guangdong Province of China.Method:Plasma retinol level was used as indicator and determined by HPLC.Result:The results indicated 25.6% of the children with plasma retinol level between (10~30)μg/dL, 50.2% of the children with plasma retinol level between(30~40)μg/dL,and only 24.2% of the children with plasma retinol level higher than 40μg/dL.There was no significant difference between the average plasma retinol concentrations of the male and female children.Conclusion:The conclusions were that among the 281 children,one fourth of them were at the status of marginal deficient of vitamin A,and no children were apparently vitamin A deficient.%目的:通过测定血浆视黄醇水平以了解汕头市区儿童维生素A的营养状况.方法:采用高效液相色谱法对汕头市区281名3~5岁儿童进行了血浆视黄醇水平测定.结果:25.6%的儿童血浆视黄醇水平处于(10~30)μg/dL;50.2%(30~40)μg/dL;24.2%>40μg/dL;血浆视黄醇水平平均值没有性别差异.结论:所调查的281名3~5岁的儿童中,没有严重缺乏维生素A者,但有约四分之一的儿童处于亚临床维生素A缺乏或维生素A摄入不足.

  10. Genome-wide association study of circulating retinol levels.

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    Mondul, Alison M; Yu, Kai; Wheeler, William; Zhang, Hong; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Major, Jacqueline M; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Männistö, Satu; Hazra, Aditi; Hsing, Ann W; Jacobs, Kevin B; Eliassen, Heather; Tanaka, Toshiko; Reding, Douglas J; Hendrickson, Sara; Ferrucci, Luigi; Virtamo, Jarmo; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Kraft, Peter; Albanes, Demetrius

    2011-12-01

    Retinol is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin A and is hypothesized to influence a wide range of human diseases including asthma, cardiovascular disease, infectious diseases and cancer. We conducted a genome-wide association study of 5006 Caucasian individuals drawn from two cohorts of men: the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. We identified two independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with circulating retinol levels, which are located near the transthyretin (TTR) and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) genes which encode major carrier proteins of retinol: rs1667255 (P =2.30× 10(-17)) and rs10882272 (P =6.04× 10(-12)). We replicated the association with rs10882272 in RBP4 in independent samples from the Nurses' Health Study and the Invecchiare in Chianti Study (InCHIANTI) that included 3792 women and 504 men (P =9.49× 10(-5)), but found no association for retinol with rs1667255 in TTR among women, thus suggesting evidence for gender dimorphism (P-interaction=1.31× 10(-5)). Discovery of common genetic variants associated with serum retinol levels may provide further insight into the contribution of retinol and other vitamin A compounds to the development of cancer and other complex diseases.

  11. Plasma Levels of Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4, Retinol-Binding Protein 4, High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin, and Cardiovascular Mortality Among Men With Type 2 Diabetes: A 22-Year Prospective Study.

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    Liu, Gang; Ding, Ming; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Rimm, Eric B; Franks, Paul W; Meigs, James B; Hu, Frank B; Sun, Qi

    2016-11-01

    To examine select adipokines, including fatty acid-binding protein 4, retinol-binding protein 4, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plasma levels of fatty acid-binding protein 4, retinol-binding protein 4, and HMW adiponectin were measured in 950 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. After an average of 22 years of follow-up (1993-2015), 580 deaths occurred, of whom 220 died of CVD. After multivariate adjustment for covariates, higher levels of fatty acid-binding protein 4 were significantly associated with a higher CVD mortality: comparing extreme tertiles, the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval of CVD mortality was 1.78 (1.22-2.59; P trend=0.001). A positive association was also observed for HMW adiponectin: the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 2.07 (1.42-3.06; P trend=0.0002), comparing extreme tertiles, whereas higher retinol-binding protein 4 levels were nonsignificantly associated with a decreased CVD mortality with an hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.73 (0.50-1.07; P trend=0.09). A Mendelian randomization analysis suggested that the causal relationships of HMW adiponectin and retinol-binding protein 4 would be directionally opposite to those observed based on the biomarkers, although none of the Mendelian randomization associations achieved statistical significance. These data suggest that higher levels of fatty acid-binding protein 4 and HMW adiponectin are associated with elevated CVD mortality among men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biological mechanisms underlying these observations deserve elucidation, but the associations of HMW adiponectin may partially reflect altered adipose tissue functionality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Plasma Retinol, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Zinc as Predictors of Bone Mineral Density Status

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    Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny*, Effat A. A., Afifi**, Wafaa M. A. Saleh**, Asmaa, M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conflicting results on the association between serum retinol level and bone mineral density (BMD have been published. Thyroid hormones are essential for skeletal development and have direct effect on bone formation and resorption. Bone has one of the highest concentrations of zinc of all tissues, and has been shown to release zinc during deficiency for soft tissue metabolism. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relation between plasma levels of retinol, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH & zinc and BMD of Egyptian adolescents and adults. Method: The study was a part of a cross sectional national survey conducted by National Nutrition Institute. The sample was a multistage stratified random. Target individuals were classified into two age groups (10- 18 and 28- 59 years. Bone mineral density and plasma levels of retinol, TSH and zinc were determined. Results: Low and high plasma retinol levels were more prevalent among osteoporotic adolescent and adult males respectively than in normal subjects.. The reverse was observed in adult females. Bone mineral density correlated negatively with plasma retinol level in adult males and females and positively in adolescent males, while among females the association was significant (P = 0.030 and stronger. The highest deficiency of TSH was found among adult and adolescent osteoporotic males, followed by osteopenic adult males and adolescent females. Highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001 existed between osteoporotic and normal adult males concerning TSH deficiency. The prevalence of zinc deficiency ranged from 5.7% to 9.5% for all target individuals. Plasma Zn levels were correlated negatively with bone mineral density in adult males and females. Conclusion: The results of this study reflects the controversy on the association of plasma retinol and BMD. However, the predominant finding revealed that both low and high plasna retinol levels compromise bone health

  13. Serum retinol level in patients with colorectal premalignant and malignant lesions.

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    Ostrowski, J; Janik, P.; Nowacki, M.; Janczewska, I; Przybyszewska, M.; Szaniawska, B.; Bartnik, W.; Butruk, E

    1987-01-01

    Serum retinol levels were determined by a fluorometric method in patients with colorectal cancer or polyps and those with inflammatory bowel disease. Serum retinol levels in patients with benign or malignant colorectal polyps and stage B cancer (modified Dukes' classification) were similar to those found in controls. By contrast, serum retinol levels were significantly lower in patients with Dukes' stage C or D. Among cancer patients that were followed after surgical treatment serum retinol l...

  14. Plasma and dietary carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol levels and the risk of gastric adenocarcinomas in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenab, M.; Riboli, E.; Ferrari, P.; Friesen, M.; Sabate, J.; Norat, T.; Slimani, N.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boeing, H.; Schulz, M.; Linseisen, J.; Nagel, G.; Trichopoulou, A.; Naska, A.; Oikonomou, E.; Berrino, F.; Panico, S.; Palli, D.; Sacerdote, C.; Tumino, R.; Peeters, P.H.; Numans, M.E.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Buchner, F.L.; Lund, E.; Pera, G.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Sanchez, M.J.; Arriola, L.; Barricarte, A.; Quiros, J.R.; Johansson, I.; Johansson, A.; Berglund, G.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Allen, N.; Key, T.J.; Carneiro, F.; Save, V.; Giudice, G. Del; Plebani, M.; Kaaks, R.; Gonzalez, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite declining incidence rates, gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of death worldwide. Its aetiology may involve dietary antioxidant micronutrients such as carotenoids and tocopherols. The objective of this study was to determine the association of plasma levels of seven common carotenoids, the

  15. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women

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    Marcello Maggio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2 in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998–2000 by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2, as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1 and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2 were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02 and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007 were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01. After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2, the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01, β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29

  16. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women

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    Maggio, Marcello; de Vita, Francesca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Semba, Richard D.; Bartali, Benedetta; Cherubini, Antonio; Cappola, Anne R.; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2) in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998–2000) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T) levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA) and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1) and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2) were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02) and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007) were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01). After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2), the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01), β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29 ± 0.08, p

  17. Serum retinol levels and pulmonary function in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenenk, J. W.; Broos, N.; Stellato, R. K.; Arets, H. G M; van der Ent, C. K.; Houwen, R. H J; Arets, HGM

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that higher serum retinol levels could have protective effects on pulmonary function (PF) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, serum retinol levels will be transiently decreased during pulmonary exacerbation. Therefore, the extent of chronic pulmonary inf

  18. Plasma retinol and association with socio-demographic and dietary characteristics of free-living older persons: the Bordeaux sample of the three-city study.

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    Féart, Catherine; Siewe, Aisha; Samieri, Cécilia; Peuchant, Evelyne; Helmer, Catherine; Alfos, Serge; Pallet, Véronique; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to describe retinol plasma concentration and its association with socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits in French older persons. The study population consisted of 1664 subjects aged 65 + from Bordeaux (France), included in the Three-City cohort. Retinol plasma concentration was determined in fasting blood samples. Dietary assessment was performed by a food frequency questionnaire allowing estimation of weekly intake of dietary sources of vitamin A or provitamin A. The weekly number of glasses of alcohol was also recorded. Age, sex, marital status, educational and income levels, body-mass index (BMI), and smoking were registered. Cross-sectional analysis of the association between plasma retinol and socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits was performed by multilinear regression. Mean plasma retinol was close to the homeostatically regulated concentration of 2.0 micromol/L but ranged from 0.35 to 6.77 micromol/L. It was higher in women and divorced or separated individuals, and increased with income but not with age or educational level. Plasma retinol was positively and independently associated with the frequency of offal consumption and to the number of glasses of alcohol consumed per week. These results allow targeting older individuals who are at risk of either excessive or deficient vitamin A status and who should benefit from dietary counseling.

  19. The aging changes of the plasma retinol-binding protein 4 levels in elderly essential hypertension patients%老年高血压患者血浆视黄醇结合蛋白的增龄变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹萍; 李睿; 沈丹; 钟亚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the aging changes of the plasma retinol-binding protein 4(RBP4)levels in elderly essential hypertension patients and to evaluate the influential factors. Methods 275 essential hypertension patients were divided into two groups according to whether complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fifty healthy persons served as normal control group. Plasma RBP4 levels were determined in the three groups. The relationships of plasma RBP4 levels with the blood pressure,the plasma lipids levels and body mass index were analyzed. The effect of aging in the 275 patients on the plasma RBP4 levels was explored. Results The plasma RBP4 levels were significantly increased both in the pure hypertension group and in the hypertension complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus group compared with the control group (P<0.01), but there was no statistical difference between the pure hypertension group and the hypertension complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus group. The level of plasma RBP4 was positively correlated with plasma triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = 0. 347, r = 0. 229, P < 0.01). However, the level of plasma RBP4 gradually decreased with age in all essential hypertension patients. The age was negatively correlated with the level of plasma RBP4, buttock circumference, body weight, body mass index, diastolic pressure,average arterial pressure, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.01). Conclusion There is a phenomenon of insulin resistance which correlates with plasma RBP4 increase in the patients with essential hypertension. The level of plasma RBP4 gradually decreases with age in all essential hypertension patients. It is inferred that the insulin resistance plays a more important part in essential hypertension in young patients than in elderly patients.%目的 探讨老年高血压患者血浆视黄醇结合蛋白(retionl binding protein 4,RBP4)水平的增龄变化及其影响因素.方法 将275例高

  20. Levels of retinyl palmitate and retinol in stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis of SKH-1 mice.

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    Yan, Jian; Xia, Qingsu; Webb, Peggy; Warbritton, Alan R; Wamer, Wayne G; Howard, Paul C; Boudreau, Mary; Fu, Peter P

    2006-04-01

    Vitamin A (retinol) regulates many biological functions, including epidermal cell growth. Retinyl palmitate (RP) is the major esterified form of retinol and the predominant component of retinoids in the skin; however, how endogenous levels of RP and retinol in the skin are affected by the age of the animal remains unknown. Furthermore, the levels of retinol and RP in the various skin layers - the stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis of skin - have not been reported. In this paper, we report the development of a convenient method for separation of the skin from SKH-1 female mice into the stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis and the determination of the levels of RP and retinol in the three fractions by HPLC analysis. The total quantities of RP and retinol from the stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis are comparable to those extracted from the same amount of intact skin from the same mouse. There was an age-related effect on the levels of RP and retinol in the skin and liver of female mice. An age-related effect was also observed in the stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis. The levels of RP and retinol were highest in the epidermis of 20-week-old mice, and decreased when the age increased to 60- and 68-weeks. The total amount of RP at 20 weeks of age was found to be 1.52 ng/mg skin, and decreased about 4-fold at 60- and 68-weeks of age. A similar trend was found for the effects of age on the levels of retinol.

  1. Retinol status and expression of retinol-related proteins in methionine-choline deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Takitani, Kimitaka; Koh, Maki; Inoue, Akiko; Kishi, Kanta; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Retinol and its derivative, retinoic acid, have pleiotropic functions including vision, immunity, hematopoiesis, reproduction, cell differentiation/growth, and development. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common diseases in developed countries and encompasses a broad spectrum of forms, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis, which develops further to cirrhosis. Retinol status has an important role in liver homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retinol status and expression of retinol-related proteins, including enzymes and binding proteins, in methionine-choline deficient (MCD) rats as a model of NAFLD. We examined retinol levels in the plasma and liver and gene expression for β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO), lecithIn: retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), ALDH1A2, and cellular retinol binding protein (CRBP)-I in MCD rats. The plasma retinol levels in MCD rats were lower than those in the controls, whereas hepatic retinol levels in MCD rats were higher. BCMO expression in the intestine and liver in MCD rats was lower, whereas that in the testes and the kidneys was higher than in control rats. Expression of LRAT, CRBP-I, ALDH1A1, and ALDH1A2 in the liver of MCD rats was also higher. Altered expression of retinol-related proteins may affect retinol status in NAFLD.

  2. Níveis plasmáticos de vitamina A, carotenóides e proteína ligadora de retinol em crianças com infecções respiratórias agudas e doenças diarréicas Plasma levels of vitamin A, carotenoids and retinol binding protein in children with acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Planejou-se um estudo com o objetivo de se avaliar os níveis plasmáticos de vitamina A, carotenóides e proteína ligadora de retinol (RBP em 311 crianças, de 7 meses a onze anos de idade, com história de infecções das vias aéreas superiores (IVAS, pneumonia e diarréia, residentes na área urbana da Cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, e atendidas no serviço de pediatria de um hospital-escola. As dosagens de vitamina A e carotenóides realizaram-se pelo método de Neeld-Pearson e o RBP pelo método de Mancini. Os níveis plasmáticos de vitamina A (µg/dl e RBP (mg/dl foram mais baixos (pThe present study was carried out in order to assess the plasma levels of vitamin A, carotenoids and retinol binding protein (RBP of three-hundred and eleven children aged from seven months to eleven years, who had a history of upper respiratory infection (URI, pneumonia and diarrhoea. The children were resident in the urban area of the Municipality of S. Paulo, Brazil, and were seen at the pediatric service of the one school-hospital. The data show that plasma vitamin A (µg/dl and RBP (mg/ dl levels in the diarrhoea (15.2 µg/dl; 1.7 mg/dl and pneumonia (15.2 µg/dl; 0.7 mg/dl groups were lower (p<0.05 than those observed in the control (18.8 µg/dl; 2.6 mg/dl and URI (19.0 µg/dl; 2.4 mg/dl groups. The plasma carotenoid levels were lower in all groups than in the control group (p<0.05. These findings corroborate the results that show low levels of vitamin A in circulation during period of infection.

  3. Retinol sérico de adolescentes de uma escola da cidade de São Paulo Retinol blood levels in high school students of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Márcia Regina Vítolo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os níveis séricos de retinol de 218 adolescentes de ambos os sexos com idade entre 10 e 19 anos, matriculados em colégio da rede privada de ensino da cidade de São Paulo, foi o objetivo deste trabalho. MÉTODOS: Para a avaliação da condição nutricional dos adolescentes, utilizaram-se as medidas antropométricas de peso e altura e também a história dietética. A dosagem de retinol foi realizada pela técnica de espectrofotometria, considerando como níveis séricos inadequados valores OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine plasma retinol levels in 218 adolescents of both sexes, ages 10 to 19 years old. All the subjects attended a private high school in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: In order to evaluate the students' nutritional condition, the researchers performed anthropometrical measurements - weight and height - in addition to investigating the subjects' diet history. The retinol level was measured through the spectrophotometer technique, considering as inadequate values of concentration under <1.05µmol/L (30µg/dL. RESULTS: The results indicate that the average intake, according to the age range, was higher than recommended, even though presenting high deviation patterns for both genders. The percentage of teenagers with plasma concentrations of vitamin A under the adequate level was 30% for both genders, and neither the analysis of the correlation between Body Mass Index and plasma concentrations of retinol, nor the analysis of the correlation between the density of vitamin A intake and plasma concentration of retinol, were significant. CONCLUSION: The research findings point out to the need for further investigation of vitamin A concentrations during adolescence, in order to check more accurately whether the low plasma concentration of this nutrient should be considered a risk factor, or the result of the accelerated absorption which takes place in adolescence to fulfill the metabolic

  4. [Serum retinol and retinol binding protein-4 levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their relationship to nutritional status.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hong-Zhen; Wang, Qiu-Yue; Han, Li-Ping; Kang, Jian; Yu, Run-Jiang

    2009-12-01

    To explore the serum retinol and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP(4)) levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to investigate their relationship with the nutritional status. The serum retinol level was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 110 outpatients with stable COPD during Sept. 2006 to Sept. 2007, and 90 healthy volunteers served as the controls. The serum RBP(4) level in 62 stable COPD outpatients and 20 healthy controls was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Associated factors with the serum retinol and RBP(4) levels were analyzed. t-test and one-way ANOVA were used for the statistic analysis. The serum retinol and RBP(4) levels in COPD patients [(275 +/- 11) microg/L and (7.4 +/- 2.6) mg/L respectively] were significantly lower than those in the healthy controls [(338 +/- 13) microg/L and (11.4 +/- 4.1) mg/L respectively, t = 3.650, t = 4.155 and all P nutritional status.

  5. Predictors of adipose tissue carotenoid and retinol levels in nine countries: The EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virtanen, S.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.

    1996-01-01

    The adipose tissue carotenoid (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene) and retinol levels and their predictors were determined in 686 male and 339 female middle-aged and elderly subjects from eight European countries and Israel during the years 1991 to 1992. Adipose tissue carotenoid levels in

  6. Vitamin A deficiency and hepatic retinol levels in sea otters, Enhydra lutris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Leger, Judy A; Righton, Alison L; Nilson, Erika M; Fascetti, Andrea J; Miller, Melissa A; Tuomi, Pamela A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Puschner, Birgit

    2011-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has rarely been reported in captive or free-ranging wildlife species. Necropsy findings in two captively housed southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) included irregular thickening of the calvaria characterized by diffuse hyperostoses on the internal surface. One animal also had moderate squamous metaplasia of the seromucinous glands of the nose. There was no measurable retinol in the liver of either sea otter. For comparison, hepatic retinol concentration was determined for 23 deceased free-ranging southern and northern (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) sea otters from California and Alaska. Free-ranging otters were found to have similar hepatic retinol concentrations (316 +/- 245 mg/kg wet weight) regardless of their location and subspecies. All of these values were significantly higher than the levels in the affected animals. Consumption of a diet with very low vitamin A concentrations and noncompliance in daily supplementation are hypothesized as the causes of vitamin A deficiency in these two sea otters.

  7. Determination of Retinol, α-Tocopherol, Lycopene, and β-Carotene in Human Plasma Using HPLC with UV-Vis Detection: Application to a Clinical Study

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    Roman Kand’ár

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is described here for the simultaneous determination of retinol, α-tocopherol, lycopene, and β-carotene in human plasma. The effectiveness of various protein precipitants and extraction solvents was tested. After adequate sample preparation, the samples were injected directly into the HPLC system. The separation was realized on an analytical reversed-phase column with a UV-Vis detection. The analytical performance of this method was satisfactory. The intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation were below 10%. The recoveries were as follows: 97.0% (CV 2.4% for retinol, 94.6% (CV 1.7% for α-tocopherol, 91.9% (CV 3.6% for lycopene, and 93.9% (CV 4.2% for β-carotene. The levels of selected fat-soluble vitamins in plasma of patients with cardiovascular disease were measured and discussed.

  8. The retinol esterifying enzyme LRAT supports cell signaling by retinol-binding protein and its receptor STRA6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwarha, Gurdeep; Berry, Daniel C; Croniger, Colleen M; Noy, Noa

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A, retinol, circulates in blood bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP). At some tissues, holo-RBP is recognized by a plasma membrane receptor termed STRA6, which serves a dual role: it mediates transport of retinol from RBP into cells, and it functions as a cytokine receptor that, on binding holo-RBP, activates JAK2/STAT5 signaling. As STAT target genes include SOCS3, an inhibitor of insulin receptor, holo-RBP suppresses insulin responses in STRA6-expressing cells. We have shown previously that the two functions of STRA6 are interdependent. These observations suggest factors that regulate STRA6-mediated retinol transport may also control STRA6-mediated cell signaling. One such factor is retinol metabolism, which enables cellular uptake of retinol by maintaining an inward-directed concentration gradient. We show here that lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT), which catalyzes esterification of retinol to its storage species retinyl esters, is necessary for activation of the STRA6/JAK2/STAT5 cascade by holo-RBP. In accordance, LRAT-null mice are protected from holo-RBP-induced suppression of insulin responses. Hence, STRA6 signaling, which requires STRA6-mediated retinol transport, is supported by LRAT-catalyzed retinol metabolism. The observations demonstrate that STRA6 regulates key cellular processes by coupling circulating holo-RBP levels and intracellular retinol metabolism to cell signaling.

  9. Altered retinol status and expression of retinol-related proteins in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic model rats

    OpenAIRE

    Takitani, Kimitaka; Inoue, Keisuke; Koh, Maki; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Inoue, Akiko; Kishi, Kanta; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Advanced diabetes is associated with severe complications and impaired nutritional status. Here, we assessed the expression of retinol-associated proteins, including β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO), lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and cytochrome P450 26A1 (CYP26A1), and measured retinol levels in the plasma and liver of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic model rats...

  10. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol and their correlation with sperm DNA damage in normospermic and infertile men

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    Taiebeh Ghyasvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in reproductive system leads to sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility, especially in idiopathic cases. Antioxidants such as carotenoids function against free radical damages. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol in serum and their relationship with sperm DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in infertile and normospermic males. Materials and Methods: Sixty two infertile men and 71 normospermic men participated in this study. Blood and semen samples were collected from all subjects. Sperm DNA damage was measured using TUNEL method. Carotenoids, retinol, and malonedildehyde in serum were also determined. Results: DNA fragmentation was higher in infertile group comparing to control group. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and, vitamin A in infertile men were significantly lower than normospermic men (p< 0.001, =0.005, and =0.003 respectively. While serum MDA was not significantly different between two groups, MDA in seminal plasma of infertile men was significantly higher than control group (p< 0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol can reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation through their antioxidant effect. Therefore the DNA fragmentation assay and determination of antioxidants factors such as lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol, along with sperm analysis can be useful in diagnosis and treatment of men with idiopathic infertility.

  11. Vitamin A intake and serum retinol levels in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Woestenenk, JW; Broos, Nancy; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Arets, Hubertus G M; Van Der Ent, Cornelis K; Houwen, RHJ

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic insufficient cystic fibrosis (CF) patients receive vitamin A supplementation according to CF-specific recommendations to prevent deficiencies. Whether current recommendations are optimal for preventing both deficiency and toxicity is a subject of debate. We assessed the longitudinal relation between serum retinol levels and appropriate variables. METHODS: We studied vitamin A intake, and the long-term effects of vitamin A intake, coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) and ...

  12. Influência da resposta inflamatória de fase aguda nos níveis séricos de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol em pacientes com AIDS Influence of acute-phase inflammatory response on serum levels of retinol and retinol binding protein in HIV/AIDS patients

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    Fábio Fernandes Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a hiporretinolemia constitui fator prognóstico independente em pacientes com AIDS, e a atividade inflamatória causa redução dos níveis séricos deste nutriente na população em geral. Entretanto, faltam estudos que avaliem o impacto da atividade inflamatória sobre o nível sérico do retinol em pacientes com AIDS. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados transversalmente 41 pacientes internados por complicações da AIDS, que tiveram quantificados alguns marcadores de inflamação (proteína C reativa e fator de necrose tumoral alfa e concentrações séricas de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol. RESULTADOS: apesar da baixa (14,6% prevalência de hiporretinolemia evidenciou-se correlação negativa dos marcadores de inflamação com os níveis séricos de retinol e de sua proteína de ligação nos pacientes com AIDS. CONCLUSÕES: a atividade inflamatória de fase aguda está associada a baixos níveis séricos de retinol em indivíduos com AIDS.INTRODUCTION: Hyporetinolemia is an independent prognostic factor in AIDS patients. Inflammatory activity causes a reduction in the serum levels of this nutrient in the general population. However, there are no studies assessing the impact of inflammatory activity on the serum retinol level in AIDS patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted on 41 patients hospitalized due to AIDS complications. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and serum retinol and retinol binding protein concentrations were quantified. RESULTS: Despite the low (14.6% prevalence of hyporetinolemia, a significant negative correlation was observed between the inflammatory markers and the serum retinol and retinol binding protein levels in AIDS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Acute-phase inflammatory activity is associated with low serum retinol levels in individuals with AIDS.

  13. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years

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    Bárbara C.A. Saraiva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 1 to 5 years and the association of these events and retinol deficiency. METHODS: This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between April and August of 2008, with healthy children aged 1 to 5 years (n = 692 that lived in areas covered by primary healthcare services. Sociodemographic and economic conditions, dietary intake (energy, protein, iron, and vitamin A ingestion, anthropometric data (body mass index-for-age and height-for-age, and biochemical parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and retinol serum were collected. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and retinol deficiency was 15.7%, 28.1%, and 24.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a higher prevalence of anemia (PR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.36, 6.34, p < 0.001 and iron deficiency (PR: 4.51, 95% CI: 3.30, 6.17, p < 0.001 among children with retinol deficiency. The same results were obtained after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic conditions, dietary intake, and anthropometric variables. There was a positive association between ferritin vs. retinol serum (r = 0.597; p < 0.001 and hemoglobin vs. retinol serum (r = 0.770; p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency.

  14. 短期膳食赖氨酸摄入量对健康青年男性血浆PA、RBP水平的影响及意义%Effect of different dietary lysine intakes on the plasma prealbumin and retinol-binding protein levels of healthy male youths in short period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田颖; 彭景; 陈玉; 李哲光; 龚君俊; 丰晔; 陈俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide evidence to establish the lysine reference intakes for different population. Methods Seven healthy young men were selected as subjects. Five dietary lysine intakes of 25 , 35 , 45, 55 , 65 mg/( kg · d) were given to subjects from high to low every week by turns. From the 1st day to the 6th day of each experiment week were adaptation days, and the 7 th day was blood sample collection day. Plasma prealbumin and retinol-binding protein levels were detected by ELISA method. Results The actual dietary lysine intakes were 26, 41, 49, 63, 77 mg/( kg · d). There were no significant differences between the five experimental results and the results before the experiment. Conclusion There is no effect of dietary lysine intakes between 26 to 77 mg/ ( kg · d ) on the plasma prealbumin and retinol-binding protein levels of healthy young male subjects in seven days.%目的 为确定健康人群赖氨酸需要量提供理论依据.方法 选取7例健康青年男性作为研究对象,设定25、35、45、55、65mg/(kg·d)5个膳食赖氨酸水平,由高到低依次给予,每周1个剂量,共5周;每周的第1~6天为适应期,第7天采集受试者静脉血,采用ELISA法检测血浆前白蛋白(PA)、视黄醇结合蛋白(RBP)水平.结果 膳食赖氨酸的实际摄入量为26、41、49、63、77 mg/(kg·d),与实验前相比,摄入5个膳食赖氨酸水平者PA、RBP变化无统计学意义.结论 健康青年男性7天膳食赖氨酸摄入量为26 ~77 mg/(kg·d)不会对血浆PA、RBP水平造成影响.

  15. A randomized trial evaluating the effect of 2 regimens of maternal vitamin a supplementation on breast milk retinol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Danielle Soares; de Araújo, Katherine Feitosa; Azevêdo, Gabrielle Mahara Martins; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 2 different megadoses of retinyl palmitate on the level of retinol in the breast milk of healthy women. In total, 199 women were randomly allocated to 3 groups and supplemented in the postpartum period with a single retinyl palmitate dose of 200 000 IU (S1), a double dose of 200 000 IU 24 hours apart (S2), or no supplementation (C). Retinol content of colostrum and mature milk at 4 weeks was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For colostrum, no significant difference was found between the groups (P = .965). The retinol content in mature milk differed between group C and groups S1 and S2 (P retinol content of milk at 4 weeks postpartum in comparison to a single dose; however, future research is needed to determine the optimal timing of the second dose of vitamin A.

  16. Iron deficiency and anemia are associated with low retinol levels in children aged 1 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Bárbara C A; Soares, Michele C C; Santos, Luana C dos; Pereira, Simone C L; Horta, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the occurrence of anemia and iron deficiency in children aged 1 to 5 years and the association of these events and retinol deficiency. This was an observational analytic cross-sectional study conducted in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between April and August of 2008, with healthy children aged 1 to 5 years (n=692) that lived in areas covered by primary healthcare services. Sociodemographic and economic conditions, dietary intake (energy, protein, iron, and vitamin A ingestion), anthropometric data (body mass index-for-age and height-for-age), and biochemical parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and retinol serum) were collected. The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and retinol deficiency was 15.7%, 28.1%, and 24.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a higher prevalence of anemia (PR: 4.62, 95% CI: 3.36, 6.34, pAnemia and iron deficiency were associated with low levels of serum retinol in children aged 1 to 5 years, and a positive correlation was verified between serum retinol and serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. These results indicate the importance of initiatives encouraging the development of new treatments and further research regarding retinol deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal Plasma Retinol Binding Protein 4 in Acute Pyelonephritis during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dong, Zhong; Kim, Sun Kwon; Ogge, Giovanna; Gervasi, Maria Teresa; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adipokines have been implicated in metabolic regulation and the immune response thus providing a molecular mechanism for the interaction between these two systems. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a novel adipokine that plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity-induced insulin resistance, as well as in the modulation of inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are changes in maternal plasma concentrations of RBP4 in pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis. Study design This cross-sectional study included pregnant women in the following groups: 1) normal pregnancy (n=80); 2) pyelonephritis (n=39). Maternal plasma RBP4 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) The median maternal plasma RBP4 concentration was lower in patients with acute pyelonephritis than in those with a normal pregnancy (3709.6 ng/mL, IQR 2917.7-5484.2 vs. 9167.6 ng/mL, IQR 7496.1-10384.1, ppyelonephritis who had a positive blood culture and those with a negative culture (3285.3 ng/mL, IQR 2274.1-4741.1 vs. 3922.6 ng/mL, IQR 3126.8-5547.1, respectively, p=0.2); and 3) lower maternal plasma RBP4 concentrations were independently associated with pyelonephritis after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusions In contrast to what has been reported in preeclampsia, acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with lower maternal plasma RBP4 concentrations than in normal pregnancy. This finding suggests that the acute maternal inflammatory process associated with pyelonephritis is fundamentally different from that of the chronic systemic inflammatory process suggested in preeclampsia, in which RBP4 concentrations were found to be elevated. PMID:20163326

  18. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia

    2016-10-25

    Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation (p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status (p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester (p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.

  19. Effect of beta-Carotene from Yellow Ambon Banana Peel on Rat Serum Retinol Level

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    Suparmi Suparmi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from common childhood infections and is the world’s leading preventable cause of childhood blindness. Studies showed that carotenoid is one of the promissed vitamin A source. However the studies  on  carotenoid from yellow  banana peel and its potential as a natural source of vitamin A has not been widely reported. This study was conducted to measure the blood serum retinol levels of rats after administration of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel. This was an experimental study with post test only control group design, with sample size of 18 rats with age 1 month, devided into 3 groups. β-carotene dose administered based on the dose of red capsules vitamin A are (200,000 doses SI for toddlers aged 12-59 months. Serum retinol levels were measured using a spectrophotometer according metide. This present study showed that the blood serum  level in group treated with  of β - carotene from yellow ambon banana peel (28.35 ± 1.61 mg/ dL , was significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of   control group ( 22.08 ± 1.35 mg /dL . β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel are potential as provitamin A.

  20. Effect of β-Carotene from Yellow Ambon Banana Peel on Rat Serum Retinol Level

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    Suparmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from common childhood infections and is the world’s leading preventable cause of childhood blindness. Studies showed that carotenoid is one of the promissed vitamin A sources. However the studies on carotenoid from yellow banana peel and its potential as a natural source of vitamin A has not been widely reported. This study was conducted to measure the blood serum retinol levels of rats after administration of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel. This was an experimental study with post test only control group design, with sample size of 18 rats with age 1 month, devided into 3 groups. The β-carotene dose administered based on the dose of red capsules vitamin A are (200,000 doses SI for toddlers aged 12-59 months. Serum retinol levels were measured using a spectrophotometer according metide. This present study showed that the blood serum level in group treated with of β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel (28.35 ± 1.61 mg/dL, was significantly different (p < 0.05 from that of control group (22.08 ± 1.35 mg/dL. The β-carotene from yellow ambon banana peel are potential as provitamin A.

  1. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol, lycopene, and alpha- and beta-carotene simultaneously determined in plasma by isocratic liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, D B; Botnen, J

    1986-05-01

    Retinol, alpha-tocopherol, lycopene, and alpha- and beta-carotene can be simultaneously determined in human plasma by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Plasma--0.5 mL plus added internal standard, retinyl acetate--is deproteinized with 0.5 mL of ethanol, then extracted with 1.0 mL of petroleum ether. The organic layer is removed and evaporated, the residue is redissolved in 0.25 mL of ethanol, and 8-microL samples are injected into a 60 X 4.6 mm column of Hypersil ODS 3-microns particles at 35 degrees C. An isocratic methanol mobile phase, flow rate 0.9 mL/min, is used for the 9-min run. Retinol and retinyl acetate are monitored at 305 nm, the tocopherols at 292 nm, and the carotenoids at 460 nm. Between-run CVs were 3.1, 6.9, 6.1, and 6.5% for retinol, alpha-tocopherol, lycopene, and beta-carotene, respectively. Small sample requirement, simplicity of extraction, short run time, and good reproducibility make this procedure ideal for clinical or research use.

  2. Evidence that kidney function but not type 2 diabetes determines retinol-binding protein 4 serum levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Andrea; Frey, Simone K; Raila, Jens

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) links adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, circulating RBP4 levels are also affected by kidney function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether RBP4 serum levels are primarily associated with kidney...

  3. Serum retinol levels are positively correlated with hemoglobin concentrations, independent of iron homeostasis: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seyed Mojtaba; Heidari, Gholamreza; Nabipour, Iraj; Amirinejad, Roya; Assadi, Majid; Bargahi, Afshar; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Sanjdideh, Zahra

    2013-04-01

    Micronutrient interactions give rise to complex issues that have an impact on preventive strategies when multiple micronutrient deficiencies coexist. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the prevalence of vitamins A and E and iron deficiencies among women 15 to 49 years of age in the northern Persian Gulf region. We hypothesized that serum retinol levels may show correlations with hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, independent of iron status. A total of 1242 nonpregnant women of reproductive age were selected via a multistage stratified random cluster sampling technique. Serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay techniques. Serum retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined for 727 women by high-performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of anemia (Hb retinol levels exhibit a significant association with Hb concentrations after controlling for serum ferritin levels, anemia associated with chronic disease, and risk factors for anemia. Therefore, most nonpregnant women of reproductive age in the northern Persian Gulf were found to have adequate serum vitamin A and E levels. However, the status of anemia and iron deficiency anemia could be considered a mild public health problem in this region. On the basis of multivariate analyses, we conclude that low serum retinol levels may contribute to anemia, independent of iron homeostasis.

  4. Retinol-binding protein 4 in twins: regulatory mechanisms and impact of circulating and tissue expression levels on insulin secretion and action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Friedrichsen, Martin; Vaag, Allan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Retinol-binding protein (RBP) 4 is an adipokine of which plasma levels are elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aims of the study were to identify determinants of plasma RBP4 and RBP4 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle and to investigate...... expression was not associated with circulatory RBP4. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data indicate that RBP4 levels in plasma, skeletal muscle, and fat may be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in a secondary and noncausal manner....... the association between RBP4 and in vivo measures of glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study population included 298 elderly twins (aged 62-83 years), with glucose tolerance ranging from normal to overt type 2 diabetes, and 178 young (aged 25-32 years) and elderly (aged 58-66 years) nondiabetic...

  5. Retinol-binding protein-4 and hs-CRP levels in patients with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, Nermin; Celikbilek, Asuman; Metin, Aslı; Gocmen, Ayse Yesim; Inan, Levent Ertugrul

    2015-10-01

    Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels are associated with inflammation in patients with migraine. The release of proinflammatory cytokines during migraine results in recurrent sterile neurogenic inflammation. This study aimed to determine the correlation between RBP4 and hs-CRP levels, and migraine, which is considered an inflammatory disease. The study included 48 migraine patients and 40 age- and gender-matched controls. Migraine was diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders-II. The serum RBP4 level was measured using a commercial ELISA kit and hs-CRP was measured using an enzyme immunoassay test kit. The serum RBP4 level was significantly lower in the migraine patients than in the controls (P hs-CRP level was significantly higher in the migraine patients (P hs-CRP levels did not differ between the migraine patients with and without aura (P > 0.05). Migraine headache severity, frequency and duration were not correlated with serum RBP or hs-CRP levels (P > 0.05). The observed high hs-CRP level and low RBP4 level in migraine patients suggest that vitamin A might play a major role in the pathogenesis of migraine. It is known that inflammation is a key factor in many diseases. Additional research might result in a better understanding of the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin A.

  6. Cigarette smoking increases levels of retinol-binding protein-4 in healthy men with normal glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shan; WANG Yong-hui; LI Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking is related with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.Retinol-binding protein-4 is a new adipocytokine associated with insulin resistance.We investigated the serum levels of a series of adipocytokines including retinol-binding protein-4 in smokers and non-smokers to explore the possible roles of adipocytokines on smoking induced insulin resistance.Methods A total of 136 healthy male subjects (92 smokers and 44 non-smokers) with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study.Adipocytokines including retinol-binding protein-4,visfatin,leptin,resistin,adiponectin were measured for the comparison between the two groups.Serum lipid profile,glucose,true insulin and proinsulin levels were measured as well in both groups.Food intake spectrum was also investigated.Results Both groups had similar profile of food consumption; visfatin,leptin,resistin and adiponectin,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase,as well as blood pressure and body mass index,were similar in both groups.Triglycerides,retinol-binding protein-4 and homeostatic model assessment index for insulin resistance were higher in smoker group ((2.58±2.53) vs.(1.60±0.94)mmol/L,(26.05±8.50) vs.(21.83±8.40) μg/ml,and 2.25±2.08 vs.1.58±1.15,respectively).Conclusion Smoking may have effect on insulin sensitivity,which is correlated with retinol-binding protein-4.

  7. Stability of individual carotenoids, retinol and tocopherols in human plasma during exposure to light and after extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Q; Rowley, K G; O'Dea, K

    1999-06-11

    We have modified gradient HPLC procedures for simultaneous quantification of retinol, gamma-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, lutein/zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, trans-lycopene, cis-lycopene, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene in 200-microl aliquots of human plasma. The photosensitivity of these analytes in plasma exposed to fluorescent lighting for up to 72 h was investigated and most were stable under these conditions. The stability of these analytes held in darkness at -20 degrees C, 4 degrees C or room temperature for up to 48 h after extraction from plasma was also investigated. Variability in measurement of most analytes was greater at room temperature than at 4 degrees C or -20 degrees C. There were statistically significant variations in the measured concentrations of some analytes in samples kept cold. However, the magnitude of these variations was small and of little biological significance, particularly over the first 24 h.

  8. Retinol levels, iron status, malaria and intestinal parasites: TH1/TH2 cytokines relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Taylor

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La malaria, la anemia y la parasitosis intestinal coexisten y constituyen problemas de salud pública en Colombia. Datos disponibles en la literatura biomédica llevan a pensar que estos problemas no son aislados sino que están interrelacionados. Por otra parte, los suplementos de retinol han sido efectivos para reducir la mortalidad infantil, con disminución de complicaciones en niños palúdicos, posiblemente por efectos del retinol sobre la función inmune, desviando la respuesta de citocinas hacia un patrón TH2, que también protege de desarrollar anemia grave. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo describir parte de las relaciones vistas en la literatura biomédica mundial, entre retinol y malaria, retinol y anemia, retinol, malaria y parasitosis intestinal, anemia y malaria y mostrar la mediación de estas interrelaciones por el patrón de citocinas TH1/TH2 en sujetos con malaria. Metodología: Se consultaron las siguientes bases de literatura biomédica: Medline, Lilacs, Spingerlik, Md Consultant, Web of Science, Ovid, Scient Direct, Ebsco y Cochrane. También se buscó información para documentar la prevalencia de desnutrición, deficiencia subclínica de retinol, anemia y malaria en niños colombianos, lo mismo que sobre el papel antinfeccioso del retinol. Resultados: Existe asociación entre parasitosis intestinal y malaria; algunos estudios indican que los helmintos predisponen a contraer malaria en niños. De otro lado, los parásitos mencionados, también se han relacionado con anemia y bajas concentraciones plasmáticas de retinol, que a la vez se asocian con malaria. Sin embargo, no se encontró información que relacione simultáneamente todos estos tópicos y que muestre la respuesta de citocinas TH1/TH2 como la articulación de todos ellos. Conclusiones: Aclarar las múltiples interacciones entre malaria, anemia, parasitosis intestinal y deficiencia subclínica de retinol, teniendo como eje central la respuesta

  9. Avaliação dos níveis de retinol no colostro humano coletado no intervalo de 24 horas Evaluation of retinol levels in human colostrum in two samples collected at an interval of 24 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla D. S. Ribeiro

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concentração de retinol no colostro coletado em intervalo de 24 h. MÉTODOS: Coletou-se o colostro de 24 puérperas em dois períodos, tempo zero (T0 e tempo 24 h (T24, e um pool da união de T0 e T24. A gordura foi determinada pelo crematócrito, e o retinol por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: Quando expresso por volume de leite (µg/dL, o nível de retinol sofreu variações entre T0, T24 e pool: 94,9±58,9; 129±78,6 e 111,9±60,4 µg/dL, respectivamente. Entretanto, quando expresso pela quantidade de gordura (µg/g, não foi observada diferença significativa. CONCLUSÕES: O retinol quantificado no colostro através de coleta única não deve ser utilizado como indicador do estado nutricional em vitamina A, devido à grande variabilidade no decorrer das coletas. Sugere-se que os resultados sejam expressos por grama de gordura, para minimizar as variações em decorrência do volume de leite.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retinol concentration in colostrum samples collected with a 24 hour interval. METHODS: Colostrum was collected from 24 recently-delivered mothers at two points in time, 0 hours (T0 and 24 hours later (T24, and a pooled sample of colostrum from T0 and T24 was also analyzed. Fat content was determined by creamatocrit, and retinol assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: When expressed in terms of volume of milk (µg/dL, retinol levels varied across T0, T24 and the pooled sample: 94.9±58.9, 129±78.6 and 111.9±60.4 µg/dL, respectively. However, when expressed with relation to fat content (µg/g, no significant difference was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Retinol assayed in colostrum from a single sample should not be used as an indicator of vitamin A nutritional status, due to the great variation between samples collected at different times. It is suggested that results be expressed per gram of fat, in order to minimize variations resulting from the volume of milk.

  10. Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35–74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Weber, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; Jansen, Eugène; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Fiegl, Simone; Toussaint, Olivier; Bernhardt, Juergen; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Franceschi, Claudio; Sikora, Ewa; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Blood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene (r = −0.248), α-tocopherol (r = 0.208), α-carotene (r = −0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.125; all p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with lycopene (−6.5% per five-year age increase) and this association remained in the multiple regression model with the significant predictors (covariables) being country, season, cholesterol, gender, smoking status, body mass index (BMI (kg/m2)), and dietary habits. The positive association of α-tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (−4.8% vs. −3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene. PMID:27706032

  11. RBP-to-retinol ratio, but not total RBP, is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, C; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Nielsen, A R

    2009-01-01

    : We studied the ratio between RBP and retinol in 233 humans divided into groups depending on normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and presence or absence of obesity. RESULTS: Plasma RBP and retinol levels were lower in patients with T2DM than...... in individuals with NGT (p lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (p

  12. Knockdown of lecithin retinol acyltransferase increases all-trans retinoic acid levels and restores retinoid sensitivity in malignant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Philipp M; Czaja, Katharina; Bazhin, Alexandr V; Rühl, Ralph; Skazik, Claudia; Heise, Ruth; Marquardt, Yvonne; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Merk, Hans F; Baron, Jens M

    2014-11-01

    Retinoids such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) influence cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis and may play decisive roles in tumor development and progression. An essential retinoid-metabolizing enzyme known as lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is expressed in melanoma cells but not in melanocytes catalysing the esterification of all-trans retinol (ATRol). In this study, we show that a stable LRAT knockdown (KD) in the human melanoma cell line SkMel23 leads to significantly increased levels of the substrate ATRol and biologically active ATRA. LRAT KD restored cellular sensitivity to retinoids analysed in cell culture assays and melanoma 3D skin models. Furthermore, ATRA-induced gene regulatory mechanisms drive depletion of added ATRol in LRAT KD cells. PCR analysis revealed a significant upregulation of retinoid-regulated genes such as CYP26A1 and STRA6 in LRAT KD cells, suggesting their possible involvement in mediating retinoid resistance in melanoma cells. In conclusion, LRAT seems to be important for melanoma progression. We propose that reduction in ATRol levels in melanoma cells by LRAT leads to a disturbance in cellular retinoid level. Balanced LRAT expression and activity may provide protection against melanoma development and progression. Pharmacological inhibition of LRAT activity could be a promising strategy for overcoming retinoid insensitivity in human melanoma cells.

  13. 人视黄醇结合蛋白4水平升高与冠心病及其预后相关%Elevated plasma levels of retinol-binding protein-4 are associated coronary artery disease and one-year prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢芳艺; 陈忠; 丁震; 范沛英; 王鑫; 冯毅; 马根山

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether plasma levels of retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and one-year prognosis. Methods: RBP4 levels were determined by ELISA kit (IBL. Germany) in 140 patients without type 2 diabetes undergoing coronary angiography for the concern of CAD. Patients were divided into controls (normal coronary arteries, n =46) and CAD (≥50% diameter stenosis, n = 94). CAD patients were followed up for average 12 months. Major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) including recurrent anginal, recurrent infarction, deteriorated heart failure and cardiac death were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was done to determine the association between RBP4 and composite MACEs during one- year follow up. Results: Compared to the controls, patients with CAD were older, had higher prevalence of hypertension and smokers (all P <0. 05). Meanwhile, patients suffering from MACEs (n = 8) had higher levels of RBP4 than those without [ (76. 12 ± 42. 89) μg·ml-1 vs (46. 24 ± 17. 66) μg·ml-1 , P <0. 01 ] ; these patients suffering from MACEs had higher ratio of RBP4 levels 3=70 μg · ml-1 than those without (37.50% vs 9.30%, P =0.018). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that RBP4 was an independent predictor of composite MACEs during one-year follow up ( OR: 1. 091 , 95% CI:1.015-1. 172, P =0. 018) . Conclusion-. RBP-4 levels are associated with CAD and one-year prognosis. Patients with higher RBP-4 levels are at higher risk of MACEs.%目的:研究人视黄醇结合蛋白4 (RBP4)水平与冠心病及1年预后关系.方法:选择因疑诊冠心病而行冠状动脉造影的140例非糖尿病患者,其中确诊冠心病患者94例,非冠心病患者46例(作为对照).采用ELISA试剂盒(德国IBL公司)检测140例患者血浆RBP4水平.冠心病患者出院后完成1年随访,记录主要不良心脏事件(MACEs),即再发心绞痛、再发心肌梗死、心力衰竭恶化和心源性死亡.多变量回归分析RBP4与1年随

  14. The Effect of a Maternal Double Megadose of Vitamin A Supplement on Serum Levels of Retinol in Children Aged under Six Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Carmina Silva; Kruze, Ilma; Fernandes, Taciana; Andreto, Luciana Marques; Figueiroa, José Natal; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To measure concentrations of serum retinol in children after the use of maternal vitamin A double megadose supplements. Design. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting. The study was conducted at two maternity hospitals in the city of Recife, in the northeast region of Brazil between August 2007 and June 2009. Subjects and Methods. 276 children/mothers were recruited after birth and the women received a 200,000 IU capsule of vitamin A. After ten days they were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group received a second 200.000 IU capsule, while the other received a placebo. The concentrations of retinol in the serum of the children from each group were measured at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results. 173 children completed the study. There was no difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.514). The mean base retinol level was lower than that at four and six months (P retinol levels of the children, although concentrations of retinol in the children rose in the first six months of life. This trial is registered with NCT00742937.

  15. Effect of rosiglitazone on visfatin and retinol-binding protein-4 plasma concentrations in HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, D G; Schindler, K; Mittermayer, F; Müller, M; Nowotny, P; Rieger, A; Luger, A; Ludvik, B; Wolzt, M

    2007-04-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZD) may improve insulin resistance in patients with diabetes and HIV. The novel adipocytokines visfatin and retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) have been proposed to influence the development of impaired glucose tolerance. The impact of TZD on these cytokines is yet unknown. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study, 37 lean HIV-positive subjects aged 19-50 years were treated with 8 mg/day rosiglitazone (n=20) or placebo (n=17) for 6 months. Insulin sensitivity was estimated from the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Fasting visfatin, RBP-4, leptin, and adiponectin plasma concentrations were analyzed by immunoassays. Rosiglitazone had no effect on impaired insulin sensitivity, but increased median plasma visfatin from 6.2 ng/ml (95% CI: 5.9; 6.5) to 13.7 ng/ml (12.6; 19.1) (P<0.001) and adiponectin from 3.2 ng/ml (2.2; 4.0) to 4.0 ng/ml (3.3; 8.5; P<0.001). RBP-4 was lowered from 21.0 ng/ml (19.6; 23.1) to 16.3 ng/ml (15.2; 17.0; P<0.001), and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Adipocytokine concentrations were stable in subjects receiving placebo, where a deterioration in insulin sensitivity was detectable (P<0.05). Changes in visfatin and RBP-4 were correlated in subjects receiving rosiglitazone (r=-0.64, P<0.01) but not placebo (r=0.12, P=0.15). TZD treatment affects circulating adipocytokine concentrations in subjects with HIV. Reductions in RBP-4 and increases in visfatin may contribute to the pharmacodynamic action of TZD on glucose homeostasis. Quantification of adipocytokines might be useful to assess TZD treatment effectiveness in insulin-resistant subjects with HIV.

  16. Elevated serum triglyceride and retinol-binding protein 4 levels associated with fructose-sweetened beverages in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA production. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 among Taiwanese adolescents. METHODS: We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl. The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (≥24 interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r = 0.253 to 0.404, but not among non-drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4.

  17. Níveis séricos de retinol em escolares de 7 a 17 anos no município do Rio de Janeiro Serum retinol levels in school children, 7 to 17 years old in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Rejane Andréa Ramalho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional quanto à vitamina A em escolares de 7 a 17 anos. Foram analisados 574 escolares, com idade entre 7 e 17 anos, regularmente matriculados na rede municipal de ensino no Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Os níveis séricos de retinol foram determinados pelo método Bessey-Lowry modificado e o ponto de corte utilizado para caracterizar inadequação sérica de retinol foi OBJECTIVE: The vitamin A nutritional status assesment in scholars whose age is from 7 to 17 years old is the aim of this study. Data from 574 scholars have been analyzed, they were from 7 to 17 years old, and matriculated in the public educational system of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: The serum retinol levels were assessed by the modified Bessey-Lowry method and the reference point to qualify the inadequate serum retinol level was <1,05µmol/L. RESULTS: The current study has identified that 10.30% of the scholars have presented low serum retinol levels. Considering the age group, the study shows that the younger scholars can present highier percentages of inadequate serul retinol levels (11.98% for those who is 7 to 10 years old, and 7.92% for those who is from 10 to 17 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Although the serum retinol levels tends to raise according to the age, they are still low and its frequency is relevant to focus the atention to the youngest scholars, including them in micronutrients deficiency combat programs.

  18. Influência de variáveis socioeconômicas e de saúde materno-infantil sobre os níveis de retinol no colostro humano Retinol levels in human colostrum: influence of child, maternal and socioeconomic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dimenstein

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os níveis de retinol no colostro de lactantes moradoras da cidade de Natal (RN e sua relação com as variáveis socioeconômicas e de saúde materno-infantil. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 42 nutrizes saudáveis, entre 18 e 39 anos, até 48 horas pós-parto. Foram aplicados questionários para a coleta de dados socioeconômicos, antropométricos e dietéticos. O estado nutricional antropométrico foi determinado pelo índice de massa corpórea e os dados de consumo alimentar em vitamina A foram obtidos pelo inquérito dietético de história alimentar, sendo a análise realizada pelo programa Virtual Nutri. Foram coletados 2 ml de colostro, e a determinação do retinol foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: A maioria das nutrizes apresentou baixa condição socioeconômica e baixo grau de escolaridade. Entre as nutrizes, 55% apresentavam um consumo de vitamina A adequado, com uma média de ingestão de 1.398,8 µgRE/dia. O valor médio de retinol no colostro foi 93,1+51,1 µgRE/100 ml. Quando relacionado aos níveis de retinol no leite, as variáveis renda (p = 0,503, escolaridade (p = 0,708 e peso ao nascer do bebê (p = 0,499 não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Entretanto, houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o nível de retinol no leite e o estado nutricional na gestação (p = 0,016. CONCLUSÃO: A não-influência de variações socioeconômicas nos níveis de retinol do colostro sugere a existência de um mecanismo de adaptação da glândula mamária na manutenção dos níveis adequados de retinol para atender às necessidades diárias do lactente.OBJECTIVES: To determine colostrum retinol levels in breastfeeding women from the city of Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and to investigate the relationship between retinol levels in colostrum and child, maternal and socioeconomic variables. METHODS: Forty-two healthy women aged 18 to 39 years were

  19. Effects of Red Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Plasma Carotenoids Level in Chinese Male Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN ZHANG; CHUN-RONG WANG; AN-NA XUE; KE-YOU GE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Effects of red palm oil on major plasma carotenoids, tocopherol, retinol and serumlipids were evaluated when used in Chinese diet. Methods Red palm oil group (RPO) composed of 20 male subjects(aged 18-32) and soybean oil group (SBO) composed of 22 male subjects (aged18-32). Dietary fat provided about 28% of total calories, and the test oil accounted for about 60% of total dietary fat. In the 3 weeks of pretest period, diets were prepared with soybean oil, and then in the next 6 weeks subjects in each group consumed the diet prepared by test oil. Results Plasmaα-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentration of RPO group significantly increased at the time of interim (21 days) and of the end (42 days) (P<0.05), and α-tocopherol concentration significantly increased at the time of the end (42 days) in this study. Though Chinese plasma retinol level was relatively low when compared with that of Westerners, red palm oil diet showed no significant effect on adult Chinese plasma retinol level. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B of all subjects showed no significant changes in RPO group during the study. Conclusions The data in our study suggest that red palm oil is a good source of carotenoids and vitamin E when used in Chinese diet preparation, and it can significantly increase plasma concentration of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene andα-tocopherol.

  20. Homeostasis of Retinol in Lecithin:retinol Acyltransferase Gene Knockout Mice Fed a High Retinol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Limin; Tang, Xiao-Han; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the retinoid levels and gene expression in various tissues after wild type (Wt) and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase knockout (LRAT−/−) mice were fed a high retinol diet (250 IU/gram). As compared to Wt, LRAT−/− mice exhibited a greater and faster increase in serum retinol concentration (mean±S.D., Wt, 1.3±0.2 µM to 1.5±0.3 µM in 48 hours, p>0.05; LRAT−/−, 1.3±0.2 µM to 2.2±0.3 µM in 48 hours, p

  1. Serum level and polymorphisms of retinol-binding protein-4 and risk for gestational diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shimin; Liu, Qian; Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhuan

    2016-03-14

    Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) has been reported to be potentially involved in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); however, the findings are inconsistent. Our aims were to review the studies that investigated the association of serum levels and polymorphisms of RBP4 with GDM risk, and to provide recommendations for future research. The databases PubMed, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, and Web of Knowledge were searched up to October 2015 to find out studies evaluating the relationship between serum RBP4 level/ RBP4 polymorphisms and GDM risk. In the meta-analysis of serum RBP4 levels the key inclusion was that studies were designed as BMI-matched studies or had observed non-significant differences in BMI between cases and controls. Fourteen case-control studies (647 cases and 620 controls) reporting the association between serum RBP4 level and GDM risk, and three studies (1012 cases and 1605 controls) investigating the association between RBP4 polymorphisms and GDM risk were involved. Our results showed that high serum RBP4 levels represent a risk factor for GDM (pooled standardized mean difference =0.758, 95% confidence interval [0.387, 1.128]). The results of subgroup analyses based on "gestational age at blood sampling" or "diagnostic criteria" are consistent with the overall results. However, the postpartum subgroup and "before 24 weeks" subgroup both only include one article and indicate no association between serum RBP4 level and GDM risk. The meta-analysis on the association between rs3758539 polymorphism and GDM risk shows that RBP4 rs3758539 polymorphism is not associated with the development of GDM. The results of this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that RBP4 is a modest independent risk factor for GDM (i.e., nonobese patients with GDM might express RBP4 at abnormal levels). The serum RBP4 level is associated with the risk of GDM. However, the association in the first-trimester and postpartum period should be validated by further

  2. Concurrent liquid-chromatographic assay of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma, with tocopherol acetate as internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnham, D I; Smith, E; Flora, P S

    1988-02-01

    A method is described for simultaneously determining retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin in 0.25 mL of plasma. Plasma mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate is deproteinized with ethanol containing tocopherol acetate, then extracted with heptane. The evaporated organic layer is reconstituted with mobile phase (methanol/acetonitrile/chloroform, 47/47/6 by vol) and injected onto a 100 x 4.6 mm 3-micron column of Spherisorb ODS-2 (LKB) at 1.5 mL/min. The alpha- and beta-carotenes are well resolved during the 6.5-min run. Retinol is monitored at 325 nm, the tocopherols at 292 nm, and the carotenoids at 450 nm. Extraction of concentrations as great as 135 mumol/L is complete. Intrabatch CVs were 1.7%, 2.3%, 4.1%, 10.4%, 6.4%, and 3.6% for retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin, respectively. Interbatch CVs for measurements on 30 occasions over 11 weeks were about 10% for all components except alpha-tocopherol (5.3%). Results agree well with those for retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and beta-carotene in quality-control samples.

  3. Influência da resposta inflamatória de fase aguda nos níveis séricos de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol em pacientes com AIDS Influence of acute-phase inflammatory response on serum levels of retinol and retinol binding protein in HIV/AIDS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Fernandes Neves; José Fernando de Castro Figueiredo; Alceu Afonso Jordão Júnior; Hélio Vannucchi

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: a hiporretinolemia constitui fator prognóstico independente em pacientes com AIDS, e a atividade inflamatória causa redução dos níveis séricos deste nutriente na população em geral. Entretanto, faltam estudos que avaliem o impacto da atividade inflamatória sobre o nível sérico do retinol em pacientes com AIDS. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados transversalmente 41 pacientes internados por complicações da AIDS, que tiveram quantificados alguns marcadores de inflamação (proteína C reativa e f...

  4. Retinol-induced changes in the phosphorylation levels of histones and high mobility group proteins from Sertoli cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.F. Moreira

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin proteins play a role in the organization and functions of DNA. Covalent modifications of nuclear proteins modulate their interactions with DNA sequences and are probably one of the multiple factors involved in the process of switch on/off transcriptionally active regions of DNA. Histones and high mobility group proteins (HMG are subject to many covalent modifications that may modulate their capacity to bind to DNA. We investigated the changes induced in the phosphorylation pattern of cultured Wistar rat Sertoli cell histones and high mobility group protein subfamilies exposed to 7 µM retinol for up to 48 h. In each experiment, 6 h before the end of the retinol treatment each culture flask received 370 KBq/ml [32P]-phosphate. The histone and HMGs were isolated as previously described [Moreira et al. Medical Science Research (1994 22: 783-784]. The total protein obtained by either method was quantified and electrophoresed as described by Spiker [Analytical Biochemistry (1980 108: 263-265]. The gels were stained with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 and the stained bands were cut and dissolved in 0.5 ml 30% H2O2 at 60oC for 12 h. The vials were chilled and 5.0 ml scintillation liquid was added. The radioactivity in each vial was determined with a liquid scintillation counter. Retinol treatment significantly changed the pattern of each subfamily of histone and high mobility group proteins.

  5. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N; Jensen, Søren K

    2016-03-14

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose-response and chemical form. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of increasing the amount of retinol in combination with RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol in the feed given to growing mink on their retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and selected organs. The results showed that the mink met their retinol requirements from the basal diet, but there were no negative effects of supplying various amounts of retinol on their plasma α-tocopherol concentrations. On the other hand, the study showed that the cholecalciferol status in plasma, assessed as the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration, was low when retinol was supplemented in the feed at high levels. In addition, supplementation with RRR-α-tocopherol in the feed negatively affected the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol compared with supplementation with all-rac-α-tocopherol. In general, female mink had higher concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in plasma than male mink.

  6. Função renal de pacientes de unidade de terapia intensiva: creatinina plasmática e proteína carreadora do retinol urinário Renal function of intensive care unit patients: plasma creatinine and urinary retinol-binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Satoko Mizoi

    2008-12-01

    ário. CONCLUSÃO: A proteina carreadora do retinol urinário, na prática clínica, pode ser considerada um marcador mais apropriado para o diagnóstico em pacientes com risco de desenvolver uma insuficiência renal aguda, quando comparada com outros marcadores usados rotineiramente. Ademais, a proteina carreadora do retinol urinário apresenta outros aspectos de um bom teste diagnóstico - é um método prático e não-invasivo.OBJECTIVES: The early assessment of renal dysfunction using common markers does not provide either a sensitive or specific indication of renal dysfunction in critically ill patients. More specific and sensitive markers are desirable for the early detection of an initial renal pathophysiological process. Urinary retinol-binding protein could be an alternative method to early evaluation of renal function in these patients. METHODS: This study followed-up 100 critical care patients and assessed their clinical and laboratory variables, including plasma creatinine and urinary retinol-binding ratio, and demographic variables. RESULTS: The sample was characterized by geriatric (63.4±15.6 years, male (68%, being 53% surgical patients. Statistical analysis showed association between plasma creatinine and the following variables: gender (p-0.026, age (p-0.038, use of vasoactive drugs (p-0.003, proteinuria (p-0.025, Acute Physiological Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score (p-0.000, urea (p-0.000, potassium (p-0.003 and estimated creatinine clearance (p-0.000. Urinary retinol-binding protein was correlated with more variables: weight, use of invasive ventilation (p-0.000, use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (p-0.018, use of vasoactive drugs (p-0.021, high temperature (>37.5ºC (p-0.005, proteinuria (p-0.000, bilirubinuria (p-0.004, urinary flow (p-0.019, minimal diastolic pressure (p-0.032, minimal systolic pressure (p-0.029, APACHE II (p-0.000, creatinine (p-0.001, urea (p-0.001, estimated creatinine clearance (p-0.000. Urinary retinol-binding protein

  7. Retinol assessment among women and children in sahelian mobile pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Kraemer, K; Schweigert, F; Bonfoh, B; Crump, L; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2012-06-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in developing countries, particularly in remote communities such as mobile pastoralists. The nutritional and vitamin A status of this population is not well-documented in Chad. This study assessed serum retinol levels among women and children under five-year-old in nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralist and rural-settled communities, who are similarly exposed to risk factors such as gastrointestinal parasitic infection, anaemia and emaciation. The novel method of portable fluorometry was used for the first time to measure β-carotene and retinol levels in a pastoral nomadic area. Moderate level blood retinol deficiency (level blood retinol deficiency. In nomadic communities, women and children had blood retinol levels close to normal. Deficiency of retinol was strongly linked with lifestyle (nomadic, semi-nomadic and settled) among women and lifestyle and age among children. The results support an ecological linkage between human retinol levels and livestock milk retinol. This study shows the feasibility of portable retinol and β-carotene measurement in human blood as well as human and animal milk under remote field conditions, but the approach requires further validation.

  8. Male mice are susceptible to high fat diet-induced hyperglycaemia and display increased circulatory retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels and its expression in visceral adipose depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, G V; Raja Gopal Reddy, M; Mahesh, M; Vajreswari, A; Jeyakumar, S M

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A and its metabolites are known to modulate adipose tissue development and its associated complications. Here, we assessed the vitamin A status and its metabolic pathway gene expression in relation to sexual dimorphism by employing 35 days old C57BL/6J male and female mice, which were fed either stock or high fat (HF) diet for 26 weeks. HF diet feeding increased body weight/weight gain and white adipose tissue (WAT) of visceral and subcutaneous regions, however, increase in vitamin A levels observed only in subcutaneous WAT. Further, the expression of most of the vitamin A metabolic pathway genes showed no sexual dimorphism. The observed HF diet-induced hyperglycaemia in male corroborates with increased retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels in plasma and its expression in visceral adipose depots. In conclusion, the male mice are susceptible to high fat diet-induced hyperglycaemia and display higher plasma RBP4 levels, possibly due to its over-expression in visceral adipose depots.

  9. Effects of PCR-confirmed subclinical paratuberculosis on retinol and β-carotene levels in dairy cattle Efectos de paratuberculosis subclínica confirmada por PCR en los niveles de retinol y β-caroteno de ganado lechero

    OpenAIRE

    Civelek, T; HA Celik; E Ozenc; G Avci; K Kav; CC Cingi; Yilmaz, O.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of IS900 PCR-confirmed subclinical paratuberculosis on serum beta-carotene and retinol concentrations in dairy cattle were investigated. A total of 30 multiparous, clinically normal, paratuberculosis non-vaccinated Holstein dairy cows, ages 3 to 9 years old were tested. Fifteen of the 30 cows were diagnosed as having subclinical paratuberculosis by IS900 PCR on faecal samples (Group 1). The remaining 15 cows, negative to three independent tests for paratuberc...

  10. Estudo das variações dos níveis de retinol no colostro humano de parturientes a termo e pré-termo Study of retinol level variations of human colostrum among parturient women with term and pre-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illana Louise Pereira de Melo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar as variações dos níveis de retinol no colostro de parturientes a termo e pré-termo. MÉTODOS: foram analisadas amostras de leite de 78 lactantes, sendo metade delas mães de recém-nascidos prematuros. As amostras de colostro foram obtidas por expressão manual de uma mama, até 72 horas após o parto, no turno vespertino e no início da mamada, até atingir um volume de 2,0 ml. A determinação do retinol foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística através do teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: o valor médio do retinol no colostro de mães a termo (n = 39 e pré-termo (n = 39 foram, respectivamente, 89,4 ± 46,1 mig/dL e 55,6 ± 27,7 mig/dL. A diferença entre as médias foi estatisticamente significante (p OBJECTIVES: to analyze retinol levels variations in the colostrum of term and pre-term parturient women. METHODS: colostrum samples of 78 lactating women, half of which were mothers of premature newborns, were analyzed. The samples were manually extracted from one breast until 2.0 ml were obtained. They were collected up to 72 hours after birth, during the morning hours and right before nursing. Retinol levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed by the T-test for means comparison. RESULTS: the mean retinol values in the colostrums of women with term (n = 39 and pre-term newborns (n = 39 were 89,4 ± 46,1 mug/dL and 55,6 ± 27,7 mug/dL, respectively. The difference of means was considered statistically significant at (p < 0,001. Human milk meets the need for Vitamin A in the term newborn. However, for the premature newborn, it only supplied 66% of the needs. CONCLUSIONS: results suggest that exclusive use of human milk does not meet the needs of pre-term newborn completely and that a Vitamin A supplement for the mother is necessary in order to reduce Vitamin A risk deficiency.

  11. Massive bowel resection upregulates the intestinal mRNA expression levels of cellular retinol-binding protein II and apolipoprotein A-IV and alters the intestinal vitamin A status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebiguchi, Taku; Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Morii, Mayako; Watanabe, Ryo; Yoshikawa, Kiwamu; Miura, Mitsutaka; Imai, Katsuyuki; Senoo, Haruki; Yoshino, Hiroaki

    2015-03-01

    Short bowel (SB) syndrome causes the malabsorption of various nutrients. Among these, vitamin A is important for a number of physiological activities. Vitamin A is absorbed by epithelial cells of the small intestine and is discharged into the lymphatic vessels as a component of chylomicrons and is delivered to the liver. In the present study, we used a rat model of SB syndrome in order to assess its effects on the expression of genes associated with the absorption, transport and metabolism of vitamin A. In the rats with SB, the intestinal mRNA expression levels of cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II, gene symbol Rbp2) and apolipoprotein A-IV (gene symbol Apoa4) were higher than those in the sham-operated rats, as shown by RT-qPCR. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that absorptive epithelial cells stained positive for both CRBP II and lecithin retinol acyltransferase, which are both required for the effective esterification of vitamin A. In the rats with SB, the retinol content in the ileum and the retinyl ester content in the jejunum were lower than those in the sham-operated rats, as shown by quantitative analysis of retinol and retinyl esters by high performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that the elevated mRNA expression levels of Rbp2 and Apoa4 in the rats with SB contribute to the effective esterification and transport of vitamin A.

  12. The retinol esterifying enzyme LRAT supports cell signaling by retinol-binding protein and its receptor STRA6

    OpenAIRE

    Marwarha, Gurdeep; Berry, Daniel C.; Croniger, Colleen M.; Noy, Noa

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A, retinol, circulates in blood bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP). At some tissues, holo-RBP is recognized by a plasma membrane receptor termed STRA6, which serves a dual role: it mediates transport of retinol from RBP into cells, and it functions as a cytokine receptor that, on binding holo-RBP, activates JAK2/STAT5 signaling. As STAT target genes include SOCS3, an inhibitor of insulin receptor, holo-RBP suppresses insulin responses in STRA6-expressing cells. We have shown previ...

  13. Simultaneous quantification of carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols in forage, bovine plasma, and milk: validation of a novel UPLC method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauveau-Duriot, B.; Doreau, M.; Noziere, P.; Graulet, B. [UR1213 Research Unit on Herbivores, INRA, Saint Genes Champanelle (France)

    2010-05-15

    Simultaneous quantification of various liposoluble micronutrients is not a new area of interest since these compounds participate in the nutritional quality of feeds that is largely explored in human, and also in animal diet. However, the development of related methods is still under concern, especially when the carotenoid composition is complex such as in forage given to ruminants or in lipid-rich matrices like milk. In this paper, an original method for simultaneous extraction and quantification of all carotenoids, vitamins E, and A in milk was proposed. Moreover, a new UPLC method allowing simultaneous determination of carotenoids and vitamins A and E in forage, plasma and milk, and separation of 23 peaks of carotenoids in forage was described. This UPLC method using a HSS T3 column and a gradient solvent system was compared to a previously published reverse-phase HPLC using two C18 columns in series and an isocratic solvent system. The UPLC method gave similar concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins A and E than the HPLC method. Moreover, UPLC allowed a better resolution for xanthophylls, especially lutein and zeaxanthin, for the three isomers of {beta}-carotene (all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z-) and for vitamins A, an equal or better sensitivity according to gradient, and a better reproducibility of peak areas and retention times, but did not reduce the time required for analysis. (orig.)

  14. Impact of Serum Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels on Regulation of Remnant-Like Particles Triglyceride in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Yamaaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 associates with insulin resistance and remnant-like particles triglyceride (RLP-TG elevated in the insulin resistant state, few data exist regarding the relationship between RBP4 and RLP-TG. Subjects and Methods. The study included 92 Japanese type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM male patients (age years, body mass index (BMI  kg/m2, waist circumference (WC  cm, and HbA1c (NGSP %. Patients on medications affecting insulin sensitivity, including fibrates, biguanides, and thiazolidinedione, were excluded. Visceral fat area (VFA and subcutaneous fat area (SFA were measured by computed tomography. Results. RBP4 levels showed a significant positive correlation with RLP-TG ( and , TG ( and , RLP-TG/TG ( and , and age ( and , although there was no significant correlation with VFA, SFA, adiponectin levels, or homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-R. Multiple regression analysis revealed that RBP4 was an independent determinant of RLP-TG ( but was not a determinant of TG. Conclusions. RBP4 correlates positively with serum RLP-TG independent of fat accumulation in T2DM. RBP4 may regulate remnant metabolism independent of glycemic control in T2DM.

  15. Retinol binding protein 4 and retinol in steatotic and nonsteatotic rat livers in the setting of partial hepatectomy under ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Miró, Maria; Massip-Salcedo, Marta; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian; Mendes-Braz, Mariana; Ramalho, Fernando; Jiménez-Castro, Mónica B; Casillas-Ramírez, Araní; Bermudo, Raquel; Rimola, Antoni; Rodes, Juan; Peralta, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Steatotic livers show increased hepatic damage and impaired regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) under ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which is commonly applied in clinical practice to reduce bleeding. The known function of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is to transport retinol in the circulation. We examined whether modulating RBP4 and/or retinol could protect steatotic and nonsteatotic livers in the setting of PH under I/R. Steatotic and nonsteatotic livers from Zucker rats were subjected to PH (70%) with 60 minutes of ischemia. RBP4 and retinol levels were measured and altered pharmacologically, and their effects on hepatic damage and regeneration were studied after reperfusion. Decreased RBP4 levels were observed in both liver types, whereas retinol levels were reduced only in steatotic livers. RBP4 administration exacerbated the negative consequences of liver surgery with respect to damage and liver regeneration in both liver types. RBP4 affected the mobilization of retinol from steatotic livers, and this revealed actions of RBP4 independent of simple retinol transport. The injurious effects of RBP4 were not due to changes in retinol levels. Treatment with retinol was effective only for steatotic livers. Indeed, retinol increased hepatic injury and impaired liver regeneration in nonsteatotic livers. In steatotic livers, retinol reduced damage and improved regeneration after surgery. These benefits of retinol were associated with a reduced accumulation of hepatocellular fat. Thus, strategies based on modulating RBP4 could be ineffective and possibly even harmful in both liver types in the setting of PH under I/R. In terms of clinical applications, a retinol pretreatment might open new avenues for liver surgery that specifically benefit the steatotic liver.

  16. Inverse association between intelligence quotient and urinary retinol binding protein in Chinese school-age children with low blood lead levels: results from a cross-sectional investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Chen, Wen; Wang, Dongyue; Jin, Yinlong; Chen, Xiaodong; Xu, Yan; Huang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Examine the relationship between blood lead concentration and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) in Chinese children 8-12 years old. This is a cross-sectional study, and participants included 446 children from three primary schools in Jiangsu, China. We collected environmental and genetic information from questionnaires. Blood lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). IQ was assessed using the Combined Raven's Test and then converted to a standard IQ score according to Chinese children's norm. Morning urine samples were collected to measure retinol binding protein (RBP). The average blood lead concentration was 33.13 μg L(-1) (geometric mean), and the blood lead concentration (BoxCox transform) was inversely and significantly associated with IQ (r=-0.11, p=0.02). The geometric mean of blood Mn, Cd and Se was 7.02 μg L(-1), 0.18 μg L(-1) and 94.77 μg L(-1), respectively. Blood Mn, Cd and Se showed no association with IQ, but all of them associated with urinary RBP. Urinary RBP was identified as a new factor associated with IQ (β=-6.49, p=0.011). Urinary RBP was recognized as a new indicated factor associated with children's IQ. Mn, Cd and Se exposure might affect urinary RBP concentration and further IQ. Findings also support that blood lead concentrations in 8-12 years old children, even <44 μg L(-1), have a negative association with IQ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Saturation of retinol-binding protein correlates closely to the severity of alcohol-induced liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagnerberger, S.; Schäfer, C.; Bode, C.;

    2006-01-01

    Impaired metabolism of retinol has been shown to occur in alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the saturation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) in 6 patients with different stages of ALD. Hospitalized alcohol consumers (n=118) with different stages......: 43.5+/-6.2%; ALD3: 29.0+/-5.1%). The present study indicates that plasma concentrations of retinol and RBP per se do not correlate to severity of ALD, but rather that the retinol/RBP ratio links to the severity of alcohol-induced liver damage. From these results, a reduced availability of retinol...

  18. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者血清维生素A和视黄醇结合蛋白-4水平及其与营养状况的关系%Serum retinol and retinol binding protein-4 levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their relationship to nutritional status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦洪珍; 王秋月; 韩丽萍; 康健; 于润江

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨COPD患者血清维生素A和视黄醇结合蛋白-4(RBP_4)水平及其与营养状况的关系.方法 2006年9月至2007年9月在中国医科大学附属第一医院门诊随访的110例COPD稳定期患者为COPD组,同期90例健康体检者为对照组,采用高效液相色谱法测定所有研究对象的血清维生素A水平,采用酶联免疫吸附试验检测COPD组中62例和对照组中20例的血清RBP_4水平.计数资料采用X~2检验,两组间均数比较采用t检验,多组间比较采用单因素方差分析及SNK-q检验,影响因素分析采用直线相关和多元逐步回归分析.结果 COPD组血清维生素A和RBP_4水平分别为(275±11)μg/L和(7.4±2.6)mg/L,明显低于对照组的(338±13)μg/L和(11.4±4.1)mg/L;COPD营养不良组血清维生素A和RBP_4水平分别为(246±18)μg/L和(6.4±1.0)mg/L,明显低于COPD营养正常组的(290±14)μg/L和(8.2±3.2)mg/L.COPD患者血清维生素A和RBP_4水平均与体重指数和上臂围呈显著正相关(r值为0.210~0.469,均P<0.05和P<0.01).体重指数和上臂围是COPD)患者血清维生素A的独立影响因素.结论 COPD稳定期患者血清维生素A和RBP_4水平均明显降低,营养状况是其主要影响因素.%Objective To explore the serum retinol and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP_4) levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to investigate their relationship with the nutritional status. Methods The serum retinol level was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 110 outpatients with stable COPD during Sept 2006 to Sept. 2007, and 90 healthy volunteers served as the controls. The serum RBP_4 level in 62 stable COPD outpatients and 20 healthy controls was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ). Associated factors with the serum retinol and RBP_4 levels were analyzed, t-test and one-way ANOVA were used for the statistic analysis. Results The serum retinol and RBP_4 levels in COPD patients

  19. Bioconversion of Carotenoids in Five Fruits and Vegetables to Vitamin A Measured by Retinol Accumulation in Rat Livers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Carrillo-Lopez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent and major nutritional problems in developing countries, especially in young children. In many countries, a substantial proportion of dietary vitamin A is commonly derived from pro-vitamin A carotenoids obtained from colored fruits and orange or green vegetables. However, the bioavailability of retinol derived from carotenoids from these plant sources is not well known. Approach: The present study analyzed β-Carotene and Total Carotenoids (TC composition of carrots (Daucus carota, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Spinach (Spinacea oleracea, mangoes (Mangifera indica and papayas (Carica papaya and determined the bioconversion of their carotenoids to vitamin A by monitoring the levels of retinol accumulated in liver and plasma of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus. Products were freeze-dried, β-Carotene content analyzed by HPLC and TC by Spectrophotometry. Results: Carrots presented the highest content of β-carotene followed by parsley with 32.8 and 19.6 mg 100 g-1, respectively. Spinach had the highest content of TC followed by parsley with 60.7 and 56.7 mg 100 g-1, respectively. Four-week-old male Wistar rats received a standard diet as an adaptation period, a diet free of Carotenoids and Vitamin A (CVA-diet as depletion period and finally a Fruit or Vegetable (FoV based diet as repletion period. The highest β-carotene bioconversion was for mango and the lowest for parsley, whereas the highest TC bioconversion was for carrots and the lowest for parsley. There were no significant differences in plasma retinol between treatments. Conclusion/Recommendations: There was no relation between carotenoids content in FoV-based diet and retinol status in plasma. Furthermore, the employment of a general retinol conversion factor is regarded as not appropriate. So, it is recommended to consider specific conversion factors for groups of horticultural crops, for example, a factor for green leafy

  20. Alcohol Drinking Obliterates the Inverse Association Between Serum Retinol and Risk of Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ken-Chung; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Ou, Chun-Yen; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Lee, Wei-Ting; Fang, Sheen-Yie; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Huang, Jehn-Shyun; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Wu, Jiunn-Liang; Yen, Chia-Jui; Wu, Yuan-Hua; Lin, Forn-Chia; Yang, Ming-Wei; Chang, Jang-Yang; Liao, Hsiao-Chen; Wu, Shang-Yin; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Lin, Chen-Lin; Wang, Yi-Hui; Weng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Han-Chien; Chen, Yu-Shan; Chang, Jeffrey S

    2015-07-01

    This analysis evaluated the association between serum retinol levels and risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) and whether the association is modulated by the use of alcohol, betel quid, or cigarette. In addition, we also examined the association between HNC risk and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms, TTR rs1667255 and RBP4 rs10882272, that have been associated with serum retinol levels. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk among 160 HNC cases and 198 controls. The associations between TTR rs1667255 and RBP4 rs10882272 and serum retinol levels or HNC risk were evaluated by linear regression and unconditional logistic regression, respectively, for 418 HNC cases and 497 controls. The results showed that HNC cases had a lower mean serum retinol level compared with controls (845.3 μg/L vs 914.8 μg/L, P = 0.03). An inverse association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk occurred among never/occasional alcohol drinkers but not among regular drinkers. TTR rs1667255 was associated with serum retinol levels; however, neither TTR rs1667255 nor RBP4 rs10882272 was associated with HNC risk. In summary, this study showed an inverse association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk, specifically among never/occasional alcohol drinkers. More studies are needed to establish the underlying biologic mechanisms for the inverse association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk and the modulation of this relationship by alcohol drinking.

  1. 视黄醇结合蛋白在肾脏疾病中的诊断意义%Serum retinol binding protein levels in renal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高婵; 王鸣; 费晓; 徐群红; 赵宁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate serum retinol binding protein (RBP) levels in renal diseases. Methods Serum RBP, creatinine,urea,albumin, parathyroid hormone(PTH),β2 microglobulin were determined in 167 patients with renal disease. Results The serum creatinine, urea, PTH, RBP and β2 microglobulin levels were increased with the decreasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR). When GFR was lower than 60 ml/ (min·1.73m2), there were significant differences in serum RBP, creatinine and β2 mi-croglobulin levels between patients and controls. RBP levels were positively correlated with creatinine, urea, PTH and β2 mi-croglobulin(P<0.05);negatively correlated with endogenous creatinine clearance rate (Ccr) (P<0.05). Conclusion Serum RBP levels are increased in renal diseases, which may indicate the degree of severity of renal impairment in patients with nephropathy.%目的:探讨视黄醇结合蛋白(RBP)检测在肾脏疾病中的诊断意义。方法检测167例肾病患者和57例健康体检者的血清RBP、尿素氮、肌酐、血白蛋白、甲状旁腺素(PTH)、β2微球蛋白,计算肌酐清除率,探讨RBP与传统肾功能指标的关系以及其在诊断肾脏疾病中的临床意义。结果随肾小球滤过率(GFR)降低,尿素氮、肌酐、RBP、PTH、β2微球蛋白水平逐渐增高,当GFR<60ml/(min·1.73m2)时,肌酐、RBP、β2微球蛋白水平较对照组明显增高(P<0.05);RBP与肌酐、尿素氮、PTH、β2微球蛋白呈正相关(P<0.05),与内生肌酐清除率呈负相关(P<0.05)。随着肾功能逐渐下降,血RBP检测阳性率逐渐增高。结论 RBP是可作为早期诊断肾脏疾病的重要指标。

  2. Retinol Esterification by DGAT1 Is Essential for Retinoid Homeostasis in Murine Skin*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Michelle Y. S.; Kane, Maureen A.; Zhou, Ping; Yen, C. L. Eric; Streeper, Ryan S.; Napoli, Joseph L.; Farese, Robert V

    2009-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a potent signaling molecule that is essential for many biological processes, and its levels are tightly regulated by mechanisms that are only partially understood. The synthesis of RA from its precursor retinol (vitamin A) is an important regulatory mechanism. Therefore, the esterification of retinol with fatty acyl moieties to generate retinyl esters, the main storage form of retinol, may also regulate RA levels. Here we show that the neutral lip...

  3. Effect of the diet on the levels of carotenoids, retinol and alpha-tocopherol in biological fluids and tissues from animals of different species

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Alonso, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    En la presente tesis doctoral hemos estudiado el efecto de diferentes dieras en los niveles de carotenoides, retinoides y ¿-tocoferol en tejidos biológicos que diferentes especies ganaderas (caprino, ovino, porcino, vacuno y equino). Tanto los carotenoides como las vitaminas liposolubles, entre ellas el retinol y el tocoferol, pueden conferir propiedades saludables a los productos animales y, así, mejorar el punto de vista de los consumidores respecto a ellos. Estos compuestos se encuentran p...

  4. Megalin-mediated reuptake of retinol in the kidneys of mice is essential for vitamin A homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, Jens; Willnow, Thomas E; Schweigert, Florian J

    2005-11-01

    The reuptake of retinol (ROH) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) in the kidneys is mediated by the endocytic receptor megalin, suggesting an important role for this receptor in vitamin A (VA) metabolism. We examined the extent to which megalin deficiency may affect urinary ROH excretion, levels of ROH and RBP in plasma, as well as storage of VA in liver and kidney. For this purpose, mice with a kidney-specific megalin gene defect (megalin(lox/lox); apoE(Cre)) and control mice (megalin(lox/lox)) were fed either a basal diet containing 4500 retinol equivalents (RE)/kg diet or a diet without VA during experimental periods of 42 and 84 d. Urinary ROH excretion was observed only in megalin(lox/lox); apoE(Cre) mice (P levels in the liver (P levels of VA were not affected by the receptor gene defect. The findings demonstrate that urinary ROH excretion caused by megalin deficiency requires accelerated mobilization of hepatic VA stores to maintain normal plasma ROH levels, which suggests that megalin plays an essential role in systemic VA homeostasis.

  5. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Kodex, M.; Kastelein, J.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels represent an increased risk for cardiac events. This has enhanced the interest in identifying agents that can normalize elevated plasma fibrinogen levels. Agents that have this capacity are the lipid lowering fibric acid derivatives (e.g. ciprofibrate) and the plate

  6. Relationship between Plasma Retinol-binding Protein 4 and Intima-media Thickness of Common Iliac Artery in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetics%新诊T2DM患者血浆RBP4与髂动脉内中膜厚度的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟慧; 漆辉洲; 游咏; 陈雯; 冯聚玲; 谢娟; 李熠

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between the concentration of plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and intima-media thickness of common iliac artery (CIA-IMT) in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. Methods There were 180 newly diagnosed T2DM patients in study. Their plasma retinol-binding protein 4 level and other clinic index were tested. The patients were divided into three groups based on the concentrations of RBP4 to compare their CIA-IMT. The relevance of RBP4 and other parameters were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Results CIA-IMT of RBP4 high tertile group was significantly thicker than other groups ( P<0.05). It is showed by Pearson correlation analysis that the concentration of RBP4 in T2DM patients is positively correlated with BMI, FBS, PBS, FINS and HOMA-IR.Conclusion CIA-IMT in newly diagnosed T2DM patients is closely correlated with plasma RBP4 levels.%目的:探讨新诊2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者血浆视黄醇结合蛋白4(RBP4)与髂动脉内中膜厚度(CIA-IMT)的关系。方法180例新诊T2DM患者测定血浆RBP4浓度、血糖、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、血脂、胰岛素(FINS)及CIA-IMT,根据RBP4浓度由低到高按三分位法将180例患者分为三组,比较其CIA-IMT;用Pearson相关分析分析RBP4与其他指标的相关性。结果T2DM患者RBP4上三分位组CIA-IMT比其余两组增厚,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);Pearson相关分析显示T2DM患者血浆RBP4与BMI、FBS、PBS、FINS及HOMA-IR呈正相关。结论新诊T2DM患者的血浆RBP4水平与CIA-IMT密切相关。

  7. Effects of egg and vitamin A supplementation on hemoglobin, retinol status and physical growth levels of primary and middle school students in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiaoyang; Wei, Xiaoping; Tang, Xianqiang; Jiang, Hongpeng; Fan, Zhen; Yu, Qin; Chen, Jie; Liu, Youxue; Li, Tingyu

    2013-01-01

    Lack of protein and vitamin A influences the growth of student in impoverished mountain areas. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of egg and vitamin A supplementation on hemoglobin, serum retinol and anthropometric indices of 10-18 years old students of a low socioeconomic status. A total number of 288 students from four boarding schools were randomly selected by using cluster sampling method in Chongqing, and they were assigned into supplement group and control group non-randomly. Students in supplement group received a single 200,000 international units vitamin A and 1 egg/day (including weekends) for 6 months. The control group did not receive any supplementation. We measured hemoglobin, serum retinol and height and weight at baseline and after supplementation. The supplementation increased the mean hemoglobin concentration by 7.13 g/L compared with 1.38 g/L in control group (ppoverty-stricken areas. Our intervention did not have a beneficial effect on linear growth.

  8. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D

    1988-12-01

    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  9. Effect of renal replacement therapy on retinol-binding protein 4 isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Simone K; Henze, Andrea; Nagl, Britta;

    2009-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are elevated in the serum of patients with kidney dysfunction. We recently showed that RBP4 isoforms including apo-RBP4 (RBP4 not bound to retinol) and RBP4 truncated at the C-terminus (RBP4-L, RBP4-LL) are increased in the serum of patients with kidney dis...

  10. Disruption of the lecithin:retinol acyltransferase gene makes mice more susceptible to vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Limin; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2005-12-02

    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) catalyzes the esterification of retinol (vitamin A) in the liver and in some extrahepatic tissues, including the lung. We produced an LRAT gene knock-out mouse strain and assessed whether LRAT-/- mice were more susceptible to vitamin A deficiency than wild type (WT) mice. After maintenance on a vitamin A-deficient diet for 6 weeks, the serum retinol level was 1.34 +/- 0.32 microM in WT mice versus 0.13 +/- 0.06 microM in LRAT-/- mice (p retinol levels ranged from 0.05 pmol/mg (muscle and tongue) to 17.35 +/- 2.66 pmol/mg (liver) in WT mice. In contrast, retinol was not detectable (retinol levels in serum rapidly increased in the LRAT-/- mice upon re-addition of vitamin A to the diet, indicating that serum retinol levels in LRAT-/- mice can be conveniently modulated by the quantitative manipulation of dietary retinol.

  11. Effect of antihypertensive drugs on plasma adiponection and retinol binding protein 4 in elderly patients with essential hypertension%降压药物对老年高血压患者血浆脂联素和视黄醛结合蛋白4含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹萍; 沈丹; 钟亚; 李睿

    2013-01-01

    ,perindopril and valsartan respectively for at least 12 weeks.The changes in blood pressure,heart rate,body height,body mass index (BMI),abdominal circumference,waist circumference (WC),levels of blood lipids,plasma adiponection and retinol binding protein 4 were observed before and after treatment.Results Compared with pre-treatment,systolic blood pressure in 3 groups were significantly decreased after treatment (all P<0.01).There were no significant differences in blood pressure among 3 groups after treatment (all P>0.05).Compared with pre treatment,plasma adiponectin level was significantly increased in perindopril group and valsartan group after treatment [(7.4±1.8) μg/L vs.(8.3± 1.8) μg/L,(7.5±1.7) μg/L vs.(8.4±1.9)μg/L,both P<0.01].Plasma adiponectin level was higher in perindopril group and valsartan group than in amlodipine group after treatment [(8.3±1.8) μg/L vs.(7.6±1.8) μg/L,(8.4±1.9) μg/Lvs.(7.6±1.8) μg/L,both P<0.05].Compared with pretreatment,plasma retinol binding protein 4 level in 3 groups were all decreased after treatment,and the decrements had significant differences in perindopril group and valsartan group (both P<0.01) but had no difference in amlodipine group (P>0.05).Plasma adiponectin retinol binding protein 4 levels were lower in perindopril group and valsartan group than in amlodipine group after treatment[(36.6± 14.2) μg/L vs.(42.7± 13.8) μg/L,(36.3±14.1) μg/L vs.(42.7±13.8) μg/L,respectively,both P<0.01].Conclusions Perindopril and valsartan play important roles in cardiovascular protection beyond the antihypertensive effects by increasing plasma adiponection level and decreasing plasma retinol binding protein 4 level in elderly patients with hypertension.

  12. Retinol binding protein 4 concentrations are influenced by renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Takayuki; Anan, Futoshi; Tsubone, Tetsuo; Gotoh, Koro; Chiba, Seiichi; Katsuragi, Isao; Nawata, Tomoko; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2008-10-01

    Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4), a newly discovered adipocytokine, has been involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. We assess the impacts of renal function on plasma RBP-4 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with a wide range of nephropathy. Plasma RBP-4 levels were measured using the enzyme immunoassay method in 38 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with nephropathy and were compared with those in 20 patients with normoalbuminuria. The levels of plasma RBP-4 were increased by 1.4- and 3.3-fold in patients with renal disease with macroalbuminuria (P = .04) and end-stage renal disease (plasma creatinine level >2.0 mg/dL) (P diabetes mellitus patients. In addition, RBP-4 levels were correlated with HOMA-r and TGL in diabetic subjects without end-stage renal disease.

  13. Comparison of plasma levels of nutrient-related biomarkers among Japanese populations in Tokyo, Japan, São Paulo, Brazil, and Hawaii, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Franke, Adrian A; Hamada, Gerson S; Miyajima, Nelson T; Sharma, Sangita; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of Japanese migrants have suggested that the increase in colorectal cancer rates occurring after migration is slower among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese Americans. We hypothesized that this difference may partly reflect differences in vegetable and fruit intake between the populations. Using data from validation studies of food frequency questionnaires being used in comparative case-control studies of colorectal adenoma in Tokyo, São Paulo, and Hawaii, plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and coenzyme Q10 levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma levels were compared by analysis of covariance between 142 Japanese in Tokyo, 79 Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo, and 78 Japanese Americans in Hawaii. Overall, we found significantly lower plasma carotenoid levels, except for lycopene levels, and retinol levels in Japanese Americans compared with Japanese in Tokyo and Japanese Brazilians. The plasma total carotenoid level was highest in Japanese Brazilians. Compared with the mean level among Japanese Brazilians (1741.2 ng/ml), P for difference was 0.03 among Japanese in Tokyo (1514.4 ng/ml) and less than 0.01 for Japanese Americans (1257.7 ng/ml). Plasma lycopene and tocopherol levels did not substantially differ between the three populations. We also found significantly lower plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and total coenzyme Q10 in Japanese in Tokyo than in Japanese Americans and Japanese Brazilians. Higher levels of plasma carotenoids among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese in Tokyo and Hawaii may have contributed to the slower pace of the increase in colorectal cancer rates observed in that population after migration.

  14. 尿β2MG、RBP水平与重金属中毒分析%Analysis of Urinary β2-microglobulin,Retinol Binding Protein Levels and Heavy Metal Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁华敏; 李毅刚; 丁献山

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨重金属中毒病人尿中β2微球蛋白(β2MG)、视黄醇结合蛋白(RBP)之间相关性.方法 回顾分析本院收治73例重金属中毒病例的尿β2MG、RBP同时升高的资料,用SPSS17.0对其进行了直线相关性分析.结果 73例中毒病例,尿镉高者占76.7%,镉中毒者占6.8%,镉观察对象占2.7%,铅中毒者占9.7%,砷中毒者占4.1%;尿β2MG与RBP之间r=-0.018(P>0.05);RBP女性高于男性(P<0.05).结论 尿β2MG、RBP在镉超标中常见,但不具有直线相关性.%Objective To explore the correlation between β2 microglobulin and retinoid binding protein in heavy metal poisoning patient's urine. Methods The data about simultaneously elevated levels of β2 microglobulin and retinoid binding protein of 73 heavy metal poisoning patients were retrospectively analyzed, and SPSS17.0 software was used to conduct linear correlation analysis. Results Among 73 patients, there were 76.7% of higher urinary cadmium, 6.8 % of cadmium poisoning, 2.7% of cadmium observed objects, 9.7% of lead poisoning, and 4.1% of arsenic poisoning. The coefficient r of linear correlation between β2 microglobulin and retinol binding protein was -0.018 (P>0.05). Retinol binding protein in women was higher than that of men (P < 0.05). Conclusions Elevated levels of urinary β2 - microglobulin and retinol binding protein are common in patients with excessive cadmium, but there is no linear correlation between them.

  15. The new platinum-based anticancer agent LA-12 induces retinol binding protein 4 in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchal Pavel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial pharmacokinetic study of a new anticancer agent (OC-6-43-bis(acetato(1-adamantylamineamminedichloroplatinum (IV (LA-12 was complemented by proteomic screening of rat plasma. The objective of the study was to identify new LA-12 target proteins that serve as markers of LA-12 treatment, response and therapy monitoring. Methods Proteomic profiles were measured by surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS in 72 samples of rat plasma randomized according to LA-12 dose and time from administration. Correlation of 92 peak clusters with platinum concentration was evaluated using Spearman correlation analysis. Results We identified Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 whose level correlated with LA-12 level in treated rats. Similar results were observed in randomly selected patients involved in Phase I clinical trials. Conclusions RBP4 induction is in agreement with known RBP4 regulation by amantadine and cisplatin. Since retinol metabolism is disrupted in many cancers and inversely associates with malignancy, these data identify a potential novel mechanism for the action of LA-12 and other similar anti-cancer drugs.

  16. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of nonretinoid retinol binding protein 4 antagonists for the potential treatment of atrophic age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Christopher L; Dobri, Nicoleta; Freeman, Emily E; Conlon, Michael P; Chen, Ping; Stafford, Douglas G; Schwarz, Daniel M C; Golden, Kathy C; Zhu, Lei; Kitchen, Douglas B; Barnes, Keith D; Racz, Boglarka; Qin, Qiong; Michelotti, Enrique; Cywin, Charles L; Martin, William H; Pearson, Paul G; Johnson, Graham; Petrukhin, Konstantin

    2014-09-25

    Accumulation of lipofuscin in the retina is associated with pathogenesis of atrophic age-related macular degeneration and Stargardt disease. Lipofuscin bisretinoids (exemplified by N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine) seem to mediate lipofuscin toxicity. Synthesis of lipofuscin bisretinoids depends on the influx of retinol from serum to the retina. Compounds antagonizing the retinol-dependent interaction of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) with transthyretin in the serum would reduce serum RBP4 and retinol and inhibit bisretinoid formation. We recently showed that A1120 (3), a potent carboxylic acid based RBP4 antagonist, can significantly reduce lipofuscin bisretinoid formation in the retinas of Abca4(-/-) mice. As part of the NIH Blueprint Neurotherapeutics Network project we undertook the in vitro exploration to identify novel conformationally flexible and constrained RBP4 antagonists with improved potency and metabolic stability. We also demonstrate that upon acute and chronic dosing in rats, 43, a potent cyclopentyl fused pyrrolidine antagonist, reduced circulating plasma RBP4 protein levels by approximately 60%.

  17. Retinol binding protein detecing level analysis in diabetic nephropathy patients%糖尿病肾病患者视黄醇结合蛋白检测水平分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analysis the of retinol binding protein (Retinol Binding Protein RBP) level in patients with diabetic nephropathy (Diabetic nephropathy, DN)) for the value of early diagnosis of kidney injury. Methods:In the Hitachi 7180 automatic biochemical analyzer (divided into DM group, DN group, DN group, early clinical) in patients with DN (experimental group) 87 cases were detected and 80 healthy subjects (control group) and serum RBP (SRBP) and urine RBP (URBP) level, while the conventional detection of serum indexes of microalbuminuria (mAlb), urea (UREA) and creatinine (CREA) levels were detected, and the detection results were compared statistically analysis.Results:The experimental group SRBP, URBP, mAlb, UREA and CREA levels were higher than those in the control group (P0.05);the early DN group:SRBP and URBP were significantly higher than those in the control group (p 0.05); clinical stage DN group: SRBP, URBP and mAlb were significantly higher than those in the control group (p<0.01), UREA and CREA higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:RBP testing can be used as a sensitive index of early renal damage in DN, monitoring of RBP levels with DN patients than hematuria, monitoring of mAlb, UREA and CREA levels can reflect the condition of earlier renal tubular injury, in order to achieve the goal of early diagnosis.%目的:分析视黄醇结合蛋白(Retinol Binding Protein RBP)水平在糖尿病肾病(Diabetic nephropathy, DN))早期肾损伤诊断中的应用价值。方法:在日立7180全自动生化分析仪上检测87例(分为单纯DM组、早期DN组、临床DN组)DN患者(实验组)及80例健康者(对照组)血清RBP(SRBP)和尿液RBP(URBP)水平,同时对常规检测指标血清尿微量白蛋白(mAlb)、尿素(UREA)和肌酐(CREA)的水平检测,并对其检测结果进行比较统计学分析。结果:实验组SRBP、URBP、mAlb、UREA和CREA水平均高于对照组(P<0.05或P<0.01

  18. Vitamin A metabolism in benign and malignant melanocytic skin cells: importance of lecithin/retinol acyltransferase and RPE65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Philipp M; Luo, Chonglin; Owen, Robert W; Hofmann, Claudia; Freudenberger, Muriel; Schadendorf, Dirk; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Bazhin, Alexandr V

    2012-02-01

    Disturbance in vitamin A metabolism seems to be an important attribute of cancer cells. Retinoids, particularly retinoic acid, have critical regulatory functions and appear to modulate tumor development and progression. The key step of vitamin A metabolism is the esterification of all-trans retinol, catalyzed by lecithin/retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). In this work, we show that malignant melanoma cells are able to esterify all-trans retinol and subsequently isomerize all-trans retinyl esters (RE) into 11-cis retinol, whereas their benign counterparts-melanocytes are not able to catalyze these reactions. Besides, melanoma cell lines express lecithin/retinol acyltranseferase both at the mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, melanocytes do not express this enzyme at the protein level, but mRNA of lecithin/retinol acyltransefrase could still be present at mRNA level. RPE65 is expressed in both melanocytic counterparts, and could be involved in the subsequent isomerization of RE produced by lecithin/retinol acyltransefrase to 11-cis retinol. Cellular retinol-binding protein 2 does not appear to be involved in the regulation of all-trans retinol esterification in these cells. Expression of LRAT and RPE65 can be modulated by retinoids. We propose that the post-transcriptional regulation of lecithin/retinol acyltransefrase could be involved in the differential expression of this enzyme. Besides, activities of LRAT and RPE65 may be important for removal of all-trans retinal which is the substrate for retinoic acid production in skin cells. Consequently, the decreasing cellular amount of retinoic acid and its precursor molecules could result in a change of gene regulation.

  19. Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase is critical for cellular uptake of vitamin A from serum retinol-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, Jaume; Golczak, Marcin; Palczewski, Krzysztof; von Lintig, Johannes

    2012-07-13

    Vitamin A (all-trans-retinol) must be adequately distributed within the mammalian body to produce visual chromophore in the eyes and all-trans-retinoic acid in other tissues. Vitamin A is transported in the blood bound to retinol-binding protein (holo-RBP), and its target cells express an RBP receptor encoded by the Stra6 (stimulated by retinoic acid 6) gene. Here we show in mice that cellular uptake of vitamin A from holo-RBP depends on functional coupling of STRA6 with intracellular lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). Thus, vitamin A uptake from recombinant holo-RBP exhibited by wild type mice was impaired in Lrat(-/-) mice. We further provide evidence that vitamin A uptake is regulated by all-trans-retinoic acid in non-ocular tissues of mice. When in excess, vitamin A was rapidly taken up and converted to its inert ester form in peripheral tissues, such as lung, whereas in vitamin A deficiency, ocular retinoid uptake was favored. Finally, we show that the drug fenretinide, used clinically to presumably lower blood RBP levels and thus decrease circulating retinol, targets the functional coupling of STRA6 and LRAT to increase cellular vitamin A uptake in peripheral tissues. These studies provide mechanistic insights into how vitamin A is distributed to peripheral tissues in a regulated manner and identify LRAT as a critical component of this process.

  20. The application of correction factors on serum retinol of Indonesia school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drupadi Dillon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin A deficiency among children is still a public health problem in Indonesia. Serum/plasma retinol concentration is the best indicator in assessing vitamin A status. However, there is growing concern that infection/ inflammation lowers serum  retinol concentration, thus creating potential misinterpretation of vitamin A status, which could affect policy makers in planning suitable nutrition programs targeted at community. The aim of this study was to highlight the importance of applying correction factors, to better interpret serum retinol as a nutritional statusbiomarker.Methods: A cross sectional study involving 54 apparently healthy school children was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara. Height, body weight, concentrations of serum retinol, CRP and AGP were assessed. Based on concentrations of serum CRP and AGP, four infl ammation groups were determined, namely reference,  incubation, early convalescence and late convalescence groups. Correction factor was obtained by dividing serum retinol  concentration of reference group by that of the other three groups. Correction factors were then used to correct serum retinol concentration without any  influence of infection/ inflammation.Results: The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 43% and 22% respectively, but there was no wasting among the school children. Applying correction factor lowered the prevalence of vitamin A defi ciency from 20.4% to 18.5%; thus changing vitamin A defi ciency from a severe public health problem to a moderate public health problem.Conclusion: Correcting serum retinol concentration for the infl uence of infection reduced the apparent severity of vitamin A deficiency. This could affect policy for planning nutrition programs designed for communities. (Med J Indones 2010;  19:258-63Keywords: correction factor, infection, school children, serum retinol

  1. Urinary {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein levels in general populations in Japan with references to cadmium in urine, blood, and 24-hour food duplicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Moon, Chan-Seok; Zhang, Zuo-Wen [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Possible cadmium (Cd) exposure-associated changes in urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins were studied in nonsmoking and nondrinking female members of the general Japanese population (378 subjects with no known occupational heavy metal exposure) who lived at 19 study sites (all without any known environmental heavy metal pollution) in 13 prefectures throughout Japan. The external Cd dose was evaluated in terms of daily Cd intake via food (Cd-F), whereas Cd levels in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as internal dose indicators. When the subjects were classified according to Cd-F into three groups with {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} (20.4 {mu}g/day as a geometric mean of 97 women), {open_quotes}middle{close_quotes} (35.0 {mu}g/day, 120 women) and {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} (67.0 {mu}g/day, 66 women) exposure, both Cd-B and Cd-U increased in parallel with the changes in Cd-F. However, there were no dose-dependent changes in {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein levels in urine. {alpha}{sub 1}-Microglobulin levels appeared to increase, but the distribution of the cases above the two cutoff levels of 9.6 and 15.8 {mu}g/mg creatinine among the three Cd-F groups did not show any bias. Overall, it was concluded that there was no apparent Cd exposure-associated elevation in urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels in the study population. 41 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Estado de ferro e retinol sérico entre crianças e adolescentes atendidos por equipe da Estratégia de Saúde da Família de Itajaí, Santa Catarina Iron status and serum retinol levels among children and adolescents attended by a Family Health Strategy team in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Brandão Mariath

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa determinar prevalências de deficiência de ferro e vitamina A em crianças e adolescentes atendidos por equipe de Saúde da Família de Itajaí (SC e avaliar relações entre o estado de ferro e o retinol sérico. Realizou-se um censo nutricional das famílias cadastradas. Coletaram-se dados socioeconômicos e demográficos. Avaliou-se a concentração de hemoglobina, hematócrito, ferro e retinol séricos. Participaram do estudo 31 das 156 famílias cadastradas. Apenas 39,1% das crianças e 62,0% dos adolescentes coletaram amostras sanguíneas. A renda média per capita foi 1,68±1,00 salários mínimos. Nenhum dos pais ou mães era analfabeto. Residiam em domicílio próprio 80,6% das famílias. Todos os domicílios apresentavam esgoto e abastecimento de água por rede pública e 87,1% eram de alvenaria. Diagnosticou-se deficiência de ferro em 16,7% das crianças e 19,3% dos adolescentes, e deficiência de vitamina A em apenas uma criança. Observaram-se correlações significativas para o ferro e retinol séricos entre crianças e entre adolescentes para a concentração de hemoglobina, hematócrito e retinol sérico. Encontraram-se prevalências leves de deficiência de ferro e vitamina A, possivelmente devido às características socioeconômicas e demográficas.The objective of this article is to determine prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiencies among children and adolescents attended by a Family Health Strategy team in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State, and to assess relations between iron status and serum retinol. A nutritional census of the families was carried out. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected. Hemoglobin concentration, hematocrite, serum iron and retinal were determined. Thirty-one out of the 156 enrolled families participated in the study. Only 39.1% of the children and 62.0% of the adolescents had their blood samples collected. Mean per capita income was 1.68±1.00 minimum wages. None of

  3. Relation between retinol, retinol-binding protein 4, transthyretin and carotid intima media thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Thomas; Raila, Jens; Schwarz, Franziska; Mai, Knut; Henze, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Schweigert, Florian J; Spranger, Joachim

    2010-12-01

    Retinol is transported in a complex with retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and transthyretin (TTR) in the circulation. While retinol is associated with various cardiovascular risk factors, the relation between retinol, RBP4, TTR and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) has not been analysed yet. Retinol, RBP4 and TTR were measured in 96 individuals and their relation to mean and maximal IMT was determined. Mean IMT correlated with RBP4 (r=0.335, p<0.001), retinol (r=-0.241, p=0.043), RBP/TTR ratio (r=0.254, p=0.025) and retinol/RBP4 ratio (r=-0.549, p<0.001). Adjustment for age, sex, BMI, blood pressure, HDL/total cholesterol ratio, triglyceride, diabetes and smoking revealed that the retinol/RBP4 ratio was strongly and independently associated with mean IMT. Similar results were found for maximal IMT, which included the measurement of plaques. The data support that the transport complex of vitamin A is associated with the IMT, an established parameter of atherosclerosis. Changes in RBP4 saturation with retinol may link renal dysfunction and insulin resistance to atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The STRA6 receptor is essential for retinol-binding protein-induced insulin resistance but not for maintaining vitamin A homeostasis in tissues other than the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Daniel C; Jacobs, Hugues; Marwarha, Gurdeep; Gely-Pernot, Aurore; O'Byrne, Sheila M; DeSantis, David; Klopfenstein, Muriel; Feret, Betty; Dennefeld, Christine; Blaner, William S; Croniger, Colleen M; Mark, Manuel; Noy, Noa; Ghyselinck, Norbert B

    2013-08-23

    The plasma membrane protein STRA6 is thought to mediate uptake of retinol from its blood carrier retinol-binding protein (RBP) into cells and to function as a surface receptor that, upon binding of holo-RBP, activates a JAK/STAT cascade. It was suggested that STRA6 signaling underlies insulin resistance induced by elevated serum levels of RBP in obese animals. To investigate these activities in vivo, we generated and analyzed Stra6-null mice. We show that the contribution of STRA6 to retinol uptake by tissues in vivo is small and that, with the exception of the eye, ablation of Stra6 has only a modest effect on retinoid homeostasis and does not impair physiological functions that critically depend on retinoic acid in the embryo or in the adult. However, ablation of Stra6 effectively protects mice from RBP-induced suppression of insulin signaling. Thus one biological function of STRA6 in tissues other than the eye appears to be the coupling of circulating holo-RBP levels to cell signaling, in turn regulating key processes such as insulin response.

  5. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  6. Retinol induces morphological alterations and proliferative focus formation through free radicalmediated activation of multiple signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Pens GELAIN; Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt PASQUALI; Fernanda Freitas CAREGNATO; Mauro Antonio Alves CASTRO; José Claudio Fonseca MOREIRA

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Toxicity of retinol (vitamin A)has been previously associated with apoptosis and/or cell malignant transformation.Thus,we investigated the pathways involved in the induction of proliferation,deformation and proliferative focus formation by retinol in cultured Sertoli cells of rats.Methods:Sertoli cells were isolated from immature rats and cultured.The cells were subjected to a 24-h treatment with different concentrations of retinol.Parameters of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity were analyzed.The effects of the p38 inhibitor SB203580(10 μmol/L),the JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μmol/L),the Akt inhibitor LY294002 (10 μmol/L),the ERK inhibitor U0126 (10 μmol/L)the pan-PKC inhibitor G(O)6983 (10 μmol/L)and the PKA inhibitor H89 (1 μmol/L)on morphological and proliferative/transformationassociated modifications were studied.Results:Retinol (7 and 14 μmol/L)significantly increases the reactive species production in Sertoli cells,inhibition of p38,JNK,ERK1/2,Akt,and PKA suppressed retinol-induced[3H]dT incorporation into the cells,while PKC inhibition had no effect.ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition also blocked retinol-induced proliferative focus formation in the cells,while Akt and JNK inhibition partially decreased focus formation.ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition hindered transformation-associated deformation in retinol-treated cells,while other treatments had no effect.Conclusion:Our results suggest that activation of multiple kinases is responsible for morphological and proliferative changes associated to malignancy development in Sertoli cells by retinol at the concentrations higher than physiological level.

  7. Retinol, α-tocopherol, and selected minerals in breast milk of lactating women with full-term infants in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesook; Jung, Byung-Mun; Lee, Bum-Noh; Kim, Yun-Je

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to measure fat-soluble vitamins and minerals in breast milk of Korean lactating mothers who exclusively breastfed their babies. SUBJECTS/METHODS Breast milk samples were collected from 334 mothers. Concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet spectrometry while concentrations of minerals were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. RESULTS Retinol and α-tocopherol contents of breast milk were 39.58 ± 19.64 µg/dL and 0.23 ± 0.13 mg/dL, respectively. Average sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in breast milk were 11.11 ± 5.16, 38.56 ± 9.01, 27.87 ± 6.10, 13.56 ± 3.30, and 3.05 ± 0.65 mg/dL, respectively. Contents of trace elements such as iron, zinc, copper, and manganese were 40.26 ± 46.21, 98.40 ± 62.47, 24.09 ± 9.03, and 0.90 ± 1.63 µg/dL, respectively. Fat-soluble vitamin concentration was positively correlated with total fat in milk samples, but no significant differences were observed in levels of retinol, α-tocopherol, or minerals based on whether or not lactating women were taking dietary supplements. CONCLUSIONS Micronutrient contents of breast milk samples from Korean lactating women were comparable to those of other nations. Retinol and α-tocopherol levels were correlated and also with total fat in breast milk.

  8. Plasma homocysteine levels in female patients with eating disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levine, J.; Gur, E.; Loewenthal, R.; Vishne, T.; Dwolatzky, T.; Beijnum, I.M. van; Sela, B.A.; Vered, I.; Yosef, G.; Stein, D.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine plasma homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and folate levels in females with restricting and bingeing/purging eating disorders (EDs). METHOD: Adolescent and adult female patients were compared to appropriate control groups with regard to plasma homocysteine levels. RESULTS: The plasma

  9. Rescue of retinal morphology and function in a humanized mouse at the mouse retinol-binding protein locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Shen, Jingling; Wakana, Shigeharu; Araki, Kimi; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Lei, Lei; Li, Zhenghua

    2017-01-30

    Retinol-binding protein RBP4 is the specific carrier for retinol in the blood. We previously produced a Rbp4-deficient (Rbp4(-/-)) mouse that showed electroretinogram (ERG) abnormalities, accompanied by histological and electron-microscopic changes such as fewer synapses in the inner plexiform layer in the central retina. To address whether human RBP4 gene expression can rescue the phenotypes observed in Rbp4(-/-) mice, we produced a humanized (Rbp4(hRBP4orf/ hRBP4orf)) mouse with a human RBP4 open reading frame in the mouse Rbp4 locus using a Cre-mutant lox recombination system. In Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice, the tissue-specific expression pattern of hRBP4orf was roughly the same as that of mouse Rbp4. ERG and morphological abnormalities observed in Rbp4(-/-) mice were rescued in Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice as early as 7 weeks of age. The temporal expression pattern of hRBP4orf in the liver of Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice was similar to that of mouse Rbp4 in Rbp4(+/+)mice. In contrast, hRBP4orf expression levels in eyes were significantly lower at 6 and 12 weeks of age compared with mouse Rbp4 but were restored to the control levels at 24 weeks. The serum hRBP4 levels in Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice were approximately 30% of those in Rbp4(+/+) at all ages examined. In accordance with this finding, the plasma retinol levels remained low in Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice. Retinol accumulation in the liver occurred in control and Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice but was higher in Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice at 30 weeks of age. Mouse transthyretin expression was not altered in Rbp4(-/-) or Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice. Taken together, 30% of the serum RBP4 level was sufficient to correct the abnormal phenotypes observed in Rbp4(-/-) mice.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 30 January 2017; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2016.156.

  10. Repeated topical treatment, in contrast to single oral doses, with Vitamin A-containing preparations does not affect plasma concentrations of retinol, retinyl esters or retinoic acids in female subjects of child-bearing age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Lawrence, R.S.; Shapiro, S.; Schulte, S.; Steiling, W.; Bausch, J.; Gerber, E.; Sasa, H.; Nau, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is widely used in cosmetic preparations. Given that oral Vitamin A and its metabolites present a potential reproductive risk, the present study investigated the effect of topical Vitamin A on human endogenous plasma levels of Vitamin A and its metabolites. Methods: Two groups o

  11. Retinol-binding protein 4 and its membrane receptor STRA6 control adipogenesis by regulating cellular retinoid homeostasis and retinoic acid receptor α activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzner, Matthias; Tuvia, Neta; Deutschmann, Claudia; Witte, Nicole; Tolkachov, Alexander; Valai, Atijeh; Henze, Andrea; Sander, Leif E; Raila, Jens; Schupp, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Retinoids are vitamin A (retinol) derivatives and complex regulators of adipogenesis by activating specific nuclear receptors, including the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). Circulating retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and its membrane receptor STRA6 coordinate cellular retinol uptake. It is unknown whether retinol levels and the activity of RAR and RXR in adipocyte precursors are linked via RBP4/STRA6. Here, we show that STRA6 is expressed in precursor cells and, dictated by the apo- and holo-RBP4 isoforms, mediates bidirectional retinol transport that controls RARα activity and subsequent adipocyte differentiation. Mobilization of retinoid stores in mice by inducing RBP4 secretion from the liver activated RARα signaling in the precursor cell containing the stromal-vascular fraction of adipose tissue. Retinol-loaded holo-RBP4 blocked adipocyte differentiation of cultured precursors by activating RARα. Remarkably, retinol-free apo-RBP4 triggered retinol efflux that reduced cellular retinoids, RARα activity, and target gene expression and enhanced adipogenesis synergistically with ectopic STRA6. Thus, STRA6 in adipocyte precursor cells links nuclear RARα activity to the circulating RBP4 isoforms, whose ratio in obese mice was shifted toward limiting the adipogenic potential of their precursors. This novel cross talk identifies a retinol-dependent metabolic function of RBP4 that may have important implications for the treatment of obesity.

  12. Plasma and semen ascorbic levels in spermatogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were significant decreases in the seminal and plasma ascorbic acid concentrations ... maintenance of sperm cell lipid membrane has generated increasing interest. .... function and its association with the genesis of reactivc oxygen species.

  13. Paradoxical sleep deprivation increases plasma endothelin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Palma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelins (ET-1, 2 and 3 constitute a family of 21 amino acid peptides with potent biological activities. ET-1 is one of the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictors so far identified and its increased concentration in plasma appears to be closely related to the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension as well as to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. OSA patients exhibit repetitive episodes of apnea and hypopnea that result in hypoxia and consecutive arousals. These patients are chronically sleep deprived, which may aggravate the hypertensive features, since literature data show that sleep deprivation results in hypertension both in humans and in animals. Based on the reported relationship between ET-1, hypertension and sleep deprivation consequences, the purpose of the present study was to determine plasma ET concentrations in paradoxical sleep-deprived animals. Male Wistar rats, 3 to 4 months old (N = 10 per group, were deprived of sleep for 24 and 96 h by the platform technique and plasma ET-1/2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of plasma revealed that 96 h of sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in ET-1/2 release (6.58 fmol/ml compared to control (5.07 fmol/ml. These data show that sleep deprivation altered plasma ET-1/2 concentrations, suggesting that such an increase may participate in the genesis of arterial hypertension and cardiorespiratory changes observed after sleep deprivation.

  14. Low arginine plasma levels in patients after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijveldt, R J; Prins, H A; Siroen, M P; Rauwerda, J A; Teerlink, T; van Leeuwen, P A

    2000-08-01

    Thoracoabdominal aortic surgery is a high-risk procedure and associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Ischemia reperfusion of visceral organs and lower extremities is one of the most important determinants of this morbidity. Arginine is the precursor of nitric oxide and arginine plasma levels are important in maintaining organ blood flow. Furthermore, arginine is important in wound healing and the immune system. Because of increased utilization of arginine, low arginine plasma levels could be expected after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. We therefore measured arginine plasma levels in these patients. Six patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm were included in this study. University Hospital Vrije Universiteit, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Six patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. Plasma levels of arginine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Very low arginine plasma levels were seen on the first postoperative day. From day 1 arginine slowly increased, but did not reach normal plasma levels on day 6. A significant decrease of arginine plasma levels was found and because of the fact that arginine has multiple functions, it may be important to keep these arginine plasma levels at normal or even higher levels in patients undergoing major vascular surgery. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 615-617.

  15. 血清视黄醇结合蛋白-4水平与胎儿宫内生长发育的关系%Relationship between serum retinol binding protein 4 level and fetal intrauterine growth and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 张小莉

    2011-01-01

    目的:检测新生儿血清视黄醇结合蛋白-4(RBP-4)的水平,探讨其与胰岛素水平及胎儿宫内生长发育的关系,并对相关因素进行分析.方法:用酶联免疫法检测89例新生儿血清中RBP-4和胰岛素水平,其中小于胎龄组(SGA)30例、适于胎龄组(AGA)30例、大于胎龄组(LGA)29例,并按出生体重评估新生儿宫内的营养状态.结果:①3组间RBP-4及胰岛素水平的差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).②血清RBP-4水平与新生儿出生体重呈明显正相关(r=0.943,P<0.01);③胰岛素水平与新生儿出生体重呈明显正相关(r=0.975,P<0.01);④RBP-4水平与胰岛素水平呈明显正相关(r=0.979,P<0.01).结论:新生儿体内RBP-4水平在一定程度上反映宫内牛长发育状态,可能和胰岛素共同参与调节新生儿的生长发育.%Objective: To detect the serum retinol binding protein 4 ( RBP -4) level in neonates, explore its relationship with insulin level and fetal intrauterine growth and development, and analyze the related factors.Methods: ELISA was used to detect the serum levels of RBP-4 and insulin in 89 neonates, 89 neonates included 30 neonates in small for gestational age (SGA) group, 30 neonates in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group and 29 neonates in large for gestational age (LGA) group, then the intrauterine nutritional conditions of the neonates were assessed according to birth weight.Results: There was significant difference in serum levels of RBP -4 and insulin among the three groups ( P < 0.05 ).There was a significant positive correlation between serum RBP - 4 level and neonatal birth weight ( γ = 0.943, P < 0.05 ); there was a significant positive correlation between serum insulin level and neonatal birth weight ( γ = 0.975, P <0.05); there was a significant positive correlation between serum RBP - 4 level and serum insulin level ( γ = 0.979, P < 0.0l ).Conclusion: Neonatal RBP-4 level reflect the state of intrauterine growth and

  16. An alternative retinoic acid-responsive Stra6 promoter regulated in response to retinol deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Kristian B; Kashyap, Vasundhra; Scandura, Joseph; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2015-02-13

    Cellular uptake of vitamin A (retinol) is essential for many biological functions. The Stra6 protein binds the serum retinol-binding protein, RBP4, and acts in conjunction with the enzyme lecithin:retinol acyltransferase to facilitate retinol uptake in some cell types. We show that in embryonic stem (ES) cells and in some tissues, the Stra6 gene encodes two distinct mRNAs transcribed from two different promoters. Whereas both are all-trans-retinoic acid (RA)-responsive in ES cells, the downstream promoter contains a half-site RA response element (RARE) and drives an ∼ 13-fold, RA-associated increase in luciferase reporter activity. We employed CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to show that the endogenous RARE is required for RA-induced transcription of both Stra6 isoforms. We further demonstrate that in ES cells, 1) both RARγ and RXRα are present at the Stra6 RARE; 2) RA increases co-activator p300 (KAT3B) binding and histone H3 Lys-27 acetylation at both promoters; 3) RA decreases Suz12 levels and histone H3 Lys-27 trimethylation epigenetic marks at both promoters; and 4) these epigenetic changes are diminished in the absence of RARγ. In the brains of WT mice, both the longer and the shorter Stra6 transcript (Stra6L and Stra6S, respectively) are highly expressed, whereas these transcripts are found only at low levels in RARγ(-/-) mice. In the brains of vitamin A-deficient mice, both Stra6L and Stra6S levels are decreased. In contrast, in the vitamin A-deficient kidneys, the Stra6L levels are greatly increased, whereas Stra6S levels are decreased. Our data show that kidneys respond to retinol deficiency by differential Stra6 promoter usage, which may play a role in the retention of retinol when vitamin A is low.

  17. Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeon Soo Kim; Joon Seong Lee; Tae Hee Lee; Joo Young Cho; Jin Oh Kim; Wan Jung Kim; Hyun Gun Kim; Seong Ran Jeon; Hoe Su Jeong

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the relationship between plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia.METHODS:Twenty-two female patients with functional dyspepsia and twelve healthy volunteers were recruited for the study.The functional dyspepsia patients were each diagnosed based on the Rome Ⅲ criteria.Eligible patients completed a questionnaire concerning the severity of 10 symptoms.Plasma acylated ghrelin levels before and after a meal were determined in the study participants using a commercial human acylated enzyme immunoassay kit; electrogastrograms were performed for 50 min before and after a standardized 10-min meal containing 265 kcal.RESULTS:There were no significant differences in plasma acylated ghrelin levels between healthy volunteers and patients with functional dyspepsia.However,in patients with functional dyspepsia,there was a negative correlation between fasting plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the sum score of epigastric pain (r =-0.427,P =0.047) and a positive correlation between the postprandial/fasting plasma acylated ghrelin ratio and the sum score of early satiety (r =0.428,P =0.047).Additionally,there was a negative correlation between fasting acylated ghrelin plasma levels and fasting normogastria (%) (r =-0.522,P =0.013).Interestingly,two functional dyspepsia patients showed paradoxically elevated plasma acylated ghrelin levels after the meal.CONCLUSION:Abnormal plasma acylated ghrelin levels before or after a meal may be related to several of the dyspeptic symptoms seen in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase mediates the ability of retinol to decrease colorectal cancer cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Jennifer N Griffin; Park, Eun Young; Brunson, Anna R; Pinali, Daniel; Lane, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that retinol (vitamin A) decreased both colorectal cancer cell invasion and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity through a retinoic acid receptor-independent mechanism. Here, we determined if these phenomena were related by using parental HCT-116 cells that harbor 1 allele of wild-type PI3K and 1 allele of constitutively active (ca) PI3K and 2 mutant HCT-116 cell lines homozygous for caPI3K. In vitro, treatment of parental HCT-116 cells with 10 μM retinol reduced cell invasion whereas treatment of mutant HCT-116 cell lines with retinol did not. Treatment with 10 μM retinol also decreased the activity of matrixmetalloproteinase-9 and increased tissue inhibitor of matrixmetalloproteinase-I levels in parental, but not mutant, HCT-116 cells. Finally, parental or mutant cells were intrasplenically injected into athymic mice consuming diets with or without supplemental vitamin A. As expected, vitamin A supplementation tended (P = 0.18) to reduce the incidence of metastases in mice injected with the parental cell line and consuming the supplemented diet. In contrast, metastatic incidence was not affected (P = 1.00) by vitamin A supplementation in mice injected with mutant cells. These data indicate that the capacity of retinol to inhibit PI3K activity confers its ability to decrease colorectal cancer metastasis.

  19. Retinol metabolism in the mollusk Osilinus lineatus indicates an ancient origin for retinyl ester storage capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gesto

    Full Text Available Although retinoids have been reported to be present and active in vertebrates and invertebrates, the presence of mechanisms for retinoid storage in the form of retinyl esters, a key feature to maintain whole-organism retinoid homeostasis, have been considered to date a vertebrate innovation. Here we demonstrate for the first time the presence of retinol and retinyl esters in an invertebrate lophotrochozoan species, the gastropod mollusk Osilinus lineatus. Furthermore, through a pharmacological approach consisting of intramuscular injections of different retinoid precursors, we also demonstrate that the retinol esterification pathway is active in vivo in this species. Interestingly, retinol and retinyl esters were only detected in males, suggesting a gender-specific role for these compounds in the testis. Females, although lacking detectable levels of retinol or retinyl esters, also have the biochemical capacity to esterify retinol, but at a lower rate than males. The occurrence of retinyl ester storage capacity, together with the presence in males and females of active retinoids, i.e., retinoic acid isomers, indicates that O. lineatus has a well developed retinoid system. Hence, the present data strongly suggest that the capacity to maintain retinoid homeostasis has arisen earlier in Bilateria evolution than previously thought.

  20. Albendazole increases serum retinol concentration in primary schoolchildren with low serum retinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Florida Kalumpiu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection is still a health problem in Indonesia. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is often found together with STH. The effect of the deworming program on the vitamin A status of primary school children is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of albendazole on serum retinol concentrations in primary school children. Methods An experimental study of pre-post test design without control was carried out on 118 children from grades 3-5 at one primary school in North Jakarta, from July to September 2014. Flotac examination was used to determine STH infections and high performance liquid chromatography was performed to measure serum retinol concentration. Stool and blood samples were taken twice: before and three weeks after treatment with albendazole 400 mg single dose for three consecutive days given to all children either infected or uninfected. Paired t-test was used to analyze the data. Results Of the 118 children, the prevalence of STH was 71.2%. The prevalence of low retinol serum (<1.05 mmol/L was 17 (17.2% and of mild VAD was 2 (2.0%. Albendazole given in 3 consecutive days could not increase serum retinol concentrations (p=0.055. Serum retinol concentration significantly increased after albendazole treatment in children with low retinol serum at baseline (p=0.001. Conclusions In children with low serum retinol concentration, treatment with albendazole increased retinol concentration. Integrated deworming and vitamin A supplementation strategies should be evaluated in this population.

  1. Plasma glutamine levels and falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, G; Planche, T; Agbenyega, T; Bedu-Addo, G; Owusu-Ofori, A; Adebe-Appiah, J; Agranoff, D; Woodrow, C; Castell, L; Elford, B; Krishna, S

    1999-01-01

    Glutamine deficiency is associated with increased rates of sepsis and mortality, which can be prevented by glutamine supplementation. Changes in glutamine concentration were examined in Ghanaian children with acute falciparum malaria and control cases. The mean (SD) plasma glutamine concentration was lower in patients with acute malaria (401 (82) mumol/L, n = 50) than in control patients (623 (67) mumol/L, n = 7; P sepsis and dyserythropoeisis.

  2. The threshold level of urinary cadmium associated with increased urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein and β2-microglobulin: a re-assessment in a large cohort of nickel-cadmium battery workers

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the threshold value of urinary cadmium (CdU) for renal dysfunction on the basis of relationships unconfounded by protein degradation, diuresis and the renal effects associated with chronic smoking. Methods We studied 599 workers (451 men, mean age 45.4 years) who were employed in four nickel-cadmium battery plants for 18.8 years on average. After adjustment for covariates by multiple regression, the CdU threshold values for increased concentrations of retinol-binding pr...

  3. Methodological Studies on Plasma Endotoxin Level and Endotoxin Inactivation Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚国相; 杨乃发; 薛新波; 赵玉沛; 蒋朱明

    2004-01-01

    To establish stable methods for detecting plasma endotoxin level and endotoxin inactivation capacity in a normal population and general surgical patients and evaluate their perioperative changes, 50 healthy people and 50 patients receiving gastrointestinal operation were enrolled, their plasma endotoxin levels and plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity were assayed. Our results showed that plasma endotoxin levels were 0.044±0.009 EU/ml in the normal population and 0.044±0.023 EU/ml in the preoperative patients. Endotoxin level peaked 3 h after the operation (0.223±0.041 EU/ml), and then decreased rapidly on the first day after the operation (0.134±0.164EU/ml). Endotoxin inactivation capacity also had the same time course as endotoxin level. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and infection induced another elevation in the time course. It is concluded that establishing the endotoxin standard curve by using pyrogenic free water is better than by using plasma. Plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity can be used as an indirect indicator of postoperative immune depression. Plasma endotoxin level and endotoxin inactivation capacity peaked shortly after operation, indicating surgical stress is closely related with the changes.

  4. [Plasma homocysteine levels in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márk, L; Erdei, F; Márki-Zay, J; Nagy, E; Kondacs, A; Katona, A

    2001-07-29

    In the latest years it became clear that beside traditional cardiovascular risk factors the high plasma homocysteine level increases the risk of atherosclerotic diseases too. Metaanalysis of 27 papers found that 10% of population's coronary risk is attributable to homocysteine and a 5 mumol/l increase in its plasma level elevates the coronary risk by as much as 0.5 mumol/l cholesterol increase. Recent studies have shown an inverse relation between the levels of plasma homocysteine and that of folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12. The latters are cofactors and substrates of the homocysteine and methionin metabolism. The plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein(a), Apo A1, Apo B and homocysteine concentrations were examined in 39 patients suffering from coronary artery disease treated in the Cardiac Rehabilitation Department of our hospital. Twenty of them were treated by folic acid and vitamin B6 for a three week period. The mean (+/- SD) plasma homocysteine concentration was 15.60 +/- 6.14 mumol/l. In the treated subgroup the mean (+/- SD) plasma homocysteine concentration was 17.3 +/- 7.00 mumol/l, the mean (+/- SD) plasma folic acid level was 8.58 +/- 4.6 mumol/l. After the three week treatment period (folic acid and vitamin B6) the plasma homocysteine level decreased by 26.5% (p = 0.012), that of folic acid increased by 68.7% (p = 0.002). From the plasma lipids the level of total- and LDL-cholesterol decreased significantly (6.7% and 10.4%, P gen of the metylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) enzyme there was a significant correlation with homocysteine level (r = 0.436, p = 0.010), and a negative, but not significant correlation with the folic acid level (r = -0.354).

  5. Retinol, β-carotene and oxidative stress in systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: patients suffering systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS constitute a group susceptible to elevated levels of oxidative stress. This study’s aim is to evaluate the state of oxidative stress and levels of serum retinol and β-carotene in these patients. Methods: forty-six patients were divided into 2 groups: those those without diet (G1; n=18 and those with enteral nutritional support (G2; n=28. Serum levels of retinol and total carotenoids were measured. C-reactive protein (CRP levels and Apache scores were also calculated. Oxidative stress was estimated by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels. Results: the patients’ median age was 66.9 (SD=19.3 years. Lower concentrations of retinol and carotenoids were found in 68.6 and 66.7% of G1, respectively. In G2, despite average vitamin A levels being 8078 + 4035, retinol and β-carotene were considered insufficient (31.2 and 33.4%, respectively. No difference was noted between the 2 groups, according to the variables studied, with the exception being PCR and β-carotene (p=0.002; p=0.01. Conclusion: the data presented in this study supports the need to establish/revise clinical practices in treating SIRS patients, in light of this micronutrient’s role in the immune system and antioxidant defense without it interfering with its toxicity.

  6. Human plasma DNP level after severe brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yi-lu; XIN Hui-ning; FENG Yi; FAN Ji-wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between DNP level after human severe brain injury and hyponatremia as well as isorrhea.Methods: The peripheral venous plasma as control was collected from 8 volunteers. The peripheral venous plasma from 14 severe brain injury patients were collected in the 1, 3, 7 days after injury. Radioimmunoassay was used to detect the DNP concentration. Meanwhile, daily plasma and urine electrolytes, osmotic pressure as well as 24 h liquid intake and output volume were detected.Results: The normal adult human plasma DNP level was 62. 46 pg/ml ± 27. 56 pg/ml. In the experimental group, the plasma DNP levels were higher from day 1 today 3 in 8 of the 14 patients than those in the control group (P1 =0.05, P3 =0.03). Negative fluid balance occurred in 8 patients and hyponatremia in 7 patients. The increase of plasma DNP level was significantly correlated with the development of a negative fluid balance (r=-0.69,P<0.01) and hyponatremia (x2 =4.38, P<0.05).Conclusions: The increase of plasma DNP level is accompanied by the enhancement of natriuretic and diuretic responses in severe brain-injured patients, which is associated with the development of a negative fluid balance and hyponatremia after brain injury.

  7. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON PLASMA GLUCOSE LEVEL IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Chakraborty; Mrigendranath Gantait; Biswapati Mukherjee

    2006-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of plasma glucose level (PGL) in human volunteers after acupuncture. Methods Seventy-seven human volunteers were taken up from the acupuncture clinic. All of pletion of acupuncture. All cases were at four hours abstinence from food before doing acupuncture. Results Plasma glucose level varied 5 mg% or more in 62 cases (80.51%) and only those were considered for computation. PGL increased in cases who had generally plasma glucose level below 90 mg% before acupuncture;and PGL decreased in cases who had plasma glucose 90 mg% or above. In 10 control cases there was no variation of the considerable level of 5 mg% in any case. Conclusion Bi-directional variation of PGL after acupuncture indicates that acupuncture can be used to maintain optimum PGL through endogenous mechanism,suggesting that it is applicable in controlling hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus patients.

  8. Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute toxicity following oral ... Diabetes was induced in male and female Wistar rats with alloxan ... had good hypoglycemic activity and good effects on cardiovascular risk factors.

  9. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    2017-08-22

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrazilová, H; Hainer, V; Sedlácková, D; Papezová, H; Kunesová, M; Bellisle, F; Hill, M; Nedvídková, J

    2008-01-01

    Obestatin is a recently discovered peptide produced in the stomach, which was originally described to suppress food intake and decrease body weight in experimental animals. We investigated fasting plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women and associations of plasma obestatin levels with anthropometric and hormonal parameters. Hormonal (obestatin, ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and anthropometric parameters and body composition were examined in 15 normal weight, 21 obese and 15 anorectic women. Fasting obestatin levels were significantly lower in obese than in normal weight and anorectic women, whereas ghrelin to obestatin ratio was increased in anorectic women. Compared to leptin, only minor differences in plasma obestatin levels were observed in women who greatly differed in the amount of fat stores. However, a negative correlation of fasting obestatin level with body fat indexes might suggest a certain role of obestatin in the regulation of energy homeostasis. A significant relationship between plasma obestatin and ghrelin levels, independent of anthropometric parameters, supports simultaneous secretion of both hormones from the common precursor. Lower plasma obestatin levels in obese women compared to normal weight and anorectic women as well as increased ghrelin to obestatin ratio in anorectic women might play a role in body weight regulation in these pathologies.

  11. Relationship between the Level of Serum Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and the Extent of Coronary Lesions in Coronary Heart Disease Accompanied with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus%冠心病合并2型糖尿病血清视黄醇结合蛋白4水平与冠状动脉病变程度的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 唐荣珍; 曹晓红; 张维; 辜晓惠; 董巍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the level of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and the extent of coronary lesions in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients accompanied with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods A total of 120 patients with CHD diagnosed by coronary arteriongraphy between October 2008 and April 2010 were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups: CHD group (60 patients); CHD accompanied with T2DM group (60 patients). The levels of serum insulin, adiponectin and RBP4 were measured. All the patients underwent coronary angiography and the extent of coronary lesions was assessed quantitatively based on the Gensini's scoring system. Results The levels of serum insulin, plasma RBP4 and the extent of coronary artery stenosis in CHD accompanied with T2DM group were significantly higher than those in CHD group (P<0. 05). Correlation analysis showed that the level of RBP4 was positively correlated with LDL-C, insulin resistance index and the coronary artery narrow degree(r=0. 312, 0. 322, 0. 314; P<0. 05); and negatively correlated with adiponectin (r=-0. 362, P<0. 01). Conclusion The significant elevated plasma RBP4 in CHD patients accompanied with T2DM is positively correlated with the extent of coronary artery lesion.%目的 研究合并2型糖尿病的冠心病患者冠状动脉病变程度与血清视黄醇结合蛋白4( retinol-binding protein 4,RBP4)水平的相关性.方法 2008年10月- 2010年4月选择性冠状动脉造影确诊的冠心病患者共120例,分为单纯冠心病组(A组)60例和冠心病合并糖尿病组(B组)60例,检测血糖、血脂、胰岛素以及脂联素、RBP4水平;根据冠状动脉造影结果,以Gensini评分评判冠状动脉病变程度.结果 B组空腹血糖、胰岛素、RBP4均显著高于A组(P<0.05);冠状动脉病变程度更重(P<0.05).相关性分析显示RBP4水平与低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、胰岛素抵抗和冠状动脉病变积分呈正相关(r=0.312、0.322

  12. Clinical significance of plasma metastin level in pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Nagai, Kazuyuki; Kida, Atsushi; Tomita, Kenji; Oishi, Shinya; Takeyama, Masaharu; Doi, Ryuichiro; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2009-03-01

    Metastin, which is a 54-residue peptide coded by KiSS-1 gene, is an endogenous ligand to a G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54. Metastin suppresses a malignant tumor to metastasize and regulates secretion of gonadotropine releasing hormone. Physiological action of metastin has been focused on in oncology. It is reported that less KiSS-1 gene and more hOT7T175 gene which codes GPR54 are expressed in pancreatic cancers than in normal pancreatic tissues; however, there is no study that investigates the relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and plasma metastin concentration in pancreatic cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma metastin-like immunoreactive substance (LI) levels and clinical characteristics in pancreatic cancer patients. Thirty-three patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic cancer before or just after treatments and 24 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to the International Union Against Cancer TNM classification. Plasma metastin-LI was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The plasma metastin-LI levels of cancer patients were significantly higher when compared with healthy volunteers. Significant relationship was not found between the plasma metastin-LI levels and the clinicopathological factors such as tumor size, invasion, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. The plasma metastin levels may be a significant biomarker to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer and could be used in pancreatic cancer screening.

  13. Association of plasma manganese levels with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Cristina; López-Chaves, Carlos; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; Galindo, Pilar; Aranda, Pilar; Llopis, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Mn excess may be neurotoxic to humans, affecting specific areas of the central nervous system. However, relatively little is known about its physiological and/or toxicological effects, and very few data are available concerning the role of Mn in chronic renal failure (CRF). This paper describes a 12-month study of the evolution of plasma Mn levels in predialysis patients with CRF and the relationship with energy and macronutrient intake. The participants in this trial were 64 patients with CRF in predialysis and 62 healthy controls. Plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, total protein and Mn were measured. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault index. The CRF patients had higher plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid and Mn and a lower GFR than the controls. Plasma Mn was positively correlated with creatinine, plasma urea and plasma uric acid and was negatively correlated with the GFR and the intake of energy and macronutrients. In conclusion, CRF in predialysis patients is associated with increases in circulating levels of Mn.

  14. Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Acute Liver Failure Patients Treated with Plasma Filtration with Dialysis and Plasma Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nakae, Hajime; Uji, Yoshitaka; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Tani, Tohru; Eguchi, Yutaka

    2015-08-01

    Plasma filtration with dialysis (PDF) is a blood purification therapy in which simple plasma exchange (PE) is performed using a selective membrane plasma separator while the dialysate flows outside of the hollow fibers. Improvement of hypoadiponectinemia is considered to be a useful therapeutic approach for ameliorating fatal conditions including cardio-metabolic and infectious disease. We investigated the effects of PDF in comparison to PE in terms of plasma adiponectin (APN) changes in patients with acute liver failure. Seventeen patients with liver failure were studied; PDF was performed 55 times and PE 14 times. Plasma APN levels increased significantly after PDF, while decreasing significantly after PE. PDF appears to be among the most useful blood purification therapies in acute liver failure cases in terms of increasing APN levels.

  15. Level crossings, excess times and transient plasma-wall interactions in fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsen, Audun

    2016-01-01

    Based on a stochastic model for intermittent fluctuations in the boundary region of magnetically confined plasmas, an expression for the level crossing rate is derived from the joint distribution of the process and its derivative. From this the average time spent by the process above a certain threshold level is obtained. This provides novel predictions of plasma-wall interactions due to transient transport events associated with radial motion of blob-like structures in the scrape-off layer.

  16. The retinaldehyde reductase activity of DHRS3 is reciprocally activated by retinol dehydrogenase 10 to control retinoid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark K; Belyaeva, Olga V; Wu, Lizhi; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2014-05-23

    The retinoic acid-inducible dehydrogenase reductase 3 (DHRS3) is thought to function as a retinaldehyde reductase that controls the levels of all-trans-retinaldehyde, the immediate precursor for bioactive all-trans-retinoic acid. However, the weak catalytic activity of DHRS3 and the lack of changes in retinaldehyde conversion to retinol and retinoic acid in the cells overexpressing DHRS3 undermine its role as a physiologically important all-trans-retinaldehyde reductase. This study demonstrates that DHRS3 requires the presence of retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10) to display its full catalytic activity. The RDH10-activated DHRS3 acts as a robust high affinity all-trans-retinaldehyde-specific reductase that effectively converts retinaldehyde back to retinol, decreasing the rate of retinoic acid biosynthesis. In turn, the retinol dehydrogenase activity of RDH10 is reciprocally activated by DHRS3. At E13.5, DHRS3-null embryos have ∼4-fold lower levels of retinol and retinyl esters, but only slightly elevated levels of retinoic acid. The membrane-associated retinaldehyde reductase and retinol dehydrogenase activities are decreased by ∼4- and ∼2-fold, respectively, in Dhrs3(-/-) embryos, and Dhrs3(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit reduced metabolism of both retinaldehyde and retinol. Neither RDH10 nor DHRS3 has to be itself catalytically active to activate each other. The transcripts encoding DHRS3 and RDH10 are co-localized at least in some tissues during development. The mutually activating interaction between the two related proteins may represent a highly sensitive and conserved mechanism for precise control over the rate of retinoic acid biosynthesis.

  17. Acute effect of smoking on plasma Obestatin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroglou Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and smoking cessation are considered to be associated with weight changes. We have recently shown that smoking acutely increases plasma levels of ghrelin, a known orexigenic hormone. Obestatin is a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, which opposes ghrelin effects on food intake. We conducted a study in adult volunteers measuring plasma levels of obestatin immediately after initiation of smoking. Methods 31 volunteers (mean age 32.2 ± 9.2 years and mean BMI 25.7 ± 4.1, 17 smokers and 14 non-smokers, were enrolled in our study. The 2 groups were matched in age and BMI. Plasma obestatin concentrations were determined at baseline (T0, 2 (T2, 5 (T5, 15 (T15, and 60 (T60 minutes after the initiation of smoking. Results In all 31 subjects, no significant difference in the mean values of plasma obestatin levels was observed from baseline at T2, T5, T15 and T60 after initiation of smoking (overall p = 0.15. However, a trend for higher obestatin levels was noted in smokers vs non-smokers (overall p = 0.069, which was not related to the pack-years. Conclusion On the contrary with ghrelin's response after smoking initiation, there is no such an acute response of plasma obestatin levels.

  18. Plasminogen and fibrinogen plasma levels in coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciana Moreira; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Sousa, Marinez de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Objective The formation of thrombi at the site of atherosclerotic lesions plays a central role in atherothrombosis. Impaired fibrinolysis may exacerbate pre-existing coronary artery disease and potentiate its evolution. While the fibrinogen plasma level has been strongly associated with the severity of coronary artery disease, its relevance in the evaluation of plasminogen in coronary artery disease patients remains unclear. This study evaluated fibrinogen and plasminogen levels in subjects with coronary artery disease as diagnosed by angiography. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. Blood samples obtained from 17 subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries (controls), 12 with mild/moderate atheromatosis and 28 with severe atheromatosis were evaluated. Plasma plasminogen and fibrinogen levels were measured by chromogenic and coagulometric methods, respectively. Results Fibrinogen levels were significantly higher in the severe atheromatosis group compared to the other groups(p-value < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation was observed between the severity of coronary artery diseaseand increasing fibrinogen levels (r = 0.50; p-value < 0.0001) and between fibrinogen and plasminogen levels (r =0.46; p-value < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in the plasminogen levels between groups. Conclusion Plasma fibrinogen, but not plasminogen levels were higher in patients with coronary artery disease compared to angiographically normal subjects. The plasma fibrinogen levels also appear to be associated with the severity of the disease. The results of this study provide no evidence of a significant correlation between plasma plasminogen levels and the progress of coronary stenosis in the study population. PMID:23049444

  19. Plasma BDNF levels following weight recovery in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kathryn E; Jimerson, David C; Pillai, Anilkumar; Wolfe, Barbara E

    2016-10-15

    Preclinical studies have implicated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the regulation of eating behavior and body weight. As reviewed in this report, prior studies of BDNF levels in anorexia nervosa have yielded variable results, perhaps reflecting effects of malnutrition and psychiatric comorbidity. The goal of the current report was to assess plasma BDNF as a biomarker in weight-recovered individuals with a history of anorexia nervosa (ANWR). Study groups included women meeting criteria for ANWR and healthy female controls. Participants were in a normal weight range, free of current major psychiatric disorder, and free of medication. Self-ratings included eating disorder symptoms, depression and anxiety. Plasma BDNF levels were measured by enzyme linked immunoassay. Plasma BDNF levels were not significantly different for ANWR and control groups. Plasma BDNF levels were inversely correlated with anxiety ratings in controls (p<0.02) but not in the ANWR group. This report provides new evidence that circulating BDNF concentrations do not differ in healthy controls and ANWR free of psychiatric comorbidity. Additionally, the data provide new information on the relationship between plasma BDNF and anxiety in these two study groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on levels of serum retinol and retinol-binding protein-4 in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis%肺结核患者血清视黄醇和视黄醇结合蛋白4水平变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦洪珍; 杨智; 宋晓东; 蔡春葵; 路希维

    2015-01-01

    目的 检测耐药肺结核、非耐药肺结核患者和健康对照者血清维生素A(视黄醇)和视黄醇结合蛋白4(retinol-binding protein-4,RBP4)水平,并分析它们的影响因素.方法 收集2011年7月至2013年8月大连市结核病医院门诊随访及住院治疗的耐药肺结核患者128例(耐药组)、非耐药肺结核患者152例(非耐药组),匹配选取我院同期健康体检者120名作为对照组.采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定上述受试者血清视黄醇水平,同时采用酶联免疫吸附测定法(ELISA)检测血清RBP4水平.结果以(-±s)表示,所有数据采用SPSS 15.0统计软件进行统计学分析.多组间比较采用单因素方差分析及SNK-q检验,以P<0.05为差异有统计学意义.影响因素分析采用直线相关和多元逐步回归分析.结果 耐药组、非耐药组患者血清视黄醇、RBP4水平分别为(206.10±10.35)μg/L、(6.22±1.64)μg/ml和(249.61±12.06)μg/L、(8.23±2.31)μg/ml,均显著低于对照组血清视黄醇、RBP4水平(326.57±11.52)μg/L、(11.52±2.60)μg/ml,差异均有统计学意义(q=12.35和10.66,P值均<0.01;q=3.86和3.36,P值均<0.05);而耐药组较非耐药组,患者血清视黄醇、RBP4水平均显著降低,差异均有统计学意义(q=3.25和3.12,P值均<0.05).多元逐步回归分析表明,体质量指数(BMI)是血清视黄醇和RBP4的独立影响因素(t=2.154和5.211,P值均<0.05).结论 肺结核患者血清视黄醇和RBP4水平均显著降低,耐药肺结核患者降低更明显.

  1. Disruption of the 11-cis-Retinol Dehydrogenase Gene Leads to Accumulation of cis-Retinols and cis-Retinyl Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, Carola A. G. G.; Winkens, Huub J.; Hoffmann, Kirstin; Kuhlmann, Leonoor D.; Janssen, Bert P. M.; van Vugt, Anke H M; Van Hooser, J. Preston; Wieringa, B. E.; Deutman, August F; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Ruether, Klaus; Janssen, Jacques J. M.

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the possible role of 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase in the visual cycle and/or 9-cis-retinoic acid biosynthesis, we generated mice carrying a targeted disruption of the 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase gene. Homozygous 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase mutants developed normally, including their retinas. There was no appreciable loss of photoreceptors. Recently, mutations in the 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenase gene in humans have been associated with fundus albipunctatus. In 11-cis-retinol deh...

  2. Plasma Actin, Gelsolin and Orosomucoid Levels after Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tékus, Éva; Váczi, Márk; Horváth-Szalai, Zoltán; Ludány, Andrea; Kőszegi, Tamás; Wilhelm, Márta

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the acute effect of eccentric exercise on blood plasma actin, gelsolin (GSN) and orosomucoid (AGP) levels in untrained and moderately trained individuals, and their correlation with exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) markers (CK, intensity of muscle soreness and maximal voluntary contraction torque deficit). Healthy physical education students (6 untrained, 12 moderately trained) participated in this research. Actin, GSN, AGP and CK levels were measured in blood plasma at baseline, immediately, 1 h, 6 h and 24 h post-exercise comprising 90 eccentric quadriceps contractions performed on a dynamometer. There was significant time main effect for GSN, AGP, CK and significant difference was found between baseline and the lowest value of post-exercise GSN (p exercise AGP (p exercise and CK activity at 6 h, p exercise, p eccentric exercise do not seem sensitive to training status. The plasma actin level is used as an indicator of injury, however, our results suggest that it is not an accurate marker of EIMD, while plasma GSN concentrations show a better relationship with EIMD and the post-exercise inflammatory process. The elevated plasma AGP and the correlation between GSN and AGP seem to be promising for assessment of exercise-induced muscle injury.

  3. Assessing Stress in Arctic Lemmings: Fecal Metabolite Levels Reflect Plasma Free Corticosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Dominique; Gauthier, Gilles; Berteaux, Dominique; Bosson, Curtis; Palme, Rupert; Boonstra, Rudy

    Interest in the ecology of stress in wild populations has triggered the development of noninvasive methods for quantifying stress hormones. Measurement of fecal corticosteroid metabolites (FCMs) is one such method, but it is still unclear whether FCMs can be a reliable proxy of free plasma glucocorticoids. To assess the validity of this assumption, we carried out a robust assessment on brown lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus) from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, that were hand captured and anesthetized and related plasma glucocorticoid levels to fecal metabolite glucocorticoid levels. We examined endogenous factors that could explain interindividual variability. Blood corticosterone was measured from samples obtained on capture and 30 min later, and FCM levels were measured from animals kept in captivity for 72 h. Plasma free corticosterone increased 135-fold over baseline values 30 min after capture, which confirmed that initial handling was perceived as a stressor. We found that FCM levels were highly related with free (marginal [Formula: see text] = 0.53) but not with total ([Formula: see text] = 0.02) corticosterone levels, regardless of age, sex, and reproductive condition. FCM levels started increasing 2 h after capture and reached maximum levels 4 h after capture. No circadian rhythm in FCMs was found. Plasma total corticosterone levels were much higher in adult females compared with adult males, but this difference was much smaller when measuring free corticosterone levels and FCM levels. Our results suggest that FCM levels are good measures of stress by being closely related to plasma free corticosterone levels in brown lemmings.

  4. Determination of vitamin A (retinol) in infant formula and adult nutritionals by liquid chromatography: First Action 2011.15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Jonathan W; Silvera, Karlene R; McSherry, Elliot; Dowell, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    During the "Standards Development and International Harmonization: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Mid-Year Meeting," held on June 29, 2011, an Expert Review Panel (ERP) reviewed the method for the "Determination of Vitamins A (Retinol) and E (alpha-Tocopherol) in Foods by Liquid Chromatography: Collaborative Study," published by Jonathan W. DeVries and Karlene R. Silvera in J. AOAC Int. in 2002. After evaluation of the original validation data, an ERP agreed in June 2011 that the method meets standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) for vitamin A, as articulated by the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals. The ERP granted the method First Action status, applicable to determining vitamin A in ready-to-eat infant and adult nutritional formula. In an effort to achieve Final Action status, it was recommended that additional information be generated for different types of infant and adult nutritional formula matrixes at varied concentration levels as indicated in the vitamin A (retinol) SMPR. Existing AOAC LC methods are suited for specific vitamin A analytical applications. The original method differs from existing methods in that it can be used to assay samples in all nine sectors of the food matrix. One sector of the food matrix was powdered infant formula and gave support for the First Action approval for vitamin A in infant and adult nutritional formula. In this method, standards and test samples are saponified in basic ethanol-water solution, neutralized, and diluted, converting fats to fatty acids and retinol esters to retinol. Retinol is quantitated by an LC method, using UV detection at 313 or 328 nm for retinol. Vitamin concentration is calculated by comparison of the peak heights or peak areas of retinol in test samples with those of standards.

  5. Plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Pavel; Terry, Mary Beth; Gammon, Marilie D; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Zhang, Fang Fang; Ferris, Jennifer S; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Eng, Sybil M; Gaudet, Mia M; Neugut, Alfred I; Santella, Regina M

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of oxidative stress in breast cancer risk, we analysed plasma levels of protein carbonyls in 1050 cases and 1107 controls. We found a statistically significant trend in breast cancer risk in relation to increasing quartiles of plasma protein carbonyl levels (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.9-1.5; OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-2.0; OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1, for the 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) quartile relative to the lowest quartile, respectively, P for trend = 0.0001). The increase in risk was similar for younger ( or = 15 grams/day for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.7), and hormone replacement therapy use (HRT, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.4 for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile). The multiplicative interaction terms were statistically significant only for physical activity and HRT. The positive association between plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk was also observed when the analysis was restricted to women who had not received chemotherapy or radiation therapy prior to blood collection. Among controls, oxidized protein levels significantly increased with cigarette smoking and higher fruit and vegetable consumption, and decreased with alcohol consumption >30 grams per day. Women with higher levels of plasma protein carbonyl and urinary 15F(2t)-isoprostane had an 80% increase in breast cancer risk (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.6) compared to women with levels below the median for both markers of oxidative stress. In summary, our results suggest that increased plasma protein carbonyl levels may be associated with breast cancer risk.

  6. Isoforms of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) are increased in chronic diseases of the kidney but not of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Simone K; Nagl, Britta; Henze, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) - the carrier protein for Vitamin A in plasma - are tightly regulated under healthy circumstances. The kidney, the main site of RBP4 catabolism, contributes to an elevation of RBP4 levels during chronic kidney disease (CKD) whereas during chronic liver...... disease (CLD) RBP4 levels decrease. Little is known about RBP4 isoforms including apo-RBP4, holo-RBP4 as well as RBP4 truncated at the C-terminus (RBP4-L and RBP4-LL) except that RBP4 isoforms have been reported to be increased in hemodialysis patients. Since it is not known whether CLD influence RBP4...

  7. Plasma separation: physical separation at the molecular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Rax, Jean-Marcel; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2016-09-01

    Separation techniques are usually divided in two categories depending on the nature of the discriminating property: chemical or physical. Further to this difference, physical and chemical techniques differ in that chemical separation typically occurs at the molecular level, while physical separation techniques commonly operate at the macroscopic scale. Separation based on physical properties can in principle be realized at the molecular or even atomic scale by ionizing the mixture. This is in essence plasma based separation. Due to this fundamental difference, plasma based separation stands out from other separation techniques, and features unique properties. In particular, plasma separation allows separating different elements or chemical compounds based on physical properties. This could prove extremely valuable to separate macroscopically homogeneous mixtures made of substances of similar chemical formulation. Yet, the realization of plasma separation techniques' full potential requires identifying and controlling basic mechanisms in complex plasmas which exhibit suitable separation properties. In this paper, we uncover the potential of plasma separation for various applications, and identify the key physics mechanisms upon which hinges the development of these techniques.

  8. Vitamin A (retinol) up-regulates the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) through p38 and Akt oxidant-dependent activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Bittencourt Pasquali, Matheus Augusto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca

    2011-10-28

    Retinol (vitamin A) is believed to exert preventive/protective effects against malignant, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases by acting as an antioxidant. However, later clinical and experimental data show a pro-oxidant action of retinol and other retinoids at specific conditions. The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor, being activated by different ligands such as S100 proteins, HMGB1 (amphoterin), β-amyloid peptide and advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). RAGE activation influences a wide range of pathological conditions such as diabetes, pro-inflammatory states and neurodegenerative processes. Here, we investigated the involvement of different mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK: ERK1/2, p38 and JNK), PKC, PKA and Akt in the up-regulation of RAGE by retinol. As previously reported, we observed that the increase in RAGE immunocontent by retinol is reversed by antioxidant co-treatment, indicating the involvement of oxidative stress in this process. Furthermore, the p38 inhibitor SB203580 and the Akt inhibitor LY294002 also decreased the effect of retinol on RAGE levels, suggesting the involvement of these protein kinases in such effect. Both p38 and Akt phosphorylation were increased by treatment with pro-oxidant concentrations of retinol, and the antioxidant co-treatment blocked this effect, indicating that activation of p38 and Akt during retinol treatment is dependent on reactive species production. The 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH) assay also indicated that retinol treatment enhances cellular reactive species production. Altogether, these data indicate that RAGE up-regulation by retinol is mediated by the free radical-dependent activation of p38 and Akt.

  9. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels in COPD without pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed G. El Gazzar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Plasma BNP can be used as a useful prognostic biomarker of COPD and a good predictor of exacerbation, As BNP level was significantly higher in COPD patients than in control groups, (p < 0.005 and also significantly higher in grade (IV, III than grade (II and was significantly higher in grade (II than grade (I COPD patients, BNP level significantly higher (p < 0.005 during exacerbation than during remission of COPD patients.

  10. Plasma and platelet serotonin levels in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the relationship between plasmaand platelet serotonin levels and the degree of liverinsufficiency.METHODS: The prospective study included 30 patients with liver cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls. The degree of liver failure was assessed according to the Child-Pugh classification. Platelet and platelet poor plasma serotonin levels were determined.RESULTS: The mean plasma serotonin level was higher in liver cirrhosis patients than in healthy subjects (215.0± 26.1 vs 63.1 ± 18.1 nmol/L; P < 0.0001). The mean platelet serotonin content was not significantly different in patients with liver cirrhosis compared with healthy individuals (4.8 ± 0.6; 4.2 ± 0.3 nmol/platelet; P > 0.05).Plasma serotonin levels were significantly higher in ChildPugh grade A/B than in grade C patients (246.8 ± 35.0vs132.3 ± 30.7 nmol/L; P < 0.05). However, platelet serotonin content was not significantly different between Child-Pugh grade C and grade A/B (4.6 ± 0.7 vs 5.2 ± 0.8nmol/platelet; P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: Plasma serotonin levels are significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis than in the controls and represent the degree of liver insufficiency. In addition,platelet poor plasma serotonin estimation is a better marker for liver insufficiency than platelet serotonin content.

  11. High dietary fat-induced obesity in Wistar rats and type 2 diabetes in nonobese Goto-Kakizaki rats differentially affect retinol binding protein 4 expression and vitamin A metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Tomomi; Shichi, Yuta; Sato, Miyuki; Tanioka, Yuri; Furusho, Tadasu; Ota, Toru; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, which is caused mainly by insulin resistance. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is the only specific transport protein for retinol in the serum. RBP4 level is increased in the diabetic state and high-fat condition, indicating that retinol metabolism may be affected under these conditions. However, the precise effect of diabetes and high fat-induced obesity on retinol metabolism is unknown. In this study, we examined differences in retinol metabolite levels in rat models of diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes (Goto-Kakizaki [GK] rat). Four-week-old male Wistar and GK rats were given either a control diet (AIN-93G) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 40% fat kJ). After 15 weeks of feeding, the RBP4 levels increased by 2-fold in the serum of GK rats but not HFD-fed rats. The hepatic retinol concentration of HFD-fed rats was approximately 50% that of the controls (P retinol concentrations of GK rats increased by 70% (P retinol metabolism differently, and the effects were different in different peripheral tissues. The impact of HFD may be limited to the storage of hepatic vitamin A as retinyl palmitate. In particular, our data indicate that renal retinoic acid production might represent an important target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Change of plasma visfatin level in the population with different glucose tolerances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媚

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of plasma visfatin level and the relationship of plasma visfatin level to body mass index (BMI) , waist hip ratio (WHR) , blood glucose, plasma insulin levels as well as other factors in the subjects with different glucose tolerances. Methods Fasting and glucose loading 2 h plasma visfatin levels were assayed by ELISA in patients with type 2 diabetes

  13. Changes in plasma taurine levels after different endurance events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R J; Francaux, M; Cuisinier, C; Sturbois, X; De Witte, P

    1999-01-01

    The sulphonated amino acid taurine increased significantly in the plasma of trained athletes after three endurance exercises of different duration and intensity, a 90 min run on a treadmill at 75% of an individual's VO2 peak, a Marathon, 42.2 km and a 100 km run, by 19%, 77% and 36%, respectively. Such results indicated that the speed at which the exercise is performed, referred to as the intensity, rather than the duration of the exercise, correlated with the elevated taurine levels possibly indicating its release from muscle fibres. The plasma amino acid pool decreased significantly in relationship with the duration of the exercise, caused by their utilisation for glucogenesis. The possible sources of the increased plasma taurine are discussed.

  14. Abnormal plasma prothrombin (PIVKA-II) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of abnormal prothrombin, or the protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) in 102 patients with hepatic disorders was measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. The concentration of PIVKA-II in the plasma was elevated in 11 out of 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and also in a patient with hepatoblastoma. There was no correlation between serum alpha-fetoprotein and plasma PIVKA-II levels. The PIVKA-II level was normal in 11 patients who had metastatic carcinoma or cholangiocellular carcinoma. Moreover, benign diseases of the liver did not cause an elevation in PIVKA-II. PIVKA-II might be an useful marker of hepatocellular carcinoma because, like alpha-fetoprotein, its level changes in close relation to the effects of treatment.

  15. Radioimmunological analysis of plasma cortisole levels and daily plasma cortisole variation following triamcinolone acetonide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, F.; Schuster, E.

    1980-08-01

    Plasma cortisol levels in a four-point daily profile were measured by radioimmunoassay before and during treatment with corticoid-containing ointments (triamcinolone acetonide) in 21 patients with psoriasis, who had no endocrine disorders. In the pretreatment phase there were typical circadian fluctuations of the plasma cortisol concentrations. Already after two days of treatment a significant suppression of adrenal function could be detected. This disfunction increased during continuous treatment. In comparison with a fluorimetric method, the radioimmunoassay allowed a better differentiation. This could be due to a lack of specificity and to susceptibility to erroneous measurement of the fluorimetric method. We could also confirm that the distribution of plasma cortisol levels is not a linear but a logarithmic one. Considering the log-normal distribution different mean values and variances are obtained.

  16. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  17. Plasma carnitine levels in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, B A; Fleming, C R; Ilstrup, D; Nelson, J; Reek, S; Burnes, J

    1986-01-01

    Patients on long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) are known to frequently develop hepatic steatosis or steatohepatitis. The etiology of this steatosis or steatohepatitis is unknown, but carnitine deficiency has been one of the postulated mechanisms. The importance of L-carnitine in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and the steatosis observed in primary and acquired carnitine deficiencies prompted us to determine plasma carnitine levels in 37 patients receiving long-term HPN. Thirteen patients (35%) had low total and free plasma carnitine levels. Fifteen of the 37 HPN patients were matched for age and sex with 15 patients with Crohn's disease who did not require HPN. Mean total and free plasma carnitine values were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in these 15 HPN patients (32.2 +/- 11.9 and 28.4 +/- 10.8) when compared to Crohn's patients not requiring HPN (49.1 +/- 10.9 and 46.4 +/- 11.5). Associations were not detected between plasma carnitine and clinical or biochemical parameters that might have explained the low values.

  18. Plasma Leptin Levels in Children Hospitalized with Cholera in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkard, Brie; Uddin, Taher; Rahman, M Arifur; Franke, Molly F; Aktar, Amena; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Leung, Daniel T; Charles, Richelle C; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, induces both innate and adaptive immune responses in infected humans. Leptin is a hormone that plays a role in both metabolism and mediating immune responses. We characterized leptin levels in 11 children with cholera in Bangladesh, assessing leptin levels on days 2, 7, 30, and 180 following cholera. We found that patients at the acute stage of cholera had significantly lower plasma leptin levels than matched controls, and compared with levels in late convalescence. We then assessed immune responses to V. cholerae antigens in 74 children with cholera, correlating these responses to plasma leptin levels on day 2 of illness. In multivariate analysis, we found an association between day 2 leptin levels and development of later anti-cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) responses. This finding appeared to be limited to children with better nutritional status. Interestingly, we found no association between leptin levels and antibody responses to V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide, a T cell-independent antigen. Our results suggest that leptin levels may be associated with cholera, including the development of immune responses to T cell-dependent antigens. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Acute but not chronic ethanol exposure impairs retinol oxidation in the small and large intestine of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Ellendt, K.; Lindros, K.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ethanol has been shown to inhibit retinol oxidation at the level of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver and colon but not previously in the small intestine. In the present study we investigated how chronic alcohol feeding and acute ethanol exposure affects retinol dehydrogenase...... activity in the colon and small intestine of the rat. METHODS: Rats were fed ethanol in a liquid diet for six weeks. Control rats received a similar diet but with ethanol isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates. Retinol dehydrogenase was analyzed from cell cytosol samples from the small and the large...... higher, respectively). While chronic alcohol feeding did not affect these parameters, acute ethanol exposure reduced V(max) and V(max)/K(m) dose-dependently (p

  20. Periodontal treatment decreases plasma oxidized LDL level and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Reiko; Morita, Manabu

    2011-12-01

    Periodontitis induces excessive production of reactive oxygen species in periodontal lesions. This may impair circulating pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and induce the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in blood. The purpose of this study was to monitor circulating oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in subjects with chronic periodontitis following non-surgical periodontal treatment. Plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in 22 otherwise healthy non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (mean age 44.0 years) were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. At baseline, chronic periodontitis patients had higher plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress than healthy subjects (p surgical periodontal treatment were effective in decreasing oxLDL, which was positively associated with a reduction in circulating oxidative stress.

  1. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency...

  2. Relationship between Plasma Leptin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone shown to be related to several metabolic, inflammatory, and hemostatic factors related to chronic kidney disease. Recent animal studies have reported that infusion of recombinant leptin into normal rats for 3 weeks fosters the development of glomerulosclerosis. However, few studies have examined the association between leptin and CKD in humans. Therefore, we examined the association between plasma leptin levels and CKD in a representative sample of US adults. Methods. We examined the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age (n=5820, 53.6% women. Plasma leptin levels were categorized into quartiles (≤4.3 Fg/L, 4.4–8.7 Fg/L, 8.8–16.9 Fg/L, >16.9 Fg/L. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine. Results. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with CKD after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI, diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared to quartile 1 of leptin (referent, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval of CKD associated with quartile 4 was 3.31 (1.41 to 7.78; P-trend = 0.0135. Subgroup analyses examining the relation between leptin and CKD by gender, BMI categories, diabetes, and hypertension status also showed a consistent positive association. Conclusion. Higher plasma leptin levels are associated with CKD in a representative sample of US adults.

  3. [Preoperative digitalization. Measurement of digoxin plasma levels (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, H J; Rietbrock, N

    1976-09-01

    In a study of 233 patients from the department of surgery and anesthesiology taking digoxin preparations 64, per cent exhibit digoxin levels in the therapeutic range (0.6--1.5 ng/ml), 19 per cent had subtoxic concentrations ranged from 1.6--2.0 ng/ml and 7 per cent were in the toxic range (greater than 2 ng/ml). In patients treated with digoxin before admission to hospital subtherapeutic levels were most frequent. An average loading dose of digoxin 1 mg or more on one day may result in subtoxic and toxic digoxin levels on the second day, in patients receiving less than 1 mg digoxin daily an increasing frequency of plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.5 ng/ml or higher values was present on the third day. Averaged plasma digoxin concentrations were correlated with daily maintenance dose. There was, however, a wide individual variation in digoxin plasma concentrations. A low incidence of toxic digoxin plasma levels was observed in patients receiving a daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg digoxin (Lanicor). For prophylactic digitalization of patients with normal renal and thyroid function the following schedules or statistical guidlines are proposed: Lanicor (bioavailability 60%): oral loading dose of 0.75 mg over two days, and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg; Novodigal (bioavailability 80%): oral loading dose of 0.6 mg over two days and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.3 mg; Digoxin i.v.: intravenous loading dose of 0.5 (0.4) mg over two days and then 0.25 (0.2) mg daily intravenous maintenance dose. For any patient needing treatment with digitalis glycosides therapy must be individual and dynamic. The reasons for toxic concentrations were frequently attributed to wrong dosage.

  4. Impaired retinal function and vitamin A availability in mice lacking retinol-binding protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Quadro, L; Blaner, W S; Salchow, D J; Vogel, S.; Piantedosi, R; Gouras, P; Freeman, S; Cosma, M P; Colantuoni, V; Gottesman, M E

    1999-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is the sole specific transport protein for retinol (vitamin A) in the circulation, and its single known function is to deliver retinol to tissues. Within tissues, retinol is activated to retinoic acid, which binds to nuclear receptors to regulate transcription of >300 diverse target genes. In the eye, retinol is also activated to 11-cis-retinal, the visual chromophore. We generated RBP knockout mice (RBP(-/-)) by gene targeting. These mice have several phenotypes...

  5. Kissing reduces allergic skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    The effect of kissing on allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels were studied in 30 normal subjects, 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and 30 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). All of the patients with AR or AD are allergic to house dust mite (HDM) and Japanese cedar pollen (JCP). They are all Japanese and they do not kiss habitually. The subject kissed freely during 30 min with their lover or spouse alone in a room with closed doors while listening to soft music. Before and after kissing, skin prick tests were performed using commercial HDM allergen, JCP allergen, as well as histamine and control solution, and wheal responses were measured. Simultaneously, plasma levels of neurotrophin, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and -4 (NT-4) were measured. Kissing significantly reduced wheal responses induced by HDM and JCP, but not by histamine, and decreased plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in patients with AR or AD, while it failed to do so in normal subjects. These finding indicate that kissing have some implication in the study of neuroimmunology in allergic patients.

  6. Plasma bupivacaine levels following single dose intraarticular instillation for arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinig, R P; Holtgrewe, J L; Wiedel, J D; Christie, D B; Kestin, K J

    1988-01-01

    Arthroscopy of the knee was performed using 30 ml single dose intraarticular instillations of 0.5% or 0.25% solutions of bupivacaine (Marcaine). A total of 18 patients (mean age, 34 years), divided into two groups, participated in this study. Venous plasma levels were measured at 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 240 minute intervals following a single instillation into the knee joint. All patients had suspected traumatic internal derangement of the knee. Electrocardiogram tracings, blood pressure, and neurologic assessment were monitored at each venous sampling interval or more often if clinically indicated. The type and amount of supplemental anesthesia were also recorded. None of our 18 patients required a general anesthetic because of pain although the following procedures were performed: meniscectomy, plica release, abrasion chondroplasty, loose body retrieval, and limited meniscal repair. A new methodology for the measurement of plasma bupivacaine using the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer is described. Monitoring specific molecular mass fragments allows the measurement of picogram per milliliter levels of bupivacaine. The highest peak plasma concentration occurred 20 minutes after instillation of 30 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. The 625 +/- 225 ng/ml level was well below the 2,500 to 4,000 ng/ml reported to elicit early subjective CNS symptoms of bupivacaine toxicity. Thus, a single dose intraarticular instillation of 30 ml 0.5% or 0.25% bupivacaine is convenient, efficacious, and pharmacologically safe for routine clinical arthroscopy.

  7. Association of plasma lipid levels with atherosclerosis prevalence in psittaciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Cray, Carolyn; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of atherosclerosis is high in the captive psittacine population and increases with age and female sex. The genera Psittacus, Amazona, and Nymphicus are predisposed to atherosclerosis, whereas the genera Cacatua and Ara are less susceptible. Plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein abnormalities have been suggested as risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis as observed in mammals. To investigate whether the psittacine genera susceptibility to atherosclerosis and the known risk factors of age and sex could be associated with differences in the lipid profile, a retrospective analysis was conducted on blood lipid values from 5625 birds. Prevalence values were obtained from a previously published, large, case-control study and were compared with identified trends in plasma lipid profiles. Genus-specific differences were identified in plasma total cholesterol values that corresponded to observed trends in the prevalence of clinically important atherosclerotic lesions, which were also highly correlated. The effect of age was significant but was mild and may not account for the dramatic increase in atherosclerosis prevalence observed with age. In addition, Quaker parrots ( Myiopsitta monachus ), which were used as experimental models for psittacine atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia, were found to have the highest values in all lipid profile parameters. The results of this study suggest that the differences observed in prevalence among species of the psittacine genera may partly be explained by differences in plasma total cholesterol levels. Results also support the use of Quaker parrots as models for studying atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia.

  8. FABP4 plasma levels are increased in familial combined hyperlipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabré, Anna; Lázaro, Iolanda; Cofán, Montserrat; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Plana, Núria; Garcia-Otín, Angel L.; Ascaso, Juan F.; Ferré, Raimón; Civeira, Fernando; Ros, Emilio; Masana, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    The lipid profile of familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) shares some characteristics with atherogenic dyslipidemia seen in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) appears to be a determinant of atherogenic dyslipidemia. We examined relationships between FABP4 plasma concentrations, dyslipidemia, and metabolic variables in patients with FCHL. We studied 273 unrelated FCHL patients and 118 control subjects. FABP4 was higher in FCHL than controls, with mean levels of 21.8 (10.1) μg/l and 19.2 (9.2) μg/l, respectively (adjusted P= 0.012). In FCHL, FABP4 correlated to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (all P< 0.05), but not to lipid levels, whereas in obese patients, FABP4 correlated to triglyceride levels (r = 0.303, P= 0.014) and very low density lipoprotein size (r = 0.502, P = 0.001), as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Associations of FABP4 with BMI and waist circumference, but not with insulin levels, persisted in this subgroup. Plasma FABP4 does not influence the lipid phenotype of FCHL. In a small subgroup of obese FCHL, FABP4 levels were associated with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independent of insulin resistance. These results support a hyperlipidemic mechanism of FCHL different from similar metabolic conditions where fat mass is strongly related to FABP4 and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:20388924

  9. Hip Osteonecrosis Is Associated with Increased Plasma IL-33 Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinhui; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Li, Shirui; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The recently discovered IL-33 as an IL-1 cytokine family member has been proved to be specifically released from osteonecrotic bones. We aimed to investigate the potential role of IL-33 in the development of osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). Forty patients diagnosed with ONFH and forty age-, sex-, and body mass index- (BMI-) matched healthy subjects were included in this prospective study between March 2016 and September 2016. A commercially available ELISA kit was used to test the level of plasma IL-33. The IL-33 levels were compared among different ARCO stages, CJFH types, and etiology groups. Plasma IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the ONFH patients than that in the control subjects. The levels of IL-33 did not differ significantly among the ONFH patients with different ARCO stages. The IL-33 levels of patients with CJFH type L3 were significantly higher than that of patients with types L1 and L2. No significant differences were observed in IL-33 levels between steroid-induced, alcohol-induced, and idiopathic patients. Our findings seem to indicate that IL-33 effects may be detrimental during ONFH, which appeared to be associated with the prognosis of ONFH. The IL-33 deserves particular attention in the pathogenesis of ONFH. PMID:28167850

  10. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP.

  11. Retinol binding protein 4, obesity, and insulin resistance in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldi Noor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a global problem. Even in poor and developing countries, obesity has reached alarming levels. In childhood, obesity may lead to insulin resistance. Retinol binding protein (RBP4, secreted primarily by liver and adipose tissues, was recently proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. The role of RBP4 in pediatric obesity and its relationship with insulin resistance have not been well elucidated. Objective To compare RBP4 levels in obese and lean adolescents and to assess for a relationship between RBP4 levels and insulin resistance. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in three senior high schools in Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Subjects were adolescents aged 14-18 years, who were obese or normal weight (n=56. We measured subjects’ body mass index (BMI and serum RBP4 concentrations. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index. Results Similar RBP4 levels were found in the obese and normoweight groups (P>0.05. Higher RBP4 levels were found in the insulin resistant compared to the non-insulin resistant group, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion There is no significant difference in mean RBP4 levels in obese adolescents compared to normoweight adolescents. Nor are mean RBP4 levels significantly different between obese adolescents with and without insulin resistance.

  12. Meta-analysis of Relationship Between Serum Levels of Retinol-binding Protein 4 and Diabetic Nephropathy%视黄醇结合蛋白4与糖尿病肾病关系的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪雅楠; 李强

    2015-01-01

    目的 为综合性地进一步探讨血清视黄醇结合蛋白4(retinol-binding protein 4,RBP4)水平与糖尿病肾病的相关性.方法 检索了所有RBP4与糖尿病肾病相关的已发表文献.文献来源PubMed、EMBASE、CINAHL、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)和维普中文科技期刊数据库(VIP)等,共获得文献23篇,阅读文题和摘要排除文献5篇:其中非病例对照研究3篇、综述1篇、Meta分析1篇.阅读全文评估后,排除不满足纳入条件文献9篇:其中不可靠性发表4篇、分组不详文章1篇、RBP4与非糖尿病肾病相关性文章4篇,最终共纳入9项相关性研究.每一项研究均对每个变量,汇总相关系数(RS),使用随机效应荟萃分析估计.使用视黄醇结合蛋白4、2型糖尿病与糖尿病肾病作为关键词.提取相关数据并应用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析.结果 共纳入725例研究对象,Meta分析结果显示2型糖尿病合并肾病组血清RBP4水平明显高于对照组,其差异有统计学意义[WMD =20.47 95%CI(11.90 29.04)P<0.00001].结论 视黄醇结合蛋白4水平与糖尿病肾病呈明显相关性.

  13. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  14. Ghrelin plasma levels and appetite in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Abelardo; Cirugeda, Antonio; Amair, Ruth; Sansone, Gabriela; Alegre, Laura; Codoceo, Rosa; Bajo, M Auxiliadora; del Peso, Gloria; Díez, Juan J; Sánchez-Tomero, José A; Selgas, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    Anorexia-associated malnutrition is a severe complication that increases mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Ghrelin is a recently-discovered orexigenic hormone with actions in brain and stomach. We analyzed, in 42 PD patients, the possible relationship between ghrelin and appetite regulation with regard to other orexigens [neuropeptide Y (NPY), NO3] and anorexigens [cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)]. All orexigens and anorexigens were determined in plasma. Eating motivation was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). The patients were divided into three groups: those with anorexia (n = 12), those with obesity associated with high intake (n = 12), and those with no eating behavior disorders (n = 18). A control group of 10 healthy volunteers was also evaluated. Mean plasma levels of ghrelin were high (3618.6 +/- 1533 mg/mL), with 36 patients showing values above the normal range (anorexia had lower ghrelin and NPY levels and higher peptide-C, CCK, interleukin-1 (IL-1), TNFalpha, and GIP levels than did the other patients. Patients with anorexia also had an early satiety score and low desire and pleasure in eating on the VAS and diet survey. We observed significant positive linear correlations between ghrelin and albumin (r = 0.43, p anorexia show relatively lower ghrelin plasma levels than the levels seen in obese patients or in patients with normal appetite. The role of ghrelin in appetite modulation is altered in uremic PD patients, and that alteration is possibly associated with disorders in insulin and growth hormone metabolism.

  15. Increased nociceptin/orphanin FQ plasma levels in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferenc Szalay; Mónika B Hantos; Andrea Horvath; Peter L. Lakatos; Aniko Folhoffer; Kinga Dunkel; Dalma Hegedus; Kornélia Tekes

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The heptadecapeptide nociceptin alias orphanin FQ is the endogenous agonist of opioid receptor-like1 receptor.It is involved in modulation of pain and cognition. High blood level was reported in patients with acute and chronic pain,and in Wilson disease. An accidental observation led us to investigate nociceptin in hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Plasma nociceptin level was measured by radioimmunoassay, aprotinin was used as protease inhibitor.Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed by laboratory,ultrasound, other imaging, and confirmed by fine needle biopsy. Results were compared to healthy controls and patients with other chronic liver diseases.RESULTS: Although nociceptin levels were elevated in patients with Wilson disease (14.0±2.7 pg/mL, n=26),primary biliary cirrhosis (12.1±3.2 pg/mL, n=21) and liver cirrhosis (12.8±4.0 pg/mL, n=15) compared to the healthy controls (9.2±1.8 pg/mL, n=29, P<0.001 for each), in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma a ten-fold increase was found (105.9±14.4 pg/mL, n=29, P<0.0001). High plasma levels were found in each hepatocellular carcinoma patient including those with normal alpha fetoprotein and those with pain (104.9±14.9 pg/mL, n=12) and without (107.7±14.5pg/mL, n=6).CONCLUSION: A very high nociceptin plasma level seems to be an indicator for hepatocellular carcinoma. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism and clinical significance of this novel finding.

  16. Plasma levels of catecholamines and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels as predictive values of mortality among hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzic Marcin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess plasma concentration of catecholamines and asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels and a possible relationship to predict the mortality rates among hemodialysis patients. The study population comprised 27 subjects, aged 65-70 years. Each patient underwent dialysis thrice a week. Furthermore, the median duration of hemodialysis was 3.5 years. Based on the conducted research, it can be concluded that the concentrations of adrenaline and the level of asymmetric dimethylarginine have predictive value of mortality among hemodialysis patients. Of note, lowering plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentration may represent therapeutic target for prevention of progressive renal damage.

  17. Analysis of Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Patients with Unstable Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Tavares

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To determine the prevalence of hyperhomocystinemia in patients with acute ischemic syndrome of the unstable angina type. METHODS - We prospectively studied 46 patients (24 females with unstable angina and 46 control patients (19 males, paired by sex and age, blinded to the laboratory data. Details of diets, smoking habits, medication used, body mass index, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes were recorded, as were plasma lipid and glucose levels, C-reactive protein, and lipoperoxidation in all participants. Patients with renal disease were excluded. Plasma homocysteine was estimated using high-pressure liquid chromatography. RESULTS - Plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the group of patients with unstable angina (12.7±6.7 µmol/L than in the control group (8.7±4.4 µmol/L (p<0.05. Among males, homocystinemia was higher in the group with unstable angina than in the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant (14.1±5.9 µmol/L versus 11.9±4.2 µmol/L. Among females, however, a statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 groups: 11.0±7.4 µmol/L versus 6.4±2.9 µmol/L (p<0.05 in the unstable angina and control groups, respectively. Approximately 24% of the patients had unstable angina at homocysteine levels above 15 µmol/L. CONCLUSION - High homocysteine levels seem to be a relevant prevalent factor in the population with unstable angina, particularly among females.

  18. Decreased plasma levels of the endothelial protective sphingosine-1-phosphate are associated with dengue-induced plasma leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.; Japtok, L.; Alisjahbana, B.; Wisaksana, R.; Sumardi, U.; Puspita, M.; Kleuser, B.; Mast, Q. de; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A transient endothelial hyperpermeability is a hallmark of severe dengue infections. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) maintains vascular integrity and protects against plasma leakage. We related plasma S1P levels to dengue-induced plasma leakage and studied mechanisms that may underlie the

  19. Multi-level molecular modelling for plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Khosravian, Narjes; Van der Paal, Jonas; Verlackt, Christof C. W.; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Kamaraj, Balu; Neyts, Erik C.

    2016-02-01

    Modelling at the molecular or atomic scale can be very useful for obtaining a better insight in plasma medicine. This paper gives an overview of different atomic/molecular scale modelling approaches that can be used to study the direct interaction of plasma species with biomolecules or the consequences of these interactions for the biomolecules on a somewhat longer time-scale. These approaches include density functional theory (DFT), density functional based tight binding (DFTB), classical reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) and united-atom or coarse-grained MD, as well as hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. Specific examples will be given for three important types of biomolecules, present in human cells, i.e. proteins, DNA and phospholipids found in the cell membrane. The results show that each of these modelling approaches has its specific strengths and limitations, and is particularly useful for certain applications. A multi-level approach is therefore most suitable for obtaining a global picture of the plasma-biomolecule interactions.

  20. Atomic properties in hot plasmas from levels to superconfigurations

    CERN Document Server

    Bauche, Jacques; Peyrusse, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the calculation of hot-plasma properties which generally requires a huge number of atomic data. It is the first book that combines information on the details of the basic atomic physics and its application to atomic spectroscopy with the use of the relevant statistical approaches. Information like energy levels, radiative rates, collisional and radiative cross-sections, etc., must be included in equilibrium or non-equilibrium models in order to describe both the atomic-population kinetics and the radiative properties. From the very large number of levels and transitions involved in complex ions, some statistical (global) properties emerge. The book presents a coherent set of concepts and compact formulas suitable for tractable and accurate calculations. The topics addressed are: radiative emission and absorption, and a dozen of other collisional and radiative processes; transition arrays between level ensembles (configurations, superconfigurations); effective temperatures of configurat...

  1. Plasma lactoferrin level as a predictor to endothelial dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion The present study showed that low circulating plasma lactoferrin levels in OSA patients independently predict endothelial dysfunction as assessed by FMD%. High BMI in OSA patients negatively influences plasma lactoferrin levels unrelated to other OSA severity predictors.

  2. Contribution of NADH increases to ethanol’s inhibition of retinol oxidation by human ADH isoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Jennifer R.; Poolman, Mark G.; Fell, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background A decrease in retinoic acid levels due to alcohol consumption has been proposed as a contributor to such conditions as fetal alcohol spectrum diseases and ethanol-induced cancers. One molecular mechanism, competitive inhibition by ethanol of the catalytic activity of human alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) (ADH) on all-trans retinol oxidation has been shown for the ADH7 isoform. Ethanol metabolism also causes an increase in the free NADH in cells, which might reasonably be expected to decrease the retinol oxidation rate by product inhibition of ADH isoforms. Method To understand the relative importance of these two mechanisms by which ethanol decreases the retinol oxidation in vivo we need to assess them quantitatively. We have built a model system of four reactions: (1) ADH oxidation of ethanol and NAD+ (2) ADH oxidation of retinol and NAD+ (3) oxidation of ethanol by a generalized Ethanoloxidase that uses NAD+ (4) NADHoxidase which carries out NADH turnover. Results Using the metabolic modeling package SCRUMPY, we have shown that the ethanol-induced increase in NADH contributes from 0–90% of the inhibition by ethanol, depending on [ethanol] and ADH isoform. Furthermore, while the majority of flux control of retinaldehyde production is exerted by ADH, Ethanoloxidase and the NADHoxidase contribute as well. Discussion Our results show that the ethanol-induced increase in NADH makes a contribution of comparable importance to the ethanol competitive inhibition throughout the range of conditions likely to occur in vivo, and must be considered in the assessment of the in vivo mechanism of ethanol interference with fetal development and other diseases. PMID:19183134

  3. Effects of ethanol intake on retinol concentration in the milk of lactating rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Albuquerque

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the consumption of ethanol (5% on retinol concentration in milk was studied in the rat on day 12 after delivery, together with the evolution of dam body weight and pup growth rate. Female Wistar rats receiving alcohol (5% in drinking water during lactation (N = 7 were compared to normal controls fed ad libitum (N = 6. The mean maternal alcohol intake was 3.96 ± 0.23 g/kg body weight per day. To determine retinol levels in milk we used the Bessey and Lowry method, modified by Araújo and Flores ((1978 Clinical Chemistry, 24: 386-392. The pups were separated from dams for a 2-4-h period, after which the dams were injected intraperitoneally with anesthetic and oxytocin. The concentration of retinol in milk was 162.88 ± 10.60 µg/dl in the control group and 60.02 ± 8.22 µg/dl in the ethanol group (P<0.05. The ethanol group consumed less food than the controls and lost a significant amount of weight during lactation. On days 8, 10 and 12, the body weight of the pups from rats given ethanol (13.46 ± 0.43, 16.12 ± 0.48 and 18.60 ± 0.91 g, respectively were significantly lower (P<0.05 than the weight of pups from controls (15.2 ± 0.44, 18.36 ± 0.54, 20.77 ± 0.81 g. These data show that ethanol intake during the suckling period, even at low concentrations, decreases the amount of retinol in milk and, therefore, the amount available to the pups.

  4. Disruption of Retinol (Vitamin A) Signaling by Phthalate Esters: SAR and Mechanism Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanling; Reese, David H

    2016-01-01

    A spectrum of reproductive system anomalies (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, dysgenesis of Wolffian duct-derived tissues and prostate, and reduced sperm production) in male rats exposed in utero to phthalate esters (PEs) are thought to be caused by PE inhibition of fetal testosterone production. Recently, dibutyl and dipentyl phthalate (DBuP, DPnP) were shown to disrupt the retinol signaling pathway (RSP) in mouse pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro. The RSP regulates the synthesis and cellular levels of retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of retinol (vitamin A). In this new study, a total of 26 di- and mono-esters were screened to identify additional phthalate structures that disrupt the RSP and explore their mechanisms of action. The most potent PEs, those causing > 50% inhibition, contained aryl and cycloalkane groups or C4-C6 alkyl ester chains and were the same PEs reported to cause malformations in utero. They shared similar lipid solubility; logP values were between 4 and 6 and, except for PEs with butyl and phenyl groups, were stable for prolonged periods in culture. Mono- and cognate di-esters varied in ability to disrupt the RSP; e.g., DEHP was inactive but its monoester was active while DBuP was active yet its monoester was inactive. DBuP and dibenzyl phthalate both disrupted the synthesis of RA from retinol but not the ability of RA to activate gene transcription. Both PEs also disrupted the RSP in C3H10T1/2 multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Based on this in vitro study showing that some PEs disrupt retinol signaling and previous in vivo studies that vitamin A/RA deficiency and PEs both cause strikingly similar anomalies in the male rat reproductive system, we propose that PE-mediated inhibition of testosterone and RA synthesis in utero are both causes of malformations in male rat offspring.

  5. Identification of compounds that modulate retinol signaling using a cell-based qHTS assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanling; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Huang, Ruili; Reese, David H; Xia, Menghang

    2016-04-01

    In vertebrates, the retinol (vitamin A) signaling pathway (RSP) controls the biosynthesis and catabolism of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), which regulates transcription of genes essential for embryonic development. Chemicals that interfere with the RSP to cause abnormal intracellular levels of atRA are potential developmental toxicants. To assess chemicals for the ability to interfere with retinol signaling, we have developed a cell-based RARE (Retinoic Acid Response Element) reporter gene assay to identify RSP disruptors. To validate this assay in a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) platform, we screened the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) in both agonist and antagonist modes. The screens detected known RSP agonists, demonstrating assay reliability, and also identified novel RSP agonists including kenpaullone, niclosamide, PD98059 and SU4312, and RSP antagonists including Bay 11-7085, LY294002, 3,4-Methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene, and topoisomerase inhibitors (camptothecin, topotecan, amsacrine hydrochloride, and idarubicin). When evaluated in the P19 pluripotent cell, these compounds were found to affect the expression of the Hoxa1 gene that is essential for embryo body patterning. These results show that the RARE assay is an effective qHTS approach for screening large compound libraries to identify chemicals that have the potential to adversely affect embryonic development through interference with retinol signaling.

  6. A Comparison of the Effects of Aerobic and Intense Exercise on the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Marker Adipokines, Adiponectin and Retinol Binding Protein-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With a more sedentary population comes growing rates of obesity and increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM risk. Exercise generally induces positive changes in traditional T2DM risk markers such as lipids, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity; however alterations in concentrations of many circulating cytokines and their respective receptors are also becoming apparent. These cytokines may be early-response health risk factors otherwise overlooked in traditional T2DM risk marker analysis. Plasma levels of two adipocyte-originating cytokines, adiponectin and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4, alter following exercise. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-insulin resistance roles and its secretion increases with physical activity, whilst elevated RBP-4 leads to increased insulin resistance, and secretion decreases with increasing physical activity; thus these plasma adipokine levels alter favourably following exercise. Although current data are limited, they do suggest that the more intense the exercise, the greater the positive effect on plasma RBP-4 levels, whilst lower intensity aerobic exercise may positively improve adiponectin concentrations. Therefore short-duration, high intensity training may provide a time-efficient alternative to the recommended 150 min moderate aerobic exercise per week in providing positive changes in RBP-4 and other traditional T2DM risk markers and due to increased compliance give greater health benefits over the longer term.

  7. Effects of exercise on plasma adiponectin levels in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ which releases biologically active adipokines. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein structurally similar to complement 1q, plays a significant role in metabolic disorders, due to its insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, mediate the metabolic actions of adiponectin by activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- alpha (PPAR-α which leads to an increase in fatty acid combustion and energy consumption, fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in myocytes and reduces gluconeogenesis and thus leads to increased insulin sensitivity. Plasma adiponectin level is affected by multiple factors: gender (females have higher plasma adiponectin levels, obesity-linked diseases (metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 and atherosclerosis are associated with lower adiponectin levels, lifestyle -including exercise. Yet, to date, little is known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in population of athletes. The aim of this review is to overview the published evidence for the effects of exercise on adiponectin levels in athletes. Adiponectin concentration presents a delayed increase (30 min after short-term intense performance, by athletes, both male and female. It seems that adiponectin concentrations do not change in response to long-term exercise. No significant difference was found in total adiponectin and/or high-molecular weight (HMW oligomers in long-term effects of high physical training in athletes. Adiponectin can serve to monitor training loads and the establishment of individual limit values of training loads. Further studies are needed to clarify possible mechanisms by which adiponectin might influence energy homeostasis during heavy training in elite athletes.

  8. Retinol sérico en mujeres mexicanas urbanas durante el periodo perinatal Serum retinol in urban Mexican women during the perinatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Casanueva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Establecer la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina A durante el embarazo y la lactancia en un grupo de mujeres mexicanas urbanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se invitó a participar a un grupo de gestantes que acudían a control prenatal, que carecían de patología agregada y contaban con menos de 20 semanas de embarazo. Fueron evaluadas tres veces durante el embarazo y hasta la semana 24 del posparto. La determinación de vitamina A en suero se realizó por cromatografía de líquidos de alta presión. Se consideró como punto de corte para riesgo de deficiencia una concentración de retinol OBJECTIVE. To establish the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy and lactation in a group of urban Mexican women. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A group of pregnant women who attended a prenatal care program were invited to participate. Subjects had no added pathologies and were less than 20 weeks pregnant. Evaluations were performed 3 times during pregnancy until 24 weeks post-partum. Vitamin A levels were determined in serum by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The cut-off point to consider retinol deficiency was < 1.05 µmol/L. RESULTS. During the 3 gestational evaluations, vitamin A levels were 2.34±0.70, 2.41±1.03 and 1.86±0.66 µmol/L, respectively, which shows a significant decrease. However, only 1/30 was situated below the accepted cut-off point to consider risk of deficiency, and none for deficiency. During post-partum , concentrations remained relatively constant, approximately 2.10 µmol/L. Lactation had no impact on serum retinol levels, while weight loss did. CONCLUSIONS. No cases of vitamin A deficiency were found in the studied population during the perinatal period. Maternal weight loss affects post-partum retinol levels.

  9. The Relationship Between Retinol/Retinol Binding Protein 4 ratio, resistin and inflammation in non diabetic obese Indonesian men

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    Anna Meiliana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To verify the correlation between Retinol/RBP4 Ratio, and resistin with inflammation (represented by hsCRP in non-diabetic obese Indonesian menMethods This was a cross sectional study using 125 subjects. Measured parameters were retinol, RBP4, resistin, and hsCRP. Correlation between retinol, RBP4, resistin, hsCRP and Retinol/RBP4 Ratio was calculated. Cut off point of hsCRP were classiied as follows: <1 mg/l for low risk of inflammation, 1-3 mg/l for moderate risk, and 3-10 mg/l for high risk (according to CVD risk. The Retinol/RBP4 ratio was dichotomized into high (>0.9 and low ratio (≤0.9. The cross tabulation test was performed to predict the inflammation trends described by Retinol/RBP4 Ratio and resistin.Results Retinol was found strongly correlated with RBP4 and resistin (r=0.53; p<0.01. A positive but not significant correlation was found between resistin and Retinol/RBP4 Ratio with hsCRP. In high ratio group, 17.6% subjects were found with low risk inflammation, 26.4% with moderate risk, and 20.8% with high risk, in low ratio group, 8% subjects were low risk inflammation, 20% moderate risk, and 7.2% high risk. Combination between ratio and resistin showed that in “high ratio and low resistin” group, 12% subjects have low risk of inflammation and 8% have high risk. Meanwhile in “low ratio and high resistin” group, 3.2% subjects were found having low risk and 13.6% high risk of inflammation.Conclusions Combination between Retinol/RBP4 Ratio and resistin showed better description about the inflammation risk in non-diabetic obese subjects compare to the ratio itself. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:57-63Keywords: Retinol, RBP4, resistin, hsCRP, obesity, inflammation

  10. Levels of Retinol-Binding Protein 4 in Neonates Umbilical Blood and Serum of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Patients and Normal Pregnant Women during Different Gestational Weeks%妊娠期糖尿病患者和正常孕妇在不同孕周中血清及新生儿脐血中视黄醇结合蛋白4的含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 韩淑娟; 纪向虹; 王茜

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of retinol-binding protein 4 in neonates umbilical blood and serum of gestational diabetics and normal pregnant women during different gestational weeks in order to provide basis for the estimation and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM).Method:Among the pregnant women who received antenatal care in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2013,50 pregnant women with GDM were selected as the experimental group,50 normal pregnant women were selected as the control group.The retinol-binding protein 4 levels in serum of neonates umbilical cord and pregnancy of 31 to 33 weeks and 37 to 41 weeks were detected through ELISA method.Result:The retinol-binding protein 4 was increased according with the increase of gestational weeks, the differences of it in different times were statistically significant(P<0.001). The retinol-binding protein 4 of the experimental group in different times was higher than that of the control group,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001).The difference values in retinol-binding protein 4 of the two groups were increased with the time, the differences were statistically significant(P<0.001).The ranges of retinol-binding protein 4 in the experimental group were greater than those in the control group, the differences were statistically significant(P<0.001).The retinol-binding protein 4 of the experimental group had positive correlations with FBG,FINS and HOMA-IR(P<0.001). Conclusion:Retinol-binding protein 4 levels may use as the basis for the prediction and assessment of GDM and as the guidelines for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus.%目的:研究视黄醇结合蛋白4在妊娠期糖尿病患者和正常孕妇的不同孕周的血清及新生儿脐血中的表达,为妊娠期糖尿病的预测及治疗提供依据。方法:选择2013年1-12月在本院产科产检的妊娠期糖尿病孕妇50例作为试验组,正常孕妇50例作

  11. Nutrition education improves serum retinol concentration among adolescent school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanerolle, Pulani; Atukorala, Sunethra

    2006-01-01

    Dietary diversification has been identified as a sustainable intervention method in developing countries where subclinical vitamin A deficiency exists. Nutrition education is central to all methods of nutrition intervention including dietary diversification. The paucity of available data currently limits the effective use of nutrition education in national programs in Sri Lanka. We assessed the effect of nutrition education on nutrition related knowledge, food consumption patterns and serum retinol concentrations among 229 adolescent school girls, aged between 15-19 years. Knowledge on nutrition, food consumption patterns and serum retinol concentration was assessed at baseline. Intervention included nutrition education as lecture discussions, interactive group discussions and four different methods of reinforcement. Knowledge, food consumption patterns and serum retinol concentrations were reassessed after a ten week period of intervention. Educational intervention resulted in a significant increase in knowledge (P nutrition education on serum retinol concentration was highly significant (PNutrition education was effective in improving knowledge and food consumption patterns among these girls. Effectiveness was of biological significance, as a positive change in serum retinol concentration was observed in subjects with initially low concentrations, and not in subjects with initially normal serum concentrations.

  12. The role of cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto, Parham; Lavie, Carl J; Swift, Damon; Sui, Xuemei

    2015-11-01

    Dyslipidemia is a treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of treatment for abnormalities in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Aside from pharmacotherapy, exercise and cardio-respiratory fitness have been shown to have beneficial effects on decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. Even though previous data regarding the benefits of exercise on plasma lipids have been somewhat conflicting, numerous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases HDL-cholesterol and reduces the triglyceride levels. Also, smaller, more atherogenic LDL particles seem to decrease with increases in cardio-respiratory fitness and exercise, and favorable blood lipid profiles seem to persist longer through the adult life span.

  13. [Plasma taurine levels in patients with esophagus cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamônica-Garcia, Vânia Cristina; Marin, Flávia Andréa; Lerco, Mauro Masson; Moreto, Fernando; Henry, Maria Aparecida Coelho Arruda; Burini, Roberto Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The esophagus cancer-host has a two way close relationship as seen in its sulphur-amino acid metabolism. Taurine one of these compounds has ubiquous role in host defense and other physiological mechanisms related to survival. To study the plasma levels of taurine and its precursors in patients with esophagus cancer. In a sectional design both groups, patients (n = 16, 43-73 yrs old) and healthy controls (n = 20, 27-65 yrs old) were assessed for anthropometry, body-weight lost, hematology (Hb, Ht, total leukocytes and lymphocyte counts), general biochemistry (albumin, glucose, lipids and aminotransferases) and chromatographic analysis for taurine, cysteine, and homocysteine. The survival time was registered there since from the clinical-histopathological diagnosis. All participants had a written ethical consent for the research. The cancer patients were predominantly, white males of low social economic class, with spinocellular carcinoma stage IV located at upper 3rd half of them presented hypoalbuminemia and 16% referred significant body-weight loss. The patients showed statistically lower values of Hb, Ht, total and HDL cholesterol and cysteine and significantly higher values of taurine, homocysteine and aminotransferases than healthy controls. A positive relationship was found between taurine and either TLC (r = 0.50) and survival (r = 0.81). Lower plasma cysteine along with higher levels of taurine and homocysteine and the positive direct association of taurine with indications of survival suggest an effective role of this compound and therefore a prospective special nutritional care in its precursors (cysteine, methionine and B vitamins) of these patients.

  14. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as quadratic effect of Total Cholesterol² × Age was identified for Logical Memory II (b = -.0013, p = .039), such that the 70+ group performed best at high and low levels of total cholesterol than at midrange total cholesterol (U-shaped) and the Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Changes in plasma TIMP-1 levels after resection for primary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, C.; Lomholt, A.F.; Davis, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) are associated with poor outcome in colorectal cancer (CRC), however postoperative changes in plasma TIMP-1 levels after resections for CRC have not been thoroughly evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samp...

  16. Plasma YKL-40 levels in healthy subjects from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Stig E; Johansen, Julia S; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Plasma YKL-40 is a new biomarker in patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. High plasma YKL-40 is associated with poor prognosis. Our aim was to determine reference levels in healthy subjects....

  17. Essential dynamics of the cellular retinol-binding protein - Evidence for ligand-induced conformational changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalten, D.M.F.; Findlay, J.B.C.; Amadei, A; Berendsen, H.J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) is an intracellular retinol carrier protein belonging to a family of hydrophobic ligand-binding proteins, It transports retinol to specific locations in the cell where, for instance, it is esterified for storage, Recently solved crystallographic structures

  18. Supplementation with Red Palm Oil Increases β-Carotene and Vitamin A Blood Levels in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

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    Olaf Sommerburg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1.5 mg of β-carotene daily over 8 weeks. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in plasma at baseline and after intervention. In addition β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C were measured in buccal mucosa cells (BMC to determine the influence of RPO on antioxidant tissue levels. Eleven subjects completed the study properly. Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged. Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF.

  19. Niveles de vitamina A y zinc en pacientes de cirugía gastroenterológica: Relación con la inflamación y la aparición de complicaciones postoperatorias Vitamin A and zinc levels in gastroenterological surgical patients: Relation with inflammation and postoperative complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Zago

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se acepta que la depleción aún moderada de algunos nutrientes puede afectar la evolución del paciente quirúrgico. Objetivo: Evaluar la influencia de los niveles plasmáticos de retinol y de zinc preoperatorios sobre la evolución postoperatoria; evaluar la influencia de la inflamación sobre los niveles de ambos marcadores. Métodos: Se determinaron los niveles plasmáticos de retinol y zinc en 50 pacientes previo a ser sometidos a cirugías gastroenterológicas programadas. Para caracterizar el estado nutricional global de los pacientes se incluyeron el IMC y el porcentaje de pérdida de peso (%PP previo a la cirugía. Se utilizó la Proteína C Reactiva (PCR como marcador de inflamación. Durante el seguimiento se registraron las complicaciones postoperatorias. El presente análisis se realizó sobre 43 pacientes con información completa. Resultados: Se hallaron valores bajos de retinol (Introduction: It is accepted that even mild nutrient depletion may affect the evolution of the surgical patient. Objective: To evaluate the influence of preoperative levels of plasma retinol and zinc on postoperative evolution of surgical patients; to evaluate the influence of inflammation on both level markers. Methods: Plasma retinol and zinc were determined in 50 patients before programmed gastroenterological surgeries. To detect global malnutrition BMI and weight loss percentage (WL% were included. C-reactive protein (CRP was included as inflammation marker. During follow up postoperative complications were recorded. The present analysis was carried out in 43 patients with complete information. Results: Low retinol values (< 20 μg/dl were founded in 3 cases and low Zn values (< 85 μg/dl in 20 cases, being 9 of them indicative of severe deficiency (< 70 μg/dl. Postoperative complications were recorded in 17 patients; patients with complications presented lower values of plasma Zn (78.4 ± 25.8 vs. 87.8 ± 25.7 μg/dl and retinol (36

  20. Plasma Cytokine Levels in Astronauts Before and after Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Aggarwal, Barat B.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Hammond, Dinne K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Stowe, Raymond; Pierson Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight is a unique experience and results in adverse effects on human physiology. Changes have been reported in various physiological systems, including musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, cardiovascular, endocrine, immunity and increased latent viral reactivation as well as others. The potential mechanisms behind these changes are not fully understood. Various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF and chemokines have been linked to several of these changes, like muscle loss, bone loss, fatigue, sleep deprivation and viral reactivation. Eighteen astronauts (15 M and 3 F) from 8 spaceflights and 10 healthy age-matched adults (6 M, 4 F) were included in the present study. A panel of 21 plasma cytokines was analyzed with the Luminex 100 to measure the cytokines in these subjects 10 days before the flight (L-10), 2-3 hour after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+3), and at their annual medical exam (AME). IL-10, IL-1, IFN-alpha, MCP-1 and IP-10 increased significantly at L-10 as compared with AME levels. IL-6 and IFN-alpha showed significant increases at R + 0 (P less than .05) over their baseline levels (AME). Cytokine levels at R+3 were not significantly different from R+0. IL-10 and IL-6 have been reported to increase in during viral reactivation. These data show that there was a shift from TH1 to TH2 cytokines L-10 and R+0. We also studied viral reactivation in 10 of the 18 subjects included in the present study before, during, and after space flight. Increased salivary varicella zoster virus (VZV) shedding in these subjects was found either during or after the mission. VZV shedding correlated with the increased levels of cytokines especially IL-10 and IL-6. Overall, our data suggests that cytokines may play an important role in regulating adverse changes in astronauts, and further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism.

  1. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213

  2. Sequential plasma angiogenic factors levels in women with suspected preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltajian, Kedak; Bajracharya, Surichhya; Salahuddin, Saira; Berg, Anders H; Geahchan, Carl; Wenger, Julia B; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Rana, Sarosh

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in circulating angiogenic factors are associated with the diagnosis of preeclampsia and correlate with adverse perinatal outcomes during the third trimester. Analysis of the sequential levels of plasma angiogenic factors among patients admitted for evaluation of preeclampsia. We performed an observational study among women with singleton pregnancies admitted to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, for evaluation of preeclampsia at less than 37 weeks of gestation. Plasma samples were collected on admission and daily for the first 3 days and then weekly until delivery. Doppler ultrasound was performed on admission (within 48 hours) and then weekly (within 24 hours of blood collection) to evaluate uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows. Maternal demographics, hospital course, mode of delivery, diagnosis of hypertensive disorder, adverse maternal outcomes (elevated liver function enzymes, low platelet count, pulmonary edema, cerebral hemorrhage, convulsion, acute renal insufficiency, or maternal death), and adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler, fetal death, and neonatal death) were recorded. Circulating angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase and placental growth factor were measured on automated platform in a single batch after delivery and in a blinded fashion. Data are presented as median (25th to 75th centile), mean, or proportions as appropriate. During the study period, data from 100 women were analyzed for the study, and 43 had adverse outcomes. Women with adverse outcomes had lower gestational age of delivery, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures during hospitalization, and lower birthweight and placental weight (all P preeclampsia, women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes have higher soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase/placental growth factor ratio on admission, which continued to rise until delivery. Women with high soluble fms-like tyrosine

  3. Associations between dietary acrylamide intake and plasma sex hormone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Janneke G.; Fortner, Renee T.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rodent carcinogen acrylamide was discovered in 2002 in commonly consumed foods. Epidemiological studies have observed positive associations between acrylamide intake and endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer risks, which suggests that acrylamide may have sex-hormonal effects. Methods We cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between acrylamide intake and plasma levels of sex hormones and SHBG among 687 postmenopausal and 1300 premenopausal controls from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Studies. Results There were no associations between acrylamide and sex hormones or SHBG among premenopausal women overall or among never-smokers. Among normal-weight premenopausal women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly positively associated with luteal total and free estradiol levels. Among postmenopausal women overall and among never-smokers, acrylamide was borderline statistically significantly associated with lower estrone sulfate levels but not with other estrogens, androgens, prolactin or SHBG. Among normal weight women, (borderline) statistically significant inverse associations were noted for estrone, free estradiol, estrone sulfate, DHEA, and prolactin, while statistically significant positive associations for testosterone and androstenedione were observed among overweight women. Conclusions Overall, this study did not show conclusive associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that would lend unequivocal biological plausibility to the observed increased risks of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The association between acrylamide and sex hormones may differ by menopausal and overweight status. We recommend other studies investigate the relationship between acrylamide and sex hormones in women, specifically using acrylamide biomarkers. Impact The present study showed some interesting associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that urgently need confirmation. PMID:23983241

  4. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels after postoperative combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy predict prognosis in elderly glioblastoma patients.

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    Sheng Han

    Full Text Available It has been found that preoperative plasma IGFBP-2 levels correlate with prognosis in glioma patients. The prognostic value of plasma IGFBP-2 after postoperative combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in glioma patients is unknown. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels in 83 glioblastoma patients after postoperative radiotherapy plus chemotherapy were analyzed using an IGFBP-2 ELISA kit. We found that after standard therapy plasma IGFBP-2 levels significantly correlated with the patient's age (R = 0.738, P<0.001 and Karnofsky performance status (KPS, R =  -0.633, P<0.05. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs of death according to plasma IGFBP-2 levels adjusted for patient clinical characteristics. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels significantly correlated with overall survival in glioblastoma patients (multivariate HR = 1.035; 95% CI, 1.024-1.047; P<0.001. The effect of plasma IGFBP-2 levels on survival seemed to differ according to patients' age. Among patients older than 60, high plasma IGFBP-2 levels were associated with a significant increase in overall mortality (HR = 1.097; 95% CI, 1.055-1.140; P<0.001. In contrast, plasma IGFBP-2 levels conferred no significant effect on mortality among patients younger than 60. Elevated plasma IGFBP-2 levels after combined postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy in elderly glioblastoma patients correlate with poor KPS score and predicts poor prognosis.

  5. Perbedaan kadar seng serum dan kadar c-reactive protein pada anak balita dengan kadar serum retinol normal dan tidak normal

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    Kadek Tresna Adhi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin A Defciency (VAD is one of the major nutritional problem, and many occur in developing countries. VAD occurs when serum retinol concentration 0.05. While there are differences in the frequency of pain and zinc (p <0.05. Conclusion: No difference in zinc levels in both groups, whereas CRP levels did not show different results. It was recommended that further research on the interaction of research results with linear growth as well as environmental factors and personal hygiene to prevent infection that can affect serum retinol.

  6. Caffeine suppresses amyloid-beta levels in plasma and brain of Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chuanhai; Cirrito, John R; Lin, Xiaoyang; Wang, Li; Wang, Lilly; Verges, Deborah K; Dickson, Alexander; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Mori, Takashi; Arendash, Gary W; Holtzman, David M; Potter, Huntington

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that caffeine may be protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Supportive of this premise, our previous studies have shown that moderate caffeine administration protects/restores cognitive function and suppresses brain amyloid-beta (Abeta) production in AD transgenic mice. In the present study, we report that acute caffeine administration to both young adult and aged AD transgenic mice rapidly reduces Abeta levels in both brain interstitial fluid and plasma without affecting Abeta elimination. Long-term oral caffeine treatment to aged AD mice provided not only sustained reductions in plasma Abeta, but also decreases in both soluble and deposited Abeta in hippocampus and cortex. Irrespective of caffeine treatment, plasma Abeta levels did not correlate with brain Abeta levels or with cognitive performance in individual aged AD mice. Although higher plasma caffeine levels were strongly associated with lower plasma Abeta1-40 levels in aged AD mice, plasma caffeine levels were also not linked to cognitive performance. Plasma caffeine and theophylline levels were tightly correlated, both being associated with reduced inflammatory cytokine levels in hippocampus. Our conclusion is two-fold: first, that both plasma and brain Abeta levels are reduced by acute or chronic caffeine administration in several AD transgenic lines and ages, indicating a therapeutic value of caffeine against AD; and second, that plasma Abeta levels are not an accurate index of brain Abeta levels/deposition or cognitive performance in aged AD mice.

  7. Plasma levels of immunosuppressive mediators during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borrelli

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma levels of two mediators with immunosuppressive properties, complement fraction C3a (C3a and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, during extracorporeal circulation. The proliferation index after phytohaemagglutinin (PHA stimulation of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also investigated. Sixteen patients undergoing hypothermic (n = 8, group 1 and normothermic (n = 8, group 2 cardiopulmormry bypass (CPB were enrolled in this study. As a control, we evaluated four patients undergoing thoracovascular operations without CPB. Blood samples were collected before CPB but after anaesthesia, every 30 min during CPB, at the end of CPB and 10 min after protamine administration. Both C3a and TGF-β1 increased significantly during CPB and after protamine administration in the hypothermic as well as the normothermic group. In the latter case the increase of C3a and TGF-β1, although more prominent, was not significantl higher than in the former group. Conversely, the proliferation, index of peripheral mononuclear cells had already decreased 30 min after CPB was started and remained depressed throughout the CPB time. These results suggest a possible role of C3a and TGF-β1 in the immunological changes occurring during extracorporeal circulation.

  8. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, James O; Hamali, Hassan A; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K; Goodall, Alison H; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve)) and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve)) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients.

  9. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Burton

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD, 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p0.3. Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients.

  10. Plasma Cytokine Levels During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2012-01-01

    Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation. Specific measurements include leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production profiles (mRNA, intracellular, secreted, plasma), virus-specific T cell number/function, latent herpesvirus reactivation, stress hormone levels. Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, as well as an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. Specific Study Objectives: Determine the nutritional status of astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight ensure adequate intake of energy, protein, and vitamins during missions. The Clinical Nutritional Status Assessment measures dietary intake, body composition, protein, bone, iron, mineral, vitamin, and antioxidant status (60 total analytes). Currently, it is a medical requirement for U.S. crewmembers on-board the ISS. The results of data analysis are used both to understand the connections between nutrition and human health during space flight, and to develop effective dietary strategies to reduce adverse health impacts (including bone loss, loss of important vitamins and minerals, and increased genetic damage from radiation).

  11. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency Departments suspected of having AAS underwent LDH assay at presentation. A final diagnosis was obtained by aortic imaging. Patients diagnosed with AAS were followed-up for in-hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients were clinically eligible, and 999 patients were included in the study. The final diagnosis was AAS in 201 (20.1%) patients. Median LDH was 424 U/L (interquartile range [IQR] 367–557) in patients with AAS and 383 U/L (IQR 331–460) in patients with alternative diagnoses (P < 0.001). Using a cutoff of 450 U/L, the sensitivity of LDH for AAS was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37–51) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 69–76). Overall in-hospital mortality for AAS was 23.8%. Mortality was 32.6% in patients with LDH ≥ 450 U/L and 16.8% in patients with LDH < 450 U/L (P = 0.006). Following stratification according to LDH quartiles, in-hospital mortality was 12% in the first (lowest) quartile, 18.4% in the second quartile, 23.5% in the third quartile, and 38% in the fourth (highest) quartile (P = 0.01). LDH ≥ 450 U/L was further identified as an independent predictor of death in AAS both in univariate and in stepwise logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.11–4.66; P = 0.025), in addition to well-established risk markers such as advanced age and hypotension. Subgroup analysis showed excess mortality in association with LDH ≥ 450 U/L in elderly, hemodynamically stable

  12. Association of serum lipoprotein (a) level,retinol-binding protein 4 with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes%血清脂蛋白(a)和视黄醇结合蛋白4与2型糖尿病视网膜病变的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田婷; 马向华; 沈捷

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the independent risk factors related to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) for type 2 diabetic patients. Methods; A case-control study containing 82 DR patients and 86 diabetics patients without DR (NDR) was per-formed from January,2009 to December,2010. The clinical parameter and biochemical indicators were compared between the two groups. Conditional Logistic regression analysis was further performed to assess variables independently associated with the DR de-veloping. Results; In the univariate analysis,duration of diabetes,HbA1c,diastolic blood pressure and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) were significant between DR and NDR. Logistic regression analysis showed that duration of diabetes(OR=2.41 ;95%CI; 1.12-5.18),lipoprotein (a) (OR=2.22;95% CI: 1.15~4.31) and RBP4 (OR=2.95;95% CI:1.54~5.65) were significant and independent predictors of the DR developing. Conclusion; These data suggest that duration of diabetes,lipoprotein(a) and RBP4 level are inde-pendent risk factors for the development of DR in type 2 diabetics.%目的:探讨2型糖尿病视网膜病变发生的独立危险因素.方法:选取南京医科大学第一附属医院内分泌科2009年1月~2010年12月82例糖尿病视网膜病变患者和86例不伴有视网膜病变的2型糖尿病患者进行病例-对照研究.比较两组临床参数及生化指标,对于有意义的指标进一步行Logistic回归分析,寻找糖尿病视网膜病变的独立预后指标.结果:单变量分析结果显示,两组间糖尿病病程、糖化血红蛋白、舒张压及视黄醇结合蛋白4(retinol-binding protein 4,RBP4)有统计学差异.Logistic回归分析显示:糖尿病病程(OR=2.41;95% CI:1.12~5.18)、脂蛋白(a) (OR=2.22;95% CI:1.15~4.31)和RBP4 (OR=2.95;95% CI:1.54~5.65)是糖尿病视网膜病变发生的独立预测指标.结论:脂蛋白(a)和RBP4是糖尿病视网膜病变发生的危险因素,且为独立的预测因子.

  13. Plasma Potassium Levels in Healthy Prehypertension Subjects and the Role of A High Potassium Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farapti, Farapti; Sayogo, Savitri; Siregar, Parlindungan

    2017-02-24

    Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended levels of potassium. Long term low potassium intake could lead to decreased plasma potassium levels and induce hypokalemia. The increasing of plasma potassium levels 0,2-0,4 mmol/L by improving potassium intake decreased significantly blood pressure (BP). Assessing plasma potassium levels in healthy people related to potassium intake have not been studied. In this study, we analysed plasma potassium levels in prehypertension (PHT) subjects and to evaluate the effect of tender coconut water (TCW) as a high potassium drink on plasma potassium levels in PHT adults. Thirthy-two female aged 25-44 years were randomly allocated to 14 days on TCW or water in a parallel randomized clinical trial . The treatment (T) group received TCW 300 ml twice daily and the control (C) group received water 300 ml twice daily too. At baseline, plasma potassium levels was 3.71±0.41 mmol/L, and 22.58% were categorized as hypokalemia. After 14 days treatment, potassium plasma level between T and C groups were not significantly different (p=0,247). The change of plasma potassium levels in both groups showed tendency to increase but not statistically significant (p=0.166). In healthy prehypertension women, the low levels of potassium plasma may be caused by low potassium intake for long time and intervension with TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has not proven yet to increase plasma potassium levels. It is necessary to give higher dose and longer time to increase potassium plasma in low potassium plasma level subjects.

  14. Plasma levels of OLFM4 in normals and patients with gastrointestinal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Stine N; Glenthøj, Anders J; Heebøll, Sara;

    2015-01-01

    levels in plasma, the majority with OLFM4 in plasma between 0 and 0.1 μg/ml, mean 0.028 μg/ml while 10% of both normals and patients with cancers had OLFM4 between 4 and 60 μg/ml, mean 15 μg/ml. The levels were constant over time. The background for this high plasma level is not known, but must be taken...

  15. Retinol Dehydrogenases Regulate Vitamin A Metabolism for Visual Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhubanananda Sahu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The visual system produces visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal from dietary vitamin A, all-trans-retinol making this vitamin essential for retinal health and function. These metabolic events are mediated by a sequential biochemical process called the visual cycle. Retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs are responsible for two reactions in the visual cycle performed in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE cells, photoreceptor cells and Müller cells in the retina. RDHs in the RPE function as 11-cis-RDHs, which oxidize 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal in vivo. RDHs in rod photoreceptor cells in the retina work as all-trans-RDHs, which reduce all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol. Dysfunction of RDHs can cause inherited retinal diseases in humans. To facilitate further understanding of human diseases, mouse models of RDHs-related diseases have been carefully examined and have revealed the physiological contribution of specific RDHs to visual cycle function and overall retinal health. Herein we describe the function of RDHs in the RPE and the retina, particularly in rod photoreceptor cells, their regulatory properties for retinoid homeostasis and future therapeutic strategy for treatment of retinal diseases.

  16. Retinol-binding protein, acute phase reactants and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas Tsavaris; Christos Koufos; Athanasios Archimandritis; Christos Kosmas; Petros Kopterides; Dimitrios Tsikalakis; Hlias Skopelitis; Fotini Sakelaridi; Nikitas Papadoniou; Michalis Tzivras; Vasilios Balatsos

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the serum levels of c-reactive protein (CRP), transferrin (TRF), a2-macroglobulin (A2M),ceruloplasmin (CER), a1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), prealbumin (P-ALB) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) in gastric carcinoma patients and to explore their possible correlation with underlying Helicobacter pylori (H pylon)infection.METHODS: We measured the serum levels of CRP, TRF,A2M, CER, AAG, P-ALB, and RBP in 153 preoperative patients (93 males; mean age: 63.1±11.3 years) with non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma and 19 healthy subjects.RESULTS: The levels of CRP, CER, RBP, andAAG in cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (P<0.0001), while no difference was found regarding the TRF, P-ALB, and A2M levels. Cancer patients with H pylori infection had significantly lower RBP values compared to non-infected ones (P<0.0001)and also higher values of CRP and AAG (P = 0.09 and P = 0.08, respectively).CONCLUSION: High serum levels of CRP, CER and AAG in cancer patients do not seem to be related to H pylori infection. Retinol-binding protein seems to discriminate between infected and non-infected patients with gastric carcinoma. Further studies are needed to explore if it is directly involved in the pathogenesis of the disease or is merely an epiphenomenon.

  17. Plasma GLP-2 levels and intestinal markers in the juvenile pig during intestinal adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paris, Monique C; Fuller, Peter J; Carstensen, Bendix

    2004-01-01

    , villus height, lactase, sucrase, maltase, crypt depth, or villus/crypt ratio. Plasma GLP-2 levels increase in the first weeks following massive small intestinal resection. The increase in plasma GLP-2 levels was enhanced by supplementation of the diet with CPC. The changes in GLP-2 levels observed...

  18. Plasma levels of soluble endothelial cell protein C receptor in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, MM; Stearns-Kurosawa, DJ; Stegeman, CA; Raschi, E; Meroni, PL; Kurosawa, S; Tervaert, JWC

    Elevated soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) levels are an accepted marker of endothelial damage. The physiological significance of plasma endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR) levels is not known. To assess the relevance of this plasma protein in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), sEPCR levels were measured

  19. 慢性心力衰竭患者血浆视黄醇结合蛋白、胱抑素、NT-proBNP 浓度与体质量指数的关系%Relationship among plamsa retinol binding protein, cystatin C, N-teminal pro-brain natriuretic peptides levels with body mass index in patients with chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古忆; 卢新政; 周建松; 夏思良; 黄红娟; 郑宏健; 秦晓毅; 曹克将; 黄峻

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性心力衰竭患者血浆视黄醇结合蛋白(RBP)、胱抑素(Cys-C)、NT-proB-NP 浓度与体质量指数(BMI)的关系,及其对慢性心力衰竭患者心功能、预后评估的价值.方法 135例慢性心力衰竭患者(男70 例,女65 例,左心室射血分数28 kg/m2 ),测定慢性心力衰竭患者血浆RBP、Cys-C、NT-proBNP 浓度,探讨其与BMI 的相关性及其对慢性心力衰竭患者心功能、预后的影响.结果 (1)肥胖组患者血浆RBP 水平[(70.45 ±8.74)mg/L]明显高于BMI 正常组[(56.45 ±7.15)mg/L]及超重组[(64.61 ±7.24)mg/L],胱抑素水平[(2.78 ±0.38)mg/L]明显高于BMI 正常组[(1.90 ±0.48)mg/L]及超重组[(2.39 ±0.41)mg/L],血浆NT-proBNP 水平[(1536 ±69)ng/L]明显低于BMI 正常组[(1857 ±145)ng/L]及超重组[(1726 ±115)ng/L](P 均<0.01);(2)慢性心力衰竭患者血浆RBP、Cys-C 与BMI 之间存在显著正相关(r =0.621,P <0.01;r =0.680,P <0.01),且随肥胖程度加重而逐渐增高;NT-proBNP 与BMI 之间存在显著负相关(r =-0.865,P <0.01).结论 慢性心力衰竭患者血浆RBP、Cys-C 水平均随BMI 增加而增加,而NT-proBNP 随BMI 增加而降低,联合检测血浆NT-proBNP靇_氋;_岪、Cys-C、RBP 水平有利于肥胖合并慢性心力衰竭的诊断及预后评估.%Objective To explore the relationship among levels of plasma retinol binding protein , cystatin C,N-teminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide(NT-proBNP) with body mass index(BMI) ,and to identify whether the simultaneous determination of the three markers is valuable to evaluate the cardiac function and prognosis for patients with chronic heart failure. Methods 135 patients with chronic heart failure were enrolled in this study (70 males ,65 females and LVEF <50% ) ,and height and weight of each patient were measured and BMI were calculated with these parameter. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to BMI; normal group (BMI <24 kg/m2) , overweight group (BMI 24-27. 9 kg/m2) and obese group

  20. Increased plasma levels of soluble IL-2R are associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Morris-Jones, S; Theander, T G;

    1994-01-01

    Plasma samples from children with mild and severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and from children with unrelated diseases were collected to investigate whether the clinical outcome of infection was associated with plasma factors which reflected the activity of different cells of the immune system....... Children with severe P. falciparum malaria had significantly higher plasma levels of soluble IL-2R than children with mild malaria. Plasma levels of IL-2R and levels of parasitaemia were significantly correlated. Neither parasitaemia nor plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6......, lymphotoxin (LT), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-4, soluble IL-4R or soluble CD8 differed significantly between the two groups of children with malaria. High plasma levels of soluble CD8 were associated with failure of lymphocytes to produce IFN-gamma in vitro following stimulation with P. falciparum...

  1. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Reproducibility of Retinol Binding Protein 4 and Omentin-1 Measurements over a Four Months Period: A Reliability Study in a Cohort of 207 Apparently Healthy Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Wittenbecher

    Full Text Available The reliability of single time point measurements of the novel adipokines retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 in the blood has not been evaluated in large samples yet. The present study aimed to assess the amount of biological variation of these two adipokines within individuals. The study sample comprised 207 participants (124 women and 83 men from Potsdam (Germany and surrounding areas, with an average age of 56.5 years (SD 4.2. Blood samples were collected from each participant twice, approximately four months apart. Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, the concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 were determined in EDTA plasma. As indicators of reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated from the repeated biomarker measurements. The ICCs for repeated retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 measurements were 0.77 (95% CI 0.71, 0.82 and 0.83 (95% CI 0.78, 0.87, respectively, indicating for both adipokines excellent reliability. ICCs were stable across strata according to sex, age, BMI, and blood pressure. Thus, for epidemiological studies it seems reasonable to rely on concentrations of retinol-binding protein 4 and omentin-1 in samples from a single time point if repeated measurements are not available.

  3. Fatores associados à concentração de retinol sérico em lactentes Factores asociados a la concentración de retinol sérico en lactantes Factors associated with the concentration of serum retinol in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pereira Netto

    2012-01-01

    érico, se utilizó análisis de regresión lineal múltiple. RESULTADOS: Se identificó 39,6% de prevalencia de la deficiencia de vitamina A. Los factores asociados positivamente al nivel sérico de retinol fueron tiempo de escolaridad paterna e ingestión de proteína. Por otra parte, el número de moradores en el domicilio y la edad del niño estuvieron negativamente asociados. CONCLUSIONES: La hipovitaminosis A se presenta como un problema de Salud Pública entre los lactantes del municipio de Viçosa. Factores socioeconómicos, dietéticos y biológicos se asocian a la deficiencia de la vitamina A en la población infantil.OBJECTIVE: To verify the factors associated with the concentration of retinol in infants assisted in a health public system. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with 101 infants aged 18-24 months assisted at the health public system in the urban area of Viçosa city, Southeastern Brazil. The retinol concentration was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. In order to identify the dietary practices the 24 hours recall information was obtained. The interviews were accomplished with infant's parents or with their caretakers at home. Evaluation of the variables associated to serum retinol levels was done by multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was 39.6%. The factors positively associated with serum retinol levels were paternal years of education and the diet protein content. On the other hand, the number of household inhabitants and the infant's age were negatively associated with the levels of retinol. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem among infants in Viçosa city. Socioeconomic, dietetic and biological variables are associated to serum concentration of retinol in infants.

  4. 尿液视黄醇结合蛋白-4水平变化在慢性心力衰竭患者中的临床价值%The Changes and Clinical Significance of Urinary Retinol-binding Protein-4 Protein Level in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴海浪

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨尿液蛋白视黄醇结合蛋白-4(RBP-4)在临床应用中的价值。方法运用酶联免疫吸附法对60例正常对照组和108例慢性心力衰竭患者的尿液样本进行RBP-4蛋白浓度检测,结合临床资料进行统计分析。结果尿液RBP-4蛋白在慢性心力衰竭患者中含量显著高于正常对照组(1.66±0.82 mg/ml vs.0.28±0.11 mg/ml,P<0.0001),且其含量在慢性心力衰竭患者合并有肾功能损害时显著升高,差异有显著性意义(P=0.0015)。结论检测尿液视黄醇结合蛋白-4(RBP-4)的水平对于诊断和监测慢性心力衰竭进展有一定应用价值。%Objective To study the significance of urinary Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) in the urine form patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods We applied enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the expression level of RBP-4 in the urine from 60 normal controls and 108 patients with CHF validation, then the statistical analysis was done with the ELISA results coupled with clinical data. Results The level of RBP-4 was significantly elevated in urine form CHF patients versus normal controls (1.66±0.82 mg/ml vs. 0.28±0.11 mg/ml,P <0.0001). Moreover, RBP-4 was markedly increased in CHF patients with impaired renal function than normal renal function(P=0.0015.)Conclusion The urinary RBP-4 level may have an important value in detection and surveil ance of chronic heart failure.

  5. Zinc and copper levels in plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldor, Y; Walach, N; Modai, D; Horn, Y

    1982-04-01

    Zinc and copper levels in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood were determined in 35 cancer patients and compared with 24 normal individuals. A decrease in zinc was found in all three blood constituents of the cancer patients. The decrease was significant in plasma and whole blood and nonsignificant in erythrocytes. Copper levels in the cancer group showed a slight and nonsignificant increase in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood. The copper to zinc ratio revealed a significant increase only for plasma levels. Further investigations are indicated to determine whether these two elements could serve as indicators for diagnosis or prognosis in cancer patients.

  6. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus, Round Goby (Neogobius rattan, Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus and Shad (Alosa pontica. Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously using an HPLC system. The highest content of retinol was established in the Sprat (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g and the highest content of alphatocopherol was found in the Black Sea Horse Mackerel (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. The fatty acid (FA composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The content of omega 3 (n3 FAs was significantly higher (p , 0.001 than the content of omega 6 (n6 FAs in each of the analyzed fish samples. The n6/n3 FA ratio was within the recommended range (0.20–1.50 for Sprat, Round Goby and Shad. Relatively high levels of retinol and alpha-tocopherol, FA composition, n3/n6 FA and PUFA/SFA ratios indicate that these fish species have good nutritional quality.

    El objeto de la investigación presentada es definir y comparar los lípidos totales, el perfil de ácidos grasos y el contenido de retinol y alfa-tocoferol en el tejido comestible de cuatro especies de peces con importancia comercial del Mar Negro búlgaro —espadín (Sprattus Sprattus, gobio de boca negra (Neogobius Melanostomus, chicharro (Trachurus Trachurus y sábalo del Mar Negro (Caspialosa Pontica. Dos vitaminas liposolubles son analizadas simultáneamente mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. El contenido mayor de retinol se encuentra en el espadín (142.3 ± 4.4 μg/100g, y de alfa-tocoferol en el chicharro (1112.7 ± 39.2 μg/100g. El contenido de ácidos grasos ha sido analizado mediante cromatografía gaseosa/espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. El contenido de ácidos grasos (AG

  7. Effects of Temperature and Duration of Storage on the Stability of Antioxidant Compounds in Egg Yolk and Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Rita; Nyiri, Zoltán; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Török, János

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidants help protect tissues from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In view of the widespread interest in egg yolk and plasma antioxidants in relation to environmental and life-history variables, there is a need for knowledge on the necessary conditions for sample storage, which is currently lacking. In this study, our purpose was to examine the kinetics of the degradation of lutein, retinol, and tocopherol in egg yolk samples and the total antioxidant capacity in plasma samples stored at three different temperatures (-20°, -50°, and -80°C) for 24 mo. We found that yolk lutein was stable during the study period. Yolk retinol and tocopherol showed a steep early decline and then remained relatively stable, but retinol showed significant losses at the end of the study period too. In contrast to our expectations, there was no difference in the stability of antioxidant compounds of egg yolk samples stored at different temperatures. Plasma OXY level was stable during the first 6 mo, showed a slight decline between 6 and 12 mo, and declined more intensely after 12 mo of storage. We suggest that studies focusing on the analysis of egg yolk retinol or tocopherol concentrations and total plasma antioxidant capacity should analyze the samples in the first 6-7 mo after collection. For the analysis of yolk lutein, samples can be stored for 24 mo without significant degradation. The storage temperature of -20°C seemed to be sufficient, as a lower temperature did not significantly affect the slope of degradation of the samples.

  8. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 in Young Men With Low Versus Normal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a plasma protein which is elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether RBP4 represents a mechanism underlying the associations between low birth weight (LBW), high-fat diet, and insulin resistance. Forty-six young, lean men with low (n...... = 20) or normal (n = 26) birth weight underwent a 5-day high-fat high-calorie (HFHC) dietary intervention. In vivo glucose metabolism was assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, glucose tracer and intravenous glucose tolerance test techniques. Body composition was measured by a dual-energy x......, but is not determined by birth weight and seems not to be involved in short-term high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance....

  9. Effects of dietary lead exposure on vitamin levels in great tit nestlings - An experimental manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sandra; Espín, Silvia; Rainio, Miia; Ruuskanen, Suvi; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M; Eeva, Tapio

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to metal pollution negatively affects animal physiology, including nutrient metabolism, but in the wild an effect can seldom be attributed to a single metal. Moreover, little is known about how the metabolism of vitamins, essential micronutrients for developing juveniles, is affected by toxic metals. Therefore we experimentally investigated the effects of lead (Pb), a widespread toxic metal, on four fat-soluble vitamins A (total and retinol), D3, E (total and α-tocopherol) and K and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and unidentified) in great tit (Parus major) nestlings. In addition to a control group where no Pb was provided, two Pb-dosed groups were compared to a metal exposed group in the vicinity of a Ni-Cu smelter. We examined whether Pb treatment affects vitamin homeostasis and how the response of Pb-treated birds relates to that of a population under industrial exposure of Pb and other metals. For this purpose, vitamin and carotenoid levels were quantified with UPLC-MS from plasma of 7 days-old nestlings. All metal exposed groups showed increased vitamin A and retinol levels. However, vitamin levels were not directly associated with fecal Pb levels, with the exception of retinol, which was positively correlated with fecal Pb. Alpha-tocopherol, lutein and zeaxanthin levels were positively associated with body mass and wing growth rate. To conclude, Pb exposure increased plasma vitamin A and retinol levels while the levels of other vitamins and carotenoids rather reflected secondary pollution effects via differences in habitat and diet quality at the smelter site. Our findings suggest Pb exposed nestlings may allocate the vitamins needed for growth and development to fight the physiological stress thus compromising their fitness.

  10. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine frompatients with bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Andersen, MN; Brunner, N; Nielsen, HJ;

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. Methods: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  11. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine from patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads Nikolaj; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. METHODS: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  12. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and risk of stroke in old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, P. van; Mooijaart, S.P.; Craen, A.J.M. de; Rensen, P.C.N.; Heemst, D. van; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, high plasma apoE levels have been shown to be related to increased cardiovascular mortality, independent of APOE genotype. Here we studied the association of plasma apoE levels with risk of stroke. Within the Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospective population-based study of 561 subjects aged

  13. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and cognitive function in old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijaart, S.P.; Vliet, P. van; Heemst, D. van; Rensen, P.C.N.; Berbée, J.F.P.; Jolles, J.; Craen, A.J.M. de; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between structural variants of the apolipoprotein E gene, APOE ε2/ε3/ε4, and dementia is well established, whereas the relationship of plasma apoE levels with dementia is less clear. Plasma apoE levels are under tight genetic control but vary widely within the various genotypes

  14. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine from patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads Nikolaj; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. METHODS: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  15. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However, v

  16. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ticlopidine in healthy volunteers and patients with stable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Arnold, A.E.R.; Buuren, S. van; Paul Wilson, J.H.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels represent an increased risk for cardiac events. Ticlopidine is a drug that inhibits the ADP-induced aggregation of blood platelets and it also has been described that ticlopidine can decrease the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with vascular diseases. The

  17. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ticlopidine in healthy volunteers and patients with stable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Arnold, A.E.R.; Buuren, S. van; Wilson, J.H.P.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with an increased risk for cardiac events. Ticlopidine is a drug that inhibits the ADP-induced aggregation of blood platelets and it also has been described that ticlopidine can decrease the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with vascular diseases.

  18. Plasma S100 beta and NSE levels and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; Mostert, Jop; Heersema, Dorothea; Teelken, Albert; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Plasma levels of the glial cell marker S100 beta and the neuronal marker neuron-specific enolase (NSE) are elevated in various conditions of central nervous system damage. In this study we investigated whether plasma levels of S 1000 and NSE are related to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (

  19. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ticlopidine in healthy volunteers and patients with stable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Arnold, A.E.R.; Buuren, S. van; Paul Wilson, J.H.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels represent an increased risk for cardiac events. Ticlopidine is a drug that inhibits the ADP-induced aggregation of blood platelets and it also has been described that ticlopidine can decrease the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with vascular diseases. The mechan

  20. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ticlopidine in healthy volunteers and patients with stable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Arnold, A.E.R.; Buuren, S. van; Wilson, J.H.P.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with an increased risk for cardiac events. Ticlopidine is a drug that inhibits the ADP-induced aggregation of blood platelets and it also has been described that ticlopidine can decrease the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with vascular diseases.

  1. Plasma S100 beta and NSE levels and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; Mostert, Jop; Heersema, Dorothea; Teelken, Albert; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Plasma levels of the glial cell marker S100 beta and the neuronal marker neuron-specific enolase (NSE) are elevated in various conditions of central nervous system damage. In this study we investigated whether plasma levels of S 1000 and NSE are related to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (

  2. Relation of Absolute or Relative Adiposity to Insulin Resistance, Retinol Binding Protein-4, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Lim Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCentral fat mass (CFM correlates with insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications; however, peripheral fat mass (PFM is associated with insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of absolute and relative regional adiposity to insulin resistance index and adipokines in type 2 diabetes.MethodsTotal of 83 overweighted-Korean women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, and rate constants for plasma glucose disappearance (KITT and serum adipokines, such as retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4, leptin, and adiponectin, were measured. Using dual X-ray absorptiometry, trunk fat mass (in kilograms was defined as CFM, sum of fat mass on the lower extremities (in kilograms as PFM, and sum of CFM and PFM as total fat mass (TFM. PFM/TFM ratio, CFM/TFM ratio, and PFM/CFM ratio were defined as relative adiposity.ResultsMedian age was 55.9 years, mean body mass index 27.2 kg/m2, and mean HbA1c level 7.12±0.84%. KITT was positively associated with PMF/TFM ratio, PMF/CFM ratio, and negatively with CFM/TFM ratio, but was not associated with TFM, PFM, or CFM. RBP4 levels also had a significant relationship with PMF/TFM ratio and PMF/CFM ratio. Adiponectin, leptin, and apolipoprotein A levels were related to absolute adiposity, while only adiponectin to relative adiposity. In correlation analysis, KITT in type 2 diabetes was positively related with HbA1c, fasting glucose, RBP4, and free fatty acid.ConclusionThese results suggest that increased relative amount of peripheral fat mass may aggravate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  3. Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, b-carotene and a-tocopherol into cows' milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Kjær, Anna Kirstin Bjørnbak; Hermansen, John Erik

    1999-01-01

    and stage of lactation. The quantitative secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene from blood into milk followed Michaelis±Menten kinetics for active transport across membranes. Values of maximum secretory capacity Vmax and the half-rate constant Km for both a-tocopherol and b-carotene varied according......Changes in the contents of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene in plasma, milk and milk fat from 38 Holstein-Friesian cows were followed during their ®rst lactation, and the quantitative and kinetic relationships for secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene from blood into milk were determined...

  4. Plasma Histamine And Serotonin Levels In Children With Nephrotic Syndrome And Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa Mohamed and Talaat El sayed

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma histamine and serotonin concentrations were measured using fluorimeteric assay in 40 children with renal diseases. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (15 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis(10 and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis(15 to determine the relation between plasma levels of histamine and serotonin and these various types of renal diseases in children. Plasma histamine level was significantly increased in group of children with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Plasma serotonin levels were significantly increased in all 3 groups of patient, when compared with those of controls. Raised plasma histamine in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis group may be evidence of the acute immunological inflammation and defective renal excretion due to mild renal impairment in these children. Raised plasma serotonin in all 3 groups of patients may be due to diminished uptake and release of serotonin from platelets in children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and due to defective renal execretion in children with acute poststreptococcal glomerulo-nephritis.

  5. Plasma levels of oestriol-17 beta, oestriol and human placental lactogen during bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, P C; Mok, H; Ratnam, S S

    1976-11-01

    Plasma unconjugated oestradiol-17 beta, total oestriol and human placental lactogen levels were measured in twelve healthy volunteers admitted for bed rest in the last trimester of pregnancy. No significant alteration in levels was observed.

  6. Study of plasma amino acid levels in children with autism: An Egyptian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida M. ElBaz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Autistic children had lower levels of some plasma amino acids except for glycine and glutamic acids and phosphoserine were increased with normal serum levels of urea, ammonia, total proteins, albumin and globulins (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma.

  7. Plasma ion levels of freshwater and marine/estuarine teleosts from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandro Geferson Becker

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ levels in the plasma of freshwater and marine/estuarine teleosts collected at different salinities (0 to 34 from the estuarine and freshwater portions of the São Gonçalo channel in Southern Brazil. Any relationship between plasma ion levels and salinity and the capacity of ionic regulation of teleosts found at three or more different salinities (Genidens barbus and Micropogonias furnieri was also investigated. Results showed no relationship between plasma ion levels and salinity when considering all species together, but the two species collected from three or more different salinities showed a significant positive relationship between plasma ion levels and salinity, indicating that G. barbus and M. furnieri have a high capacity to regulate plasma ion levels at both low and high salinities.

  8. The contribution of different adipose tissue depots to plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sunelle A; Pieters, Marlien; De Lange, Zelda

    2016-11-01

    Increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) level is considered a mechanistic pathway through which obesity contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Abdominal adipose tissue specifically, is a major PAI-1 source with visceral adipose tissue (VAT), an ectopic fat depot, generally considered to produce more PAI-1 than subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, this does not necessarily lead to increased plasma PAI-1 levels. This review provides an overview of studies investigating the association between body fat distribution and plasma PAI-1 levels. It discusses factors that influence this relationship and also considers the contribution of other tissue to plasma PAI-1 levels, placing the relative contribution of adipose tissue into perspective. In conclusion, the relationship between VAT and plasma PAI-1 levels is not fixed but can be modulated by a number of factors such as the size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot, ethnicity, possibly genetics and other obesity-related metabolic abnormalities.

  9. Daily melatonin administration at middle age suppresses male rat visceral fat, plasma leptin, and plasma insulin to youthful levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, D D; Boldt, B M; Wilkinson, C W; Yellon, S M; Matsumoto, A M

    1999-02-01

    Human and rat pineal melatonin secretion decline with aging, whereas visceral fat and plasma insulin levels increase. Melatonin modulates fat metabolism in some mammalian species, so these aging-associated melatonin, fat and insulin changes could be functionally related. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of daily melatonin supplementation to male Sprague-Dawley rats, starting at middle age (10 months) and continuing into old age (22 months). Melatonin was added to the drinking water (92% of which was consumed at night) at a dosage (4 microg/ml) previously reported to attenuate the aging-associated decrease in survival rate in male rats, as well as at a 10-fold lower dosage. The higher dosage produced nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats which were 15-fold higher than in young (4 months) rats; nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats receiving the lower dosage were not significantly different from young or middle-aged controls. Relative (% of body wt) retroperitoneal and epididymal fat, as well as plasma insulin and leptin levels, were all significantly increased at middle age when compared to young rats. All were restored within 10 weeks to youthful (4 month) levels in response to both dosages of melatonin. Continued treatment until old age maintained suppression of visceral (retroperitoneal + epididymal) fat levels. Plasma corticosterone and total thyroxine (T4) levels were not significantly altered by aging or melatonin treatment. Plasma testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased by middle age; these aging-associated decreases were not significantly altered by melatonin treatment. Thus, visceral fat, insulin and leptin responses to melatonin administration may be independent of marked changes in gonadal, thyroid, adrenal or somatotropin regulation. Since increased visceral fat is associated with increased insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, these results

  10. Plasma cathepsin S and cystatin C levels and risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Bing-Jie; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Cheng, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) lesions contain high levels of cathepsin S (CatS), but are deficient in its inhibitor, cystatin C. Whether plasma CatS and cystatin C levels are also altered in AAA patients remains unknown.......Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) lesions contain high levels of cathepsin S (CatS), but are deficient in its inhibitor, cystatin C. Whether plasma CatS and cystatin C levels are also altered in AAA patients remains unknown....

  11. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes...... plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects....

  12. Metabolic manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome in nonobese adolescents: retinol-binding protein 4 and ectopic fat deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopher, Aviva B.; Gerken, Adrienne T.; Blaner, William S.; Root, Jeremy M.; McMahon, Donald J.; Oberfield, Sharon E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether nonobese adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and ectopic fat than controls and whether RBP4 and ectopic fat correlate with comorbidities of metabolic disease. Design Cross-sectional case-control study. Setting Pediatric clinical research center based in a quaternary care medical center. Patient(s) Twenty-four nonobese adolescents between the ages of 13 and 21 years, 13 with PCOS and 11 controls. Intervention(s) Measurement of RBP4, insulin resistance, lipids, and body composition. Main Outcome Measure(s) Retinol-binding protein 4, reproductive and adrenal hormones, insulin resistance, intrahepatic and intramyocellular lipid levels, and visceral adipose tissue. Result(s) Adolescents with PCOS had higher intrahepatic lipid content and a statistical trend for higher RBP4 compared with controls. Retinol-binding protein 4 correlated with body fat, triglycerides, insulin resistance, and androgens but not intrahepatic lipid content; however, when adjusted for body fat, the correlation between RBP4 and triglycerides weakened to a statistical trend and was no longer statistically significant for the other measures. Conclusion(s) This small preliminary study of nonobese adolescent girls suggests that RBP4 may be involved in the dyslipidemia associated with PCOS and that there may be an independent relationship between RBP4 and triglycerides but not between RBP4 and insulin resistance. Although intrahepatic lipid content was higher in PCOS, it did not correlate with RBP4, triglycerides, or insulin resistance. PMID:22341881

  13. Signaling by vitamin A and retinol-binding protein in regulation of insulin responses and lipid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Daniel C; Noy, Noa

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A, retinol, circulates in blood bound to serum retinol binding protein (RBP) and is transported into cells by a membrane protein termed stimulated by retinoic acid 6 (STRA6). It was reported that serum levels of RBP are elevated in obese rodents and humans, and that increased level of RBP in blood causes insulin resistance. A molecular mechanism by which RBP can exert such an effect is suggested by the recent discovery that STRA6 is not only a vitamin A transporter but also functions as a surface signaling receptor. Binding of RBP-ROH to STRA6 induces the phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue in the receptor C-terminus, thereby activating a JAK/STAT signaling cascade. Consequently, in STRA6-expressing cells such as adipocytes, RBP-ROH induces the expression of STAT target genes, including SOCS3, which suppresses insulin signaling, and PPARγ, which enhances lipid accumulation. RBP-retinol thus joins the myriad of cytokines, growth factors and hormones which regulate gene transcription by activating cell surface receptors that signal through activation of Janus kinases and their associated transcription factors STATs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Retinoid and Lipid Metabolism.

  14. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels are elevated in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Sachiko; Soeki, Takeshi; Matsuura, Tomomi; Tobiume, Takeshi; Ise, Takayuki; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Iwase, Takashi; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Sata, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have been proposed as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, especially heart failure. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has also been shown to be upregulated at the transcriptional and translational levels by pro-inflammatory cytokines in cardiac myocytes. Although we often measure plasma BNP levels in cancer patients, it remains unknown whether cancer-related inflammation affects the plasma BNP levels. We investigated the relationship between the BNP and human cancers. We retrospectively studied 2,923 patients in whom the plasma BNP levels and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured and echocardiography was performed. Patients with clinically evident heart failure (NYHA II or higher), heart disease requiring medical treatment or surgery, renal dysfunction, and inflammatory disease were excluded. There were 234 patients in the final analysis. Blood sampling was performed before surgery and chemotherapy. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the inflammation and plasma BNP levels in mouse models of colon cancer. Of the 234 patients, 80 were diagnosed with cancer. Both the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels were significantly higher in cancer patients than those without. There were no significant differences in the echocardiographic parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels in cancer patients (r = 0.360, P<0.01) but not in those without. In cancer patients, only the CRP correlated with the BNP independent of the age, creatinine level, hypertension, and body mass index. In addition, in nude mice with subcutaneous colon cancer, the plasma BNP level was elevated compared with that in non-cancer mice, and there was a significant relationship between the plasma BNP and serum levels of the inflammatory markers. In cancer patients, as well as colon cancer model mice, the plasma BNP levels were elevated, possibly due to cancer-related inflammation. The effect of cancer on the BNP

  15. Post-prandial decrease in plasma growth hormone levels is not related to the increase in plasma insulin levels in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Koki; Kobayashi, Ryoko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Katsuyoshi; Katoh, Kazuo; Roh, Sang-Gun

    2017-06-26

    In the present study, we examined whether the post-prandial reduction in plasma growth hormone (GH) levels is related to the increase in plasma insulin levels in ruminants. We performed two experiments: intravenous bolus injection of insulin (0.2 IU/kg body weight) or glucose (1.0 mmol/kg body weight) was administered to increase the plasma insulin levels in male Shiba goats. In the insulin injection experiment, significant (pincrease in GH concentrations was observed, 15-20 min after the injection; it was accompanied with a significant (pincrease in cortisol concentrations at 45-90 min, when compared to the concentrations in the saline-injected controls. The glucose injection significantly (pincreased the plasma GH concentration at 20-45 min; this was not accompanied by significantly higher cortisol concentrations than were observed for the saline-injected control. Hypoglycemia induced by the insulin injection, which causes the excitation of the adrenal cortex, might be involved in the increase in insulin levels. Based on these results, we conclude that post-prandial increases in plasma insulin or glucose levels do not induce a decrease in GH concentration after feeding in the ruminants.

  16. Relationship between the plasma levels of neurodegenerative proteins and motor subtypes of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Jiejin; Wang, Xixi; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Siming; Yuan, Yongsheng; Li, Junyi; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Kezhong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of our study is to examine the plasma levels of the four kinds of neurodegenerative proteins in plasma: α-syn, T-tau, P-tau181, and Aβ-42 in Parkinson's disease (PD) and to evaluate the relationship between their plasma levels and PD motor subtypes. 84 patients with PD were enrolled in our study, and finally, 73 of them were classified into the tremor-dominant subtype (TD) and the postural instability gait difficulty subtype (PIGD). Their motor performance was evaluated by a series of clinical assessments: Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOGQ), Timed Up and Go (TUGs), Tinetti balance, and Tinetti gait. Plasma levels of these proteins were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The plasma level of α-syn was significantly higher in PD patients when compared to controls (p = 0.004), and significantly higher in the PIGD group when compared to the TD group (p = 0.03). While the plasma level of Aβ-42 was significantly lower in PD patients than in controls (p = 0.002), and significantly lower in the PIGD group than in the TD group (p = 0.05). In PD patients, the plasma level of α-syn (r = -0.355, p score, even after performing multiple linear regression (p = 0.002). While the plasma level of Aβ-42 (r = -0.261, p score and remained correlate when performed multiple linear regression (p = 0.005). The patients with PIGD subtype are characterized with a lower level of plasma Aβ-42 and a higher plasma level of α-syn, which may be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and progression of the subtypes of PD.

  17. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  18. Nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3-hydroxycotinine levels in seminal plasma of smokers: effects on sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, R; Altieri, I; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Pichini, S; Rosa, M; Zuccaro, P; Dondero, F

    1993-10-01

    Sperm samples from 44 cigarette smokers and 50 nonsmokers attending an infertility clinic were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay and HPLC-mass spectrometry for the presence of nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (THOC) in seminal plasma. Smokers were found to have levels of COT and THOC in seminal plasma that were similar to those found in serum. The level of NIC was significantly increased in seminal plasma compared to serum. Total motility of spermatozoa was significantly and negatively correlated to COT and THOC levels in seminal plasma. Forward motility of spermatozoa was correlated only with cotinine semen levels. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the presence of tobacco smoke constituents in seminal plasma could provide a warning of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the physiology of reproduction.

  19. Correlation analysis between plasma D-dimer levels and orthopedic trauma severity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-dan; LIU Hong-bo; LI Yu-neng; MA Hai-mei; LIU Ya-bo; WANG Man-yi

    2012-01-01

    Background The correlation between the plasma D-dimer level and deep vein thrombosis has not been conclusive in various studies.The aim of this research was to study the relationship between plasma D-dimer levels and the severity of orthopedic trauma by retrospective examination of orthopedic trauma cases.Methods Clinically acute trauma and non-acute trauma patients were selected and their plasma D-dimer levels were measured.Plasma D-dimer levels in patients of these two groups were compared.The relationship between the plasma D-dimer level and the severity of the trauma was also studied.Results There were 548 cases in the acute trauma group and 501 cases in the non-acute trauma group.The levels of plasma D-dimer were significantly higher in the acute trauma group than in the non-acute trauma group (P <0.01).In the acute trauma group,the correlation between the D-dimer level and the number of fractures was a positive linear correlation (r=0.9532).Conclusions Elevated plasma D-dimer is common in trauma patients.The D-dimer level and the number of fractures in the trauma patients are closely correlated.D-dimer is not only an indicator for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus,but also an indicator of the severity of trauma in acute trauma patients.

  20. Retinol as a cofactor for PKCδ-mediated impairment of insulin sensitivity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabrova, Elena; Hoyos, Beatrice; Vinogradov, Valerie; Kim, Youn-Kyung; Wassef, Lesley; Leitges, Michael; Quadro, Loredana; Hammerling, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    We previously defined that the mitochondria-localized PKCδ signaling complex stimulates the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. We demonstrated in vitro and ex vivo that retinol supplementation enhances ATP synthesis in the presence of the PKCδ signalosome. Here, we tested in vivo if a persistent oversupply of retinol would further impair glucose metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced insulin resistance. We crossed mice overexpressing human retinol-binding protein (hRBP) under the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter (MCKhRBP) with the PKCδ(-/-) strain to generate mice with a different status of the PKCδ signalosome and retinoid levels. Mice with a functional PKCδ signalosome and elevated retinoid levels (PKCδ(+/+)hRBP) developed the most advanced stage of insulin resistance. In contrast, elevation of retinoid levels in mice with inactive PKCδ did not affect remarkably their metabolism, resulting in phenotypic similarity between PKCδ(-/-)hRBP and PKCδ(-/-) mice. Therefore, in addition to the well-defined role of PKCδ in the etiology of metabolic syndrome, we present a novel PKCδ signaling pathway that requires retinol as a metabolic cofactor and is involved in the regulation of fuel utilization in mitochondria. The distinct role in whole-body energy homeostasis establishes the PKCδ signalosome as a promising target for therapeutic intervention in metabolic disorders.

  1. Clinical Implication of Plasma Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kunihiro; Sagara, Masaaki; Aoki, Chie; Tanaka, Seiichi; Aso, Yoshimasa

    2017-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to investigate the plasma hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, as the plasma H2S levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes remain unclear. Methods The plasma H2S levels were measured in 154 outpatients with type 2 diabetes and 66 outpatients without diabetes. All blood samples were collected in the outpatient department from 09:00 to 10:00. The patients had fasted from 21:00 the previous evening and had not consumed alcohol or caffeine or smoked until sample collection. The plasma H2S levels were measured using the methylene blue assay. The plasma H2S levels were determined in triplicate, and the average concentrations were calculated against a calibration curve of sodium sulfide. Results The patients with type 2 diabetes showed a progressive reduction in the plasma H2S levels (45.1±15.5 μM versus 54.0±26.4 μM, p<0.05), which paralleled poor glycemic control. There was a significant correlation between a reduction in the plasma H2S levels and the HbA1c levels (β=-0.505, p<0.01), Furthermore, a reduction in the plasma H2S levels was found to be related to a history of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes (39.9±13.8 μM versus 47.5±15.9 μM, p<0.01). Conclusion Collectively, the plasma H2S levels were reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, which may have implications in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN no. #000020549). PMID:28049995

  2. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-01-01

    The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma), for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma ...

  3. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  4. Correlation between plasma component levels of cultured fish and resistance to bacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maita, M.; Satoh, K.-I.; Fukuda, Y.; Lee, H.-K.; Winton, J.R.; Okamoto, N.

    1998-01-01

    Mortalities of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata artificially infected with Lactococcus garvieae and of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss artificially infected with Vibrio anguillarum were compared with the levels of plasma components measured prior to challenge. The levels of plasma total cholesterol, free cholesterol and phospholipid of fish surviving infection were significantly higher in both yellowtail and rainbow trout than those of fish which died during the challenge test. Mortality of yellowtail with plasma total cholesterol levels lower than 250 mg/100 ml was significantly higher than that of fish which had cholesterol levels higher than 275 mg/100 ml (p < 0.05). Rainbow trout whose cholesterol was lower than 520 mg/100 ml suffered a significantly higher mortality due to vibriosis than fish having cholesterol levels higher than 560 mg/100 ml (p < 0.005). These results indicate that low levels of plasma lipid components may be an indicator of lowered disease resistance in cultured fish.

  5. Plasma Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Level Is Inversely Associated with HDL Cholesterol Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Meguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Relation between atherosclerosis and innate immunity has attracted attention. As the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, could have an important role in atherosclerosis, we supposed that there could be a meaningful association of plasma LL-37 level with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We evaluated plasma LL-37 level and other clinical markers in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=133, 115 men and 18 women; age 64.7±11.5 years; HbA1c 8.1±1.6%. Plasma level of LL-37 was measured by ELISA. Results. Mean plasma LL-37 level was 71.2±22.3 ng/mL. Plasma LL-37 level showed significant correlations with HDL cholesterol (r=−0.450, P<0.01, triglyceride (r=0.445, P<0.01, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.316, P<0.01 but no significant correlation with age, body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or vitamin D binding protein. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations of plasma LL-37 level with HDL cholesterol (β=−0.411, P<0.01 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (β=0.193, P<0.05. Conclusion. Plasma LL-37 level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Buriti oil (Mauritia flexuosa L.) negatively impacts somatic growth and reflex maturation and increases retinol deposition in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Maria C; Aquino, Jailane S; Soares, Juliana; Figueiroa, Edigleide B; Mesquita, Hanni M; Pessoa, Debora C; Stamford, Tania M

    2015-11-01

    Buriti oil contains nutrients such as essential fatty acids and vitamins, which are directly involved with neonates' development. However, the refining process of this oil can change its nutrient profile. This study investigated the effects of maternal consumption of Buriti oil (crude or refined), on reflex and somatic development and retinol levels in neonatal rats. Thirty-six Wistar male neonate rats born from mothers who consumed diet with 7% lipids during gestation and lactation were used. Rats were randomized into three groups: rats receiving diet added of soybean oil (control-CG), crude Buriti oil (CB) and refined Buriti oil (RB). Offspring weight, tail length, reflex ontogeny and somatic maturation were assessed during lactation. At the end of the experiment, serum and liver retinol concentrations were measured. Animals from CB and RB groups showed delayed onset of palm grasp, righting reflex and cliff avoidance reflexes compared to the control group (CG). However, animals from RB group showed anticipation of auditory startle compared to those from BC group. Regarding somatic maturation indicators, animals from RB group showed delayed eye opening and eruption of superior and inferior incisors in relation to control and anticipation in the auditory conduit opening in relation to CB group. Rats from CB and RB groups showed higher serum and liver vitamin A contents. Buriti oil delays physical parameters and reflex maturation and increases serum and liver retinol deposition among neonatal rats.

  7. Plasma cortisol levels in malnourished children with and without superimposed acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisey, R. B.; Angers, Marielena; Frenk, S.

    1973-01-01

    Plasma cortisol levels were measured in 13 children with marasmus, in 7 with kwashiorkor, and in 24 normal children. Cortisol levels in the malnourished children did not differ from those of the normal group, either before or after 15 or 30 days of treatment, unless there was superimposed acute stress. Stress caused by complications such as hypoglycaemia, infection, hypothermia, or acidosis led to raised plasma cortisol levels. PMID:4733640

  8. Effect of Pioglitazone on Plasma Levels of Phenytoin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Jouyban

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Interaction between drugs represents a major clinical concern for health care professionals and their patients. Patients affected by both type 2 diabetes and epilepsy may be prescribed pioglitazone and an anti-epileptic drug such as phenytoin  concurrently. The aim of this study was to consider the interaction of pioglitazone with phenytoin in an experimental model. According to the result of this study, concurrent use of phenytoin and pioglitazone in clinic may cause therapeutic failure of phenytoin which may cause seizures and during seizures the cardiac function may be affected. Material and Methods: Two groups of rats were treated for 30 days. In group 1 (control group saline (10 ml/kg and phenytoin   (30 mg/kg were administered daily by intragastric gavage. In group 2 (test group , pioglitazone (10 mg/kg was administered daily 60 minutes before phenytoin  (30 mg/kg. Two hours after the last intragastric gavage, animals were anesthetized with ether and 2 ml of blood was drawn from the heart into a syringe containing Ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA, and phenytoin  concentration in rat plasma was determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.The study consisted of 2 groups of 10 male adult Wistar rats. Results: Compared with control group, concurrent use of pioglitazone and phenytoin   was associated with significantly lower mean plasma concentrations of phenytoin : 2.08 ± 0.03  µg/ml VS 1.2 ± 0.02  µg/ml. Conclusion: Concurrent use of pioglitazone and phenytoin was associated with a significant decrease in plasma concentration of phenytoin in this experimental model. In clinic, this interaction may cause seizures and it has been shown that both cardiac and respiratory functions may affected by seizures.

  9. Elevated plasma levels of chemerin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengliu; Yang, Gangyi; Dong, Jing; Liu, Ying; Zong, Haihong; Liu, Hua; Boden, Guenther; Li, Ling

    2010-10-01

    Chemerin is a recently discovered metabolic regulator hormone. The pathophysiologic role of this hormone in humans remains unknown. In this study, we have compared plasma chemerin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without hypertension and in control subjects. We also assessed the association of plasma chemerin with body composition and metabolic parameters in these subjects. Plasma chemerin levels were found to be markedly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension as compared with patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal controls (P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, 2-hour plasma insulin after glucose overload, and HbA1c were independently related factors influencing plasma chemerin levels. The present work indicates the potential link of chemerin with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

  10. Retinyl ester hydrolysis and retinol efflux from BFC-1beta adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, S; Lai, K; Patel, S; Piantedosi, R; Shen, H; Colantuoni, V; Kraemer, F B; Blaner, W S

    1997-05-30

    Adipose tissue is an important storage depot for retinol, but there are no data regarding retinol mobilization from adipose stores. To address this, dibutyryl cAMP was provided to murine BFC-1beta adipocytes and its effects on retinol efflux assessed. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of retinol and retinyl esters in adipocytes and media indicated that cAMP stimulated, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, retinol accumulation in the culture media and decreased cellular retinyl ester concentrations. Study of adipocyte retinol-binding protein synthesis and secretion indicated that cAMP-stimulated retinol efflux into the media did not result from increased retinol-retinol-binding protein secretion but was dependent on the presence of fetal bovine serum in the culture media. Since our data suggested that retinyl esters can be hydrolyzed by a cAMP-dependent enzyme like hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), in separate studies, we purified a HSL-containing fraction from BFC-1beta adipocytes and demonstrated that it catalyzed retinyl palmitate hydrolysis. Homogenates of Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing HSL catalyzed retinyl palmitate hydrolysis in a time-, protein-, and substrate-dependent manner, with an apparent Km for retinyl palmitate of 161 microM, whereas homogenates from control Chinese hamster ovary cells did not.

  11. Decline of plasma 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels upon testosterone administration to elderly men with subnormal plasma testosterone and high DHT levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L J; Saad, F; Haide, A; Yassin, A

    2008-10-01

    The study was performed to measure the impact of testosterone (T) administration on circulating levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Group 1 (32 men; mean age 61 years; mean T 6.9 +/- 1.9 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 15 months with long-acting T undecanoate. Group 2 (23 men, mean age 60 years, mean T 7.6 +/- 2.0 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 9 months with T gel. Plasma T and DHT were measured before and after 9 months T administration. In the men treated with T undecanoate plasma T and DHT were also measured after 12 and 15 months. Before T administration, plasma DHT ranged from 0.39 to 1.76 nmol l(-1) (0.30-1.90 nmol l(-1)). Mean DHT declined upon T administration from 0.95 +/- 0.50 to 0.55 +/- 0.30 nmol l(-1) (P DHT > 0.60 nmol l(-1) had fallen from 1.29 +/- 0.50 to 0.70 +/- 0.60 nmol l(-1) (P DHT levels declined upon T administration when they were in the higher range of normal (>0.6 nmol l(-1)), with a profound shift of DHT/T ratios presumed to be an indicator of a reduced 5alpha-reductase activity. Below plasma DHT levels of 0.6 nmol l(-1), responses of plasma DHT to T administration varied.

  12. Abnormal plasma levels of serine, methionine, and taurine in transient acute polymorphic psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fekkes (Durk)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe present study explored the usefulness of plasma amino acid concentrations in discriminating a subgroup of patients with transient acute polymorphic psychoses characterized by psychosensory symptoms (APP+ patients). Levels of amino acids in the plasma of APP+ patients were compared

  13. Systematic construction of a conceptual minimal model of plasma cholesterol levels based on knockout mouse phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, N.C.A. van de; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.P.; Ommen, B. van; Woutersen, R.A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2010-01-01

    Elevated plasma cholesterol, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is the result of the activity of many genes and their encoded proteins in a complex physiological network. We aim to develop a minimal kinetic computational model for predicting plasma cholesterol levels. To define th

  14. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are associated with increased short-term cancer risk among patients referred for this laboratory measurement. We aimed to assess prognosis in cancer patients with elevated plasma Cbl. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort...

  15. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Nilsson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with vascular dementia (VaD exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods: We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy in patients with VaD. Results: Elevated plasma tHcy levels in patients with VaD could only partly be attributed to cobalamin/folate deficiency or renal impairment. Plasma tHcy might also be related to the vascular disease process since patients with depression and vascular disease exhibited similar plasma tHcy levels to patients with VaD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated plasma tHcy might be a sensitive marker for the vascular disease process in patients with VaD and that the level also is a reflection of changes in the other main determinants of plasma tHcy.

  16. Effect of methadone on plasma arginine vasopressin level and urine production in conscious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrekers, L.J.; Mol, J.A.; Brom, W.E. van den; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of i.v. methadone on the plasma arginine-vasopressin (AVP) levels and urine production in 9 conscious dogs. A highly significant increase from the baseline plasma AVP values of below 3 pg/ml occurred within 5 min following methadone administration. Max

  17. Decreased plasma urotensin Ⅱ levels inversely correlate with extent and severity of coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the plasma urolensin Ⅱ(UⅡ) levels in various types of coronary heart disease and to clarify how the plasma UⅡ levels correlate with the clinical presentation, extent and severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAD). Methods: One hundred and three aged patients undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography for proven or clinical suspected coronary heart disease were enrolled in this study. The extent and severity of coronary artery disease were evaluated by vessel score and Gensini score, respectively. Plasma UⅡ levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: The plasma UⅡ levels in the patients with modest to severe coronary stenosis (3.03±0.34 pg/ml, 1.83±0.67 pg/ml) were significantly lower than that in subjects with normal coronary artery (4.80±1.11 pg/ml, P<0.001). The plasma UⅡ levels in patients with coronary heart disease were also significantly lower than that in patients with insignificant coronary stenosis (P < 0.001). Compared to patients with stable angina pectoris, plasma UⅡ levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome were significantly decreased (1.89±0.51 pg/ml vs 2.42±0.77 pg/ml, P< 0.001). Plasma UⅡ levels were found to be negatively correlated with the severity of coronary artery stenosis (r = -0.488, P<0.001), as well as the vessel score (r = -0.408, P<0.05) in the patients with CAD. Conclusion: Significant inverse correlations exist between the plasma UⅡ levels, and the extent and severity of coronary artery stenosis. These findings suggest that plasma UⅡ contribute to the development and progression of coronary artery stenosis, and may be a novel marker to predict clinical types, as well as the extent and severity of coronary artery disease in the patients.

  18. Effects of Postoperative Enteral Immune-enhancing Diet on Plasma Endotoxin Level, Plasma Endotoxin Inactivation Capacity and Clinical Outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Guoxiang; XUE Xinbo; LU Xingpei; WANG Jianming; QIAN Jiaqin

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the postoperative plasma endotoxin level, plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity and clinical outcome after administration of an enteral diet supplemented with glutamine, arginine and ω-3-fatty acid in patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations on an prospective, randomized and double-blind design. 40 patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations were randomized into two groups, with each having 20 patients. One group received standard enteral nutrition and the other was fed the formulation supplemented with glutamine, arginine and ω-3-fatty acid. The two groups were isonitrogenous. The infusion was started from day 1 after surgery and continued for 7 days. Blood samples were collected on the morning of day 1 before operation and on the morning of 1, 4 and 7 day(s) after operation and analyzed for plasma endotoxin level and endotoxin inactivation capacity (EIC). Our study found no differences between the two groups on plasma endotoxin level. After surgery a rapid reduction in plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity was observed in both groups, a significant recovery of the plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity was observed on morning of day 4 after surgery in the study group (0.12±0.02 EU/mL and 0. 078±0.022 EU/mL respectively, P<0.01). Shortened hospital stay was observed in the experimental group (11.7±2.0 days in the control group and 10.6±1.2 days in the experimental group respectively, P=0.03). It is concluded that perioperative parenteral nutrition supplemented with glutamine, arginine and ω-3-fatty acid ameliorated postoperative immunodepression but without direct effect on endotoxemia.

  19. Factors Associated With Plasma IL-6 Levels During HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels have been linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer and death. Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection receiving treatment have higher IL-6 levels, but few data are available on factors associated with circulating IL-6. METHODS......: Participants in 3 trials with IL-6 measured at baseline were included (N = 9864). Factors associated with IL-6 were identified by linear regression. Demographic and HIV variables (nadir/entry CD4(+) cell count, HIV RNA level, antiretroviral therapy regimen) were investigated in all 3 trials. In the SMART...... education, whereas black race was associated with lower IL-6. Higher HIV RNA levels were associated with higher IL-6 levels, and higher nadir CD4(+) cell counts with lower IL-6 levels. Compared with efavirenz, protease inhibitors were associated with higher and nevirapine with lower IL-6 levels. Smoking...

  20. Effect of different carotenoid-containing diets on the vitamin A levels and colour parameters in Iberian pigs' tissues: utility as biomarkers of traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, R; Vicario, I M; Meléndez-Martínez, A J; Alcalde, M J

    2014-10-01

    Retinol and fat colour parameters in Iberian pigs fed on different carotenoid-containing diets were assessed. Thirty animals in two groups were considered: Iberian breed pigs fed on acorns and grass (Montanera) and on concentrate (Cebo). Carotenoids and retinoids were analysed in the diets and in plasma, liver and perirenal fat of the animals by HPLC and HPLC-MS. Retinol levels in plasma and fat were similar in Montanera and Cebo animals. The utility of retonids and colour parameters as traceability index was also explored. Retinoids in liver classified correctly 93% of the animals according to their diet L* and hab. CIELAB parameters of the perirenal fat discriminated correctly 78.6% of the animals according to their diet. L* values for the Montanera animals were significantly different (Pretinol profile and fat colour parameters can be useful for feeding traceability purposes in Iberian pigs breed in Montanera and Cebo.

  1. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-06-01

    Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory. Psychiatrically, medically, and neurologically healthy subjects (n = 514, female/male: 268/246) were enrolled in this study through local advertisements. Plasma amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, glycine, d-serine, and l-serine) were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography system. The five indices, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration, and delayed recall of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were used to measure memory functions. Both plasma AST and ALT had a significant positive correlation with plasma glutamate levels. Plasma AST and ALT levels were significantly negatively correlated with four of five memory functions, and plasma glutamate was significantly negatively correlated with three of five memory functions. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that plasma AST, ALT, and glutamate levels were significantly correlated with memory functions even after adjustment for gender and education. As far as we know, this is the first report which could demonstrate the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory functions in human. These findings are important for the interpretation of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome with elevated transaminases and cognitive dysfunction.

  2. Plasma cytokine levels and risks of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Mengyang; Liu, Cong-Lin; Lv, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by inflammatory cell accumulation in AAA lesions that produce inflammatory cytokines and advance its pathogenesis. Peripheral cytokines may predict the degree or risk of AAA. METHODS AND RESULTS: ELISA determined plasma interleukin-6 (IL6......), IL10, IL17A, IFN-γ, and C-reactive protein (CRP) from 476 AAA patients and 200 controls. AAA patients had lower IL6, IFN-γ, IL10, IL17A, and higher CRP than controls. IL10 correlated positively with IFN-γ, IL17A, or IL6, but not CRP in control or AAA populations. IL10 associated negatively...... with systolic blood pressure, whereas CRP associated positively with diastolic blood pressure and body mass index. CRP was an independent AAA risk factor and correlated positively with aortic diameters before and after adjustments for other risk factors. IFN-γ, IL17A, and CRP correlated positively with cross...

  3. Potential role of plasma myeloperoxidase level in predicting long-term outcome of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yalcin, Ridvan; Okyay, Kaan; Poyraz, Fatih; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic importance of plasma myeloperoxidase levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at long-term follow-up, and we analyzed the correlations between plasma myeloperoxidase levels and other biochemical values. We evaluated 73 consecutive patients (56 men; mean age, 56 ± 11 yr) diagnosed with acute STEMI and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median myeloperoxidase level (Group 1: plasma myeloperoxidase ≤ 68 ng/mL; and Group 2: plasma myeloperoxidase > 68 ng/mL). Patients were monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which were defined as cardiac death; reinfarction; new hospital admission for angina; heart failure; and revascularization procedures. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 16 months. Plasma myeloperoxidase levels were higher in STEMI patients than in control participants (82 ± 34 vs 20 ± 12 ng/mL; P = 0.001). Composite MACE occurred in 12 patients with high myeloperoxidase levels (33%) and in 4 patients with low myeloperoxidase levels (11%) (P = 0.02). The incidences of nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction and verified cardiac death were higher in the high-myeloperoxidase group. In multivariate analysis, high plasma myeloperoxidase levels were independent predictors of MACE (odds ratio = 3.843; <95% confidence interval, 1.625-6.563; P = 0.003). High plasma myeloperoxidase levels identify patients with a worse prognosis after acute STEMI at 2-year follow-up. Evaluation of plasma myeloperoxidase levels might be useful in determining patients at high risk of death and MACE who can benefit from further aggressive treatment and closer follow-up.

  4. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    changes, leptin levels and various hormonal parameters were investigated in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (312 males, 401 females, age 5.8-19.9 yr). For this purpose, a specific and sensitive RIA was developed that allowed the accurate measurement of low leptin levels in young lean...... children. With this assay, leptin proved to be a comparatively stable protein under common conditions of blood sampling and storage. Leptin levels increased in girls with age (r = 0.47, P

  5. Plasma oxytocin but not prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite levels at cerclage may predict preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, O; Böhmer, S; Goeschen, K; Fuchs, A R

    1991-06-01

    Plasma oxytocin and prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite (PGFM) concentrations were measured in 45 patients admitted for cerclage during the second trimester. Samples were collected before, 3 hours after, and 3 days after the Shirodkar procedure. Uterine activity was recorded by external tocography twice daily for 30 minutes. Twenty-eight women with uncomplicated pregnancy and commensurate gestational age served as controls. Cervical length, measured by ultrasonography, was significantly shorter before cerclage (36 +/- 2 mm) than after cerclage (43 +/- 2 mm) or compared with controls (48 +/- 1 mm). Bishop scores ranged from 3-6 (median 4) in the cerclage group and 0-1 (median 0) in controls. Fifteen cerclage patients and one control delivered preterm 5-22 weeks after the procedure. Initial plasma PGFM levels were significantly higher in cerclage patients than in controls. The cerclage procedure caused an immediate rise in plasma PGFM and a subsequent fall below initial levels to control values. Neither the initial levels of PGFM nor the increments 3 hours after cerclage correlated with the outcome of pregnancy. By contrast, plasma oxytocin levels before cerclage were significantly higher in patients who subsequently delivered preterm than in those who delivered at term. Cerclage resulted in a significant fall in plasma oxytocin at 3 hours in patients with preterm delivery, but after 3 days the oxytocin levels had returned to the precerclage values. Patients who had increased uterine contractions had significantly higher plasma oxytocin levels but lower PGFM levels than those without contractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Plasma homocysteine level in cardiac syndrome X and its relation with duke treadmill score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timurkaynak, Timur; Balcioglu, Serhat; Arslan, Ugur; Kocaman, Sinan A; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the plasma homocysteine level and the relationship between plasma homocysteine level and duke treadmill score (DTS) in cardiac syndrome X (CSX) patients. Seventy-nine patients (36 male, 43 female, mean age: 50 +/- 8.8 years) admitted to Gazi University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey with typical effort angina, positive stress test, and angiographically normal coronary arteries between January and September 2006 were included in this prospective and controlled study. Thirty asymptomatic patients (11 male, 19 female, mean age: 47.6 +/- 8.3 years) with 2 cardiovascular risk factors were chosen as a control group. Plasma homocysteine level was measured in both groups and DTS was calculated in the CSX group. Plasma homocysteine was measured with the AxSYM homocysteine immunoassay method in both groups. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in the CSX group compared to the control group (16.5 +/- 4.9 micromol/L, n=79, versus 12.4 +/- 4.1 micromol/L, n=30, p<0.001). The DTS was -2.7 +/- 5.3 in the CSX group. There was a negative correlation between the DTS and homocysteine levels in the CSX group. (r= -0.506, p<0.001). Plasma homocysteine level, which is known to cause endothelial dysfunction and microvascular ischemia were higher in CSX patients. Also, this increase in homocysteine level inversely correlated with the DTS, which represents the magnitude of ischemia.

  7. Increased FGF21 plasma levels in humans with sepsis and SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariani, Karim; Drifte, Geneviève; Dunn-Siegrist, Irène; Pugin, Jérôme; Jornayvaz, François R

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism and its plasma levels have been shown to be increased not only in humans in different situations such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but also in animal models of sepsis and pancreatitis. FGF21 is considered as a pharmacological candidate in conditions associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to compare FGF21 plasma levels in patients with sepsis, in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and in healthy controls. We measured FGF21 plasma concentrations in 22 patients with established sepsis, in 11 with SIRS, and in 12 healthy volunteers. Here, we show that FGF21 levels were significantly higher in plasma obtained from patients with sepsis and SIRS in comparison with healthy controls. Also, FGF21 levels were significantly higher in patients with sepsis than in those with noninfectious SIRS. FGF21 plasma levels measured at study entry correlated positively with the APACHE II score, but not with procalcitonin levels, nor with C-reactive protein, classical markers of sepsis. Plasma concentrations of FGF21 peaked near the onset of shock and rapidly decreased with clinical improvement. Taken together, these results indicate that circulating levels of FGF21 are increased in patients presenting with sepsis and SIRS, and suggest a role for FGF21 in inflammation. Further studies are needed to explore the potential role of FGF21 in sepsis as a potential therapeutic target.

  8. A Fall in Plasma Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Level Activates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Independent of Plasma Glucose: Evidence for Brain Sensing of Circulating FFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Taek; Oh, Ki-Sook; Kang, Insug

    2012-01-01

    The brain responds to a fall in blood glucose by activating neuroendocrine mechanisms for its restoration. It is unclear whether the brain also responds to a fall in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) to activate mechanisms for its restoration. We examined whether lowering plasma FFA increases plasma corticosterone or catecholamine levels and, if so, whether the brain is involved in these responses. Plasma FFA levels were lowered in rats with three independent antilipolytic agents: nicotinic acid (NA), insulin, and the A1 adenosine receptor agonist SDZ WAG 994 with plasma glucose clamped at basal levels. Lowering plasma FFA with these agents all increased plasma corticosterone, but not catecholamine, within 1 h, accompanied by increases in plasma ACTH. These increases in ACTH or corticosterone were abolished when falls in plasma FFA were prevented by Intralipid during NA or insulin infusion. In addition, the NA-induced increases in plasma ACTH were completely prevented by administration of SSR149415, an arginine vasopressin receptor antagonist, demonstrating that the hypothalamus is involved in these responses. Taken together, the present data suggest that the brain may sense a fall in plasma FFA levels and activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to increase plasma ACTH and corticosterone, which would help restore FFA levels. Thus, the brain may be involved in the sensing and control of circulating FFA levels. PMID:22669895

  9. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, D. V. Siva

    1979-01-01

    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  10. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, G.R.S.; Verhoef, P.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Betaine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can remethylate homocysteine into methionine via independent reactions. We determined the effect of daily betaine supplementation, compared with both folic a

  11. Plasma vanillylmandelic acid level as an index of psychological stress response in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, M; Hata, A; Niwa, S; Hiramatsu, K; Honda, H; Nakagome, K; Iwanami, A

    1996-06-26

    The relationships between psychological stress responses and plasma levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were investigated in normal volunteers. Two questionnaires were used to measure stress: the Psychological Stress Response Scale (PSRS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Plasma levels of VMA--but not MHPG, HVA, and 5-HIAA--showed significant positive correlations with PSRS emotional and cognitive-behavioral stress and STAI state anxiety. Significant positive correlations were also found between plasma levels of VMA and MHPG and psychological stress responses measured repeatedly in a longitudinal study of an Olympic swimmer. Plasma VMA measurements, which reflect the level of activity of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, may provide a useful biochemical index of psychological stress responses in normal subjects.

  12. Associaton between plasma osteopontin levels and severity of coronary heart disease in non-diabetic subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏芹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To seek the association between plasma osteopontin(OPN)levels and severity of coronary heart disease in non-diabetic subjects.Methods A total of 166stable angina patients free of diabetes were enrolled in the study.Clinical characteristic of patients was recorded.Plasma OPN levels were measured by an enzymelinked immunosorbent assay method.Coronary heart disease was determined by coronary artery angiography.The extent of coronary artery stenosis was represented as the

  13. Plasma calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in normal British schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, J M

    1973-07-21

    In a cross-sectional survey 624 schoolchildren were screened for plasma calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase levels. Plasma magnesium and alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes were also estimated in some cases.No significant difference was found between adult and childhood values for calcium and magnesium. Levels of alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus varied with both age and sex. The magnitude of these variations in normal ranges is of clear importance in assessing data from individual paediatric or adolescent patients.

  14. Impact of elective resection on plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J. H.; Basse, L.; Svedsen, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pre- and post-operative plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels have a prognostic impact on patients with colorectal cancer. However, the surgical trauma may play an essential role in regulation of plasma TIMP-1 levels, which in turn may influence subsequent TIMP......-1 measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutively, 48 patients with colon cancer (CC) and 12 patients with nonmalignant colonic disease were randomised to undergo elective laparoscopically assisted or open resection followed by fast track recovery. Plasma samples were collected just before and 1...

  15. Impact of elective resection on plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J. H.; Basse, L.; Svedsen, M. N.;

    2006-01-01

    -1 measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutively, 48 patients with colon cancer (CC) and 12 patients with nonmalignant colonic disease were randomised to undergo elective laparoscopically assisted or open resection followed by fast track recovery. Plasma samples were collected just before and 1......OBJECTIVE: Pre- and post-operative plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels have a prognostic impact on patients with colorectal cancer. However, the surgical trauma may play an essential role in regulation of plasma TIMP-1 levels, which in turn may influence subsequent TIMP...

  16. Plasma taurine levels are not affected by vigabatrin in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelbrink, Emily M; Mabud, Tarub S; Reimer, Richard; Porter, Brenda E

    2016-08-01

    Vigabatrin is a highly effective antiseizure medication, but its use is limited due to concerns about retinal toxicity. One proposed mechanism for this toxicity is vigabatrin-mediated reduction of taurine. Herein we assess plasma taurine levels in a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy, including a subset receiving vigabatrin. All children who underwent a plasma amino acid analysis as part of their clinical evaluation between 2006 and 2015 at Stanford Children's Health were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in plasma taurine levels between children taking vigabatrin (n = 16), children taking other anti-seizure medications, and children not taking any anti-seizure medication (n = 556) (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.841). There were, however, age-dependent decreases in plasma taurine levels. Multiple linear regression revealed no significant association between vigabatrin use and plasma taurine level (p = 0.87) when controlling for age. These results suggest that children taking vigabatrin maintain normal plasma taurine levels, although they leave unanswered whether taurine supplementation is necessary or sufficient to prevent vigabatrin-associated visual field loss. They also indicate that age should be taken into consideration when evaluating taurine levels in young children. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Interleukin-7 Plasma Levels in Human Differentiate Anorexia Nervosa, Constitutional Thinness and Healthy Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Natacha; Viltart, Odile; Loyens, Anne; Bruchet, Céline; Nadin, Katia; Wolowczuk, Isabelle; Estour, Bruno; Galusca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine involved in energy homeostasis as demonstrated in rodents. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrained eating behavior despite adaptive orexigenic regulation profile including high ghrelin plasma levels. Constitutional thinness is a physiological condition of resistance to weight gain with physiological anorexigenic profile including high Peptide YY plasma level. Healthy obesity can be considered as a physiological state of resistance to weight loss with opposite appetite regulating profile to constitutional thinness including low Peptide YY plasma level. No studies in IL-7 are yet available in those populations. Therefore we evaluated circadian plasma levels of IL-7 in anorexia nervosa compared to constitutional thinness, healthy obese and control females. Materials and Methods 10 restrictive-type anorexia nervosa women, 5 bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa woman, 5 recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa women, 4 bulimic females, 10 constitutional thinness women, 7 healthy obese females, and 10 normal weight women controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, performed in endocrinology unit and academic laboratory. Twelve-point circadian profiles of plasma IL-7 levels were measured in each subject. Results 24h mean IL-7 plasma levels (pg/ml, mean±SEM) were decreased in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (123.4±14.4, pobese patients (51±3.2, pobesity, with low IL-7, is once again in mirror image of constitutional thinness with normal high IL-7. PMID:27611669

  18. Effects of antinutritional factors on plasma lipoprotein levels in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J M; Mai, K S; Ai, Q H; Zhang, W B; Wang, X J; Xu, W; Liufu, Z G; Cai, Y H; Chen, W

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of four types of antinutritional factor (phytic acid, stachyose, soy saponins and soy isoflavones) on lipoprotein levels in plasma of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. A basal diet was prepared with fish meal as primary protein source, the other diets were supplemented with 0·2, 0·4 or 0·8% phytic acid, 0·4, 0·8 or 1·5% stachyose, 0·1, 0·35 or 0·7% soy saponins and 0·10, 0·35 or 0·70% soy isoflavones, by dry mass, in place of white flour in the basal diet. Total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in plasma of P. olivaceus were not affected by phytic acid or stachyose. In general, addition of 0·2-0·8% phytic acid or 0·4-1·5% stachyose decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, thereby increasing the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. By contrast, supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy saponins generally depressed plasma TC levels and the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. Supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy isoflavones, however, increased plasma TC and TG levels. These results indicate that soy saponins may be partly responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effects of soybean meal.

  19. 子宫内膜异位症患者RBP4与ENA-78的含量变化%Changes of Levels of Prostaglandin Retinol Binding Protein 4(RBP4)and Epithelial Neutrophil-Activing Peptide-78 (ENA-78)in Peritoneal Fluid and Serum of Patients with Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文敏; 赵艳丽; 班开斌; 黄友敏

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨子宫内膜异位症(EMS)患者腹腔液及血清中视黄醇结合蛋白4(RBP4)和中性粒细胞激活肽-78(ENA-78)的含量变化及其与EMS发病的关系.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附法(EHSA)检测86例EMS患者和36例因卵巢囊肿或浆膜下子宫肌瘤手术患者腹腔液及血清RBP4和ENA-78含量并进行分析.结果 EMS组患者腹腔液中RBP4、ENA-78的含量明显高于对照组,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).Ⅲ、Ⅳ期EMS患者腹腔液及血清中RBP4的含量较Ⅰ、Ⅱ期患者明显升高,差异也有统计学意义(P<0.01);Ⅲ、Ⅳ期EMS患者腹腔液及血清中ENA-78的含量较Ⅰ、Ⅱ期患者升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).同时EMS组患者RBP4与ENA-78的含量之间存在正相关(r=0.72,P<0.01).结论 EMS患者腹腔中高含量的RBP4与ENA-78,可能对EMS发病有影响;EMS患者腹腔液与血清中RBP4和ENA-78含量变化且与EMS关系密切.%Objective To investigate the concentrations of prostagland in retinol binding protein 4(RBP4) and epithelial neutrophil-activing peptide-78 (ENA-78) in serum and peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis. Methods The study group included 86 samples of peritoneal fluid and serum respectively from patients with endometriosis, and control group included 36 samples of peritoneal fluid and serum respectively from patients without endometriosis(either ovary cyst or uterine myoma). The peritoneal fluids were collected at the time of laparoscopic operation, and the sera were collected before surgery. Concentrations of RBP4 and ENA-78 were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA). Results The peritoneal fluid concentrations of RBP4 and ENA-78 in study group were significantly higher than those of control group(P <0.01 )>;and the RBP4 levels of stage HI , IV in endometriosis group were significantly higher than those of stage I , II in endometriosis group in serum and peritoneal fluid(P <0.01) ;and the ENA-78

  20. Decreased plasma chemerin levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, K J; Bonde, L; Svare, J A

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate fasting and post-prandial serum chemerin levels in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes, and again following delivery when normal glucose homeostasis is re-established. METHODS: Chemerin levels were measured in serum from nine women with gestational diabetes......, and from eight age- and BMI-matched pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance during two meal tests: in the third trimester and 3-4 months post partum. All women with gestational diabetes re-established normal glucose tolerance after delivery. RESULTS: Meal intake did not affect serum chemerin levels....... The group with gestational diabetes had lower mean serum chemerin levels during the third trimester compared with the group with normal glucose tolerance (28 ± 1.3 vs. 88 ± 3.5 ng/ml, P

  1. DNA damage and plasma homocysteine levels are associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... thyroid, approximately 80 - 85% is generated outside the thyroid primarily by conversion of T4 by selenium- dependent 5'deiodinase in the liver and kidney. .... hormone levels and hyponatremia in children with gastroenteritis.

  2. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, L.; Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  3. The Effect of Sodium Restricted Diet on Plasma Visfatin Levels in Hypertensive Patients with Visceral Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Rotkegel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background: Experimental and clinical studies revealed contradictory data concerning the influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA system activation on visfatin release. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the effect of dietary sodium restriction with RAA system activation on visfatin level in hypertensive and normotensive patients with visceral obesity. Methods: The study included 24 hypertensive patients with visceral obesity (12 women and 22 normotensive subjects with visceral obesity (11 women constituting the control group. Plasma renin activity, plasma insulin, aldosterone and visfatin levels were determined twice, on normal-salt diet after 6-8 h in recumbent position and the second time after 3 days of dietary sodium restriction and upright position for 2 h. Dietary compliance was controlled by 24 h natriuresis measurement. Results: Hypertensive patients had significantly higher plasma visfatin level than the control group [11.0 (8.5-13.5 vs. 6.8 (6.0-7.6 ng/ml, p=0.003]. Dietary sodium restriction and upright position caused significant increase in PRA and plasma aldosterone level in both groups. While, plasma visfatin level remained unaffected. In the combined group plasma visfatin levels correlated with BMI (r=0.398, waist circumference (r=0.391, glucose (r=0.328, insulin (r=0.663, HOMA-IR (r=0.698, triglycerides (r=0.500 and CRP (r=0.546 but not with percentage of fat mass, percentage of trunk fat, and blood pressure values. Conclusions: 1 Increased plasma visfatin concentration may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with visceral obesity. 2 RAA system activation by dietary sodium restriction and upright position has no effect on plasma visfatin levels in subjects with visceral obesity.

  4. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in hypoadrenal patients.

  5. Changes in plasma catecholamine and neuropeptide Y levels after sympathetic activation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, M. F.; Damase-Michel, C.; Tavernier, G.; Tran, M. A.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.; Montastruc, P.

    1992-01-01

    1. Plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were evaluated in two experimental models associated with an increase in sympathetic tone: conscious dogs which were subject to either sinoaortic denervation or acute administration of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. 2. Dogs that had undergone sinoaortic denervation exhibited a two fold increase in plasma NA without any change in NPY levels. 3. Yohimbine (0.05 mg kg-1 i.v. as a bolus) produced similar effects. A higher dose of yohimbine (0.5 mg kg-1 i.v.) increased both plasma NA (7 fold) and NPY (6.5 fold) levels. 4. The present results indicate that changes in plasma catecholamines and NPY are not always concomitant. They suggest that the simultaneous release of NA and NPY is only observed under in vivo conditions for a marked increase in sympathetic tone. PMID:1596679

  6. Influence of acute exposure to high altitude on basal and postprandial plasma levels of gastroenteropancreatic peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf L Riepl

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is characterized by headache often accompanied by gastrointestinal complaints that vary from anorexia through nausea to vomiting. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high altitude on plasma levels of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP peptides and their association to AMS symptoms. Plasma levels of 6 GEP peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 11 subjects at 490 m (Munich, Germany and, after rapid passive ascent to 3454 m (Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, over the course of three days. In a second study (n = 5, the same peptides and ghrelin were measured in subjects who consumed standardized liquid meals at these two elevations. AMS symptoms and oxygen saturation were monitored. In the first study, both fasting (morning 8 a.m. and stimulated (evening 8 p.m. plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide (PP and cholecystokinin (CCK were significantly lower at high altitude as compared to baseline, whereas gastrin and motilin concentrations were significantly increased. Fasting plasma neurotensin was significantly enhanced whereas stimulated levels were reduced. Both fasting and stimulated plasma motilin levels correlated with gastrointestinal symptom severity (r = 0.294, p = 0.05, and r = 0.41, p = 0.006, respectively. Mean O(2-saturation dropped from 96% to 88% at high altitude. In the second study, meal-stimulated integrated (= area under curve plasma CCK, PP, and neurotensin values were significantly suppressed at high altitude, whereas integrated levels of gastrin were increased and integrated VIP and ghrelin levels were unchanged. In summary, our data show that acute exposure to a hypobaric hypoxic environment causes significant changes in fasting and stimulated plasma levels of GEP peptides over consecutive days and after a standardized meal. The changes of peptide levels were not uniform. Based on the inhibition of PP and neurotensin release a reduction of the cholinergic tone can be postulated.

  7. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is thought to play a key role in the regulation of body fat mass. Beyond this function, it appears to be an integral component of various hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine feedback loops. Because childhood and puberty are periods of major metabolic and endocrine...... changes, leptin levels and various hormonal parameters were investigated in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (312 males, 401 females, age 5.8-19.9 yr). For this purpose, a specific and sensitive RIA was developed that allowed the accurate measurement of low leptin levels in young lean...... children. With this assay, leptin proved to be a comparatively stable protein under common conditions of blood sampling and storage. Leptin levels increased in girls with age (r = 0.47, P

  8. Effect of explosive noise on gastrointestinal transit and plasma levels of polypeptide hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Bin Mu; Yu-Xin Huang; Bao-Min Zhao; Zhen-Xiong Liu; Bing-Hua Zhang; Qing-Li Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of firing noise on gastrointestinal transit and probe its mechanism by measuring the levels of plasma polypeptide hormones.METHODS: Atotal of 64 SD rats were randomly divided into a control group and three stimulating groups. Firing noise of different intensity by sub-machine guns was used as inflicting factor. The effect of firing noise on liquid substance gastrointestinal transit and solid substance gastrointestinal transit was observed by measuring the ratio of carbon powder suspension transmitting and barium sticks transmitting respectively.Plasma levels of polypeptide hormones were measured by radio-immunoassay.RESULTS: The noise accelerated gastrointestinal transit of solid food by more than 80 db;and accelerated gastrointestinal transit of liquid food significantly by more than 120 db. Meantime, plasma levels of plasma motilin (MTL)(157.47±16.08; 151.90±17.08), somatostatin (SS)(513.97±88.77; 458.25±104.30), substance P (SP)(115.52±20.70; 110.28±19.96) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) (214.21±63.17; 251.76±97.24)remarkably changed also.CONCLUSION: Within a certain intensity range,the firing noise changes the levels of rat plasma gastrointestinal hormones, but the gastrointestinal transit is still normal. Beyond the range, the noise induces plasma hormone levels disturbance and gastrointestinal transit disorder.

  9. Circulating FGF23 levels in response to acute changes in plasma Ca(2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, Eva; Mace, Maria L; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Olgaard, Klaus; Lewin, Ewa

    2014-07-01

    The regulation of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) synthesis and secretion is still incompletely understood. FGF23 is an important regulator of renal phosphate excretion and has regulatory effects on the calciotropic hormones calcitriol and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate homeostasis are closely interrelated, and it is therefore likely that Ca is involved in FGF23 regulation. It has recently been reported that dietary Ca influenced FGF23 levels, with high Ca increasing FGF23. The mechanism remains to be clarified. It remains unknown whether acute changes in plasma Ca influence FGF23 levels and whether a close relationship, similar that known for Ca and PTH, exists between Ca and FGF23. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia regulate FGF23 levels in the rat. Acute hypercalcemia was induced by an intravenous Ca infusion and hypocalcemia by infusion of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) in normal and acutely parathyroidectomized rats. Intact plasma FGF23 and intact plasma PTH and plasma Ca(2+) and phosphate were measured. Acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia resulted as expected in adequate PTH secretory responses. Plasma FGF23 levels remained stable at all plasma Ca(2+) levels; acute parathyroidectomy did not affect FGF23 secretion. In conclusion, Ca is not a regulator of acute changes in FGF23 secretion.

  10. Relationship between Plasma Triglyceride Level and Severity of Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Huei; Chou, Yu-Ching; Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Wei, Kuang-Yu; Pan, Yu-Han; Lin, Hung-Che

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis, but whether the level of triglyceride (TG) is related to severity of pancreatitis is unclear. Aim To evaluate the effect of TG level on the severity of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP). Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods We reviewed the records of 144 patients with HTGP from 1999 to 2013 at Tri-Service General Hospital. Patients with possible etiology of pancreatitis, such as gallstones, those consuming alcohol or drugs, or those with infections were excluded. The classification of severity of pancreatitis was based on the revised Atlanta classification. We allocated the patients into high-TG and low-TG groups based on the optimal cut-off value (2648 mg/dL), which was derived from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between TG level and severity of HTGP. We then compared the clinical characteristics, pancreatitis severity, and mortality rates of the groups. Results There were 66 patients in the low-TG group and 78 patients in the high-TG group. There was no significant difference in the age, sex ratio, body mass index, and comorbidity between the 2 groups. The high-TG group had significantly higher levels of glucose (P = 0.022), total cholesterol (P = 0.002), and blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.037), and lower levels of sodium (P = 0.003) and bicarbonate (P = 0.002) than the low-TG group. The incidences of local complication (P = 0.002) and severe and moderate form of pancreatitis (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group. The mortality rate was higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group (P = 0.07). Conclusions Higher TG level in patients with HTGP may be associated with adverse prognosis, but randomized and prospective studies are needed in the future verify this relationship. PMID:27727299

  11. Plasma ficolin levels and risk of nephritis in Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanha, Nima; Pilely, Katrine; Faurschou, Mikkel; Garred, Peter; Jacobsen, Søren

    2017-02-01

    Given the scavenging properties of ficolins, we hypothesized that variation in the plasma concentrations of the three ficolins may be associated with development of lupus nephritis (LN), type of LN, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and/or mortality among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE patients attending a Danish tertiary rheumatology referral center were included. Plasma concentrations of ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3 were determined and dichotomized by the median into high and low. LN was defined by clinical criteria; type of LN by renal biopsy; ESRD follow-up time was defined as time from onset of LN to the development of ESRD or censoring at the end of follow-up. The study included 112 SLE patients with median disease duration of 8 years of which 53 (47%) had LN at the time of inclusion. During a median follow-up of 10 years, five patients developed ESRD. Sixteen patients died. Odds ratios (ORs) of LN were 1.2 (95% CI: 0.6-2.7), 4.1 (95% CI: 1.7-9.7), and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4-2.0) for patients with low ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3 plasma levels, respectively. The distribution of histological classes differed between patients with high and low plasma levels of ficolin-1 (p = 0.009). Patients with high ficolin-1 plasma levels had an increased risk of ESRD. There was no association between the levels of the analyzed plasma ficolins and mortality. Low plasma ficolin-2 levels were associated with an increased risk of having LN. High plasma levels of ficolin-1 were associated with the histological subtype of LN and development of ESRD.

  12. PLASMA ZINC LEVEL IN LACTATING WOMEN: ISFAHAN – 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A MAHMOUDIAN

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Zinc is an important trace mineral for human health specially in children. The zinc of nursing mothers affects on their milk and so health of their childs. This study assesses the serum zinc level in lactating women of Isfahan city. Methods. In a cross sectional study, 100 lactating women who were sited under care of Isfahan rural and urban health centers were selected by multistage cluster and simple random sampling. The food recall questionnair was completed and 10 ml blood sample was obtained from each subject. Serum zinc level was measered by atomic absorption. Results. Mean age of participants was 24.7 ± 4.9 years. Mean zinc concentration was 70.4±8.01 µg/dl. About 63 percent of subjects had serum zinc level less than 75 µg/dl (significant zinc deficiency and of this group 19/1 percent had severe zinc deficiency (less than 60 µg/dl. The mean of serum zinc level by BMI (< 20, 20-25, > 25 were 63.1, 70 and 75.7 (P < 0.0001. In person s that eat more frequency of meat and dairy products weekly, zinc levels were more than others (P < 0.01. Discussion. Zinc deficiency was common problem in lactating women of Isfahsn and this have harm effects on their childrens. Zinc deiifciency in children is one of causes responsible for growth retardation, suscebtibility to infections and learning disabilities. The nutrition of our people aren"t sufficient for lactating women"s needs. Other data indicated for zinc deficiency of soils. Planning such as fortification of soils, subside to meat the important source of zinc and using of zinc supplements for lactating women and other high risk groups must be done by responsible structures.

  13. Determining plasma morphine levels using GC-MS after solid phase extraction to monitor drug levels in the postoperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To implement a selective and sensitive analytical method to quantify morphine in small volumes of plasma by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, aimed at post-operatively monitoring the drug. METHOD: A gas-liquid chromatographic method with mass detection has been developed to determine morphine concentration in plasma after solid phase extraction. Morphine-d3 was used as an internal standard. Only 0.5 mL of plasma is required for the drug solid-phase extraction in the Bond Elut-Certify®, followed by the quantification of morphine derivative by GC-MS using a linear temperature program, a capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier and make-up gas. The method was applied to determine morphine content in plasma samples of four patients during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was performed by a venous catheter, and a series of venous blood samples were collected. After the oro-After the orotracheal extubation, morphine plasma levels were monitored for up to 36 hours. RESULTS: The run time was 16 minutes because morphine and the internal standard were eluted after 8.8 minutes. The GC-MS method had 0.5 -1000 ng/mL linearity range (r²=0.9995, 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection, intraday and interday precision equivalent to 1.9% and 6.8%, and 0.1% and 0.8% systematic error (intraday and interday, respectively. The analytical method showed optimal absolute (98% and relative (100.7% recoveries. Morphine dose requirements and plasma levels are discussed. CONCLUSION: The analytical gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method is selective and adequate for morphine measurements in plasma for applications in clinical studies.

  14. Determining plasma morphine levels using GC-MS after solid phase extraction to monitor drug levels in the postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veronica; López, Karin Jannet Vera; Santos, Luciana Moraes; Yonamine, Mauricio; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho; Santos, Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge

    2008-06-01

    To implement a selective and sensitive analytical method to quantify morphine in small volumes of plasma by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), aimed at post-operatively monitoring the drug. A gas-liquid chromatographic method with mass detection has been developed to determine morphine concentration in plasma after solid phase extraction. Morphine-d3 was used as an internal standard. Only 0.5 mL of plasma is required for the drug solid-phase extraction in the Bond Elut-Certify, followed by the quantification of morphine derivative by GC-MS using a linear temperature program, a capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier and make-up gas. The method was applied to determine morphine content in plasma samples of four patients during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was performed by a venous catheter, and a series of venous blood samples were collected. After the oro-After the orotracheal extubation, morphine plasma levels were monitored for up to 36 hours. The run time was 16 minutes because morphine and the internal standard were eluted after 8.8 minutes. The GC-MS method had 0.5 -1000 ng/mL linearity range (r(2)=0.9995), 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection, intraday and interday precision equivalent to 1.9% and 6.8%, and 0.1% and 0.8% systematic error (intraday and interday, respectively). The analytical method showed optimal absolute (98%) and relative (100.7%) recoveries. Morphine dose requirements and plasma levels are discussed. The analytical gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method is selective and adequate for morphine measurements in plasma for applications in clinical studies.

  15. Acute modification in plasma lipid levels in ultramarathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emed, Luiz Gustavo Marin; Passaglia, Daniela Gunther; Guerios, Surya T; João, Paula G D; Moser, André I S; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S P; Guarita-Souza, Luis Cesar; Mikilita, Emanuella Stella; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; da Costa, Ana Beatriz Brenner Affonso; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of a 24-h ultramarathon, an aerobic test of high physical load, on lipid profile and apolipoproteins B (ApoB) and A1 (ApoA1) levels, minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and oxidised LDL. Prospective evaluation of 16 male athletes who participated in an ultramarathon run, where the objective was to run the greatest distance possible in 24 h. Fourteen participants completed the run. The mean distance achieved was 133.1 km (maximum of 169.6 km). There was a trend in reduction of triglycerides and total cholesterol (P = 0.06 and 0.05, respectively), without significant modifications in high-density lipoprotein, LDL and ApoA1 levels (P = 0.16; 0.55 and 0.67). There was a marked reduction in ApoB levels (P < 0.001), correlated directly to the distance covered (Pearson R = 0.68). Accordingly, an increase in the LDL/ApoB ratio was observed. The stress of this physical activity was not associated to an increase in minimally modified LDL or oxidised LDL. Lipid profile levels were not acutely altered by prolonged physical activity. Similarly, there was no evidence of greater oxidation of LDL over a 24-h period of physical activity. The reduction in ApoB was directly proportional to the distance covered, suggesting an acute positive change in phenotype of LDL molecules.

  16. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  17. The determination of serum retinol by high - performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定血清中的视黄醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To establish a method for rapid extraction and determination of serum retinol. Methods: Retinol acetate was taken as internal standard, Agilent Eclipse XDB -C18 (S μn4.6 mm ×2S0 mm) column was used for separation, methanol - water with the volume ratio of 98:2 was taken as mobile phase, DAD was taken as detector and reverse phase chromatography was used for detection of serum retinol level. Results: The recovery of samples was 88.2% - 106.5% : the LOD for retinol was 0.020 μg/ml. Conclusion: The method has the advantages of simplicity, rapidity and accuracy. It can be used for analysis of serum retinol.%目的:建立一种可以快速提取和测定血清中的视黄醇的检测方法.方法:采用视黄醇乙酸酯作为内标,Agilent Eclipse XDB - C18柱(5μm 4.6 mm×250 mm)液相色谱柱分离,甲醇-水(体积比98:2)作为流动相,二级管阵列为检测器,反相色谱法测定血清中的视黄醇的含量进行检测.结果:样品加标回收率为88.2%~ 106.5%;视黄醇最低检出限为0.020 μg/ml.结论:该方法具有简便、快速、准确的优点可用于血清中的视黄醇的检测.

  18. Seminal plasma zinc level may be associated with the effect of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R-Z; Gao, J-C; Zhang, H-G; Wang, R-X; Zhang, Z-H; Liu, X-Y

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal plasma zinc levels and sperm parameters, and to examine the role of seminal plasma zinc. Semen samples from 79 non-smokers and 68 smokers were obtained. There was a significant decrease in seminal plasma zinc in smokers and a clear correlation between seminal plasma zinc levels and the extent of smoking. Sperm parameters (concentration, motility and morphology) among smokers were significantly lower in comparison to non-smokers. These parameters were also significantly decreased among smokers with abnormal zinc levels, while there was no significant difference between non-smokers with normal zinc and non-smokers with abnormal zinc levels. As previous studies have shown that seminal plasma zinc is associated with a decrease of anti-oxidant defences, seminal plasma zinc could be a contributor to the effects of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters. In conclusion, cigarette smoking can affect sperm parameters and this study may help towards providing a mechanistic explanation.

  19. Progranulin Levels in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Granulin Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeter, Lieke H.H.; Patzke, Holger; Loewen, Gordon; Dopper, Elise G.P.; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L.; van Minkelen, Rick; van Swieten, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathogenic mutations in the granulin gene (GRN) are causative in 5-10% of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), mostly leading to reduced progranulin protein (PGRN) levels. Upcoming therapeutic trials focus on enhancing PGRN levels. Methods Fluctuations in plasma PGRN (n = 41) and its relationship with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, n = 32) and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms were investigated in pre- and symptomatic GRN mutation carriers and controls. Results Plasma PGRN levels were lower in carriers than in controls and showed a mean coefficient of variation of 5.3% in carriers over 1 week. Although plasma PGRN correlated with CSF PGRN in carriers (r = 0.54, p = 0.02), plasma only explained 29% of the variability in CSF PGRN. rs5848, rs646776 and rs1990622 genotypes only partly explained the variability of PGRN levels between subjects. Conclusions Plasma PGRN is relatively stable over 1 week and therefore seems suitable for treatment monitoring of PGRN-enhancing agents. Since plasma PGRN only moderately correlated with CSF PGRN, CSF sampling will additionally be needed in therapeutic trials. PMID:27703466

  20. 妊娠肥胖、妊娠期糖尿病患者血清视黄醇结合蛋白4水平的变化及其相关影响因素%Change of Serum Retinol-binding Protein-4 Level in Pregnancy Obese Subjects and GDM and Related Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈震宇; 杜鹃

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨妊娠肥胖、妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)患者血清视黄醇结合蛋白4(RBP-4)水平变化及其相关影响因素.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附法检测24例孕前BMI≥28 kg/m,孕期体质量增加<20 kg的GDM孕妇(孕前肥胖GDM组,A组);28例孕前BMI 18.5~23.9 kg/m2,孕期体质量增加<20 kg的GDM孕妇(孕前非肥胖GDM组,B组);23例孕前BMI≥28 kg/m2,孕期体质量增加<20kg,无任何妊娠并发症的孕妇(单纯肥胖孕妇组,C组);23例孕前BMI 18.5~23.9 kg/m2,孕期体质量增加<20 kg的正常健康孕妇(正常对照组,D组)血清RBP-4、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)、脂联素(APN)水平;同时测定所有受试者的糖、脂生化指标,并计算胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR).结果 (1)A组孕妇FINS、HOMA-IR明显高于其他3组(P<0.01),B组孕妇FINS、HOMA-IR高于C组及D组(P<0.05),C组孕妇血清FINS、HOMA-IR高于D组(P<0.01);(2)A组孕妇血清RBP-4水平明显高于其他3组孕妇(P<0.05),C组孕妇血清RBP-4水平高于B组及D组(P<0.05);(3)血清RBP-4与舒张压、孕前BMI、FINS、HOMA-IR、TNF-α正相关,与APN负相关(r值分别为0.274,0.667,0.500,0.435,0.528,-0.386,P均<0.05);(4)多元逐步回归分析显示孕前BMI、TNF-α是血清RBP-4的独立相关因素(P<0.05).结论 GDM孕妇存在胰岛素抵抗,孕前肥胖的孕妇无论是否合并有GDM,其血清RBP-4水平均明显升高,血清RBP-4水平与肥胖密切相关,脂肪细胞因子之间相互抑制或相互促进,参与肥胖或GDM的发生.%Objective To investigate the change of serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4) levels in obesity pregnant women and pregnant women with GDM and to investigate it's impact factors.Methods Serum RBP-4 levels,TNF-ot,APN,were measured by EnzymeLinked Immuno Sorbent Assay(ELISA) in 24 cases of GDM with obesity,28 cases of GDM with normal weight,23 cases of obesity pregnant women without pregnancy complications and 23 cases of normal weight pregnant women

  1. Liver and plasma levels of descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) in vitamin K deficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harauchi, T; Takano, K; Matsuura, M; Yoshizaki, T

    1986-04-01

    Descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) is a precursor of prothrombin without biological activity, and it increases with vitamin K deficiency. We studied the time course changes in liver and plasma levels of PIVKA II during the progress of vitamin K deficiency in rats. Good correlation was observed between liver PIVKA II and plasma PIVKA II and between liver or plasma PIVKA II and plasma prothrombin in experiments in which rats were fed a vitamin K-deficient diet. Feeding of a vitamin K-deficient diet or fasting caused marked increases in liver and plasma PIVKA II in male rats and a weaker response in female rats. Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, caused an abrupt increase in liver PIVKA II, but the increase in plasma PIVKA II was delayed about 3 hr. Plasma prothrombin decreased from about 30 min later. Factor VII decreased similarly to prothrombin, and changes in the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were slower than the changes in these substances. Sex differences were not seen in these warfarin actions. These observations indicate that liver and plasma PIVKA II are sensitive markers of vitamin K deficiency in rats, and assay of PIVKA II can be useful for analyzing the action mechanism of drugs which influence blood coagulation.

  2. Administration of Bioflavonoides Improves Plasma Levels of Adipocyte Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boncheva M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial the fruits of aronia melanocarpa (rich of bioflavonoides have been known for their medicinal properties. Present-day research of the pharmacological effects of aronia melanocarpa juice and fruits intake indicates that their high contents of anthocyanins is closely related to the health enhancing properties of this plant. This is a key fact which can be used in the prevention of most commonly spread, socially significant diseases, reducing for instance the total risk of cardio-vascular diseases. The great molecular variety anthocyanins possess and the role they play in cell metabolism, are still being investigated. This gives grounds to study the effects of Aronia melanocarpa on human cells, tissues, and organs. The aim of this study is to trace the effect of 150-200 ml aronia melanokarpa juice daily oral intake on the adipocyte hormones leptin (Lp, resistine (Rs and adiponectin (Adn blood levels in 10 patients with high body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 and high waist circumference. We used ELISA methods for hormonal analyses. During the study-period of two months patients did not change anything in their lifestyle. In the study group, the levels of Rs, Lp and Adn changed significantly compared to their baseline levels (averages, ng/mL - 6.93 ± 0.137, 18.40 ±1.021 and 7.98 ± 0.077 vs. 5.06 ± 0.011, 15.23 ± 0.906 and 10.45 ± 0.103 at the end of the second month, respectively. Compared with the control group of 6 people, matched for BMI, not receiving aronia melanocarpa juice, these values were markedly different. Patients taking aronia melanokarpa juice report improvement in various conditions that have caused them discomfort before the research started: pain in the muscles and joints faded away and were replaced by a new feeling of strength, headache attacks disappeared, improvement in memory and sleep were reported, regular defecation, no signs of gastric discomfort, better vision, a quicker auditory reaction, motivation

  3. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Borre, Michael; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2006-01-01

    . EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In 79 patients with prostate cancer, 23 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 44 healthy individuals plasma TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 were determined with ELISAs and compared with clinical stage and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. Plasma levels of TFF were compared......PURPOSE: Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer...... with the immunohistochemical expression of TFF and chromogranin A in 30 prostate cancer tissue samples. RESULTS: Patients with advanced prostate cancer had significantly higher plasma concentrations of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 (P

  4. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis: Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée M Ettema

    Full Text Available Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP, are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli for copeptin release, i.e. plasma osmolality, blood volume and mean arterial pressure (MAP, are operational in hemodialysis patients.One hundred and eight prevalent, stable hemodialysis patients on a thrice-weekly dialysis schedule were studied during hemodialysis with constant ultrafiltration rate and dialysate conductivity in this observational study. Plasma levels of copeptin, sodium, MAP, and blood volume were measured before, during and after hemodialysis. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the association between copeptin (dependent variable and the physiological stimuli plasma sodium, MAP, excess weight as well as NT-pro-BNP immediately prior to dialysis and between copeptin and changes of plasma sodium, MAP and blood volume with correction for age, sex and diabetes during dialysis treatment.Patients were 63 ± 15.6 years old and 65% were male. Median dialysis vintage was 1.6 years (IQR 0.7-4.0. Twenty-three percent of the patients had diabetes and 82% had hypertension. Median predialysis copeptin levels were 141.5 pmol/L (IQR 91.0-244.8 pmol/L. Neither predialysis plasma sodium levels, nor NT-proBNP levels, nor MAP were associated with predialysis copeptin levels. During hemodialysis, copeptin levels rose significantly (p<0.01 to 163.0 pmol/L (96.0-296.0 pmol/L. Decreases in blood volume and MAP were associated with increases in copeptin levels during dialysis, whereas there was no significant association between the change in plasma sodium levels and the change in copeptin levels.Plasma copeptin levels are elevated predialysis and increase further during hemodialysis. Volume stimuli, i.e. decreases in MAP and blood volume, rather than osmotic

  5. Increased plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels after single administation of toluene in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Setsunori; Tanabe, Koichi; Shiono, Hiroshi (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)); Maseda, Chikatoshi (Shimane Prefectural Police Headquarters, Matsue (Japan)); Fukui, Yuko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1988-01-01

    Changes of plasma lipids (triglyceride, TG: total cholesterol, Cho; and phospholipids, PL), free fatty acid (FFA), and blood glucose (BG) were studied in male rabbits after toluene administration (0.5 g/kg per os). Hypertriglyceridemia was observed at and after 2 h. Plasma FFA and BG were elevated temporarily during the early stage and lowered gradually thereafter. Initially, plasma Cho and PL were virtually unchanged, by the Cho levels increased slowly after 6 h. The hypertriglyceridemia observed may have some adverse effects on heart function.

  6. Genetic effects of an air discharge plasma on Staphylococcus aureus at the gene transcription level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zimu; Wei, Jun; Shen, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Ronghua; Zhang, Zelong; Qian, Shulou; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Weidong; Sun, Qiang; Cheng, Cheng; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of gene expression regulation (at transcription level) in Staphylococcus aureus after different doses of atmospheric-pressure room-temperature air plasma treatments are investigated by monitoring the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The plasma treatment influences the transcription of genes which are associated with several important bio-molecular processes related to the environmental stress resistance of the bacteria, including oxidative stress response, biofilm formation, antibiotics resistance, and DNA damage protection/repair. The reactive species generated by the plasma discharge in the gas phase and/or induced in the liquid phase may account for these gene expression changes.

  7. Simultaneous treatment of low-level miscellaneous solid waste by thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amakawa, T.; Adachi, K.; Yasui, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Volume reduction is a cost saving method for the final disposal of radioactive waste. On one hand, arc plasma heating can provide sufficient heat independent of the chemical and physical properties of waste, therefore enabling stable heating at high treatment rates. CRIEPI (central research institute of electric power industry) focused on the advantages of arc plasma heating, and has clarified that arc plasma heating can be used in a simultaneous melting treatment process for low-level miscellaneous mixed solid waste, generated from nuclear power plants for volume reduction, and in the stabilization of radionuclides. (authors)

  8. Vitamin K plasma levels determination in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Stucchi, Andrea; Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Moysés, Rosa M A; Jorgetti, Vanda; Iervasi, Giorgio; Giannini, Sandro; Fabris, Fabrizio; Aghi, Andrea; Sella, Stefania; Galli, Francesco; Viola, Valentina; Plebani, Mario

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin K (phylloquinone or vitamin K1 and menaquinones or vitamin K2) plays an important role as a cofactor in the synthesis of hepatic blood coagulation proteins, but recently has also aroused an increasing interest for its action in extra-hepatic tissues, in particular in the regulation of bone and vascular metabolism. The accurate measurement of vitamin K status in humans is still a critical issue. Along with indirect assays, such as the undercarboxylated fractions of vitamin K-dependent proteins [prothrombin, osteocalcin (OC), and matrix gla protein], the direct analysis of blood levels of phylloquinone and menaquinones forms might be considered a more informative and direct method for assessing vitamin K status. Different methods for direct quantification of vitamin K serum levels are available. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods coupled with post-column reduction procedures and fluorimetric or electrochemical detection are commonly used for food and blood analysis of phylloquinone, but they show some limitations when applied to the analysis of serum menaquinones because of interferences from triglycerides. Recent advancements include liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) detection, which assures higher specificity. The optimization and standardization of these methods requires specialized laboratories. The variability of results observed in the available studies suggests the need for further investigations to obtain more accurate analytical results.

  9. Plasma cortisol levels in captive wild felines after chemical restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Nogueira

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight Panthera onca (Po, 13 Felis concolor (Fc, 7 Felis yagouaroundi (Fy, 7 Felis tigrina (Ft and 5 Felis pardalis (Fp specimens from São Paulo State zoos were used. All animals were restrained with darts containing 10 mg/kg ketamine and 1 mg/kg xylazine. Venous blood samples were collected as soon as possible (within 15-20 min and serum was frozen until the time for cortisol quantification. Cortisol was determined using a solid phase radioimmunoassay with an intra-assay coefficient of 8.51%. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's multiple comparisons test, and the one-sample t-test, with the level of significance set at P<0.05. Data are reported as means ± SEM. Cortisol levels differed among the captive felines: Po = 166 ± 33a, Fc = 670 ± 118b, Fy = 480 ± 83b, Ft = 237 ± 42ab, Fp = 97 ± 12a nmol/l (values followed by different superscript letters were significantly different (P<0.001. Since most of the veterinary procedures on these species involve chemical restraint, these results show the necessity of preventive measures in order to minimize the effect of restraint stress on more susceptible species

  10. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

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    Chun-Rong Ju

    Full Text Available To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin.The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95 than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09, and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79, with each p<0.01. Significant differences were also found in plasma BNP levels among the three groups (p<0.05. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that myostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each p<0.05.Plasma myostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD.

  11. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

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    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  12. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren K; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kronborg, Gitte; Benfield, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV-infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment, 73% had plasma a HIV RNA level of Plasma sCD163 levels were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (4.92 mg/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 3.29-8.65 mg/L] vs 3.16 mg/L [IQR, 2.16-4.64 mg/L]; P = .0001). The cumulative incidence of death increased with increasing plasma sCD163 levels, corresponding to a 6% or 35% increased risk of death for each milligram per liter or quartile increase, respectively, in baseline plasma sCD163 level (adjusted HR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.03-1.09] and 1.35 [95% CI, 1.13-1.63], respectively). Plasma sCD163 was an independent marker of all-cause mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals, suggesting that monocyte/macrophage activation may play a role in HIV pathogenesis and be a target of intervention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Evaluation of plasma reactive oxygen metabolites levels in obese subjects with periodontal disease

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    Snophia Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Result and Conclusion: In this study, obese subjects with chronic periodontitis (Group I had mean plasma ROM levels (442.3 ± 15.65 Carratelli unit [CARR U] showing 100% subjects with high oxidative stress. Obese subjects with chronic gingivitis (Group II had mean plasma ROM levels (358.7 ± 20.61 CARR U indicating 86.7% subjects with oxidative stress. Obese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group III had 46.7% subjects with slight oxidative stress, and the mean ROM level was 320.2 ± 17.57. Nonobese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group IV had 80% of subjects with normal oxidative stress and the mean plasma ROM level was 296.9 ± 20.35 CARR U. The intra- and inter-group comparison showed significant difference (P < 0.001. From our study, we report that obese subjects with periodontitis have more oxidative stress compared to obese subjects with healthy periodontium.

  14. Levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and antioxidant vitamins in plasma of patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuş, Selami; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Eriş, Sevilay; Yalman, Kadir; Yilmaz, Nigar; Yener, Mahmut

    2009-06-01

    The etiology of fibromyalgia is not clearly understood. In recent years, a few studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the etiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma antioxidant vitamins, lipid peroxidation (LP), and nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with fibromyalgia and controls. The study was performed on the blood plasma of 30 female patients and 30 age-matched controls. After a fast of 12 h, blood samples were taken, and plasma samples were obtained for measurement of vitamins A, C, E, and beta-carotene concentrations and levels of LP and NO. Concentrations of vitamins A (p fibromyalgia than in controls, and LP levels were significantly (p vitamin C and beta-carotene and levels of NO did not change significantly. These results provide some evidence for a potential role of LP and fat-soluble antioxidants in the patients with fibromyalgia.

  15. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and BDNF plasma levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Francesco; Oliviero, Antonio; Pilato, Fabio; Saturno, Eleonora; Dileone, Michele; Versace, Viviana; Musumeci, Gabriella; Batocchi, Anna P; Tonali, Pietro A; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2004-03-22

    Low- and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex results in lasting changes of excitatory neurotransmission. We investigated the effects of suprathreshold 1 Hz rTMS on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels in 10 healthy subjects and effects of either 1 Hz or 20 Hz rTMS in four amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. BDNF levels were progressively decreased by 1 Hz rTMS in healthy subjects; there was no effect of 1 Hz rTMS on BDNF plasma levels in ALS patients, an effect probably due to the loss of motor cortex pyramidal cells. High frequency rTMS determined a transitory decrease in BDNF plasma levels. Cumulatively these findings suggest that rTMS might influence the BDNF production by interfering with neuronal activity.

  16. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Background: CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human...... immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). Methods: Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV–infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment......, 73% had plasma a HIV RNA level of CD163 levels were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (4.92 mg/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 3.29–8.65 mg/L] vs 3.16 mg/L [IQR, 2...

  17. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human...... immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). METHODS: Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV-infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment......, 73% had plasma a HIV RNA level of CD163 levels were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (4.92 mg/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 3.29-8.65 mg/L] vs 3.16 mg/L [IQR, 2...

  18. Peanut consumption increases levels of plasma very long chain fatty acids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christina; Wong, Derek; Cederbaum, Stephen; Lim, Bennie; Qu, Yong

    2012-11-01

    Peanut consumption has been suspected of raising plasma very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels in humans. The effect of peanut consumption on VLCFAs was studied in six human subjects. After 3 to 4h of peanut butter ingestion, plasma C26:0 and C26:0/C22:0 were found to be significantly elevated to levels seen in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These levels returned to normal within 12h. Peanut consumption needs to be accounted for when interpreting VLCFAs.

  19. Overwinter fasting and re-feeding in rainbow trout: plasma growth hormone and cortisol levels in relation to energy mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Pottinger, T.G.; Rand-Weaver, M; Sumpter, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of cortisol and growth hormone during a period of fasting in overwintering salmonid fish. Indices of carbohydrate (plasma glucose, liver glycogen), lipid (plasma free fatty acids) and protein metabolism (plasma protein, total plasma amino acids) were determined, together with plasma growth hormone (GH), cortisol and somatolactin levels (SL) at intervals in three groups of rainbow trout (continuously fed; fasted for 9 weeks then fed; fasted for 17 weeks). In f...

  20. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  1. Changes of Plasma Levels of Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Xiaoyang; Pan Ying; Hu Xuesong; Li Song; Xu Yawei; Yu Xuejing

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the changes of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).Methods Plasma BNP concentrations in patients with CHF (n=56) and in normal controls (n=60) were measured with specific radioimmunoassay. Left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with chronic heart failure was measured with 99mTc gated cardiac blood pool scintigraphy. Results The results showed that Plasma BNP concentrations in patients with CHF were significantly higher than normal controls (223±79 ng/L vs 40±15 ng/L, P < 0.01). Plasma BNP concentrations had a significant negative correlation with left ventricular ejection fractions(r=-0.68, P <0.01 ). Conclusions These results indicates that Plasma BNP levels are increased in patients with CHF, and they markedly increased according to the severity of heart failure classified by NYHA classification. The plasma BNP levels may be a biochemical parameter for evaluating the left ventricular function.

  2. Effect of anticonvulsants on plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragry, J M; Makin, H L; Trafford, D J; Scott, D F

    1978-01-01

    Plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels were measured in 29 patients with epilepsy (16 men and 13 women), most of them on chronic therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in both sexes and testosterone levels in male patients. It is postulated that anticonvulsants may induce hepatic synthesis of SHBG. PMID:569688

  3. Reduced plasma taurine level in Parkinson's disease: association with motor severity and levodopa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yuan, Yongsheng; Tong, Qing; Jiang, Siming; Xu, Qinrong; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Lian; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the level of taurine in plasma, and its association with the severity of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) and chronic levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). Plasma taurine level was measured in treated PD (tPD), untreated PD (ntPD) and control groups. Motor symptoms and NMS were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease for Autonomic Symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Longtime exposure to levodopa was indicated by its approximate cumulative dosage. The plasma taurine levels of PD patients were decreased when compared with controls and negatively associated with motor severity but not NMS. Moreover, tPD patients exhibited lower levels of plasma taurine than ntPD patients. Interestingly, plasma taurine levels negatively correlated with cumulative levodopa dosage in tPD. After controlling for potential confounders, the association between taurine and levodopa remained significant. Our study supports that taurine may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PD and the disturbances caused by chronic levodopa administration.

  4. [Measurement and correlation analysis of plasma VEGF level in the patients of hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoni; Wang, Guangrong; You, Jinhui

    2013-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a glycoprotein that promotes endothelial regeneration, stimulates formation of collateral blood vessels and increases vascular permeability. The purpose of this study was to measure the peripheral blood plasma level of VEGF and FT3, FT4, TSH and to analyze the correlation of the level of VEGF and TSH, FT3, FT4, age and gender in the patients of hyperthyroidism. The relationship between hyperthyroidism and VEGF was investigated as well. The plasma level of VEGF in 45 hyperthyroidism patients and 27 healthy persons were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while plasma FT3, FT4, TSH were detected by chemiluminescence. The result showed that the plasma level of VEGF in hyperthyroidism patients [(92.53 +/- 62.38) pg/mL] was significantly lower than that in the control group [(158.28 +/- 77.15) pg/mL] (P hyperthyroidism patients (P > 0.05). These results suggested that the peripheral blood plasma level of VEGF in hyperthyroidism patients was significantly lower than that in the control group. Further experimental investigations are needed to estimate the relationship between VEGF and hyperthyroidism.

  5. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  6. ApoE plasma levels and risk of cardiovascular mortality in old age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Mooijaart

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4 alleles of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE encode three isoforms, apoE2, E3, and E4, respectively. The apoE isoforms circulate in different plasma concentrations, but plasma concentrations of the same isoform also differ between individuals. Whereas the isoforms have been associated with cardiovascular disease, the relation between plasma apoE levels and cardiovascular disease is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed APOE genotypes, plasma levels of apoE, cardiovascular risk factors, and mortality in a population-based sample of 546 individuals aged 85 y who participated in the Leiden 85-plus Study and were prospectively followed for specific causes of death for 5 y. Participants in the highest tertile of apoE levels suffered a twofold-increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio compared to lowest tertile, 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30 to 3.33. Among the 324 participants with the epsilon3epsilon3 genotype, the hazard from cardiovascular disease was threefold increased (highest versus lowest tertile 3.01; 95% CI 1.60 to 5.66, with similar estimates for men and women. Other causes of death were not increased significantly. Plasma levels of apoE in epsilon3epsilon3 participants were positively correlated with total cholesterol (p < 0.001, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001 and triglycerides (p < 0.001 and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (p = 0.010. Adjustment for plasma lipids did not change the hazard ratios, whereas interaction was absent. The risk associated with high levels of apoE, however, was strongest in participants from the lowest tertile of C-reactive protein (CRP levels and absent in those from the highest tertile (p(interaction < 0.001. Among participants from the lowest tertile of CRP levels, those with a high apoE levels had a significantly steeper increase in CRP than those with low apoE levels (p = 0.020. Similar

  7. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  8. Plasma cell-free DNA levels are elevated in acute Puumala hantavirus infection.

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    Tuula K Outinen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Puumala hantavirus (PUUV causes a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica (NE. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma cell-free DNA (cf-DNA levels and urinary cf-DNA excretion in acute NE as well as their associations with the severity of the disease. METHODS: Total plasma cf-DNA was quantified directly in plasma of 61 patients and urine of 20 patients with acute NE. We also carried out a qualitative high-sensitivity lab-on-a-chip DNA assay in 20 patients to elucidate the appearance of cf-DNA in plasma and urine. RESULTS: The maximum plasma cf-DNA values taken during acute NE were significantly higher than the control values taken after the hospitalization period (median 1.33 µg/ml, range 0.94-3.29 µg/ml vs. median 0.77 µg/ml, range 0.55-0.99 µg/ml, P<0.001. The maximum plasma cf-DNA levels correlated positively with maximum blood leukocyte count (r = 0.388, P = 0.002 and the length of hospital stay (r = 0.376, P = 0.003, and inversely with minimum blood platelet count (r = -0.297, P = 0.020. Qualitative analysis of plasma cf-DNA revealed that in most of the patients cf-DNA displayed a low-molecular weight appearance, corresponding to the size of apoptotic DNA (150-200 bp. The visually graded maximum cf-DNA band intensity correlated positively with the maximum quantity of total plasma cf-DNA (r = 0.513, P = 0.021. Maximum urinary excretion of cf-DNA in turn was not markedly increased during the acute phase of NE and did not correlate with any of the variables reflecting severity of the disease or with the maximum plasma cf-DNA level. CONCLUSIONS: The plasma levels of cf-DNA are elevated during acute PUUV infection and correlate with the apoptotic cf-DNA-band intensity. The plasma cf-DNA concentration correlates with some variables reflecting the severity of the disease. The urinary excretion of cf-DNA does not reflect the degree of inflammation in the kidney.

  9. Kinetic parameters and intraindividual fluctuations of ochratoxin A plasma levels in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer-Rohr, I. [Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland); Dept. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland); Schlatter, J. [Toxicology Section, Div. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Zurich (Switzerland); Dietrich, D.R. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland)

    2000-11-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a rodent carcinogen produced by species of the ubiquitous fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is found in a variety of food items and as a consequence is also found in human plasma (average concentrations found in this study: 0.1-1 ng OTA/ml plasma). To improve the scientific basis for cancer risk assessment the toxicokinetic profile of OTA was studied in one human volunteer following ingestion of 395 ng {sup 3}H-labeled OTA (3.8 {mu}Ci). A two-compartment open model consisting of a central compartment was found to best describe the in vivo data. This two-compartment model consisted of a fast elimination and distribution phase (T{sub 1/2} about 20 h) followed by a slow elimination phase (renal clearance about 0.11 ml/min.) and a calculated plasma half-life of 35.55 days. This half-life was approximately eight times longer than that determined previously in rats. In addition, the intraindividual fluctuation of OTA plasma levels was investigated in eight individuals over a period of 2 months. The concentrations determined ranged between 0.2 and 0.9 ng OTA/ml plasma. The plasma levels in some individuals remained nearly constant over time, while others varied considerably (e.g. increase of 0.4 ng/ml within 3 days, decrease of 0.3 ng/ml within 5 days) during the observation period. This intraindividual fluctuation in OTA plasma levels, which may represent differences in OTA exposure and/or metabolism, as well as the large difference in plasma half-life in humans compared to rats must be taken into consideration when the results of rat cancer study data are extrapolated to humans for risk assessment purposes. (orig.)

  10. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-06-30

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients' clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15-0.60), 0.33 (0.17-0.65), and 0.19 (0.09-0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02-3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results.

  11. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  12. Impact of plasma fibrinogen levels in benign and malignant soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Kunihiro; Matsumine, Akihiko; Nakamura, Tomoki; Matsubara, Takao; Asanuma, Yumiko; Oi, Toru; Goto, Mikinobu; Okuno, Kazuma; Kakimoto, Takuya; Yada, Yuuki; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Fibrinogen, a 340 kDa glycoprotein synthesized in the liver, is known to be involved in tumor angiogenesis, enlargement, and metastasis. Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with tumor progression in many cancer patients. However, there are no reports about differences in fibrinogen levels between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels can be used for differential diagnosis of benign or malignant soft tissue tumors. The plasma fibrinogen levels from 102 primary soft tissue tumor patients were measured before biopsy or treatment. Fibrinogen levels were analyzed and compared to various clinical parameters. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, a threshold of serum fibrinogen of 315 mg/dL identified malignant patients with 60.9% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by area under the curve (AUC: 0.805). Over 315 mg/dL of fibrinogen was associated with a significantly increased risk of malignancy by multiple logistic regression analysis (OR: 6.452, p= 0.0004). We demonstrated that plasma fibrinogen levels have a relationship with tumor malignancy of soft tissue tumors. High fibrinogen levels can be a helpful subsidiary tool for the prediction of malignant soft tissue tumors with other diagnostic tools.

  13. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and serotonin in response to specific spinal based exercises

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    O. Sokunbi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercises as the primary mode of treatment for low back disorders aim to achieve pain reduction, improvement in functional abilityand quality of life of for low back disorder sufferers. However the bio-chemical events associated with the use of these exercises in terms of theireffects on pain relieving neuropeptides have not been well established. Thisstudy was carried out to investigate the effects of spinal stabilisation, backextension and treadmill walking exercises on plasma levels of serotonin andbeta-endorphin.Twenty volunteers (10 males and 10 females without low back pain participated in the study. They were randomly allocated either to one of theexercise groups, where participants carried out one of the spinal stabilisation, back extension and treadmill walkingexercises or the control (no exercise group. The main outcome measures used in this study were plasma levels of serotonin and beta-endorphin measured with Enzyme linked immuno absorbent assay (ELISA technique.The results of this study showed that spinal stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises produced significantincrease in plasma serotonin levels (P < 0.05 however there were no significant changes in the plasma levels of beta-endorphin in all the exercise groups (P > 0.05.It could be that biochemical effects associated with stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises therefore mayinvolve production of serotonin and its release into the plasma.

  14. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

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    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer-related muscle wasting was not associated with increases in plasma MG or CK in this study.

  15. Plasma S100A12 Levels and Peripheral Arterial Disease in End-Stage Renal Disease

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    Yayoi Shiotsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: S100A12 is an endogenous ligand of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE. Plasma S100A12 levels are high in end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is common in HD patients and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates in this population. To date, however, no study has specifically assessed the relationship between plasma S100A12 and PAD in HD patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 152 HD patients in our affiliated hospital. We investigated PAD history and patient characteristics and quantified plasma S100A12 levels in all participants. Results: HD patients with PAD (n = 26; 21.9 [13.6–33.4] ng/ml showed significantly higher plasma S100A12 levels than HD patients without PAD (n = 126; 11.8 [7.5–17.6]ng/ml; p Conclusion: These results suggest that plasma S100A12 levels are strongly associated with PAD prevalence in ESRD patients undergoing HD.

  16. Preoperative plasma leptin levels predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue-Wu; Shi, Jun-Wu; Yang, Ping-Shan; Wu, Zhu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Leptin is considered to be a modulator of the immune response. Hypoleptinemia increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of plasma leptin level to predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery. Postoperative delirium (pod) was evaluated using the Confusion Assessment Method. Prolonged postoperative delirium (ppod) was defined as delirium lasting more than 4 weeks. Plasma leptin levels of 186 elderly patients and 186 elderly controls were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma leptin level was substantially lower in patients than in controls (4.6±2.2ng/ml vs. 7.5±1.8ng/ml, Pdelirium and also prolonged delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery.

  17. Decreased plasma neurotrophin-4/5 levels in bipolar disorder patients in mania

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    Izabela G. Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate two poorly explored neurotrophins (NT, NT-3 and NT-4/5, in bipolar disorder (BD. Methods: Forty patients with type I BD (18 in remission and 22 in mania and 25 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and educational attainment were enrolled in this study. All subjects were assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview; the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to evaluate severity of symptoms in BD patients. Plasma levels of NT-3 and NT-4/5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: BD patients in mania presented decreased NT-4/5 plasma levels in comparison with controls (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in NT-3 plasma levels between BD patients and controls. Conclusion: These findings corroborate the view that neurotrophin dysfunction is associated with mood states in patients with BD.

  18. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and progesterone plasma levels association with the onset and progression of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelou, F; Deligeoroglou, E; Vrachnis, N; Iliodromiti, S; Iliodromiti, Z; Sifakis, S; Farmakides, G; Creatsas, G

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF LNVESTIGATION: To examine the relationship between maternal plasma progesterone along with corticotropin- releasing hormone (CRH) plasma levels and the progression of labor. Maternal serum CRH and progesterone were measured during the latent phase of labor, active labor, and 24 hours postpartum in women who went into spontaneous labor and delivered vaginally at term. Progesterone (P) levels in women delivered by an elective cesarean section at term were also measured as baseline. Mean maternal plasma P was 18% higher in the active phase than in the latent phase of labor (p labor (p labor progresses, P and CRH increase and subsequently decrease precipitously in the immediate postpartal period. P levels tend to drop in women who are in early labor compared with non-laboring full-term women.

  19. Temporal plasma vitamin concentrations are altered by fat-soluble vitamin administration in suckling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y D; Ma, J Y; Monegue, J S; Monegue, H J; Stuart, R L; Lindemann, M D

    2015-11-01

    Piglets are born with purportedly low plasma vitamin D levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration, primarily vitamin D, by different administration routes on plasma vitamin concentrations in suckling pigs. A total of 45 pigs from 5 litters were allotted at birth to 3 treatments within each litter. Pigs were administered 400 IU of α-tocopherol, 40,000 IU of retinyl palmitate, and 40,000 IU of vitamin D at d 1 of age either orally or by i.m. injection and compared with control pigs with no supplemental vitamin administration. Blood samples were collected at d 0 (initial), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 20 after administration. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), α-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, and retinol concentrations were analyzed. Except for retinol, the effects of treatment, day, and day × treatment interaction ( vitamin concentrations. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD and α-tocopherol increased immediately regardless of administration routes to peak at d 2 and 1 after administration, respectively. Plasma retinyl palmitate concentrations increased only with the injection treatment, with the peak at d 1 after administration. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD in both administration treatments and α-tocopherol in the injection treatment were maintained at greater levels than those in the control treatment until d 20 after administration. With regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma 25OHD concentrations, the injection treatment had greater elimination half-life ( vitamins administered and between administration routes and that the injection route had a greater increase and slower disappearance of plasma vitamin levels than the oral route during the suckling period.

  20. Plasma and urine DNA levels are related to microscopic hematuria in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Eduardo Ferreira Pedroso; Abdalla, Tomás Elias; Arrym, Tiago Pedromonico; de Oliveira Delgado, Pamela; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; da Costa Aguiar Alves, Beatriz; de S Gehrke, Flávia; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Alves, Sarah; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; de Lima Pompeo, Antonio Carlos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2016-11-01

    a) Objective: An increase in cell-free DNA was observed in the plasma of many cancer patients. This major biomarker can be used to differentiate patients with malignant neoplasms from those with benign neoplasms or healthy patients. Depending on the characteristic of the tumor, there are qualitative variations in the circulating cell-free DNA. Today, studies on the concentration of fragments of circulating cell-free DNA and their respective sizes in patients with bladder cancer are not plentiful in the literature. A 100% effective plasma tumor marker, which would help in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer, is yet to be developed; therefore, cell-free DNA levels in the plasma may represent a valuable biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of patients with this type of tumor. b) Design and methods: In this study we analyze the kinetics of plasma and urine DNA concentrations in patients with bladder cancer, relating them to the other clinical laboratory variables. c) Results: Patients with hematuria showed a positive correlation with urine DNA. d) Conclusion: An increase in plasma and urine DNA was unprecedentedly reported over time, a fact that may come in handy in the prognosis of patients. Furthermore, microscopic haematuria is correlated with plasma and urinary DNA levels.

  1. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

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    Hai-Wen Zhao

    Full Text Available Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD. However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se, copper (Cu, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  2. Effects of cytostatic drugs on plasma level and renal excretion of beta-acetyldigoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J; Zilly, W; Wilke, J

    1981-10-01

    Mucosal defects decrease digoxin absorption in patients with malabsorption syndromes. Since the intestinal mucosa can be damaged by cytostatic drugs, we investigated their effects on digoxin plasma levels and urinary digoxin excretion. In six patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.8 mg beta-acetyldigoxin before and 24 hr after treatment with a combination of cyclophosphamide, oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma digoxin concentrations were measured 0 to 8 hr after the dose and areas under the plasma concentration-time curves were calculated. In 15 patients on 0.3 mg of beta-acetyldigoxin daily, plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured daily before and after COPP, COP, cyclophosphamide, oncovin, cytosine-arabinosine, and prednisone (COAP), or adriamycin, bleomycin, and prednisone (ABP) treatment schemes. The diminished steady-state glycoside plasma concentrations and daily renal glycoside excretion during the 24 to 168 hr after the cytostatic drug established reversible impairment of digoxin absorption. The delayed time to peak after a single dose of digoxin during cytostatic drug therapy shows that extent and rate of digoxin absorption are reduced. To maintain adequate control of digoxin therapy in patients treated with cytostatic drugs, plasma levels should be monitored.

  3. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Wen; Lin, Jie; Wang, Xue-Bao; Cheng, Xing; Wang, Jian-Yong; Hu, Bei-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  4. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in institutionalized elderly with depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chin-Liang; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Yu-Te; Pan, Chih-Chuan; Lu, Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chow, Philip C

    2012-06-01

    To compare the differences in plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels among institutionalized ethnic Chinese elderly participants with major depression, those with subclinical depression, and a nondepressed control group. A cross-sectional study. The veterans' home in southern Taiwan. One hundred sixty-seven residents. Questionnaires including the Minimum Data Set Nursing Home 2.1, Chinese-language version, and the short-form Geriatric Depression Scale, Chinese-language version. Depressive disorder was diagnosed by a well-trained psychiatrist using DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision) criteria. We measured plasma BDNF levels in the following 3 groups: nondepressive subjects (n = 122), subclinically depressive subjects (n = 33), and subjects with major depression (n = 12). Plasma BDNF was assayed using the sandwich ELISA method. We noted a significantly negative association between age and plasma BDNF in the regression model. There was no significant correlation between BDNF plasma levels and body weight or platelet counts. We found that plasma BDNF was significantly lower in the major depressive group (mean, 115.1 pg/mL; SD, 57.2) than in the nondepressive group (mean, 548.8 pg/mL; SD, 370.6; P depressive group (mean, 231.8 pg/mL; SD, 92.4; P depressive disorder but also in those with subclinical depression. This makes the plasma BDNF level a potential biological marker for clinical or subclinical depression. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of dietary fat level and quality on plasma lipoprotein lipids and plasma fatty acids in normocholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, K; Johnson, L; O'Dea, K; Sinclair, A J

    1994-02-01

    This study examined the effect on the plasma lipids and plasma phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fatty acids of changing froma typical western diet to a very low fat (VLF) vegetarian diet containing one egg/day. The effect of the addition of saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to the VLF diet was also examined. Three groups of 10 subjects (6 women, 4 men) were fed the VLF diet (10% energy as fat) for two weeks, and then in the next two weeks the dietary fat in each group was increased by 10% energy/week using butter, olive oil or safflower oil. The fat replaced dietary carbohydrate. The VLF diet reduced both the low density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels; addition of the monounsaturated fats and PUFA increased the HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas butter increased the cholesterol levels in both the LDL- and HDL-fractions. The VLF diet led to significant reductions in the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and to increases in palmitoleic (16:1), eicosatrienoic (20:3 omega 6) and arachidonic acids (20:4 omega 6) in both phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. Addition of butter reversed the changes seen on the VLF diet, with the exception of 16:1, which remained elevated. Addition of olive oil resulted in a significant rise in the proportion of 18:1 and significant decreases in all omega 3 PUFA except 22:6 compared with the usual diet. The addition of safflower oil resulted in significant increases in 18:2 and 20:4 omega 6 and significant decreases in 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:5 omega 3. These results indicate that the reduction of saturated fat content of the diet (unsaturated fat, reduced the total plasma cholesterol levels by approximately 12% in normocholesterolemic subjects. Although the VLF vegetarian diet reduced both LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels, the long-term effects of VLF diets are unlikely to be deleterious since populations which habitually

  6. Antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress in a randomized, controlled, parallel, Mediterranean dietary intervention study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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    Andersson Jan

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we have reported that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA obtained a significant reduction in disease activity by adopting a Mediterranean-type diet. The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant intake, the plasma levels of antioxidants and a marker of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde during the study presented earlier. Methods RA patients randomized to either a Mediterranean type diet (MD group; n = 26 or a control diet (CD group; n = 25 were compared during a three month dietary intervention study. Their antioxidant intake was assessed by means of diet history interviews and their intake of antioxidant-rich foods by a self-administered questionnaire. The plasma levels of retinol, antioxidants (α- and γ-tocopherol, β-carotene, lycopene, vitamin C and uric acid and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker for oxidative stress, were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The Student's t-test for independent samples and paired samples were used to test differences between and within groups. For variables with skewed distributions Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test were performed. To evaluate associations between dietary intake of antioxidants, as well as between disease activity, MDA and antioxidants we used Pearson's product moment correlation or Spearman's rank correlation. Results The MD group had significantly higher intake frequencies of antioxidant-rich foods, and also higher intakes of vitamin C (p = 0.014, vitamin E (p = 0.007 and selenium (p = 0.004, and a lower intake of retinol (p = 0.049, compared to the CD group. However, the difference between the groups regarding vitamin C intake was not significant when under- and over-repoters were excluded (p = 0.066. There were no changes in urine MDA or in the plasma levels of antioxidants (after p-lipid adjustments of the tocopherol results, from baseline to the end of the study. The levels of retinol

  7. Alteration of plasma glutamate and glutamine levels in children with high-functioning autism.

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    Chie Shimmura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has recently been hypothesized that hyperglutamatergia in the brain is involved in the pathophysiology of autism. However, there is no conclusive evidence of the validity of this hypothesis. As peripheral glutamate/glutamine levels have been reported to be correlated with those of the central nervous system, the authors examined whether the levels of 25 amino acids, including glutamate and glutamine, in the platelet-poor plasma of drug-naïve, male children with high-functioning autism (HFA would be altered compared with those of normal controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma levels of 25 amino acids in male children (N = 23 with HFA and normally developed healthy male controls (N = 22 were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple testing was allowed for in the analyses. Compared with the normal control group, the HFA group had higher levels of plasma glutamate and lower levels of plasma glutamine. No significant group difference was found in the remaining 23 amino acids. The effect size (Cohen's d for glutamate and glutamine was large: 1.13 and 1.36, respectively. Using discriminant analysis with logistic regression, the two values of plasma glutamate and glutamine were shown to well-differentiate the HFA group from the control group; the rate of correct classification was 91%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study suggests that plasma glutamate and glutamine levels can serve as a diagnostic tool for the early detection of autism, especially normal IQ autism. These findings indicate that glutamatergic abnormalities in the brain may be associated with the pathobiology of autism.

  8. Hard photon production from unsaturated quark-gluon plasma at two-loop level

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    Dutta, D. E-mail: ddutta@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Sastry, S.V.S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Kumar, K

    2002-11-18

    The hard photon production from bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering that arise at two-loop level are estimated for a chemically non-equilibrated quark-gluon plasma in the framework of Hard Thermal Loop (HTL) resummed effective field theory. The rate of photon production is found to be suppressed due to unsaturated phase space compared to equilibrated plasma. For an unsaturated plasma, unlike the effective one-loop case, the reduction in the effective two-loop processes is found to be independent of gluon fugacity, due to an additional collinear enhancement arising from the decrease in thermal quark mass but strongly depends on quark and antiquark fugacities. It is also found that the photon production is dominated by bremsstrahlung mechanism, since the phase space suppression is higher for annihilation with scattering, in contrast to the equilibrated plasma where annihilation with scattering dominates the photon production.

  9. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries.

  10. Vitamin A/Retinol and Maintenance of Pluripotency of Stem Cells

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    Jaspal S. Khillan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinol, the alcohol form of vitamin A is a key dietary component that plays a critical role in vertebrate development, cell differentiation, reproduction, vision and immune system. Natural and synthetic analogs of retinol, called retinoids, have generally been associated with the cell differentiation via retinoic acid which is the most potent metabolite of retinol. However, a direct function of retinol has not been fully investigated. New evidence has now emerged that retinol supports the self-renewal of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs, germ line stem cells (GSCs and cancer stem cells (CSCs by activating the endogenous machinery for self-renewal by a retinoic acid independent mechanism. The studies have also revealed that stem cells do not contain enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing retinol into retinoic acid. This new function of retinol may have important implications for stem cell biology which can be exploited for quantitative production of pure population of pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine as well as clinical applications for cancer therapeutics.

  11. Carbon dioxide-induced anesthesia results in a rapid increase in plasma levels of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Varon, Jack; Chait, Brian T; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-06-01

    Brief anesthesia, such as after exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia of rodents, compared with use of decapitation alone. Studies of the levels of certain stress hormones in plasma such as corticosterone and ACTH have supported the use of this method of euthanasia in endocrinological and molecular studies. In the current study, rats were briefly exposed to a chamber filled with carbon dioxide until recumbent (20-25 sec), immediately killed via decapitation, and trunk blood collected; findings were compared with rats killed via decapitation with no exposure to carbon dioxide. RIAs were used to measure arginine vasopressin (AVP) and ACTH immunoreactivity (ir) in plasma. Whereas ACTH-ir levels remained steady after brief exposure to carbon dioxide (in accordance with results of other investigators), AVP-ir levels were increased by more than an order of magnitude. These results were confirmed by quantitative capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicating this observation of rapid increase in plasma AVP-ir levels is not due to nonspecific recognition by the antibody used in the RIA. Likewise, using capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we observed a rapid increase in plasma oxytocin levels after carbon dioxide exposure. These surprising findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of studies involving brief carbon dioxide exposure prior to decapitation as well as those with euthanasia resulting from carbon dioxide-induced asphyxiation.

  12. Plasma and Saliva Irisin Levels of Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy and Non-Diabetic Proteinuria

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    Ali GÜREL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Primary glomerular diseases or some systemic disorders such as diabetes (DM may cause proteinuria. Irisin (IRI is a hormone secreted as a response to physical exercise by the skeleton muscle and thought to be protective against many metabolic disorders such as DM, obesity. Decreased levels of irisin were observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD, type 2 DM and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine IRI levels in blood and saliva of proteinuric patients with and without diabetes. MATERIAL and METHODS: Sampling was from 15 diabetic, 15 non-diabetic proteinuria and 13 healthy control subjects. IRI concentrations were measured by using commercial ELISA kits. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12. Groups were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test and then Mann–Whitney post hoc test was performed. RESULTS: Plasma and saliva IRI levels of non- diabetic group were higher than the diabetic group. There was a significant positive correlation between plasma IRI concentrations and HDL, albumin levels but a negative correlation between plasma IRI and LDL levels. CONCLUSION: IRI levels were low both in plasma and saliva in diabetic subjects. IRI may be an important marker and/or therapeutic agent for disorders associated with energy expenditure and kidney diseases in the future.

  13. Plasma fibrinogen levels are correlated with postoperative distant metastasis and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danhong; Zhou, Xia; Bao, Wuan; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Lei; Qiu, Guoqin; Sheng, Liming; Ji, Yongling; Du, Xianghui

    2015-11-10

    This study investigated the correlation of preoperative plasma fibrinogen level with distant metastasis and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 255 patients with ESCC who underwent surgery in Zhejiang cancer hospital (Hangzhou, China), between October 2006 and December 2009, were evaluated in this retrospective study. Population controls were selected from a pool of cancer-free subjects in the same region. Each patient and cancer-free people provided 3-mL pretreatment blood. Plasma fibrinogen level was measured by the Clauss method. The effects of hyperfibrinogenemia on locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Independent prognostic factors were identified in the multivariate Cox analysis. The proportion of hyperfibrinogenemia was higher in ESCC patients than those in controls (40.4% vs 13.6%). Subjects with hyperfibrinogenemia had a significantly higher risk of ESCC than those with normal plasma fibrinogen level (adjust OR = 4.61; 95% CI = 3.02-7.01, P fibrinogen level were independent prognostic factors of ESCC (P fibrinogen level was significantly associated with elevated risk of ESCC. Preoperative plasma fibrinogen level was a predictor of distant metastasis and independently associated with prognosis of patients with ESCC.

  14. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol and retinol contents in different locations of Celta pig breed

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    Domínguez, R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profile (total, neutral and polar lipids and cholesterol and retinol contents of the intramuscular -Longissimus dorsi (LD and Psoas major (PM-, adipose -rump, covering Biceps femoris muscle, ventral and dorsal-, perirenal and hepatic fat of the Celta pig breed (Galicia, northwest Spain were evaluated. Oleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, except in the polar lipids of the intramuscular fat, where the most abundant fatty acid was linoleic acid. The fatty acid composition of total and neutral lipids was influenced more by the location than the fatty acids of polar lipids. There were some differences only in minor fatty acids of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat between castrated females and castrated males. The fatty acids of neutral lipids were also more influenced by sex than the fatty acids of polar lipids. The cholesterol and retinol contents showed no significant differences by sex. The LD muscle showed a higher content of intramuscular fat than the PM muscle. The greatest cholesterol values were described in the liver. Subcutaneous locations showed higher cholesterol levels than muscles.Se estudió el perfil de los ácidos grasos y los contenidos en colesterol y retinol en la grasa intramuscular - Longissimus dorsi (LD y Psoas mayor (PM -, subcutánea -grupa, ventral, dorsal y la grasa que rodea al músculo Bíceps femoris -, perirrenal y hepática de cerdos de raza Celta (Galicia, noroeste de España. El ácido oleico fue el ácido graso más importante, excepto en los lípidos polares de la grasa intramuscular, donde el ácido graso más abundante fue el ácido linoleico. La composición de ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales y neutros estuvo más influenciada por la localización grasa que los ácidos grasos de los lípidos polares. Se encontraron ligeras diferencias entre hembras y machos castrados en algunos ácidos grasos minoritarios en la grasa intramuscular y subcutánea. Los ácidos grasos de los l

  15. Assays to measure nanomolar levels of the renin inhibitor CGP 38 560 in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumin, F.; de Gasparo, M.; Wood, J.M.; Schnell, C.; Frueh, F.; Graf, P. (Ciba-Geigy Limited, Basel (Switzerland))

    1989-10-01

    A radioinhibitor binding assay and an enzyme inhibition assay have been developed to measure plasma levels of CGP 38 560, a potent human renin inhibitor. The detection limit of the assays was between 0.5 and 1 pmol/ml. There was a good correlation (r = 0.989) between the two assays for the measurement of human plasma spiked with CGP 38 560 in concentrations from 1.9 nM to 12 microM. Intra-assay variability was 6.1-17.3% and 4.4-27.2% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Interassay variability was 6.0-28.2% and 3.8-28.4% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Blood samples were collected during a pharmacological study performed in normotensive human volunteers on an unrestricted diet who were infused during a 30-minute period with CGP 38 560 A (50 micrograms/kg). Similar values for the concentrations of renin inhibitor in plasma were obtained with the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibitor assay, and there was a significant correlation between values obtained with the two different methodologies (r = 0.94). The plasma levels of renin inhibitor reached a maximum at the end of infusion and then decreased rapidly, indicating a short plasma half-life. The changes in biochemical parameters, plasma renin activity, and plasma concentration of active renin could be related to the concentrations of CGP 38 560 measured in the plasma.

  16. Plasma levels of cathepsins L, K, and V and risks of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Bing-Jie; Lindholt, Jes S; Wang, Jing;

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsin L (CatL), cathepsin K (CatK), and cathepsin V (CatV) are potent elastases implicated in human arterial wall remodeling. Whether plasma levels of these cathepsins are altered in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains unknown.......Cathepsin L (CatL), cathepsin K (CatK), and cathepsin V (CatV) are potent elastases implicated in human arterial wall remodeling. Whether plasma levels of these cathepsins are altered in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains unknown....

  17. Evaluation of Zinc Plasma Level in Iranian Cirrhotic Patients due to Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C

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    Mohammad Reza Zali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Zinc (Zn has various significant roles in physiological functions of the liver. Furthermore, it has been reported that the administration of zinc has an important role in pharmacotherapy of viral hepatitis. Cirrhotic patients with decrease in plasma zinc level have been covered in previous studies. It is seemingly necessary to assess the zinc level, in Iranian cirrhotic patients, as a distinct population, Because of the large phytate amounts in Iranians diet. Regarding to etiology, disease progress, and treatment, there are some differences in the 2 most common causes of cirrhosis in the Iranian population (hepatitis B and hepatitis C and it is possible that the zinc level may be different between the two. This study was done to shadow some lights on the subject. Methods: Between April 2008 and November 2008, plasma zinc level was determined, by atomic absorption method, in 60 cirrhotic inpatients treated due to hepatitis B or hepatitis C in Talighani hospital (a referral center for gastrointestinal and liver diseases in Tehran, Iran. Results: Mean ± standard deviation (SD plasma zinc levels determined 0.34±0.22 mg/L and 0.37±0.22 mg/L in hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients respectively. Analysis of t-test showed there is no significant difference between 2 groups regarding to plasma zinc level (P = 0.745.Conclusions: It is concluded that zinc level of studied cirrhotic patients is less than half of the normal range. Moreover, there is no difference in plasma zinc level between cirrhotic patients due to hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Regarding to this result, supplementation with complementary zinc, may be recommended in both groups in order to optimize the nutritional support and probably better the treatment response.

  18. Plasma miRNA levels correlate with sensitivity to bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiu; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Qin; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In our study, we detect the levels of three micro-RNAs (miRNAs; miR-21, miR-133a and miR-146a) in the plasma of 120 Chinese postmenopausal women who were divided into three groups (normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis) according to the T-scores. Downregulation of miR-21, as well as upregulation of miR-133a, was validated in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients versus the normal group. The difference in expression regarding the miR-146a level in plasma among the three groups was not significant (p > 0.01). The circulating miRNA expression levels and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined during a multiple correlation analysis as a dependent variable after adjusting for age, weight and height. We have demonstrated that specific miRNAs species are significantly changed in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients and correlated with the BMD. Our study suggested a potential use of miR-21 and miR-133a as sensitive and plasma biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. SEMINAL PLASMA LEVELS OF LEAD AND MERCURY IN INFERTILE MALES IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

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    Emokpae MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Studies on environmental exposure to toxic metals and their effects on male reproductive function are scare in our setting. This study evaluates the levels of lead and mercury in seminal plasma of infertile males who are non-occupationally exposed in Benin City, Nigeria and to determine the relationship between seminal quality and these toxic metals. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects participated in this study which includes 60 infertile males on routine visit to the infertility clinics in Benin City and 20 fertile males as controls. The concentration of lead in seminal plasma was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the concentration of mercury was measured using inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry. Semen analyses were performed using standard techniques as recommended by World Health Organization. Results: Mean seminal plasma lead and mercury levels were significantly higher (p<0.001 in infertile males compared with controls. Mercury and lead correlated negatively (p<0.001 with sperm count, progressive motility, total motility and morphology but not with semen volume. There was no significant correlation between toxic metals and sperm indices in fertile males (controls. Conclusion: The levels of the studied toxic metals were higher in seminal plasma of infertile males and appear to have adverse effect on seminal indices in non -occupationally exposed males.

  20. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  1. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

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    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  2. Nitric Oxide Plasma Level as a Barometer of Endothelial Dysfunction in Factory Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Seiko; Noda, Akiko; Hara, Yuki; Ueyama, Jun; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Kondo, Takaaki; Koike, Yasuo

    2017-07-27

    Objective Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in the regulation of vascular tone and is known as one of the key markers of endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the relationship between NO and risk factors of lifestyle-related disease in factory workers. Methods Our study included 877 factory workers presenting hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. oxidated forms of NO, NO2-/NO3- (NOx) plasma concentrations were measured using a colorimetric method. Results NOx plasma levels in patients with lifestyle-related disease were significantly lower than those in the controls. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measured in those patients was significantly greater than that of the controls. Multiple regression analysis revealed that LDL cholesterol was an independent risk factor for reducing NOx plasma concentrations. Interestingly, individuals with low NOx plasma concentrations were more likely to present type 2 diabetes compared to those with the highest plasma levels of NOx (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval; CI]=3.65 [1.61-8.28], P=0.002, 2.67 [1.15-6.20], P=0.022, and 3.27 [1.43-7.48], P=0.005). Subjects with the lowest levels of plasma NOx were more likely to present dyslipidemia (OR [95% CI]=1.69 [1.13-2.53], P=0.01). Conclusion Endothelial function evaluated with plasma NOx may be indicative of lifestyle-related diseases independently from the vascular function assessed using baPWV. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Plasma Methylphenidate Levels in Youths With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Treated With OROS Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorbik, Ozgur; Mutlu, Caner; Ozilhan, Selma; Eryilmaz, Gul; Isiten, Nuket; Alparslan, Serdar; Saglam, Esra

    2015-06-01

    There are limited studies investigating the relationship between oral release osmotic system-methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) doses and plasma methylphenidate (MPH) concentrations in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the doses of OROS-MPH and the plasma levels of the drug. We also examined the effects of the other drugs including aripiprazole, risperidone, fluoxetine, and sertraline on the levels of the MPH in the plasma. The files of 100 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subjects (76 male, 24 female) who were diagnosed as ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition criteria, were screened. The ages of subjects were between 6 and 18 years (mean = 11.5 ± 3.8 years). Plasma MPH levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Daily mean OROS-MPH dose used in ADHD children was 0.7 ± 0.2 mg/kg (range: 0.3-1.3 mg/kg). The mean plasma OROS-MPH was 11.6 ± 7.3 ng/mL (range: 0.5-43.4 ng/mL). There was no group difference in the mean plasma MPH and dose-related MPH levels between the groups that used any additional drug including aripiprazole (n = 25), risperidone (n = 10), fluoxetine (n = 16), sertraline (n = 10), and did not use these drugs (P > 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the OROS-MPH doses (mg/kg) and the blood MPH levels (Pearson correlation = 0.40; P < 0.001). The plasma levels of MPH were found to be less than 13 ng/mL in 65% of the subjects. Our findings point to the fact that plasma levels of MPH show a wide range of changes at similar doses, correlate positively with the doses and, as expected, are not affected by using risperidone, sertraline, fluoxetine, and aripiprazole. Therapeutic drug monitoring may help to optimize MPH dose in patients not responding to treatment or in those experiencing serious side effects, but not in routine clinical practice. The presence of intermediate

  4. Topical retinol and the stratum corneum response to an environmental threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, V; Henry, F; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    1997-01-01

    The functional consequences of using topical retinol on skin have not been thoroughly studied so far. The aim of this open study was to compare two preparations containing either retinol or vitamin E, using biometric evaluations. Three methods, namely the sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) corneosurfametry bioassay, the ultraviolet (UV) squamometry test and optical profilometry of the UV-induced wrinkling process, were used to assess some properties of the stratum corneum. The retinol preparation achieved better scores than the vitamin-E cream in all three tests and appears to improve the resistance of the stratum corneum against some chemical (SLS) and physical (UV) threats. It also limits UV-induced shallow wrinkling.

  5. Reduction of Amyloid-β Plasma Levels by Hemodialysis: An Anti-Amyloid Treatment Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholen, Susanne; Schmaderer, Christoph; Chmielewski, Stefan; Förstl, Hans; Heemann, Uwe; Baumann, Marcus; Steubl, Dominik; Grimmer, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients is common, but the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the general elderly population. Histopathological hallmarks are, among others, senile plaques, which consist of amyloid-β (Aβ). To measure plasma levels of Aβ42 and Aβ40 during hemodialysis and to examine potential associations with cognitive performance in cognitively impaired hemodialysis patients. Plasma samples of 26 hemodialysis patients were collected shortly before, after 50% of dialysis time, and at the end of a dialysis session. Aβ42 and Aβ40 levels were measured by a high-sensitivity ELISA for human amyloid-β. Cognition was tested under standardized conditions using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as proposed previously. Clearance rates of both peptides during one dialysis session were 22% and 35% for Aβ42 and Aβ40, respectively. Aβ42 but not Aβ40 baseline levels were significantly associated with MoCA test results (r = 0.654, p = 0.001). In cognitively impaired hemodialysis patients plasma Aβ42 levels were associated with cognitive performance and both Aβ42 and Aβ40 plasma levels could be effectively reduced by dialysis. By inducing peripheral Aβ sink, hemodialysis may be considered as an anti-amyloid treatment strategy.

  6. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-03-05

    ..beta..-endorphin, (met)enkephalin, and (leu)enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO/sub 4/ or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. ..beta..-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; (met)enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; (leu)-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs.

  7. U-Shaped Association between Plasma Manganese Levels and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Zhilei; Chen, Sijing; Sun, Taoping; Luo, Cheng; Guo, Yanjun; Yu, Xuefeng; Yang, Wei; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2016-12-01

    Manganese is both an essential element and a known toxicant, and it plays important roles in many mechanisms in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, epidemiological studies of this relationship are rare. We investigated the association between plasma manganese and newly diagnosed T2D as well as whether the association could be modified by manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) polymorphisms. We conducted a case-control study of 3,228 participants in China: 1,614 T2D patients and 1,614 controls. Concentrations of plasma magnesium were measured, and all participants were genotyped for the MnSOD Val16Ala polymorphism (rs4880). A U-shaped association was observed between plasma manganese and T2D, with increased odds ratios (ORs) in relation to either low or high plasma manganese levels. Compared with the middle tertile, the multivariate-adjusted ORs [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of T2D associated with the lowest tertile and the highest tertile of plasma manganese were 1.89 (1.53, 2.33) and 1.56 (1.23, 1.97), respectively. In spline analysis, the U-shaped association was consistently indicated, with the lowest odds of T2D at the plasma manganese concentration of 4.95 μg/L. Minor allele frequencies (C allele) of the MnSOD Val16Ala polymorphism (rs4880) in the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and the T2D groups were 13.57% and 14.50%, respectively. The MnSOD rs4880 polymorphism was not associated with T2D, and no interaction was found between plasma manganese and the MnSOD rs4880 polymorphism in relation to T2D. Our results suggested a U-shaped association between plasma manganese and T2D; both low and high levels of plasma manganese were associated with higher odds of newly diagnosed T2D. The U-shaped association was not modified by the MnSOD rs4880 polymorphism. Citation: Shan Z, Chen S, Sun T, Luo C, Guo Y, Yu X, Yang W, Hu FB, Liu L. 2016. U-shaped association between plasma manganese levels and type 2 diabetes. Environ Health Perspect 124:1876-1881;

  8. GLC determination of plasma drug levels after oral administration of clorazepate potassium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Chun, A H

    1975-10-01

    Plasma nordiazepam levels resulting from the oral administration of clorazepate potassium salts were determined by a sensitive GLC assay. Nordiazepam and the internal standard (diazepam) were selectively extracted into ether at pH 9.2, hydrolyzed to their respective benzophenones, and quantified by electron-capture detection. The assay was used in a comparative bioavailability study of single equimolar oral doses of monopotassium and dipotassium salts of clorazepate in dogs. Both clorazepate salts were rapidly absorbed and exhibited mean peak total drug levels after 1 hr. Clorazepate levels accounted for about 50% of the total drug levels present. No statistical difference in the plasma drug levels of clorazepate mono- and dipotassium salts and the metabolite was found in dogs.

  9. Impact of elective resection on plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J. H.; Basse, L.; Svedsen, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    , 2 and 6 h after skin incision, and 1, 2, 8 and 30 days after surgery. TIMP-1 was determined concurrently in all samples by a validated ELISA method. RESULTS: Geometric mean preoperative TIMP-1 level was 142 ng/ml (range 54-559 ng/ml) among CC patients compared with 106 ng/ml (range 64-167 ng....../ml) among patients with nonmalignant diseases (Pafter skin incision compared to the preoperative levels returning to preoperative levels at 6 h. A highly significant (Pafter surgery and was decreasing......OBJECTIVE: Pre- and post-operative plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels have a prognostic impact on patients with colorectal cancer. However, the surgical trauma may play an essential role in regulation of plasma TIMP-1 levels, which in turn may influence subsequent TIMP...

  10. Association between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese men

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    Nakayama Kunio

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific protein that plays a role in obesity, insulin resistant, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammation. Hypoadiponectinemia may be associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some studies suggest that adiponectin levels are modulated by lifestyle factors, but little is known about the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese people. We therefore investigated the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in general Japanese men. Methods The subjects were 202 Japanese male workers who participated in an annual health check. They provided details about anthropometrical data, blood collection, their use of prescribed medication, and the clinical history of their families. They also completed a self-administered questionnaire about their lifestyles. Results Subjects with plasma adiponectin levels below 4.0 μg/ml had significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of BMI, SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, FBG, and platelets than did subjects with higher adiponectin levels. In multiple logistic regression after multiple adjustment, a plasma adiponectin level below 4.0 μg/ml was significantly associated with smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.30, a daily diet rich in deep-yellow vegetables (OR = 0.25, 95% CI= 0.07–0.91, frequent eating out (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.19–5.08, and physical exercise two or more times a week (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06–0.74. Conclusion Our findings show that adiponectin levels in general Japanese men are independently related to smoking, dietary factors, and physical exercise. We think that lifestyle habits might independently modulate adiponectin levels and that adiponectin might be the useful biomarker helping people to avoid developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease by modifying their lifestyles.

  11. Assessing retinol stability in a hydroquinone 4%/retinol 0.3% cream in the presence of antioxidants and sunscreen under simulated-use conditions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Arash; Levitt, Jacob

    2008-03-01

    Retinol (ie,vitamin A) is commonly used in dermatology as an adjunct to treat rhytids, acne,and dyschromia. However, vitamin A and many of its derivatives have poor photostability and are unstable in the presence of oxygen. We aimed to assess the stability of retinol under simulated patient application conditions in a commercially available hydroquinone 4% cream containing retinol 0.3%, avobenzone (ultraviolet-A sunscreen), octinoxate (ultraviolet-B sunscreen), vitamins C and E (antioxidants), and moisturizers. One gram of the preparation was applied as a thin film to the inside base of 4 groups of four 100-mL wide-mouthed beakers, incubated in a 37+/-2 degrees C water bath. Each experimental group consisted of 4 beakers for assays at 0.5,1,2,and 4 hours. The samples were exposed to varying combinations of full spectrum light and headspace gas (air or inert nitrogen gas [N2 ]). Retinol content was assayed via high-pressure liquid chromatography using a 1:9 water:methanol solvent system. The control group (group 5) was not exposed to full-spectrum light or headspace gas but served for comparative purposes. On exposure to light and room air, retinol stability was 94.4% at 0.5 hour, 94.8% at 1 hour, 92.4% at 2 hours, and 91.5% at 4 hours. The retinol contained in the preparation was stable for >or=4 hours. Samples exposed to light and N 2 gas demonstrated 96.5% and 91.3% stability at 0.5 hour and 4 hours exposure times, respectively. Samples that were not exposed to light had a stability of 99.2% (group 3, exposed to air) and 96.9% (group 4, exposed to N(2)) of the initial retinol present after 4 hours. The retinol in the hydroquinone 4%/ retinol 0.3% cream with antioxidants and sunscreens underwent <10% degradation under simulated-use conditions, including exposure to UV light, oxygen, and body temperature.

  12. Plasma PCSK9 levels are elevated with acute myocardial infarction in two independent retrospective angiographic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A M Almontashiri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 is a circulating protein that promotes degradation of the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. Mutations that block PCSK9 secretion reduce LDL-cholesterol and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI. However, it remains unclear whether elevated plasma PCSK9 associates with coronary atherosclerosis (CAD or more directly with rupture of the plaque causing MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma PCSK9 was measured by ELISA in 645 angiographically defined controls (50% stenosis in a major coronary artery from the Ottawa Heart Genomics Study. Because lipid lowering medications elevated plasma PCSK9, confounding association with disease, only individuals not taking a lipid lowering medication were considered (279 controls and 492 with CAD. Replication was sought in 357 controls and 465 with CAD from the Emory Cardiology Biobank study. PCSK9 levels were not associated with CAD in Ottawa, but were elevated with CAD in Emory. Plasma PCSK9 levels were elevated in 45 cases with acute MI (363.5±140.0 ng/ml compared to 398 CAD cases without MI (302.0±91.3 ng/ml, p = 0.004 in Ottawa. This finding was replicated in the Emory study in 74 cases of acute MI (445.0±171.7 ng/ml compared to 273 CAD cases without MI (369.9±139.1 ng/ml, p = 3.7×10(-4. Since PCSK9 levels were similar in CAD patients with or without a prior (non-acute MI, our finding suggests that plasma PCSK9 is elevated either immediately prior to or at the time of MI. CONCLUSION: Plasma PCSK9 levels are increased with acute MI.

  13. Efeito do processamento do leite humano sobre os níveis de retinol The effect of processing on the Vitamin A content of human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla D. S. Ribeiro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar o efeito do processamento sobre os níveis de retinol no leite humano ordenhado, bem como avaliar se o mesmo supre o requerimento nutricional de vitamina A do lactente. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas 60 amostras de leite humano ordenhado no Banco de Leite Humano da Maternidade Escola Januário Cicco e divididas em duas alíquotas de 5 ml cada, sendo uma não processada termicamente, enquanto a outra foi submetida à pasteurização. As amostras foram analisadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Para a análise estatística, foi utilizado o teste t de Student, sendo a diferença entre as médias considerada significativa quando p OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effect of processing on the Vitamin A levels of milk that is donated to the Human Milk Bank at the University Maternity Hospital, and to evaluate whether this milk supplies the infants' Vitamin A requirement. METHODS: Sixty milk samples from the Human Milk Bank were divided into two equal portions. One milk portion was extracted prior to processing, while another fraction was subjected to pasteurization and later extracted. The samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis with Student's t test indicated that the difference between mean retinol levels was statistically significant at the p < 0.05 level. RESULTS: The retinol content found in the milk prior to processing was 55.4±34.0 µg/100 ml, whereas for the processed milk this level was 36.6±26.1 µg/100 ml (p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: It was found that retinol loss occurs during milk processing and that the milk from the Human Milk Bank does not meet infants' Vitamin A requirement.

  14. Research Progress in Function of Retinol Binding Protein4 on Insulin Resistance Formation and Effects of Exercise on Retinol Binding Protein4%视黄醇结合蛋白4在胰岛素抵抗形成中的作用及其与运动关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明军

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the function of retinol binding protein 4 on insulin resistance formation and effects of exercise on retinol binding protein 4. RBP4 is an adipocyte - derived ' signal' that may contribute to the relationship between insulin resistance and obesity,type 2 diabetes. Retinol binding protein4 genetic polymorphism is relevant to insulin resistance formation too. Retinol binding protein4 could induce insulin resistance by suppression insulin signal protein. Exercise decreases retinol binding protein 4 level of normal subjects, obesity, and type 2 diabetes to improve insulin resistance.%对视黄醇结合蛋白4在胰岛素抵抗形成中的作用及其与运动关系的研究进展进行了综述研究。视黄醇结合蛋白4是将肥胖、2型糖尿病胰岛素抵抗联系起来的脂肪因子,视黄醇结合蛋白4遗传多态性亦与胰岛素抵抗的发生关系密切。视黄醇结合蛋白4能够通过抑制胰岛素信号蛋白诱导胰岛素抵抗。运动能够降低正常体重、肥胖、2型糖尿病对象的视黄醇结合蛋白4,改善胰岛素抵抗。

  15. Association between IgM anti-herpes simplex virus and plasma amyloid-beta levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Féart

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Herpes simplex virus (HSV reactivation has been identified as a possible risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD and plasma amyloid-beta (Aβ levels might be considered as possible biomarkers of the risk of AD. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between anti-HSV antibodies and plasmalevels. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 1222 subjects (73.9 y in mean from the Three-City cohort. IgM and IgG anti-HSV antibodies were quantified using an ELISA kit, and plasma levels of Aβ(1-40 and Aβ(1-42 were measured using an xMAP-based assay technology. Cross-sectional analyses of the associations between anti-HSV antibodies and plasmalevels were performed by multi-linear regression. RESULTS: After adjustment for study center, age, sex, education, and apolipoprotein E-e4 polymorphism, plasma Aβ(1-42 and Aβ(1-40 levels were specifically inversely associated with anti-HSV IgM levels (β = -20.7, P=0.001 and β = -92.4, P=0.007, respectively. In a sub-sample with information on CLU- and CR1-linked SNPs genotyping (n=754, additional adjustment for CR1 or CLU markers did not modify these associations (adjustment for CR1 rs6656401, β = -25.6, P=0.002 for Aβ(1-42 and β = -132.7, P=0.002 for Aβ(1-40; adjustment for CLU rs2279590, β = -25.6, P=0.002 for Aβ(1-42 and β = -134.8, P=0.002 for Aβ(1-40. No association between the plasma Aβ(1-42-to-Aβ(1-40 ratio and anti-HSV IgM or IgG were evidenced. CONCLUSION: High anti-HSV IgM levels, markers of HSV reactivation, are associated with lower plasma Aβ(1-40 and Aβ(1-42 levels, which suggest a possible involvement of the virus in the alterations of the APP processing and potentially in the pathogenesis of AD in human.

  16. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  17. Association between Plasma Leptin Level and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Aggressive Periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Shi; Yun-Yu Liu; Wei Li; Xin Zhang; Xiao-Jun Sun; Li Xu; Li Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Increasing evidence supports an association between periodontitis and systemic diseases.Leptin is involved both in the energy metabolism and inflammatory processes and is suggested to be a link between periodontal infection and systemic health.The present study aimed to evaluate the peripheral leptin concentration in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and to explore the relationship between leptin and systemic inflammation.Methods:Ninety patients with AgP visiting the Clinic of the Periodontology Department,Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology between July 2001 and May 2006,and 44 healthy controls (staffand student volunteers in the same institute) were recruited.Plasma levels of leptin and inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β,I L-6,tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analyze the association between plasma leptin level and other variables.Results:Plasma leptin level of AgP group was significantly higher than that of the control group (19.7-4.4 ng/ml vs.7.5 ± 1.3 ng/ml,P < 0.01).After controlling for age,gender,and body mass index,positive correlation was observed between plasma leptin concentration and log-transformed levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α and CRP),and the partial correlation coefficients ranged from 0.199 to 0.376 (P < 0.05).Log-transformed IL-1β and I L-6 levels entered the final regression model (standardized β were 0.422 and 0.461 respectively,P < 0.01).Conclusions:Elevated plasma leptin concentration may be associated with increased systemic levels of inflammatory markers in AgP patients.

  18. Correlation of reversely increased level of plasma glucose during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ya SHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of the reversely increased results of 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome, so as to provide a reliable theoretical basis of the early intervention for the pregnant women with high plasma glucose. Methods The clinical data of 461 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were chosen from the pregnant women undergoing routine antenatal examination in our hospital during 2014. According to the results of 75g OGTT, 226 patients were analyzed as the observation group, in whom the level of postprandial 2-hour plasma glucose was higher than that of postprandial 1-hour plasma glucose. Meanwhile 235 pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were randomly selected as the control group. Results The levels of fasting plasma glucose and 1-hour postprandial plasma glucose were lower, but those of 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose was higher in observation group than in control group (P0.05 in the incidences of polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction (FGR, premature labor (PTL, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, complicated with premature rupture of membrane (PROM, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD and non scar uterus cesarean section rate (CSR. Compared with the observation group, the rates of neonatal dysplasia and neonatal asphyxia and the newborn transfer rate were lower in the control group, of which the newborn transfer rate was statistically different (P<0.01. Conclusions There might be a delayed plasma glucose metabolism in the patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT during pregnancy, which may affect the long-term prognosis of the newborn. Therefore, more attention should be paid to such patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.09

  19. Increased plasma levels of Lp(a) enhance the development of coronary atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; XU Hong; ZHOU Qin; WANG Chang-yuan; LIU Yan-xia; LU Yuan-yuan; FAN Jiang-lin; SUN Hui-jun

    2008-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that increased plasma levels of Lp(a) may enhance the development of atherosclerosis in the setting of hypercholesterolemia. Methods The plasma Lp(a) was analyzed by SDS-PAGE Western blotting and quantitated using specific ELISA kits. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol were determined using Wako assay kits. The left coronary artery was used for the evaluation of coronary atherosclerosis (stenosis %). For quantitative study of the lesions in coronary atherosclerosis, hematoxylin- eosin and Elastica - van Gieson staining were used. To study cellular components ( SMC vs. macrophages) and Lp(a) deposits in the lesions, immunohistochemical staining was performed and then image analysis system was used. Results Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, or HDL-C were not significantly different between transgenic (Trg) and nontransgenic (nonTrg) rabbits. Trg rabbits had 200 % increase in coronary stenosis caused by atherosclerosis. The lesions of Trg WHHL rabbits contained more SMCs and less macrophage than those of nonTrg WHHL rabbits. Conclusions The results suggest that increased plasma levels of Lp(a) enhance the development of coronary atherosclerosis.

  20. Comparison of plasma endothelin levels between osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biçimoğlu Ali

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that endothelins (ET have significant roles in bone remodeling, metabolism and physiopathology of several bone diseases. We aimed to investigate if there was any difference between the plasma ET levels of osteoporotic patients and normals. Methods 86 patients (70 women and 16 men with a mean age of 62.6 (ranges: 51–90 years were included in this study. Patients were divided into groups of osteoporosis, osteopenia and normal regarding reported T scores of DEXA evaluation according to the suggestions of World Health Organization. According to these criteria 19, 43 and 24 were normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic respectively. Then total plasma level of ET was measured in all patients with monoclonal antibody based sandwich immunoassay (EIA method. One-way analysis of variance test was used to compare endothelin values between normals, osteopenics and osteoporotics. Results Endothelin total plasma level in patients was a mean of 98.36 ± 63.96, 100.92 ± 47.2 and 99.56 ± 56.6 pg/ml in osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal groups respectively. The difference between groups was not significant (p > 0.05. Conclusion No significant differences in plasma ET levels among three groups of study participants could be detected in this study.

  1. Niacin reduces plasma CETP levels by diminishing liver macrophage content in CETP transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Wang, Y.; Sluis, R.J. van der; Hoorn, J.W.A. van der; Princen, H.M.G.; Eck, M. van; Berkel, T.J.C. van; Rensen, P.C.N.; Hoekstra, M.

    2012-01-01

    The anti-dyslipidemic drug niacin has recently been shown to reduce the hepatic expression and plasma levels of CETP. Since liver macrophages contribute to hepatic CETP expression, we investigated the role of macrophages in the CETP-lowering effect of niacin in mice. In vitro studies showed that nia

  2. Venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after nitroglycerin infusion in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Emmeluth, C;

    1995-01-01

    Endothelin-1 and nitric oxide play an important regulatory role in the control of vascular smooth muscle tone. Nitroglycerin (NTG), a nitric oxide donating drug, may inhibit endothelin production. In this double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, plasma levels of endothelin-1 were measured...

  3. Plasma paraoxonase, oxidative status level, and their relationship with asthma control test in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, O; Hasan, A; Rusen, D M

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of asthma with a control test has been suggested as a relevant approach in recent years. However, no biomarker of systemic inflammation has been included in the assessment of asthma control. To evaluate plasma paraoxonase (PON1), total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels in children with asthma according to the disease control, and the performance in the identification of uncontrolled patients. Stable asthmatic children (n=85) and healthy controls (n=55) were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected for plasma PON1, TOS, and TAS measurements. Any contributing factors that may affect plasma PON1, TAS, and TOS levels were excluded from both groups. The diagnostic potential of these measures was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Comparing the asthmatic children with the control group, plasma TAS and TOS levels were significantly higher (TAS; 6.9 ± 2.1, 1.05 ± 0.32, Pasthma, respectively. Asthma Control Test (ACT) presented an AUC of 0.972 for the identification of uncontrolled asthma. PON1 and TOS levels may be systemic markers of uncontrolled asthma in children. Combined use of these two biomarkers with asthma control test may identify patients with uncontrolled asthma in children. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased thrombin generation and fibrinogen level after therapeutic plasma transfusion: relation to bleeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, S.E.; Meijden, PE van der; Oerle, R. van; Curvers, J.; Heemskerk, J.W.M.; Pampus, EC van

    2008-01-01

    In a clinical setting, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is transfused to diluted patients with complicated surgery or trauma, as guided by prolonged conventional coagulation times or low fibrinogen levels. However, the limited sensitivity of these coagulation tests may restrict their use in measuring the e

  5. Resolving futile glucose cycling and glycogenolytic contributions to plasma glucose levels following a glucose load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, P.M.; Jarak, I.; Heerschap, A.; Jones, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: After a glucose load, futile glucose/glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) cycling (FGC) generates [2-(2) H]glucose from (2) H2 O thereby mimicking a paradoxical glycogenolytic contribution to plasma glucose levels. Contributions of load and G6P derived from gluconeogenesis, FGC, and glycogenolysis to

  6. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E.M.; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2006-01-01

    Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer....

  7. Plasma levels of PBEF/Nampt/visfatin are decreased in patients with liver cirrhosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Bahr, Matthias J.; Boeker, Klaus H. W.; Manns, Michael P.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2009-01-01

    de Boer JF, Bahr MJ, Boker KHW, Manns MP, Tietge UJF. Plasma levels of PBEF/Nampt/visfatin are decreased in patients with liver cirrhosis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296: G196-G201, 2009. First published December 12, 2008; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00029.2008.-Liver cirrhosis is a catabolic dis

  8. Effect of Antiepileptic drugs on plasma lipoprotein (a) and other lipid levels in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aynaci, F M; Orhan, F; Orem, A; Yildirmis, S; Gedik, Y

    2001-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs may alter plasma lipid status in epileptic patients. We conducted a study to assess the effect of phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and valproate on plasma levels of lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A, and apolipoprotein B in 22 epileptic children. The children were separated as group 1, seven children, mean age 1.6+/-0.2 years, treated with phenobarbital, 5 mg/kg/day, twice daily; group 2, seven children, mean age 9.8+/-1.2 years, treated with carbamazepine, 20 mg/kg/day, twice daily; and group 3, eight children, mean age 6.8+/-0.6 years, treated with valproate, 20 mg/kg/day, twice daily. Plasma lipoprotein (a) and other lipid levels were studied before (pretreatment) and at 3 and 6 months of treatment. Friedman two-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test were used for statistical analysis, and the results were expressed as the mean and standard error of the mean. The mean age of children in group 1 was significantly low, compared with groups 2 and, 3 (P < .001). The mean pretreatment lipid levels between the groups were not significant. The increase in lipoprotein (a) at 3 and 6 months and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 6 months was statistically significant in group 1 (P < .025). We suggest a careful monitoring of plasma levels of lipoprotein (a) and other lipids in epileptic children treated with antiepileptic drugs.

  9. Plasma TIMP-1 levels and treatment outcome in patients treated with XELOX for metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, C; Qvortrup, C; Christensen, I J; Glimelius, B; Berglund, A; Jensen, B V; Nielsen, S E; Keldsen, N; Nielsen, H J; Brünner, N; Pfeiffer, P

    2011-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the association between plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels and outcome in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) receiving XELOX (combination chemotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin) as first-line treatment. One hundred and twenty patients were included. Blood samples were collected before treatment and 3 weeks later before the next treatment cycle. Plasma TIMP-1 and serum CEA levels were correlated to treatment outcome. No significant associations between baseline TIMP-1 or CEA levels and best response to treatment or progression-free survival (PFS) could be demonstrated. In contrast, high baseline plasma TIMP-1 levels were associated with poor overall survival (OS), P = 0.008, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-2.78]. Furthermore, increase in TIMP-1 levels from baseline to immediately before the second cycle of chemotherapy had a significant negative effect on survival (P = 0.03, HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.02-1.65) while a decrease in TIMP-1 was significantly associated with a higher objective response rate (P = 0.03). Both high baseline and subsequent increase in TIMP-1 levels were associated with shorter OS in patients with mCRC receiving XELOX as first-line treatment, whereas baseline TIMP-1 levels were not associated with response or PFS following XELOX treatment.

  10. Plasma Ghrelin Levels Are Associated with Anorexia but Not Cachexia in Patients with NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, Susanne; Langius, Jacqueline A. E.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Becker, Annemarie; de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Verheul, Henk M. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The ghrelin receptor is one of the new therapeutic targets in the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Previous studies revealed that plasma ghrelin levels were high in patients with anorexia nervosa and low in obese subjects. We studied to what extent ghrelin levels are related with anorexia and cachexia in patients with cancer. Materials and Methods: Fasted ghrelin levels were determined as well as anorexia and cachexia in patients with stage III/IV non-small cell lung cancer before chemotherapy. Total plasma ghrelin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Anorexia was measured with the FAACT-A/CS questionnaire (cut-off value ≤ 37). Cachexia was determined as >5% weight loss (WL) in 6 months or >2% WL in 6 months in combination with low BMI or low muscle mass. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to assess differences in plasma ghrelin levels between four groups: patients with (+) or without (−) anorexia (A) or cachexia (C). Multiple regression analyses were performed to assess differences in plasma ghrelin levels between patients C+ and C− and patients with A+ and A− (adjusted for age and sex). Results: Forty patients with stage III (33%) or stage IV (68%) were recruited, of which 50% was male. Mean age was 59.6 ± 10.3 years. Sixteen patients had no anorexia or cachexia (A−C−), seven patients had both anorexia and cachexia (A+C+), ten patients had anorexia without cachexia (A+C−) and seven patients had cachexia without anorexia (A−C+). The levels of total plasma ghrelin were significantly different between the four groups of patients with or without anorexia or cachexia (p = 0.032): the A+C− patients had significantly higher ghrelin levels [median (IQR): 1,754 (1,404–2,142) compared to the A−C+ patients 1,026 (952–1,357), p = 0.003]. A+ patients had significantly higher ghrelin levels compared A− patients (C+ and C− combined, β: 304, p = 0.020). Plasma ghrelin levels were not significantly different in C+ patients

  11. Clinical and Prognostic Significance of Preoperative Plasma Fibrinogen Levels in Patients with Operable Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mei

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with tumor progression and poor outcomes in different cancer patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical and prognostic value of preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels in patients with operable breast cancer.Two hundred and twenty-three patients diagnosed with breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated in this study. Plasma fibrinogen levels were examined before treatment and analyzed along with patient clinicopathological parameters, disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the clinicopathological parameters associated with DFS and OS.Elevated preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels were directly associated with age of diagnose (≤47 vs. >47, p<0.001, menopause (yes vs. no, p<0.001, tumor size (T1&T2 vs. T3&T4, p = 0.033, tumor stage (I vs. II vs. III, p = 0.034 and lymph node involvement (N = 0 vs. 1≤N≤3 vs. N≥4, p<0.001, but not with histological grade, molecular type and other Immunohistochemical parameters (ER, PR, HER2 and Ki-67. In a univariate survival analysis, tumor stage, tumor size, lymph node involvement (p<0.001/p<0.001 and plasma fibrinogen (p<0.001/p<0.001 levels were associated with disease-free and overall survival, but just lymph nodes involvement (p<0.001, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-5.3/p = 0.006, HR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.4-7.3 and plasma fibrinogen levels (p = 0.006, HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.4-8.3/p = 0.002, HR = 10.1, 95% CI = 2.3-44.6 were associated with disease-free and overall survival in a multivariate survival analysis, respectively.This study demonstrates that elevated preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with breast cancer progression and are independently associated with a poor prognosis in patients with operable breast cancer.

  12. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Levels as a Marker for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Pedersen, Lars; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients referred for plasma vitamin B12 (cobalamin [Cbl]) measurement present with high Cbl levels, which have been reported in patients with different cancer types. However, the cancer risk among patients with newly diagnosed high Cbl levels has not been...... a database of laboratory test results covering the entire population. Data on cancer incidence (follow-up 1998-2010), Cbl treatment, and prior diagnoses were obtained from medical registries. Patients receiving Cbl treatment were excluded. Cancer risks were calculated as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs......) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), stratified by plasma Cbl levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 333 667 persons without prevalent cancer and not receiving Cbl treatment. Six percent had Cbl levels greater than the upper reference limit (≥601 pmol/L). Cancer risk...

  13. [Blood plasma level of endothelin in miners of a deep coal mine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Nikitina, I V

    2000-09-01

    In 60 miners working in a deep coal mine the blood plasma level of endoteline-1 (E-1) was measured by the immunoenzyme technique immediately after working shift. Those in the mining where the working conditions are especially harsh were found to have the highest level of E-1 exceeding the control values. In studying the age-related content of E-1 in blood plasma of coal miners the highest levels of E-1 were recordable in workers 20 to 30 years old, declining and differing in age groups 20-30 and 41-50 years old. The level of E-1 was at its greatest in those workers with minimum length of service in the underground conditions, declining with the service more than 10 years in duration.

  14. Relationship between Prolactin Plasma Levels and White Matter Volume in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Giglio

    2015-01-01

    two months. There was no difference in PRL plasma levels between patients with and without gadolinium enhancement on MRI. PRL plasma levels correlated with white matter volume (WMV (rho = 0.284, p=0.014 but not with grey matter volume (GMV. Moreover, PRL levels predicted changes in WMV (Beta: 984, p=0.034. Conclusions. Our data of a positive association between PRL serum levels and WMV support the role of PRL in promoting myelin repair as documented in animal models of demyelination. The lack of an increase of PRL in the presence of gadolinium enhancement, contrasts with the view considering this hormone as an immune-stimulating and detrimental factor in the inflammatory process associated with MS.

  15. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism -174G/C influences plasma lipid levels in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Susanne; Håkansson, Anna; Westberg, Lars; Baghaei, Fariba; Rosmond, Roland; Holm, Göran; Ekman, Agneta; Nissbrandt, Hans; Eriksson, Elias

    2006-11-01

    Elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study was to investigate potential associations between the promoter polymorphism IL-6 -174G/C and the following indices of metabolism: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and plasma levels of IL-6, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, leptin, and C-reactive protein in 252 42-year-old women and 245 51-year-old men. Subgroups were also studied 5 years later. The CC genotype of the IL-6 polymorphism was associated with lower levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (p polymorphism on metabolic indices in women and men. None of the associations between IL-6 genotype and lipid pattern seemed to result from an effect of the polymorphism on IL-6 plasma levels.

  16. Influence of different dietary zinc levels on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone level and zinc status in male Liaoning Cashmere goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H Y; Sun, M H; Yang, G Q; Jia, C L; Zhang, M; Zhu, Y J; Zhang, Y

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different levels of zinc (Zn) on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone and Zn profile in male Cashmere goats. Twenty-eight male Liaoning Cashmere goats, 3 years old and body weight at 56.2 ± 2.45 kg, were assigned to four groups. The animals were fed a basal diet containing of 45.9 mg Zn/kg dry matter (DM) basis and supplemented with 0, 20, 40 or 80 mg Zn (reagent grade ZnSO₄ ·7H₂ O) per kg DM for 90 days. There was no significant effect on growth and diameter of cashmere fibre for Zn supplemented in diets. However, the length and growth rate of wool were improved (p goats fed on the diet supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with those fed on basal diet. Plasma Zn concentrations increased (p 0.05). The activity of plasma alkaline phosphatase was increased (p 0.05). In conclusion, Zn content (45.9 mg Zn/kg DM) in control diet was insufficient for optimal wool growth performance, and we recommended the level of dietary Zn for such goats is 86 mg/kg DM during the breeding season and cashmere fibre growing period. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Simple and fast HPLC method for simultaneous determination of retinol, tocopherols, coenzyme Q(10) and carotenoids in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleize, Béatrice; Steib, Marlène; André, Marc; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2012-10-15

    The effects of fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A and E) and lipid microconstituents (such as carotenoids) on human health are now well established. However, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods able to detect these molecules in simultaneous runs are often difficult to set up. We report here a 35-min reversed-phase HPLC method using a single C30 column kept at 35°C with a gradient system of methanol, methyl-tert-butyl ether and water at a flow-rate of 1 mL/min. This method resolves 11 carotenoids, retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol from complex matrixes such as food samples, human plasma and human adipose tissue within 35 min. The method is also able to separate coenzyme Q(10). The intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation are suitable for routine clinical and scientific applications for the determination of lipid micronutrients from various sample types.

  18. Unraveling atomic-level self-organization at the plasma-material interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, J. P.; Shetty, A.

    2017-07-01

    The intrinsic dynamic interactions at the plasma-material interface and critical role of irradiation-driven mechanisms at the atomic scale during exposure to energetic particles require a priori the use of in situ surface characterization techniques. Characterization of ‘active’ surfaces during modification at atomic-scale levels is becoming more important as advances in processing modalities are limited by an understanding of the behavior of these surfaces under realistic environmental conditions. Self-organization from exposure to non-equilibrium and thermalized plasmas enable dramatic control of surface morphology, topography, composition, chemistry and structure yielding the ability to tune material properties with an unprecedented level of control. Deciphering self-organization mechanisms of nanoscale morphology (e.g. nanodots, ripples) and composition on a variety of materials including: compound semiconductors, semiconductors, ceramics, polymers and polycrystalline metals via low-energy ion-beam assisted plasma irradiation are critical to manipulate functionality in nanostructured systems. By operating at ultra-low energies near the damage threshold, irradiation-driven defect engineering can be optimized and surface-driven mechanisms controlled. Tunability of optical, electronic, magnetic and bioactive properties is realized by reaching metastable phases controlled by atomic-scale irradiation-driven mechanisms elucidated by novel in situ diagnosis coupled to atomistic-level computational tools. Emphasis will be made on tailored surface modification from plasma-enhanced environments on particle-surface interactions and their subsequent modification of hard and soft matter interfaces. In this review, we examine current trends towards in situ and in operando surface and sub-surface characterization to unravel atomic-scale mechanisms at the plasma-material interface. This work will emphasize on recent advances in the field of plasma and ion

  19. Carbon Dioxide-Induced Anesthesia Results in a Rapid Increase in Plasma Levels of Vasopressin

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Brian; Varon, Jack; Chait, Brian T.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Brief anesthesia, such as after exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia of rodents, compared with use of decapitation alone. Studies of the levels of certain stress hormones in plasma such as corticosterone and ACTH have supported the use of this method of euthanasia in endocrinological and molecular studies. In the current study, rats were briefly exposed to a chamber filled with carbon dioxide until recumben...

  20. Plasma osteopontin levels in prediction of prognosis in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyay, Kaan; Tavil, Yusuf; Sahinarslan, Asife; Tacoy, Gulten; Turfan, Murat; Sen, Nihat; Gurbahar, Ozlem; Boyaci, Bulent; Yalcin, Ridvan; Demirkan, Deniz; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-04-01

    We sought to explain the clinical importance of the osteopontin (OPN) in the setting of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Eighty consecutive patients (55 = 11 years, 12 women and 68 men) and sixty healthy control subjects were included in the study. In all patients, plasma OPN levels were assessed on admission and on the third day (peak value). Creatinine kinase (CK)/CK-myocardial band (MB), troponin I and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic factor levels and echocardiographic findings were also recorded. Patients were classified into high and low OPN groups according to the median OPN value, and monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Patients with STEMI had higher OPN levels (23.8 [16.7-41.3] ng/ml) on admission than the control subjects (18.0 [11.3-31.5] ng/ml, P = 0.004).The third day value of OPN was significantly higher (39.2 [27.2-56.0] ng/ml) than the OPN level on admission (23.8 [16.7-41.3] ng/ml, P < 0.001). Admission and peak OPN levels were not correlated with CK/CK-MB, white blood cell counts, troponin I and the N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic factor. The plasma OPN levels were not correlated with left ventricular wall motion score index either. In the subgroups of infarct localization and reperfusion strategy, plasma OPN levels were similar. When the patients were compared according to the median OPN values, there were no differences in the occurrence of MACE between the high and low OPN groups. This study suggests, for the first time, that the plasma OPN level increases in the first hours of the acute STEMI; however, it could not be used as a prognostic biomarker of STEMI.

  1. The relation between serum sex steroid levels and plasma cell infiltrates in endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnonen, R; Lehtinen, M; Teisala, K; Aine, R; Rantala, I; Heinonen, P K; Miettinen, A; Laine, S; Paavonen, J

    1989-01-01

    We measured serum levels of progesterone and estradiol among 35 patients with endometritis confirmed by endometrial biopsy. The onset of symptoms took place predominantly in the proliferative phase of the cycle. A negative correlation was found between the serum progesterone levels and the histopathologic severity of plasma cell endometritis. Our results suggest that the hormonal status contributes to the immune response and susceptibility to endometrial infection.

  2. Anti-diabetic effects of cinnamaldehyde and berberine and their impacts on retinol-binding protein 4 expression in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; XU Ya-cheng; GUO Fang-jian; MENG Ye; LI Ming-li

    2008-01-01

    Background Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4),as an adipocyte secreted cytokine,was recently found to be inversely correlated with expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in insulin resistance (IR) state and to have an intimate relationship with IR and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-diabetic efficacy of cinnamaldehyde (tin),berberine (Bet),and metformin (Met) as well as their impacts on the RBP4-GLUT4 system.Methods Rat models of T2DM were established by combination of intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin and high fat diet induction.Rats were divided into five groups:the control group,the diabetes group,the diabetes+Ber group,the diabetes+Cin group,and the diabetes+Met group.Western blotting was used to detect the serum or tissue RBP4 and GLUT4 protein levels.Results After treatment for four weeks,both Cin and Ber displayed significant hypolipidemic,hypoglycemic,and insulin sensitizing functions (P<0.01) compared with the control group.Their effects on lowering fasting plasma glucose (FPG),low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) seem even better than that of Met.Cin and Bet markedly lowered serum RBP4 levels and up-regulated the expression of tissue GLUT4 protein,and Cin seemed more notable in affecting these two proteins.Conclusions Both Cin and Ber display an exciting anti-diabetic efficacy in this study and may be of great value for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.Their mechanisms involve the RBP4-GLUT4 system,during which the serum RBP4 levels are lowered and the expression of tissue GLUT4 protein is up-regulated.

  3. Role of plasma EBV DNA levels in predicting recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a western population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Daris

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas can be cured by the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In Eastern countries, plasma levels of viral Epstein-Barr deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA are accurate in predicting recurrence, but few data are available in Western populations. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between viral Epstein-Barr DNA copy numbers in plasma and the response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival in a cohort of Western patients with stage IIb-IVb nasopharyngeal cancer. Methods We evaluated plasma samples from 36 consecutive patients treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation. EBV copy numbers were determined after DNA extraction using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results Circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels were measured before treatment, at the end of concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy, and during the follow-up period. Pre-treatment levels significantly correlated with the initial stage and probability of relapse. Their increase was 100% specific and 71.3% sensitive in detecting loco-regional or metastatic recurrence (an overall accuracy of 94.4%. Three-year progression-free and overall survival were respectively 78.2% and 97.1%. Conclusions The results of this study confirm that patients from a Western country affected by loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma have high plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels at diagnosis. The monitoring of plasma levels is sensitive and highly specific in detecting disease recurrence and metastases.

  4. The relation of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma glycine levels in propionic acidaemia, a 'ketotic hyperglycinaemia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl-Bürgi, S; Korman, S H; Applegarth, D A; Karall, D; Lillquist, Y; Heinz-Erian, P; Davidson, A G F; Haberlandt, E; Sass, J O

    2008-06-01

    The characteristic elevation of plasma glycine concentrations observed in propionic acidaemia (PA) and other 'ketotic hyperglycinaemias' has been attributed to secondary inhibition of the hepatic glycine cleavage system (GCS) by accumulating CoA derivatives of branched-chain amino acid metabolites. In nonketotic hyperglycinaemia (NKH), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma glycine levels and their ratio are increased due to primary deficiency of central nervous system (CNS) as well as hepatic GCS. Whether the GCS in the CNS is also inhibited in PA is unclear, as there are scant data available on CSF glycine levels in this disorder. We studied the relation of CSF and plasma glycine levels in 6 paired samples from 4 PA patients, including one PA patient with bacterial meningitis who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting and multiple CSF analyses (n = 26). In contrast to the CSF glycine levels which were generally elevated in all four PA patients, the CSF/plasma glycine concentration ratios in paired samples were normal (0.016-0.029), with the exception of a single sample (0.132) with extremely high CSF protein concentration (2010 mg/L) during the course of meningitis indicating a disturbed blood-brain barrier. This finding of normal CSF/plasma glycine ratio in PA suggests that the observed elevations of CSF glycine levels are a reflection of the concurrent hyperglycinaemia resulting from secondary inhibition of hepatic GCS, but that brain GCS is not affected, in contrast to the situation in NKH. The neurological sequelae in PA are therefore unlikely to be related to disturbed glycine metabolism.

  5. Plasma intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in women with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani Makoto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor (FGF23 is a novel phosphaturic factor associated with inorganic phosphate homeostasis. Previous human studies have shown that serum FGF23 levels increase in response to a high phosphate diet. For anorexia nervosa (AN patients, inorganic phosphate homeostasis is important in the clinical course, such as in refeeding syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23 in restricting-type AN (AN-R patients, binge-eating/purging-type AN (AN-BP patients, and healthy controls. Methods The subjects consisted of 6 female AN-R patients, 6 female AN-BP patients, and 11 healthy female controls; both inpatients and outpatients were included. Plasma iFGF23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH2D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD levels were measured. Data are presented as the median and the range. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess differences among the three groups, and a value of p Results There were no differences between AN-R patients and controls in the iFGF23 and 1,25-(OH2D levels. In AN-BP patients, the iFGF23 level (41.3 pg/ml; range, 6.1–155.5 pg/ml was significantly higher than in controls (3.8 pg/ml; range, not detected-21.3 pg/ml; p = 0.001, and the 1,25-(OH2D was significantly lower in AN-BP patients (7.0 pg/ml; range, 4.2–33.7 pg/ml than in controls (39.7 pg/ml; range, 6.3–58.5 pg/ml; p = 0.015. No differences in plasma 25-OHD levels were observed among the groups. Conclusion This preliminary study is the first to show that plasma iFGF23 levels are increased in AN-BP patients, and that these elevated plasma FGF23 levels might be related to the decrease in plasma 1,25-(OH2D levels.

  6. Inhibition of retinol oxidation by ethanol in the rat liver and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Menzl, Ina; Feuchter, Anette

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence has been presented for an increased risk of development of colon cancer after chronic alcohol abuse. Alcohol is degraded by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenases that also are capable of retinol oxidation. Inhibition of retinol oxidation to retinoic acid has been...... shown to occur in parallel with profound impairment of intracellular retinoid signal transduction and loss of cell differentiation control. AIMS: In the present study, the change in cytosolic retinol oxidation and retinoic acid formation by ethanol concentrations that occur in body tissues in humans...... the efficiency in the small intestine was negligible (0.20). In the presence of increasing ethanol concentrations (9, 17, and 34 mM), V(max)/K(m) for retinol oxidation decreased in a dose dependent manner to 7.8% of the initial value in the large intestine and to 12% in the liver. The V(max)/K(m) of retinoic...

  7. Elevated Plasma YKL-40 Levels and Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, A.D.; Bojesen, S.E.; Johansen, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that elevated plasma YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population. In contrast to C-reactive protein (CRP) produced in the liver in response to inflammation, YKL-40 is produced by lipid-laden macrophages...... inside the vessel wall. Methods: We measured plasma YKL-40 in 8,899 21- to 93-year-old participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 examination, and followed them for up to 18 years. Endpoints were ischemic stroke, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic heart...

  8. Relationship between Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Insulin Resistance and Blood Pressure in Octogenarians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荫涛; 邵莉; 滕丽莉; 张代富; 张华

    2010-01-01

    The association between fasting plasma ghrelin levels and insulin resistance and blood pressure(BP) in octogenarians was investigated in this study.A total of 487 unrelated octogenarians(including 203 men and 284 women) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study at the Healthy Care Center of Shanghai East Hospital,Tongji University,China,from October 2008 to April 2009.Plasma ghrelin was determined by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the homeostasis ...

  9. Low plasma levels of cholecalciferol and 13-cis-retinoic acid in tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srinivasan, Anand; Syal, Kirtimaan; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the concentration of cholecalciferol and 13-. cis-retinoic acid (RA) in the plasma and pleural fluid of patients with tuberculosis (TB) against controls. Methods: Plasma levels of cholecalciferol and 13-. cis-RA were measured in 22 patients with TB...... with active ingredients of vitamins A and D, we feel that there is a combined deficiency of these vitamins in patients with TB. There is an evidence that concomitant vitamin A and D supplementation can kill intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis invitro. Therefore, the observations made in this study can...

  10. Decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasma levels in psoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Brunoni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is associated with neuroplasticity and synaptic strength, and is decreased in conditions associated with chronic stress. Nevertheless, BDNF has not yet been investigated in psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory systemic disease that is exacerbated by stress. Therefore, our aim was to determine BDNF plasma levels in psoriasis patients and healthy controls. Adult patients (n=94 presenting with psoriasis for at least 1 year were enrolled, and age- and gender-matched with healthy controls (n=307 from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil. Participants had neither a previous history of coronary artery disease nor current episode of major depression. BDNF plasma levels were determined using the Promega ELISA kit. A general linear model was used to compare BDNF levels in psoriasis patients and controls, with age, gender, systolic blood pressure, serum fasting glucose, blood lipid levels, triglycerides, smoking status, and body mass index examined. After adjusting for clinical and demographic variables, significantly decreased BNDF plasma levels were observed in psoriasis patients (P=0.01 (estimated marginal means of 3922 pg/mL; 95%CI=2660-5135 compared with controls (5788 pg/mL; 95%CI=5185-6442. Similar BDNF levels were found in both mild and severe cases of psoriasis. Our finding, that BDNF is decreased in psoriasis, supports the concept of a brain-skin connection in psoriasis. Further studies should determine if BDNF is increased after specific psoriasis treatments, and associated with different disease stages.

  11. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unni, C. Sumithra N.; Lakshman, Lakshmi R.; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Subhakumari, K.N.; Menon, N. Leela

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001) lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001) higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings. PMID:26658589

  12. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumithra N Unni C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001 lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001 higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings.

  13. The unstimulated pancreatic secretion obtained by endoscopic cannulation, and the plasma secretin levels in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnes, M; Hanssen, L E; Larsen, S

    1979-01-01

    The technique of collecting juice from the main pancreatic duct by siphonage is described. The juice was collected in 5-min fractions under basal conditions for 20 min (32 subjects) and extended to 60 min (6 subjects). Flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were significantly higher during the first collected samples, whereas concentrations of amylase and protein rose during the first 20 min of the study. All variables remained nearly constant after this period. Immunoreactive secretin (IRS) in peripheral plasma was significantly higher immediately after cannulation of the main pancreatic duct, as compared to the pre-endoscopic level. When the catheter was left in the duct and pancreatic juice drained, the IRS stabilized at a level not significantly different from the pre-endoscopic level. Positive correlations were found between flow rate and plasma level of IRS and between flow rate and bicarbonate concentrations. A negative correlation was found between the flow rate and concentrations of amylase and protein. The higher flow rate, plasma level of IRS, and bicarbonate concentration at the beginning of the examination may be due to the presence of acid and/or bile in the duodenal contents shortly after the endoscope enters the duodenum. Later in the procedure the levels have stabilized, which indicates that little or no acid or bile is passing into the duodenum. It is also concluded that secretin may be one factor responsible for the basal pancreatic secretion in man.

  14. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  15. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(alipoproteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stefanutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI (LA on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3, an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(alipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55±9.3 years (mean ± SD, were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p<0.001. The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R2=0.99; p<0.001. Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins.

  16. Further evaluation of plasma sphingomyelin levels as a risk factor for coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackner Karl J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingomyelin (SM is the major phospholipid in cell membranes and in lipoproteins. In human plasma, SM is mainly found in atherogenic lipoproteins; thus, high levels of SM may promote atherogenesis. Methods We investigated in a median follow up of 6.0 years the association of SM with the incidence of a combined endpoint (myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death in stable and unstable patients, and its relation to other marker of atherosclerosis in 1,102 patients with angiographically documented CAD and 444 healthy controls. Results and discussion Logistic regression analysis showed that SM categorized by median was associated with an elevated risk for CAD (HR 3.2, 95%CI 2.5–4.0, p Conclusion The results of our study reveal that 1 human plasma SM levels are a risk factor for CAD; 2 the pro-atherogenic property of plasma SM might be related to metabolism of apoB-containing or triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; and 3 plasma SM levels are a predictor for outcome of patients with acute coronary syndrome.

  17. Relationship of plasma level of NT- ProBNP with development of AF in CABG patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaray B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Studies of the association between post operative AF and Plasma level of NT- Pro BNP have reported conflicting findings. The aim of the present study was evaluation of the association between post coronary bypass graft- Atrial Fibrillation (AF and Plasma level of NT- ProBNP as an independent risk factor of AF development in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft."n "nMethods: In a cohort study, 79 patients with sinus rhythm who admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during February 2009 and February 2010 for CABG are included the study and followed for developing post operative AF rhythm."n "nResults: Post operative AF was found in 17.7% of patients. The peak time from the operation to the first AF episode was in second post op day in ten patients (71.4%. The serum level of ProBNP in patients with AF was significantly higher (1624± 647 versus 221± 238 pg/ml, p< 0/0001. Increased age, Increased LA size and high plasma level of ProBNP were associated with increased risk for post op AF. After adjustment of risk factors, plasma level of ProBNP was the most important risk factor with odds ratio of 15.34 with CI 95% 1.77-132.95 and then LA diameter with odds ratio of 6.11 with CI 95% 0.99-37.42 was independently correlated with post op AF. Correlation between plasma level of ProBNP with age and LA size was seen too (LA size r = 0.0281, p= 0.012. Between age and ProBNP (r= 0.337, p= 0.002. The best cut off point for plasma ProBNP as a predictor of post op AF was 854 pg/ml."n "nConclusion: Increased level of preoperative ProBNP levels could be an independent predictor of post operative Atrial Fibrillation.

  18. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 levels and incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuladottir, G V; Cohen, A; Arnar, D O; Hougaard, D M; Torfason, B; Palsson, R; Indridason, O S

    2016-01-01

    Low circulating levels of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) have been associated with an increased risk of adverse effects after cardiac surgery. The metabolites, 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, provide a good index of vitamin D status. In this study, we examined the association between preoperative plasma levels of total 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 and the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following open heart surgery. The levels of plasma 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 in 118 patients, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valvular surgery, were measured immediately prior to surgery and on postoperative day 3 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Patients who developed POAF had higher median plasma levels of 25(OH)D2 than those who remained in sinus rhythm (SR) (P = 0·003), but no significant difference was noted in levels of 25(OH)D3 or total 25(OH)D between the two groups (P > 0·05). By univariate analysis, patients with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D2 levels above the median had higher frequency of POAF (P D2 (P = 0·001), an association that was independent of confounding factors. In both the SR and POAF groups, the median plasma levels of 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3 and total 25(OH)D were lower (P D2 are associated with increased risk of POAF, while this is not the case for 25(OH)D3 or total 25(OH)D. The reason for these discrepant results is not clear but warrants further study.

  19. Urinary and plasma fluoride levels in pregnant women from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Deena B; Basu, Niladri; Martinez-Mier, E Angeles; Sánchez, Brisa N; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Yun; Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Peterson, Karen; Mercado-Garcia, Adriana; Bashash, Morteza; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2016-10-01

    There is need to assess the developmental neurotoxicity of fluoride. Our knowledge of prenatal fluoride exposure is challenged as few population-based studies have been conducted and these generally date back several decades, provide incomplete data on sociodemographic variables, and have methodological limitations. To measure urinary and plasma fluoride levels across three time points in pregnant mothers who were enrolled in the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohort study. Fluoride levels were characterized in archived urine and plasma from 872 pregnant mothers sampled from the ELEMENT cohort. Various statistical methods were used to analyze the fluoride data with particular consideration for changes across three stages of pregnancy and against sociodemographic variables. All samples had detectable levels of fluoride. The mean urinary and plasma fluoride levels were 0.91 and 0.0221mg/L respectively, and these were not statistically different across three stages of pregnancy. Fluoride levels correlated across the stages of pregnancy studied, with stronger correlations between neighboring stages. Urinary fluoride changed as pregnancy progressed with levels increasing until ~23 weeks and then decreasing until the end of pregnancy. For plasma fluoride, there was a decreasing trend but this was not of statistical significance. Creatinine-adjusted urinary fluoride levels did not associate consistently with any of the sociodemographic variables studied. This study provides the most extensive characterization to date of fluoride exposure throughout pregnancy. These results provide the foundation to explore exposure-related health outcomes in the ELEMENT cohort and other studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Plasma apelin level in patients with restless legs syndrome and its association with periodic leg movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Selda; Aksu, Murat; Baskol, Gulden

    2017-03-01

    Apelin is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule secreted by adipose tissue and has a protective effect on cardiac and neuronal tissue. Recent studies have reported that the risk of vascular disease is increased in restless legs syndrome (RLS). We aimed to measure plasma levels of apelin in patients with RLS. Additionally, we wanted to determine if there is any relationship between apelin levels and RLS disease severity and the periodic leg movement index (PLMI). A total of 14 RLS patients with moderate-to-severe symptoms and 14 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls participated in the study. All participants had no concomitant medical disorder nor took medications. The international RLS rating scale (IRLSS) was used to determine disease severity. Polysomnography (PSG) served to exclude other sleep disorders such as sleep-related breathing disorders and to measure sleep parameters. The mean plasma apelin level was significantly lower in the patient group compared to the control group independent of IRLSS score and PSG findings (p = 0.004). After comparison between the RLS patient group and control group, the patient group was divided into two subgroups based on a PLMI above or below 15 events per hour. A reduced mean apelin level was observed in the patient group having a PLMI above 15 compared to the patient group with PLMI below 15 and the control group (p = 0.003). There was no correlation between plasma apelin levels and disease severity and PLMI in the two patient subgroups. RLS patients especially those with a PLMI above 15 have low plasma apelin levels independent of disease severity and sleep parameters such as sleep duration and quality. Decreased apelin levels may explain the increased risk for vascular diseases in those patients.

  1. Plasma selenium levels and oxidative stress biomarkers: a gene-environment interaction population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan-Chilet, Inmaculada; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; De Marco, Griselda; Lopez-Izquierdo, Raul; Gonzalez-Manzano, Isabel; Carmen Tormos, M; Martin-Nuñez, Gracia M; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Saez, Guillermo T; Martín-Escudero, Juan C; Redon, Josep; Javier Chaves, F

    2014-09-01

    The role of selenium exposure in preventing chronic disease is controversial, especially in selenium-repleted populations. At high concentrations, selenium exposure may increase oxidative stress. Studies evaluating the interaction of genetic variation in genes involved in oxidative stress pathways and selenium are scarce. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of plasma selenium concentrations with oxidative stress levels, measured as oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-dG) in urine, and the interacting role of genetic variation in oxidative stress candidate genes, in a representative sample of 1445 men and women aged 18-85 years from Spain. The geometric mean of plasma selenium levels in the study sample was 84.76 µg/L. In fully adjusted models the geometric mean ratios for oxidative stress biomarker levels comparing the highest to the lowest quintiles of plasma selenium levels were 0.61 (0.50-0.76) for GSSG/GSH, 0.89 (0.79-1.00) for MDA, and 1.06 (0.96-1.18) for 8-oxo-dG. We observed nonlinear dose-responses of selenium exposure and oxidative stress biomarkers, with plasma selenium concentrations above ~110 μg/L being positively associated with 8-oxo-dG, but inversely associated with GSSG/GSH and MDA. In addition, we identified potential risk genotypes associated with increased levels of oxidative stress markers with high selenium levels. Our findings support that high selenium levels increase oxidative stress in some biological processes. More studies are needed to disentangle the complexity of selenium biology and the relevance of potential gene-selenium interactions in relation to health outcomes in human populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased oxidative stress and plasma Hsp70 levels among gasoline filling station attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Chen, Kangcheng; Lv, Yingnan; Huang, Damin; Liu, Jing; Liang, Guiqiang; Zhang, Li'e; Wang, Fenfen; Su, Cheng; Zou, Yunfeng; Yang, Xiaobo

    2017-02-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic derivative of manganese (Mn) and is used as an antiknock agent and octane enhancer in gasoline. In this article, we tested the oxidative stress and heat stress protein (Hsp) 70 levels of gasoline station attendants to explore potential plasma biomarkers. Furthermore, the dose-response relationship was also identified. A total of 144 workers, including 96 petrol fillers and 48 cashiers, participated in the study. Ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and Mn were monitored at nine filling stations. During the measuring process, the individual cumulative exposure index was calculated. Plasma oxidative stress and Hsp70 levels were also analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The BTEX time-weighted average in office areas was significantly lower than in refuelling areas ( p stress indicators compared with the control group, respectively: superoxide dismutase (SOD), 39.18 ± 6.05 U/mL versus 52.84 ± 3.87 U/mL; glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), 186.07 ± 15.63 U versus 194.38 ± 10.42 U; and malondialdehyde (MDA), 1.68 ± 0.52 nmol/L versus 1.43 ± 0.64 nmol/L (in all comparisons, p level in the exposed group (2.77 ± 0.64 ng/mL) was significantly higher than in the control group (2.32 ± 0.87 ng/mL; p levels were inversely correlated with the activities of SOD ( r = -0.305) and GSH-Px ( r = -0.302) in the exposed group ( p levels and plasma MDA levels ( p stress among filling station attendants. Plasma Hsp70 levels could be used as a sensitive responsive biomarker for exposed workers.

  3. Renal function and plasma levels of arginine vasotocin during free flight in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giladi, I; Goldstein, D L; Pinshow, B; Gerstberger, R

    1997-12-01

    We examined urinary water loss and plasma levels of arginine vasotocin (AVT) in free-flying, tippler pigeons trained to fly continuously for up to 5 h. First, we used [3H]polyethyleneglycol ([3H]PEG) as a glomerular filtration marker by implanting an osmotic minipump into each bird. In two flights (10 birds in winter at an ambient temperature of 13-15 degrees C and seven in summer at 23 degrees C), we measured pre-flight (hydrated, resting control birds) and post-flight [3H]PEG activity and osmolality in blood and ureteral urine. For comparison, we measured these variables in 10 birds in winter before and after controlled dehydration (24 h at 25 or 30 degrees C). Second, we measured plasma levels of AVT in 6-8 birds before and immediately after each of three different summer flights. Urine osmolality increased significantly by up to three times the control level in both post-flight and dehydrated pigeons; urine:plasma osmolality ratios did not exceed 2. Compared with controls, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was significantly lower after flight in summer, but did not change in either post-flight or dehydrated winter pigeons. In winter, mean post-flight urine flow rate (UFR) decreased significantly to less than half the control level, while in summer, post-flight UFR did not differ from control levels. In general, mean filtered water reabsorption (FrH2O) increased from 95 % in controls to 98 % in post-flight and dehydrated birds. Plasma levels of AVT increased after flight to between three and eight times the preflight levels. The data from this first study of kidney function during flight are consistent with previous studies of dehydration in birds and exercise in mammals in which both increased FrH2O and decreased GFR contribute to renal conservation of water.

  4. Low plasma vitamin D levels and muscle-related adverse effects in statin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Alon; Lev, Eli; Iakobishvilli, Zaza; Porter, Avital; Brosh, David; Hasdai, David; Mager, Aviv

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) is often complicated by muscle-related adverse effects (MAEs). Studies of the association between low plasma vitamin D levels and MAEs have yielded conflicting results. To determine if low plasma vitamin D level is a risk factorfor MAEs in statin users. Plasma levels of 25(OH) vitamin D were measured as part of the routine evaluation of unselected statin-treated patients attending the coronary and lipid clinics at our hospital during the period 2007-2010. Medical data on muscle complaints and statin use were retrieved from the medical files. Creatine kinase (CK) levels were derived from the hospital laboratory database. The sample included 272 patients (141 men) aged 33-89 years. Mean vitamin D level was 48.04 nmol/L. Levels were higher in men (51.0 +/- 20.5 versus 44.7 +/- 18.9 nmol/L, P = 0.001) and were unaffected by age. MAEs were observed in 106 patients (39%): myalgia in 95 (35%) and CK elevation in 20 (7%); 9 patients (3%) had both. There was no difference in plasma vitamin D levels between patients with and without myalgia (46.3 +/- 17.7 versus 48.9 +/- 21.0 nmol/L, P = 0.31), with and without CK elevation (50.2 +/- 14.6 versus 47.8 +/- 20.3 nmol/L, P = 0.60), or with or without any MAE (50.4 +/- 15.0 versus 47.8 +/- 10.2 nmol/L, P = 0.27). These findings were consistent when analyzed by patient gender and presence/absence of coronary artery disease, and when using a lower vitamin D cutoff (statin users.

  5. The effect of oral Isotretinoin on plasma level of folic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir majdein amir javanbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders and Isotretinoin has widely been used as a treatment for its severe and resistant cases in recent years. Considering the controversy over the effect of systemic Isotretinoin on reducing the plasma level of folic acid and the negative effect of this reduction on health, this study was conducted to assess the influence of systemic Isotretinoin on the plasma level of folic acid during the years 2008 and 2009 in Khorramabad city. Materials and Methods: 61 patients including 38 women and 23 men with severe or moderate acne (age mean 23.6+6 y/o who were resistant to conventional treatments were supplemented with 0.5mg/kg/day of oral Isotretinoin for 30 days. They were instructed not to use any other drugs with an effect on folic acid level or change their diet. The serum levels of folic acid were measured at the baseline and at the end of the treatment period. The statistical analyses were carried out using the paired T-test. Results: The mean levels of folic acid were 26.75+9.42 nmol/lit and 23.6+8.42 nmol/lit at the baseline and after 30 days of Isotretinoin supplementation respectively. This showed a significant decrease in plasma folic acid level (p=0.008. Conclusion: This study revealed a significant reduction in plasma level of folic acid following a 30 day use of oral Isotretinoin in acne patients. Concerning the important role of folic acid in metabolic functions, we recommend further studies to assess the effect of longer periods of Isotretinoin treatment as well as other relevant factors on folic acid metabolism. Moreover, folic acid supplementation and simultaneous use of Isotretinoin is recommended in patients with acne.

  6. Elevated plasma levels of endostatin are associated with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hamm, L Lee; Kleinpeter, Myra A; Husserl, Fred; Khan, Islam Enver; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Liu, Yanxi; Mills, Katherine T; He, Chuan; Rifai, Nader; Simon, Eric E; He, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis may play an important role in the renal repair process after injury. We investigated the association between plasma endostatin, an endothelial-specific antiangiogenic factor, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We compared plasma endostatin levels in 201 CKD patients and 201 controls. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or presence of albuminuria (≥30 mg/24 h). After adjustment for established CKD risk factors, the median (interquartile range) of plasma endostatin was 276.7 ng/dl (199.3-357.5) in patients with CKD and 119.4 ng/dl (103.7-134.6) in controls without CKD (p < 0.0001 for group difference). log-transformed plasma endostatin was significantly and inversely correlated with eGFR (r = -0.83, p < 0.0001) and positively correlated with log-transformed urine albumin (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001) in the study participants. In addition, one standard deviation increase in log-transformed plasma endostatin (0.55 ng/dl) was associated with a decline in eGFR of -26.2 ml/min and an increase in urine albumin of 3.26 mg/ 24 h after adjusting for multiple covariables. Furthermore, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for CKD comparing the highest tertile (≥131.4 ng/dl) to the two lower tertiles of plasma endostatin was 21.6 (95% CI: 10.2-45.5; p < 0.0001). These data indicate that elevated plasma endostatin is strongly and independently associated with CKD. Prospective cohort studies and clinical trials are warranted to further examine the causal relationship between endostatin and risk of CKD and to develop novel interventions targeting circulating endostatin aimed at reducing CKD risk. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. High plasma triglyceride levels strongly correlate with low kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus of male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, A; Axel, A M; Lie, M E;

    2015-01-01

    signals to the GnRH neurons. METHODS: In this study, we measured body weight and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, testosterone, and triglycerides after high fat diet exposure and correlated these parameters with the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of male rats....... In this model, a high fat diet (45% or 60% energy from fat, respectively) or a control diet (10% energy from fat) was provided after weaning for three months. RESULTS: We find a significant increase in body weight and plasma leptin concentration, but no change in the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells...... with increased fat in the diet. Kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells are not correlated with body weight, testosterone, leptin or insulin. However, we find that the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells is strongly and negatively correlated with the level of plasma triglycerides (R2=0.49, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: We...

  8. Possibility of Combining Nuclear Level Pumping in Plasma with Lasing in Solid

    CERN Document Server

    Karamian, S A

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear isomers can be used for the storage and release of "clean" nuclear energy, and the visible schemes are discussed. Resonance between the atomic and nuclear transitions may be manifested in a form of the hybridization of atomic-nuclear excitation at the appropriate case. The nuclear levels - candidates for triggering via atomic transitions are described. A variety of the ionization states and atomic-shell configurations arizes in hot plasma generated by the short powerful pulse of laser light. The nonradiative conversion of the ionization energy within atom can be suppressed in the hot-plasma surroundings. Time-scales of different processes in nuclear, atomic and condensed-matter subsystems are compared. The processes of fast ionization in solid, X-ray radiance in plasma, sample melting and recrystallisation may precede nuclear fluorescence. Time-scale shorter 0.1 ns makes this sequence promising for the group excitation of short-lived modes in nuclear subsystem.

  9. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (phealthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  10. YKL-40 tissue expression and plasma levels in patients with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid V S; Ringsholt, Merete; Høgdall, Claus K;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like-1) is a member of "mammalian chitinase-like proteins". The protein is expressed in many types of cancer cells and the highest plasma YKL-40 levels have been found in patients with metastatic disease, short recurrence/progression-free intervals, and short overall...... survival. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of YKL-40 in tumor tissue and plasma in patients with borderline ovarian tumor or epithelial ovarian cancer (OC), and investigate prognostic value of this marker. METHODS: YKL-40 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry...... in tissue arrays from 181 borderline tumors and 473 OC. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by ELISA in preoperative samples from 19 patients with borderline tumor and 76 OC patients. RESULTS: YKL-40 protein expression was found in cancer cells, tumor associated macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells. The tumor...

  11. In vivo evidence that Agxt2 can regulate plasma levels of dimethylarginines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Anja; Maas, Renke; König, Jörg; Mieth, Maren; Weiss, Norbert; Jarzebska, Natalia; Hohenstein, Bernd; Martens-Lobenhoffer, Jens; Bode-Böger, Stefanie M; Rodionov, Roman N

    2013-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of the asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric (SDMA) dimethylarginine have repeatedly been linked to adverse cardiovascular clinical outcomes. Both dimethylarginines can be degraded by alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (Agxt2), which is also the key enzyme responsible for the degradation of endogenously formed β-aminoisobutyrate (BAIB). In the present study we wanted to investigate the effect of BAIB on Agxt2 expression and Agxt2-mediated metabolism of dimethylarginines. We infused BAIB or saline intraperitoneally for 7days in C57/BL6 mice via minipumps. Expression of Agxt2 was determined in liver and kidney. The concentrations of BAIB, dimethylarginines and the Agxt2-specific ADMA metabolite α-keto-δ-(N(G),N(G)-dimethylguanidino)valeric acid (DMGV) was determined by LC-MS/MS in plasma and urine. As compared to controls systemic administration of BAIB increased plasma and urine BAIB levels by a factor of 26.5 (p<0.001) and 25.8 (p<0.01), respectively. BAIB infusion resulted in an increase of the plasma ADMA and SDMA concentrations of 27% and 31%, respectively, (both p<0.05) and a 24% decrease of plasma DMGV levels (p<0.05), while expression of Agxt2 was not different. Our data demonstrate that BAIB can inhibit Agxt2-mediated metabolism of dimethylarginines and show for the first time that endogenous Agxt2 is involved in the regulation of systemic ADMA, SDMA and DMGV levels. The effect of BAIB excess on endogenous dimethylarginine levels may have direct clinical implications for humans with the relatively common genetic trait of hyper-β-aminoisobutyric aciduria.

  12. Low blood and plasma carnitine levels in children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, K A; Ament, M E; Moukarzel, A; Vinton, N E; Cederblad, G

    1990-10-01

    Total and free carnitine and acylcarnitine concentrations were analyzed in whole blood and plasma in 12 children with a mean age of 68.4 +/- 42.9 months who had received carnitine-free total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for an average of 4 years. The purpose of the study was to see if the children had become carnitine deficient and, if so, whether this correlated with poor lipid clearance. Compared to controls, the TPN-dependent children had significantly decreased concentrations of total and free carnitine in blood (26.6 +/- 9.4 (SD) mumols/L vs. 43.3 +/- 9.1 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, and 17.1 +/- 7.7 mumols/L vs. 35.2 +/- 8.1 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, respectively). Similar results were found in plasma (total carnitine of 19.0 +/- 8.0 mumols/L vs. 41.9 +/- 5.2 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, and free carnitine of 15.7 +/- 7.3 mumols/L vs. 36.1 +/- 5.2 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, respectively). The acylcarnitine concentration in plasma was decreased in the TPN children (3.3 +/- 1.5 mumols/L vs. 5.8 +/- 3.0 mumols/L, p less than 0.01) compared to controls. Despite the low carnitine concentrations, serum triglyceride levels and serum free fatty acid levels were within the normal range. There was no correlation between carnitine concentrations in plasma and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. Our data show that children receiving carnitine-free TPN for many years developed markedly decreased concentrations of carnitine in blood and plasma. However, no adverse effects of the low carnitine levels were found on triglyceride and free fatty acid metabolism under stable conditions.

  13. Antibiotic plasma levels in dogs with otitis externa treated routinely with various topical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voget, Michael; Armbruster, Martin; Meyer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether, and at what levels, topical antibiotics applied to treat Otitis externa in dogs are absorbed systemically, leading to an increased risk of antibiotic resistance. 75 dogs brought to a veterinarian for Otitis externa were recruited for a non-interventional study. Selection criteria included diagnosis of Otitis externa and owner consent.The animals were divided into five groups of 15 dogs each. Each group received one of five commonly prescribed topical medications for up to 14 days according to the labeled instructions. Development and validation of low residue detection methods (HPLC-MS/MS) for all active substances studied was performed. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for gentamicin (Otomax, Easotic), marbofloxacin (Aurizon), orbifloxacin (Posatex) and polymyxin B (Surolan). Low-level plasma concentrations of the topically applied antibiotics were detected after multiple administrations. In several samples, the concentrations detected were less than the limit of detection (LOD) of the corresponding analytical method. However, at the end of the treatment period, mean plasma concentrations were in the low pmol/ml range and exceeded the LOD for gentamicin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin. None of the plasma samples examined for polymyxin showed levels above the LOD. After routine topical antibiotic use in the treatment of Otitis externa in dogs, low systemic plasma concentrations are likely to develop.This low-level exposure may facilitate cellular changes that lead to an increased possibility for antibiotic resistance. These findings should provoke veterinary clinicians to optimise therapy for Otitis externa in light of minimising the development of antibiotic resistance.

  14. Correlation between Saliva and Plasma Levels of Endothelin Isoforms ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma Gurusankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although saliva endothelins are emerging as valuable noninvasive cardiovascular biomarkers, reports on the relationship between isoforms in saliva and plasma remain scarce. We measured endothelins in concurrent saliva and plasma samples (n=30 males; age 18–63 by HPLC-fluorescence. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlations among all isoforms between saliva and plasma: big endothelin-1 (BET-1, 0.55 ± 0.27 versus 3.35 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; r=0.38, p=0.041, endothelin-1 (ET-1, 0.52 ± 0.21 versus 3.45 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; r=0.53, p=0.003, endothelin-2 (ET-2, 0.21 ± 0.07 versus 1.63 ± 0.66 pmol/mL; r=0.51, p=0.004, and endothelin-3 (ET-3, 0.39 ± 0.19 versus 2.32 ± 1.44 pmol/mL; r=0.75, p<0.001. Correlations of BET-1, ET-1, and ET-3 within each compartment were positive in both plasma (p<0.05 and saliva (p≤0.1, whereas ET-2 was not significantly correlated with other isoforms in either plasma or saliva. For all isoforms, concentrations varied on average fivefold between individuals (90th/10th percentiles; individuals with high plasma endothelin levels generally had high saliva endothelin levels. Our results reveal that salivary ET isoform profiles portray the plasmatic profiles and support the view of coordinated regulation of ET-1 and ET-3, but distinct regulatory pathways for ET-2.

  15. A role for eisosomes in maintenance of plasma membrane phosphoinositide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Florian; Christiano, Romain; Olson, Daniel K; Alcazar-Roman, Abel; DeCamilli, Pietro; Walther, Tobias C

    2014-09-15

    The plasma membrane delineates the cell and mediates its communication and material exchange with the environment. Many processes of the plasma membrane occur through interactions of proteins with phosphatidylinositol(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), which is highly enriched in this membrane and is a key determinant of its identity. Eisosomes function in lateral organization of the plasma membrane, but the molecular function of their major protein subunits, the BAR domain-containing proteins Pil1 and Lsp1, is poorly understood. Here we show that eisosomes interact with the PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase Inp51/Sjl1, thereby recruiting it to the plasma membrane. Pil1 is essential for plasma membrane localization and function of Inp51 but not for the homologous phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate phosphatases Inp52/Sjl2 and Inp53/Sjl3. Consistent with this, absence of Pil1 increases total and available PI(4,5)P2 levels at the plasma membrane. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model in which the eisosomes function in maintaining PI(4,5)P2 levels by Inp51/Sjl1 recruitment. © 2014 Fröhlich et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Effect of exogenous insulin on plasma free carnitine levels during exercise in normal man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, T L; Poirier, P; Tremblay, A; Catellier, C; Nadeau, A

    1989-12-01

    Preliminary data from our laboratory have shown that the decrease in plasma free carnitine levels normally found during prolonged exercise is blunted in type 1 diabetic man. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that this might be due to the sustained peripheral hyperinsulinemia seen during exercise in diabetics treated by subcutaneous insulin. Ten male subjects underwent 90 min of cycle ergometry at 60% of their maximal oxygen uptake capacity on two occasions, one with and the other without a constant 0.13 mU.kg-1.min-1 i.v. insulin infusion. Blood samples were taken at rest, during exercise, and after exercise for measurement of plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, free fatty acids, and carnitine. Plasma glucose dropped significantly (p less than 0.01) from basal during both infusions, but values at 30, 45, and 60 min of exercise were lower (p less than 0.05) during insulin infusion compared with the saline infusion. Exercise produced a significant (p less than 0.01) fall in plasma insulin in both infusions. However, from 30 to 90 min of exercise, the plateau insulin level was higher during the insulin infusion compared with the saline infusion (91.4 +/- 3.0 vs. 32.9 +/- 3.0 pmol/L; p less than 0.001). Plasma C-peptide decreased significantly (p less than 0.01) during exercise and recovery in both infusions, but values between infusions were not significantly different. Plasma free fatty acids increased significantly (p less than 0.01) at 90 min of exercise during the saline infusion, while during the insulin infusion this was noted during recovery only.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Increased Levels of Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC in Plasma of Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed El-Najjar

    Full Text Available Recent developments in lipid mass spectrometry enable extensive lipid class and species analysis in metabolic disorders such as diabesity and metabolic syndrome. The minor plasma lipid class sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC was identified as a ligand for lipid sensitive G-protein coupled receptors playing a key role in cell growth, differentiation, motility, calcium signaling, tissue remodeling, vascular diseases and cancer. However, information about its role in diabesity patients is sparse. In this study, we analyzed plasma lipid species in patients at risk for diabesity and the metabolic syndrome and compared them with healthy controls. Our data show that SPC is significantly increased in plasma samples from metabolic syndrome patients but not in plasma from patients at risk for diabesity. Detailed SPC species analysis showed that the observed increase is due to a significant increase in all detected SPC subspecies. Moreover, a strong positive correlation is observed between total SPC and individual SPC species with both body mass index and the acute phase low grade inflammation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163. Collectively, our study provides new information on SPC plasma levels in metabolic syndrome and suggests new avenues for investigation.

  18. Increased Levels of Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) in Plasma of Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Najjar, Nahed; Orsó, Evelyn; Wallner, Stefan; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in lipid mass spectrometry enable extensive lipid class and species analysis in metabolic disorders such as diabesity and metabolic syndrome. The minor plasma lipid class sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) was identified as a ligand for lipid sensitive G-protein coupled receptors playing a key role in cell growth, differentiation, motility, calcium signaling, tissue remodeling, vascular diseases and cancer. However, information about its role in diabesity patients is sparse. In this study, we analyzed plasma lipid species in patients at risk for diabesity and the metabolic syndrome and compared them with healthy controls. Our data show that SPC is significantly increased in plasma samples from metabolic syndrome patients but not in plasma from patients at risk for diabesity. Detailed SPC species analysis showed that the observed increase is due to a significant increase in all detected SPC subspecies. Moreover, a strong positive correlation is observed between total SPC and individual SPC species with both body mass index and the acute phase low grade inflammation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163). Collectively, our study provides new information on SPC plasma levels in metabolic syndrome and suggests new avenues for investigation.

  19. Determinants of plasma pepsinogen levels in a population at high risk for stomach cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Miki, K; Muñoz, N; Vivas, J H; Lopez, G; Peraza, S; Carillo