WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma radial profiles

  1. Quasi-quadrature interferometer for plasma density radial profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, D.D.; Hoffman, A.L.

    1979-01-01

    A cw Mach Zehnder multichannel interferometer has been developed to measure time-dependent fractional fringe shifts with an accuracy of one-fortieth fringe. The design is quasi-quadrature in that known phase shifts, introduced in the reference beam, are time multiplexed with the normal reference beam. This technique requires only one detector per interferometer channel as compared to two detectors for most quadrature designs. The quadrature information makes the sense of density changes unambiguous, it automatically calibrates the instrument during the plasma event, and it makes fringe shift measurements virtually independent of fringe contrast fluctuations caused by plasma refractive and/or absorptive effects. The interferometer optical design is novel in that the electro-optic crystal used to introduce the 90 0 phase shifts is located in the common 2-mm-diam HeNe entrance beam to the interferometer, by exploiting polarization techniques, rather than in the expanded 1--2-cm reference beam itself. This arrangement greatly reduces the size, cost, and high-voltage requirements for the phase modulating crystal

  2. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Mark Allen

    2017-01-01

    Turbulence, and turbulence-driven transport are ubiquitous in magnetically confined plasmas, where there is an intimate relationship between turbulence, transport, instability driving mechanisms (such as gradients), plasma flows, and flow shear. Though many of the detailed physics of the interrelationship between turbulence, transport, drive mechanisms, and flow remain unclear, there have been many demonstrations that transport and/or turbulence can be suppressed or reduced via manipulations of plasma flow profiles. This is well known in magnetic fusion plasmas [e.g., high confinement mode (H-mode) and internal transport barriers (ITB's)], and has also been demonstrated in laboratory plasmas. However, it may be that the levels of particle transport obtained in such cases [e.g. H-mode, ITB's] are actually lower than is desirable for a practical fusion device. Ideally, one would be able to actively feedback control the turbulent transport, via manipulation of the flow profiles. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using both advanced model-based control algorithms, as well as non-model-based algorithms, to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles. The University of New Mexico was responsible for the experimental portion of the project, while our collaborators at the University of Montana provided plasma transport modeling, and collaborators at Lehigh University developed and explored control methods.

  3. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Mark Allen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-05

    Turbulence, and turbulence-driven transport are ubiquitous in magnetically confined plasmas, where there is an intimate relationship between turbulence, transport, instability driving mechanisms (such as gradients), plasma flows, and flow shear. Though many of the detailed physics of the interrelationship between turbulence, transport, drive mechanisms, and flow remain unclear, there have been many demonstrations that transport and/or turbulence can be suppressed or reduced via manipulations of plasma flow profiles. This is well known in magnetic fusion plasmas [e.g., high confinement mode (H-mode) and internal transport barriers (ITB’s)], and has also been demonstrated in laboratory plasmas. However, it may be that the levels of particle transport obtained in such cases [e.g. H-mode, ITB’s] are actually lower than is desirable for a practical fusion device. Ideally, one would be able to actively feedback control the turbulent transport, via manipulation of the flow profiles. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using both advanced model-based control algorithms, as well as non-model-based algorithms, to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles. The University of New Mexico was responsible for the experimental portion of the project, while our collaborators at the University of Montana provided plasma transport modeling, and collaborators at Lehigh University developed and explored control methods.

  4. Radial plasma profile and neutron yield in an adiabatic trap with fast atom injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Radial profiles of ion densities depending on two dimensionless parameters, which values are determined by the trap, plasma and injected beam parameters are found in dimensionless units for a plasma generated by fast atom injection in an adiabatic trap. The calculated profiles are used for determining the neutron yield. Simple approximated dimensional relations permitting to estimate quickly neutron yield, required injection power, flux of charge exchange atoms on the wall around the plasma in a wide energy range of injected atoms, trap field modulud, injection angle, trap radius and length are determined. The energetic efficiency of neutron production is estimated and it is shown that it grows with the injection energy. 7 refs.; 7 figs

  5. Final Technical Report: Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Eugenio

    2014-05-02

    The strong coupling between the different physical variables involved in the plasma transport phenomenon and the high complexity of its dynamics call for a model-based, multivariable approach to profile control where those predictive models could be exploited. The overall objective of this project has been to extend the existing body of work by investigating numerically and experimentally active control of unstable fluctuations, including fully developed turbulence and the associated cross-field particle transport, via manipulation of flow profiles in a magnetized laboratory plasma device. Fluctuations and particle transport can be monitored by an array of electrostatic probes, and Ex B flow profiles can be controlled via a set of biased concentric ring electrodes that terminate the plasma column. The goals of the proposed research have been threefold: i- to develop a predictive code to simulate plasma transport in the linear HELCAT (HELicon-CAThode) plasma device at the University of New Mexico (UNM), where the experimental component of the proposed research has been carried out; ii- to establish the feasibility of using advanced model-based control algorithms to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles, iii- to investigate the fundamental nonlinear dynamics of turbulence and transport physics. Lehigh University (LU), including Prof. Eugenio Schuster and one full-time graduate student, has been primarily responsible for control-oriented modeling and model-based control design. Undergraduate students have also participated in this project through the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program. The main goal of the LU Plasma Control Group has been to study the feasibility of controlling turbulence-driven transport by shaping the radial poloidal flow profile (i.e., by controlling flow shear) via biased concentric ring electrodes.

  6. Investigation of mechanisms for He-I emission radial profile broadening in a weakly ionized cylindrical helium plasma with recombining edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Brandt, C.; Hudson, B.; Nishijima, D.; Pigarov, A. Yu. [University of California–San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Kumar, D. [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles St., Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements of He-I line emission are used to study the causes of emission profile broadening radially across the cylinder of a weakly ionized helium plasma. The plasma consists of an ionizing core (r < 2 cm) surrounded by a recombining edge (r > 2 cm) plasma. The brightness profiles of low-n EUV He-I resonance lines are shown to be strongly radially broadened due to opacity. The brightness profiles of high-n visible lines are also found to be strongly radially broadened, but dominantly due to edge recombination. Visible low-n lines are less strongly radially broadened, apparently by a combination of both recombination and EUV opacity. The low-n visible He-I line ratio method with central opacity correction is found to calculate central electron density and temperature well, with poor agreement at the edge, as expected for recombining plasma. In the recombining edge, high-n Boltzmann analysis is found to accurately measure the cold (T{sub e} < 0.2 eV) edge temperature. Near the core, however, high-n Boltzmann analysis can be complicated by electron-impact excitation, giving incorrect (T{sub e}≈ 0.1 eV) apparent temperatures. Probe measurements were not able to capture the cold edge temperature accurately, probably due to large potential fluctuations, even when using fast triple probe measurements. Fast spectroscopic measurements show that this discrepancy is not explained by recombining plasma alternating with ionizing plasma in the edge region.

  7. Role of ion magnetization in formation of radial density profile in magnetically expanding plasma produced by helicon antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sonu; Ghosh, Soumen; Bose, Sayak; Barada, Kshitish K.; Pal, Rabindranath; Chattopadhyay, Prabal K.

    2018-04-01

    Experimentally, the density profile in the magnetic nozzle of a helicon antenna based plasma device is seen to be modified from being centrally peaked to that of hollow nature as the external magnetic field is increased. It occurs above a characteristic field value when the ions become magnetized in the expansion chamber. The density profile in the source chamber behind the nozzle, however, remains peaked on-axis irrespective of the magnetic field. The electron temperature there is observed to be hollow and this nature is carried to the expansion chamber along the field line. In the electron energy distribution near the off axis peak location, a high energy tail exists. Rotation of these tail electrons in the azimuthal direction due to the gradient-B drift in the expansion chamber leads to an additional off-axis ionization and forms the hollow density profile. It seems that if the ions are not magnetized, then the off-axially produced additional plasma is not confined and the density profile retains the on-axis peak nature. The present experiment successfully demonstrates how the knowledge of the ion magnetization together with tail electrons significantly contributes to the design of an efficient helicon plasma based thruster.

  8. The importance of the radial electric field (Er) on interpretation of motional Stark effect measurements of the q profile in DIII-D high performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.; Lao, L.L.; Burrell, K.H.; Greenfield, C.M.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.

    1997-06-01

    The development of enhanced confinement regimes such as negative central magnetic shear (NCS) and VH-mode illustrates the importance of the q profile and ExB velocity shear in improving stability and confinement in tokamak plasmas. Recently, it was realized that the large values of radial electric field observed in these high performance plasmas, up to 200 kV/m in DIII-D, have an effect on the interpretation of motional Stark effect (MSE) measurements of the q profile. It has also been shown that, with additional MSE measurements, one can extract a direct measurement of E r in addition to the usual poloidal field measurement. During a recent vent on DIII-D, 19 additional MSE channels with new viewing angles were added (for a total of 35 channels) in order to descriminate between the neutral beam v b x B electric field and the plasma E r field. In this paper, the system upgrade will be described and initial measurements demonstrating simultaneous measurement of the q and E r profiles will be presented

  9. Physical mechanism determining the radial electric field and its radial structure in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi; Miura, Yukitoshi; Itoh, Sanae

    1994-10-01

    Radial structures of plasma rotation and radial electric field are experimentally studied in tokamak, heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices. The perpendicular and parallel viscosities are measured. The parallel viscosity, which is dominant in determining the toroidal velocity in heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices, is found to be neoclassical. On the other hand, the perpendicular viscosity, which is dominant in dictating the toroidal rotation in tokamaks, is anomalous. Even without external momentum input, both a plasma rotation and a radial electric field exist in tokamaks and heliotrons/torsatrons. The observed profiles of the radial electric field do not agree with the theoretical prediction based on neoclassical transport. This is mainly due to the existence of anomalous perpendicular viscosity. The shear of the radial electric field improves particle and heat transport both in bulk and edge plasma regimes of tokamaks. (author) 95 refs

  10. On helicon wave induced radial plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1993-04-01

    Estimates of helicon wave induced radial plasma transport are presented. The wave induced transport grows or decreases in dependence on the sign of the azimuthal wave number; these changes in transport may play an important role in helicon wave plasma sources. (author) 5 figs., 18 refs

  11. Plasma Signatures of Radial Field Power Dropouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucek, E.A.; Horbury, T.S.; Balogh, A.; McComas, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    A class of small scale structures, with a near-radial magnetic field and a drop in magnetic field fluctuation power, have recently been identified in the polar solar wind. An earlier study of 24 events, each lasting for 6 hours or more, identified no clear plasma signature. In an extension of that work, radial intervals lasting for 4 hours or more (89 in total), have been used to search for a statistically significant plasma signature. It was found that, despite considerable variations between intervals, there was a small but significant drop, on average, in plasma temperature, density and β during these events

  12. Interactions between Radial Electric Field, Transport and Structure in Helical Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi and others

    2006-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. Particle and heat transport, that determines the radial structure of density and electron profiles, sensitive to the structure of radial electric field. On the other hand, the radial electric field itself is determined by the plasma parameters. In general, the sign of the radial electric field is determined by the plasma collisionality, while the magnitude of the radial electric field is determined by the temperature and/or density gradients. Therefore the structure of radial electric field and temperature and density are strongly coupled through the particle and heat transport and formation mechanism of radial electric field. Interactions between radial electric field, transport and structure in helical plasmas is discussed based on the experiments on Large Helical Device

  13. Radial interchange motions of plasma filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Fundamenski, W.

    2006-01-01

    on a biperiodic domain perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is demonstrated that a blob-like plasma structure develops dipolar vorticity and electrostatic potential fields, resulting in rapid radial acceleration and formation of a steep front and a trailing wake. While the dynamical evolution strongly depends...

  14. Nonlocality of plasma fluctuations and transport in magnetically confined plasmas nonlocal plasma transport and radial structural formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    Experimental evidence and underlying physical processes of nonlocal characters and structural formation in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas are reviewed. Radial profiles of the plasmas exhibit characteristic structures, depending on the various confinement regimes. Profile stiffness subjected to some global constraint and rapid plasma responses to applied plasma perturbation result from nonlocal transport. Once the plasma is free from the constraint, the plasma state can be changed to a new state exhibiting various types of prominent structural formation such as an internal transport barrier. (author)

  15. Effects of applied dc radial electric fields on particle transport in a bumpy torus plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of applied dc radial electric fields on particle transport in a bumpy torus plasma is studied. The plasma, magnetic field, and ion heating mechanism are operated in steady state. Ion kinetic temperature is more than a factor of ten higher than electron temperature. The electric fields raise the ions to energies on the order of kilovolts and then point radially inward or outward. Plasma number density profiles are flat or triangular across the plasma diameter. It is suggested that the radial transport processes are nondiffusional and dominated by strong radial electric fields. These characteristics are caused by the absence of a second derivative in the density profile and the flat electron temperature profiles. If the electric field acting on the minor radius of the toroidal plasma points inward, plasma number density and confinement time are increased.

  16. Radially sheared azimuthal flows and turbulent transport in a cylindrical helicon plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynan, G R; Burin, M J; Holland, C; Antar, G; Diamond, P H

    2004-01-01

    A radially sheared azimuthal flow is observed in a cylindrical helicon plasma device. The shear flow is roughly azimuthally symmetric and contains both time-stationary and slowly varying components. The turbulent radial particle flux is found to peak near the density gradient maximum and vanishes at the shear layer location. The shape of the radial plasma potential profile associated with the azimuthal E x B flow is predicted accurately by theory. The existence of the mean shear flow in a plasma with finite flow damping from ion-neutral collisions and no external momentum input implies the existence of radial angular momentum transport from the turbulent Reynolds-stress

  17. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B r ∼ (10 −4 –10 −2 )(r/ AU) −2 G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10 −8 M ⊙ yr −1 are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper

  18. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Thompson, Christopher [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-11-10

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B{sub r} ∼ (10{sup −4}–10{sup −2})(r/ AU){sup −2} G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  19. Radial magnetic compression in the expelled jet of a plasma deflagration accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebner, Keith T. K.; Underwood, Thomas C.; Mouratidis, Theodore; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    A spectroscopic study of a pulsed plasma deflagration accelerator is carried out that confirms the existence of a strong compression in the emerging jet at the exit plane of the device. An imaging spectrometer is used to collect broadened Hα emission from a transaxial slice of the emerging jet at high spatial resolution, and the radial plasma density profile is computed from Voigt fits of the Abel inverted emissivity profiles. The plasma temperature, determined via Doppler broadening of impurity line emission, is compared against the temperature predictions of a radial magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium model applied to the measured density profiles. Empirical scaling laws developed for the plasma density, combined with the measured and predicted temperatures, indicate that a radially equilibrated Z-pinch is formed within the expelled plasma jet at the exit plane during the deflagration process.

  20. Measurements of radial profiles of ion cyclotron resonance heating on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falabella, S.

    1988-05-11

    A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). The probe has been inserted into the central-cell plasma at temperatures of 200 eV and densities of 3 x 10/sup 12/cm/sup /minus 3// without damage to the probe, or major degradation of the plasma. This analyzer has indicated an increase in ion temperature from near 20 eV before ICRH to near 150 eV during ICRH, with about 60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial intergral of n/sub i/T/sub i/ as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat as the plasma conditions carried over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U. 62 refs., 63 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Measurements of radial profiles of ion cyclotron resonance heating on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.

    1988-01-01

    A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). The probe has been inserted into the central-cell plasma at temperatures of 200 eV and densities of 3 x 10 12 cm/sup /minus 3// without damage to the probe, or major degradation of the plasma. This analyzer has indicated an increase in ion temperature from near 20 eV before ICRH to near 150 eV during ICRH, with about 60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial intergral of n/sub i/T/sub i/ as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat as the plasma conditions carried over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U. 62 refs., 63 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Measurements of radial profiles of ion cyclotron resonance heating on the tandem mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.

    1988-01-01

    A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). This analyzer indicates an increase in ion temperature from ∼20 eV before ICRH to ∼150 eV during ICRH, with ∼60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial integral of n i T i as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma potential is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat, as the plasma conditions varied over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U

  3. Electron cyclotron absorption in Tokamak plasmas in the presence of radial transport of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Paulo R. da S.; Ziebell, Luiz F.

    1998-01-01

    We use quasilinear theory to study effects of particle radial transport on the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient by a current carrying plasma, in a tokamak modelated as a plasma slab. Our numerical results indicate significant modification in the profile of the electron cyclotron absorption coefficient when transport is taken into account relative to the situation without transport. (author)

  4. Illumination Profile & Dispersion Variation Effects on Radial Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil B.; Ma, Bo; Li, Rui; SDSS-III

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) measures radial velocities using a fiber-fed dispersed fixed-delay interferometer (DFDI) with a moderate dispersion spectrograph. This setup allows a unique insight into the 2D illumination profile from the fiber on to the dispersion grating. Illumination profile investigations show large changes in the profile over time and fiber location. These profile changes are correlated with dispersion changes and long-term radial velocity offsets, a major problem within the MARVELS radial velocity data. Characterizing illumination profiles creates a method to both detect and correct radial velocity offsets, allowing for better planet detection. Here we report our early results from this study including improvement of radial velocity data points from detected giant planet candidates. We also report an illumination profile experiment conducted at the Kitt Peak National Observatory using the EXPERT instrument, which has a DFDI mode similar to MARVELS. Using profile controlling octagonal-shaped fibers, long term offsets over a 3 month time period were reduced from ~50 m/s to within the photon limit of ~4 m/s.

  5. TPSS plasma engineering studies: profile effects and plasma power balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, S.K.; Strickler, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A computationally fast profile-averaged, steady-state plasma model has been developed to allow studies of radial effects in ignited and driven tokamak systems. This code was used to search for the smallest size tokamak consistent with power balance calculations

  6. Turbulence in tokamak plasmas. Effect of a radial electric field shear; Turbulence dans les plasmas de tokamaks. Effet d`un cisaillement de champ electrique radial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payan, J

    1994-05-01

    After a review of turbulence and transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas and the radial electric field shear effect in various tokamaks, experimental measurements obtained at Tore Supra by the means of the ALTAIR plasma diagnostic technique, are presented. Electronic drift waves destabilization mechanisms, which are the main features that could describe the experimentally observed microturbulence, are then examined. The effect of a radial electric field shear on electronic drift waves is then introduced, and results with ohmic heating are studied together with relations between turbulence and transport. The possible existence of ionic waves is rejected, and a spectral frequency modelization is presented, based on the existence of an electric field sheared radial profile. The position of the inversion point of this field is calculated for different values of the mean density and the plasma current, and the modelization is applied to the TEXT tokamak. The radial electric field at Tore Supra is then estimated. The effect of the ergodic divertor on turbulence and abnormal transport is then described and the density fluctuation radial profile in presence of the ergodic divertor is modelled. 80 figs., 120 refs.

  7. Radial dynamics of an annular REB plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.; Steen, P.G.; Waisman, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have examined the dynamics of annular plasma formed by a ring REB. A current is carried by an annular plasma shell and the current returns on two conducting concentric sleeves. The magnetic forces acting on the plasma tend to prevent it from pinching as the unperturbed magnetic field has a different sign on the two free surfaces (sides) of the plasma. Current flows through the plasma from cathode to anode and returns through the concentric inner and outer conductors

  8. Core radial electric field and transport in Wendelstein 7-X plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablant, N. A.; Langenberg, A.; Alonso, A.; Beidler, C. D.; Bitter, M.; Bozhenkov, S.; Burhenn, R.; Beurskens, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Dinklage, A.; Fuchert, G.; Gates, D.; Geiger, J.; Hill, K. W.; Höfel, U.; Hirsch, M.; Knauer, J.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Landreman, M.; Lazerson, S.; Maaßberg, H.; Marchuk, O.; Massidda, S.; Neilson, G. H.; Pasch, E.; Satake, S.; Svennson, J.; Traverso, P.; Turkin, Y.; Valson, P.; Velasco, J. L.; Weir, G.; Windisch, T.; Wolf, R. C.; Yokoyama, M.; Zhang, D.; W7-X Team

    2018-02-01

    The results from the investigation of neoclassical core transport and the role of the radial electric field profile (Er) in the first operational phase of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator are presented. In stellarator plasmas, the details of the Er profile are expected to have a strong effect on both the particle and heat fluxes. Investigation of the radial electric field is important in understanding neoclassical transport and in validation of neoclassical calculations. The radial electric field is closely related to the perpendicular plasma flow (u⊥) through the force balance equation. This allows the radial electric field to be inferred from measurements of the perpendicular flow velocity, which can be measured using the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer and correlation reflectometry diagnostics. Large changes in the perpendicular rotation, on the order of Δu⊥˜ 5 km/s (ΔEr ˜ 12 kV/m), have been observed within a set of experiments where the heating power was stepped down from 2 MW to 0.6 MW. These experiments are examined in detail to explore the relationship between heating power temperature, and density profiles and the radial electric field. Finally, the inferred Er profiles are compared to initial neoclassical calculations based on measured plasma profiles. The results from several neoclassical codes, sfincs, fortec-3d, and dkes, are compared both with each other and the measurements. These comparisons show good agreement, giving confidence in the applicability of the neoclassical calculations to the W7-X configuration.

  9. Fluid simulation of the phase-shift effect in hydrogen capacitively coupled plasmas: II. Radial uniformity of the plasma characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuru; Xu Xiang; Wang Younian; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional fluid model, including the full set of Maxwell equations, has been developed and applied to investigate the effect of a phase shift between two power sources on the radial uniformity of several plasma characteristics in a hydrogen capacitively coupled plasma. This study was carried out at various frequencies in the range 13.56-200 MHz. When the frequency is low, at 13.56 MHz, the plasma density is characterized by an off-axis peak when both power sources are in-phase (φ = 0), and the best radial uniformity is obtained at φ = π. This trend can be explained because the radial nonuniformity caused by the electrostatic edge effect can be effectively suppressed by the phase-shift effect at a phase difference equal to π. When the frequency rises to 60 MHz, the plasma density profiles shift smoothly from edge-peaked over uniform to centre-peaked as the phase difference increases, due to the pronounced standing-wave effect, and the best radial uniformity is reached at φ = 0.3π. At a frequency of 100 MHz, a similar behaviour is observed, except that the maximum of the plasma density moves again towards the radial edge at the reverse-phase case (φ = π), because of the dominant skin effect. When the frequency is 200 MHz, the bulk plasma density increases significantly with increasing phase-shift values, and a better uniformity is obtained at φ = 0.4π. This is because the density in the centre increases faster than at the radial edge as the phase difference rises, due to the increasing power deposition P z in the centre and the decreasing power density P r at the radial edge. As the phase difference increases to π, the maximum near the radial edge becomes obvious again. This is because the skin effect has a predominant influence on the plasma density under this condition, resulting in a high density at the radial edge. Moreover, the axial ion flux increases monotonically with phase difference, and exhibits similar profiles to the plasma density

  10. Modeling the Radial Color Profile of M31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semionov D.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary study of a fragment of the radial color profile of the spiral galaxy M 31 in terms of 2-D model accounting for internal extinction in the disk. The two stellar population disk model was assumed. The old dust-free disk population is represented by the double exponential law, and the young disk population, well mixed with the dust, resides in spiral arms of various scale-heights. We find a good agreement among the radial color B-R profiles produced by this simple model and the profile measured around the spiral arm S4 of M 31.

  11. Kinetic Profiles in NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.E.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Bourdelle, C.; Ernst, D.R.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaye, S.M.; Maingi, R.; Medley, S.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Peng, M.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.W.; Synakowski, E.J.; Wilson, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio (R/a approximately 1.3) device with auxiliary heating from neutral-beam injection (NBI) and high-harmonic fast-wave heating (HHFW). Typical NSTX parameters are R(subscript ''0'') = 85 cm, a = 67 cm, I(subscript ''p'') = 0.7-1.4 MA, B(subscript ''phi'') = 0.25-0.45 T. Three co-directed deuterium neutral-beam sources have injected P(subscript ''NB'') less than or equal to 4.7 MW. HHFW plasmas typically have delivered P(subscript ''RF'') less than or equal to 3 MW. Important to the understanding of NSTX confinement are the new kinetic profile diagnostics: a multi-pulse Thomson scattering system (MPTS) and a charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) system. The MPTS diagnostic currently measures electron density and temperature profiles at 30 Hz at ten spatial locations. The CHERS system has recently become available to measure carbon ion temperature and toroidal flow at 17 radial positions spanning the outer half of the minor radius with 20 msec time resolution during NBI. Experiments conducted during the last year have produced a wide range of kinetic profiles in NSTX. Some interesting examples are presented below

  12. Turbulence in tokamak plasmas. Effect of a radial electric field shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payan, J.

    1994-05-01

    After a review of turbulence and transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas and the radial electric field shear effect in various tokamaks, experimental measurements obtained at Tore Supra by the means of the ALTAIR plasma diagnostic technique, are presented. Electronic drift waves destabilization mechanisms, which are the main features that could describe the experimentally observed microturbulence, are then examined. The effect of a radial electric field shear on electronic drift waves is then introduced, and results with ohmic heating are studied together with relations between turbulence and transport. The possible existence of ionic waves is rejected, and a spectral frequency modelization is presented, based on the existence of an electric field sheared radial profile. The position of the inversion point of this field is calculated for different values of the mean density and the plasma current, and the modelization is applied to the TEXT tokamak. The radial electric field at Tore Supra is then estimated. The effect of the ergodic divertor on turbulence and abnormal transport is then described and the density fluctuation radial profile in presence of the ergodic divertor is modelled. 80 figs., 120 refs

  13. Control of radial electric field in torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Idei, H.; Sanuki, H.

    1994-09-01

    The radial electric fields is controlled by changing the direction of neutral beam from co to counter to plasma current in tokamak, while it is controlled by the 2nd harmonic ECH and NBI and pellet injection in heliotron/torsatron. (author)

  14. Transport profiles induced by radially localized modes in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beklemishev, A.D.; Horton, W.

    1991-04-01

    We describe a new approach to the calculation of turbulent transport coefficients for radially localized modes. The theory takes into account the nonuniformity of the distribution of rational (resonant) magnetic surfaces in minor radius. This distribution function is proportional to the density of available states of excitation. The resulting density of state correction qualitatively changes the radial profile of the transport coefficients, as compared to the usual local diffusivity formulae. The correction factor calculated for the η i -mode transport allows a much better agreement of χ i with the experimental data than previously achieved. 8 refs., 3 figs

  15. Plasma rotation under a driven radial current in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    The neoclassical behaviour of plasma rotation under a driven radial electrical current is studied in a tokamak geometry. An ambipolar radial electric field develops instantly in such a way that the driven current is balanced by a return current j p in the plasma. The j p x B torque pushes the plasma into a new rotation state both toroidally and poloidally. An anomalous toroidal viscosity is needed to avoid an extreme toroidal rotation speed. It is shown that the poloidal rotation relaxes to a new equilibrium speed, which is in general smaller than the E x B poloidal speed, and that the timescale for the relaxation of poloidal rotation is the same as that of toroidal rotation generation, which is usually much longer than the ion-ion collision time. (author)

  16. Evolution of the radial electric field in a JET H-mode plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, Y.; Hawkes, N.C.; Biewer, T.; Crombe, K.; Keeling, D.; De la Luna, E.; Giroud, C.; Korotkov, A.; Meigs, A.; Murari, A.; Nunes, I.; Sartori, R.; Tala, T.; Andrew, Y.; Hawkes, N.C.; Keeling, D.; Giroud, C.; Korotkov, A.; Meigs, A.; Biewer, T.; Crombe, K.; De la Luna, E.; Murari, A.; Nunes, I.; Sartori, R.; Tala, T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from recent measurements of carbon impurity ion toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities, ion temperature, ion density and the resulting radial electric field (E r ) profiles are presented from an evolving Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak plasma over a range of energy and particle confinement regimes. Significant levels of edge plasma poloidal rotation velocity have been measured for the first time on JET, with maximum values of ±9 km/s. Such values of poloidal rotation provide an important contribution to the total edge plasma E r profiles. Large values of shear in the measured E r profiles are observed to arise as a consequence of the presence of the edge transport barrier (ETB) and do not appear to be necessary for their formation or destruction. These results have an important impact on potential mechanisms for transport barrier triggering and sustainment in present-day and future high-performance fusion plasmas. (authors)

  17. Microinstabilities in a radially contracting inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, R.; Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1980-07-01

    In order to study the development of microinstabilities in a collapsing cylindrical plasma sheath, corresponding to the situations in a z-pinch or a plasma focus, the dispersion relation for electromagnetic perturbations is derived with the aid of a newly established slab-model for an inhomogeneous, radially contracting plasma. In contrast to previously used slab-models, the orientation of the electric field is in direction of the cylinder axis and the azimuthal magnetic field is induced by the current flowing through the cylindrical plasma slab. The Vlasov equation is used together with the Krook collision term in order to include the influence of collisions. The results of this theory presented in this report will be used to calculate the growth of drift instabilities in the compression phase of a plasma focus, and shall serve as a basis for further development of a more general dispersion relation including runaway-effects. (orig.)

  18. Plasma rotation and radial electric field with a density ramp in an ohmically heated tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Marchal, B.

    1991-10-01

    Measurements of toroidal and poloidal rotation of the TCA plasma with Alfven Wave Heating and different levels of gas feed are reported. The temporal evolution of the rotation was inferred from intrinsic spectral lines of CV, CIII and, using injected helium gas, from HeII. The light collection optics and line intensity permitted the evolution of the plasma rotation to be measured with a time resolution of 2ms. The rotation velocities were used to deduce the radial electric field. With Alfven heating there was no observable change of this electric field that could have been responsible for the density rise which is characteristic of the RF experiments on TCA. The behaviour of the plasma rotation with different plasma density ramp rates was investigated. The toroidal rotation was observed to decrease with increasing plasma density. The poloidal rotation was observed to follow the value of the plasma density. With hard gas puffing, changes in the deduced radial electric field were found to coincide with changes in the peaking of the plasma density profile. Finally, with frozen pellet injection, the expected increase in the radial electric field due to the increased plasma density was not observed, which may explain the poorer confinement of the injected particles. Even in an ohmically heated tokamak, the measurement of the plasma rotation and the radial electric field are shown to be strongly related to the confinement. A thorough statistical analysis of the systematic errors is presented and a new and significant source of uncertainty in the experimental technique is identified. (author) 18 figs., 18 refs

  19. Model for radial gas fraction profiles in vertical pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    A one-dimensional model is presented, which predicts the radial volume fraction profiles from a given bubble size distribution. It bases on the assumption of an equilibrium of the forces acting on a bubble perpendicularly to the flow path (non drag forces). For the prediction of the flow pattern this model could be used within an procedure together with appropriate models for local bubble coalescence and break-up. (orig.)

  20. An axially averaged-radial transport model of tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinja, A.K.; Conn, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    A two-zone axially averaged-radial transport model for edge plasmas is described that incorporates parallel electron and ion conduction, localized recycling, parallel electron pressure gradient effects and sheath losses. Results for high recycling show that the radial electron temperature profile is determined by parallel electron conduction over short radial distances (proportional 3 cm). At larger radius where Tsub(e) has fallen appreciably, convective transport becomes equally important. The downstream density and ion temperature profiles are very flat over the region where electron conduction dominates. This is seen to result from a sharply decaying velocity profile that follows the radial electron temperature. A one-dimensional analytical recycling model shows that at high neutral pumping rates, the plasma density at the plate, nsub(ia), scales linearly with the unperturbed background density, nsub(io). When ionization dominates nsub(ia)/nsub(io) proportional exp(nsub(io)) while in the intermediate regime nsub(ia)/nsub(io) proportional exp(proportional nsub(io)). Such behavior is qualitatively in accord with experimental observations. (orig.)

  1. Transport modelling including radial electric field and plasma rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, A.; Fuji, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.

    1994-01-01

    Using a simple turbulent transport model with a constant diffusion coefficient and a fixed temperature profile, the density profile in a steady state and the transient behaviour during the co and counter neutral beam injection are studied. More consistent analysis has been initiated with a turbulent transport model based on the current diffusive high-n ballooning mode. The enhancement of the radial electric field due to ion orbit losses and the reduction of the transport due to the poloidal rotation shear are demonstrated. The preliminary calculation indicates a sensitive temperature dependence of the density profile. (author)

  2. Turbulence simulations of blob formation and radial propagation in toroidally magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    the presence of long- range correlations in the particle density fluctuations. Finally, conditional statistics of the particle flux demonstrates the intermittency of the turbulent plasma transport and the quasi-periodic apparency of blob structures due to bursting in the global turbulence level....... of particles and heat, which is coupled to a scrape-off layer with linear damping terms for all dependent variables corresponding to transport along open magnetic field lines. The formation of blob structures is related to profile variations caused by bursting in the global turbulence level, which is due...... to a dynamical regulation by self- sustained differential rotation of the plasma layer. Radial propagation of the blob structures follows from a vertical charge polarization due to magnetic guiding centre drifts in the toroidally magnetized plasma. Statistical analysis of the particle density, radial electric...

  3. Radial velocity asymmetries from jets with variable velocity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Velazquez, P. F.; Raga, A. C.; De Colle, F.

    2006-01-01

    We have computed a set of 3-D numerical simulations of radiatively cooling jets including variabilities in both the ejection direction (precession) and the jet velocity (intermittence), using the Yguazu-a code. In order to investigate the effects of jet rotation on the shape of the line profiles, we also introduce an initial toroidal rotation velocity profile. Since the Yguazu-a code includes an atomic/ionic network, we are able to compute the emission coefficients for several emission lines, and we generate line profiles for the Hα, [O I]λ6300, [S II]λ6716 and [N II]λ6548 lines. Using initial parameters that are suitable for the DG Tau microjet, we show that the computed radial velocity shift for the medium-velocity component of the line profile as a function of distance from the jet axis is strikingly similar for rotating and non-rotating jet models

  4. The Gaussian radial basis function method for plasma kinetic theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvijoki, E., E-mail: eero.hirvijoki@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Candy, J.; Belli, E. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Embréus, O. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-10-30

    Description of a magnetized plasma involves the Vlasov equation supplemented with the non-linear Fokker–Planck collision operator. For non-Maxwellian distributions, the collision operator, however, is difficult to compute. In this Letter, we introduce Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) to discretize the velocity space of the entire kinetic system, and give the corresponding analytical expressions for the Vlasov and collision operator. Outlining the general theory, we also highlight the connection to plasma fluid theories, and give 2D and 3D numerical solutions of the non-linear Fokker–Planck equation. Applications are anticipated in both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. - Highlights: • A radically new method to address the velocity space discretization of the non-linear kinetic equation of plasmas. • Elegant and physically intuitive, flexible and mesh-free. • Demonstration of numerical solution of both 2-D and 3-D non-linear Fokker–Planck relaxation problem.

  5. Effect of Magnetic Mirror on the Asymmetry of the Radial Profile of Near-Wall Conductivity in Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Daren; Liu Hui; Fu Haiyang

    2009-01-01

    Considering the actual magnetic field configuration in a Hall thruster, the effect of magnetic mirror on the radial profile of near-wall conductivity (NWC) is studied in this paper. The plasma electron dynamic process is described by the test particle method. The Monte Carlo scheme is used to solve this model. The radial profile of electron mobility is obtained and the role of magnetic mirror in NWC is analysed both theoretically and numerically. The numerical results show that the electron mobility peak due to NWC is inversely proportional to the magnetic mirror ratio and the asymmetry of electron mobility along the radial direction gets greater when the magnetic mirror is considered. This effect indicates that apart from the disparity in the magnetic field strength, the difference in the magnetic mirror ratio near the inner and outer walls would actually augment the asymmetry of the radial profile of NWC in Hall thrusters.

  6. Importance of radial profiles in spectroscopic diagnostics applied to the EXTRAP-T2R reversed-field pinch

    OpenAIRE

    Gravestijn, Bob

    2003-01-01

    The determination of the plasma confinement propertiesdemand data as the electron temperature, the ionic and electrondensity profiles and the radiative emissivity profiles. Thefocus of this thesis is the importance of radial profiles inspectroscopic diagnostics applied to the EXTRAP-T2Rreversed-field pinch. EXTRAP-T2R is a resistive shell reversed-field pinch with amagnetic field shell penetration time much longer than therelaxation cycle time scale. Significant improvements inconfinement pro...

  7. Toroidal equilibrium and radial profiles from magnetic measurements in Extrap T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsell, Per; Jin Li; Tennfors, Einar

    1991-01-01

    The toroidal equilibrium position in the Extrap T1 toroidal Z-pinch is studied by measuring the currents induced in the external octupole field rings. Radial profiles are obtained by an internal magnetic coil array. From the magnetic field, profiles of current density, plasma pressure, safety factor, resistivity and input power density are deduced. A polynomial model is developed to simulate the measured profiles. The classical ion heat conduction losses in Extrap discharges are calculated using this model and compared to the power input. for polynomials matched to magnetic field profiles measured in present experiments, these losses are small. By varying the coefficients of the polynomials, a region is found where the power input can balance the classical heat conduction losses at higher values of Θ and β o . (Author)

  8. Radial structure of curvature-driven instabilities in a hot-electron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, D.A.; Berk, H.L.; Van Dam, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    A nonlocal analysis of curvature-driven instabilities for a hot-electron ring interacting with a warm background plasma has been made. Four different instability modes characteristic of hot-electron plasmas have been examined: the high-frequency hot-electron interchange (at frequencies larger than the ion-cyclotron frequency), the compressional Alfven instability, the interacting background pressure-driven interchange, and the conventional hot-electron interchange (at frequencies below the ion-cyclotron frequency). The decoupling condition between core and hot-electron plasmas has also been examined, and its influence on the background and hot-electron interchange stability boundaries has been studied. The assumed equilibrium plasma profiles and resulting radial mode structure differ somewhat from those used in previous local analytic estimates; however, when the analysis is calibrated to the appropriate effective radial wavelength of the nonlocal calculation, reasonable agreement is obtained. Comparison with recent experimental measurements indicates that certain of these modes may play a role in establishing operating boundaries for the ELMO Bumpy Torus-Scale (EBT-S) experiment. The calculations given here indicate the necessity of having core plasma outside the ring to prevent the destabilizing wave resonance of the precessional mode with a cold plasma

  9. Variations of helicon wave induced radial plasma transport in different experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1993-08-01

    Variations of the helicon wave induced radial plasma transport are presented in dependence on values of the plasma radius, magnetostatic field, plasma density, frequency of the helicon wave and on the ion charge. 22 refs., 14 figs

  10. Radial electric field studies in the plasma edge of ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viezzer, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    In magnetically confined fusion plasmas, edge transport barriers (ETBs) are formed during the transition from a highly turbulent state (low confinement regime, L-mode) to a high energy confinement regime (H-mode) with reduced turbulence and transport. The performance of an H-mode fusion plasma is highly dependent on the strength of the ETB which extends typically over the outermost 5% of the confined plasma. The formation of the ETB is strongly connected to the existence of a sheared plasma flow perpendicular to the magnetic field caused by a local radial electric field E r . The gradients in E r and the accompanying E x B velocity shear play a fundamental role in edge turbulence suppression, transport barrier formation and the transition to H-mode. Thus, the interplay between macroscopic flows and transport at the plasma edge is of crucial importance to understanding plasma confinement and stability. The work presented in this thesis is based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) measurements performed at the plasma edge of the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak. During this thesis new high-resolution CXRS diagnostics were installed at the outboard and inboard miplane of AUG, which provide measurements of the temperature, density and flows of the observed species. From these measurements the radial electric field can be directly determined via the radial force balance equation. The new CXRS measurements, combined with the other edge diagnostics available at AUG, allow for an unprecedented, high-accuracy localization (2-3 mm) of the E r profile. The radial electric field has been derived from charge exchange spectra measured on different impurity species including He 2+ , B 5+ , C 6+ and Ne 10+ . The resulting E r profiles are found to be identical within the uncertainties regardless of the impurity species used, thus demonstrating the validity of the diagnostic technique. Inside the ETB the E r profile forms a deep, negative (i.e. directed towards the

  11. Transport analysis of radial electric field in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2004-01-01

    A set of transport equations is analyzed which induces the radial transition of the electric field. A temperature profile which is related with the transport barrier is obtained by use of the theoretical model for the anomalous transport diffusivities. A dependence on the different initial condition is found even if the same values of the control parameters are used in calculations. A study of the temporal evolution of E r is done. We examine the test of the adopted theoretical model for the anomalous transport diffusivities compared with the experimental result in Large Helical Device (LHD). (authors)

  12. Radial Distribution Functions of Strongly Coupled Two-Temperature Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-10-01

    We present tests of three theoretical models for the radial distribution functions (RDFs) in two-temperature strongly coupled plasmas. RDFs are useful in extending plasma thermodynamics and kinetic theory to strong coupling, but they are usually known only for thermal equilibrium or for approximate one-component model plasmas. Accurate two-component modeling is necessary to understand the impact of strong coupling on inter-species transport, e.g., ambipolar diffusion and electron-ion temperature relaxation. We demonstrate that the Seuferling-Vogel-Toeppfer (SVT) extension of the hypernetted chain equations not only gives accurate RDFs (as compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations), but also has a simple connection with the Yukawa OCP model. This connection gives a practical means to recover the structure of the electron background from knowledge of the ion-ion RDF alone. Using the model RDFs in Effective Potential Theory, we report the first predictions of inter-species transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas far from equilibrium. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1453736, AFSOR Award No. FA9550-16-1-0221, and used XSEDE computational resources.

  13. Axisymmetric instability of a self-pinched beam with rounded radial density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.C.; Uhm, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    The axisymmetric perturbations (sausage and hollowing modes) of an intense relativistic self-pinched electron beam propagating in a resistive plasma background are studied, especially for a beam with rounded radial density profile. The Bennett profiles are assumed for both the equilibrium beam current J/sub b/(r) = J/sub b/(0) (1+r 2 /R 2 /sub b/) -2 and plasma return current J/sub p/(r) = -fJ/sub b/(0) (1+r 2 /R 2 /sub p/) -2 , where R/sub b/ and R/sub p/ are the characteristic radii of the beam and plasma return currents, respectively. It is further assumed that the electric conductivity sigma(r) of the plasma channel is proportional to the return current. For a paraxial electron beam with complete space-charge neutralization by the ambient plasma, the axisymmetric modes can be destabilized by the phase lag between the magnetic field and beam current, even without the plasma return current. The plasma return current significantly modifies the growth rate of the instability such that the ratio of plasma current to beam current (-I/sub p//I/sub b/ = fR 2 /sub p// iR 2 /sub b/) largely determines the stability character of the beam. Furthermore, for the same fractional current neutralization f, the modes are highly unstable for a smaller ratio of plasma to beam radius R/sub p//R/sub b/. As compared to the resistive hose instability, the growth rates for the hollowing mode can be larger than those of the hose mode, while the sausage mode is much stabler than the hose mode. Stability properties are illustrated in detail for various system parameters

  14. Theoretical transport analysis of density limit with radial electric field in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2010-11-01

    The confinement property in helical toroidal plasmas is clarified. The analysis is performed by use of the one-dimensional transport equations with the effect of the radiative loss and the radial profile of the electric field. The analytical results in the edge region show the steep gradient in the electron temperature, which indicates the transport barrier formation. Because of the rapid increase of the radiative loss at the low electron temperature, the anomalous heat diffusivity is reduced near the edge. Next, the efficiency of the heating power input in the presence of the radiative loss is studied. The scaling of the critical density in helical devices is also derived. (author)

  15. Radial profiles of hard X-ray emission during steady state current drive in the TRIAM-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Takabatake, Y.; Jotaki, E.; Moriyama, S.; Nagao, A.; Nakamura, K.; Hiraki, N.; Itoh, S.

    1990-01-01

    The hard X-ray emission from the TRIAM-1M tokamak plasma during steady state lower hybrid current drive with a discharge duration of a few minutes was measured with sodium iodide scintillation spectrometers. The radial profiles of the X-ray emission were also measured and indicate that, in the low density regime (n e =(1-3)x10 12 cm -3 ), the current carrying high energy electrons are mainly in the inner region of the plasma column and their radial profile remains unchanged during current drive. On the other hand, high density discharges (n e =(3-6)x10 12 cm -3 ) are always accompanied by an abrupt drop of the plasma current, and the X-ray emission profile changes from peaked to broad. This change can be attributed to the conditions of wave accessibility. As the electron density increases, the accessibility of the plasma to lower hybrid waves with low values of the parallel wave number n parallel is significantly reduced and high energy electrons resonating with the waves are produced at the plasma periphery. Interaction of these electrons with the limiters causes an increase of the electron density in this region; waves with low n parallel then become completely excluded from the inner part of the plasma column. This interpretation is supported by measurements of the density profile and impurity radiation, and has been confirmed in an investigation of discharges with additional gas puffing. (author). 17 refs, 21 figs

  16. Effect of radial electric field inhomogeneity on anomalous cross field plasma flux in Heliotron/Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Tomejiro; Sanuki, Heiji.

    1996-01-01

    Anomalous cross field plasma fluxes induced by the electric field fluctuations has been evaluated in a rotating plasma with shear flow in a helical system. The anomalous ion flux is evaluated by the contribution from ion curvature drift resonance continuum in the test particle model. The radial electric field induces the Doppler frequency shift which disappears in the frequency integrated anomalous flux. The inhomogeneity of the electric field (shear flow effect), however, induces a new force term in the flux. The curvature drift resonance also induces a new force term '/ which, however, did not make large influence in the ion flux in the CHS configuration. The shear flow term in the flux combined with the electric field in neoclassical flux reduces to a first order differential equation which governs the radial profile of the electric field. Numerical results indicate that the shear flow effect is important for the anomalous cross field flux and for determination of the radial electric field particularly in the peripheral region. (author)

  17. Effect of ion orbit loss on the structure in the H-mode tokamak edge pedestal profiles of rotation velocity, radial electric field, density, and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of ion orbit loss of thermal ions and the compensating return ion current directly on the radial ion flux flowing in the plasma, and thereby indirectly on the toroidal and poloidal rotation velocity profiles, the radial electric field, density, and temperature profiles, and the interpretation of diffusive and non-diffusive transport coefficients in the plasma edge, is described. Illustrative calculations for a high-confinement H-mode DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] plasma are presented and compared with experimental results. Taking into account, ion orbit loss of thermal ions and the compensating return ion current is found to have a significant effect on the structure of the radial profiles of these quantities in the edge plasma, indicating the necessity of taking ion orbit loss effects into account in interpreting or predicting these quantities

  18. Radial extension of drift waves in presence of velocity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Weiland, J.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a radially varying poloidal velocity field on the recently found radially extended toroidal drift waves is investigated analytically. The role of velocity curvature (υ φ '') is found to have robust effects on the radial model structure of the mode. For a positive value of the curvature (Usually found in the H-mode edges) the radial model envelope, similar to the sheared slab case, becomes fully outgoing. The mode is therefore stable. On the other hand, for a negative value of the curvature (usually observed in the L-mode edges) all the characteristics of conventional drift waves return back. The radial mode envelope reduces to a localized Gaussian shape and the mode is therefore unstable again for typical (magnetic) shear values in tokamaks. Velocity shear (υ φ ??) on the other hand is found to have rather insignificant role both in determining the radial model structure and stability

  19. Radial profile of pressure in a storm ring current as a function of D st

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtyukh, A. S.

    2010-06-01

    Using satellite data obtained near the equatorial plane during 12 magnetic storms with amplitudes from -61 down to -422 nT, the dependences of maximum in L-profile of pressure ( L m) of the ring current (RC) on the current value of D st are constructed, and their analytical approximations are derived. It is established that function L m( D st ) is steeper on the phase of recovery than during the storm’s main phase. The form of the outer edge of experimental radial profiles of RC pressure is studied, and it is demonstrated to correspond to exponential growth of the total energy of RC particles on a given L shell with decreasing L. It is shown that during the storms’ main phase the ratio of plasma and magnetic field pressures at the RC maximum does not practically depend on the storm strength and L m value. This fact reflects resistance of the Earth’s magnetic field to RC expansion, and testifies that during storms the possibilities of injection to small L are limited for RC particles. During the storms’ recovery phase this ratio quickly increases with increasing L m, which reflects an increased fraction of plasma in the total pressure balance. It is demonstrated that function L m( D st ) is derived for the main phase of storms from the equations of drift motion of RC ions in electrical and magnetic fields, reflecting the dipole character of magnetic field and scale invariance of the pattern of particle convection near the RC maximum. For the recovery phase it is obtained from the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relationship. The obtained regularities allow one to judge about the radial profile of RC pressure from ground-based magnetic measurements (data on the D st variation).

  20. Inward transport of a toroidally confined plasma subject to strong radial electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J.; Kim, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The paper aims at showing that the density and confinement time of a toroidal plasma can be enhanced by radial electric fields far stronger than the ambipolar values, and that, if such electric fields point into the plasma, radially inward transport can result. The investigation deals with low-frequency fluctuation-induced transport using digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques and with the role of strong applied radial electric fields and weak vertical magnetic fields on plasma density and particle confinement times in a Bumpy Torus geometry. Results indicate that application of sufficiently strong radially inward electric fields results in radially inward fluctuation-induced transport into the toroidal electrostatic potential well; this inward transport gives rise to higher average electron densities and longer particle confinement times in the toroidal plasma.

  1. Measurements and modeling of transport and impurity radial profiles in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-09-01

    Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4×1010cm-3 for a central electron density of 1×1013cm-3. Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20m2 s-1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ˜2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge.

  2. Measurements and modeling of transport and impurity radial profiles in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-01-01

    Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4x10 10 cm -3 for a central electron density of 1x10 13 cm -3 . Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20 m 2 s -1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ∼2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge

  3. Radial electric field studies in the plasma edge of ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viezzer, Eleonora

    2012-12-18

    In magnetically confined fusion plasmas, edge transport barriers (ETBs) are formed during the transition from a highly turbulent state (low confinement regime, L-mode) to a high energy confinement regime (H-mode) with reduced turbulence and transport. The performance of an H-mode fusion plasma is highly dependent on the strength of the ETB which extends typically over the outermost 5% of the confined plasma. The formation of the ETB is strongly connected to the existence of a sheared plasma flow perpendicular to the magnetic field caused by a local radial electric field E{sub r}. The gradients in E{sub r} and the accompanying E x B velocity shear play a fundamental role in edge turbulence suppression, transport barrier formation and the transition to H-mode. Thus, the interplay between macroscopic flows and transport at the plasma edge is of crucial importance to understanding plasma confinement and stability. The work presented in this thesis is based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) measurements performed at the plasma edge of the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak. During this thesis new high-resolution CXRS diagnostics were installed at the outboard and inboard miplane of AUG, which provide measurements of the temperature, density and flows of the observed species. From these measurements the radial electric field can be directly determined via the radial force balance equation. The new CXRS measurements, combined with the other edge diagnostics available at AUG, allow for an unprecedented, high-accuracy localization (2-3 mm) of the E{sub r} profile. The radial electric field has been derived from charge exchange spectra measured on different impurity species including He{sup 2+}, B{sup 5+}, C{sup 6+} and Ne{sup 10+}. The resulting E{sub r} profiles are found to be identical within the uncertainties regardless of the impurity species used, thus demonstrating the validity of the diagnostic technique. Inside the ETB the E{sub r} profile forms a deep

  4. Structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow in high temperature toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    The structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow is discussed for the high temperature plasma in toroidal systems, tokamak and Heliotron type magnetic configurations. The spontaneous toroidal and poloidal flows are observed in the plasma with improved confinement. The radial electric field is mainly determined by the poloidal flow, because the contribution of toroidal flow to the radial electric field is small. The jump of radial electric field and poloidal flow are commonly observed near the plasma edge in the so-called high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas in tokamaks and electron root plasma in stellarators including Heliotrons. In general the toroidal flow is driven by the momentum input from neutral beam injected toroidally. There is toroidal flow not driven by neutral beam in the plasma and it will be more significant in the plasma with large electric field. The direction of these spontaneous toroidal flows depends on the symmetry of magnetic field. The spontaneous toroidal flow driven by the ion temperature gradient is in the direction to increase the negative radial electric field in tokamak. The direction of spontaneous toroidal flow in Heliotron plasmas is opposite to that in tokamak plasma because of the helicity of symmetry of the magnetic field configuration. (author)

  5. Effects of radial envelope modulations on the collisionless trapped-electron mode in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Tian; Chen, Liu

    2018-05-01

    Adopting the ballooning-mode representation and including the effects of radial envelope modulations, we have derived the corresponding linear eigenmode equation for the collisionless trapped-electron mode in tokamak plasmas. Numerical solutions of the eigenmode equation indicate that finite radial envelope modulations can affect the linear stability properties both quantitatively and qualitatively via the significant modifications in the corresponding eigenmode structures.

  6. radial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN WILLIAM BRANCH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La creación de modelos de objetos reales es una tarea compleja para la cual se ha visto que el uso de técnicas tradicionales de modelamiento tiene restricciones. Para resolver algunos de estos problemas, los sensores de rango basados en láser se usan con frecuencia para muestrear la superficie de un objeto desde varios puntos de vista, lo que resulta en un conjunto de imágenes de rango que son registradas e integradas en un modelo final triangulado. En la práctica, debido a las propiedades reflectivas de la superficie, las oclusiones, y limitaciones de acceso, ciertas áreas de la superficie del objeto usualmente no son muestreadas, dejando huecos que pueden crear efectos indeseables en el modelo integrado. En este trabajo, presentamos un nuevo algoritmo para el llenado de huecos a partir de modelos triangulados. El algoritmo comienza localizando la frontera de las regiones donde están los huecos. Un hueco consiste de un camino cerrado de bordes de los triángulos en la frontera que tienen al menos un borde que no es compartido con ningún otro triangulo. El borde del hueco es entonces adaptado mediante un B-Spline donde la variación promedio de la torsión del la aproximación del B-spline es calculada. Utilizando un simple umbral de la variación promedio a lo largo del borde, se puede clasificar automáticamente, entre huecos reales o generados por intervención humana. Siguiendo este proceso de clasificación, se usa entonces una versión automatizada del interpolador de funciones de base radial para llenar el interior del hueco usando los bordes vecinos.

  7. Measurement of plasma edge profile on Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drews, Philipp; Liang, Yunfeng; Neubauer, Olaf; Denner, Peter; Rack, Michael; Liu, Shaocheng; Wang, Nunchao; Nicolai, Dirk; Hollfeld, Klaus; Satheeswaran, Guruparan [Forschungszentrum Juelich, IEK4, Juelich (Germany); Grulke, Olaf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Collaboration: W7-X Team

    2016-07-01

    Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), currently under commissioning at the IPP Greifswald, will be the world's largest stellarator with modular superconducting coils, which will enable steady-state-like plasma operation of up to thirty minutes in order to explore the reactor relevance of this concept. The first operation phase of W7-X will employ a limiter configuration. It will be used primarily for setting up the diagnostics and testing the magnetic configuration. In conjunction with the multipurpose manipulator, a fast reciprocating probe is installed. The combined probe head will be used to measure the radial distribution of the magnetic field using magnetic pick-up coils; the plasma temperature and density profiles and the radial electric field using Langmuir pins; and the plasma flows using a Mach setup. As a quasi-isodynamic stellarator, it has been predicted that not only neoclassical but also turbulent transport will be comparable to or possibly even lower than that of tokamaks. Edge plasma profile measurements, especially those of the electron temperature and density, will play a key role in validating this performance in comparison to the tokamak and hence the viability of a stellarator fusion reactor. The edge plasma profile measurements using the combined probe head are presented.

  8. Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallander, J.

    1999-01-01

    Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities. (author)

  9. Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallander, J.

    1999-05-01

    Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities.

  10. Probability of primordial black hole formation and its dependence on the radial profile of initial configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, J. C.; Polnarev, A. G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we derive the probability of the radial profiles of spherically symmetric inhomogeneities in order to provide an improved estimation of the number density of primordial black holes (PBHs). We demonstrate that the probability of PBH formation depends sensitively on the radial profile of the initial configuration. We do this by characterizing this profile with two parameters chosen heuristically: the amplitude of the inhomogeneity and the second radial derivative, both evaluated at the center of the configuration. We calculate the joint probability of initial cosmological inhomogeneities as a function of these two parameters and then find a correspondence between these parameters and those used in numerical computations of PBH formation. Finally, we extend our heuristic study to evaluate the probability of PBH formation taking into account for the first time the radial profile of curvature inhomogeneities.

  11. Transport in Silicon Nanowires: Role of Radial Dopant Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Rurali, Riccardo; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2008-01-01

    distributions of P dopant impurities. We find that the radial distribution of the dopants influences the conductance properties significantly: surface doped wires have longer mean-free paths and smaller sample-to-sample fluctuations in the cross-over from ballistic to diffusive transport. These findings can...

  12. Radial profiles of neutron emission from ohmic discharges in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheetham, A.; Gottardi, N.; Jarvis, O.N.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron emission profiles from several ohmically heated discharges have been studied using a variety of analytical techniques to extract the ion temperature profiles which are found to agree well, both in shape and magnitude, with the electron temperature profiles as measured by the LIDAR Thomson scattering diagnostic. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs

  13. Comparison of measured and computed radial trajectories of plasma focus devices UMDPF1 and UMDPF0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, L. H.; Yap, S. L., E-mail: yapsl@um.edu.my; Lim, L. K.; Lee, M. C.; Poh, H. S.; Ma, J. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yap, S. S. [UMPEDAC, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia); Lee, S. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    In published literature, there has been scant data on radial trajectory of the plasma focus and no comparison of computed with measured radial trajectory. This paper provides the first such comparative study. We compute the trajectories of the inward-moving radial shock and magnetic piston of UMDPF1 plasma focus and compare these with measured data taken from a streak photograph. The comparison shows agreement with the measured radial trajectory in terms of average speeds and general shape of trajectory. This paper also presents the measured trajectory of the radially compressing piston in another machine, the UMDPF0 plasma focus, confirming that the computed radial trajectory also shows similar general agreement. Features of divergence between the computed and measured trajectories, towards the end of the radial compression, are discussed. From the measured radial trajectories, an inference is made that the neutron yield mechanism could not be thermonuclear. A second inference is made regarding the speeds of axial post-pinch shocks, which are recently considered as a useful tool for damage testing of fusion-related wall materials.

  14. Modelling of radial electric field profile for different divertor configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhansky, V; Kaveeva, E; Voskoboynikov, S; Counsell, G; Kirk, A; Meyer, H; Coster, D; Conway, G; Schirmer, J; Schneider, R

    2006-01-01

    The impact of divertor configuration on the structure of the radial electric field has been simulated by the B2SOLPS5.0 transport fluid code. It is shown that the change in the parallel flows in the scrape-off layer, which are transported through the separatrix due to turbulent viscosity and diffusivity, should result in variation of the radial electric field and toroidal rotation in the separatrix vicinity. The modelling predictions are compared with the measurements of the radial electric field for the low field side equatorial mid-plane of ASDEX Upgrade in lower, upper and double-null (DN) divertor configurations. The parallel (toroidal) flows in the scrape-off layer and mechanisms for their formation are analysed for different geometries. It is demonstrated that a spike in the electric field exists at the high field side equatorial mid-plane in the connected DN divertor configuration. Its origin is connected with different potential drops between the separatrix vicinity and divertor plates in the two disconnected scrape-off layers, while the separatrix should be at almost the same potential. The spike might be important for additional turbulent suppression

  15. Radial-rotation profile forming: A new processing technology of incremental sheet metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, Robert; Härtel, Sebastian; Awiszus, Birgit

    2018-05-01

    Incremental forming processes (i.e., spinning) of sheet metal blanks into cylindrical cups are suitable for lower lot sizes. The produced cups were frequently used as preforms to produce workpieces in further forming steps with additional functions like profiled hollow parts [1]. The incremental forming process radial-rotation profile forming has been developed to enable the production of profiled hollow parts with low sheet thinning and good geometrical accuracy. The two principal forming steps are the production of the preform by rotational swing-folding [2] and the subsequent radial profiling of the hollow part in one clamping position. The rotational swing-folding process is based on a combination of conventional spinning and swing-folding. Therefore, a round blank rotates on a profiled mandrel and due to the swinging of a cylindrical forming tool, the blank is formed to a cup with low sheet thinning. In addition, thickening results at the edge of the blank and wrinkling occurs. However, the wrinkles are formed into the indentation of the profiled mandrel and can be reshaped as an advantage in the second process step, the radial profiling. Due to the rotation and continuous radial feed of a profiled forming tool to the profiled mandrel, the axial profile is formed in the second process step. Because of the minor relative movement in axial direction between tool and blank, low sheet thinning occurs. This is an advantage of the principle of the process.

  16. Self-organization of hot plasmas the canonical profile transport model

    CERN Document Server

    Dnestrovskij, Yu N

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph the author presents the Canonical Profile Transport Model or CPTM as a rather general mathematical framework to simulate plasma discharges.The description of hot plasmas in a magnetic fusion device is a very challenging task and many plasma properties still lack a physical explanation. One important property is plasma self-organization.It is very well known from experiments that the radial profile of the plasma pressure and temperature remains rather unaffected by changes of the deposited power or plasma density. The attractiveness of the CPTM is that it includes the effect o

  17. Control of plasma profile in microwave discharges via inverse-problem approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyoshi Yasaka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the manufacturing process of semiconductors, plasma processing is an essential technology, and the plasma used in the process is required to be of high density, low temperature, large diameter, and high uniformity. This research focuses on the microwave-excited plasma that meets these needs, and the research target is a spatial profile control. Two novel techniques are introduced to control the uniformity; one is a segmented slot antenna that can change radial distribution of the radiated field during operation, and the other is a hyper simulator that can predict microwave power distribution necessary for a desired radial density profile. The control system including these techniques provides a method of controlling radial profiles of the microwave plasma via inverse-problem approach, and is investigated numerically and experimentally.

  18. Ion confinement and transport in a toroidal plasma with externally imposed radial electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, H. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Strong electric fields were imposed along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma by biasing it with electrodes maintained at kilovolt potentials. Coherent, low-frequency disturbances characteristic of various magnetohydrodynamic instabilities were absent in the high-density, well-confined regime. High, direct-current radial electric fields with magnitudes up to 135 volts per centimeter penetrated inward to at least one-half the plasma radius. When the electric field pointed radially toward, the ion transport was inward against a strong local density gradient; and the plasma density and confinement time were significantly enhanced. The radial transport along the electric field appeared to be consistent with fluctuation-induced transport. With negative electrode polarity the particle confinement was consistent with a balance of two processes: a radial infusion of ions, in those sectors of the plasma not containing electrodes, that resulted from the radially inward fields; and ion losses to the electrodes, each of the which acted as a sink and drew ions out of the plasma. A simple model of particle confinement was proposed in which the particle confinement time is proportional to the plasma volume. The scaling predicted by this model was consistent with experimental measurements.

  19. Non-axial-symmetric Alfven waves in cylindrical, radial inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeuchle, E.

    1978-08-01

    The propagation of nonaxialsymmetric Alfven waves is investigated theoretically. Eigenfunctions and dispersion relations are calculated numerically for radial inhomogeneous cylindrical plasmas. In the MHD treatment resistivity, neutral particle loading and ion cyclotron effects are included. The investigations are of importance for plasma heating by Alfven waves. (orig.) [de

  20. The role of fluctuation-induced transport in a toroidal plasma with strong radial electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J. Y.; Kim, Y. C.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work employing digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques is extended to demonstrate that radial fluctuation-induced transport is the dominant ion transport mechanism in an electric field dominated toroidal plasma. Such transport can be made to occur against a density gradient, and hence may have a very beneficial effect on confinement in toroidal plasmas of fusion interest. It is shown that Bohm or classical diffusion down a density gradient, the collisional Pedersen-current mechanism, and the collisionless electric field gradient mechanism described by Cole (1976) all played a minor role, if any, in the radial transport of this plasma.

  1. Heliocentric radial variation of plasma oscillations associated with type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.; Anderson, R.R.; Scarf, F.L.; Kurth, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is presented of all of the electron plasma oscillation events found to date in association with low-frequency type III solar radio bursts using approximately 9 years of observations from the Imp 6 and 8, Helios 1 and 2, and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Plasma oscillation events associated with type III radio bursts show a pronounced increase in both the intensity and the frequency of occurrence with decreasing heliocentric radial distance. This radial dependence explains why intense electron plasma oscillations are seldom observed in association with type III radio bursts at the orbit of the earth. Possible interpretations of the observed radial variation in the plasma oscillation intensity are considered

  2. The influence of collisional and anomalous radial diffusion on parallel ion transport in edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Catto, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The orderings in the kinetic equations commonly used to study the plasma core of a tokamak do not allow a balance between parallel ion streaming and radial diffusion, and are, therefore, inappropriate in the plasma edge. Different orderings are required in the edge region where radial transport across the steep gradients associated with the scrape-off layer is large enough to balance the rapid parallel flow caused by conditions close to collecting surfaces (such as the Bohm sheath condition). In the present work, we derive and solve novel kinetic equations, allowing for such a balance, and construct distinctive transport laws for impure, collisional, edge plasmas in which the perpendicular transport is (i) due to Coulomb collisions of ions with heavy impurities, or (ii) governed by anomalous diffusion driven by electrostatic turbulence. In both the collisional and anomalous radial transport cases, we find that one single diffusion coefficient determines the radial transport of particles, momentum and heat. The parallel transport laws and parallel thermal force in the scrape-off layer assume an unconventional form, in which the relative ion-impurity flow is driven by a combination of the conventional parallel gradients, and new (i) collisional or (ii) anomalous terms involving products of radial derivatives of the temperature and density with the radial shear of the parallel velocity. Thus, in the presence of anomalous radial diffusion, the parallel ion transport cannot be entirely classical, as usually assumed in numerical edge computations. The underlying physical reason is the appearance of a novel type of parallel thermal force resulting from the combined action of anomalous diffusion and radial temperature and velocity gradients. In highly sheared flows the new terms can modify impurity penetration into the core plasma

  3. Investigation of radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuations in the IR-T1 tokamak plasma edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariatzadeh, R; Ghoranneviss, M; Salem, M K [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), PO Box 14665-678, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emami, M, E-mail: rezashariatzadeh@gmail.com [Laser and Optics Research School, NSTRI, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuation is considered extremely important for understanding cross-field anomalous transport. In this paper, two arrays of Langmuir probes are used to analyze electrostatic fluctuations in the edge of IR-T1 tokamak plasma in both the radial and the poloidal directions. The propagation characteristics of the floating potential fluctuations are analyzed by the two-point correlation technique. The wavenumber spectrum shows that there is a net radially outward propagation of turbulent fluctuations in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions. Hence, edge turbulence presumably originates from core fluctuations.

  4. Investigation of radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuations in the IR-T1 tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariatzadeh, R; Ghoranneviss, M; Salem, M K; Emami, M

    2011-01-01

    The radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuation is considered extremely important for understanding cross-field anomalous transport. In this paper, two arrays of Langmuir probes are used to analyze electrostatic fluctuations in the edge of IR-T1 tokamak plasma in both the radial and the poloidal directions. The propagation characteristics of the floating potential fluctuations are analyzed by the two-point correlation technique. The wavenumber spectrum shows that there is a net radially outward propagation of turbulent fluctuations in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions. Hence, edge turbulence presumably originates from core fluctuations.

  5. Scaling laws for TEXT plasma profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCool, S.C.; Bravenec, R.V.; Chen, J.Y.; Foster, M.S.; Li, W.L.; Ouroura, A.; Phillips, P.E.; Richards, B.; Wenzel, K.W.; Zhang, Z.M.

    1994-01-01

    Regression analysis has been performed on a number of measured profiles including temperature and density vs. nominal macroscopic operating parameters for TEXT tokamak (pre-upgrade) ohmic plasmas. The resulting simple empirical model has enabled the authors to quickly approximate profiles of electron temperature and density, ion temperature, and soft x-ray brightness, as well as the scalar quantities: total radiated power, q=1 radius, sawtooth period and amplitude, and energy confinement time as a power law of toroidal field, plasma current, chord average density, and fueling gas atomic weight. The model profiles are only applicable to the plasma interior, i.e. within the limiter radius. In most cases the predicted model profiles are within the experimental error bars of measured profiles and are more accurate at predicting profile variation for small operating parameter changes than the measured profiles

  6. Control of radial propagation and polarity in a plasma jet in surrounding Ar

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, W.

    2018-01-08

    In recent years, the use of shielding gas to prevent the diffusion of the ambient air, particularly oxygen and nitrogen species, into the effluent of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet, and thus control the nature of chemical species used in the plasma treatment has increased. In this paper, the radial propagation of a plasma jet in ambient Ar is examined to find the key determinants of the polarity of plasma jets. The dynamics of the discharge reveal that the radial diffusion discharge is a special phenomenon observed only at the falling edge of the pulses. The radial transport of electrons, which is driven by the radial component of the applied electric field at the falling edge of the pulse, is shown to play an important role in increasing the seed electron density in the surrounding Ar. This result suggests a method to provide seed electrons at atmospheric pressure with a negative discharge. The polarity of the plasma jet is found to be determined by the pulse width rather than the polarity of the applied voltage, as it dictates the relative difference in the intensity of the two discharges in a single pulse, where the stronger discharge in a pulse dominates the behavior of the plasma jet. Accordingly, a method to control the polarity of a plasma jet through varying the pulse width is developed. Since plasma jets of different polarities differ remarkably in terms of their characteristics, the method to control the polarity reported in this paper will be of use for such applications as plasma-enhanced processing of materials and plasma biomedicine.

  7. Control of radial propagation and polarity in a plasma jet in surrounding Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Yue, Y.; Ma, F.; Yu, F.; Wan, J.; Nie, L.; Bazaka, K.; Xian, Y.; Lu, X.; Ostrikov, K.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the use of shielding gas to prevent the diffusion of the ambient air, particularly oxygen and nitrogen species, into the effluent of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet, and thus control the nature of chemical species used in the plasma treatment has increased. In this paper, the radial propagation of a plasma jet in ambient Ar is examined to find the key determinants of the polarity of plasma jets. The dynamics of the discharge reveal that the radial diffusion discharge is a special phenomenon observed only at the falling edge of the pulses. The radial transport of electrons, which is driven by the radial component of the applied electric field at the falling edge of the pulse, is shown to play an important role in increasing the seed electron density in the surrounding Ar. This result suggests a method to provide seed electrons at atmospheric pressure with a negative discharge. The polarity of the plasma jet is found to be determined by the pulse width rather than the polarity of the applied voltage, as it dictates the relative difference in the intensity of the two discharges in a single pulse, where the stronger discharge in a pulse dominates the behavior of the plasma jet. Accordingly, a method to control the polarity of a plasma jet through varying the pulse width is developed. Since plasma jets of different polarities differ remarkably in terms of their characteristics, the method to control the polarity reported in this paper will be of use for such applications as plasma-enhanced processing of materials and plasma biomedicine.

  8. Effects of fueling profiles on plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Mense, A.T.; Attenberger, S.E.; Milora, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of cold particle fueling profiles on particle and energy transport in an ignition sized tokamak plasma are investigated in this study with a one-dimensional, multifluid transport model. A density gradient driven trapped particle microinstability model for plasma transport is used to demonstrate potential effects of fueling profiles on ignition requirements. Important criteria for the development of improved transport models under the conditions of shallow particle fueling profiles are outlined. A discrete pellet fueling model indicates that large fluctuations in density and temperature may occur in the outer regions of the plasma with large, shallowly penetrating pellets, but fluctuations in the pressure profile are small. The hot central core of the plasma remains unaffected by the large fluctuations near the plasma edge

  9. Determination of radial profile of ICF hot spot's state by multi-objective parameters optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jianjun; Deng Bo; Cao Zhurong; Ding Yongkun; Jiang Shaoen

    2014-01-01

    A method using multi-objective parameters optimization is presented to determine the radial profile of hot spot temperature and density. And a parameter space which contain five variables: the temperatures at center and the interface of fuel and remain ablator, the maximum model density of remain ablator, the mass ratio of remain ablator to initial ablator and the position of interface between fuel and the remain ablator, is used to described the hot spot radial temperature and density. Two objective functions are set as the variances of normalized intensity profile from experiment X-ray images and the theory calculation. Another objective function is set as the variance of experiment average temperature of hot spot and the average temperature calculated by theoretical model. The optimized parameters are obtained by multi-objective genetic algorithm searching for the five dimension parameter space, thereby the optimized radial temperature and density profiles can be determined. The radial temperature and density profiles of hot spot by experiment data measured by KB microscope cooperating with X-ray film are presented. It is observed that the temperature profile is strongly correlated to the objective functions. (authors)

  10. Radial energy transport by magnetospheric ULF waves: Effects of magnetic curvature and plasma pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouznetsov, Igor; Lotko, William

    1995-01-01

    The 'radial' transport of energy by internal ULF waves, stimulated by dayside magnetospheric boundary oscillations, is analyzed in the framework of one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. (the term radial is used here to denote the direction orthogonal to geomagnetic flux surfaces.) The model for the inhomogeneous magnetospheric plasma and background magnetic field is axisymmetric and includes radial and parallel variations in the magnetic field, magnetic curvature, plasma density, and low but finite plasma pressure. The radial mode structure of the coupled fast and intermediate MHD waves is determined by numerical solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation; the parallel mode structure is characterized by a Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. Ionospheric dissipation is modeled by allowing the parallel wave number to be complex. For boudnary oscillations with frequencies in the range from 10 to 48 mHz, and using a dipole model for the background magnetic field, the combined effects of magnetic curvature and finite plasma pressure are shown to (1) enhance the amplitude of field line resonances by as much as a factor of 2 relative to values obtained in a cold plasma or box-model approximation for the dayside magnetosphere; (2) increase the energy flux delivered to a given resonance by a factor of 2-4; and (3) broaden the spectral width of the resonance by a factor of 2-3. The effects are attributed to the existence of an 'Alfven buoyancy oscillation,' which approaches the usual shear mode Alfven wave at resonance, but unlike the shear Alfven mode, it is dispersive at short perpendicular wavelengths. The form of dispersion is analogous to that of an internal atmospheric gravity wave, with the magnetic tension of the curved background field providing the restoring force and allowing radial propagation of the mode. For nominal dayside parameters, the propagation band of the Alfven buoyancy wave occurs between the location of its (field line) resonance and that of the

  11. Formula for radial profiles of temperature in steam-liquid sodium reactive jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbes, P.; Mora-Perez, J.L.; Carreau, J.L.; Gbahoue, L.; Roger, F.

    1987-01-01

    One of the important problems of the study of distribution of temperatures in the reactive steam-liquid sodium jet rests in the mathematical formulation of their radial effects. During the experiment, two forms have been brought to light: from a certain distance of the injector, the radial distribution of temperature can be represented, in a classical way, by an error function curve; close to the injector, the radial profile allows for a minimum located on the axis of the jet. An energy balance permits, by dividing the jet in three parts: a central nucleus composed of practically pure gas, a gas ring plus drops and a liquid peripheral area plus bubbles, to obtain a mathematical formulation of the profiles, close to the injection which accounts quite well for the experimental points and their form

  12. Two dimensional radial gas flows in atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwihyun; Park, Seran; Shin, Hyunsu; Song, Seungho; Oh, Hoon-Jung; Ko, Dae Hong; Choi, Jung-Il; Baik, Seung Jae

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure (AP) operation of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is one of promising concepts for high quality and low cost processing. Atmospheric plasma discharge requires narrow gap configuration, which causes an inherent feature of AP PECVD. Two dimensional radial gas flows in AP PECVD induces radial variation of mass-transport and that of substrate temperature. The opposite trend of these variations would be the key consideration in the development of uniform deposition process. Another inherent feature of AP PECVD is confined plasma discharge, from which volume power density concept is derived as a key parameter for the control of deposition rate. We investigated deposition rate as a function of volume power density, gas flux, source gas partial pressure, hydrogen partial pressure, plasma source frequency, and substrate temperature; and derived a design guideline of deposition tool and process development in terms of deposition rate and uniformity.

  13. A model for predicting the radial power profile in a fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, I.D.; Hesketh, K.W.; Jackson, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A simple, fast running computer program for calculating radial power profiles, throughout life, in both standard and duplex fuel pellets for all types of thermal reactor has been developed. The code sub-divides the pellet into a number of annuli for each of which it solves for the concentrations of uranium and plutonium and hence calculates a mean inverse diffusion length. The diffusion equation is solved in terms of Bessel functions and the resulting flux profile multiplied by the concentration profiles to give a radial rating profile which is normalised to unity. The model shows good agreement with the results of detailed physics calculations for different thermal reactors over a wide burn-up range. Its incorporation into the HOTROD-4C and SLEUTH-SEER-77 fuel performance codes has led to a negligible increase in running times. (author)

  14. A statistical approach to plasma profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardaun, O.J.W.F.; McCarthy, P.J.; Lackner, K.; Riedel, K.S.

    1990-05-01

    A general statistical approach to the parameterisation and analysis of tokamak profiles is presented. The modelling of the profile dependence on both the radius and the plasma parameters is discussed, and pertinent, classical as well as robust, methods of estimation are reviewed. Special attention is given to statistical tests for discriminating between the various models, and to the construction of confidence intervals for the parameterised profiles and the associated global quantities. The statistical approach is shown to provide a rigorous approach to the empirical testing of plasma profile invariance. (orig.)

  15. Entropy of gravitating systems: scaling laws versus radial profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesci, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Through the consideration of spherically symmetric gravitating systems consisting of perfect fluids with linear equation of state constrained to be in a finite volume, an account is given of the properties of entropy at conditions in which it is no longer an extensive quantity (it does not scale with the system's size). To accomplish this, the methods introduced by Oppenheim (2003 Phys. Rev.E 68 016108) to characterize non-extensivity are used, suitably generalized to the case of gravitating systems subject to an external pressure. In particular when, far from the system's Schwarzschild limit, both area scaling for conventional entropy and inverse radius law for the temperature set in (i.e. the same properties of the corresponding black hole thermodynamical quantities), the entropy profile is found to behave like 1/r, with r the area radius inside the system. In such circumstances entropy heavily resides in internal layers, in opposition to what happens when area scaling is gained while approaching the Schwarzschild mass, in which case conventional entropy lies at the surface of the system. The information content of these systems, even if it globally scales like the area, is then stored in the whole volume, instead of packed on the boundary

  16. Analysis of influence of the radial electric field on turbulent transport in tandem mirror plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvesyuk, Vladimir I.; Chirkov, Alexei Yu.; Pshenichnikov, Anton A.

    2000-01-01

    The model of anomalous transport in cylindrical non-uniform steady state plasma in uniform magnetic field under the influence of many mode drift wave oscillations is suggested. The effect of anomalous transport suppression due to radial electric field is studied, and physical picture of H mode in plasma of GAMMA-10 tandem mirror device is considered. Presented theoretical and numerical results agree with the experimental data obtained on GAMMA-10. (author)

  17. Radial convection of finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesenberger, M.; Madsen, Jens; Kendl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present results from simulations of seeded blob convection in the scrape-off-layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We consistently incorporate high fluctuation amplitude levels and finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects using a fully nonlinear global gyrofluid model. This is in line......-field transport compared to blobs simulated with the local model. The maximal blob amplitude is significantly higher in the global simulations than in the local ones. When the ion temperature is comparable to the electron temperature, global blob simulations show a reduced blob coherence and a decreased cross...

  18. Derivation of the radial profile of ion temperature from the measured energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K; Hiraki, N; Toi, K; Itoh, S

    1980-01-01

    In the TRIAM-1 tokamak the energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals are observed by scanning the neutral energy analyzer vertically. The measured ion temperature obtained from the only energy spectrum observed in the peripheral region is much higher than that predicted by the neoclassical transport theory because of reflection (backscattering) of neutrals at the wall. The actual ion temperature profile is derived from all observed energy spectra by the numerical code in which a wall-reflection effect of neutrals and an impermeability of plasma are taken into account. The reflection coefficient is adjusted so that the calculated ion temperature profile should be the best fit for the ion temperatures measured by the Doppler broadening of the visible lines He II 4686 A and H-alpha at the relevant radial positions.

  19. Derivation of the radial profile of ion temperature from the 'measured' energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Toi, Kazuo; Itoh, Satoshi

    1980-01-01

    In the TRIAM-1 tokamak the energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals are observed by scanning the neutral energy analyzer vertically. The ''measured'' ion temperature obtained from only energy spectrum observed in the peripheral region is much higher than that predicted by the neoclassical transport theory because of reflection (backscattering) of neutrals at the wall. The ''actual'' ion temperature profile is derived from all observed energy spectra by using the numerical code in which a wall-reflection effect of neutrals and an impermeability of plasma are taken into account. In this numerical analysis, the reflection coefficient is adjusted so that the above calculated ion temperature profile should be best fit for the ion temperatures measured by the Doppler broadening of the visible lines HeII 4686 A and H sub(α) at the relevant radial positions. (author)

  20. Derivation of the radial profile of ion temperature from the 'measured' energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K; Hiraki, N; Toi, K; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1980-07-01

    In the TRIAM-1 tokamak the energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals are observed by scanning the neutral energy analyzer vertically. The ''measured'' ion temperature obtained from only energy spectrum observed in the peripheral region is much higher than that predicted by the neoclassical transport theory because of reflection (backscattering) of neutrals at the wall. The ''actual'' ion temperature profile is derived from all observed energy spectra by using the numerical code in which a wall-reflection effect of neutrals and an impermeability of plasma are taken into account. In this numerical analysis, the reflection coefficient is adjusted so that the above calculated ion temperature profile should be best fit for the ion temperatures measured by the Doppler broadening of the visible lines HeII 4686 A and H sub(..cap alpha..) at the relevant radial positions.

  1. Experimental studies of instabilities in radially imploding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oona, H.; Bowers, R.L.; Peterson, D.L.; Findley, C.; Cohrane, J.C.; Ladish, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we present experimental data from two experiments that show the initation and growth of the instabilities and compare them to a two dimensional radiational magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) computation. High-speed cameras (Imacons) were used to observe the implosion as the plasma converges and stagnates on axis. Computer-image enhancement was used to determine the periodicity and amplitude of the initial perturbations. In the two experimental cases, the 5-cm-radius implosion foils had mass of 4.2 and 12.6 milligrams. The data show that the larger mass evolves into a more uniform implosion. Also, we determine the implosion velocity and the growth rate of a selected perturbation

  2. Plasma profile recovery by function parameterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, P.J.; Sexton, M.C.

    1986-11-01

    The use of Function Parameterisation for the recovery of plasma profiles as a function of flux surface area from spatial point data directly combined with external magnetic measurements is demonstrated in the case of ASDEX electron temperature and density profiles. The extrapolated temperature on the magnetic axis is shown to be more reliable than that obtained from a conventional fitting procedure. (orig.)

  3. Effect of plasma density profile of tokamak on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fulin

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of radial distribution of plasma density profile of tokamak on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability caused by toroidal rotation. The effect of radial distribution of plasma rotational velocity on stability is also examine for comparison. It is found that within the range of tokamak parameters the only radial distribution of plasma rotational velocity cannot induce Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. On the contrary, when there is a radial distribution of plasma density, i.e. P 01 =P 0 e -tx and V 0 1 = const, plasma becomes unstable, and instability will increase proportionally to the value of t. Meanwhile when the value of t remains constant, the instability growth rate will decrease if P 0 grows or the distance between plasma and wall of container decreases too. It shows that the Kelvin-Helmoltz instability is not only influenced by the steepness of density profile but also by the inertia of plasma in central region, which is helpful for depressing the instability. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Large plasma pressure perturbations and radial convective transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Yu, Guanghui; Ryutov, Dmitri

    2004-01-01

    Strongly localized plasma structures with large pressure inhomogeneities (such as plasma blobs in the scrape-off-layer (SOL)/shadow regions, pellet clouds, Edge localized Modes (ELMs)) observed in the tokamaks, stellarators and linear plasma devices. Experimental studies of these phenomena reveal striking similarities including more convective rather than diffusive radial plasma transport. We suggest that rather simple models can describe many essentials of blobs, ELMs, and pellet clouds dynamics. The main ingredient of these models is the effective plasma gravity caused by magnetic curvature, centrifugal or friction forces effects. As a result, the equations governing plasma transport in such localized structures appear to be rather similar to that used to describe nonlinear evolution of thermal convection in the Boussinesq approximation (directly related to the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability). (author)

  5. Evolution of radial profiles in regular Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi dust models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussman, Roberto A

    2010-01-01

    We undertake a comprehensive and rigorous analytic study of the evolution of radial profiles of covariant scalars in regular LemaItre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dust models. We consider specifically the phenomenon of 'profile inversions' in which an initial clump profile of density, spatial curvature or the expansion scalar might evolve into a void profile (and vice versa). Previous work in the literature on models with density void profiles and/or allowing for density profile inversions is given full generalization, with some erroneous results corrected. We prove rigorously that if an evolution without shell crossings is assumed, then only the 'clump to void' inversion can occur in density profiles, and only in hyperbolic models or regions with negative spatial curvature. The profiles of spatial curvature follow similar patterns as those of the density, with 'clump to void' inversions only possible for hyperbolic models or regions. However, profiles of the expansion scalar are less restrictive, with profile inversions necessarily taking place in elliptic models. We also examine radial profiles in special LTB configurations: closed elliptic models, models with a simultaneous big bang singularity, as well as a locally collapsing elliptic region surrounded by an expanding hyperbolic background. The general analytic statements that we obtain allow for setting up the right initial conditions to construct fully regular LTB models with any specific qualitative requirements for the profiles of all scalars and their time evolution. The results presented can be very useful in guiding future numerical work on these models and in revising previous analytic work on all their applications.

  6. How is plasma profile determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae

    1991-01-01

    The plasma of toroidal system magnetic field confinement which is represented by tokamak is realized as dissipating structure which is maintained by the supply of energy and particles. Besides the spatial distributions of heat, particles and momentum inside plasma take various forms, there are the transition phenomena among the distributions with different forms, intermittent energy loss, the exchange of spatial positions among ions and so on, accordingly confined plasma is the treasure house of the transport phenomena accompanied by various temporal and spatial scales. Now might be the time that the unknown physics being concealed with veil becomes clear. In this report, by taking tokamaks as the example, concerning the transport phenomena in plasma, the recent development on the physical phenomena and the comparison of the theoretical model with the experiment is explained. The formulation of transport phenomena, the elementary process of transport by flickering, transport matrix, waves in drift frequency band, boundary condition, the comparison of transport in steady state, the research on the time change of distribution, and the correlation of flickering and transport are described. (K.I.)

  7. Chameleonic contribution to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich radial profile of the Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Schelpe, Camilla A. O.; Shaw, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    We constrain the chameleonic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (CSZ) effect in the Coma cluster from measurements of the Coma radial profile presented in the WMAP 7-year results. The CSZ effect arises from the interaction of a scalar (or pseudoscalar) particle with the cosmic microwave background in the magnetic field of galaxy clusters. We combine this radial profile data with SZ measurements towards the center of the Coma cluster in different frequency bands, to find ΔT SZ,RJ (0)=-410±50 μK and ΔT CSZ 204 GHz (0) > or approx. -50 μK (at 95% confidence) for the thermal SZ and CSZ effects in the cluster, respectively. This leads to an estimated bound on the photon to scalar (or pseudoscalar) coupling strength of g eff -10 GeV -1 .

  8. Intraneural Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections for the Treatment of Radial Nerve Section: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai García de Cortázar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The radial nerve is the most frequently injured nerve in the upper extremity. Numerous options in treatment have been described for radial nerve injury, such as neurolysis, nerve grafts, or tendon transfers. Currently, new treatment options are arising, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP, an autologous product with proved therapeutic effect for various musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that this treatment is a promising alternative for this type of nerve pathology. The patient was a healthy 27-year-old man who suffered a deep and long cut in the distal anterolateral region of the right arm. Forty-eight hours after injury, an end-to-end suture was performed without a microscope. Three months after the surgery, an electromyogram (EMG showed right radial nerve neurotmesis with no tendency to reinnervation. Four months after the trauma, serial intraneural infiltrations of PRP were conducted using ultrasound guidance. The therapeutic effect was assessed by manual muscle testing and by EMG. Fourteen months after the injury and 11 months after the first PRP injection, functional recovery was achieved. The EMG showed a complete reinnervation of the musculature of the radial nerve dependent. The patient remains satisfied with the result and he is able to practice his profession. Conclusions: PRP infiltrations have the potential to enhance the healing process of radial nerve palsy. This case report demonstrates the therapeutic potential of this technology for traumatic peripheral nerve palsy, as well as the apt utility of US-guided PRP injections.

  9. Bifurcation of radial electric field in tokamak edge plasmas due to ion orbit loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G.J.; Zhang, X.D.

    2015-01-01

    The ion orbit loss and the formation of radial electric field Er in tokamak edge region are calculated. The ion orbit loss generates a negative Er, which in turn affects the ion loss. As a result, Er can saturates at either a low or a high value, depending on the plasma parameters. When the ion temperature in the plasma edge is higher than a threshold a self-sustaining growth in both the ion loss and Er is found, leading to a high saturation value of Er in the milliseconds time. This mechanism provides a possible explanation for the formation of the edge radial electric field during the L to H-mode transition observed in tokamak experiments. (author)

  10. Phase diagram of structure of radial electric field in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2002-01-01

    A set of transport equations in toroidal helical plasmas is analyzed, including the bifurcation of the radial electric field. Multiple solutions of E r for the ambipolar condition induces domains of different electric polarities. A structure of the domain interface is analyzed and a phase diagram is obtained in the space of the external control parameters. The region of the reduction of the anomalous transport is identified. (author)

  11. Transition of radial electric field by electron cyclotron heating in stellarator plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, H.; Ida, K.; Sanuki, H.

    1993-06-01

    The transition of a radial electric field from a negative to a positive value is observed in Compact Helical System when the electron loss is sufficiently enhanced by the superposition of the off-axis second harmonic electron cyclotron heating on the neutral beam heated plasmas. The observed threshold for the enhanced particle flux required to cause the transition is compared with a theoretical prediction. (author)

  12. Electron cyclotron heating for current profile control of non-circular plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, V.S.; Davidson, R.; Guest, G.; Hacker, M.; Miller, L.

    1981-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) offers a promising approach to modifying the radial profiles of electron temperature and plasma current in tokamaks to increase the ideal MHD beta limits and permit experimental access to particular noncircular cross-section tokamaks that cannot be achieved with the peaked current profiles characteristic of ohmically heated tokamaks. We use a one-and-one-half-dimensional, time-dependent transport model that incorporates a self-consistent model of electron cyclotron power absorption to study the temporal evolution of electron temperature and plasma current profiles and the resulting noncircular equilibria. Startup scenarios for high-beta dees and doublets are investigated with this transport modeling

  13. Numerical code for fitting radial emission profile of a shell supernova remnant: Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opsenica Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present IDL (Interactive Data Language codes for fitting a theoretical emission profile of a shell supernova remnant (SNR to the mean profile of an SNR obtained from radio observations. Two considered theoretical models are: 1 a shell with constant emissivity and 2 a synchrotron shell with radially aligned magnetic field. The codes were applied to several observed supernova remnants. Good results are obtained in five considered cases, which justify the use of our code for remnants that are bright (so that observational errors are not large and spherically symmetric enough.

  14. Sausage instabilities stabilized by radial motion in Z-discharged plasma channel for beam propagation in LIB-fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Kawata, Shigeo; Niu, Keishiro.

    1983-01-01

    The stability of current-carrying plasma channels, which have been proposed for transporting intense ion beams from the diodes to the target in LIB-fusion devices, is discussed. The growth rate of the most dangerous surface mode, that is, the axisymmetric sausage instabilities, are examined for plasma channels with or without radial fluid motion. The growth rate of the channel with radial fluid motion is shown to be far smaller than that of the channel with no fluid motion. It is concluded that a stable plasma channel can be formed by radial fluid motion. (author)

  15. Radial Surface Density Profiles of Gas and Dust in the Debris Disk around 49 Ceti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, A. Meredith; Lieman-Sifry, Jesse; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Daley, Cail M. [Department of Astronomy, Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Roberge, Aki [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kóspál, Ágnes; Moór, Attila; Ábrahám, Peter [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Kamp, Inga [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wilner, David J.; Andrews, Sean M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kastner, Joel H., E-mail: amhughes@astro.wesleyan.edu [Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    We present ∼0.″4 resolution images of CO(3–2) and associated continuum emission from the gas-bearing debris disk around the nearby A star 49 Ceti, observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We analyze the ALMA visibilities in tandem with the broadband spectral energy distribution to measure the radial surface density profiles of dust and gas emission from the system. The dust surface density decreases with radius between ∼100 and 310 au, with a marginally significant enhancement of surface density at a radius of ∼110 au. The SED requires an inner disk of small grains in addition to the outer disk of larger grains resolved by ALMA. The gas disk exhibits a surface density profile that increases with radius, contrary to most previous spatially resolved observations of circumstellar gas disks. While ∼80% of the CO flux is well described by an axisymmetric power-law disk in Keplerian rotation about the central star, residuals at ∼20% of the peak flux exhibit a departure from axisymmetry suggestive of spiral arms or a warp in the gas disk. The radial extent of the gas disk (∼220 au) is smaller than that of the dust disk (∼300 au), consistent with recent observations of other gas-bearing debris disks. While there are so far only three broad debris disks with well characterized radial dust profiles at millimeter wavelengths, 49 Ceti’s disk shows a markedly different structure from two radially resolved gas-poor debris disks, implying that the physical processes generating and sculpting the gas and dust are fundamentally different.

  16. Modeling of radial gas fraction profiles for bubble flow in vertical pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.-M. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The paper presents a method for the prediction of radial gas fraction profiles from a given bubble size distribution. The method is based on the assumption of the equilibrium of the forces acting on a bubble perpendicularly to the flow direction. Assuming a large number of bubble size classes radial distributions are calculated separately for all bubble classes. The sum of these distributions is the radial profile of the gas fraction. The results of the model are compared with experimental data for a number of gas and liquid volume flow rates. The experiments were performed at a vertical test loop (inner diameter 50 mm) in FZ-Rossendorf using a wire mesh sensor. The sensor enables the determination of void distributions in the cross section of the loop. A special evaluation procedure supplies bubble size distributions as well as local distributions of bubbles within a predefined interval of bubble sizes. There is a good agreement between experimental and calculated data. In particular the change from wall peaking to core peaking is well predicted. (authors)

  17. Modeling of radial gas fraction profiles for bubble flow in vertical pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Prasser, H.-M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a method for the prediction of radial gas fraction profiles from a given bubble size distribution. The method is based on the assumption of the equilibrium of the forces acting on a bubble perpendicularly to the flow direction. Assuming a large number of bubble size classes radial distributions are calculated separately for all bubble classes. The sum of these distributions is the radial profile of the gas fraction. The results of the model are compared with experimental data for a number of gas and liquid volume flow rates. The experiments were performed at a vertical test loop (inner diameter 50 mm) in FZ-Rossendorf using a wire mesh sensor. The sensor enables the determination of void distributions in the cross section of the loop. A special evaluation procedure supplies bubble size distributions as well as local distributions of bubbles within a predefined interval of bubble sizes. There is a good agreement between experimental and calculated data. In particular the change from wall peaking to core peaking is well predicted. (authors)

  18. Non-power law behavior of the radial profile of phase-space density of halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popolo, A. Del

    2011-01-01

    We study the pseudo phase-space density, ρ(r)/σ 3 (r), of ΛCDM dark matter halos with and without baryons (baryons+DM, and pure DM), by using the model introduced in Del Popolo (2009), which takes into account the effect of dynamical friction, ordered and random angular momentum, baryons adiabatic contraction and dark matter baryons interplay. We examine the radial dependence of ρ(r)/σ 3 (r) over 9 orders of magnitude in radius for structures on galactic and cluster of galaxies scales. We find that ρ(r)/σ 3 (r) is approximately a power-law only in the range of halo radius resolved by current simulations (down to 0.1% of the virial radius) while it has a non-power law behavior below the quoted scale, with inner profiles changing with mass. The non-power-law behavior is more evident for halos constituted both of dark matter and baryons while halos constituted just of dark matter and with angular momentum chosen to reproduce a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile, are characterized by an approximately power-law behavior. The results of the present paper lead to conclude that density profiles of the NFW type are compatible with a power-law behavior of ρ(r)/σ 3 (r), while those flattening to the halo center, like those found in Del Popolo (2009) or the Einasto profile, or the Burkert profile, cannot produce radial profile of the pseudo-phase-space density that are power-laws at all radii. The results argue against universality of the pseudo phase-space density and as a consequence argue against universality of density profiles constituted by dark matter and baryons as also discussed in Del Popolo (2009)

  19. Radial electric field at the plasma edge on the FT-2 Tokamak in regimes with large gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkul, S.; Popov, A.

    2001-01-01

    The transport barrier formation is widely believed to be the fundamental element of transition into improved confinement regimes (H-mode). Experiments on many tokamaks demonstrate that transport barrier formation is connected with the suppression of turbulent transport by shear of E x B drift. Therefore, the calculation of radial electric field is of great importance. Our work is devoted to progress the neoclassical theory by taking into account electron viscosity and non-linear effects (ion inertia), presented results being valuable for interpretation transition into H-mode at the plasma edge in small tokamaks. Calculations of the electric field profile for FT-2 tokamak (a=8cm, R 0 =55cm, Ioffe Institute, Russia) according found expressions are in the good agreement with experimental results obtained. (orig.)

  20. Radial thermal diffusivity of toroidal plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao

    2012-04-01

    We investigate how the radial thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift kinetic simulation code for calculating the thermal diffusivity in the perturbed region. The perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and around the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. It has been found that the radial thermal diffusivity χ r in the perturbed region is represented as χ r = χ r (0) {1 + c r parallel 2 >}. Here r parallel 2 > 1/2 is the strength of the RMPs in the radial directions, means the flux surface average defined by the unperturbed (i.e., original) magnetic field, χ r (0) is the neoclassical thermal diffusivity, and c is a positive coefficient. In this paper, dependence of the coefficient c on parameters of the toroidal plasma is studied in results given by the δ f simulation code solving the drift kinetic equation under an assumption of zero electric field. We find that the dependence of c is given as c ∝ ω b /ν eff m in the low collisionality regime ν eff b , where ν eff is the effective collision frequency, ω b is the bounce frequency and m is the particle mass. In case of ν eff > ω b , the thermal diffusivity χ r evaluated by the simulations becomes close to the neoclassical thermal diffusivity χ r (0) . (author)

  1. Features of energetic particle radial profiles inferred from geosynchronous responses to solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the radial profile of phase space density of relativistic electrons at constant adiabatic invariants is crucial for identifying the source for them within the outer radiation belt. The commonly used method is to convert flux observed at fixed energy to phase space density at constant first, second and third adiabatic invariants, which requires an empirical global magnetic field model and thus might produce some uncertainties in the final results. From a different perspective, in this paper we indirectly infer the shape of the radial profile of phase space density of relativistic electrons near the geosynchronous region by statistically examining the geosynchronous energetic flux response to 128 solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements during the years 2000 to 2003. We thus avoid the disadvantage of using empirical magnetic field models. Our results show that the flux response is species and energy dependent. For protons and low-energy electrons, the primary response to magnetospheric compression is an increase in flux at geosynchronous orbit. For relativistic electrons, the dominant response is a decrease in flux, which implies that the phase space density decreases toward increasing radial distance at geosynchronous orbit and leads to a local peak inside of geosynchronous orbit. The flux response of protons and non-relativistic electrons could result from a phase density that increases toward increasing radial distance, but this cannot be determined for sure due to the particle energization associated with pressure enhancements. Our results for relativistic electrons are consistent with previous results obtained using magnetic field models, thus providing additional confirmation that these results are correct and indicating that they are not the result of errors in their selected magnetic field model.

  2. Impaired plasma lipid profiles in acute hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongzhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined plasma lipid profiles in thirty patients suffered from acute viral hepatitis. Patients' blood samples were collected at both the debut and recovery of diseases. Thirty sex and age matched normal subjects were included as controls. Plasma total triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, lipoprotein (a (Lp(a, blood coagulation status including prothrombin complex activity and activated partial tromboplastin time (APTT, and hepatic functions were determined by the automatic biochemical analytical instrument. It demonstrated that plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C and apoAI were significantly lower in the patients at the acute phase of hepatitis than those in normal subjects, whereas plasma levels of TG and LDL-C were obviously higher in the patients than in normal subjects (P

  3. Effects of fueling profiles on plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mense, A.T.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.; Milora, S.L.

    1978-04-01

    A one-dimensional (1-D), multifluid transport model is used to investigate the effects of particle fueling profiles on plasma transport in an ignition-sized tokamak (TNS). Normal diffusive properties of plasmas will likely maintain the density at the center of the discharge even if no active fueling is provided there. This significantly relaxes the requirements for fuel penetration. Not only is lower fuel penetration easier to achieve, but it may have the advantage of reducing or eliminating density gradient-driven trapped particle microinstabilities. Simulation of discrete pellet fueling indicates that relatively low velocity (approximately 10 3 m/sec) pellets may be sufficient to fuel a TNS-sized device (approximately 1.25-m minor radius), to produce a relatively broad, cool edge region of plasma which should reduce the potential for sputtering, and also to reduce the likelihood of trapped particle mode dominated transport. Low penetrating pellets containing up to 10 to 20 percent of the total plasma ions can produce fluctuations in density and temperature at the plasma edge, but the pressure profile and fusion alpha production remain almost constant

  4. The segmented non-uniform dielectric module design for uniformity control of plasma profile in a capacitively coupled plasma chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Huanxiong; Xiang, Dong; Yang, Wang; Mou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature plasma technique is one of the critical techniques in IC manufacturing process, such as etching and thin-film deposition, and the uniformity greatly impacts the process quality, so the design for the plasma uniformity control is very important but difficult. It is hard to finely and flexibly regulate the spatial distribution of the plasma in the chamber via controlling the discharge parameters or modifying the structure in zero-dimensional space, and it just can adjust the overall level of the process factors. In the view of this problem, a segmented non-uniform dielectric module design solution is proposed for the regulation of the plasma profile in a CCP chamber. The solution achieves refined and flexible regulation of the plasma profile in the radial direction via configuring the relative permittivity and the width of each segment. In order to solve this design problem, a novel simulation-based auto-design approach is proposed, which can automatically design the positional sequence with multi independent variables to make the output target profile in the parameterized simulation model approximate the one that users preset. This approach employs an idea of quasi-closed-loop control system, and works in an iterative mode. It starts from initial values of the design variable sequences, and predicts better sequences via the feedback of the profile error between the output target profile and the expected one. It never stops until the profile error is narrowed in the preset tolerance

  5. Curvature-driven instabilities in a hot-electron plasma: radial analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Van Dam, J.W.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Spong, D.A.

    1981-12-01

    The theory of unfavorable curvature-driven instabilities is developed for a plasma interacting with a hot electron ring whose drift frequencies are larger than the growth rates predicted from conventional magnetohydrodynamic theory. A z-pinch model is used to emphasize the radial structure of the problem. Stability criteria are obtained for the five possible modes of instability: the conventional hot electron interchange, a high-frequency hot electron interchange (at frequencies larger than the ion cyclotron frequency), a compressional instability, a background pressure-driven interchange, and an interacting pressure-driven interchange

  6. Ambipolarons: Solitary wave solutions for the radial electric field in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, D.E.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Morrison, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The ambipolar radial electric field in a nonaxisymmetric plasma can be described by a nonlinear diffusion equation. This equation is shown to possess solitary wave solutions. A model nonlinear diffusion equation with a cubic nonlinearity is studied. An explicit analytic step-like form for the solitary wave is found. It is shown that the solitary wave solutions are linearly stable against all but translational perturbations. Collisions of these solitary waves are studied and three possible final states are found: two diverging solitary waves, two stationary solitary waves, or two converging solitary waves leading to annihilation

  7. Determination of the radial profile of the photoelastic coefficient of polymer optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheroy, Sophie; Merken, Patrick; Geernaert, Thomas; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thienpont, Hugo; Berghmans, Francis

    2016-04-01

    We determine the radial profile of the photoelastic constant C(r) in two single mode and one multimode polymer optical fibers (POFs), all fabricated from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). To determine C(r) we first determine the retardance of the laterally illuminated fiber submitted to a known tensile stress uniformly distributed over the fiber cross-section. Then we determine the inverse Abel transform of the measured retardance to finally obtain C(r). We compare two algorithms based on the Fourier theory to perform the inverse transform. We obtain disparate distributions of C(r) in the three fibers. The mean value of C(r) varies from -7.6×10-14 to 5.4×10-12 Pa-1. This indicates that, in contrast to glass fibers, the radial profile of the photoelastic constant can considerable vary depending on the type and treatment of POFs, even when made from similar materials, and hence the photoelastic constant should be measured for each type of POF.

  8. The influence of finite Larmor radius effects on the radial interchange motions of plasma filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Garcia, Odd E.; Larsen, Jeppe Stærk

    2011-01-01

    The influence of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the perpendicular convection of isolated particle density filaments driven by interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated using a two-moment gyrofluid model. By means of numerical simulations on a two-dimensional, bi-periodic do......The influence of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the perpendicular convection of isolated particle density filaments driven by interchange motions in magnetized plasmas is investigated using a two-moment gyrofluid model. By means of numerical simulations on a two-dimensional, bi......-periodic domain perpendicular to the magnetic field, it is demonstrated that the radial velocities of the blob-like filaments are roughly described by the inertial scaling, which prescribes a velocity proportional to the square root of the summed electron and ion pressures times the square root of the blob width...

  9. Fields of an ultrashort tightly focused radially polarized laser pulse in a linear response plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Yousef I.

    2017-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the fields of a radially polarized, ultrashort, and tightly focused laser pulse propagating in a linear-response plasma are derived and discussed. The fields are obtained from solving the inhomogeneous wave equations for the vector and scalar potentials, linked by the Lorenz gauge, in a plasma background. First, the scalar potential is eliminated using the gauge condition, then the vector potential is synthesized from Fourier components of an initial uniform distribution of wavenumbers, and the inverse Fourier transformation is carried out term-by-term in a truncated series (finite sum). The zeroth-order term in, for example, the axial electric field component is shown to model a pulse much better than its widely used paraxial approximation counterpart. Some of the propagation characteristics of the fields are discussed and all fields are shown to have manifested the expected limits for propagation in a vacuum.

  10. Study of impurity transport in HL-2A ECRH L-mode plasmas with radially different ECRH power depositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z. Y.; Zhang, K.; Morita, S.; Ji, X. Q.; Ding, X. T.; Xu, Y.; Sun, P.; Gao, J. M.; Dong, C. F.; Zheng, D. L.; Li, Y. G.; Jiang, M.; Li, D.; Zhong, W. L.; Liu, Yi; Dong, Y. B.; Song, S. D.; Yu, L. M.; Shi, Z. B.; Fu, B. Z.; Lu, P.; Huang, M.; Yuan, B. S.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.

    2018-05-01

    In HL-2A, an inverse sawtooth oscillation is observed with a long-lasting m/n  =  1/1 mode during ECRH phase with power deposition inside sawtooth inversion radius (inner-deposited ECRH), while a normal sawtooth instead appears when the ECRH power is deposited outside sawtooth inversion radius (outer-deposited ECRH). Aluminum is then injected as a trace impurity with laser blow-off (LBO) method into the inner- and outer-deposited ECRH phases of HL-2A discharges to investigate the effect of ECRH on impurity transport. Temporal behavior of soft x-ray (SXR) array signals is analyzed with a 1D impurity transport code, and radial structures of impurity transport coefficients are obtained. The result shows that the radial transport of Al ions is strongly enhanced during the inner-deposited ECRH phase. In particular, an outward convection velocity is developed with positive values of 0  ⩽  V(ρ)  ⩽  3.8 m s-1 in ρ  ⩽  0.5, while the convection velocity is inward in ρ  ⩾  0.6. In the outer-deposited ECRH discharge, on the other hand, the convection velocity takes a big negative value in ρ  ⩽  0.4 and close to zero at ρ ~ 0.6. In ohmic discharges, an inward V(ρ) always appears in the whole plasma radii and gradually increases toward the plasma edge (-3.2 m s-1 at ρ  =  1). The simulation result also indicates that centrally-peaked Al ion density profiles presented in the outer-deposited ECRH discharge can be flattened by the inner-deposited ECRH. Modification of impurity transport is discussed in the presence of long-lasting m/n  =  1/1 MHD mode.

  11. Application of function parametrization for radial plasma position calibration in Aditya-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sameer; Daniel, Raju

    2017-01-01

    Calibration experiments to simulate the movement of plasma channel in tokamak ADITYA-U in the horizontal direction (i.e., in-board and out-board movement), are carried out by setting up current carrying conductor inside the vacuum vessel. This conductor is energized with a known current (through a capacitor bank system) and the response at various magnetic pickup coils is recorded. For various radial position of this conductor and for known current, the pickup coil response database is generated. Function parameterization method (FP) is utilized to generate an input-output relation (regression function), in which the input is magnetic pickup coil's signal and the output is the location of conductor. In the real situation, conductor is replaced by the plasma channel and hence, the radial movement of this channel would be directly known from the regression function obtained from FP. Detailed analysis of FP along with the error estimates would be presented in this paper. (author)

  12. Edge radial electric field structure in quiescent H-mode plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); West, W P [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Doyle, E J [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Austin, M E [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); DeGrassie, J S [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Gohil, P [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Greenfield, C M [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Jayakumar, R [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551-9900 (United States); Kaplan, D H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Lao, L L [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Leonard, A W [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551-9900 (United States); McKee, G R [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1687 (United States); Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Thomas, D M [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Rhodes, T L [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Wade, M R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wang, G [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Watkins, J G [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Zeng, L [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States)

    2004-05-01

    H-mode operation is the choice for next step tokamak devices based on either conventional or advanced tokamak physics. This choice, however, comes at a significant cost for both the conventional and advanced tokamaks because of the effects of edge localized modes (ELMs). ELMs can produce significant erosion in the divertor and can affect the {beta} limit and reduced core transport regions needed for advanced tokamak operation. Experimental results from DIII-D over the past four years have demonstrated a new operating regime, the quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) regime, that solves these problems. QH-mode plasmas have now been run for over 4 s (>30 energy confinement times). Utilizing the steady-state nature of the QH-mode edge allows us to obtain unprecedented spatial resolution of the edge ion profiles and the edge radial electric field, E{sub r}, by sweeping the edge plasma slowly past the view points of the charge exchange spectroscopy system. We have investigated the effects of direct edge ion orbit loss on the creation and sustainment of the QH-mode. Direct loss of ions injected into the velocity-space loss cone at the plasma edge is not necessary for creation or sustainment of the QH-mode. The direct ion orbit loss has little effect on the edge E{sub r} well. The E{sub r} at the bottom of the well in these cases is about -100 kV m{sup -1} compared with -20 to -30 kV m{sup -1} in the standard H-mode. The well is about 1 cm wide, which is close to the diameter of the deuteron gyro-orbit. We also have investigated the effect of changing edge triangularity by changing the plasma shape from upwardly biased single null to magnetically balanced double null. We have now achieved the QH-mode in these double-null plasmas. The increased triangularity allows us to increase pedestal density in QH-mode plasmas by a factor of about 2.5 and overall pedestal pressure by a factor of 2. Pedestal {beta} and {nu}{sup *} values matching the values desired for ITER have been achieved. In

  13. Formation of electron-root radial electric field and its effect on thermal transport in LHD high Te plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Seikichi; Satake, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Hiromi; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Ido, Takeshi; Shimizu, Akihiro; Shimozuma, Takashi; Wakasa, Arimitsu; Murakami, Sadayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Neoclassical transport analyses have been performed for a high electron temperature LHD plasma with steep temperature gradient using a neoclassical transport simulation code, FORTEC-3D. It is shown that the large positive radial electric field is spontaneously formed at the core along with the increase in the electron temperature, while the neoclassical heat diffusivity remains almost unchanged. This indicates that the 1/ν-type increase expected in the neoclassical transport in helical plasmas can be avoided by the spontaneous formation of the radial electric field. At the same time, it is found that the experimentally estimated heat diffusivity is significantly reduced. This suggests that the formation process of the transport barrier in the high electron temperature plasma can be caused by the spontaneous formation of the radial electric field. (author)

  14. Radial plasma drifts deduced from VLF whistler mode signals - A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, E. M.; Andrews, M. K.; Bailey, G. J.; Moffett, R. J.

    1984-05-01

    VLF whistler mode signals have previously been used to infer radial plasma drifts in the equatorial plane of the plasmasphere and the field-aligned ionosphere-protonosphere coupling fluxes. Physical models of the plasmasphere consisting of O(+) adn H(+) ions along dipole magnetic field lines, and including radial E x B drifts, are applied to a mid-latitude flux tube appropriate to whistler mode signals received at Wellington, New Zealand, from the fixed frequency VLF transmitter NLK (18.6 kHz) in Seattle, U.S.A. These models are first shown to provide a good representation of the recorded Doppler shift and group delay data. They are then used to simulate the process of deducing the drifts and fluxes from the recorded data. Provided the initial whistler mode duct latitude and the ionospheric contributions are known, the drifts at the equatorial plane can be estimated to about + or - 20 m/s (approximately 10-15 percent), and the two hemisphere ionosphere-protonosphere coupling fluxes to about + or - 10 to the 12th/sq m-sec (approximately 40 percent).

  15. Onset of the radial electric field oscillations in the neoclassical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.S.; Novakovskii, S.V.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Galeev, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the relaxation of the radial electric field in the tokomak plasmas towards its neoclassical value is accompanied by the fast oscillations of the order of the ion transient frequency V T /qR. This happens during the transition from the Pfirsch-Schluter collisional regime to the plateau regime at v c qR/V T ≤ c cr ≤ 1. The investigation has been performed with the help of the specially developed numerical code for solution of the nonsteady-state drift kinetic equation with the exact collisional term in the Hirshman-Sigmar-Clarke form. Comparison with the analytical results, corresponding to the regime of the very low collisions as well as with previous approximate models for the plateau regime will also be reported

  16. Radial variation of refractive index, plasma frequency and phase velocity in laser induced air plasma

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathuthu, M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available is the concentration of the emitting species, is the transition probability, is the emitted wavelength of the detected line, is the statistical weight of the upper level of the transition, is the excitation energy, is the Boltzmann constant, and is the partition... the Boltzmann plane: (3) For each species in a sample, the slope gives the plasma tem- perature while the intercept gives the sample concentration. B. Density Measurement The collisional processes between atoms and ions affect the shape and width...

  17. Radially and temporally resolved electric field of positive streamers in air and modelling of the induced plasma chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoder, T.; Šimek, M.; Bonaventura, Z.; Prukner, V.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.

    2016-08-01

    The initial stages of transient luminous events (TLEs) occurring in the upper atmosphere of the Earth are, in a certain pressure range, controlled by the streamer mechanism. This paper presents the results of the first laboratory experiments to study the TLE streamer phenomena under conditions close to those of the upper atmosphere. Spectrally and highly spatiotemporally resolved emissions originating from radiative states {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) (second positive system) and \\text{N}2+≤ft({{\\text{B}}2}Σu+\\right) (first negative system) have been recorded from the positive streamer discharge. Periodic ionizing events were generated in a barrier discharge arrangement at a pressure of 4 torr of synthetic air, i.e. simulating the pressure conditions at altitudes of ≃37 km. Employing Abel inversion on the radially scanned streamer emission and a 2D fitting procedure, access was obtained to the local spectral signatures within the over 106  m s-1 fast propagating streamers. The reduced electric field strength distribution within the streamer head was determined from the ratio of the \\text{N}2+/{{\\text{N}}2} band intensities with peak values up to 500 Td and overall duration of about 10 ns. The 2D profiles of the streamer head electric fields were used as an experimentally obtained input for kinetic simulations of the streamer-induced air plasma chemistry. The radial and temporal computed distribution of the ground vibrational levels of the radiative states involved in the radiative transitions analyzed (337.1 nm and 391.5 nm), atomic oxygen, nitrogen, nitric oxide and ozone concentrations are vizualized and discussed in comparison with available models of the streamer phase of Blue Jet discharges in the stratosphere.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Neoclassical Currents, Parallel Viscosity, and Radial Current Balance in Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiviniemi, T.

    2001-01-01

    One of the principal problems en route to a fusion reactor is that of insufficient plasma confinement, which has lead to both theoretical and experimental research into transport processes in the parameter range relevant for fusion energy production. The neoclassical theory of tokamak transport is well-established unlike the theory of turbulence driven anomalous transport in which extensive progress has been made during last few years. So far, anomalous transport has been dominant in experiments, but transport may be reduced to the neoclassical level in advanced tokamak scenarios. This thesis reports a numerical study of neoclassical fluxes, parallel viscosity, and neoclassical radial current balance in tokamaks. Neoclassical parallel viscosity and particle fluxes are simulated over a wide range of collisionalities, using the fully kinetic five-dimensional neoclassical orbit-following Monte Carlo code ASCOT. The qualitative behavior of parallel viscosity derived in earlier analytic models is shown to be incorrect for high poloidal Mach numbers. This is because the poloidal dependence of density was neglected. However, in high Mach number regime, it is the convection and compression terms, rather than the parallel viscosity term, that are shown to dominate the momentum balance. For fluxes, a reasonable agreement between numerical and analytical results is found in the collisional parameter regime. Neoclassical particle fluxes are additionally studied in the banana regime using the three-dimensional Fokker-Planck code DEPORA, which solves the drift-kinetic equation with finite differencing. Limitations of the small inverse aspect ratio approximation adopted in the analytic theory are addressed. Assuming that the anomalous transport is ambipolar, the radial electric field and its shear at the tokamak plasma edge can be solved from the neoclassical radial current balance. This is performed both for JET and ASDEX Upgrade tokamaks using the ASCOT code. It is shown that

  19. Revisited neoclassical transport theory for steep, collisional plasma edge profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Published neoclassical results are misleading as concerns the plasma edge for they do not adequately take the peculiar local conditions into account, in particular the fact that the density and temperature variation length-scales are quite small. Coupled novel neoclassical equations obtain, not only for the evolution of the density and temperatures, but also for the radial electric field and the evolution of the parallel ion momentum: gyro-stresses and inertia indeed upset the otherwise de facto ambipolarity of particle transport and a radial electric field necessarily builds up. The increased nonlinear character of these revisited neoclassical equations widens the realm of possible plasma behaviors. (author)

  20. Self-organized profile relaxation by ion temperature gradient instability in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Y.; Tajima, T.; LeBrun, M.J.; Gray, M.G.; Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W.

    1993-02-01

    Toroidal effects on the ion-temperature gradient mode are found to dictate the temperature evolution and the subsequent relaxed profile realization according to our toroidal particle simulation. Both in the strongly unstable fluid regime as well as in the near-marginal kinetic regime we observe that the plasma maintains an exponential temperature profile and forces the heat flux to be radially independent. The self-organized critical relaxed state is sustained slightly above the marginal stability, where the weak wave growth balances the wave decorrelation

  1. Radial electric fields for improved tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downum, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of externally-imposed radial electric fields on the fusion energy output, energy multiplication, and alpha-particle ash build-up in a TFTR-sized, fusing tokamak plasma is explored. In an idealized tokamak plasma, an externally-imposed radial electric field leads to plasma rotation, but no charge current flows across the magnetic fields. However, a realistically-low neutral density profile generates a non-zero cross-field conductivity and the species dependence of this conductivity allows the electric field to selectively alter radial particle transport

  2. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkden, N. R.; Adamek, J.; Komm, M.; Allan, S.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A.; Dudson, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ∼1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the E R measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak

  3. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkden, N. R.; Adamek, J.; Allan, S.; Dudson, B. D.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A.; Komm, M.

    2015-02-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ˜1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak.

  4. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of mega amp spherical tokamak using a ball pen probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkden, N. R., E-mail: nrw504@york.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon,Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Adamek, J.; Komm, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics of AS CR, v. v. i., Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Allan, S.; Elmore, S.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon,Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dudson, B. D. [Department of Physics, York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature, and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak. The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential, the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile, an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ∼1 kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the E{sub R} measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estimate toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities from E × B motion. This paper further demonstrates the ability of the ball pen probe to make valuable and important measurements in the boundary plasma of a tokamak.

  5. Radial profiles of temperature and viscosity in the Earth's mantle inferred from the geoid and lateral seismic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadek, O.; Berg, A.P. van den

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of dynamical modelling of the geoid, we have estimated basic features of the radial profile of temperature in the mantle. The applied parameterization of the geotherm directly characterizes thermal boundary layers and values of the thermal gradient in the upper and lower mantle.

  6. Treatment of Wound Healing Disorders of Radial Forearm Free Flap Donor Sites Using Cold Atmospheric Plasma: A Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Stefan; Doll, Christian; Voss, Jan Oliver; Hertel, Moritz; Preissner, Saskia; Raguse, Jan Dirk

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of wound healing disturbances of the radial forearm free flap donor site after reconstructive surgery is typically long and burdensome and often requires additional surgery. Cold atmospheric plasma is a promising approach to overcome these impairments. The aim of this proof of concept study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of plasma irradiation in patients with wound healing disorders with exposed brachial tendons of the radial forearm. Four patients (mean age 64.2 years, range 44 to 80) who had undergone radial forearm free flap procedures and developed wound healing disturbance leading to exposed flexor tendons were included in the present prospective case series. In addition to routine wound care, all sites were irradiated with cold atmospheric plasma. The primary outcome variable was complete wound closure. In all patients, complete wound repair in terms of the absence of tendon exposure was observed within a mean treatment time of 10.1 weeks (range 4.9 to 16). No undesirable side effects were observed, and no inflammation or infection occurred. Cold atmospheric plasma could offer a reliable conservative treatment option for complicated wound healing disturbances. This was exemplarily shown in the case of radial forearm free flap donor site morbidity with exposed flexor tendons in the present study. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A statistical approach for predicting thermal diffusivity profiles in fusion plasmas as a transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    A statistical approach is proposed to predict thermal diffusivity profiles as a transport “model” in fusion plasmas. It can provide regression expressions for the ion and electron heat diffusivities (χ i and χ e ), separately, to construct their radial profiles. An approach that this letter is proposing outstrips the conventional scaling laws for the global confinement time (τ E ) since it also deals with profiles (temperature, density, heating depositions etc.). This approach has become possible with the analysis database accumulated by the extensive application of the integrated transport analysis suite to experiment data. In this letter, TASK3D-a analysis database for high-ion-temperature (high-T i ) plasmas in the LHD (Large Helical Device) is used as an example to describe an approach. (author)

  8. Maximum entropy reconstruction of poloidal magnetic field and radial electric field profiles in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihang; Xiao, Chijie; Yang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Tianbo; Xu, Tianchao; Yu, Yi; Xu, Min; Wang, Long; Lin, Chen; Wang, Xiaogang

    2017-10-01

    The Laser-driven Ion beam trace probe (LITP) is a new diagnostic method for measuring poloidal magnetic field (Bp) and radial electric field (Er) in tokamaks. LITP injects a laser-driven ion beam into the tokamak, and Bp and Er profiles can be reconstructed using tomography methods. A reconstruction code has been developed to validate the LITP theory, and both 2D reconstruction of Bp and simultaneous reconstruction of Bp and Er have been attained. To reconstruct from experimental data with noise, Maximum Entropy and Gaussian-Bayesian tomography methods were applied and improved according to the characteristics of the LITP problem. With these improved methods, a reconstruction error level below 15% has been attained with a data noise level of 10%. These methods will be further tested and applied in the following LITP experiments. Supported by the ITER-CHINA program 2015GB120001, CHINA MOST under 2012YQ030142 and National Natural Science Foundation Abstract of China under 11575014 and 11375053.

  9. 1 μs broadband frequency sweeping reflectometry for plasma density and fluctuation profile measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C.; Medvedeva, A.; Molina, D.; Conway, G. D.; Silva, A.; Stroth, U.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Tore Supra Team; Eurofusion Mst1 Team

    2017-11-01

    Frequency swept reflectometry has reached the symbolic value of 1 μs sweeping time; this performance has been made possible, thanks to an improved control of the ramp voltage driving the frequency source. In parallel, the memory depth of the acquisition system has been upgraded and can provide up to 200 000 signals during a plasma discharge. Additional improvements regarding the trigger delay determination of the acquisition and the voltage ramp linearity required by this ultra-fast technique have been set. While this diagnostic is traditionally dedicated to the plasma electron density profile measurement, such a fast sweeping rate can provide the study of fast plasma events and turbulence with unprecedented time and radial resolution from the edge to the core. Experimental results obtained on ASDEX Upgrade plasmas are presented to demonstrate the performances of the diagnostic.

  10. Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBombard, B.; Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; Lehmer, R.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.

    1988-04-01

    The PISCES plasma surface interaction facility at UCLA generates plasmas with characteristics similar to those found in the edge plasmas of tokamaks. Steady state magnetized plasmas produced by this device are used to study plasma-wall interaction phenomena which are relevant to tokamak devices. We report here progress on some detailed investigations of the presheath region that extends from a wall surface into these /open quotes/simulated tokamak/close quotes/ edge plasma discharges along magnetic field lines

  11. Oxygen distribution in packed-bed membrane reactors for partial oxidations: effect of the radial porosity profiles on the product selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurten, U.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional, pseudohomogeneous reactor model was presented to describe the radial and axial concentration profiles in a packed-bed membrane reactor and the local velocity field while accounting for the influences due to the distributive membrane flow and the radial porosity profile. The effect

  12. Axial and radial preliminary results of the neutron radiation from miniature plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.; Silva, P.; Soto, L. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    As first step of a program to design a repetitive pulsed neutron generator for applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, {approx} 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, {approx} 300 ns time to peak current). Neutron emission has been obtained in both devices operating in deuterium. A specific technique was necessary to develop in order to detect neutron pulsed of 10{sup 4} neutrons per shot. The maximum total neutron yield measured was of the order of 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 4} neutrons per shot in the PF-400 J and PF-50 J respectively. Axial and radial measurements of the neutron emission are presented and the anisotropy is evaluated in this work. The neutrons are measured by pairs of silver activation counters, {sup 3}He detectors and scintillator-photomultiplier detectors. (authors)

  13. Filtering peripheral high temperature electrons in a cylindrical rf-driven plasmas by an axisymmetric radial magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Akahoshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature electrons generated near a radial wall of a cylindrical source tube in a radiofrequency (rf inductively-coupled plasma is filtered by an axisymmetric radial magnetic field formed near the source exit by locating annular permanent magnets, where the axial magnetic field strength in the radially central region is fairly uniform inside the source tube and is close to zero near the source exit. The source is operated at 3 mTorr in argon and the rf antenna is powered by a 13.56 MHz and 400 W rf generator. Measurement of electron energy probability functions shows the presence of the peripheral high temperature electrons inside the source, while the temperature of the peripheral electrons downstream of the source is observed to be reduced.

  14. Filtering peripheral high temperature electrons in a cylindrical rf-driven plasmas by an axisymmetric radial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, Hikaru; Takahashi, Kazunori; Ando, Akira

    2018-03-01

    High temperature electrons generated near a radial wall of a cylindrical source tube in a radiofrequency (rf) inductively-coupled plasma is filtered by an axisymmetric radial magnetic field formed near the source exit by locating annular permanent magnets, where the axial magnetic field strength in the radially central region is fairly uniform inside the source tube and is close to zero near the source exit. The source is operated at 3 mTorr in argon and the rf antenna is powered by a 13.56 MHz and 400 W rf generator. Measurement of electron energy probability functions shows the presence of the peripheral high temperature electrons inside the source, while the temperature of the peripheral electrons downstream of the source is observed to be reduced.

  15. Consequences of nonlinear heat transport laws on expected plasma profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.

    1987-03-01

    The expected variation of plasma pressure profiles against changes in power deposition is investigated by using a simple linear heat transport law as well as a quadratic one. Applying the quadratic transport law it can be shown that the stiffening of the resulting profiles is sufficient to understand the experimentally measured phenomenon of 'profile consistence' without further assumptions of nonlocal effects. (orig.) [de

  16. Modification of K-line emission profiles in laser-created solid-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengebusch, A.; Reinholz, H.; Roepke, G.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. X-ray emissions in the keV energy range have shown to be suitable radiation to investigate the properties of laser-created solid-density plasmas. We use the modifications of inner shell transitions due to the environment to characterize these plasmas. A theoretical treatment of spectral line profiles based on a self-consistent ion sphere model is applied on moderately ionized mid-Z materials, such as titanium, silicon and chlorine. We observe large contributions of satellite transitions due to M-shell ionization and excitation. To determine the composition a mixture of various excited and ionized ionic states embedded in a plasma has to be considered. Plasma polarization effects that cause shifts of the emission and ionization energies are taken into account. K-line profiles are calculated for bulk temperatures up to 100 eV and free electron densities up to 10 24 cm -3 in order to analyze recent measurements with respect to the plasma parameters of electron heated target regions. Moreover, in high-intensity laser-matter interactions, inevitable prepulses are likely to create preplasma and shocks within the target before the main pulse arrives. We investigate the influence of density gradients due to prepulses on the spectral profiles. Further, radial bulk temperature distributions as well the composition of the created warm dense matter are inferred.

  17. Visualization of intermittent blobby plasma transport in attached and detached plasmas of the NAGDIS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Furuta, Katsuhiro; Takamura, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the intermittent convective plasma transport in a attached and/or detached plasma condition of the linear divertor plasma simulator, NAGDIS-II. Images taken by a fast-imaging camera clearly show that in attached plasmas, blobs are peeled off the bulk plasma, and propagate outward with an azimuthal motion. In detached plasmas, plasma turbulence observed near the plasma recombining region drives strong intermittent radial plasma transport, which could broaden the radial density profile. (author)

  18. On improved confinement in mirror plasmas by a radial electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, O.; Moiseenko, V. E.

    2017-11-01

    A weak radial electric field can suppress radial excursions of a guiding center from its mean magnetic surface. The physical origin of this effect is the smearing action by a poloidal E × B rotation, which tend to cancel out the inward and outward radial drifts. A use of this phenomenon may provide larger margins for magnetic field shaping with radial confinement of particles maintained in the collision free idealization. Mirror fields, stabilized by a quadrupolar field component, are of particular interest for their MHD stability and the possibility to control the quasi neutral radial electric field by biased potential plates outside the confinement region. Flux surface footprints on the end tank wall have to be traced to avoid short-circuiting between biased plates. Assuming a robust biasing procedure, moderate voltage demands for the biased plates seems adequate to cure even the radial excursions of Yushmanov ions which could be locally trapped near the mirrors. Analytical expressions are obtained for a magnetic quadrupolar mirror configuration which possesses minimal radial magnetic drifts in the central confinement region. By adding a weak controlled radial quasi-neutral electric field, the majority of gyro centers are predicted to be forced to move even closer to their respective mean magnetic surface. The gyro center radial coordinate is in such a case an accurate approximation for a constant of motion. By using this constant of motion, the analysis is in a Vlasov description extended to finite β. A correspondence between that Vlasov system and a fluid description with a scalar pressure and an electric potential is verified. The minimum B criterion is considered and implications for flute mode stability in the considered magnetic field is analyzed. By carrying out a long-thin expansion to a higher order, the validity of the calculations are extended to shorter and more compact device designs.

  19. Impact of the layout of the ITER Radial Neutron Camera in-port system on the measurement of the neutron emissivity profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marocco, D.; Moro, F.; Esposito, B.; Brolatti, G.; Villari, R.; Salasca, S.; Cantone, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► MCNP ITER model ‘Alite-4′ has been updated with the new Port Plug structure (three vertical drawers). ► Two different layouts for the Radial Neutron Camera (RNC) in-vessel system have been considered. ► The impact of both layouts on the RNC diagnostic performance has been assessed. ► The analysis provides useful information for a proper integration of the RNC in the EPP1. -- Abstract: The Radial Neutron Camera (RNC), located in the ITER Equatorial Port Plug 1 (EPP1), is designed to provide the neutron emissivity profile through the measurement of the neutron flux along several collimated channels. The present design of the RNC is based on collimating structures: an ex-port system viewing the plasma core and an in-port system composed by two detector cassettes viewing the upper and lower plasma edges. A design of the EPP1 in which the diagnostics are installed in three completely independent vertical drawers is under study. In this frame, space optimization and integration issues suggest two possible solutions for the layout of the in-port RNC cassettes: the first one in which both cassettes are located in a side drawer; the second one in which the two cassettes lie in the central drawer, on opposite sides of the ex-port RNC cut-out. This paper describes the work performed to assess the impact of the two different in-port system layouts on the capability of the RNC to measure the neutron emissivity profile by means of MCNP and diagnostic performance calculations. The results of the analysis provide guidelines for the integration of the RNC into the EPP1 showing that the proximity of the in-port cassettes to the ex-port cut-out strongly increases the amount of uncollimated and scattered neutrons at the detector positions, thus reducing the diagnostic measurement capability

  20. Spectral line profiles in weakly turbulent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capes, H.; Voslamber, D.

    1976-07-01

    The unified theory of line broadening by electron perturbers is generalized to include the case of a weakly turbulent plasma. The collision operator in the line shape expression is shown to be the sum of two terms, both containing effects arising from the non-equilibrium nature of the plasma. One of the two terms represents the influence of individual atom-particle interactions occuring via the nonequilibrium dielectric plasma medium. The other term is due to the interaction of the atom with the turbulent waves. Both terms contain damping and diffusion effects arising from the plasma turbulence

  1. Time evolution of the bootstrap current profile in LHD plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yuji; Kawaoto, K.; Watanabe, K.Y.

    2008-10-01

    The direction of the bootstrap current is inverted in the outward shifted plasmas of the Large Helical Device (LHD). In order to verify the reliability of the theoretical models of the bootstrap current in helical plasmas, the rotational transform profiles are observed by the Motional Stark Effect measurement in the bootstrap current carrying plasmas of the LHD, and they are compared with the numerical simulations of the toroidal current profile including the bootstrap current. Since the toroidal current profile is not in the steady state in these plasmas, taking care of the inversely induced component of the toroidal current and finite duration of the resistive diffusion of the toroidal current are important in the numerical simulations. Reasonable agreement can be obtained between the rotational transform profiles measured in the experiments and those calculated in the numerical simulations. (author)

  2. Vacuum heating evaluation for plasmas of exponentially decreasing density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestehe, S.J.; Mohammadnejad, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-short pulse lasers have opened a regime of laser-plasma interaction where plasmas have scale lengths shorter than the laser wavelength and allow the possibility of generating near-solid density plasmas. The interaction of high-intensity laser beams with sharply bounded high-density and small scale length plasmas is considered. Absorption of the laser energy associated with the mechanism of dragging electrons out of the plasma into the vacuum and sending them back into the plasma with the electric field component along the density gradient, so called vacuum heating, is studied. An exponentially decreasing electron density profile is assumed. The vector potential of the electromagnetic field propagating through the plasma is calculated and the behaviour of the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic field is studied. The fraction of laser power absorbed in this process is calculated and plotted versus the laser beam incidence angle, illumination energy, and the plasma scale length

  3. Edge density profiles in high-performance JET plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, D.D.R.; Viaccoz, B.; Vince, J.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed electron density profiles of the scrape-off layer in high-performance JET plasmas (plasma current, I p nbi ∝17 MW) have been measured by means of a lithium beam diagnostic system featuring high spatial resolution [Kadota (1978)[. Measurements were taken over a period of several seconds, allowing examination of the evolution of the edge profile at a location upstream from the divertor target. The data clearly show the effects of the H-mode transition - an increase in density near the plasma separatrix and a reduction in density scrape-off length. The profiles obtained under various plasma conditions are compared firstly with data from other diagnostics, located elsewhere in the vessel, and also with the predictions of an 'onion-skin' model (DIVIMP), which used, as initial parameters, data from an array of probes located in the divertor target. (orig.)

  4. Diagnostics of an AC driven atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet and its use for radially directed jet array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Wang, R.

    2017-08-01

    An alternating current atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated with noble gas or noble gas/oxygen admixture as working gas. A "core plasma filament" is observed at the center of the dielectric tube and extends to the plasma jet at higher peak-to-peak voltages. This type of plasma jet is believed to be of the same nature with the reported plasma bullet driven by pulsed DC power sources. Double current probes are used to assess the speed of the plasma bullet and show that the speed is around 104-105 m/s. The time dependence of the downstream bullet speed is attributed to the gas heating and in turn the increase of the reduced electric field E/N. Optical emission spectra show the dependence of helium and oxygen emission intensities on the concentration of oxygen additive in the carrier gas, with peak values found at 0.5% O2. Multiple radial jets are realized on dielectric tubes of different sizes. As a case study, one of these multi-jet devices is used to treat B. aureus on the inner surface of a plastic beaker and is shown to be more effective than a single jet.

  5. Analysis of radial and longitudinal field of plasma wakefield generated by a Laguerre-Gauss laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firouzjaei, Ali Shekari; Shokri, Babak [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In the present paper, we study the wakes known as the donut wake which is generated by Laguerre-Gauss (LG) laser pulses. Effects of the special spatial profile of a LG pulse on the radial and longitudinal wakefields are presented via an analytical model in a weakly non-linear regime in two dimensions. Different aspects of the donut-shaped wakefields have been analyzed and compared with Gaussian-driven wakes. There is also some discussion about the accelerating-focusing phase of the donut wake. Variations of longitudinal and radial wakes with laser amplitude, pulse length, and pulse spot size have been presented and discussed. Finally, we present the optimum pulse duration for such wakes.

  6. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  7. Performance of a high-work low aspect ration turbine tested with a realistic inlet radial temperature profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabe, R. G.; Whitney, W. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for a 0.767 scale model of the first stage of a two-stage turbine designed for a high by-pass ratio engine. The turbine was tested with both uniform inlet conditions and with an inlet radial temperature profile simulating engine conditions. The inlet temperature profile was essentially mixed-out in the rotor. There was also substantial underturning of the exit flow at the mean diameter. Both of these effects were attributed to strong secondary flows in the rotor blading. There were no significant differences in the stage performance with either inlet condition when differences in tip clearance were considered. Performance was very close to design intent in both cases.

  8. Performance of a high-work low aspect ratio turbine tested with a realistic inlet radial temperature profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabe, R. G.; Whitney, W. J.; Moffitt, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for a 0.767 scale model of the first stage of a two-stage turbine designed for a high by-pass ratio engine. The turbine was tested with both uniform inlet conditions and with an inlet radial temperature profile simulating engine conditions. The inlet temperature profile was essentially mixed-out in the rotor. There was also substantial underturning of the exit flow at the mean diameter. Both of these effects were attributed to strong secondary flows in the rotor blading. There were no significant differences in the stage performance with either inlet condition when differences in tip clearance were considered. Performance was very close to design intent in both cases. Previously announced in STAR as N84-24589

  9. Radial dependence of surface streamer-channel luminosity: experimental evidence of Gaussian radiative profiles in Ar and N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šimek, M; Ambrico, P F

    2012-01-01

    Radial distributions of electronically excited species produced during surface streamer propagation were obtained by applying the Abel inverse transform to projected luminosities of single streamers. The streamers were generated in an argon and nitrogen surface coplanar dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure and their magnified microscopic images were registered with high time resolution. Selected regions of the projected luminosities were processed by the Abel inverse transform procedure based on the Hankel–Fourier method assuming cylindrical symmetry of the streamer channel. Projected as well as Abel-inverted profiles were fitted by Gaussian functions. It is shown that the projected profiles, in addition to the Abel-inverted ones, can be well approximated by the sum of two coaxial Gaussians with two different half-widths and weights. The sharper Gaussian component with higher weight characterizes the radial dependence of the primary cathode-directed streamer-channel luminosity. The second (broader) Gaussian component probably originates either from the pre-breakdown Townsend phase or from the second wave propagating towards the anode. (paper)

  10. Framework for detection and localization of coronary non-calcified plaques in cardiac CTA using mean radial profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Muhammad Moazzam; Riaz, Atif; Rajani, Ronak; Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos; Slabaugh, Greg

    2017-10-01

    The high mortality rate associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) has driven intensive research in cardiac imaging and image analysis. The advent of computed tomography angiography (CTA) has turned non-invasive diagnosis of cardiovascular anomalies into reality as calcified coronary plaques can be easily identified due to their high intensity values. However, the detection of non-calcified plaques in CTA is still a challenging problem because of lower intensity values, which are often similar to the nearby blood and muscle tissues. In this work, we propose the use of mean radial profiles for the detection of non-calcified plaques in CTA imagery. Accordingly, we computed radial profiles by averaging the image intensity in concentric rings around the vessel centreline in a first stage. In the subsequent stage, an SVM classifier is applied to identify the abnormal coronary segments. For occluded segments, we further propose a derivative-based method to localize the position and length of the plaque inside the segment. A total of 32 CTA volumes were analysed and a detection accuracy of 88.4% with respect to the manual expert was achieved. The plaque localization accuracy was computed using the Dice similarity coefficient and a mean of 83.2% was achieved. The consistent performance for multi-vendor, multi-institution data demonstrates the reproducibility of our method across different CTA datasets with a good agreement with manual expert annotations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The way we measure: comparison of methods to derive radial surface brightness profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S. P. C.; van der Kruit, P. C.; de Jong, R. S.

    The breaks and truncations in the luminosity profile of face-on spiral galaxies offer valuable insights in their formation history. The traditional method of deriving the surface photometry profile for face-on galaxies is to use elliptical averaging. In this paper, we explore the question whether

  12. Overview on the radial electric field, plasma rotation and transport in the stellarator W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldzuhn, J.; Kick, M.; Maassberg, H.; Ohlendorf, W.

    1998-01-01

    In the advanced stellarator W7-AS the radial electric field E r is measured by active charge exchange recombination spectroscopy CXRS. In parallel, it is calculated by using the neoclassical DKES code. A comparison of calculated and measured solutions reveals in how far the neoclassical model is valid for the description of the radial particle transport and the formation of E r . In general good consistency is found, even for the outer radii where the neoclassical fluxes become much smaller than the experimental ones. In this paper the interplay between the particular E r roots and transport is considered. For strongly positive E r a reduction of χ e is observed in the vicinity of the magnetic axis. The typically negative ion-root in the gradient region strongly influences the local ∇ T i , thus determining the maximum attainable T i (0). (author)

  13. Stabilization of sausage and kink instability modes of a plasma pinch by radial oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud'ko, A.B.; Kravchenko, Y.P.; Liberman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The growth of the global sausage (m=0) and kink (m=1) perturbations of a Z-pinch subject to radial oscillations is considered. It is demonstrated that the oscillations result in significant reduction of the growth rate of both kink and sausage instability modes with wavelengths long compared to the pinch radius. The analysis of stability is carried out in two ways. The first method is based on the averaging magnetohydrodynamic equations over the period of radial oscillations. The second one consists in the analysis of the growth of Fourier-components of perturbations. Numerical simulation demonstrates that even moderate radial oscillations cause reduction of the growth rate of long-wavelength sausage instabilities and complete stabilization of long kinks. This can be understood as a result of the effective gravitational field produced in the pinch by the oscillations. The effect in question can explain the anomalous stability of pinches with respect to the kink perturbations observed in experiments. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  14. Imaging axial and radial electric field components in dielectric targets under plasma exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikboer, E.T.; Sobota, A.; Guaitella, O.; Garcia-Caurel, E.

    2018-01-01

    This work presents new ways to investigate the individual electric field components in a dielectric target induced by a non thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Mueller polarimetry is applied to investigate electro-optic crystals under exposure of guided ionization waves produced by a plasma

  15. Plasma density profiles and finite bandwidth effects on electron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielman, R.B.; Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Bollen, W.M.; Woo, W.

    1980-01-01

    Intense, p-polarized microwaves are incident on an inhomogeneous plasma in a cylindrical waveguide. Microwaves are mainly absorbed by resonant absorption near the critical surface (where the plasma frequency, ω/sub pe/, equals the microwave frequency, ω/sub o/). The localized plasma waves strongly modify the plasma density. Step-plateau density profiles or a cavity are created depending on the plasma flow speed. Hot electron production is strongly affected by the microwave bandwidth. The hot electron temperature varies as T/sub H/ is proportional to (Δ ω/ω) -0 25 . As the hot electron temperature decreases with increasing driver bandwidth, the hot electron density increases. This increase is such that the heat flux into the overdense region (Q is proportional to eta/sub H/T/sub H/ 3 2 ) is nearly constant

  16. Recent measurements of electron density profiles of plasmas in PLADIS I, a plasma disruption simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J. III; Sharp, G.; Gahl, J.M. Kuznetsov, V.; Rockett, P.; Hunter, J.

    1995-01-01

    Tokamak disruption simulation experiments are being conducted at the University of New Mexico (UNM) using the PLADIS I plasma gun system. PLADIS I is a high power, high energy coaxial plasma gun configured to produce an intense plasma beam. First wall candidate materials are placed in the beam path to determine their response under disruption relevant energy densities. An optically thick vapor shield plasma has been observed to form above the target surface in PLADIS I. Various diagnostics have been used to determine the characteristics of the incident plasma and the vapor shielding plasma. The cross sectional area of the incident plasma beam is a critical characteristic, as it is used in the calculation of the incident plasma energy density. Recently, a HeNe interferometer in the Mach-Zehnder configuration has been constructed and used to probe the electron density of the incident plasma beam and vapor shield plasma. The object beam of the interferometer is scanned across the plasma beam on successive shots, yielding line integrals of beam density on different chords through the plasma. Data from the interferometer is used to determine the electron density profile of the incident plasma beam as a function of beam radius. This data is then used to calculate the effective beam area. Estimates. of beam area, obtained from other diagnostics such as damage targets, calorimeter arrays and off-axis measurements of surface pressure, will be compared with data from the interferometer to obtain a better estimate of the beam cross sectional area

  17. Numerical calculation of 'actual' radial profile of ion temperature from 'measured' energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Toi, Kazuo; Itoh, Satoshi

    1984-10-01

    The energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals are observed in the TRIAM-1 tokamak by vertical scanning of the neutral energy analyzer. The ''apparent'' ion temperature obtained directly from the energy spectrum observed in the peripheral region is much higher than that predicted by neoclassical transport theory. The ''actual'' ion temperature profile is derived numerically from the energy spectra observed at various positions taking into account the wall-reflection effect of neutrals and the impermeability of the plasma. As a result, the ''actual'' ion temperature profile is found to agree well with that predicted by neoclassical transport theory.

  18. Numerical calculation of 'actual' radial profile of ion temperature from 'measured' energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Toi, Kazuo; Itoh, Satoshi

    1984-01-01

    The energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals are observed in the TRIAM-1 tokamak by vertical scanning of the neutral energy analyzer. The ''apparent'' ion temperature obtained directly from the energy spectrum observed in the peripheral region is much higher than that predicted by neoclassical transport theory. The ''actual'' ion temperature profile is derived numerically from the energy spectra observed at various positions taking into account the wall-reflection effect of neutrals and the impermeability of the plasma. As a result, the ''actual'' ion temperature profile is found to agree well with that predicted by neoclassical transport theory. (author)

  19. Stationary neoclassical profiles of plasma parameters in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilkin, I.S.; Mineev, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Peculiarities of neoclassical model of heat and particle transfer, occuring by calculations of plasma stationary profile parameters in stellarators are considered. The main peculiarity out of all consists in ineadequate compatibility with real physical conditions on the boundary, requiring application of supplementary 'anomalous' transfer or special (but technically possible) adjustment of particle and heat sources to achieve solution in form of 'correct' monotonically sloping profile. It is stated, that neoclassical theory does not provide for well-known ambiguity of solutions for ambipolar electrical field by search of monotonous stationary profiles supported by outside sources

  20. Stationary neoclassical profiles of plasma parameters in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilkin, I.S.; Mineev, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of the neoclassical model of heat and particle transport are considered in connection with calculations of stationary profiles of the plasma parameters in stellarators. The most important feature is the poor agreement with real physical conditions of the boundary, which imposes the necessity of invoking either an additional anomalous transport or a special (although technically possible) consistency between the particle and heat sources in order to obtain a solution in the form of a correct monotonically decreasing profile. In search for monotonic stationary profiles maintained by external sources, it is ascertained that the neoclassical theory does not give rise to the well-known multivalued solutions for the ambipolar electric field

  1. Interaction of the modulated electron beam with inhomogeneous plasma: plasma density profile deformation and langmuir waves excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, I.O.; Kelnyk, O.I.; Soroka, S.V.; Siversky, T.V.

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear deformation of the initially linear plasma density profile due to the modulated electron beam is studied via computer simulation. In the initial time period the field slaves to the instantaneous profile of the plasma density. Langmuir waves excitation is suppressed by the density profile deformation. The character of the plasma density profile deformation for the late time period depends significantly on the plasma properties. Particularly, for plasma with hot electrons quasi-periodic generation of ion-acoustic pulses takes place in the vicinity of the initial point of plasma resonance

  2. Comment on "A note on generalized radial mesh generation for plasma electronic structure"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, J.-Ch.

    2011-12-01

    In a recent note, B.G. Wilson and V. Sonnad [1] proposed a very useful closed form expression for the efficient generation of analytic log-linear radial meshes. The central point of the note is an implicit equation for the parameter h, involving Lambert's function W[x]. The authors mention that they are unaware of any direct proof of this equation (they obtained it by re-summing the Taylor expansion of h[α] using high-order coefficients obtained by analytic differentiation of the implicit definition using symbolic manipulation). In the present comment, we propose a direct proof of that equation.

  3. Control of radial propagation and polarity in a plasma jet in surrounding Ar

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, W.; Yue, Y.; Ma, F.; Yu, F.; Wan, J.; Nie, L.; Bazaka, K.; Xian, Y.; Lu, X.; Ostrikov, K.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the use of shielding gas to prevent the diffusion of the ambient air, particularly oxygen and nitrogen species, into the effluent of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet, and thus control the nature of chemical species used

  4. Effects of a precursor plasma on a coaxial-to-radial transition discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enloe, C.L.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Quick-Fire series of experiments on the AFWL SHIVA-Star 9.6 megajoule capacitor bank utilizes a coaxial plasma gun as a power conditioning and switching element driving an imploding plasma liner in what is essentially a hollow z-pinch. Initially, the liner is a thin, cylindrical plastic-and-metal foil. Ideally, the foil remains undisturbed until switching action occurs, and steps have been taken to minimize the amount of hot material that is accelerated into the plasma region ahead of the main coaxial discharge. The condition of the foil and the surrounding region prior to switching has been studied both with nitrogen laser shadowgraphy and with a technique which measures the deflection of a helium-neon laser beam due to the presence of density gradients in the switching region. Estimates of the density of precursor plasmas and their effects on foil condition are presented

  5. Longitudinal and radial MHD linear induction accelerator with hot conducting plasma core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denno, K.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual design of linear induction accelerator is presented using for the core continuum a highly conductive plasma with sustained pumping velocity. Karlovitz criterion of boundary theory is employed in the process of design

  6. Excitation of higher radial modes of azimuthal surface waves in the electron cyclotron frequency range by rotating relativistic flow of electrons in cylindrical waveguides partially filled by plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girka, Igor O.; Pavlenko, Ivan V.; Thumm, Manfred

    2018-05-01

    Azimuthal surface waves are electromagnetic eigenwaves of cylindrical plasma-dielectric waveguides which propagate azimuthally nearby the plasma-dielectric interface across an axial external stationary magnetic field. Their eigenfrequency in particular can belong to the electron cyclotron frequency range. Excitation of azimuthal surface waves by rotating relativistic electron flows was studied in detail recently in the case of the zeroth radial mode for which the waves' radial phase change within the layer where the electrons gyrate is small. In this case, just the plasma parameters cause the main influence on the waves' dispersion properties. In the case of the first and higher radial modes, the wave eigenfrequency is higher and the wavelength is shorter than in the case of the zeroth radial mode. This gain being of interest for practical applications can be achieved without any change in the device design. The possibility of effective excitation of the higher order radial modes of azimuthal surface waves is demonstrated here. Getting shorter wavelengths of the excited waves in the case of higher radial modes is shown to be accompanied by decreasing growth rates of the waves. The results obtained here are of interest for developing new sources of electromagnetic radiation, in nano-physics and in medical physics.

  7. Hot radial pressing: An alternative technique for the manufacturing of plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visca, E.; Libera, S.; Mancini, A.; Mazzone, G.; Pizzuto, A.; Testani, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Hot radial pressing (HRP) manufacturing technique is based on the radial diffusion bonding principle performed between the cooling tube and the armour tile. The bonding is achieved by pressurizing the cooling tube while the joining interface is kept at the vacuum and temperature conditions. This technique has been used for the manufacturing of relevant mock-ups of the ITER divertor vertical target. Tungsten monoblock mock-ups were successfully tested to high heat flux thermal fatigue (20 MW/m 2 of absorbed heat flux for 1000 cycles). After these good results the activity is now focused on the developing of a manufacturing process suitable also for the CFC monoblock mock-ups. A FE calculation was performed to investigate the stress involved in the CFC tiles during the process and to avoid the CFC fracture. The results obtained by the FE calculation and by the test performed in air simulating a HRP manufacturing process for a CFC monoblock mock-ups is reported in the paper

  8. Microgamma Scan System for analyzing radial isotopic profiles of irradiated transmutation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, Bruce A.; McGrath, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The U. S. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership / Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (GNEP/AFCI) is developing metallic transmutation alloys as a fuel form to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products. A micro-gamma scan system is being developed to analyze the radial distribution of fission products, such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Ru-106, and Zr-95, in irradiated fuel cross-sections. The micro-gamma scan system consists of a precision linear stage with integrated sample holder and a tungsten alloy collimator, which interfaces with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell (ALHC) Gamma Scan System high purity germanium detector, multichannel analyzer, and removable collimators. A simplified model of the micro-gamma scan system was developed in MCNP (Monte-Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) and used to investigate the system performance and to interpret data from the scoping studies. Preliminary measurements of the micro-gamma scan system are discussed. (authors)

  9. Turbulence induced radial transport of toroidal momentum in boundary plasma of EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, N.; Yan, N.; Xu, G. S.; Wang, H. Q.; Wang, L.; Ding, S. Y.; Chen, R.; Chen, L.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Shao, L. M.; Wang, Z. X.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence induced toroidal momentum transport in boundary plasma is investigated in H-mode discharge using Langmuir-Mach probes on EAST. The Reynolds stress is found to drive an inward toroidal momentum transport, while the outflow of particles convects the toroidal momentum outwards in the edge plasma. The Reynolds stress driven momentum transport dominates over the passive momentum transport carried by particle flux, which potentially provides a momentum source for the edge plasma. The outflow of particles delivers a momentum flux into the scrape-off layer (SOL) region, contributing as a momentum source for the SOL flows. At the L-H transitions, the outward momentum transport suddenly decreases due to the suppression of edge turbulence and associated particle transport. The SOL flows start to decelerate as plasma entering into H-mode. The contributions from turbulent Reynolds stress and particle transport for the toroidal momentum transport are identified. These results shed lights on the understanding of edge plasma accelerating at L-H transitions.

  10. On the Self-Focusing of Whistler Waves in a Radial Inhomogeneous Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balmashnov, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    The process of whistler wave self-focusing is experimentally investigated. It was found that a whistler wave propagating along the plasma column with a density crest excites a longitudinal wave of the same frequency propagating across the external magnetic field. The amplitude modulation of the l......The process of whistler wave self-focusing is experimentally investigated. It was found that a whistler wave propagating along the plasma column with a density crest excites a longitudinal wave of the same frequency propagating across the external magnetic field. The amplitude modulation...... of the latter wave is accompanied by a density modification, which leads to trapping of the whistler wave in a density trough in the center of the plasma column....

  11. Radial density distribution of a warm dense plasma formed by underwater electrical explosion of a copper wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitishinskiy, M.; Yanuka, D.; Virozub, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2017-12-01

    Time- and space-resolved evolution of the density (down to 0.07 of solid state density) of a copper wire during its microsecond timescale electrical explosion in water was obtained by X-ray backlighting. In the present research, a flash X-ray source of 20 ns pulse-width and >60 keV photon energy was used. The conductivity of copper was evaluated for a temperature of 10 kK and found to be in good agreement with the data obtained in earlier experiments [DeSilva and Katsouros, Phys. Rev. E 57, 5945 (1998) and Sheftman and Krasik, Phys. Plasmas 18, 092704 (2011)] where only electrical and optical diagnostics were applied. Magneto-hydrodynamic simulation shows a good agreement between the simulated and experimental waveforms of the current and voltage and measured the radial expansion of the exploding wire. Also, the radial density distribution obtained by an inverse Abel transform analysis agrees with the results of these simulations. Thus, the validity of the equations of state for copper and the conductivity model used in the simulations was confirmed for the parameters of the exploding wire realized in the present research.

  12. Radial profiles of velocity and pressure for condensation-induced hurricanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarieva, A.M.; Gorshkov, V.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Bernoulli integral in the form of an algebraic equation is obtained for the hurricane air flow as the sum of the kinetic energy of wind and the condensational potential energy. With an account for the eye rotation energy and the decrease of angular momentum towards the hurricane center it is shown that the theoretical profiles of pressure and velocity agree well with observations for intense hurricanes. The previous order of magnitude estimates obtained in pole approximation are confirmed.

  13. Radial profiles of velocity and pressure for condensation-induced hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarieva, A. M.; Gorshkov, V. G.

    2011-02-01

    The Bernoulli integral in the form of an algebraic equation is obtained for the hurricane air flow as the sum of the kinetic energy of wind and the condensational potential energy. With an account for the eye rotation energy and the decrease of angular momentum towards the hurricane center it is shown that the theoretical profiles of pressure and velocity agree well with observations for intense hurricanes. The previous order of magnitude estimates obtained in pole approximation are confirmed.

  14. Radial profiles of velocity and pressure for condensation-induced hurricanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarieva, A.M., E-mail: ammakarieva@gmail.co [Theoretical Physics Division, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gorshkov, V.G. [Theoretical Physics Division, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-14

    The Bernoulli integral in the form of an algebraic equation is obtained for the hurricane air flow as the sum of the kinetic energy of wind and the condensational potential energy. With an account for the eye rotation energy and the decrease of angular momentum towards the hurricane center it is shown that the theoretical profiles of pressure and velocity agree well with observations for intense hurricanes. The previous order of magnitude estimates obtained in pole approximation are confirmed.

  15. Diffraction efficiency of radially-profiled off-plane reflection gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Marlowe, Hannah; Peterson, Thomas J.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Menz, Benedikt; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela; Laubis, Christian; Scholze, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Future X-ray missions will require gratings with high throughput and high spectral resolution. Blazed off-plane reflection gratings are capable of meeting these demands. A blazed grating profile optimizes grating efficiency, providing higher throughput to one side of zero-order on the arc of diffraction. This paper presents efficiency measurements made in the 0.3 - 1.5 keV energy band at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) BESSY II facility for three holographically-ruled gratings, two of which are blazed. Each blazed grating was tested in both the Littrow configuration and anti-Littrow configuration in order to test the alignment sensitivity of these gratings with regard to throughput. This paper outlines the procedure of the grating experiment performed at BESSY II and discuss the resulting efficiency measurements across various energies. Experimental results are generally consistent with theory and demonstrate that the blaze does increase throughput to one side of zero-order. However, the total efficiency of the non-blazed, sinusoidal grating is greater than that of the blazed gratings, which suggests that the method of manufacturing these blazed profiles fails to produce facets with the desired level of precision. Finally, evidence of a successful blaze implementation from first diffraction results of prototype blazed gratings produce via a new fabrication technique at the University of Iowa are presented.

  16. Optimization of confinement in a toroidal plasma subject to strong radial electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary report on the identification and optimization of independent variables which affect the ion density and confinement time in a bumpy torus plasma is presented. The independent variables include the polarity, position, and number of the midplane electrode rings, the method of gas injection, and the polarity and strength of a weak vertical magnetic field. Some characteristic data taken under condition when most of the independent variables were optimized are presented. The highest value of the electron number density on the plasma axis is 3.2 x 10 to the 12th power/cc, the highest ion heating efficiency is 47 percent, and the longest particle containment time is 2.0 milliseconds

  17. Studies on plasma profiles and its effect on dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhay, M.

    2010-02-01

    Plasma profiles and its influence on dust charging are studied in hydrogen plasma. The plasma is produced in a high vacuum device by a hot cathode discharge method and is confined by a cusped magnetic field cage. A cylindrical Espion advanced Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used to study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions. Optimum operational discharge parameters in terms of charging of the dust grains are studied. The charge on the surface of the dust particle is calculated from the capacitance model and the current by the dust grains is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer. Unlike our previous experiments in which dust grains were produced in-situ, here a dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma.

  18. Studies on plasma profiles and its effect on dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakati, B; Kausik, S S; Saikia, B K; Bandyopadhay, M

    2010-01-01

    Plasma profiles and its influence on dust charging are studied in hydrogen plasma. The plasma is produced in a high vacuum device by a hot cathode discharge method and is confined by a cusped magnetic field cage. A cylindrical Espion advanced Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used to study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions. Optimum operational discharge parameters in terms of charging of the dust grains are studied. The charge on the surface of the dust particle is calculated from the capacitance model and the current by the dust grains is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer. Unlike our previous experiments in which dust grains were produced in-situ, here a dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma.

  19. Spectrally resolved measurements of the terahertz beam profile generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma .......Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma ....

  20. Control of the radial electric field shear by modification of the magnetic field configuration in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.

    2005-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field, E γ , is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. In general, the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, and positive or negative electric field have been obtained by decreasing or increasing the electron density, respectively. Although the sign of the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, modification of the magnetic field is required to achieve further control of the radial electric field, especially producing a strong radial electric field shear. In the Large Helical Device (LHD) the radial electric field profiles are shown to be controlled by the modification of the magnetic field by 1) changing the radial profile of the helical ripples, ε h , 2) creating a magnetic island with an external perturbation field coil and 3) changing the local island divertor coil current. (author)

  1. Control of the radial electric field shear by modification of the magnetic field configuration in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.

    2005-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field, E r , is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. In general, the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, and positive or negative electric fields have been obtained by decreasing or increasing the electron density, respectively. Although the sign of the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, modification of the magnetic field is required to achieve further control of the radial electric field, especially to produce a strong radial electric field shear. In the Large Helical Device (LHD) the radial electric field profiles are shown to be controlled by the modification of the magnetic field by (1) changing the radial profile of the effective helical ripples, ε h (2) creating a magnetic island with an external perturbation field coil and (3) changing the local island divertor coil current

  2. Core radial power profile effect on system and core cooling behavior during reflood phase of PWR-LOCA with CCTF data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Iguchi, Tadashi; Murao, Yoshio

    1985-01-01

    In the reactor safety assessment during reflood phase of a PWR-LOCA, it is assumed implicitly that the core thermal hydraulic behavior is evaluated by the one-dimensional model with an average power rod. In order to assess the applicability of the one-dimensional treatment, integral tests were performed with various core radial power profiles using the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) whose core includes about 2,000 heater rods. The CCTF results confirm that the core radial power profile has weak effect on the thermal hydraulic behavior in the primary system except core. It is also confirmed that the core differential pressure in the axial direction is predicted by the one-dimensional core model with an average power rod even in the case with a steep radial power profile in the core. Even though the core heat transfer coefficient is dependent on the core radial power profile, it is found that the error of the peak clad surface temperature calculation is less than 15 K using the one-dimensional model in the CCTF tests. The CCTF results support the one-dimensional treatment assumed in the reactor safety assessment. (author)

  3. Seismic constraints on the radial dependence of the internal rotation profiles of six Kepler subgiants and young red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deheuvels, S.; Doğan, G.; Goupil, M. J.; Appourchaux, T.; Benomar, O.; Bruntt, H.; Campante, T. L.; Casagrande, L.; Ceillier, T.; Davies, G. R.; De Cat, P.; Fu, J. N.; García, R. A.; Lobel, A.; Mosser, B.; Reese, D. R.; Regulo, C.; Schou, J.; Stahn, T.; Thygesen, A. O.; Yang, X. H.; Chaplin, W. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Eggenberger, P.; Gizon, L.; Mathis, S.; Molenda-Żakowicz, J.; Pinsonneault, M.

    2014-04-01

    Context. We still do not understand which physical mechanisms are responsible for the transport of angular momentum inside stars. The recent detection of mixed modes that contain the clear signature of rotation in the spectra of Kepler subgiants and red giants gives us the opportunity to make progress on this question. Aims: Our aim is to probe the radial dependence of the rotation profiles for a sample of Kepler targets. For this purpose, subgiants and early red giants are particularly interesting targets because their rotational splittings are more sensitive to the rotation outside the deeper core than is the case for their more evolved counterparts. Methods: We first extracted the rotational splittings and frequencies of the modes for six young Kepler red giants. We then performed a seismic modeling of these stars using the evolutionary codes Cesam2k and astec. By using the observed splittings and the rotational kernels of the optimal models, we inverted the internal rotation profiles of the six stars. Results: We obtain estimates of the core rotation rates for these stars, and upper limits to the rotation in their convective envelope. We show that the rotation contrast between the core and the envelope increases during the subgiant branch. Our results also suggest that the core of subgiants spins up with time, while their envelope spins down. For two of the stars, we show that a discontinuous rotation profile with a deep discontinuity reproduces the observed splittings significantly better than a smooth rotation profile. Interestingly, the depths that are found to be most probable for the discontinuities roughly coincide with the location of the H-burning shell, which separates the layers that contract from those that expand. Conclusions: We characterized the differential rotation pattern of six young giants with a range of metallicities, and with both radiative and convective cores on the main sequence. This will bring observational constraints to the

  4. Analysis of possible designs of processing units with radial plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnik, V. V.; Zaitsev, S. V.; Vashilin, V. S.; Limarenko, M. V.; Prochorenkov, D. S.

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of plasma-ion methods of obtaining thin-film coatings shows that their development goes along the path of the increasing use of sputter deposition processes, which allow one to obtain multicomponent coatings with varying percentage of particular components. One of the methods that allow one to form multicomponent coatings with virtually any composition of elementary components is the method of coating deposition using quasi-magnetron sputtering systems [1]. This requires the creation of an axial magnetic field of a defined configuration with the flux density within the range of 0.01-0.1 T [2]. In order to compare and analyze various configurations of processing unit magnetic systems, it is necessary to obtain the following dependencies: the dependency of magnetic core section on the input power to inductors, the distribution of magnetic induction within the equatorial plane in the corresponding sections, the distribution of the magnetic induction value in the area of cathode target location.

  5. Plasma renin activity profile in normal and hypertensive Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, R.; Torres, J. Jr.; Abundo, H.P.; Perez, A.P.

    To establish a base line profile of plasma renin activity in normotensive and hypertensive Filipinos, 1.019 cases, 479 males and 540 females with an age range 14 - 89 years (mean - 46 + -20) were studied at the Santo Tomas University Hospital of various life styles from the Metro-Manila area, 248 comprised the normotensive group (male - 122 or 49.2 %, female 126 or 50.8 %) and 771 were hypertensive. Of these, 711 (92.6 %) has essential hypertension and are presented in this report. Plasma Renin Activity was determined by radioimmunoassay using Dainabot Renin-Ricket. Concurrent 24 hr. urine sodium and potassium were determined. Nomograms of plasma renin activity as related to urine sodium excretion were drawn after computerized statistical analysis of data. The normal mean value of plasma renin activity was found to be 1.64 + - 0.81 ng./ml./hr. in the upright position and 1.15 + - .68 ng./ml./hr. in the supine position. Based on the nomogram derived, the values obtained in the 711 cases of essential hypertension were classified into High Renin - 14.3 % Normal Renin - 56.1 % and Low Renin - 29.6 %. This study establishes normal levels of plasma renin activity as well as define and classify same renin activity among hypertensive Filipinos, a useful and practicable guide for treatment and can be of prognostic significance. (author)

  6. Effect of asymmetric plasma potential in the SOL on the particle radial transport and heat flux broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Junichiro; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Miura, Yukitoshi; Kawashima, Hisato.

    1997-01-01

    The effective divertor heat-load relaxation using ExB induced convective cells in the SOL is studied. The ExB convective cells in the SOL are generated by the toroidally asymmetric divertor biasing, which can control the local plasma potential in the SOL. The preliminary experiment has been done in the JFT-2M tokamak with poloidal divertor. The helical SOL current flows along the magnetic field between the locally biased inboard plate and grounded outer plates, thereby modifying plasma potential in the vicinity of the local divertor current flow. The generation of the poloidal electric field reaching up to 1.5kV/m locally in the SOL and the modification of the heat flux profile on the divertor plate is observed. (author)

  7. Global transcriptomic profiling of aspen trees under elevated [CO2] to identify potential molecular mechanisms responsible for enhanced radial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hairong; Gou, Jiqing; Yordanov, Yordan; Zhang, Huaxin; Thakur, Ramesh; Jones, Wendy; Burton, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees growing under elevated [CO(2)] at a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) site produced significantly more biomass than control trees. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed increase in biomass by producing transcriptomic profiles of the vascular cambium zone (VCZ) and leaves, and then performed a comparative study to identify significantly changed genes and pathways after 12 years exposure to elevated [CO(2)]. In leaves, elevated [CO(2)] enhanced expression of genes related to Calvin cycle activity and linked pathways. In the VCZ, the pathways involved in cell growth, cell division, hormone metabolism, and secondary cell wall formation were altered while auxin conjugation, ABA synthesis, and cytokinin glucosylation and degradation were inhibited. Similarly, the genes involved in hemicellulose and pectin biosynthesis were enhanced, but some genes that catalyze important steps in lignin biosynthesis pathway were inhibited. Evidence from systemic analysis supported the functioning of multiple molecular mechanisms that underpin the enhanced radial growth in response to elevated [CO(2)].

  8. Analyses of plasma parameter profiles in JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirai, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Nobuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Itakura, Hirofumi; Takase, Keizou [CSK Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    The methods how diagnostics data are treated as the surface quantity of magnetic surface and processed to the profile data in the JT-60U plasmas are summarized. The MHD equilibrium obtained by solving Grad-Shafranov equation on the MHD equilibrium calculation and registration software FBEQU are saved shot by shot as a database. Various experimental plasma data measured at various geometrical positions on JT-60 are mapped onto the MHD equilibrium and treated as functions of the volume averaged minor radius {rho} on the experimental data time slice monitoring software SLICE. Experimental data are integrated and edited on SLICE. The experimental data measured as the line integral values are transformed by Able inversion. The mapped data are fitted to a functional form and saved to the profile database MAP-DB. SLICE can also read data from MAP-DB and redisplay and transform them. In addition, SLICE can generate the profile data TOKRD as run data for orbit following Monte-Carlo (OFMC) code, analyzer for current drive consistent with MHD equilibrium (ACCOME) code and tokamak predictive and interpretive code system (TOPICS). (author)

  9. Analyses of plasma parameter profiles in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Nobuhiko

    2001-01-01

    The methods how diagnostics data are treated as the surface quantity of magnetic surface and processed to the profile data in the JT-60U plasmas are summarized. The MHD equilibrium obtained by solving Grad-Shafranov equation on the MHD equilibrium calculation and registration software FBEQU are saved shot by shot as a database. Various experimental plasma data measured at various geometrical positions on JT-60 are mapped onto the MHD equilibrium and treated as functions of the volume averaged minor radius ρ on the experimental data time slice monitoring software SLICE. Experimental data are integrated and edited on SLICE. The experimental data measured as the line integral values are transformed by Able inversion. The mapped data are fitted to a functional form and saved to the profile database MAP-DB. SLICE can also read data from MAP-DB and redisplay and transform them. In addition, SLICE can generate the profile data TOKRD as run data for orbit following Monte-Carlo (OFMC) code, analyzer for current drive consistent with MHD equilibrium (ACCOME) code and tokamak predictive and interpretive code system (TOPICS). (author)

  10. Influence of continuously-varing profile on the diocotron instability in a non neutral plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgary, H. R.; Maraghehechi, Behrooz; Rafii, Mahboobeh

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the theoretical method related to density profile effect on diocotron instability in nonrelativistic state in non neutral plasma column. At first we introduce non neutral plasma and diocotron instability then we extract instability equation and we will investigate plasma stability with special profile density

  11. Measurements of plasma profiles using a fast swept Langmuir probe in the VINETA-II magnetic reconnection experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shesterikov, I.; Von Stechow, A.; Grulke, O.; Stenzel, R.; Klinger, T.

    2017-07-01

    A fast-swept Langmuir probe capable to be biased at a high voltages has been constructed and successfully operated at the VINETA-II magnetic reconnection experiment. The presented circuit has two main features beneficial for fast transient parameter changes in laboratory experiments as, e.g., plasma guns or magnetic reconnection: the implementation simplicity and the high voltage sweep range. This work presents its design and performance for time-dependent measurements of VINETA-II plasmas. The probe is biased with a sinusoidal voltage at a fixed frequency. Current - voltage characteristics are measured along the falling and rising slopes of the probe bias. The sweep frequency is fsweep= 150 kHz. The spatiotemporal evolution of radial plasma profiles is obtained by evaluation of the probe characteristics. The plasma density measurements agree with those derived from a microwave interferometer, demonstrating the reliability of the measurements. As a model plasma system, a plasma gun discharge with typical pulse times of 60 μ s is chosen.

  12. Time resolved two- and three-dimensional plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This collection of papers on diagnostics in fusion plasmas contains work on the data analysis of inverse problems and on the experimental arrangements presently used to obtain spatially and temporally resolved plasma radial profiles, including electron and ion temperature, plasma density and plasma current profiles. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Polarized radial magnetic fields and outward plasma fluxes during shallow-reversal discharges in the ZT-40M reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.; Rusbridge, M.G.; Burkhardt, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of edge-region electromagnetic disturbances and of pulsed radial fluxes of plasma to the liner as well as the detailed interrelationship among these processes have been studied on the ZT-40M reversed-field pinch in its normal, shallow-reversal operating regime. The dominant magnetic disturbances are spiky (pulsewidth approx.5--10 μs) low-amplitude (Vertical BarB/sub r//B/sub theta/Vertical Bar -2 )= poloidally symmetric radial-field structures intersecting the vacuum wall and precessing toroidally in the anti-I/sub phi/ sense. The effect of even slight toroidal-field reversal (Vertical BarB/sub phi/(a)Vertical Barroughly-equalB/sub theta/(a)/10) is to polarize these radial-field spikes preferentially positive (i.e., B/sub r/>0) and to increase the speed of the minority (B/sub r/ 0) spikes. Synchronous with the polarized B/sub r/ spikes are intense radially outward fluxes of plasma (instantaneously > or approx. =10 22 m -2 s -1 ) leading to recurrent, large amplitude (Vertical BarΔn/n> or approx. =25%) depletion of the density in the outer quarter of minor radius. The resulting time-averaged global loss-rate per particle is significant (approx.10 3 s -1 )

  14. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Josane F; Espreafico, Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP), confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP), when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library) by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C) cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617), and the other (Met library) by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in available expression study databases allowed us to point to a

  15. Radial evolution of the finite-width plasma sheet in a z-pinch: A parametric analysis based on conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherar, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A simple method that allows to estimate the macroscopic variables (width, temperature, density, radial velocity, etc.) of the plasma sheet in the first compression of a z-pinch, is presented. Following the snow-plow model, the radial compression is assumed as a process in which the mass is swept by a sheet of finite width. Very high pressures can be reached inside the sheet due to magnetic compression, higher than the filling gas pressure. A quasi-equilibrium hypothesis for the pressure of the layer is defined. From this assumption the thickness of the dense plasma sheet can be estimated. A set of MHD equations that include a term to compute total energy losses is used. The system of equations is written in the interface reference system in which the internal boundary of the sheet is at rest. In this early stage of the compression, the plasma temperature is mainly due to heavy particles. The results obtained using this model can explain ionic temperatures measured in cold plasmas which cannot be explained from electron-ion collisions. From an analytical study of the formation solution, a well-defined range of validity for each parameter of the model has been found. Based on physical conditions, these ranges of validity give a criterion to understanding the necessary conditions to build and maintain a moving plasma sheet. Using this model, other geometries besides the cylindrical one can be analyzed in the future

  16. On the interplay between turbulence and poloidal flows in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.

    1999-01-01

    The radial profile of Reynolds stress has been measured in the plasma boundary region of tokamaks and stellarator plasmas. The electrostatic Reynolds stress (proportional to r E-tilde θ >) shows a radial gradient close to the velocity shear layer location, showing that this mechanism can drive significant poloidal flows in the plasma boundary region of fusion plasmas. The generation of poloidal flows by Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW) is under investigation in toroidal plasmas. The radial gradient in the Reynolds stress increases with RF power and radial electric fields are modified at the RF resonance layer. (author)

  17. Analytical calculations of the rotational transform angles in the torsatron systems with different plasma pressure profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.K.; Pinos, I.B.; Tyupa, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    With formulas for averaging over magnetic surfaces general analytical expressions are here deduced to determine the rotational transform angles in stellarator systems having different plasma pressure profiles

  18. On the atomic line profiles in high pressure plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, J. F. J.; Gnybida, M.; Rijke, A. J.; Dijk, J. van [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Suijker, J. L. G. [Philips Lighting R and D Category Professional Lamps, P.O. Box 80020, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-11-14

    In a previous contribution to this journal [H. P. Stormberg, J. Appl. Phys. 51(4), 1963 (1980)], Stormberg presented an analytical expression for the convolution of Lorentz and Levy line profiles, which models atomic radiative transitions in high pressure plasmas. Unfortunately, the derivations are flawed with errors and the final expression, while correct, is accompanied by misguiding comments about the meaning of the symbols used therein, in particular the “complex error function.” In this paper, we discuss the broadening mechanisms that give rise to Stormberg's model and present a correct derivation of his final result. We will also provide an alternative expression, based on the Faddeeva function, which has decisive computational advantages and emphasizes the real-valuedness of the result. The MATLAB/Octave scripts of our implementation have been made available on the publisher's website for future reference.

  19. Flare plasma density determination using observed temperature profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Observed electron temperature variations derived from flux intensity ratios of whole-disk continuum soft X-ray spectra recorded by GOES satellites are presently subjected to an analysis that is based on the nonequilibrium energy balance equation in order to obtain the physical properties of a large solar flare from onset through the gradual phase. A self-similar formalism which reduces the nonlinear, second-order PDE in length and time to a more tractable, nonlinear, first-order Ricatti equation is invoked. Plasma density is the principal unknown variable contained in the Ricatti equation, which also contains first-order time derivatives and first- and second-order spatial derivatives of temperature. This methodology is presently applied to the moderate size flare of January 28, 1982, for which a density profile is deduced under various parametric conditions. 37 references

  20. Study on possibility of plasma current profile determination using an analytical model of tokamak equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Hiraki, Naoji

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of determining the current profile of tokamak plasma from the external magnetic measurements alone is investigated using an analytical model of tokamak equilibrium. The model, which is based on an approximate solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation, can set a plasma current profile expressed with four free parameters of the total plasma current, the poloidal beta, the plasma internal inductance and the axial safety factor. The analysis done with this model indicates that, for a D-shaped plasma, the boundary poloidal magnetic field prescribing the external magnetic field distribution is dependent on the axial safety factor in spite of keeping the boundary safety factor and the plasma internal inductance constant. This suggests that the plasma current profile is reversely determined from the external magnetic analysis. The possibility and the limitation of current profile determination are discussed through this analytical result. (author)

  1. Plasma Emission Profile Recreation using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, J. W.; Mauel, M. E.; Levesque, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    With sufficient views from multiple diode arrays, soft X-ray tomography is an invaluable plasma diagnostic because it is a non-perturbing method to reconstruct the emission within the interior of the plasma. In preparation for the installation of new SXR arrays in HBT-EP, we compute high-resolution tomographic reconstructions of discharges having kink-like structures that rotate nearly rigidly. By assuming a uniform angular mapping from the kink mode rotation, Δϕ ~ ωΔ t, a temporal sequence from a single 16-diode fan array represents as many as 16 x 100 independent views. We follow the procedure described by Wang and Granetz and use Bessel basis functions to take the inverse Radon transform. This transform is fit to our data using a least-squares method to estimate the internal SXR emissivity as a sum of polar functions. By varying different parameters of the transformation, we optimize the quality of our recreation of the emission profile and quantify how the reconstruction changes with the azimuthal order of the transform. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  2. Effects of electrode polarization and particle deposition profile on TJ-I plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurro, B.; Tabares, F.; Pardo, C.; Tafalla, D.; Cal, E. de la; Garcia-Castaner, B.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Sanchez, J.; Rodriguez-Yunta, A.

    1991-01-01

    The role of self-created radial electric field on particle confinement in TJ-I plasmas was addressed using plasma rotation data in conjunction with particle confinement times measured by laser ablation. In this paper following the pioneer work of Taylor, we have started to study the influence of a polarized electrode inserted into the plasma on particle confinement and plasma rotation in this ohmically heated tokamak. To have a supportive frame of reference, the confinement time of background particles and their transport into plasma without electrode, has been studied by measuring with space-time resolution the H α emission on varying plasma conditions. These experiments have been carried out in ohmically heated discharges of the TJ-I tokamak (R 0 =30 cm, a=10 cm) which was operated with plasma currents between 20 and 45 kA and a toroidal field ranging from 0.8 to 1.5 T. In this paper, firstly the experimental plasma and specific diagnostics are described, secondly, the parametric dependence of the particle confinement time and radial transport of background plasma is presented and finally, the influence of polarizing an inserted electrode on a particular discharge is given and discussed in the context of other polarization experiments. (author) 7 refs., 4 figs

  3. A Novel Hybrid Axial-Radial Atmospheric Plasma Spraying Technique for the Fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Containing Cu, Co, Ni, and Samaria-Doped Ceria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuglietta, Mark; Kuhn, Joel; Kesler, Olivera

    2013-06-01

    Composite coatings containing Cu, Co, Ni, and samaria-doped ceria (SDC) have been fabricated using a novel hybrid atmospheric plasma spraying technique, in which a multi-component aqueous suspension of CuO, Co3O4, and NiO was injected axially simultaneously with SDC injected radially in a dry powder form. Coatings were characterized for their microstructure, permeability, porosity, and composition over a range of plasma spray conditions. Deposition efficiency of the metal oxides and SDC was also estimated. Depending on the conditions, coatings displayed either layering or high levels of mixing between the SDC and metal phases. The deposition efficiencies of both feedstock types were strongly dependent on the nozzle diameter. Plasma-sprayed metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells utilizing anodes fabricated with this technique demonstrated power densities at 0.7 V as high as 366 and 113 mW/cm2 in humidified hydrogen and methane, respectively, at 800 °C.

  4. Time dependent emission line profiles in the radially streaming particle model of Seyfert galaxy nuclei and quasi-stellar objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, R.

    1974-01-01

    The radially-streaming particle model for broad quasar and Seyfert galaxy emission features is modified to include sources of time dependence. The results are suggestive of reported observations of multiple components, variability, and transient features in the wings of Seyfert and quasi-stellar emission lines.

  5. Simultaneous diagnosis of radial profiles and mix in NIF ignition-scale implosions via X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciricosta, O.; Scott, H.; Durey, P.; Hammel, B. A.; Epstein, R.; Preston, T. R.; Regan, S. P.; Vinko, S. M.; Woolsey, N. C.; Wark, J. S.

    2017-11-01

    In a National Ignition Facility implosion, hydrodynamic instabilities may cause the cold material from the imploding shell to be injected into the hot-spot (hot-spot mix), enhancing the radiative and conductive losses, which in turn may lead to a quenching of the ignition process. The bound-bound features of the spectrum emitted by high-Z ablator dopants that get mixed into the hot-spot have been previously used to infer the total amount of mixed mass; however, the typical errorbars are larger than the maximum tolerable mix. We present here an improved 2D model for mix spectroscopy which can be used to retrieve information on both the amount of mixed mass and the full imploded plasma profile. By performing radiation transfer and simultaneously fitting all of the features exhibited by the spectra, we are able to constrain self-consistently the effect of the opacity of the external layers of the target on the emission, thus improving the accuracy of the inferred mixed mass. The model's predictive capabilities are first validated by fitting simulated spectra arising from fully characterized hydrodynamic simulations, and then, the model is applied to previously published experimental results, providing values of mix mass in agreement with previous estimates. We show that the new self consistent procedure leads to better constrained estimates of mix and also provides insight into the sensitivity of the hot-spot spectroscopy to the spatial properties of the imploded capsule, such as the in-flight aspect ratio of the cold fuel surrounding the hotspot.

  6. Analysis of plasma equilibrium based on orbit-driven current density profile in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K., E-mail: nakamura@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Alam, M.M. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Jiang, Y.Z. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mitarai, O. [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Araki, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nagata, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • High energy particle guiding center orbit is calculated as a contour plot of conserved variable. • Current density profile is analyzed based on the orbit-driven current. • Plasma equilibrium is reconstructed by considering the hollow current profile. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven (ECCD) steady-state plasma on QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m), plasma current seems to flow in the open magnetic surface outside of the closed magnetic surface in the low-field region according to plasma current fitting (PCF) method. We consider that the current in the open magnetic surface is due to orbit-driven current by high-energy particles in RF-driven plasma. So based on the analysis of current density profile based on the orbit-driven current, plasma equilibrium is to be calculated. We calculated high energy particles guiding center orbits as a contour plot of conserved variable in Hamiltonian formulation and considered particles initial position with different levels of energy and pitch angles that satisfy resonance condition. Then the profile of orbit-driven current is estimated by multiplying the particle density on the resonance surface and the velocity on the orbits. This analysis shows negative current near the magnetic axis and hollow current profile is expected even if pressure driven current is considered. Considering the hollow current profile shifted toward the low-field region, the equilibrium is fitted by J-EFIT coded by MATLAB.

  7. Interactive network analysis of the plasma amino acids profile in a mouse model of hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Mochida, Taiga; Maki, Yukihiro; Shiraki, Yasuko; Mori, Hiroko; Matsumoto, Shirou; Shimbo, Kazutaka; Ando, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Endo, Fumio; Okamoto, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Amino acids are a group of metabolites that are important substrates for protein synthesis, are important as signaling molecules and play central roles as highly connected metabolic hubs, and therefore, there are many reports that describe disease-specific abnormalities in plasma amino acids profile. However, the causes of progression from a healthy control to a manifestation of the plasma amino acid changes remain obscure. Here, we extended the plasma amino acids profile to relationships tha...

  8. CO{sub 2} laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    A CO{sub 2} laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  9. CO2 laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.

    2001-04-01

    A CO 2 laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  10. Antiproton compression and radial measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jorgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page R D; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, achieved by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile, and its relation to that of the electron plasma. We also measure the outer radial profile by ejecting antiprotons to the trap wall using an octupole magnet.

  11. Lipid Profile and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP in Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Wahida Sultana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diet deficient in fresh fruits and vegetables are associated with an increased risk of coronary diseases. Low levels of vitamin C, vitamin E and other antioxidants may enhance the production of oxidized LDL and are important independent risk factors for coronary disease. Objective: To make a comparative evaluation of lipid profile and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU, Dhaka between July 2011 to June 2012. Vegetarian and nonvegetarian subjects of male sex were the study population. Vegetarians were considered as cases while nonvegetarians as controls. After proper ethical consideration a total of 30 vegetarians and 40 nonvegetarians were consecutively included in the study based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Laboratory investigations were done in the Department of Biochemistry, BSMMU, Dhaka. Results: The vegetarians had significantly lower total cholesterol and LDLcholesterol than the nonvegetarians (p=0.000 and p=0.000 respectively. Serum HDL cholesterol was also lower among the vegetarians (p=0.002 and triglycerides were almost identical in both the groups (p=0.272. Conclusion: The study reveals lower level of total cholesterol, LDLcholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in vegetarians. No difference regarding triglycerides and AIP was found between the groups. So, the findings of this study do not indicate any superiority of vegetarian diet in control and prevention of cardiac diseases.

  12. Low-to-high confinement transition mediated by turbulence radial wave number spectral shift in a fusion plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Wang, H. Q.

    2016-01-01

    A new model for the low-to-high (L-H) confinement transition has been developed based on a new paradigm for turbulence suppression by velocity shear [G. M. Staebler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.110, 055003 (2013)]. The model indicates that the L-H transition can be mediated by a shift in the radial wa...

  13. The effect of plasma density profile on the backscatter of microwaves from a plasma-covered plane conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destler, W.W.; Singh, A.; Rodgers, J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to gain further insight into the mechanism of anomalous absorption of microwaves in a pulsed plasma column, the latter was studied using single and double Langmuir probes. Graphs of plasma potential recorded by floating Langmuir probes as a function of time were obtained for a range of pressure of the background gas and at different distances from the plasma-covered plane-conducting plate. From this data, two main components of the plasma have been identified. The first appears earlier, exhibits greater fluctuations and is shorter in duration than the second component. The presence of these two plasma components is consistent with earlier observations obtained from transverse transmission measurements of microwaves through the plasma. Variations in the envelopes of these two components as experimental conditions are changed will be presented. Microwave backscatter measurements under varying conditions of plasma-density profile and ambient gas pressure will also be presented

  14. Divertor experiments in a toroidal plasma, with E x B drift due to an applied radial electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.

    1979-09-01

    It is proposed that the E x B drift arising from an externally applied electric field could be used in a tokamak or other toroidal magnetic plasma confinement device to remove plasma and impurities from the region near the wall and reduce the amount of plasma striking the wall. This could either augment or replace a conventional magnetic field divertor. Among the possible advantages of this scheme are easy external control over the rate of removal of plasma, more rapid removal than the naturally occurring rate in a magnetic divertor, and simplification of construction if the magnetic divertor is eliminated. Results of several related experiments performed in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole are presented

  15. Low-to-High Confinement Transition Mediated by Turbulence Radial Wave Number Spectral Shift in a Fusion Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G S; Wan, B N; Wang, H Q; Guo, H Y; Naulin, V; Rasmussen, J Juul; Nielsen, A H; Wu, X Q; Yan, N; Chen, L; Shao, L M; Chen, R; Wang, L; Zhang, W

    2016-03-04

    A new model for the low-to-high (L-H) confinement transition has been developed based on a new paradigm for turbulence suppression by velocity shear [G. M. Staebler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 055003 (2013)]. The model indicates that the L-H transition can be mediated by a shift in the radial wave number spectrum of turbulence, as evidenced here, for the first time, by the direct observation of a turbulence radial wave number spectral shift and turbulence structure tilting prior to the L-H transition at tokamak edge by direct probing. This new mechanism does not require a pretransition overshoot in the turbulent Reynolds stress, shunting turbulence energy to zonal flows for turbulence suppression as demonstrated in the experiment.

  16. Influence of gender on the correlation between plasma growth hormone profiles and urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jansson, C; Skakkebak, N

    1997-01-01

    A lot of interest has been directed towards the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion instead of plasma GH profiles or provocation tests. We investigated the factors influencing the relationship between 24- and 3-hour plasma GH profiles and urinary GH excretion in a cohort of 113...... than spontaneous GH peaks. The difference in cross-reactivities of molecular GH forms in polyclonal assays may have an impact on the correlation between plasma and urinary GH. Thus, the diagnostic value of urinary GH measurement as compared to serum GH profiles needs to be further evaluated....

  17. Axial- and radial-resolved electron density and excitation temperature of aluminum plasma induced by nanosecond laser: Effect of the ambient gas composition and pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud S. Dawood

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variation of the characteristics of an aluminum plasma induced by a pulsed nanosecond XeCl laser is studied in this paper. The electron density and the excitation temperature are deduced from time- and space- resolved Stark broadening of an ion line and from a Boltzmann diagram, respectively. The influence of the gas pressure (from vacuum up to atmospheric pressure and compositions (argon, nitrogen and helium on these characteristics is investigated. It is observed that the highest electron density occurs near the laser spot and decreases by moving away both from the target surface and from the plume center to its edge. The electron density increases with the gas pressure, the highest values being occurred at atmospheric pressure when the ambient gas has the highest mass, i.e. in argon. The excitation temperature is determined from the Boltzmann plot of line intensities of iron impurities present in the aluminum target. The highest temperature is observed close to the laser spot location for argon at atmospheric pressure. It decreases by moving away from the target surface in the axial direction. However, no significant variation of temperature occurs along the radial direction. The differences observed between the axial and radial direction are mainly due to the different plasma kinetics in both directions.

  18. A mechanism for the formation and sustainment of the self-organized global profile and E   ×   B staircase in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Kishimoto, Y.; Imadera, K.; Li, J. Q.; Wang, Z. X.

    2018-05-01

    The mechanism for the formation and sustainment of a self-organized global profile and the ‘ E   ×   B staircase’ are investigated through simulations of a flux-driven ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence based on GKNET, a 5D global gyrokinetic code. The staircase is found to be initiated from the radially extended ITG mode structures with nearly up-down symmetry during the saturation phase, and is established as it evolves into a quasi-steady turbulence, leading to a self-organized global temperature profile and to meso-scale isomorphic profiles of the radial electric field and the temperature gradient. It is found that the quasi-regular E   ×   B shear flow pattern is primarily originated from an even-symmetrical zonal flow produced by the extended ITG mode, which flow pattern exhibits an in-phase relation with the mean flow variation induced by the temperature relaxation. Consequently, the staircase is initiated through the profiles of total electric field and temperature gradient with a self-organized manner. Since the sign of E   ×   B shear flow at the central part are opposite to that at both edges, it disintegrates the ITG mode into smaller scale eddies. Meanwhile, smaller scale eddies tend to be aligned radially by spontaneous phase matching, which can provide the growth of mode amplitude and the formation of radially extended mode structures, leading to the bursty heat transport. This process is repeated quasi-periodically, sustaining self-organized structures and the E   ×   B staircase. Moreover, the equilibrium mean field is found to be of specific importance in causing the structures and dynamics from meso- to macro scales in toroidal plasmas.

  19. On the relation between plasma and neutral gas profiles in a cold gas-blanket system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bures, M.

    1981-01-01

    A solution for the neutral density profile using the measured plasma density and temperature gradients is presented. The fluid model is used. It is found that the penetration length for neutrals is underestimated in the situation where the integrated profiles are used. The ionization rate need not be inferred in the present calculation, because the ionization of neutrals diffusing into the plasma is implicitly included in measured profiles. This calculation is advantageous in the low temperature range where the ionization rate is a strongly varying function of temperature. Finally the presented solution indicates that the temperature gradient plays the essential role in the determination of the neutral density profile. (Auth.)

  20. Surface density profile and surface tension of the one-component classical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballone, P.; Senatore, G.; Trieste Univ.; Tosi, M.P.; Oxford Univ.

    1982-08-01

    The density profile and the interfacial tension of two classical plasmas in equilibrium at different densities are evaluated in the square-density-gradient approximation. For equilibrium in the absence of applied external voltage, the profile is oscillatory in the higher-density plasma and the interfacial tension is positive. The amplitude and phase of these oscillations and the magnitude of the interfacial tension are related to the width of the background profile. Approximate representations of the equilibrium profile by matching of its asymptotic forms are analyzed. A comparison with computer simulation data and a critical discussion of a local-density theory are also presented. (author)

  1. Density profile effects on confinement and MHD stability of currentless NBI plasmas in Heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Shigeru; Zushi, Hideki; Kondo, Katsumi

    1993-01-01

    Density profile effects on confinement and MHD stability of currentless NBI plasmas in Heliotron E are studied. The peaked density profile produced by pellet injection increases the stored energy by 20-30% compared to the gas puffed plasmas which obey the empirical stellarator/heliotron scaling in a moderate density range. In contrast to confinement, the peaked pressure profile tends to destabilize the plasma. By limiter insertion, MHD instability occurs (seems to locate near ι/2π=1) even in case of low β (β 0 ≤1%, where β 0 is the central β value) plasmas. On the other hand, the mode of m/n=3/2 at ι/2π=2/3, seems to be a key parameter to the major MHD instability in case of high β (β 0 ≥2%) plasmas. (author)

  2. Altered gene-expression profile in rat plasma and promoted body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Altered gene-expression profile in rat plasma and promoted body and brain development ... The study was aimed to explore how the prenatal EE impacts affect the ... positively promote the body and nervous system development of offspring, ...

  3. Electron density and temperature profile diagnostics for C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, B. H.; Kinley, J. S.; Schroeder, J. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The 9-point Thomson scattering diagnostic system for the C-2 field reversed configuration plasmas is improved and the measured electron temperature profiles are consistent with theoretical expectations. Rayleigh scattering revealed a finite line width of the ruby laser emission, which complicates density calibration. Taking advantage of the plasma wobble motion, density profile reconstruction accuracy from the 6-chord two-color CO{sub 2}/HeNe interferometer data is improved.

  4. High precision measurement of fuel density profiles in nuclear fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, J.; von Hellermann, M.; Konig, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a method for deducing fuel density profiles of nuclear fusion plasmas in realtime during an experiment. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network is used to create a mapping between plasma radiation spectra and indirectly deduced hydrogen isotope densities. By combining

  5. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bar??, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; N????ez, M. C.; Jim??nez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the v...

  6. Determination of Jupiter's electron density profile from plasma wave observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.; Scarf, F.L.; Kurth, W.S.; Shaw, R.R.; Poynter, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes the electron density measurements obtained in the Jovian magnetosphere from the plasma wave instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Three basic techniques are discussed for determining the electron density: (1) local measurements from the low-frequency cutoff of continuum radiation, (2) local measurements from the frequency of upper hybrid resonance emissions, and (3) integral measurements from the dispersion of whistlers. The limitations and advantages of each technique are critically reviewed. In all cases the electron densities are unaffected by spacecraft charging or sheath effects, which makes these measurements of particular importance for verifying in situ plasma and low-energy charged particle measurments. In the outer regions of the dayside magnetosphere, beyond about 40 R/sub J/, the electron densities range from about 3 x 10 -3 to 3 x 10 -2 cm -3 . On Voyager 2, several brief excursions apparently occurred into the low-density region north of the plasma sheet with densities less than 10 -3 cm -3 . Approaching the planet the electron density gradually increases, with the plasma frequency extending above the frequency range of the plasma wave instrument (56 kHz, or about 38 electrons cm -3 ) inside of about 8 R/sub J/. Within the high-density region of the Io plasma torus, whistlers provide measurements of the north-south scale height of the plasma torus, with scale heights ranging from about 0.9 to 2.5 R/sub J/

  7. Radially and temporally resolved electric field of positive streamers in air and modelling of the induced plasma chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoder, T.; Šimek, Milan; Bonaventura, Z.; Prukner, Václav; Gordillo-Vázquez, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2016), č. článku 045021. ISSN 0963-0252 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04023S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : streamer * electric field * Blue Jet * air plasma chemistry * transient luminous event Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0963-0252/25/4/045021/meta

  8. Plasma lipid profile, atherogenic and coronary risk indices in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2008-09-20

    Sep 20, 2008 ... (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride, adiposity and blood pressure) in 92 ... cholesterol, although slightly higher in women, was not significantly different from that of ... inverse correlation between plasma high.

  9. Semi-analytical model of laser resonance absorption in plasmas with a parabolic density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestehe, S J; Mohammadnejad, M

    2010-01-01

    Analytical expressions for mode conversion and resonance absorption of electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous, unmagnetized plasmas are required for laboratory and simulation studies. Although most of the analyses of this problem have concentrated on the linear plasma density profile, there are a few research works that deal with different plasma density profiles including the parabolic profile. Almost none of them could give clear analytical formulae for the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic field propagating through inhomogeneous plasmas. In this paper, we have considered the resonant absorption of laser light near the critical density of plasmas with parabolic electron density profiles followed by a uniform over-dense region and have obtained expressions for the electric and magnetic vectors of laser light propagating through the plasma. An estimation of the fractional absorption of laser energy has also been carried out. It has been shown that, in contrast to the linear density profile, the energy absorption depends explicitly on the value of collision frequency as well as on a new parameter, N, called the over-dense density order.

  10. Profile formation and sustainment of autonomous tokamak plasma with current hole configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Takizuka, T.; Ozeki, T.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the profile formation and sustainment of tokamak plasmas with the current hole (CH) configuration by using 1.5D time-dependent transport simulations. A model of the current limit inside the CH on the basis of the Axisymmetric Tri-Magnetic-Islands equilibrium is introduced into the transport simulation. We found that a transport model with the sharp reduction of anomalous transport in the reversed-shear (RS) region can reproduce the time evolution of profiles observed in JT-60U experiments. The transport becomes neoclassical-level in the RS region, which results in the formation of profiles with internal transport barrier (ITB) and CH. The CH plasma has an autonomous property because of the strong interaction between a pressure profile and a current profile through the large bootstrap current fraction. The ITB width determined by the neoclassical-level transport agrees well with that measured in JT-60U. The energy confinement inside the ITB agrees with the scaling based on the JT-60U data. The scaling means the autonomous limitation of energy confinement in the CH plasma. The plasma with the large CH is sustained with the full current drive by the bootstrap current. The plasma with the small CH and the small bootstrap current fraction shrinks due to the penetration of inductive current. This shrink is prevented and the CH size can be controlled by the appropriate external current drive (CD). The CH plasma is found to respond autonomically to the external CD. (author)

  11. Characterization of laser-produced plasma density profiles using grid image refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; Turner, F.S.; Hoefen, R.; Darrow, C.; Gabl, E.F.; Busch, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Grid image refractometry (GIR) is proposed as a technique for determining the two-dimensional density profiles of long scale-length laser-produced plasmas. Its distinctive feature is that an optical probe beam is broken up into ''rays'' by being passed through a grid before traversing the plasma. The refraction angles of the rays are measured by imaging the plasma at two or more object planes and are integrated to yield the phase front. For cylindrically symmetric plasmas the density profile is then determined using Abel inversion. The feasibility of GIR is illustrated by an experiment in which a thick CH target was irradiated with ∼100 J of 527 nm radiation and diagnosed with a 20 ps, 263 nm probe. The resulting density profile is substantially larger than any that have previously been reported using interferometry and compares quite closely with hydrodynamic simulations

  12. Evolution of the electron temperature profile of ohmically heated plasmas in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Arunasalam, V.

    1985-08-01

    Blackbody electron cyclotron emission was used to ascertain and study the evolution and behavior of the electron temperature profile in ohmically heated plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The emission was measured with absolutely calibrated millimeter wavelength radiometers. The temperature profile normalized to the central temperature and minor radius is observed to broaden substantially with decreasing limiter safety factor q/sub a/, and is insensitive to the plasma minor radius. Sawtooth activity was seen in the core of most TFTR discharges and appeared to be associated with a flattening of the electron temperature profile within the plasma core where q less than or equal to 1. Two types of sawtooth behavior were identified in large TFTR plasmas (minor radius, a less than or equal to 0.8 m) : a typically 35 to 40 msec period ''normal'' sawtooth, and a ''compound'' sawtooth with 70 to 80 msec period

  13. Spatial profiling of ion and neutral excitation in noble gas electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, R.L.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Optical emission from neutrals and ions of several noble gases has been profiled in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma system. In argon plasmas with a net microwave power of 750 W, the neutral (696.5-nm) and ion (488-nm) emission profiles are slightly center peaked at 0.32 mTorr and gradually shift to a hollow appearance at 2.5 mTorr. Neon profiles show a similar trend from 2.5 to 10.0 mTorr. For the noble gases, transition pressure scales with the ionization potential of the gas, which is consistent with neutral depletion. Studies of noble gas mixtures, however, indicate that neutral depletion is not always dominant in the formation of hollow profiles. For Kr/Ar, Ar/Ne, and Ne/He plasmas, the majority gas tends to set the overall shape of the profile at any given pressure. For the conditions of the current system, plasma density appears to be more dominant than electron temperature in the formation of hollow profiles. The general method described is also a straightforward, inexpensive technique for measuring the spatial distribution of power deposited in plasmas, particularly where absolute scale can be calibrated by some other means

  14. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki, E-mail: nmiki@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases.

  15. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki

    2013-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases

  16. Plasma lipid profile, atherogenic and coronary risk indices in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of chronic degenerative diseases like stroke and myocardial infarction in African subpopulations is reported to be increasing. In view of the association between dyslipidemia and these chronic degenerative diseases, we investigated some well-established cardiovascular risk factors (plasma cholesterol and ...

  17. Plasma-parameter measurements using neutral-particle-beam attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.; Molvik, A.W.; Turner, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Intense and energetic neutral-particle-beam injection used for fueling or heating magnetically confined, controlled-fusion experimental plasmas can also provide diagnostic measurements of the plasmas. The attenuation of an atomic beam (mainly from charge-exchange and ionization interactions) when passing through a plasma gives the plasma line density. Orthogonal arrays of highly collimated detectors of the secondary-electron-emission type have been used in magnetic-mirror experiments to measure neutral-beam attenuation along chords through the plasma volume at different radial and axial positions. The radial array is used to infer the radial plasma-density profile; the axial array, to infer the axial plasma-density profile and the ion angular distribution at the plasma midplane

  18. Real-time control of current and pressure profiles in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborde, L.

    2005-12-01

    Recent progress in the field of 'advanced tokamak scenarios' prefigure the operation regime of a future thermonuclear fusion power plant. Compared to the reference regime, these scenarios offer a longer plasma confinement time thanks to increased magnetohydrodynamic stability and to a better particle and energy confinement through a reduction of plasma turbulence. This should give access to comparable fusion performances at reduced plasma current and could lead to a steady state fusion reactor since the plasma current could be entirely generated non-inductively. Access to this kind of regime is provided by the existence of an internal transport barrier, linked to the current profile evolution in the plasma, which leads to steep temperature and pressure profiles. The comparison between heat transport simulations and experiments allowed the nature of the barriers to be better understood as a region of strongly reduced turbulence. Thus, the control of this barrier in a stationary manner would be a remarkable progress, in particular in view of the experimental reactor ITER. The Tore Supra and JET tokamaks, based in France and in the United Kingdom, constitute ideal instruments for such experiments: the first one allows stationary plasmas to be maintained during several minutes whereas the second one provides unique fusion performances. In Tore Supra, real-time control experiments have been accomplished where the current profile width and the pressure profile gradient were controlled in a stationary manner using heating and current drive systems as actuators. In the JET tokamak, the determination of an empirical static model of the plasma allowed the current and pressure profiles to be simultaneously controlled and so an internal transport barrier to be sustained. Finally, the identification of a dynamic model of the plasma led to the definition of a new controller capable, in principle, of a more efficient control. (author)

  19. Measurements of Electron Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2013-10-01

    Knowing spatial profiles of electron density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (n Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) was deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. Plasmas were produced from flat CH targets illuminated by Nike KrF laser with total energies up to 1 kJ of 0.5 ~ 1 nsec FWHM pulses. The GIR resolved ne up to 3 ×1021 /cm3 in space taking 2D snapshot images of probe laser (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. The individual beamlet transmittances were also measured for Te estimation. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera simultaneously detected light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay instabilities. The measured spatial profiles are compared with simulation results from the FAST3D radiation hydrocode and their effects on the LPI observations are investigated. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  20. Night-time radial plasma drifts and coupling fluxes at L = 2.3 from whistler mode measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    A method recently reported for measuring radial drifts in the equatorial plane, and ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling fluxes from the Doppler shifts and group delays on whistler mode signals is applied to VLF transmissions from station NLK on 18.6kHz. Data from 22 nights, primarily during the months November to February, are analysed. When averaged over a time of about 90 min, drifts found are accurate to +-20ms -1 , corresponding to an equatorial electric field accuracy of +-0.05mVm -1 , and fluxes, to +-1.5 x 10 12 el m -2 s -1 (two hemisphere total). Given currently accepted values of coupling fluxes, the flux accuracy is of marginal value on individual nights, but useful information on average behaviour may be obtained. It is found that fluxes generally contribute less than 20% to the measured Doppler shift, most of which is therefore produced by cross-L drifts. To an accuracy of about 20% then, Doppler data alone may give information on these drifts. Doppler shift data previously accumulated over a number of years and relating to signals in ducts near L = 2.3 are re-examined. Dominating the nightly behaviour is an inward drift which reaches a maximum of approximately 100m s -1 as the duct ends cross the dusk terminator, and an outward drift at dawn of the same magnitude which is intitiated when the duct end crosses the terminator in the E or lower F-region. In some months, separate effects can be seen corresponding to sunrise at each end of the duct. (author)

  1. Profile structures of TJ-II stellarator plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herranz, J.; Pastor, I.; Castejon, F.; de la Luna, E.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Barth, C. J.; Ascasibar, E.; Sanchez, J.; Tribaldos, V.

    2000-01-01

    Fine structures are found in the TJ-II stellarator electron temperature and density profiles, when they are measured using a high spatial resolution Thomson scattering system. These structures consist of peaks and valleys superimposed to a smooth average. Some irregularities remain in an ensemble

  2. Plasma current profile during current reversal in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianguo; Yang Xuanzong; Zheng Shaobai; Feng Chunhua; Zhang Houxian; Wang Long

    1999-01-01

    Alternating current operation with one full cycle and a current level of 2.5 kA have been achieved in the CT-6B tokamak. The poloidal magnetic field in the plasma is measured with two internal magnetic probes in repeated discharges. The current distribution is reconstructed with an inversion algorithm. The inverse current first appears on the weak field side. The existence of magnetic surfaces and rotational transform provide particle confinement in the current reversal phase

  3. Line profiles of hydrogenic ions from high-temperature and high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Qing; Li Jianming

    1991-01-01

    Applying the Hooper's first-order theory, the authors calculate the static micro-electric field distributions in plasmas containing various multiply-charged ions. The influences of the impurity concentrations on the micro electric field distributions and on the Lyman profiles (n→1) from hydrogenic ions are analysed. Based on the optical-thin line profiles, the radiation transfer equation in sphere plasmas with various optical depths is solved. The results confirm that the opacity-broadening of the line profiles has almost no effect on the separation of Lyman β splitted peaks. Such separation is determined by electric field at which the static micro-electric field distribution has a maximum. The separation can be utilized for spatially resolved and temporally resolved density diagnostic of fusion plasmas

  4. Influence of an axial magnetic field on the density profile of capillary plasma channels

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, V V; Toma, E S; Bijkerk, F

    2003-01-01

    A narrow capillary plasma channel, with a sizeable depletion of the electron density on the channel axis, has been proposed to guide a laser pulse over a length of several to several tens of centimetres. We discuss the possibility to significantly improve the wave-guiding properties of such a channel by applying an axial magnetic field. Our analytical and numerical studies show that a pulsed axial magnetic field of 10 T in a hydrogen capillary plasma at a pressure of 50 Torr will reduce the on-axis plasma density by a factor of three, and the full width at half maximum of the density profile by a factor of two. The resulting parabolic plasma density profile is expected to be more efficient in guiding laser pulses.

  5. Star formation is boosted (and quenched) from the inside-out: radial star formation profiles from MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Ibarra-Medel, Hector; Antonio, Braulio; Mendel, J. Trevor; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    The tight correlation between total galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) has become known as the star-forming main sequence. Using ˜487 000 spaxels from galaxies observed as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, we confirm previous results that a correlation also exists between the surface densities of star formation (ΣSFR) and stellar mass (Σ⋆) on kpc scales, representing a `resolved' main sequence. Using a new metric (ΔΣSFR), which measures the relative enhancement or deficit of star formation on a spaxel-by-spaxel basis relative to the resolved main sequence, we investigate the SFR profiles of 864 galaxies as a function of their position relative to the global star-forming main sequence (ΔSFR). For galaxies above the global main sequence (positive ΔSFR) ΔΣSFR is elevated throughout the galaxy, but the greatest enhancement in star formation occurs at small radii (<3 kpc, or 0.5Re). Moreover, galaxies that are at least a factor of 3 above the main sequence show diluted gas phase metallicities out to 2Re, indicative of metal-poor gas inflows accompanying the starbursts. For quiescent/passive galaxies that lie at least a factor of 10 below the star-forming main sequence, there is an analogous deficit of star formation throughout the galaxy with the lowest values of ΔΣSFR in the central 3 kpc. Our results are in qualitative agreement with the `compaction' scenario in which a central starburst leads to mass growth in the bulge and may ultimately precede galactic quenching from the inside-out.

  6. Plasma Profile Measurements for Laser Fusion Research with the Nike KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    The grid image refractometer of the Nike laser facility (Nike-GIR) has demonstrated the capability of simultaneously measuring electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) profiles of coronal plasma. For laser plasma instability (LPI) research, the first Nike-GIR experiment successfully measured the plasma profiles in density regions up to ne ~ 4 ×1021 cm-3 (22% of the critical density for 248 nm light of Nike) using an ultraviolet probe laser (λp = 263 nm). The probe laser has been recently replaced with a shorter wavelength laser (λp = 213 nm, a 5th harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser) to diagnose a higher density region. The Nike-GIR system is being further extended to measure plasma profiles in the on-going experiment using 135°-separated Nike beam arrays for the cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) studies. We present an overview of the extended Nike-GIR arrangements and a new numerical algorithm to extract self-consistant plasma profiles with the measured quantities. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  7. The poloidal OHM's law and a profile constraint in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S.E.; Zanza, V.

    1991-01-01

    Explicit use of the poloidal Ohm's law, together with the radial plasma velocity (obtained from the distribution of plasma sources), leads to a very general constraint on the possible radial profiles of plasma density and temperature. The constraint does not require any ad hoc assumption; it can place severe restrictions on the allowed profiles and is independent of energy and particle transport; also, it may be the underlying principle of profile consistency. The constraint is discussed in the framework of neoclassical theory, using results from the Frascati tokamak. (author). 23 refs, 7 figs

  8. Asymmetry of Hβ Stark profiles in T-tube hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurovic, S.; Nikolic, D.; Savic, I.; Soerge, S.; Demura, A. V.

    2005-01-01

    The whole Balmer H β line profiles are studied in detail experimentally in the T-tube discharge for the wide range of plasma parameters. Besides the common one, two additional parameters are introduced to characterize the asymmetry behavior of the experimental Stark profiles with the reference point chosen in the center of the line. The experimental data are analyzed and benchmarked versus the simple theoretical model based on the effects of microfield nonuniformity and electron impact shifts

  9. Longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles, infant feeding, and islet autoimmunity in the MIDIA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Stene, Lars C; Tapia, German

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Method: Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case......, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid at 3 months of age. Conclusions: Plasma levels of several small, polar metabolites changed with age during early childhood, independent of later islet autoimmunity status and sex. Breastfeeding was associated with higher levels of branched......-chain amino acids, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid....

  10. Density profile measurements from a two-gun plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, C.C.; Yen, C.K.; Yeh, T.R.; Kuo, Y.Y.; Shang, D.J.; Yu, Y.Z.; Hou, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of the plasma evolution in a two-gun plasma focus device has been studied using the laser shadowgraphy as well as the laser interferometry. The experiments were carried out from a 700 kJ two-gun plasma focus device reported earlier, which consisted of a pair of Mather type coaxial electrodes connected muzzle to muzzle. Previous results indicated that the simultaneous formation of the two deuterium plasma foci occurred earlier and then after ∼ 100 ns a disk-shaped plasma of ∼ 1.5 cm in diameter appeared in the middle region between the anodes. It is, therefore, the authors' goal to study the density profiles in the plasma foci and the middle region in order to understand further the formation of the plasma foci and their time evolution. The laser shadowgraphy was done with a XeCl excimer pumped dye laser system which operated at 550 nm with pulse width of ∼ 10 ns. The laser interferometry, on the other hand, was carried out using a TEA-TEA oscillator-amplifier N 2 -laser system with 337.1 nm and subnano-second pulse width. Both results show that the maximum electron density is ≥2 x 10 19 cm -3 and, in addition, the growth of the hydrodynamic instabilities are observed. These results together with the detailed density profiles are presented and discussed

  11. Predictive modelling of grain size distributions from marine electromagnetic profiling data using end-member analysis and a radial basis function network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasch, B.; M"uller, H.; von Dobeneck, T.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we present a new methodology to predict grain-size distributions from geophysical data. Specifically, electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility of seafloor sediments recovered from electromagnetic profiling data are used to predict grain-size distributions along shelf-wide survey lines. Field data from the NW Iberian shelf are investigated and reveal a strong relation between the electromagnetic properties and grain-size distribution. The here presented workflow combines unsupervised and supervised machine learning techniques. Nonnegative matrix factorisation is used to determine grain-size end-members from sediment surface samples. Four end-members were found which well represent the variety of sediments in the study area. A radial-basis function network modified for prediction of compositional data is then used to estimate the abundances of these end-members from the electromagnetic properties. The end-members together with their predicted abundances are finally back transformed to grain-size distributions. A minimum spatial variation constraint is implemented in the training of the network to avoid overfitting and to respect the spatial distribution of sediment patterns. The predicted models are tested via leave-one-out cross-validation revealing high prediction accuracy with coefficients of determination (R2) between 0.76 and 0.89. The predicted grain-size distributions represent the well-known sediment facies and patterns on the NW Iberian shelf and provide new insights into their distribution, transition and dynamics. This study suggests that electromagnetic benthic profiling in combination with machine learning techniques is a powerful tool to estimate grain-size distribution of marine sediments.

  12. Ion temperature profiles along a hydrogen diagnostic beam in a TORE SUPRA tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romannikov, A.; Petrov, Yu.; Platts, P.; Khess, V.; Khutter, T.; Farzhon, Zh.; Moro, F.

    2002-01-01

    By means of corpuscular diagnostics one studies temperature of ions along a diagnostic hydrogen beam. Paper presents comparison of temperature of plasma (deuterium) basic ions measures by means of the active corpuscular diagnostics with temperature of C + carbon ions along a beam. One studies behavior peculiarities of T i ion temperature profiles for TORE-SUPRA different modes, such as: formation of plane and even hollow T i profiles for ohmic modes, variation of T i profiles under operation of an ergodic diverter, difference of temperature of basic ions measured by means of the active corpuscular diagnostics from C +5 temperature. Paper offers clear explanation of these peculiarities [ru

  13. Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Leclert, G.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal. (authors)

  14. Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal

  15. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI), plasma lipid profile and gait assessment score (GAS) in dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty client-owned dogs of both sexes to determine the BMI. In addition, body condition score (BCS) and GAS were ...

  16. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty-three Boerboels to determine the BMI while, body condition score (BCS) was determined subjectively. Also 5mls of blood was obtained ...

  17. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles in Korean adults with and without acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a clinical manifestation of coronary artery disease presenting as unstable angina and/or myocardial infarction, is the third-leading cause of death in South Korea. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acid profiles are considered objective biomarke...

  18. Use of NMR metabolomic plasma profiling methodologies to identify illicit growth-promoting administrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, S.F.; Ruiz Aracama, A.; Lommen, A.; Cannizzo, F.T.; Biolatti, B.; Elliott, C.T.; Mooney, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Detection of growth-promoter use in animal production systems still proves to be an analytical challenge despite years of activity in the field. This study reports on the capability of NMR metabolomic profiling techniques to discriminate between plasma samples obtained from cattle treated with

  19. Pressure profiles of plasmas confined in the field of a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Matthew S; Mauel, M E; Garnier, Darren T; Kesner, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium pressure profiles of plasmas confined in the field of a dipole magnet are reconstructed using magnetic and x-ray measurements on the levitated dipole experiment (LDX). LDX operates in two distinct modes: with the dipole mechanically supported and with the dipole magnetically levitated. When the dipole is mechanically supported, thermal particles are lost along the field to the supports, and the plasma pressure is highly peaked and consists of energetic, mirror-trapped electrons that are created by electron cyclotron resonance heating. By contrast, when the dipole is magnetically levitated losses to the supports are eliminated and particles are lost via slower cross-field transport that results in broader, but still peaked, plasma pressure profiles. (paper)

  20. Development of a measuring system for poloidal field profile in JIPP T-IIU plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Hideharu; Hiraki, Naoji; Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Toi, Kazuo; Sato, Kuninori.

    1995-01-01

    A Zeeman polarimeter has been developed to measure the poloidal magnetic field profile in the plasma edge of the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The poloidal field strength is determined from the analysis of circular polarization of a HeII 4686A spectral lines emitted from a plasma. The polarization modulation rate, which is proportional to the magnetic field strength along a line of sight, is estimated as a ratio of the difference between the left-hand circular polarized line intensity and right-hand one to the sum of them. A newly developed fast scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer allows us to improve a time resolution up to 1.5 ms. The poloidal magnetic field profile in He-doped deuterium plasmas of JIPP T-IIU has been successfully obtained with this polarimeter system. (author)

  1. Optical guiding of laser beam in nonuniform plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    creased sufficiently with respect to the beam edge to balance the effect of ... discharge to control the plasma profile [23], and (iii) using the ponderomotive ... intensity radial profile, the density profile that evolves is peaked on the axis and falls ...

  2. Collisionality dependent transport in TCV SOL plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Odd Erik; Pitts, R.A.; Horacek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from probe measurements in the low field side scrape-off layer (SOL) region of TCV during plasma current scan experiments. It is shown that with decreasing plasma current the radial particle density profile becomes broader and the fluctuation levels and turbulence driven...... radial particle flux increase. In the far SOL the fluctuations exhibit a high degree of statistical similarity and the particle density and flux at the wall radius scale inversely with the plasma current. Together with previous TCV density scan experiments, this indicates that plasma fluctuations...

  3. Emission spectra from super-critical rippled plasma density profiles illuminated by intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondarza R, R.; Boyd, T.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    High-order harmonic emission from the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with super-critical plasmas characterized by a rippled density profile at the vacuum-plasma interface has been observed from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A plasma simulation box several laser wavelengths in extent was prepared with a rippled density of a fraction of a laser wavelength. Emission spectra at the very initial stage of the interaction were recorded with spectral characteristics dissimilar to those previously reported in the literature. The reflected light spectra were characterized by a strong emission at the plasma line and by a series of harmonics at multiples of the ripple frequency. Harmonic spectra were obtained for different values of the plasma ripple frequency. In all cases the harmonics were emitted at the precise multiple harmonic number of the ripple frequency. Another important feature apparent from the simulations was that the emission peaks appeared to havea complex structure as compared with those for unrippled plasmas. For the cases when the plasma was rippled the peaks that corresponded to the multiples of the rippled density typically showed a double peak for the first few harmonics. The reflected emission plots for the main laser pulse showed strong emission at the plasma frequency and at multiples of that frequency as reported by the authors in the literature. (Author)

  4. Growth curve analysis for plasma profiles using smoothing splines. Final report, January 1993--January 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imre, K.

    1995-07-01

    In this project, we parameterize the shape and magnitude of the temperature and density profiles on JET and the temperature profiles on TFTR. The key control variables for the profiles were tabulated and the response functions were estimated. A sophisticated statistical analysis code was developed to fit the plasma profiles. Our analysis indicate that the JET density shape depends primarily on bar n/B t for Ohmic heating, bar n for L-mode and I p for H-mode. The temperature profiles for JET are mainly determined by q 95 for the case of Ohmic heating, and by B t and P/bar n for the L-mode. For the H-mode the shape depends on the type of auxiliary heating, Z eff , N bar n, q 95 , and P

  5. Full Tokamak discharge simulation and kinetic plasma profile control for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee Kim, S.

    2009-10-01

    Understanding non-linearly coupled physics between plasma transport and free-boundary equilibrium evolution is essential to operating future tokamak devices, such as ITER and DEMO, in the advanced tokamak operation regimes. To study the non-linearly coupled physics, we need a simulation tool which can self-consistently calculate all the main plasma physics, taking the operational constraints into account. As the main part of this thesis work, we have developed a full tokamak discharge simulator by combining a non-linear free-boundary plasma equilibrium evolution code, DINA-CH, and an advanced transport modelling code, CRONOS. This tokamak discharge simulator has been used to study the feasibility of ITER operation scenarios and several specific issues related to ITER operation. In parallel, DINA-CH has been used to study free-boundary physics questions, such as the magnetic triggering of edge localized modes (ELMs) and plasma dynamic response to disturbances. One of the very challenging tasks in ITER, the active control of kinetic plasma profiles, has also been studied. In the part devoted to free-boundary tokamak discharge simulations, we have studied dynamic responses of the free-boundary plasma equilibrium to either external voltage perturbations or internal plasma disturbances using DINA-CH. Firstly, the opposite plasma behaviour observed in the magnetic triggering of ELMs between TCV and ASDEX Upgrade has been investigated. Both plasmas experience similar local flux surface expansions near the upper G-coil set and passive stabilization loop (PSL) when the ELMs are triggered, due to the presence of the PSLs located inside the vacuum vessel of ASDEX Upgrade. Secondly, plasma dynamic responses to strong disturbances anticipated in ITER are examined to study the capability of the feedback control system in rejecting the disturbances. Specified uncontrolled ELMs were controllable with the feedback control systems. However, the specifications for fast H-L mode

  6. Effect of Mucuna pruriens on semen profile and biochemical parameters in seminal plasma of infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Islam, Najmul; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Ahmad, Sohail

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the impact of Mucuna pruriens seeds on semen profiles and biochemical levels in seminal plasma of infertile men. Prospective study. Departments of Biochemistry and Obstetrics and Gynecology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India. Sixty normal healthy fertile men (controls) and 60 men undergoing infertility screening. High-performance liquid chromatography assay procedure for quantitation of vitamin A and E in seminal plasma. Biochemical parameters in seminal plasma, namely lipids, fructose, and vitamin C, were estimated by standard spectrophotometric procedures. Before and after the treatment, seminal plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxide, fructose, and antioxidant vitamin levels were measured. Treatment with M. pruriens significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation, elevated spermatogenesis, and improved sperm motility. Treatment also recovered the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and vitamin A, C, and E and corrected fructose in seminal plasma of infertile men. Treatment with M. pruriens increased sperm concentration and motility in all the infertile study groups. Oligozoospermic patients recovered sperm concentration significantly, but sperm motility was not restored to normal levels in asthenozoospermic men. Furthermore, in the seminal plasma of all the infertile groups, the levels of lipids, antioxidant vitamins, and corrected fructose were recovered after a decrease in lipid peroxides after treatment. The present study is likely to open new vistas on the possible role of M. pruriens seed powder as a restorative and invigorating agent for infertile men.

  7. Lyapunov-based distributed control of the safety-factor profile in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bribiesca Argomedo, Federico; Witrant, Emmanuel; Prieur, Christophe; Brémond, Sylvain; Nouailletas, Rémy; Artaud, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    A real-time model-based controller is developed for the tracking of the distributed safety-factor profile in a tokamak plasma. Using relevant physical models and simplifying assumptions, theoretical stability and robustness guarantees were obtained using a Lyapunov function. This approach considers the couplings between the poloidal flux diffusion equation, the time-varying temperature profiles and an independent total plasma current control. The actuator chosen for the safety-factor profile tracking is the lower hybrid current drive, although the results presented can be easily extended to any non-inductive current source. The performance and robustness of the proposed control law is evaluated with a physics-oriented simulation code on Tore Supra experimental test cases. (paper)

  8. Plasma and White Blood Cells Show Different miRNA Expression Profiles in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienbacher, Christine; Foco, Luisa; Picard, Anne; Corradi, Eloina; Serafin, Alice; Panzer, Jörg; Zanigni, Stefano; Blankenburg, Hagen; Facheris, Maurizio F; Giannini, Giulia; Falla, Marika; Cortelli, Pietro; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis is based on the assessment of motor symptoms, which manifest when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons are degenerated. To date, no validated biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of PD. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether plasma and white blood cells (WBCs) are interchangeable biomarker sources and to identify circulating plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for an early detection of PD. We profiled plasma miRNA levels in 99 L-dopa-treated PD patients from two independent data collections, in ten drug-naïve PD patients, and in unaffected controls matched by sex and age. We evaluated expression levels by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and combined the results from treated PD patients using a fixed effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. We revealed different expression profiles comparing plasma and WBCs and drug-naïve and L-dopa-treated PD patients. We observed an upregulation trend for miR-30a-5p in L-dopa-treated PD patients and investigated candidate target genes by integrated in silico analyses. We could not analyse miR-29b-3p, normally expressed in WBCs, due to the very low expression in plasma. We observed different expression profiles in WBCs and plasma, suggesting that they are both suitable but not interchangeable peripheral sources for biomarkers. We revealed miR-30a-5p as a potential biomarker for PD in plasma. In silico analyses suggest that miR-30a-5p might have a regulatory role in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. Further investigations are needed to confirm miR-30a-5p deregulation and targets and to investigate the influence of L-dopa treatment on miRNA expression levels.

  9. Relativistic self-focusing of intense laser beam in thermal collisionless quantum plasma with ramped density profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zare

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of a Gaussian x-ray laser beam has been analyzed in collisionless thermal quantum plasma with considering a ramped density profile. In this density profile due to the increase in the plasma density, an earlier and stronger self-focusing effect is noticed where the beam width oscillates with higher frequency and less amplitude. Moreover, the effect of the density profile slope and the initial plasma density on the laser propagation has been studied. It is found that, by increasing the initial density and the ramp slope, the laser beam focuses faster with less oscillation amplitude, smaller laser spot size and more oscillations. Furthermore, a comparison is made among the laser self-focusing in thermal quantum plasma, cold quantum plasma and classical plasma. It is realized that the laser self-focusing in the quantum plasma becomes stronger in comparison with the classical regime.

  10. Impact of rotational-transform profile control on plasma confinement and stability in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Morisaki, T.; Sakakibara, S.

    1994-08-01

    In neutral beam heated plasmas of CHS, which is a low aspect-ration heliotron/torsatron device, the effect of rotational transform (ι) profile shape on plasma confinement and stability is studied by inducing a net plasma current (Ip). In the case that the external ι is increased by Ip, very rapid H-mode transition (within ∼0.2 ms) is observed at the thresholds of Ip and heating power, having all characteristics found in the tokamak H-mode. There is no obvious difference in the H-mode characteristics between deuterium and hydrogen plasmas. In the opposite case that the external ι is decreased by reversing Ip, the H-mode transition is not observed. (author)

  11. Optimization and control of the plasma shape and current profile in noncircular cross-section tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.W.; Bernard, L.C.; Chan, V.S.; Davidson, R.H.; Dobrott, D.R.; Helton, F.J.; Miller, R.L.; Pfeiffer, W.; Waltz, R.E.; Wang, T.S.

    1980-06-01

    High-β equilibria which are stable to all ideal MHD modes are found by optimizing the plasma shape and current profile for doublets, up-down asymmetric dees, and symmetric dees. The ideal MHD stability of these equilibria for low toroidal mode number n is analyzed with a global MHD stability code, GATO. The stability to high-n modes is analyzed with a localized ballooning code, BLOON. The attainment of high β is facilitated by an automated optimization search on shape and current parameters. The equilibria are calculated with a free-boundary equilibrium code using coils appropriate for the Doublet III experimental device. The optimal equilibria are characterized by broad current profiles with values of β/sub poloidal/ approx. =1. Experimental realization of the shapes and current profiles giving the highest β limits is explored with a 1 1/2-D transport code, which simulates the time evolution of the 2-D MHD equilibrium while calculating consistent current profiles from a 1-D transport model. Transport simulations indicate that nearly optimal shapes may be obtained provided that the currents in the field-shaping coils are appropriately programmed and the plasma current profile is sufficiently broad. Obtaining broad current profiles is possible by current ramping, neutral beam heating, and electron cyclotron heating. With combinations of these techniques it is possible to approach the optimum β predicted by the MHD theory

  12. Anomalous plasma heating induced by modulation of the current-density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    1985-05-01

    The usual plasma heating in a tokamak needs additional heating to reach ignition temperature (approx. 10 8 K). The method used in the TORTUR III experiment is to induce anomalous plasma resistivity by applying a short (10 microseconds) high-voltage pulse. A sharp rise of the plasma temperature is found almost simultaneously, but this effect, though considerable, is too short-lived to be of interest for a thermonuclear chain reaction. A second pulse gives a second rise of temperature, but this time a slow one, extending over several milliseconds. The mechanism of this delayed heating and the reservoir within the plasma supplying the energy are subjects of investigation in the TORTUR III experiments. Some conclusions concerning the plasma heating mechanism are presented. The conclusion is reached that the application of the high-voltage pulse results in a modulation of the current-density profile: the (normally already peaked) profile sharpens, the current concentrates in the centre of the plasma column. This is a non-equilibrium situation. It relaxes to the noraml current distribution within approximately 2 milliseconds. As long as this relaxation process is not finished, the dissipation is on an enhanced level and anomalous plasma heating is observed. Many plasma parameters are surveyed and evaluated: temperature (both of the ions and the electrons), density, emission spectrum (from microwaves to hard X-rays) and the fluctuation spectrum. Main subject of this report is the measurement and interpretation of the X-rays of the emission spectrum. Experimental results are presented and discussed

  13. Plasma Protein Profiles Differ Between Women Diagnosed with Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN 1 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward E. Partridge

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of precancerous cells in the cervix and their clinical management is the main purpose of cervical cancer prevention and treatment programs. Cytological findings or testing for high risk (HR-human papillomavirus (HPV are inadequately sensitive for use in triage of women at high risk for cervical cancer. The current study is an exploratory study to identify candidate surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI time of flight (TOF mass spectrometry (MS protein profiles in plasma that may distinguish cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 3 from CIN 1 among women infected with HR-HPV. We evaluated the SELDI-TOF-MS plasma protein profiles of HR-HPV positive 32 women with CIN 3 (cases and 28 women with CIN1 (controls. Case-control status was kept blinded and triplicates of each sample and quality control plasma samples were randomized and after robotic sample preparations were run on WCX2 chips. After alignment of mass/charge (m-z values, an iterative method was used to develop a classifier on a training data set that had 28 cases and 22 controls. The classifier developed was used to classify the subjects in a test data set that has six cases and six controls. The classifier separated the cases from controls in the test set with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity suggesting the possibility of using plasma SELDI protein profiles to identify women who are likely to have CIN 3 lesions.

  14. Plasma metabolic profiling of dairy cows affected with clinical ketosis using LC/MS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Xu, C; Xia, C; Zhang, Hy; Sun, Lw; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Ketosis in dairy cattle is an important metabolic disorder. Currently, the plasma metabolic profile of ketosis as determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has not been reported. To investigate plasma metabolic profiles from cows with clinical ketosis in comparison to control cows. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were divided into two groups based on clinical signs and plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid and glucose concentrations 7-21 days postpartum: clinical ketosis and control cows. Plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed using LC/MS. Data were processed using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Compared to control cows, the levels of valine, glycine, glycocholic, tetradecenoic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased significantly in clinical ketosis. On the other hand, the levels of arginine, aminobutyric acid, leucine/isoleucine, tryptophan, creatinine, lysine, norcotinine, and undecanoic acid decreased markedly. Our results showed that the metabolic changes in cows with clinical ketosis involve complex metabolic networks and signal transduction. These results are important for future studies elucidating the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of clinical ketosis in dairy cows.

  15. Exploratory Study on Plasma Immunomodulator and Antibody Profiles in Tuberculosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Resmi; Krishnan, Viswanathan V.; Khanum, Azra; Luciw, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Host immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis are generally able to contain infection and maintain a delicate balance between protection and immunopathology. A shift in this balance appears to underlie active disease observed in about 10% of infected individuals. Effects of local inflammation, combined with anti-M. tuberculosis systemic immune responses, are directly detectable in peripheral circulation, without ex vivo stimulation of blood cells or biopsy of the affected organs. We studied plasma immunomodulator and antibody biomarkers in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) by a combination of multiplex microbead immunoassays and computational tools for data analysis. Plasma profiles of 10 immunomodulators and antibodies against eight M. tuberculosis antigens (previously reported by us) were examined in active pulmonary TB patients in a country where TB is endemic, Pakistan. Multiplex analyses were performed on samples from apparently healthy individuals without active TB from the same community as the TB patients to establish the assay baselines for all analytes. Over 3,000 data points were collected from patients (n = 135) and controls (n = 37). The data were analyzed by multivariate and computer-assisted cluster analyses to reveal patterns of plasma immunomodulators and antibodies. This study shows plasma profiles that in most patients represented either strong antibody or strong immunomodulator biomarkers. Profiling of a combination of both immunomodulators and antibodies described here may be valuable for the analysis of host immune responses in active TB in countries where the disease is endemic. PMID:23761664

  16. Analytic expressions for mode conversion in a plasma with a parabolic density profile: Generalized results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel-Lipsker, D.E.; Fried, B.D.; Morales, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides an analytic solution to the general problem of mode conversion in an unmagnetized plasma. Specifically, an electromagnetic wave of frequency ω propagating through a plasma with a parabolic density profile of scale length L p is examined. The mode conversion points are located a distance Δ 0 from the peak of the profile, where the electron plasma frequency ω p (z) matches the wave frequency ω. The corresponding reflection, transmission, and mode conversion coefficients are expressed analytically in terms of parabolic cylinder functions for all values of Δ 0 . The method of solution is based on a source approximation technique that is valid when the electromagnetic and electrostatic scale lengths are well separated. For large Δ 0 , i.e., (cL p /ω) 1/2 much-lt Δ 0 p , the appropriately scaled result [D. E. Hinkel-Lipsker et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 559 (1992)] for a linear density profile is recovered as the parabolic cylinder functions asymptotically become Airy functions. When Δ 0 →0, the special case of conversion at the peak of the profile [D. E. Hinkel-Lipsker et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 1772 (1992)] is obtained

  17. Plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid profile in professional basketball and football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepsic, Jasna; Vucic, Vesna; Arsic, Aleksandra; Blazencic-Mladenovic, Vera; Mazic, Sanja; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-10-01

    The effect of intensive long-term physical activity on phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition has not been studied thoroughly. We determined plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid FA status of professional basketball and football players. Our results showed differences in plasma FA profile not only between sportsmen and sedentary subjects, but also between two groups of sportsmen. Plasma FA profile in basketball players showed significantly higher proportion of n-6 FA (20:3, 20:4, and 22:4) and total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than controls, while football players had higher palmitoleic acid (16:1) than basketball players and controls. Total PUFA and 22:4 were also higher in basketball than in football players. Erythrocyte FA profile showed no differences between football players and controls. However, basketball players had higher proportion of 18:0 than controls, higher saturated FA and lower 18:2 than two other groups, and higher 22:4 than football players. These findings suggest that long-term intensive exercise and type of sport influence FA profile.

  18. Comparative study of the electron density profiles in the compact torus plasma merging experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashiya, Hitoshi; Asaka, Takeo; Katsurai, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Following two previous papers on the comparative studies of the electron density distributions for a single compact torus (CT) and a spherical tokamak (ST), and for the a single ST and a merged ST, a comparative study on the dynamics of the electron density profile and after the CT and ST plasma merging process was performed. The sharpness of the peak in the electron density profile around the mid-plane just after the merging of CT with a low safety factor (q value) such as RFP or spheromak is found to be related to the speed of the magnetic axis during the plasma merging process. It is also found that the electron density gradient near the plasma edge in a high q ST is larger than that of a low q CT. High q ST is found to be provided with the magnetic structure which is able to sustain a large thermal pressure by a strong j x B force. Despite these differences in the electron density profile between CT and ST during merging, the confinement characteristics evaluated from the number of electrons confined within the magnetic separatrix after the completion of the merging is almost similar between in the merging CT and in the merging ST. For all configurations, the electron density profiles after the completion of the merging are analogous to those of the corresponding single configuration produced without the merging process. (author)

  19. Electron temperature profiles in high power neutral-beam-heated TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Grek, B.; Stauffer, F.J.; Goldston, R.J.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Wieland, R.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, the maximum neutral beam injection (NBI) power in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was increased to 20 MW, with three beams co-parallel and one counter-parallel to I/sub p/. TFTR was operated over a wide range of plasma parameters; 2.5 19 19 m -3 . Data bases have been constructed with over 600 measured electron temperature profiles from multipoint TV Thomson scattering which span much of this parameter space. We have also examined electron temperature profile shapes from electron cyclotron emission at the fundamental ordinary mode and second harmonic extraordinary mode for a subset of these discharges. In the light of recent work on ''profile consistency'' we have analyzed these temperature profiles in the range 0.3 < (r/a) < 0.9 to determine if a profile shape exists which is insensitive to q/sub cyl/ and beam-heating profile. Data from both sides of the temperature profile [T/sub e/(R)] were mapped to magnetic flux surfaces [T/sub e/(r/a)]. Although T/sub e/(r/a), in the region where 0.3 < r/a < 0.9 was found to be slightly broader at lower q/sub cyl/, it was found to be remarkably insensitive to β/sub p/, to the fraction of NBI power injected co-parallel to I/sub p/, and to the heating profile going from peaked on axis, to hollow. 10 refs., 8 figs

  20. The study on the neoclassical transport analysis using ECE measured temperature profiles in the LHD long pulse plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, Hajime; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Inagaki, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the change of the neoclassical transport and the radial electric field in the long pulse LHD plasmas by using the experimental ECE data. The neoclassical heat flux, which the neo-classical theory predicts, changes due to the change of the radial electric field. The increase of H ions injected by Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) in He discharge produce effect on the electric field. There is the threshold of H quantity on the change of the electric field polarity. (author)

  1. Model etch profiles for ion energy distribution functions in an inductively coupled plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.; Abraham-Shrauner, B.; Woodworth, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Rectangular trench profiles are modeled with analytic etch rates determined from measured ion distribution functions. The pattern transfer step for this plasma etch is for trilayer lithography. Argon and chlorine angular ion energy distribution functions measured by a spherical collector ring analyzer are fit to a sum of drifting Maxwellian velocity distribution functions with anisotropic temperatures. The fit of the model ion distribution functions by a simulated annealing optimization procedure converges adequately for only two drifting Maxwellians. The etch rates are proportional to analytic expressions for the ion energy flux. Numerical computation of the etch profiles by integration of the characteristic equations for profile points and connection of the profiles points is efficient. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  2. Lyman series profiles: From laser-plasmas to white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielkopf, J.F. [University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 (United States); Allard, N.F. [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, France and Institut d Astrophysique, Paris (France)

    1999-04-01

    The low energy interactions of neutral and ionized hydrogen atoms are fundamental processes which also have important applications to the diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Satellites in the far wings of Lyman {alpha} and Lyman {beta} have been identified as ultraviolet absorption features in the spectra of white dwarf and {lambda} Bootis stars, and they are seen in the emission spectra of plasmas produced when a pulsed laser excites a target H{sub 2} gas. The observed Lyman series profiles agree with unified line shape theory which includes variation of the dipole transition moment during the radiative collision. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Limit cycle oscillations at the L-I-H transition in TJ-II plasmas: triggering, temporal ordering and radial propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, T.; Ascasíbar, E.; Blanco, E.; Cappa, A.; Castejón, F.; Hidalgo, C.; van Milligen, B. Ph.; Sánchez, E.

    2015-06-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of the interaction between turbulence and flows has been studied close to the L-H transition threshold conditions in the edge of TJ-II plasmas. As in other devices the temporal dynamics of the interaction displays limit cycle oscillations (LCO) with a characteristic predator-prey relationship between flows and turbulence. At TJ-II, the turbulence-flow front is found to propagate radially outwards at the onset of the LCO and in some particular cases, after a short time interval without oscillations, a reversal in the front propagation velocity is observed. Associated to this velocity reversal, a change in the temporal ordering of the LCO is measured. However, the change in the temporal ordering is not related to an intrinsic change in the nature of the LCO. In all cases the turbulence increase leads the process and produces an increase in the E × B flow shear. Dedicated experiments have been carried out to investigate the physical mechanisms triggering the onset of the LCO. At TJ-II the LCO are preferentially observed close to the transition threshold conditions at specific magnetic configurations having a low order rational surface located at the inner side of the E × B flow shear location. The behaviour of different frequency modes has been analysed and interpreted in terms of a geodesic acoustic mode generated by the non-linear mode coupling of Alfvén eigenmodes that evolves towards a low frequency flow, plus a MHD mode linked to the low order rational surface, as precursors of the LCO.

  4. Phase diagrams and radial distribution of the electric field components of coaxial discharges with outer dielectric tube at different wave modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neichev, Z; Benova, E; Gamero, A; Sola, A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate phase diagrams and electric field radial distribution of coaxial discharges, sustained by a traveling electromagnetic wave, assuming finite and infinite thickness of the discharge chamber in the model. The calculations are made for azimuthally symmetric and dipolar wave modes. The phase diagrams and the radial profiles of the electric field at various thicknesses of the outer dielectric tube of the chamber and different discharge conditions are obtained. For the purpose of low pressure coaxial plasma modelling, radial profiles of the electric field at different discharge conditions have been investigated experimentally and compared with the theoretical results

  5. The influence of Stark shift and plasma inhomogeneity on half width of self-absorbed line profiles in the plasma emission spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catsalap, K.Yu.; Ershov-Pavlov, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Emission spectral line profiles are commonly used for the evaluation of local plasma parameters. The plasma parameters and local line profiles are related in a rather simple way: e.g. at quadratic Stark broadening, the local line half widths and shifts are proportional to the electron density. For homogeneous optically thin plasmas, there is no difference in the line profiles of plasma emission and emissivity spectra. However for inhomogeneous source, the profiles are different due to spatial dependence of electron density and plasma temperature: profiles in the plasma emission are a superposition of different local ones. A transition from the recorded to local profiles is usually performed by tomography techniques. As the result, the measurement procedure is getting slower and additional errors occurs. For transparent plasmas, an approach was developed to evaluate local profiles from as recorded spectra using relations found by modeling. However, for semi-transparent plasmas the relation between the recorded and local profiles is more complicated one. With the optical thickness t increase, profile half width Δλ in the plasma emission spectrum changes much comparing to the profile half width Δλ 0 in the spectrum of optically thin plasma. The ratio t h =Δλ/Δλ 0 on τ for dispersion profile and homogeneous plasma can be written as t h =(-1-τ/ln((1+e -τ )/2)) 1/2 . When Δλ and τ are known, the function allows obtaining Δλ 0 , i. e. reducing the problem to the transparent plasma diagnostics. However, the plasma is nearly always inhomogeneous and the value t depends significantly on plasma inhomogeneity and on Stark parameters ratio d/w. Here, the dependence t(τ) for plasmas of different inhomogeneity rates has been obtained by the numerical simulation. The radiation transfer equation has been solved to calculate the spectral line profiles for LTE-plasma of known composition and distribution of temperature along the observation line. The temperature

  6. Extended fluid transport theory in the tokamak plasma edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2017-06-01

    Fluid theory expressions for the radial particle and energy fluxes and the radial distributions of pressure and temperature in the edge plasma are derived from fundamental conservation (particle, energy, momentum) relations, taking into account kinetic corrections arising from ion orbit loss, and integrated to illustrate the dependence of the observed edge pedestal profile structure on fueling, heating, and electromagnetic and thermodynamic forces. Solution procedures for the fluid plasma and associated neutral transport equations are discussed.

  7. Kinetic theory of neutrals in a bounded plasma slab with inhomogeneous temperature and density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.B.; Agren, O.

    1982-01-01

    The transport of neutral hydrogen atoms in a hydrogen plasma slab is considered. The influence of the inhomogeneous ion temperature profile on the neutral density and distribution is discussed as well as the influence of the neutral edge energy, charge exchange, and ionization rates. The analytical solutions for the neutral density and distribution function are obtained and compared with the numerical results. The effects due to the inhomogeneous temperature profile are discussed. The recommen-dations from the viewpoint of the effects mentioned previously for the purposes of the cold-gas mantle system have been given

  8. Confinement properties of JET plasmas with different temperature and density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, M.L.; Balet, B.; Bhatnagar, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    The confinement properties of plasmas with substantially different temperature and density profiles have been analysed. The effects of fast particles and energy pedestals on the overall confinement of plasma energy in limiter (L-mode) and X-point (L- and H-modes) discharges heated by NBI or ICRF or both are determined. The importance of the bootstrap current when such energy pedestals are formed is noted. Using sets of consistent experimental data, including ion temperature profile measurements, the local transport properties are compared in the L- and H-phases of a single null X-point medium density NBI heated discharge, the ''enhanced'' confinement phase of a limiter high density pellet-fuelled and ICRF heated discharge, the hot-ion phase of a double null X-point low density NBI heated discharge and the hot-ion and H-phases of a double null X-point low density high temperature NBI heated discharge. (author)

  9. More vertical etch profile using a Faraday cage in plasma etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byeong-Ok; Hwang, Sung-Wook; Ryu, Jung-Hyun; Moon, Sang Heup

    1999-05-01

    Scanning electron microscope images of sidewalls obtained by plasma etching of an SiO2 film with and without a Faraday cage have been compared. When the substrate film is etched in the Faraday cage, faceting is effectively suppressed and the etch profile becomes more vertical regardless of the process conditions. This is because the electric potential in the cage is nearly uniform and therefore distortion of the electric field at the convex corner of a microfeature is prevented. The most vertical etch profile is obtained when the cage is used in fluorocarbon plasmas, where faceting is further suppressed due to the decrease in the chemical sputtering yield and the increase in the radical/ion flux on the substrate.

  10. Development of a heterodyne micro-wave reflectometer with ultra-fast sweeping. The study of the plasma turbulence influence on the measurements of electron density profile; Developppement d`un reflectometre micro-onde heterodyne a balayage ultra rapide. Etude de l`influence de la turbulence du plasma sur la mesure des profils de densite electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, Philippe [Aix-Marseille-1 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-10-17

    The density profile of the fusion plasmas can be investigated by the reflectometry diagnostics. The measurement principle is based on the radar techniques which calculate the phase shift of a millimeter wave propagating into the plasma and reflected at a cut-off layer. However, this propagation is perturbed by the plasma turbulence. These phenomena affect the phase delay measurement by not well understood a process. In this work we have tried to find the mechanisms and origin of the turbulence which is responsible for the phase disturbance. We point out the role of collisionality and plasma radiation in controlling the instability and also, demonstrate that the phase delay of the probing wave is very sensitive to the plasma MHD phenomena and is less affected by the micro-turbulence. The second part of this work is the development and the use of a new heterodyne reflectometer. The principal characteristics are given. Its heterodyne detection allows the separation of phase and amplitude information from the detected signal and then to study their contribution to the mechanism of signal perturbation. The use of this reflectometer allows us to point out the following points: - a high dynamic availability, required by the large amplitude drops, often greater than 30 db; - fast sweep operation requirement to `freeze` the plasma turbulence; - multiple reflection effects which modulate the amplitude and phase of the probing wave if they are not suppressed by filtering the detected signal; - very good localisation of the measurement (of the order of millimeter). The heterodyne reflectometer developed during this work offers several advantages of different distinct reflectometry techniques (fast sweep, absolute and differential phase measurements, heterodyne detection). It could be developed to work over higher frequency range so as to measure density profile over larger radial extension with very high performances. (author) 93 refs., 101 figs., 8 tabs. 3 ills.

  11. Metabolic profiling of human lung cancer blood plasma using 1H NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokova, Daria; Dementeva, Natalia; Kotelnikov, Oleg; Ponomaryova, Anastasia; Cherdyntseva, Nadezhda; Kzhyshkowska, Juliya

    2017-11-01

    Lung cancer (both small cell and non-small cell) is the second most common cancer in both men and women. The article represents results of evaluating of the plasma metabolic profiles of 100 lung cancer patients and 100 controls to investigate significant metabolites using 400 MHz 1H NMR spectrometer. The results of multivariate statistical analysis show that a medium-field NMR spectrometer can obtain the data which are already sufficient for clinical metabolomics.

  12. A CO2 laser polarimeter for measurement of plasma current profile in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Irby, J.; Luke, T.

    1994-01-01

    A multichannel infrared polarimeter system for measurement of the plasma current profile in Alcator C-Mod has been designed, constructed, and tested. The system utilizes a cw CO 2 , laser at a wavelength of 10.6 μm. An electro-optic polarization-modulation technique has been used to achieve the high sensitivity required for the measurement. The recent results of the measurements as well as the feasibility of its application on ITER are presented

  13. Clinical significance of determination of plasma NPY levels and serum lipid profile in patients with cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Fujuan; Shen Airong; Yang Yongqing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of plasma NPY levels and serum lipid profile in patients with cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. Methods: Plasma NPY levels (with RIA) and serum lipid profile (with biochemistry) were determined in (1) 48 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage (2) 46 patients with acute cerebral infarction and (3) controls.Results Plasma NPY levels in both patients with cerebral hemorrhage and patients with cerebral infarction were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: NPY played important roles in the development and pathogenesis of cerebral vascular accidents. Lipid profile changes was the basic etiological factor. (authors)

  14. Radial Field Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, R. G.; Effinger, R. T., IV; Copeland, B. M., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A series of active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated and patterned with several geometrically defined Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE" and Interdigitated Ring Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is a radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezoceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field). Unlike other piezoelectric bender actuators, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements (several times that of the equivalent Unimorph) while maintaining a constant circumference. One of the more intriguing aspects is that the radial strain field reverses itself along the radius of the RFD while the tangential strain remains relatively constant. The result is a Z-deflection that has a conical profile. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of the 5 cm. (2 in.) diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic thickness, electrode type and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage at low frequencies. The unique features of these RFDs include the ability to be clamped about their perimeter with little or no change in displacement, the environmentally insulated packaging, and a highly repeatable fabrication process that uses commodity materials.

  15. Plasma and Urinary Phenolic Profiles after Acute and Repetitive Intake of Wild Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. Feliciano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that blueberries may have cardiovascular and cognitive health benefits. In this work, we investigated the profile of plasma and urine (polyphenol metabolites after acute and daily consumption of wild blueberries for 30 days in 18 healthy men. The inter-individual variability in plasma and urinary polyphenol levels was also investigated. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 2 h post-consumption on day 1 and day 30. Twenty-four-hour urine was also collected on both days. A total of 61 phenolic metabolites were quantified in plasma at baseline, of which 43 increased after acute or chronic consumption of blueberries over one month. Benzoic and catechol derivatives represented more than 80% of the changes in phenolic profile after 2 h consumption on day 1, whereas hippuric and benzoic derivatives were the major compounds that increased at 0 and 2 h on day 30, respectively. The total (polyphenol urinary excretion remained unchanged after 30 days of wild blueberry intake. The inter-individual variability ranged between 40%–48% in plasma and 47%–54% in urine. Taken together, our results illustrate that blueberry (polyphenols are absorbed and extensively metabolized by phase II enzymes and by the gut microbiota, leading to a whole array of metabolites that may be responsible for the beneficial effects observed after blueberry consumption.

  16. New applications of Equinox code for real-time plasma equilibrium and profile reconstruction for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosak, K.; Blum, J.; Joffrin, E.

    2004-01-01

    Recent development of real-time equilibrium code Equinox using a fixed-point algorithm allow major plasma magnetic parameters to be identified in real-time, using rigorous analytical method. The code relies on the boundary flux code providing magnetic flux values on the first wall of vacuum vessel. By means of least-square minimization of differences between magnetic field obtained from previous solution and the next measurements the code identifies the source term of the non-linear Grad-Shafranov equation. The strict use of analytical equations together with a flexible algorithm offers an opportunity to include new measurements into stable magnetic equilibrium code and compare the results directly between several tokamaks while maintaining the same physical model (i.e. no iron model is necessary inside the equilibrium code). The successful implementation of this equilibrium code for JET and Tore Supra has already been published. In this paper, we show the preliminary results of predictive runs of the Equinox code using the ITER geometry. Because the real-time control experiments of plasma profile at JET using the code has been shown unstable when using magnetic and polarimetric measurements (that could be indirectly translated into accuracy vs robustness tradeoff), we plan an outline of the algorithm that will allow us to further constrain the plasma current profile using the central value of pressure of the plasma in real-time in order to better define the poloidal beta (this constraint is not necessary with purely magnetic equilibrium). (authors)

  17. New applications of Equinox code for real-time plasma equilibrium and profile reconstruction for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosak, K.; Blum, J. [Universite de Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, Lab. J. A. Dieudonne, 06 - Nice (France); Joffrin, E. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2004-07-01

    Recent development of real-time equilibrium code Equinox using a fixed-point algorithm allow major plasma magnetic parameters to be identified in real-time, using rigorous analytical method. The code relies on the boundary flux code providing magnetic flux values on the first wall of vacuum vessel. By means of least-square minimization of differences between magnetic field obtained from previous solution and the next measurements the code identifies the source term of the non-linear Grad-Shafranov equation. The strict use of analytical equations together with a flexible algorithm offers an opportunity to include new measurements into stable magnetic equilibrium code and compare the results directly between several tokamaks while maintaining the same physical model (i.e. no iron model is necessary inside the equilibrium code). The successful implementation of this equilibrium code for JET and Tore Supra has already been published. In this paper, we show the preliminary results of predictive runs of the Equinox code using the ITER geometry. Because the real-time control experiments of plasma profile at JET using the code has been shown unstable when using magnetic and polarimetric measurements (that could be indirectly translated into accuracy vs robustness tradeoff), we plan an outline of the algorithm that will allow us to further constrain the plasma current profile using the central value of pressure of the plasma in real-time in order to better define the poloidal beta (this constraint is not necessary with purely magnetic equilibrium). (authors)

  18. Plasma microRNA profiles distinguish lethal injury in acetaminophen toxicity: A research study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeanine Ward; Shashi Bala; Jan Petrasek; Gyongyi Szabo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate plasma microRNA (miRNA) profiles indicative of hepatotoxicity in the setting of lethal acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mice.METHODS:Using plasma from APAP poisoned mice,either lethally (500 mg/kg) or sublethally (150 mg/kg) dosed,we screened commercially available murine microRNA libraries (SABiosciences,Qiagen Sciences,MD) to evaluate for unique miRNA profiles between these two dosing parameters.RESULTS:We distinguished numerous,unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice.Of note,many of the greatest up- and downregulated miRNAs,namely 574-5p,466g,466f-3p,375,29c,and 148a,have been shown to be associated with asthma in prior studies.Interestingly,a relationship between APAP and asthma has been previously well described in the literature,with an as yet unknown mechanism of pathology.There was a statistically significant increase in alanine aminotransferase levels in the lethal compared to sublethal APAP dosing groups at the 12 h time point (P <0.001).There was 90% mortality in the lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice at the 48 h time point (P =0.011).CONCLUSION:We identified unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in APAP poisoning which are correlated to asthma development.

  19. Plasma and Urinary Phenolic Profiles after Acute and Repetitive Intake of Wild Blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Rodrigo P; Istas, Geoffrey; Heiss, Christian; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana

    2016-08-25

    Recent studies have shown that blueberries may have cardiovascular and cognitive health benefits. In this work, we investigated the profile of plasma and urine (poly)phenol metabolites after acute and daily consumption of wild blueberries for 30 days in 18 healthy men. The inter-individual variability in plasma and urinary polyphenol levels was also investigated. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 2 h post-consumption on day 1 and day 30. Twenty-four-hour urine was also collected on both days. A total of 61 phenolic metabolites were quantified in plasma at baseline, of which 43 increased after acute or chronic consumption of blueberries over one month. Benzoic and catechol derivatives represented more than 80% of the changes in phenolic profile after 2 h consumption on day 1, whereas hippuric and benzoic derivatives were the major compounds that increased at 0 and 2 h on day 30, respectively. The total (poly)phenol urinary excretion remained unchanged after 30 days of wild blueberry intake. The inter-individual variability ranged between 40%-48% in plasma and 47%-54% in urine. Taken together, our results illustrate that blueberry (poly)phenols are absorbed and extensively metabolized by phase II enzymes and by the gut microbiota, leading to a whole array of metabolites that may be responsible for the beneficial effects observed after blueberry consumption.

  20. The role of the neutral beam fueling profile in the performance of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and other tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.K.; Batha, S.

    1997-02-01

    Scalings for the stored energy and neutron yield, determined from experimental data are applied to both deuterium-only and deuterium-tritium plasmas in different neutral beam heated operational domains in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. The domain of the data considered includes the Supershot, High poloidal beta, Low-mode, and limiter High-mode operational regimes, as well as discharges with a reversed magnetic shear configuration. The new important parameter in the present scaling is the peakedness of the heating beam fueling profile shape. Ion energy confinement and neutron production are relatively insensitive to other plasma parameters compared to the beam fueling peakedness parameter and the heating beam power when considering plasmas that are stable to magnetohydrodynamic modes. However, the stored energy of the electrons is independent of the beam fueling peakedness. The implication of the scalings based on this parameter is related to theoretical transport models such as radial electric field shear and Ion Temperature Gradient marginality models. Similar physics interpretation is provided for beam heated discharges on other major tokamaks

  1. A gestational profile of placental exosomes in maternal plasma and their effects on endothelial cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salomon

    Full Text Available Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n = 20 per pregnant group were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6-12 weeks, second (ST, 22-24 weeks and third (TT, 32-38 weeks trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP, respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte. Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (p<0.001. During normal healthy pregnancy, the number of exosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001. Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction.

  2. Plasma Steroid Metabolome Profiling for Diagnosis and Subtyping Patients with Cushing Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhofer, Graeme; Masjkur, Jimmy; Peitzsch, Mirko; Di Dalmazi, Guido; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Grüber, Matthias; Fazel, Julia; Osswald, Andrea; Beuschlein, Felix; Reincke, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Diagnosis of Cushing syndrome requires a multistep process that includes verification of hypercortisolism followed by identification of the cause of adrenocortical hyperfunction. This study assessed whether pituitary, ectopic, and adrenal subtypes of Cushing syndrome were characterized by distinct plasma steroid profiles that might assist diagnosis. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, mass spectrometric measurements of a panel of 15 plasma steroids were applied to 222 patient samples tested for Cushing syndrome. Disease was excluded in 138 and confirmed in 51 patients with pituitary Cushing syndrome, 12 with ectopic adrenocorticotropin secretion, and 21 with adrenal disease. Another 277 age- and sex-matched hypertensive and normotensive volunteers were included for comparison. Compared with patients without disease, the largest increases in plasma steroids among patients with Cushing syndrome were observed for 11-deoxycortisol (289%), 21-deoxycortisol (150%), 11-deoxycorticosterone (133%), corticosterone (124%), and cortisol (122%). Patients with ectopic disease showed the most prominent increases, but there was considerable variation for other steroids according to subtype. Patients with adrenal disease had the lowest concentrations of androgens, whereas those with ectopic and pituitary disease showed the lowest concentrations of aldosterone. Plasma 18-oxocortisol was particularly low in ectopic disease. With the use of 10 selected steroids, subjects with and without different Cushing syndrome subtypes could be discriminated nearly as closely as with the use of salivary and urinary free cortisol, dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol, and plasma adrenocorticotropin (9.5% vs 5.8% misclassification). Patients with different subtypes of Cushing syndrome show distinctive plasma steroid profiles that may offer a supplementary single-test alternative for screening purposes. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  3. Mode suppression of a two-dimensional potential relaxation instability in a weakly magnetized discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyergyek, T.; Čerček, M.; Jelić, N.; Stanojević, M.

    1993-05-01

    A potential relaxation instability (PRI) is modulated by an external signal using an additional grid to modulate the radial plasma potential profile in a magnetized plasma column in a linear magnetized discharge plasma device. It is observed that the electrode current oscillations follow the van der Pol equation with an external forcing term, and the linear growth rate of the instability is measured.

  4. Temperature profiles of time dependent tokamak plasmas from the parallel Ohm's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micozzi, P.; Roccella, M.

    1993-01-01

    Profile consistency based on the parallel component of Ohm's law has been used to obtain electron temperature profiles. A resistive neoclassical term and a term that accounts for the bootstrap current contributions have been considered in Ohm's law. A numerical code has been developed to find solutions according to the MHD equilibrium equations. For stationary plasmas, the temperature profiles, obtained by a procedure in which a pseudo-parabolic shape of (J φ /R) is assumed and the peak temperature known from experiments is used, are close to the experimental data for several very different machines (JET, TFTR, ASDEX, ALCATOR-C and FT). The main feature of the model is its capability to provide an easy parametrization of Ohm's law also in non-stationary cases, without going through the complication of a detailed solution of the magnetic field diffusion equation. A rule for estimating a maximum value of the current diffusion time inside the plasma volume in such situations is given. This rule accounts for both the temperature profiles and the stabilization times in some non-stationary pulses observed in JET. (author). 28 refs, 12 figs

  5. Properties of ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes in tokamak plasmas with inverted density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huarong; Jhang, Hogun; Hahm, T. S.; Dong, J. Q.; Wang, Z. X.

    2017-12-01

    We perform a numerical study of linear stability of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the trapped electron mode (TEM) in tokamak plasmas with inverted density profiles. A local gyrokinetic integral equation is applied for this study. From comprehensive parametric scans, we obtain stability diagrams for ITG modes and TEMs in terms of density and temperature gradient scale lengths. The results show that, for the inverted density profile, there exists a normalized threshold temperature gradient above which the ITG mode and the TEM are either separately or simultaneously unstable. The instability threshold of the TEM for the inverted density profile is substantially different from that for normal and flat density profiles. In addition, deviations are found on the ITG threshold from an early analytic theory in sheared slab geometry with the adiabatic electron response [T. S. Hahm and W. M. Tang, Phys. Fluids B 1, 1185 (1989)]. A possible implication of this work on particle transport in pellet fueled tokamak plasmas is discussed.

  6. Plasma and process characterization of high power magnetron physical vapor deposition with integrated plasma equipment--feature profile model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Da; Stout, Phillip J.; Ventzek, Peter L.G.

    2003-01-01

    High power magnetron physical vapor deposition (HPM-PVD) has recently emerged for metal deposition into deep submicron features in state of the art integrated circuit fabrication. However, the plasma characteristics and process mechanism are not well known. An integrated plasma equipment-feature profile modeling infrastructure has therefore been developed for HPM-PVD deposition, and it has been applied to simulating copper seed deposition with an Ar background gas for damascene metalization. The equipment scale model is based on the hybrid plasma equipment model [M. Grapperhaus et al., J. Appl. Phys. 83, 35 (1998); J. Lu and M. J. Kushner, ibid., 89, 878 (2001)], which couples a three-dimensional Monte Carlo sputtering module within a two-dimensional fluid model. The plasma kinetics of thermalized, athermal, and ionized metals and the contributions of these species in feature deposition are resolved. A Monte Carlo technique is used to derive the angular distribution of athermal metals. Simulations show that in typical HPM-PVD processing, Ar + is the dominant ionized species driving sputtering. Athermal metal neutrals are the dominant deposition precursors due to the operation at high target power and low pressure. The angular distribution of athermals is off axis and more focused than thermal neutrals. The athermal characteristics favor sufficient and uniform deposition on the sidewall of the feature, which is the critical area in small feature filling. In addition, athermals lead to a thick bottom coverage. An appreciable fraction (∼10%) of the metals incident to the wafer are ionized. The ionized metals also contribute to bottom deposition in the absence of sputtering. We have studied the impact of process and equipment parameters on HPM-PVD. Simulations show that target power impacts both plasma ionization and target sputtering. The Ar + ion density increases nearly linearly with target power, different from the behavior of typical ionized PVD processing. The

  7. Profiling of plasma metabolites in canine oral melanoma using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Mifumi; Baba, Yuta; Tamai, Reo; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Komori, Masayuki; Mori, Takashi; Takenaka, Shigeo

    2015-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most common and aggressive tumors in the oral cavity of dog. The tumor has a poor prognosis, and methods for diagnosis and prediction of prognosis after treatment are required. Here, we examined metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for development of a discriminant model for evaluation of prognosis. Metabolite profiles were evaluated in healthy and melanoma plasma samples using orthogonal projection to latent structure using discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Cases that were predicted to be healthy using the OPLS discriminant model had no advanced lesions after radiation therapy. These results indicate that metabolite profiling may be useful in diagnosis and prediction of prognosis of canine malignant melanoma.

  8. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3......Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... is the first to investigate the effects of fish oil on blood pressure and the lipid profile in infancy. Healthy term 9-mo old infants In 83) were randomly assigned to 5 mL fish oil daily or no fish oil for 3 mo and to 2 different milk types. Before and after the intervention, blood pressure was measured...

  9. Real-time control of the plasma density profile on ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynek, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The tokamak concept currently is the most promising approach to future power generation by controlled thermonuclear fusion. The spatial distribution of the particle density in the toroidally confined fusion plasma is of particular importance. This thesis work therefore focuses on the question as to what extent the shape of the density profile can be actively controlled by a feedback loop in the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade. There are basically two essential requirements for such feedback control of the density profile, which has been experimentally demonstrated within the scope of this thesis work: On the one hand, for this purpose the density profile must be continuously calculated under real-time constraints during a plasma discharge. The calculation of the density profile is based on the measurements of a sub-millimeter interferometer, which provides the line-integrated electron density along 5 chords through the plasma. Interferometric density measurements can suffer from counting errors by integer multiples of 2π when detecting the phase difference between a probing and a reference beam. As such measurement errors have severe impact on the reconstructed density profile, one major part of this work consists in the development of new readout electronics for the interferometer, which allows for detection of such measurement errors in real-time with high reliability. A further part of this work is the design of a computer algorithm which reconstructs the spatial distribution of the plasma density from the line-integrated measurements. This algorithm has to be implemented on a computer which communicates the measured data to other computers in real-time, especially to the tokamak control system. On the other hand, a second fundamental requirement for the successful implementation of a feedback controller is the identification of at least one actuator which enables a modification of the density profile. Here, electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) has been

  10. Effects of pressure profile and plasma shaping on the n=1 internal kink mode in JT-60/JT-60U pellet fuelled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takahisa; Azumi, Masafumi

    1990-10-01

    The stability of the n=1 internal kink mode in a tokamak is numerically analyzed for plasmas with a centrally peaked pressure profile. These studies are carried out with the strongly peaked pressure inside the q=1 surface, which is based on the experimentally observed plasmas by means of injections of hydrogen-ice pellets in JT-60 tokamak. The effects of peaked pressure and shaping, i.e., elongation and triangularity, are also studied for JT-60U tokamak. The plasma with the strongly peaked pressure profile has higher critical value of poloidal beta defined within the q=1 surface than that with a parabolic pressure profile. Though the beta limit reduces with the increase of the elongation, the plasma with the peaked pressure profile has larger improvement due to the triangularity than that with the parabolic pressure profile. To access the second stability of the n=1 internal kink mode, the plasma with a flat pressure profile and the large minor radius of the q=1 surface is effective. (author)

  11. Profiling post-centrifugation delay of serum and plasma with antibody bead arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qundos, Ulrika; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Tybring, Gunnel; Divers, Mark; Odeberg, Jacob; Uhlen, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2013-12-16

    Several biobanking initiatives have emerged to create extensive collections of specimen for biomedical studies and various analytical platforms. An affinity proteomic analysis with antibody suspension bead arrays was conducted to investigate the influence of the pre-analytical time and temperature conditions on blood derived samples. Serum and EDTA plasma prepared from 16 individuals was centrifuged and aliquots were kept either at 4°C or in ambient temperature for 1h and up to 36h prior to first storage. Multiplexed protein profiles of post-centrifugation delay were generated in 384 biotinylated samples using 373 antibodies that targeted 343 unique proteins. Very few profiles were observed as significantly altered by the studied temperature and time intervals. Single binder and sandwich assays revealed decreasing levels of caldesmon 1 (CALD1) related to EDTA standard tubes and prolonged post-centrifugation delay of 36h. Indications from changes in CALD1 levels require further confirmation in independent material, but the current data suggests that samples should preferentially be frozen during the day of collection when to be profiled with antibody arrays selected for this study. Affinity-based profiling of serum and plasma by microarray assays can provide unique opportunities for the discovery of biomarkers. It is though often not known how differences in sample handling after collection influence the downstream analysis. By profiling three types of blood preparations for alterations in protein profiles with respect to time and temperature post centrifugation, we addressed an important component in the analysis and of such specimen. We believe that this analysis adds valuable information to be considered when biobanking blood derived samples. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Standardization and Quality Control in Proteomics. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploration of one-dimensional plasma current density profile for K-DEMO steady-state operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, J.S. [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, L. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, C.-S.; Na, D.H.; Na, Y.-S. [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y.S., E-mail: yhwang@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • One-dimensional current density and its optimization for the K-DEMO are explored. • Plasma current density profile is calculated with an integrated simulation code. • The impact of self and external heating profiles is considered self-consistently. • Current density is identified as a reference profile by minimizing heating power. - Abstract: Concept study for Korean demonstration fusion reactor (K-DEMO) is in progress, and basic design parameters are proposed by targeting high magnetic field operation with ITER-sized machine. High magnetic field operation is a favorable approach to enlarge relative plasma performance without increasing normalized beta or plasma current. Exploration of one-dimensional current density profile and its optimization process for the K-DEMO steady-state operation are reported in this paper. Numerical analysis is conducted with an integrated plasma simulation code package incorporating a transport code with equilibrium and current drive modules. Operation regimes are addressed with zero-dimensional system analysis. One-dimensional plasma current density profile is calculated based on equilibrium, bootstrap current analysis, and thermal transport analysis. The impact of self and external heating profiles on those parameters is considered self-consistently, where thermal power balance and 100% non-inductive current drive are the main constraints during the whole exploration procedure. Current and pressure profiles are identified as a reference steady-state profile by minimizing the external heating power with desired fusion power.

  13. Parallel Transport and Profile of Boundary Plasma with a Low Recycling Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, X.; Guo, Z., E-mail: xtang@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Reduction of wall recycling by, for example, a flowing liquid surface at the divertor and first wall, holds the promise of accessing the distinct tokamak reactor operational mode with boundary plasmas of high temperature and low density. Earlier work has indicated that such a boundary plasma would reduce the temperature gradient across the entire plasma and hence remove the primary micro-instability drive responsibly for anomalous particle and energy transport. Here we present a systematic study solving the kinetic equations both analytically and numerically, with and without Coulomb collision. The distinct roles of magnetic field strength modulation and the ambipolar electric field on the electron and ion distribution functions are clarified. The resulting behavior on plasma profile and parallel heat flux, which are often surprising and counter the expectations from the collisional fluid models, on which previous work were based, are explained both intuitively and with a contrast between analytical calculation and numerical simulations. The transport-induced plasma instabilities, and their essential role in maintaining ambipolarity, are clarified, along with the subtle effect of Coulomb collision on electron temperature and wall potential as small but finite collisionality is taken into account. (author)

  14. Promising Metabolite Profiles in the Plasma and CSF of Early Clinical Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stoessel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD shows high heterogeneity with regard to the underlying molecular pathogenesis involving multiple pathways and mechanisms. Diagnosis is still challenging and rests entirely on clinical features. Thus, there is an urgent need for robust diagnostic biofluid markers. Untargeted metabolomics allows establishing low-molecular compound biomarkers in a wide range of complex diseases by the measurement of various molecular classes in biofluids such as blood plasma, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Here, we applied untargeted high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine plasma and CSF metabolite profiles. We semiquantitatively determined small-molecule levels (≤1.5 kDa in the plasma and CSF from early PD patients (disease duration 0–4 years; n = 80 and 40, respectively, and sex- and age-matched controls (n = 76 and 38, respectively. We performed statistical analyses utilizing partial least square and random forest analysis with a 70/30 training and testing split approach, leading to the identification of 20 promising plasma and 14 CSF metabolites. These metabolites differentiated the test set with an AUC of 0.8 (plasma and 0.9 (CSF. Characteristics of the metabolites indicate perturbations in the glycerophospholipid, sphingolipid, and amino acid metabolism in PD, which underscores the high power of metabolomic approaches. Further studies will enable to develop a potential metabolite-based biomarker panel specific for PD.

  15. Radial nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - radial nerve; Radial nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy ... Damage to one nerve group, such as the radial nerve, is called mononeuropathy . Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. Both ...

  16. Estimation of the radial force on the tokamak vessel wall during fast transient events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V. D., E-mail: pustovitov-vd@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The radial force balance in a tokamak during fast transient events with a duration much shorter than the resistive time of the vacuum vessel wall is analyzed. The aim of the work is to analytically estimate the resulting integral radial force on the wall. In contrast to the preceding study [Plasma Phys. Rep. 41, 952 (2015)], where a similar problem was considered for thermal quench, simultaneous changes in the profiles and values of the pressure and plasma current are allowed here. Thereby, the current quench and various methods of disruption mitigation used in the existing tokamaks and considered for future applications are also covered. General formulas for the force at an arbitrary sequence or combination of events are derived, and estimates for the standard tokamak model are made. The earlier results and conclusions are confirmed, and it is shown that, in the disruption mitigation scenarios accepted for ITER, the radial forces can be as high as in uncontrolled disruptions.

  17. Influence of plasma pedestal profiles on access to ELM-free regimes in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, S. Yu., E-mail: medvedev@a5.kiam.ru; Ivanov, A. A., E-mail: aai@a5.kiam.ru; Martynov, A. A., E-mail: martynov@a5.kiam.ru; Poshekhonov, Yu. Yu., E-mail: naida@a5.kiam.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Konovalov, S. V., E-mail: konoval-sv@nrcki.ru [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” (Russian Federation); Polevoi, A. R., E-mail: alexei.polevoi@iter.org [ITER Organization (France)

    2016-05-15

    The influence of current density and pressure gradient profiles in the pedestal on the access to the regimes free from edge localized modes (ELMs) like quiescent H-mode in ITER is investigated. Using the simulator of MHD modes localized near plasma boundary based on the KINX code, calculations of the ELM stability were performed for the ITER plasma in scenarios 2 and 4 under variations of density and temperature profiles with the self-consistent bootstrap current in the pedestal. Low pressure gradient values at the separatrix, the same position of the density and temperature pedestals and high poloidal beta values facilitate reaching high current density in the pedestal and a potential transition into the regime with saturated large scale kink modes. New version of the localized MHD mode simulator allows one to compute the growth rates of ideal peeling-ballooning modes with different toroidal mode numbers and to determine the stability region taking into account diamagnetic stabilization. The edge stability diagrams computations and sensitivity studies of the stability limits to the value of diamagnetic frequency show that diamagnetic stabilization of the modes with high toroidal mode numbers can help to access the quiescent H-mode even with high plasma density but only with low pressure gradient values at the separatrix. The limiting pressure at the top of the pedestal increases for higher plasma density. With flat density profile the access to the quiescent H-mode is closed even with diamagnetic stabilization taken into account, while toroidal mode numbers of the most unstable peeling-ballooning mode decrease from n = 10−40 to n = 3−20.

  18. Scattering cross-section of an inhomogeneous plasma cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiaming Shi; Lijian Qiu; Ling, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Scattering of em waves by the plasma cylinder is of significance in radar target detection, plasma diagnosis, etc. This paper discusses the general method to calculate the scattering cross-section of em waves from a plasma cylinder which is radially inhomogeneous and infinitely long. Numerical results are also provided for several plasma density profiles. The effect of the electron density distribution on the scattering cross-section is investigated

  19. Plasma free amino acid profiles evaluate risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension in a large Asian population

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Natsu; Mahbub, MH; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Hase, Ryosuke; Ishimaru, Yasutaka; Sunagawa, Hiroshi; Amano, Hiroki; Kobayashi- Miura, Mikiko; Kanda, Hideyuki; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Mai; Kikuchi, Shinya; Ikeda, Atsuko; Takasu, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently, the association of plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile and lifestyle-related diseases has been reported. However, few studies have been reported in large Asian populations, about the usefulness of PFAAs for evaluating disease risks. We examined the ability of PFAA profiles to evaluate lifestyle-related diseases in so far the largest Asian population. Methods We examined plasma concentrations of 19 amino acids in 8589 Japanese subjects, and determined the association wit...

  20. Distinct Plasma Profile of Polar Neutral Amino Acids, Leucine, and Glutamate in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Obukhanych, Tetyana V.; Laval, Julie; Aronov, Pavel A.; Libove, Robin; Banerjee, Arpita Goswami; Parker, Karen J.; O'Hara, Ruth; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating…

  1. Plasma profile and shape optimization for the advanced tokamak power plant, ARIES-AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.; Mau, T.K.; Jardin, S.C.; Najmabadi, F.

    2006-01-01

    An advanced tokamak plasma configuration is developed based on equilibrium, ideal MHD stability, bootstrap current analysis, vertical stability and control, and poloidal field coil analysis. The plasma boundaries used in the analysis are forced to coincide with the 99% flux surface from the free-boundary equilibrium. Using an accurate bootstrap current model and external current drive profiles from ray tracing calculations in combination with optimized pressure profiles, β N values above 7.0 have been obtained. The minimum current drive requirement is found to lie at a lower β N of 6.0. The external kink mode is stabilized by a tungsten shell located at 0.33 times the minor radius and a feedback system. Plasma shape optimization has led to an elongation of 2.2 and triangularity of 0.9 at the separatrix. Vertical stability could be achieved by a combination of tungsten shells located at 0.33 times the minor radius and feedback control coils located behind the shield. The poloidal field coils were optimized in location and current, providing a maximum coil current of 8.6 MA. These developments have led to a simultaneous reduction in the power plant major radius and toroidal field from those found in a previous study [S.C. Jardin, C.E. Kessel, C.G. Bathke, D.A. Ehst, T.K. Mau, F. Najmabadi, T.W. Petrie, the ARIES Team, Physics basis for a reversed shear tokamak power plant, Fusion Eng. Design 38 (1997) 27

  2. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scagliusi Fernanda B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22 were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks or placebo (PL (dextrose in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TAG, fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre and after four (Post 4, eight (Post 8 and twelve (Post 12 weeks. Results We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01, TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. Conclusion These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone.

  3. Affinity proteomic profiling of plasma for proteins associated to area-based mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byström, Sanna; Eklund, Martin; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Fredolini, Claudia; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Schwenk, Jochen M; Gabrielson, Marike

    2018-02-14

    Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but molecular understanding of how breast density relates to cancer risk is less complete. Studies of proteins in blood plasma, possibly associated with mammographic density, are well-suited as these allow large-scale analyses and might shed light on the association between breast cancer and breast density. Plasma samples from 1329 women in the Swedish KARMA project, without prior history of breast cancer, were profiled with antibody suspension bead array (SBA) assays. Two sample sets comprising 729 and 600 women were screened by two different SBAs targeting a total number of 357 proteins. Protein targets were selected through searching the literature, for either being related to breast cancer or for being linked to the extracellular matrix. Association between proteins and absolute area-based breast density (AD) was assessed by quantile regression, adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). Plasma profiling revealed linear association between 20 proteins and AD, concordant in the two sets of samples (p density and processes of tissue homeostasis, DNA repair, cancer development and/or progression in breast cancer. Further validation and follow-up studies of the shortlisted protein candidates in independent cohorts will be needed to infer their role in breast density and its progression in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  4. Plasma Profile and Shape Optimization for the Advanced Tokamak Power Plant, ARIES-AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.; Mau, T.K.; Jardin, S.C.; Najmabadi, F.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced tokamak plasma configuration is developed based on equilibrium, ideal-MHD stability, bootstrap current analysis, vertical stability and control, and poloidal-field coil analysis. The plasma boundaries used in the analysis are forced to coincide with the 99% flux surface from the free-boundary equilibrium. Using an accurate bootstrap current model and external current-drive profiles from ray-tracing calculations in combination with optimized pressure profiles, beta(subscript N) values above 7.0 have been obtained. The minimum current drive requirement is found to lie at a lower beta(subscript N) of 5.4. The external kink mode is stabilized by a tungsten shell located at 0.33 times the minor radius and a feedback system. Plasma shape optimization has led to an elongation of 2.2 and triangularity of 0.9 at the separatrix. Vertical stability could be achieved by a combination of tungsten shells located at 0.33 times the minor radius and feedback control coils located behind the shield. The poloidal-field coils were optimized in location and current, providing a maximum coil current of 8.6 MA. These developments have led to a simultaneous reduction in the power plant major radius and toroidal field

  5. Fluid and gyrokinetic modelling of particle transport in plasmas with hollow density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegnered, D; Oberparleiter, M; Nordman, H; Strand, P

    2016-01-01

    Hollow density profiles occur in connection with pellet fuelling and L to H transitions. A positive density gradient could potentially stabilize the turbulence or change the relation between convective and diffusive fluxes, thereby reducing the turbulent transport of particles towards the center, making the fuelling scheme inefficient. In the present work, the particle transport driven by ITG/TE mode turbulence in regions of hollow density profiles is studied by fluid as well as gyrokinetic simulations. The fluid model used, an extended version of the Weiland transport model, Extended Drift Wave Model (EDWM), incorporates an arbitrary number of ion species in a multi-fluid description, and an extended wavelength spectrum. The fluid model, which is fast and hence suitable for use in predictive simulations, is compared to gyrokinetic simulations using the code GENE. Typical tokamak parameters are used based on the Cyclone Base Case. Parameter scans in key plasma parameters like plasma β, R/L T , and magnetic shear are investigated. It is found that β in particular has a stabilizing effect in the negative R/L n region, both nonlinear GENE and EDWM show a decrease in inward flux for negative R/L n and a change of direction from inward to outward for positive R/L n . This might have serious consequences for pellet fuelling of high β plasmas. (paper)

  6. Characterization of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Phillips, L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.

    2011-10-01

    Previous experiments with Nike KrF laser (λ = 248 nm , Δν ~ 1 THz) observed LPI signatures near quarter critical density (nc / 4) in CH plasmas, however, detailed measurement of the temperature (Te) and density (ne) profiles was missing. The current Nike LPI campaign will perform experimental determination of the plasma profiles. A side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) is the main diagnostic to resolve Te and ne in space taking 2D snapshots of probe laser (λ = 266 nm , Δt = 8 psec) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at laser peak time. Ray tracing of the beamlets through hydrodynamically simulated (FASTRAD3D) plasma profiles estimates the refractometer may access densities up to ~ 0 . 2nc . With the measured Te and ne profiles in the plasma corona, we will discuss analysis of light data radiated from the plasmas in spectral ranges relevant to two plasmon decay and convective Raman instabilities. Validity of the (Te ,ne) data will also be discussed for the thermal transport study. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and ONR and performed at NRL.

  7. Plasma Exosome Profiling of Cancer Patients by a Next Generation Systems Biology Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenyuk, Valeriy; Zhong, Zhenyu; Stark, Adam; Xiao, Nianqing; O'Neill, Heather A; Wei, Xixi; Wang, Jie; Tinder, Teresa T; Tonapi, Sonal; Duncan, Janet; Hornung, Tassilo; Hunter, Andrew; Miglarese, Mark R; Schorr, Joachim; Halbert, David D; Quackenbush, John; Poste, George; Berry, Donald A; Mayer, Günter; Famulok, Michael; Spetzler, David

    2017-02-20

    Technologies capable of characterizing the full breadth of cellular systems need to be able to measure millions of proteins, isoforms, and complexes simultaneously. We describe an approach that fulfils this criterion: Adaptive Dynamic Artificial Poly-ligand Targeting (ADAPT). ADAPT employs an enriched library of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs) to profile complex biological samples, thus achieving an unprecedented coverage of system-wide, native biomolecules. We used ADAPT as a highly specific profiling tool that distinguishes women with or without breast cancer based on circulating exosomes in their blood. To develop ADAPT, we enriched a library of ~10 11 ssODNs for those associating with exosomes from breast cancer patients or controls. The resulting 10 6 enriched ssODNs were then profiled against plasma from independent groups of healthy and breast cancer-positive women. ssODN-mediated affinity purification and mass spectrometry identified low-abundance exosome-associated proteins and protein complexes, some with known significance in both normal homeostasis and disease. Sequencing of the recovered ssODNs provided quantitative measures that were used to build highly accurate multi-analyte signatures for patient classification. Probing plasma from 500 subjects with a smaller subset of 2000 resynthesized ssODNs stratified healthy, breast biopsy-negative, and -positive women. An AUC of 0.73 was obtained when comparing healthy donors with biopsy-positive patients.

  8. Differences in cardiovascular risk profile based on relationship between post-load plasma glucose and fasting plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Elena; Marini, Maria Adelaide; Grembiale, Alessandro; Lugarà, Marina; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sciacqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Lauro, Renato; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    It has been shown that subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), whose plasma glucose (PG) levels do not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (Group I), have a significantly higher risk to develop type 2 diabetes than NGT subjects whose 2-h glucose returns to, or drops below, the fasting level (Group I). However, it is still unsettled whether individuals in Group II have a more atherogenic profile than Group I subjects. To address this issue, we examined 266 non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic patients, recruited in the context of EUGENE2 cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent an euglycaemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were evaluated. Individuals in Group II exhibited significantly higher waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, 2-h post-load PG, hsC-reactive protein, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IMT, and lower insulin sensitivity than subjects in Group I. Subjects with NGT, whose PG concentration does not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during OGTT, have an atherogenic profile, suggesting that performing OGTT with measurement of PG every 30 min may be useful to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease in glucose-tolerant subjects.

  9. Control-oriented modeling of the plasma particle density in tokamaks and application to real-time density profile reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, T.C.; Felici, F.; Rapson, C.J.; de Baar, M.R.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.

    2018-01-01

    A model-based approach to real-time reconstruction of the particle density profile in tokamak plasmas is presented, based on a dynamic state estimator. Traditionally, the density profile is reconstructed in real-time by solving an ill-conditioned inversion problem using a measurement at a single

  10. Resonant power absorption in helicon plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangye; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Breizman, Boris N.; Lee, Charles A.; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2006-01-01

    Helicon discharges produce plasmas with a density gradient across the confining magnetic field. Such plasmas can create a radial potential well for nonaxisymmetric whistlers, allowing radially localized helicon (RLH) waves. This work presents new evidence that RLH waves play a significant role in helicon plasma sources. An experimentally measured plasma density profile in an argon helicon discharge is used to calculate the rf field structure. The calculations are performed using a two-dimensional field solver under the assumption that the density profile is axisymmetric. It is found that RLH waves with an azimuthal wave number m=1 form a standing wave structure in the axial direction and that the frequency of the RLH eigenmode is close to the driving frequency of the rf antenna. The calculated resonant power absorption, associated with the RLH eigenmode, accounts for most of the rf power deposited into the plasma in the experiment

  11. Magnetic field profiles during turbulent heating in a toroidal hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalfsbeek, H.W.

    1978-12-01

    A description is given of the measurements of both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components as functions of radius and time in a small turbulently heated tokamak. These measurements have been carried out with an array of miniature pick-up coils, enclosed in a quartz tube which is inserted into the plasma. The electric fields inside the plasma, as well as the parallel resistivity profiles are deduced from the measured magnetic fields. The ohmically dissipated energy is determined from the field distributions and compared with the total input energy. The experimental results are compared with the outcome of a numerical model. The consistency with information obtained from other diagnostic measurements is checked. (Auth.)

  12. Measurements of Pfirsch-Schlueter current and pressure profile for the high density ECH plasmas in Heliotron DR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, S.; Yanagi, N.; Nakasuga, M.; Obiki, T.; Iiyoshi, A.; Uo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The Pfirsch-Schlueter current and pressure profiles are estimated from magnetic measurements for high density electron cyclotron heating (ECH) plasmas (n-bar e =(2-3)x10 13 cm -3 , T e0 =200-400 eV, (β) 0 (1-(r/a) 2 ) s , is about two in macroscopically stable plasmas. A fast loss of plasma energy from the centre to the periphery is observed during the onset of the MHD instability. This method of measuring the pressure profile shape is simple and useful for heliotron type devices. (author). 20 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  13. Ohmic ion temperature and thermal diffusivity profiles from the JET neutron emission profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, B. (ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia); Marcus, F.B.; Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Loughlin, M.J.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking); Adams, J.M.; Watkins, N. (AEA Industrial Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    The JET neutron emission profile monitor was used to study ohmically heated deuterium discharges. The radial profile of the neutron emissivity is deduced from the line-integral data. The profiles of ion temperature, T[sub i], and ion thermal diffusivity, [chi][sub i], are derived under steady-state conditions. The ion thermal diffusivity is higher than, and its scaling with plasma current opposite to, that predicted by neoclassical theory. (author).

  14. Ohmic ion temperature and thermal diffusivity profiles from the JET neutron emission profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, B.

    1993-01-01

    The JET neutron emission profile monitor was used to study ohmically heated deuterium discharges. The radial profile of the neutron emissivity is deduced from the line-integral data. The profiles of ion temperature, T i , and ion thermal diffusivity, χ i , are derived under steady-state conditions. The ion thermal diffusivity is higher than, and its scaling with plasma current opposite to, that predicted by neoclassical theory. (author)

  15. Plasma microRNA profiles in rat models of hepatocellular injury, cholestasis, and steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yamaura

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that function to modulate the expression of target genes, playing important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. The miRNAs in body fluids have received considerable attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases. In this study, we compared the changes of the plasma miRNA expressions by acute liver injury (hepatocellular injury or cholestasis and chronic liver injury (steatosis, steatohepatitis and fibrosis using rat models made by the administration of chemicals or special diets. Using miRNA array analysis, we found that the levels of a large number of miRNAs (121-317 miRNAs were increased over 2-fold and the levels of a small number of miRNAs (6-35 miRNAs were decreased below 0.5-fold in all models except in a model of cholestasis caused by bile duct ligation. Interestingly, the expression profiles were different between the models, and the hierarchical clustering analysis discriminated between the acute and chronic liver injuries. In addition, miRNAs whose expressions were typically changed in each type of liver injury could be specified. It is notable that, in acute liver injury models, the plasma level of miR-122, the most abundant miRNA in the liver, was more quickly and dramatically increased than the plasma aminotransferase level, reflecting the extent of hepatocellular injury. This study demonstrated that the plasma miRNA profiles could reflect the types of liver injury (e.g. acute/chronic liver injury or hepatocellular injury/cholestasis/steatosis/steatohepatitis/fibrosis and identified the miRNAs that could be specific and sensitive biomarkers of liver injury.

  16. Boron profiles in doped amorphous-silicon solar cells formed by plasma ion deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, C.T.H.; Hunt, C.P.; Coleman, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Amorphous silicon p-n junction solar cells of large area (100 cm 2 ) and having a quantum efficiency approaching 100% in the blue region have been prepared by plasma ion-plating, the p layer being formed from diborane and silane gases in a cathode glow-discharge. Surface secondary ion mass spectrometry combined with ion beam etching was found to be a very sensitive method with high in-depth resolution for obtaining the initial boron-silicon profile of the solar cell p-n junction. (author)

  17. Plasma amino acid profiles are associated with insulin, C-peptide and adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, H; Jinzu, H; Nagao, K; Noguchi, Y; Shimba, N; Miyano, H; Watanabe, T; Iseki, K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) profiles have been associated with a future risk of developing diabetes or cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic subjects. These PFAA alterations might predominantly result from the metabolic shift caused by insulin resistance and visceral fat deposition. The variety of PFAA profiles within diabetic subjects is not well researched. In this study, we focused on type 2 diabetic subjects and examined the association between PFAA profiles and insulin- and...

  18. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  19. Analysis of protein profiles in diabetic rat blood plasma that induced by alloxan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Setiyawan, Hengki; Trisnawati, Indah; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Sa'adah, Noor Nailis

    2017-06-01

    Proteomics is the study to identify the proteins involved in physiological metabolic pathway. The protein profiles of blood plasma from alloxan-induced diabetic rats has investigated using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Data were analyzed descriptively based on variations of the type and intensity of the protein. There were identified the similarity of protein variant between diabetic and control rats included ankyrin (200kDa), IgG (150kDa), nephrin (136 kDa), IDE (112 kDA), albumin (66 kDa), prealbumin (55 kDA), CICP (43 kDa), ApoA-V (39 kDa), GAPDH (35 kDa), C-RP (27,1 kDa), leptin (16 kDa) and apelin (13 kDa). However, the apelin profile at diabetic rats shows the higher intensity than control.

  20. Modifying locally the safety profile to improve the confinement of magnetic field lines in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, D.; Firpo, M.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Using Hamiltonian models for the magnetic field lines, we propose a methodology to improve their confinement through the creation of transport barriers. A local modification of the safety profile creating a low-shear zone is shown to be sufficient to locally enhance drastically the regularity of the magnetic field lines without requesting a reversed shear. The optimal benefits of low-shear are obtained when the value q 0 of the safety profile in the low-shear zone is sufficiently far from the main resonance values m/n with low m and n, in the case of large enough values of those (m, n) mode amplitudes. A practical implementation in tokamak plasmas should involve electron cyclotron current drive to locally modify the magnetic shear. (paper)

  1. Changes in the Plasma Sex Hormone Profile in Males with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N Yezhova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of typical plasma sex hormone changes and their functional significance in males with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. Fifty-nine males aged 18—49 years who had SCI were enrolled in the study. The admission severity was an APACHE II score of 18.6±2.4. According to the outcome of the disease, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased persons. A control comprised 12 healthy male donors aged 19-36 years, in whom the levels of 8 sex steroids were measured. The standard procedures were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of pituitary reproductive hormones and aldosterone. Hormonal concentrations were studied over time on posttraumatic days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15. The plasma hormone profile was examined by test kits (BSL, USA on a Stat Fax 2100 device (Awareness Technology Inc., USA for enzyme immunoassay. Prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, progesterone (P, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH-P, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estrone (E1, estradiol (E2, and aldosterone were determined. Results. The complex study of phasic changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in males in the posttraumatic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels and their phasic variations, normal LH and FSH levels with a tendency for further phasic LH changes and FSH reduction. After the injury, the plasma concentration of P was increased and that of 17-OH-P was decreased. The levels of A and DHEA-S varied in the normal range with a tendency for DHEA-S to be lower during the process. In the posttraumatic period, the plasma content of T and DHT was substantially reduced and that of E1 and E2 was increased. The deceased patients generally showed higher levels of A, DHEA-S, and estrogens as a reflection of

  2. Measurement of the radial profile of $D^{0}$ mesons in jets produced in pp and PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The first measurement of the radial distributions of $D^{0}$ mesons in jets in PbPb and pp collisions is presented. Data samples of PbPb and pp collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ $\\mathrm{TeV}$, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 404 $\\mu \\rm b^{-1}$ and 27.4 $\\rm p b^{-1}$, respectively, are recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC. The jets are reconstructed with an anti-$k_{T}$ algorithm with a distance parameter of $0.3$. The radial distribution of $D^{0}$ mesons with transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}}>4 \\,\\mathrm{Ge\\hspace{-.08em}V\\hspace{-0.16em}/\\hspace{-0.08em}}c$ are measured with respect to the jet axis. Modifications of $D^{0}$ radial distribution in PbPb collisions are presented by comparing PbPb spectra to the pp reference data, indicating a redistribution of the $D^{0}$ mesons close to the jet axis. This measurement provides new experimental constraints on the mechanisms of heavy-flavor production in proton-proton collisions as well as on the p...

  3. GPU based 3D feature profile simulation of high-aspect ratio contact hole etch process under fluorocarbon plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Poo-Reum; Lee, Se-Ah; Yook, Yeong-Geun; Choi, Kwang-Sung; Cho, Deog-Geun; Yu, Dong-Hun; Chang, Won-Seok; Kwon, Deuk-Chul; Im, Yeon-Ho

    2013-09-01

    Although plasma etch profile simulation has been attracted much interest for developing reliable plasma etching, there still exist big gaps between current research status and predictable modeling due to the inherent complexity of plasma process. As an effort to address this issue, we present 3D feature profile simulation coupled with well-defined plasma-surface kinetic model for silicon dioxide etching process under fluorocarbon plasmas. To capture the realistic plasma surface reaction behaviors, a polymer layer based surface kinetic model was proposed to consider the simultaneous polymer deposition and oxide etching. Finally, the realistic plasma surface model was used for calculation of speed function for 3D topology simulation, which consists of multiple level set based moving algorithm, and ballistic transport module. In addition, the time consumable computations in the ballistic transport calculation were improved drastically by GPU based numerical computation, leading to the real time computation. Finally, we demonstrated that the surface kinetic model could be coupled successfully for 3D etch profile simulations in high-aspect ratio contact hole plasma etching.

  4. Boron Profile Sharpening in Ultra-Shallow p+-n Junction Produced by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation from BF3 Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukichev, V.; Rudenko, K.; Orlikovsky, A.; Pustovit, A.; Vyatkin, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated plasma immersion ion implantation (PI 3 ) of boron with energies of 500 eV (doses up to 2x10 15 cm -2 ) from BF 3 plasma with He pre-amorphizing implantation (PAI)(energy 3 keV, dose 5x10 16 cm -2 ). Implanted samples were subjected to RTA (T = 900 to 1050 deg. C, t = 2 to 24 sec and spike anneal). SIMS analysis of boron profiles revealed its anomalous behavior. For short RTA times the profile tail (below 5x10 19 cm -3 ) moves toward the surface and then, as in the usual diffusion, toward the bulk at longer annealing times.

  5. Magnetic diagnostics: General principles and the problem of reconstruction of plasma current and pressure profiles in toroidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    Restrictions on magnetic diagnostics are discussed. Being related to the integral nature of the measurable quantities, these follow from the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. A series of examples demonstrating the strength of these restrictions is analysed. The general rule is emphasized that information obtained from external magnetic measurements is insufficient for reliable evaluation of plasma current and pressure profiles in tokamaks and in stellarators. The underlying reason is that outside the plasma the self-field of the equilibrium plasma currents is determined by the boundary conditions on the plasma surface alone. (author)

  6. Magnetic diagnostics: general principles and the problem of reconstruction of plasma current and pressure profiles in toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2000-04-01

    The restrictions of the magnetic diagnostics are discussed. Being related to the integral nature of the measurable quantities, they follow from the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. A series of particular examples demonstrating the strength of these restrictions is given and analyzed. A general rule is emphasized that the information obtained from external magnetic measurements is obviously insufficient for the reliable evaluation of plasma current and pressure profiles in tokamaks or in stellarators. The underlying reason is that outside the plasma the own field of the equilibrium plasma currents is determined by the boundary conditions on the plasma surface only. (author)

  7. Radial effects in heating and thermal stability of a sub-ignited tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, V.; Shoucri, M.M.; Thibaudeau, G.; Harten, L.; Bers, A.

    1982-02-01

    The existence of thermally stable sub-ignited equilibria of a tokamak reactor, sustained in operation by a feedback-controlled supplementary heating source, is demonstrated. The establishment of stability depends on a number of radially non-uniform, nonlinear processes whose effect is analyzed. One-dimensional (radial) stability analyses of model transport equations, together with numerical results from a 1-D transport code, are used in studying the heating of DT-plasmas in the thermonuclear regime. Plasma core supplementary heating is found to be a thermally more stable process than bulk heating. In the presence of impurity line radiation, however, core-heated temperature profiles may collapse, contracting inward from the limiter, the result of an instability caused by the increasing nature of the radiative cooling rate, with decreasing temperature. Conditions are established for the realization of a sub-ignited high-Q, toroidal reactor plasma with appreciable output power

  8. Dependence of ideal MHD kink and ballooning modes on plasma shape and profiles in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, A.M.M.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.; Chance, M.S.; Grimm, R.C.; Greene, J.M.; Johnson, J.L.

    1978-08-01

    Extensive numerical studies of ideal MHD instabilities have been carried out to gain insight into the parametric dependence of critical β's in tokamaks. The large number of interrelated equilibrium quantities involved in establishing a critical β has demanded a careful, systematic survey in order to isolate this dependence. The results of this survey establish the scaling with geometrical quantities including aspect ratio, elongation, and triangularity in the parameter regimes appropriate for both current and reactor-sized plasmas. A moderate dependence on the pressure profile and a strong variation with the current profile is found. The principal result is that for aspect ratio R/a approximately equal to 3, critical β's are of the order of 2% for circular cross sections and 5% for plasmas with elongation K approximately equal to 2; somewhat higher values could be achieved with more optimal shaping. Finally, sequences of equilibria have been analyzed to compare critical β as a function of toroidal mode number n. We conclude that the infinite-n analytic ballooning theory provides a sufficient condition for ideal MHD internal mode stability. Low-n free boundary modes appear to set a lower limit

  9. Changes in short-chain fatty acid plasma profile incurred by dietary fiber composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery and w...... higher net absorption of butyrate (2.4–4.0 vs. 1.6 mmol/h; P ...Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery...... >> arabinoxylan >> β-glucan, whereas in the WWG, WAF, and RAF, diets it was arabinoxylan >> cellulose > β-glucan. The diets were fed to the pigs during 3 wk in a crossover design. Within an experimental week, WFL was supplied on Days 1 through 3 and WWG, WAF, or RAF was supplied during Days 4 through 7. Fasting...

  10. Radial pattern of nuclear decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, W.; Mueller, M.; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1994-05-01

    At high level density of nuclear states, a separation of different time scales is observed (trapping effect). We calculate the radial profile of partial widths in the framework of the continuum shell model for some 1 - resonances with 2p-2h nuclear structure in 16 O as a function of the coupling strength to the continuum. A correlation between the lifetime of a nuclear state and the radial profile of the corresponding decay process is observed. We conclude from our numerical results that the trapping effect creates structures in space and time characterized by a small radial extension and a short lifetime. (orig.)

  11. Characterization of thermal plasmas by laser light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.C.; Lassahn, G.D.; Reynolds, L.D.; Fincke, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Characterization of an atmospheric pressure free-burning arc discharge and a plasma jet by lineshape analysis of scattered laser light is described. Unlike emission spectroscopy, this technique provides direct measurement of plasma gas temperature, electron temperature and electron density without the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Plasma gas velocity can also be determined from the Doppler shift of the scattered laser light. Radial gas temperature, electron temperature and electron density profiles are presented for an atmospheric pressure argon free-burning arc discharge. These results show a significant departure from LTE in the arc column, contradicting results obtained from emission spectroscopy. Radial gas temperature and gas velocity profiles in the exit plane of a subsonic atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet are also presented. In this case, the results show the plasma jet is close to LTE in the center, but not in the fringes. The velocity profile is parabolic

  12. Longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles, infant feeding, and islet autoimmunity in the MIDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Stene, Lars C; Tapia, German; Bøås, Håkon; Pepaj, Milaim; Berg, Jens P; Thorsby, Per M; Orešič, Matej; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case children who developed islet autoimmunity (n = 29) and autoantibody-negative control children (n = 29) with the HLA DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2 genotype were analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for detection of small polar metabolites. Plasma metabolite levels were found to depend strongly on age, with fold changes varying up to 50% from age 3 to 24 months (p polar metabolites changed with age during early childhood, independent of later islet autoimmunity status and sex. Breastfeeding was associated with higher levels of branched-chain amino acids, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A non-linear theory for the bubble regime of plasma wake fields in tailored plasma channels

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a first full analytical bubble and blow-out model for a radially inhomogeneous plasma in a quasi-static approximation. For both cases we calculate the accelerating and the focusing fields. In our model we also assume a thin electron layer that surrounds the wake field and calculate the field configuration within. Our theory holds for arbitrary radial density profiles and reduces to known models in the limit of a homogeneous plasma. From a previous study of hollow plasma channels with smooth boundaries for laser-driven electron acceleration in the bubble regime we know that pancake-like laser pulses lead to highest electron energies [Pukhov et al, PRL 113, 245003 (2014)]. As it was shown, the bubble fields can be adjusted to balance the laser depletion and dephasing lengths by varying the plasma density profile inside a deep channel. Now we show why the radial fields in the vacuum part of a channel become defocussing.

  14. Design of an O-mode frequency modulated reflectometry system for the measurement of Alborz Tokamak plasma density profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koohestani, Saeideh [Department of Energy Engineering and physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, 15875-4413, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amrollahi, Reza, E-mail: amrollahi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Energy Engineering and physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, 15875-4413, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, Gholamreza [Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, 15875-4413, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Reflectometry is a common method for plasma diagnostic, in which microwaves are launched into the plasma and reflected at the critical surfaces. Comparing the reflected microwave signals with the launched waves would give rise to the plasma density profiles. In the present study, an ordinary mode (O-mode) frequency modulation (FM) reflectometry system has been designed for the electron density profile measurement of the Alborz Tokamak plasma. This system has been considered to operate at K-band (18–26.5 GHz) frequency range and scan the frequency band between 18 to 26 GHz in 40 μS. The density profile from major radius r = 47.9–51.55 cm can be measured in Alborz Tokamak plasma. Based on the Alborz Tokamak operational conditions, the characteristic frequencies, and some dimensional limitations, all parts of reflectometer have been designed so that an appropriate efficiency with minimum attenuation, especially in transmitting/receiving system would be achieved. A dual antenna and an oversized waveguide of X-band (8–12 GHz) for transmitting and receiving purposes and a balanced detector for absolute phase determination have been utilized. The details of the Alborz Tokamak FM reflectometry components focusing on the antenna and waveguide design and mounting are described in this paper. Additionally, the procedure of plasma profile reconstruction using the system output signal is discussed. This system uses signal phase shift to determine the position of the cutoff layer.

  15. Awake craniotomy induces fewer changes in the plasma amino acid profile than craniotomy under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, Jaap W; Klimek, Markus; van der Heide-Mulder, Marieke; Stronks, Dirk; Vincent, Arnoud J; Klein, Jan; Zijlstra, Freek J; Fekkes, Durk

    2009-04-01

    In this prospective, observational, 2-armed study, we compared the plasma amino acid profiles of patients undergoing awake craniotomy to those undergoing craniotomy under general anesthesia. Both experimental groups were also compared with a healthy, age-matched and sex-matched reference group not undergoing surgery. It is our intention to investigate whether plasma amino acid levels provide information about physical and emotional stress, as well as pain during awake craniotomy versus craniotomy under general anesthesia. Both experimental groups received preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative dexamethasone. The plasma levels of 20 amino acids were determined preoperative, perioperative, and postoperatively in all groups and were correlated with subjective markers for pain, stress, and anxiety. In both craniotomy groups, preoperative levels of tryptophan and valine were significantly decreased whereas glutamate, alanine, and arginine were significantly increased relative to the reference group. Throughout time, tryptophan levels were significantly lower in the general anesthesia group versus the awake craniotomy group. The general anesthesia group had a significantly higher phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio, which may suggest higher oxidative stress, than the awake group throughout time. Between experimental groups, a significant increase in large neutral amino acids was found postoperatively in awake craniotomy patients, pain was also less and recovery was faster. A significant difference in mean hospitalization time was also found, with awake craniotomy patients leaving after 4.53+/-2.12 days and general anesthesia patients after 6.17+/-1.62 days; P=0.012. This study demonstrates that awake craniotomy is likely to be physically and emotionally less stressful than general anesthesia and that amino acid profiling holds promise for monitoring postoperative pain and recovery.

  16. Calculation of the non-inductive current profile in high-performance NSTX plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, S. P.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Kugel, H.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Yuh, H.

    2011-03-01

    The constituents of the current profile have been computed for a wide range of high-performance plasmas in NSTX (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557); these include cases designed to maximize the non-inductive fraction, pulse length, toroidal-β or stored energy. In the absence of low-frequency MHD activity, good agreement is found between the reconstructed current profile and that predicted by summing the independently calculated inductive, pressure-driven and neutral beam currents, without the need to invoke any anomalous beam ion diffusion. Exceptions occur, for instance, when there are toroidal Alfvén eigenmode avalanches or coupled m/n = 1/1 + 2/1 kink-tearing modes. In these cases, the addition of a spatially and temporally dependent fast-ion diffusivity can reduce the core beam current drive, restoring agreement between the reconstructed profile and the summed constituents, as well as bringing better agreement between the simulated and measured neutron emission rate. An upper bound on the fast-ion diffusivity of ~0.5-1 m2 s-1 is found in 'MHD-free' discharges, based on the neutron emission, the time rate of change in the neutron signal when a neutral beam is stepped and reconstructed on-axis current density.

  17. Calculation of the Non-Inductive Current Profile in High-Performance NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, S.P.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Le Blanc, B.P.; Kugel, H.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Yuh, H.

    2011-01-01

    The constituents of the current profile have been computed for a wide range of high-performance plasmas in NSTX [M. Ono, et al., Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]; these include cases designed to maximize the non-inductive fraction, pulse length, toroidal-β, or stored energy. In the absence of low-frequency MHD activity, good agreement is found between the reconstructed current profile and that predicted by summing the independently calculated inductive, pressure-driven, and neutral beam currents, without the need to invoke any anomalous beam ion diffusion. Exceptions occur, for instance, when there are toroidal Alfven eigenmode avalanches or coupled m/n=1/1+2/1 kink-tearing modes. In these cases, the addition of a spatially and temporally dependent fast ion diffusivity can reduce the core beam current drive, restoring agreement between the reconstructed profile and the summed constituents, as well as bringing better agreement between the simulated and measured neutron emission rate. An upper bound on the fast ion diffusivity of ∼0.5-1 m 2 /sec is found in 'MHD-free' discharges, based on the neutron emission, time rate of change of the neutron signal when a neutral beam is stepped, and reconstructed on-axis current density.

  18. Plasma profile evolution during disruption mitigation via massive gas injection on MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A. J.; Gibson, K. J.; Chapman, I. T.; Harrison, J. R.; Kirk, A.; Lisgo, S. W.; Lehnen, M.; Martin, R.; Scannell, R.; Cullen, A.; the MAST Team

    2012-06-01

    Massive gas injection (MGI) is one means of ameliorating disruptions in future devices such as ITER, where the stored energy in the plasma is an order of magnitude larger than in present-day devices. The penetration of the injected impurities during MGI in MAST is diagnosed using a combination of high-speed (20 kHz) visible imaging and high spatial (1 cm) and temporal (0.1 ms) resolution Thomson scattering (TS) measurements of the plasma temperature and density. It is seen that the rational surfaces, in particular q = 2, are the critical surfaces for disruption mitigation. The TS data shows the build-up of density on rational surfaces in the edge cooling period of the mitigation, leading to the collapse of the plasma in a thermal quench. The TS data are confirmed by the visible imaging, which shows filamentary structures present at the start of the thermal quench. The filamentary structures have a topology which matches that of a q = 2 field line in MAST, suggesting that they are located on the q = 2 surface. Linearized magnetohydrodynamic stability analysis using the TS profiles suggests that the large density build-up on the rational surfaces drives modes within the plasma which lead to the thermal quench. The presence of such modes is seen experimentally in the form of magnetic fluctuations on Mirnov coils and the growth of an n = 1 toroidal mode in the period prior to the thermal quench. These results support the observations of other machines that the 2/1 mode is the likely trigger for the thermal quench in a mitigated disruption and suggests that the mitigation process in spherical tokamaks is similar to that in conventional aspect ratio devices.

  19. Plasma profile evolution during disruption mitigation via massive gas injection on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, A.J.; Chapman, I.T.; Harrison, J.R.; Kirk, A.; Martin, R.; Scannell, R.; Cullen, A.; Gibson, K.J.; Lisgo, S.W.; Lehnen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Massive gas injection (MGI) is one means of ameliorating disruptions in future devices such as ITER, where the stored energy in the plasma is an order of magnitude larger than in present-day devices. The penetration of the injected impurities during MGI in MAST is diagnosed using a combination of high-speed (20 kHz) visible imaging and high spatial (1 cm) and temporal (0.1 ms) resolution Thomson scattering (TS) measurements of the plasma temperature and density. It is seen that the rational surfaces, in particular q = 2, are the critical surfaces for disruption mitigation. The TS data shows the build-up of density on rational surfaces in the edge cooling period of the mitigation, leading to the collapse of the plasma in a thermal quench. The TS data are confirmed by the visible imaging, which shows filamentary structures present at the start of the thermal quench. The filamentary structures have a topology which matches that of a q = 2 field line in MAST, suggesting that they are located on the q = 2 surface. Linearized magnetohydrodynamic stability analysis using the TS profiles suggests that the large density build-up on the rational surfaces drives modes within the plasma which lead to the thermal quench. The presence of such modes is seen experimentally in the form of magnetic fluctuations on Mirnov coils and the growth of an n = 1 toroidal mode in the period prior to the thermal quench. These results support the observations of other machines that the 2/1 mode is the likely trigger for the thermal quench in a mitigated disruption and suggests that the mitigation process in spherical tokamaks is similar to that in conventional aspect ratio devices. (paper)

  20. Measurements of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2012-10-01

    ExperimentsfootnotetextJ. Oh, et al, GO5.4, APS DPP (2010).^,footnotetextJ. L. Weaver, et al, GO5.3, APS DPP (2010). using Nike KrF laser observed LPI signatures from CH plasmas at the laser intensities above ˜1x10^15 W/cm^2. Knowing spatial profiles of temperature (Te) and density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (0 Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR)footnotetextR. S. Craxton, et al, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419 (1993). is being deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. The GIR will resolve Te and ne in space taking a 2D snapshot of probe laser (λ= 263 nm, δt = 10 psec) beamlets (50μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera will simultaneously monitor light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay (TDP) instabilities. The experimental study of effects of the plasma profiles on the LPI initiation will be presented.

  1. Heating and transport in TFTR D-T plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Scott, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    The confinement and heating of supershot plasmas are significantly enhanced with tritium beam injection relative to deuterium injection in TFTR. The global energy confinement and local thermal transport are analyzed for deuterium and tritium fueled plasmas to quantify their dependence on the average mass of the hydrogenic ions. The radial profiles of the deuterium and tritium densities are determined from the DT fusion neutron emission profile

  2. Development of concentric equipotential surfaces in bumpy torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, Keiichi; Iguchi, Harukazu; Fujiwara, Masami; Ikegami, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    Radial profiles of the plasma space potential are measured in Nagoya Bumpy Torus (NBT-1) by the use of a heavy ion beam probe. Asymmetric potential profiles owing to toroidal drift are observed in high pressure operation (C-mode). As the pressure is decreased, toroidal plasma is effectively heated (T-mode), poloidal precessional frequency overcomes the electron collision frequency and the equipotential surfaces becomes concentric inside the hot electron ring. (author)

  3. Power system reconfiguration in a radial distribution network for reducing losses and to improve voltage profile using modified plant growth simulation algorithm with Distributed Generation (DG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajaram

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Network reconfiguration which is constrained non linear optimization problem has been solved for loss minimization, load balancing, etc. for last two decades using various heuristic search evolutionary algorithms like binary particle swarm optimization, neuro-fuzzy techniques, etc. The contribution of this paper lies in considering distributed generation which are smaller power sources like solar photovoltaic cells or wind turbines connected in the customer roof top. This new connection in the radial network has made unidirectional current flow to become bidirectional there by increasing the efficiency but sometimes reducing stability of the system. Modified plant growth simulation algorithm has been applied here successfully to minimize real power loss because it does not require barrier factors or cross over rates because the objectives and constraints are dealt separately. The main advantage of this algorithm is continuous guiding search along with changing objective function because power from distributed generation is continuously varying so this can be applied for real time applications with required modifications. This algorithm here is tested for a standard 33 bus radial distribution system for loss minimization and test results here shows that this algorithm is efficient and suitable for real time applications.

  4. Investigating the radial structure of axisymmetric fluctuations in the TCV tokamak with local and global gyrokinetic GENE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, G.; Brunner, S.; Huang, Z.; Coda, S.; Görler, T.; Villard, L.; Bañón Navarro, A.; Dominski, J.; Fontana, M.; Jenko, F.; Porte, L.; Told, D.

    2018-03-01

    Axisymmetric (n = 0) density fluctuations measured in the TCV tokamak are observed to possess a frequency f 0 which is either varying (radially dispersive oscillations) or a constant over a large fraction of the plasma minor radius (radially global oscillations) as reported in a companion paper (Z Huang et al, this issue). Given that f 0 scales with the sound speed and given the poloidal structure of density fluctuations, these oscillations were interpreted as Geodesic Acoustic Modes, even though f 0 is in fact smaller than the local linear GAM frequency {f}{GAM}. In this work we employ the Eulerian gyrokinetic code GENE to simulate TCV relevant conditions and investigate the nature and properties of these oscillations, in particular their relation to the safety factor profile. Local and global simulations are carried out and a good qualitative agreement is observed between experiments and simulations. By varying also the plasma temperature and density profiles, we conclude that a variation of the edge safety factor alone is not sufficient to induce a transition from global to radially inhomogeneous oscillations, as was initially suggested by experimental results. This transition appears instead to be the combined result of variations in the different plasma profiles, collisionality and finite machine size effects. Simulations also show that radially global GAM-like oscillations can be observed in all fluxes and fluctuation fields, suggesting that they are the result of a complex nonlinear process involving also finite toroidal mode numbers and not just linear global GAM eigenmodes.

  5. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samir Samman,1 Ben Crossett,2 Miles Somers,1 Kirstine J Bell,1 Nicole T Lai,1,3 David R Sullivan,3 Peter Petocz4 1Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2Discipline of Proteomics and Biotechnology, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Amino acid (AA status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM or chicken (CM, and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014, with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001. Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the

  6. Properties of thermal air plasma with admixing of copper and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S; Veklich, A; Boretskij, V; Cressault, Y; Gleizes, A; Teulet, Ph

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with investigations of air plasma with admixing of copper and carbon. Model plasma source unit with real breaking arc was used for the simulation of real discharges, which can be occurred during sliding of Cu-C composite electrodes on copper wire at electromotive vehicles. The complex technique of plasma property studies is developed. From one hand, the radial profiles of temperature and electron density in plasma of electric arc discharge in air between Cu-C composite and copper electrodes in air flow were measured by optical spectroscopy techniques. From another hand, the radial profiles of electric conductivity of plasma mixture were calculated by solution of energy balance equation. It was assumed that the thermal conductivity of air plasma is not depending on copper or carbon vapor admixtures. The electron density is obtained from electric conductivity profiles by calculation in assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium in plasma. Computed in such way radial profiles of electron density in plasma of electric arc discharge in air between copper electrodes were compared with experimentally measured profiles. It is concluded that developed techniques of plasma diagnostics can be reasonably used in investigations of thermal plasma with copper and carbon vapors

  7. Chromatographic profiles of blood plasma free oligosaccharides in patients with cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Pismenetskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Free oligosaccharides (FOS are unbound structural analogs of glycans of glycoconjugates. There are several sources of them inside the cell: 1 multistep pathways of N-glycosylation, 2 the cell quality control and endoplastic reticulum-associated degradation of mis-glycosylated and/or misfolded glycoproteins, 3 lysosomal degradation of mature glycoconjugates. Some of these FOS are the earliest indicators of potential glycosylation alterations that would be revealed in the course of the cell quality control and the endoplastic reticulum-associated degradation. Ischemia and hypertension cause stress of intracellular organelles leading to disruption of their functions. The main objective of the work was the characterization of free oligosaccharides (FOS in plasma obtained from patients with cardiovascular diseases compared to those from healthy subjects to evaluate the potential of these compounds for diagnostics. Chromatographic profiles of FOS composed of 4–12 monosaccharides were obtained and analyzed for quantitative and qualitative differences between the samples. After plasma deproteinization and FOS purification the oligosaccharides were labelled with anthranilic acid (2-AA, separated into the neutral and charged with QAE Sephadex (Q25-120 chromatography and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Glucose unit values were determined following comparison with a 2-AA-labelled glucose oligomer ladder derived from a partial hydrolysate of dextran as an external standard. The data were collected and processed using Empower software. The charged FOS were digested with the sialidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens. 2-AA – labelled free oligosaccharides from transferrin were used as an external standard for the structure decoding. The profiles obtained were compared with intracellular free oligosaccharides of known structures and with the glycan structures and their descriptions in the databases GlycoBase and EUROCarbDB. These

  8. Reduction of ion thermal diffusivity associated with the transition of the radial electric field in neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the large helical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K; Funaba, H; Kado, S; Narihara, K; Tanaka, K; Takeiri, Y; Nakamura, Y; Ohyabu, N; Yamazaki, K; Yokoyama, M; Murakami, S; Ashikawa, N; deVries, P C; Emoto, M; Goto, M; Idei, H; Ikeda, K; Inagaki, S; Inoue, N; Isobe, M; Itoh, K; Kaneko, O; Kawahata, K; Khlopenkov, K; Komori, A; Kubo, S; Kumazawa, R; Liang, Y; Masuzaki, S; Minami, T; Miyazawa, J; Morisaki, T; Morita, S; Mutoh, T; Muto, S; Nagayama, Y; Nakanishi, H; Nishimura, K; Noda, N; Notake, T; Kobuchi, T; Ohdachi, S; Ohkubo, K; Oka, Y; Osakabe, M; Ozaki, T; Pavlichenko, R O; Peterson, B J; Sagara, A; Saito, K; Sakakibara, S; Sakamoto, R; Sanuki, H; Sasao, H; Sasao, M; Sato, K; Sato, M; Seki, T; Shimozuma, T; Shoji, M; Suzuki, H; Sudo, S; Tamura, N; Toi, K; Tokuzawa, T; Torii, Y; Tsumori, K; Yamamoto, T; Yamada, H; Yamada, I; Yamaguchi, S; Yamamoto, S; Yoshimura, Y; Watanabe, K Y; Watari, T; Hamada, Y; Motojima, O; Fujiwara, M

    2001-06-04

    Recent large helical device experiments revealed that the transition from ion root to electron root occurred for the first time in neutral-beam-heated discharges, where no nonthermal electrons exist. The measured values of the radial electric field were found to be in qualitative agreement with those estimated by neoclassical theory. A clear reduction of ion thermal diffusivity was observed after the mode transition from ion root to electron root as predicted by neoclassical theory when the neoclassical ion loss is more dominant than the anomalous ion loss.

  9. Effect of magnetic boundary on edge plasma profiles studied using probe measurements in EXTRAP T2R

    OpenAIRE

    Moustaphawi, Hawra

    2012-01-01

    In this Master’s thesis project, several experiments are conducted under three different conditions in order to study their effect on the edge plasma profiles. In the first case, the standard case, there is no external interference and the plasma is studied under normal lab environments. In the second case, the plasma position inside the EXTRAP T2R device is changed by a few millimeters and in the third case a magnetic boundary is inserted into the experiment. For each set of the experiment, ...

  10. Numerical model for radial transport in the ELMO Bumpy Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, E.F.; Hedrick, C.L.

    1977-11-01

    Neutral and charged particle densities and temperatures are calculated as functions of radius for the toroidal plasma in the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) experiment. Energy dependent ionization and charge-exchange rates, ambipolar diffusion, and self-consistent radial electric field profiles are included. Variation in magnetic field due to finite plasma pressure, effects of energetic electron rings, and transport due to drift waves and magnetic field errors are neglected. Diffusion is assumed to be neoclassical with enhanced losses at low collisionalities. The model reproduces many of the observed features of EBT operation in the quiescent toroidal (T) mode. The self-consistently calculated electric field is everywhere positive (not as in experiments) unless enhanced electron collisionality is included. Solutions for advanced EBT's are obtained and confinement parameters predicted

  11. Plasma metabolic profiling analysis of toxicity induced by brodifacoum using metabonomics coupled with multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Qiao, Zheng; Shen, Baohua; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-10-01

    Brodifacoum is one of the most widely used rodenticides for rodent control and eradication; however, human and animal poisoning due to primary and secondary exposure has been reported since its development. Although numerous studies have described brodifacoum induced toxicity, the precise mechanism still needs to be explored. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with an ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to characterize the metabolic profile of brodifacoum induced toxicity and discover potential biomarkers in rat plasma. The toxicity of brodifacoum was dose-dependent, and the high-dose group obviously manifested toxicity with subcutaneous hemorrhage. The blood brodifacoum concentration showed a positive relation to the ingestion dose in toxicological analysis. Significant changes of twenty-four metabolites were identified and considered as potential toxicity biomarkers, primarily involving glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism associated with anticoagulant activity, nephrotoxicity and hepatic damage. MS-based metabonomics analysis in plasma samples is helpful to search for potential poisoning biomarkers and to understand the underlying mechanisms of brodifacoum induced toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Effects of Age, Sexual Development and Neutering in Plasma of Young Male Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, David; Gilham, Matthew S; Colyer, Alison; Jönsson, Thomas J; Swanson, Kelly S; Morris, Penelope J

    2016-01-01

    Neutering is a significant risk factor for obesity in cats. The mechanisms that promote neuter-associated weight gain are not well understood but following neutering, acute changes in energy expenditure and energy consumption have been observed. Metabolic profiling (GC-MS and UHPLC-MS-MS) was used in a longitudinal study to identify changes associated with age, sexual development and neutering in male cats fed a nutritionally-complete dry diet to maintain an ideal body condition score. At eight time points, between 19 and 52 weeks of age, fasted blood samples were taken from kittens neutered at either 19 weeks of age (Early Neuter (EN), n = 8) or at 31 weeks of age (Conventional Neuter (CN), n = 7). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare plasma metabolites (n = 370) from EN and CN cats. Age was the primary driver of variance in the plasma metabolome, including a developmental change independent of neuter group between 19 and 21 weeks in lysolipids and fatty acid amides. Changes associated with sexual development and its subsequent loss were also observed, with differences at some time points observed between EN and CN cats for 45 metabolites (FDR pcats was the most significantly altered pathway, increasing during sexual development and decreasing acutely following neutering. Felinine is a testosterone-regulated, felid-specific glutathione derivative secreted in urine. Alterations in tryptophan, histidine and tocopherol metabolism observed in peripubertal cats may be to support physiological functions of glutathione following diversion of S-amino acids for urinary felinine secretion.

  13. Effects of plasma shape and profiles on edge stability in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lao, L.L.; Chan, V.S.; Chen, L.

    1998-12-01

    The results of recent experimental and theoretical studies concerning the effects of plasma shape and current and pressure profiles on edge instabilities in DIII-D are presented. Magnetic oscillations with toroidal mode number n ∼ 2--9 and a fast growth time γ -1 = 20--150 micros are often observed prior to the first giant type 1 ELM in discharges with moderate squareness. High n ideal ballooning second stability access encourages edge instabilities by facilitating the buildup of the edge pressure gradient and bootstrap current density which destabilize the intermediate to low n modes. Analysis suggests that discharges with large edge pressure gradient and bootstrap current density are more unstable to n > 1 modes. Calculations and experimental results show that ELM amplitude and frequency can be varied by controlling access to the second ballooning stability regime at the edge through variation of the squareness of the discharge shape. A new method is proposed to control edge instabilities by reducing access to the second ballooning stability regime at the edge using high order local perturbation of the plasma shape in the outboard bad curvature region

  14. Paper-Based MicroRNA Expression Profiling from Plasma and Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sai Mun; Tan, Karen Mei-Ling; Chua, Hui Wen; Huang, Mo-Chao; Cheong, Wai Chye; Li, Mo-Huang; Tucker, Steven; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) holds great promise for monitoring metastatic progression and characterizing metastatic disease. However, leukocyte and red blood cell contamination of routinely isolated CTCs makes CTC-specific molecular characterization extremely challenging. Here we report the use of a paper-based medium for efficient extraction of microRNAs (miRNAs) from limited amounts of biological samples such as rare CTCs harvested from cancer patient blood. Specifically, we devised a workflow involving the use of Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) ® Elute Card with a digital PCR-inspired "partitioning" method to extract and purify miRNAs from plasma and CTCs. We demonstrated the sensitivity of this method to detect miRNA expression from as few as 3 cancer cells spiked into human blood. Using this method, background miRNA expression was excluded from contaminating blood cells, and CTC-specific miRNA expression profiles were derived from breast and colorectal cancer patients. Plasma separated out during purification of CTCs could likewise be processed using the same paper-based method for miRNA detection, thereby maximizing the amount of patient-specific information that can be derived from a single blood draw. Overall, this paper-based extraction method enables an efficient, cost-effective workflow for maximized recovery of small RNAs from limited biological samples for downstream molecular analyses. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  15. Effects of plasma shape and profiles on edge stability in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lao, L.L.; Ferron, J.R.; Miller, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The results of recent experimental and theoretical studies concerning the effects of plasma shape and current and pressure profiles on edge instabilities in DIII-D are presented. Magnetic oscillations with toroidal mode number n∼2-9 and a fast growth time γ -1 =20-150μs are often observed prior to the first giant type I ELM in discharges with moderate squareness. High n ideal ballooning second stability access encourages edge instabilities by facilitating the buildup of the edge pressure gradient and bootstrap current density which destabilize the intermediate to low n modes. Analysis suggests that discharges with large edge pressure gradient and bootstrap current density are more unstable to n>1 modes. Calculations and experimental results show that ELM amplitude and frequency can be varied by controlling access to the second ballooning stability regime at the edge through variation of the squareness of the discharge shape. A new method is proposed to control edge instabilities by reducing access to the second ballooning stability regime at the edge using high order local perturbation of the plasma shape in the outboard bad curvature region. (author)

  16. Coordinated multitissue transcriptional and plasma metabonomic profiles following acute caloric restriction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Colin; Kerrison, Nicola D; Cooray, Anisha; Piper, Matthew D W; Lingard, Steven J; Barton, Richard H; Schuster, Eugene F; Blanc, Eric; Gems, David; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Thornton, Janet M; Partridge, Linda; Withers, Dominic J

    2006-11-27

    Caloric restriction (CR) increases healthy life span in a range of organisms. The underlying mechanisms are not understood but appear to include changes in gene expression, protein function, and metabolism. Recent studies demonstrate that acute CR alters mortality rates within days in flies. Multitissue transcriptional changes and concomitant metabolic responses to acute CR have not been described. We generated whole genome RNA transcript profiles in liver, skeletal muscle, colon, and hypothalamus and simultaneously measured plasma metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance in mice subjected to acute CR. Liver and muscle showed increased gene expressions associated with fatty acid metabolism and a reduction in those involved in hepatic lipid biosynthesis. Glucogenic amino acids increased in plasma, and gene expression for hepatic gluconeogenesis was enhanced. Increased expression of genes for hormone-mediated signaling and decreased expression of genes involved in protein binding and development occurred in hypothalamus. Cell proliferation genes were decreased and cellular transport genes increased in colon. Acute CR captured many, but not all, hepatic transcriptional changes of long-term CR. Our findings demonstrate a clear transcriptional response across multiple tissues during acute CR, with congruent plasma metabolite changes. Liver and muscle switched gene expression away from energetically expensive biosynthetic processes toward energy conservation and utilization processes, including fatty acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Both muscle and colon switched gene expression away from cellular proliferation. Mice undergoing acute CR rapidly adopt many transcriptional and metabolic changes of long-term CR, suggesting that the beneficial effects of CR may require only a short-term reduction in caloric intake.

  17. Proteome profiling of exosomes derived from plasma of heifers with divergent genetic merit for fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yong Qin; Peiris, Hassendrini N; Vaswani, Kanchan; Almughlliq, Fatema B; Meier, Susanne; Burke, Chris R; Roche, John R; Reed, Charlotte B; Arachchige, Buddhika J; Reed, Sarah; Mitchell, Murray D

    2018-04-25

    The current study evaluated exosomes isolated from plasma of heifers bred to have high or low fertility through developing extreme diversity in fertility breeding values, however, key animal traits (e.g., body weight, milk production, and percentage of North American genetics) remained similar between the 2 groups. The exosomes were isolated by a combined ultracentrifugation and size exclusion chromatography approach and characterized by their size distribution (nanoparticle tracking analysis), morphology (transmission electron microscopy), and presence of exosomal markers (immunoblotting). In addition, a targeted mass spectrometry approach was used to confirm the presence of 2 exosomal markers, tumor susceptibility gene 101 and flotillin 1. The number of exosomes from plasma of high fertility heifers was greater compared with low fertility heifers. Interestingly, the exosomal proteomic profile, evaluated using mass spectrometry, identified 89 and 116 proteins in the high and low fertility heifers respectively, of which 4 and 31 were unique, respectively. These include proteins associated with specific biological processes and molecular functions of fertility. Most notably, the tetratricopeptide repeat protein 41-related, glycodelin, and kelch-like protein 8 were identified in plasma exosomes unique to the low fertility heifers. These proteins are suggested to play a role in reproduction; however, the role of these proteins in dairy cow reproduction remains to be elucidated. Their identification underscores the potential for proteins within exosomes to provide information on the fertility status and physiological condition of the cow. This may potentially lead to the development of prognostic tools and interventions to improving dairy cow fertility. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sap flow measurements combining sap-flux density radial profiles with punctual sap-flux density measurements in oak trees (Quercus ilex and Quercus pyrenaica) - water-use implications in a water-limited savanna-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. Leonardo; Lubczynski1, Maciek W.

    2010-05-01

    measurements using the HFD-measured radial profiles. The standard TDP daily mean of sap-flux density was 95% higher than the 2cm equivalent of the HFD for Q. ilex and 70% higher for Q. pyrenaica. NTG-corrected TDP daily mean of sap-flux density was 34% higher than HFD for Q. ilex and 47% lower for Q. pyrenaica. Regarding sap flow measurements, the standard TDP sap flow was 81% higher than HFD sap flow for Q. ilex and 297% for Q. pyrenaica. The NTG-corrected TDP sap flow was 24% higher than HFD sap flow for Q. ilex and 23% for Q. pyrenaica. The radial correction, for TDP-NTG-corrected sap-flux density, produced sap-flow measurements in well agreement with HFD, just slightly lower (-3% Q.i. and -4% Q.p.). The TDP-HFD sap flow data acquired in dry season over the savanna type of sparsely distributed oak trees (Q. ilex & Q. pyrenaica) showed that the TDP method must be corrected for NTG and for radial variability of sap flux density in trees with sapwood thicker than 2 cm. If such corrections are not taken into consideration, the amount of accounted water used by the trees is prone to overestimation, especially for Quercus pyrenaica. The obtained results indicate also that the combination of HFD and TDP leads to an efficient and accurate operational sap flow measurement schema that is currently in the optimization stage.

  19. MHD analysis of LHD high beta plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiguchi, K.; Nakajima, N.; Carreras, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear behavior of the interchange mode in the LHD plasma depends on the overlap of the vortices with different helicity. If the vortices are separated in the radial direction, each mode saturates mildly with generating the local flat regions in the pressure profile. In the case of the significant overlap of the vortices, the convection is enhanced and the sudden global reduction of the pressure occurs. Succession of the saturated pressure profile in the increase of beta can suppress the overlap. Self-organization of the pressure profile to suppress the overlap of the vortices can be the stabilizing mechanism in the LHD plasma. (orig.)

  20. Role of radial electric field in LH transition triggered by counter-NBI at low plasma density in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukachinsky, A.S.; Askinazi, L.G.; Chernyshev, F.V. and others; Krupnik, L.I.; Rushkevich, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Threshold power needed to attain H-mode in a tokamak is a critical parameter for designing of future devices and in particular fusion reactor ITER [1]. According to commonly accepted scaling [2] the threshold power P t hr increases with average density n e when the density exceeds some n em in at which P t hr is minimal. An increase in the P t hr towards low density was observed in many experiments [3-6], prevents the transition at lower n e as well. Physics of the threshold power increase at low ne is not well understood. Since the radial electric field E r and E r xB sheared flow play important roles in the LH transition one could expect these quantities effect the low n-bar e transitions. Toroidal rotation and radial electric field generation during counter-NBI have been studied in [7] and recently reconsidered theoretically in [8]. Thus, motivation for the presented study is to analyze effect of counter-NBI on the LH transition at low density

  1. Diagnosis of adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency by metabolomic profiling in plasma reveals a phenotypic spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraka R. Donti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder that presents with a broad-spectrum of neurological and physiological symptoms. The ADSL gene produces an enzyme with binary molecular roles in de novo purine synthesis and purine nucleotide recycling. The biochemical phenotype of ADSL deficiency, accumulation of SAICAr and succinyladenosine (S-Ado in biofluids of affected individuals, serves as the traditional target for diagnosis with targeted quantitative urine purine analysis employed as the predominate method of detection. In this study, we report the diagnosis of ADSL deficiency using an alternative method, untargeted metabolomic profiling, an analytical scheme capable of generating semi-quantitative z-score values for over 1000 unique compounds in a single analysis of a specimen. Using this method to analyze plasma, we diagnosed ADSL deficiency in four patients and confirmed these findings with targeted quantitative biochemical analysis and molecular genetic testing. ADSL deficiency is part of a large a group of neurometabolic disorders, with a wide range of severity and sharing a broad differential diagnosis. This phenotypic similarity among these many inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs has classically stood as a hurdle in their initial diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The findings presented here demonstrate the clinical utility of metabolomic profiling in the diagnosis of ADSL deficiency and highlights the potential of this technology in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with neurologic phenotypes.

  2. Profiling metals in Cordyceps sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Hu, Hankun; Zheng, Baogeng; Arslan, Zikri; Huang, Hung-Chung; Mao, Weidong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-28

    Cordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2.0 ppm. Arsenic level in C. sinensis caterpillar is significantly higher than that in its mycelium and varies from 3.0 to 32 ppm likely due to soil contamination. It's for the first time demonstrated in this work that clustering analysis on the proposed metal profiles consisting of 24 elements is very useful to identify "abnormal" C. sinensis samples, thus adding another dimension to the effective means for authentication and quality assessment of this highly demanded previous natural product.

  3. Plasma metabolomic profiles of breast cancer patients after short-term limonene intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A; Pappan, Kirk; Thompson, Patricia A; Want, Elizabeth J; Siskos, Alexandros P; Keun, Hector C; Wulff, Jacob; Hu, Chengcheng; Lang, Julie E; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is a lipophilic monoterpene found in high levels in citrus peel. Limonene demonstrates anticancer properties in preclinical models with effects on multiple cellular targets at varying potency. While of interest as a cancer chemopreventive, the biologic activity of limonene in humans is poorly understood. We conducted metabolite profiling in 39 paired (pre/postintervention) plasma samples from early-stage breast cancer patients receiving limonene treatment (2 g QD) before surgical resection of their tumor. Metabolite profiling was conducted using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a linear trap quadrupole system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Metabolites were identified by comparison of ion features in samples to a standard reference library. Pathway-based interpretation was conducted using the human metabolome database and the MetaCyc database. Of the 397 named metabolites identified, 72 changed significantly with limonene intervention. Class-based changes included significant decreases in adrenal steroids (P limonene resulted in significant changes in several metabolic pathways. Furthermore, pathway-based changes were related to the change in tissue level cyclin D1 expression. Future controlled clinical trials with limonene are necessary to determine the potential role and mechanisms of limonene in the breast cancer prevention setting. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Potential measurement and radial transport in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Katanuma, I.; Segawa, T.; Ohkawara, H.; Mase, A.; Miyoshi, S.

    1989-01-01

    GAMMA 10 is an effectively axisymmetric tandem mirror with thermal barriers. Potential information is important to investigate the plasma confinement. The barrier and central space potentials are determined by means of two gold neutral beam probes. Two-dimensional potential profiles have been measured in the barrier cell. In GAMMA 10, to assure magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) stability, the nonaxisymmetric minimum-B mirror cells are contained between the central-solenoid and the plug/barrier cells at the ends of the machine. From the point of view of neoclassical resonant-plateau transport in circular equipotential contours, this effective axisymmetrization is successful. The measured potential profiles are slightly elongated during the onset of ω ce ECRH. In this paper we report the beam probe potential measurement, the neoclassical ion radial transport in the noncircular equipotential surface and the thermal barrier potential. (author) 6 refs., 5 figs

  5. Predictive properties of plasma amino acid profile for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kume

    Full Text Available Prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD is an important therapeutic object of diabetes care. This study assessed whether an index based on plasma free amino acid (PFAA profiles could predict the onset of CVD in diabetic patients. The baseline concentrations of 31 PFAAs were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry in 385 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes registered in 2001 for our prospective observational follow-up study. During 10 years of follow-up, 63 patients developed cardiovascular composite endpoints (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, worsening of heart failure and stroke. Using the PFAA profiles and clinical information, an index (CVD-AI consisting of six amino acids to predict the onset of any endpoints was retrospectively constructed. CVD-AI levels were significantly higher in patients who did than did not develop CVD. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of CVD-AI (0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.64-0.79] showed equal or slightly better discriminatory capacity than urinary albumin excretion rate (0.69 [95% CI: 0.62-0.77] on predicting endpoints. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that the high level of CVD-AI was identified as an independent risk factor for CVD (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.86 [95% CI: 1.57-5.19]. This predictive effect of CVD-AI was observed even in patients with normoalbuminuria, as well as those with albuminuria. In conclusion, these results suggest that CVD-AI based on PFAA profiles is useful for identifying diabetic patients at risk for CVD regardless of the degree of albuminuria, or for improving the discriminative capability by combining it with albuminuria.

  6. Predictive Properties of Plasma Amino Acid Profile for Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Shinji; Araki, Shin-ichi; Ono, Nobukazu; Shinhara, Atsuko; Muramatsu, Takahiko; Araki, Hisazumi; Isshiki, Keiji; Nakamura, Kazuki; Miyano, Hiroshi; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakazu; Ugi, Satoshi; Kawai, Hiromichi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Uzu, Takashi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important therapeutic object of diabetes care. This study assessed whether an index based on plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles could predict the onset of CVD in diabetic patients. The baseline concentrations of 31 PFAAs were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry in 385 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes registered in 2001 for our prospective observational follow-up study. During 10 years of follow-up, 63 patients developed cardiovascular composite endpoints (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, worsening of heart failure and stroke). Using the PFAA profiles and clinical information, an index (CVD-AI) consisting of six amino acids to predict the onset of any endpoints was retrospectively constructed. CVD-AI levels were significantly higher in patients who did than did not develop CVD. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of CVD-AI (0.72 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64–0.79]) showed equal or slightly better discriminatory capacity than urinary albumin excretion rate (0.69 [95% CI: 0.62–0.77]) on predicting endpoints. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that the high level of CVD-AI was identified as an independent risk factor for CVD (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.86 [95% CI: 1.57–5.19]). This predictive effect of CVD-AI was observed even in patients with normoalbuminuria, as well as those with albuminuria. In conclusion, these results suggest that CVD-AI based on PFAA profiles is useful for identifying diabetic patients at risk for CVD regardless of the degree of albuminuria, or for improving the discriminative capability by combining it with albuminuria. PMID:24971671

  7. Two approaches to the reactor-relevant high-beta plasmas with profile control in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohdachi, S.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Sakakibara, S.

    2008-10-01

    From detailed optimization of configuration, volume averaged beta ∼ 5% has been achieved in the Large Helical Device(LHD). While the heating efficiency was the main point to be optimized in this approach, to form a more peaked pressure profile is another promising approach towards the high beta regime. A higher electron density profile with a steeper pressure gradient has been formed by pellet injection. From the MHD stability analysis, this peaked pressure profile is stable against the ideal MHD modes. By both approaches, the central plasma β 0 reaches about 10%. (author)

  8. Detection of lung cancer using plasma protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Valeriy E; Arnotskaya, Natalia E; Zaridze, David G

    2010-01-01

    There are no satisfactory plasma biomarkers which are available for the early detection and monitoring of lung cancer, one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. The aim of this study is to explore the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) to plasma proteomic patterns to distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy individuals. The EDTA plasma samples have been pre-fractionated using magnetic bead kits functionalized with weak cation exchange coatings. We compiled MS protein profiles for 90 patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and compared them with profiles from 187 healthy controls. The MALDI-ToF spectra were analyzed statistically using ClinProTools bioinformatics software. Depending on the sample used, up to 441 peaks/spectrum could be detected in a mass range of 1000-20,000 Da; 33 of these proteins had statistically differential expression levels between SCC and control plasma (P 90%) in external validation test. These results suggest that plasma MALDI-ToF MS protein profiling can distinguish patients with SCC and also from healthy individuals with relatively high sensitivity and specificity and that MALDI- ToF MS is a potential tool for the screening of lung cancer.

  9. Effects of sex, age, and fasting conditions on plasma lipidomic profiles of fasted Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Saito

    Full Text Available Circulating lipid molecules reflect biological processes in the body and, thus, are useful tools for preclinical estimation of the efficacy and safety of newly developed drugs. However, background information on profiles of circulating lipid molecules in preclinical animal models is limited. Therefore, we examined the effects of multiple factors such as sex (fasted male vs. female, age (fasted 10 vs. 30 weeks old, and feeding conditions (feeding vs. fasting, 16 vs. 22 hr fasting, 10 AM vs. 4 PM blood collection, on the global profiles of lipid molecules in plasma from Sprague-Dawley rats by using a lipidomic approach. Our assay platform determined 262 lipid molecules (68 phospholipids, 20 sphingolipids, 138 neutral lipids, and 36 polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites in rat plasma. Multivariate discriminant analysis (orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and heat maps of statistically significant lipid molecules revealed that the plasma lipid profiles in rats are predominantly influenced by feeding conditions, followed by sex and age. In addition, the fasting duration (16 vs. 22 hr fasting or the time of blood collection (10 AM vs. 4 PM blood collection has limited or no contribution on the profiles of lipid molecules in rat plasma. Our results provide useful, fundamental information for exploring and validating biomarkers in future preclinical studies and may help to establish regulatory standards for such studies.

  10. Radial electric field in JET advanced tokamak scenarios with toroidal field ripple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crombe, K [Postdoctoral Fellow of the Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO), Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Andrew, Y; De Vries, P C; Giroud, C; Hawkes, N C; Meigs, A; Zastrow, K-D [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Biewer, T M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169, TN (United States); Blanco, E [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Tala, T [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Association EURATOM-Tekes, PO Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Von Hellermann, M [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)], E-mail: Kristel.Crombe@jet.uk

    2009-05-15

    A dedicated campaign has been run on JET to study the effect of toroidal field (TF) ripple on plasma performance. Radial electric field measurements from experiments on a series of plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs) and different levels of ripple amplitude are presented. They have been calculated from charge exchange measurements of impurity ion temperature, density and rotation velocity profiles, using the force balance equation. The ion temperature and the toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities are compared in plasmas with both reversed and optimized magnetic shear profiles. Poloidal rotation velocity (v{sub {theta}}) in the ITB region is measured to be of the order of a few tens of km s{sup -1}, significantly larger than the neoclassical predictions. Increasing levels of the TF ripple are found to decrease the ion temperature gradient in the ITB region, a measure for the quality of the ITB, and the maximum value of v{sub {theta}} is reduced. The poloidal rotation term dominates in the calculations of the total radial electric field (E{sub r}), with the largest gradient in E{sub r} measured in the radial region coinciding with the ITB.

  11. Unifying role of radial electric field shear in the confinement trends of transitionless regimes in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, D.R.; Beer, M.; Batha, S.

    2001-01-01

    Turbulence suppression by radial electric field shear (E r ) is shown to be important in the enhanced confinement of TFTR supershot plasmas. Simulations of supershot ion temperature profiles are performed using an existing parameterization of transport due to toroidal ion temperature gradient modes, extended to include suppression by E r shear. New spectroscopic measurements of E r differ significantly from prior neoclassical estimates. Supershot temperature profiles appear to be consistent with a criterion describing near-complete turbulence suppression by intrinsically generated E r shear. Helium spoiling and xenon puffing experiments are simulated to illustrate the role of E r shear in the confinement changes observed. (author)

  12. Unifying role of radial electric field shear in the confinement trends of transitionless regimes in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, D.R.; Beer, M.; Batha, S.

    1999-01-01

    Turbulence suppression by radial electric field shear (E r ) is shown to be important in the enhanced confinement of TFTR supershot plasmas. Simulations of supershot ion temperature profiles are performed using an existing parameterization of transport due to toroidal ion temperature gradient modes, extended to include suppression by E r shear. New spectroscopic measurements of E r differ significantly from prior neoclassical estimates. Supershot temperature profiles appear to be consistent with a criterion describing near-complete turbulence suppression by intrinsically generated E r shear. Helium spoiling and xenon puffing experiments are simulated to illustrate the role of E r shear in the confinement changes observed. (author)

  13. High-resolution H -band Spectroscopy of Be Stars with SDSS-III/APOGEE. II. Line Profile and Radial Velocity Variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chojnowski, S. Drew; Holtzman, Jon A.; Wisniewski, John P.; Whelan, David G.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Pepper, Joshua; Fernandes, Marcelo Borges; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Majewski, Steven R.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Mennickent, Ronald E.; Tang, Baitian; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Hearty, Fred R.; Zasowski, Gail

    2017-01-01

    We report on the H -band spectral variability of classical Be stars observed over the course of the Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), one of four subsurveys comprising SDSS-III. As described in the first paper of this series, the APOGEE B-type emission-line (ABE) star sample was culled from the large number of blue stars observed as telluric standards during APOGEE observations. In this paper, we explore the multi-epoch ABE sample, consisting of 1100 spectra for 213 stars. These “snapshots” of the circumstellar disk activity have revealed a wealth of temporal variability including, but not limited to, gradual disappearance of the line emission and vice versa over both short and long timescales. Other forms of variability include variation in emission strength, emission peak intensity ratios, and emission peak separations. We also analyze radial velocities (RVs) of the emission lines for a subsample of 162 stars with sufficiently strong features, and we discuss on a case-by-case basis whether the RV variability exhibited by some stars is caused by binary motion versus dynamical processes in the circumstellar disks. Ten systems are identified as convincing candidates for binary Be stars with as of yet undetected companions.

  14. High-resolution H -band Spectroscopy of Be Stars with SDSS-III/APOGEE. II. Line Profile and Radial Velocity Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnowski, S. Drew; Holtzman, Jon A. [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Whelan, David G. [Department of Physics, Austin College, 900 N. Grand Avenue, Sherman, TX 75090 (United States); Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Fernandes, Marcelo Borges [Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, 20921-400, São Cristovão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lin, Chien-Cheng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road Shanghai 200030 (China); Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Stringfellow, Guy S. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0389 (United States); Mennickent, Ronald E.; Tang, Baitian [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Roman-Lopes, Alexandre [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Hearty, Fred R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zasowski, Gail [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We report on the H -band spectral variability of classical Be stars observed over the course of the Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), one of four subsurveys comprising SDSS-III. As described in the first paper of this series, the APOGEE B-type emission-line (ABE) star sample was culled from the large number of blue stars observed as telluric standards during APOGEE observations. In this paper, we explore the multi-epoch ABE sample, consisting of 1100 spectra for 213 stars. These “snapshots” of the circumstellar disk activity have revealed a wealth of temporal variability including, but not limited to, gradual disappearance of the line emission and vice versa over both short and long timescales. Other forms of variability include variation in emission strength, emission peak intensity ratios, and emission peak separations. We also analyze radial velocities (RVs) of the emission lines for a subsample of 162 stars with sufficiently strong features, and we discuss on a case-by-case basis whether the RV variability exhibited by some stars is caused by binary motion versus dynamical processes in the circumstellar disks. Ten systems are identified as convincing candidates for binary Be stars with as of yet undetected companions.

  15. Angular filter refractometry analysis using simulated annealing [An improved method for characterizing plasma density profiles using angular filter refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angland, P.; Haberberger, D.; Ivancic, S. T.; Froula, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Here, a new method of analysis for angular filter refractometry images was developed to characterize laser-produced, long-scale-length plasmas using an annealing algorithm to iterative converge upon a solution. Angular filter refractometry (AFR) is a novel technique used to characterize the density pro files of laser-produced, long-scale-length plasmas. A synthetic AFR image is constructed by a user-defined density profile described by eight parameters, and the algorithm systematically alters the parameters until the comparison is optimized. The optimization and statistical uncertainty calculation is based on a minimization of the χ2 test statistic. The algorithm was successfully applied to experimental data of plasma expanding from a flat, laser-irradiated target, resulting in average uncertainty in the density profile of 5-10% in the region of interest.

  16. Radial MR images of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewes, R.C.; Miller, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    To profile optimally each portion of the meniscus, the authors use the multiangle, multisection feature of a General Electric SIGNA 1.5-T imager to produce radial images centered on each meniscus. A total of 12-15 sections are imaged at 10 0 -15 0 intervals of each meniscus, yielding perpendicular images of the entire meniscus, comparable with the arthrographic tangential views. The authors review their technique and demonstrate correlation cases between the radial gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state sequences, sagittal and coronal MR images, and arthrograms. Radial images should be a routine part of knee MR imaging

  17. The experimental investigation on the properties of the plasma heated by waves in the mirror machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuyun, Duan; Shiqing, Cheng; Xuemeng, Chen; Qing, Pan; Zhigang, Yang [Southwest Inst. of Physics, Leshan, SC (China)

    1995-06-01

    The application of ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating) in the MM-2U simple mirror plasma which is created and heated by ECRH (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating) can result in the increase of plasma temperature and density. The confinement performance of plasma also can be improved. The ion and electron temperatures and the plasma density are measured in detail by using the ISP (Ion Sensitive Probe). The plasma floating potential profile are measured in both the radial and the axial direction. The experimental results show that ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Radio Field) can be used for stabilizing ECRH plasma and for improving the confinement performance of plasma.

  18. Analysis of the functional aspects and seminal plasma proteomic profile of sperm from smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniassi, Mariana Pereira; Intasqui, Paula; Camargo, Mariana; Zylbersztejn, Daniel Suslik; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Cardozo, Karina H M; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of smoking on sperm functional quality and seminal plasma proteomic profile. Sperm functional tests were performed in 20 non-smoking men with normal semen quality, according to the World Health Organization (2010) and in 20 smoking patients. These included: evaluation of DNA fragmentation by alkaline Comet assay; analysis of mitochondrial activity using DAB staining; and acrosomal integrity evaluation by PNA binding. The remaining semen was centrifuged and seminal plasma was used for proteomic analysis (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). The quantified proteins were used for Venn diagram construction in Cytoscape 3.2.1 software, using the PINA4MS plug-in. Then, differentially expressed proteins were used for functional enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology categories, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Reactome, using Cytoscape software and the ClueGO 2.2.0 plug-in. Smokers had a higher percentage of sperm DNA damage (Comet classes III and IV; P analysis, 422 proteins were identified and quantified, of which one protein was absent, 27 proteins were under-represented and six proteins were over-represented in smokers. Functional enrichment analysis showed the enrichment of antigen processing and presentation, positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion involved in immune response, protein kinase A signalling and arachidonic acid secretion, complement activation, regulation of the cytokine-mediated signalling pathway and regulation of acute inflammatory response in the study group (smokers). In conclusion, cigarette smoking was associated with an inflammatory state in the accessory glands and in the testis, as shown by enriched proteomic pathways. This state causes an alteration in sperm functional quality, which is characterized by decreased acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity, as well as by increased nuclear DNA fragmentation. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John

  19. Deuterium Depth Profile in Neutron-Irradiated Tungsten Exposed to Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Masashi; Cao, G.; Hatano, Y.; Oda, T.; Oya, Y.; Hara, M.; Calderoni, P.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of radiation damage has been mainly simulated using high-energy ion bombardment. The ions, however, are limited in range to only a few microns into the surface. Hence, some uncertainty remains about the increase of trapping at radiation damage produced by 14 MeV fusion neutrons, which penetrate much farther into the bulk material. With the Japan-US joint research project: Tritium, Irradiations, and Thermofluids for America and Nippon (TITAN), the tungsten samples (99.99 % pure from A.L.M.T., 6mm in diameter, 0.2mm in thickness) were irradiated to high flux neutrons at 50 C and to 0.025 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Subsequently, the neutron-irradiated tungsten samples were exposed to a high-flux deuterium plasma (ion flux: 1021-1022 m-2s-1, ion fluence: 1025-1026 m-2) in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). First results of deuterium retention in neutron-irradiated tungsten exposed in TPE have been reported previously. This paper presents the latest results in our on-going work of deuterium depth profiling in neutron-irradiated tungsten via nuclear reaction analysis. The experimental data is compared with the result from non neutron-irradiated tungsten, and is analyzed with the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) to elucidate the hydrogen isotope behavior such as retention and depth distribution in neutron-irradiated and non neutron-irradiated tungsten.

  20. Poloidal rotation dynamics, radial electric field, and neoclassical theory in the jet internal-transport-barrier region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombé, K; Andrew, Y; Brix, M; Giroud, C; Hacquin, S; Hawkes, N C; Murari, A; Nave, M F F; Ongena, J; Parail, V; Van Oost, G; Voitsekhovitch, I; Zastrow, K-D

    2005-10-07

    Results from the first measurements of a core plasma poloidal rotation velocity (upsilontheta) across internal transport barriers (ITB) on JET are presented. The spatial and temporal evolution of the ITB can be followed along with the upsilontheta radial profiles, providing a very clear link between the location of the steepest region of the ion temperature gradient and localized spin-up of upsilontheta. The upsilontheta measurements are an order of magnitude higher than the neoclassical predictions for thermal particles in the ITB region, contrary to the close agreement found between the determined and predicted particle and heat transport coefficients [K.-D. Zastrow, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 46, B255 (2004)]. These results have significant implications for the understanding of transport barrier dynamics due to their large impact on the measured radial electric field profile.

  1. The Effect of Renal Denervation on Plasma Adipokine Profile in Patients with Treatment Resistant Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Eikelis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of renal denervation (RDN to lower blood pressure (BP at least partially via the reduction of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. A number of adipocyte-derived factors are implicated in BP control in obesity.Aim: The aim of this study was to examine whether RDN may have salutary effects on the adipokine profile in patients with resistant hypertension (RH.Methods: Fifty seven patients with RH undergoing RDN program have been included in this study (65% males, age 60.8 ± 1.5 years, BMI 32.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2, mean ± SEM. Throughout the study, the patients were on an average of 4.5 ± 2.7 antihypertensive drugs. Automated seated office BP measurements and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, adiponectin and resistin were assessed at baseline and the 3 months after RDN.Results: There was a significant reduction in mean office systolic (168.75 ± 2.57 vs. 155.23 ± 3.17 mmHg, p < 0.001 and diastolic (90.68 ± 2.31 vs. 83.74 ± 2.36 mmHg, p < 0.001 BP 3 months after RDN. Body weight, plasma leptin and resistin levels and heart rate remained unchanged. Fasting insulin concentration significantly increased 3 months after the procedure (20.05 ± 1.46 vs. 29.70 ± 2.51 uU/ml, p = 0.002. There was a significant drop in circulating NEFA at follow up (1.01 ± 0.07 vs. 0.47 ± 0.04 mEq/l, p < 0.001. Adiponectin concentration was significantly higher after RDN (5,654 ± 800 vs. 6,644 ± 967 ng/ml, p = 0.024.Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that RDN is associated with potentially beneficial effects on aspects of the adipokine profile. Increased adiponectin and reduced NEFA production may contribute to BP reduction via an effect on metabolic pathways.Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00483808, NCT00888433.

  2. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyparambil Aravindakshan Pramodkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143-<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05 compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT.

  3. Influence of the Doppler effect on radiative transfer in a spherical plasma under macroscopic motion of substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosarev, N. I.

    2018-03-01

    The non-LTE radiative transfer in spherical plasma containing resonantly absorbing light ions has been studied numerically under conditions of macroscopic motion of substance. Two types of macroscopic motion were simulated: radial expansion and compression (pulsation) of spherical plasma; rotation of plasma relative to an axis of symmetry. The calculations of absorption line profile of transmitted broadband radiation and the emission line profile were performed for the optically dense plasma of calcium ions on the resonance transition with wavelength 397 nm. Numerical results predict frequency shifts in the emission line profile to red wing of the spectrum for radial expansion of the plasma and to blue wing of the spectrum for the plasma compression at an average velocity of ions along the ray of sight equal to zero. The width of the emission line profile of a rotating plasma considerably exceeds the width of the profile of the static plasma, and the shift of the central frequency of resonance transition from the resonance frequency of the static plasma gives a linear velocity of ion motion along a given ray trajectory in units of thermal velocity. Knowledge of the linear radial velocity of ions can be useful for diagnostic purposes in determining the frequency and period of rotation of optically dense plasmas.

  4. Experimental observation of bifurcation nature of radial electric field in CHS heliotron/torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Akihide; Iguchi, Harukazu; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Minami, Takashi; Tanaka, Kenji; Okamura, Shoichi; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Masami

    1999-01-01

    Several interesting phenomena, such as the formation of a particular potential profile with a protuberance around the core and oscillatory stationary states termed electric pulsation, have been discovered using a heavy ion beam probe in the electron cyclotron heated plasmas of the CHS. This paper presents experimental observations which indicate that bifurcation of the radial electric field is responsible for such phenomena; existence of an ECH power threshold to obtain the profile with a protuberance, and its striking sensitivity to density. In particular, Flip-flop behavior of the potential near the power threshold clearly demonstrates bifurcation characteristics. Bifurcation of radial electric field in neoclassical theory is presented, and its qualitative expectation is discussed in the bifurcation phenomena. The neoclassical transition time scale between two bifurcative sates is compared with the experimental observations during the electric pulsation. It is confirmed that the neoclassical transition time is not contradictory with the experimental one. (author)

  5. Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in plasma produced by Nike KrF laser for laser plasma instability research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L. Y.

    2015-08-01

    A grid image refractometer (GIR) has been implemented at the Nike krypton fluoride laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory. This instrument simultaneously measures propagation angles and transmissions of UV probe rays (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) refracted through plasma. We report results of the first Nike-GIR measurement on a CH plasma produced by the Nike laser pulse (˜1 ns FWHM) with the intensity of 1.1 × 1015 W/cm2. The measured angles and transmissions were processed to construct spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) in the underdense coronal region of the plasma. Using an inversion algorithm developed for the strongly refracted rays, the deployed GIR system probed electron densities up to 4 × 1021 cm-3 with the density scale length of 120 μm along the plasma symmetry axis. The resulting ne and Te profiles are verified to be self-consistent with the measured quantities of the refracted probe light.

  6. Generation of sheared poloidal flows by electrostatic and magnetic Reynolds stress in the boundary plasma of HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.; Li, J.

    2005-01-01

    The radial profiles of electrostatic and magnetic Reynolds stress (Maxwell stress) have been measured in the plasma boundary region of HT-7 tokamak. Experimental results show that the radial gradient of electrostatic Reynolds stress (ERS) changes sign across the last closed flux surface, and the neoclassical flow damping and the damping due to charge exchange processes are balanced by the radial gradient of ERS, which sustains the equilibrium sheared flow structure in a steady state. The contribution of magnetic Reynolds stress was found unimportant in a low β plasma. Detailed analyses indicate that the propagation properties of turbulence in radial and poloidal directions and the profiles of potential fluctuation level are responsible for the radial structure of ERS. (author)

  7. Relative bioavailability and plasma paracetamol profiles of Panadol suppositories in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, K P; Nielson, H W; Schroder, M; Covino, A; Matthews, N T; Murray, R S; Van Der Walt, J H

    1998-10-01

    To determine the relative bioavailability and plasma paracetamol concentration profiles following administration of a proprietary formulation of paracetamol suppositories to postoperative children. Study A-eight children undergoing minor surgery had blood samples collected following the rectal administration of either a 250 mg or 500 mg paracetamol suppository on one day and an equivalent oral dose on the following day. A mean dose of 13 mg/kg gave a mean Cmax (Tmax) of 7.7 mg/L (1.6 h) and 4.9 mg/L (2.0 h) following oral and rectal administration, respectively. The mean relative rectal bioavailability was 78% (95% confidence interval of 55-101%). Study B-20 children undergoing tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy were randomly assigned to receive a postoperative dose of 500 mg of paracetamol either as 2 x 250 mg liquid filled or 1 x 500 mg hard wax Panadol suppository. A mean dose of 25 mg/kg produced mean maximum plasma paracetamol concentrations of 13.2 mg/L and 14.5 mg/L at 2.1 and 1.9 h for the hard and liquid filled suppository, respectively. The absorption rate constants and areas under the curves suggested no difference in the rate or extent of absorption between the two formulations. Absorption of paracetamol following rectal administration of Panadol suppositories to postoperative children is slower and reduced as compared to oral therapy. The hard wax and liquid filled products have similar absorption characteristics. The usually quoted antipyretic therapeutic range for paracetamol is 10-20 mg/L, although 5 mg/L may be effective. A single rectal dose of 25 mg/kg will obtain this lower concentration within 1 h of administration and maintain it for up to 6 h. When given in an appropriate dose for analgesia, maximum plasma paracetamol concentrations would be available in the immediate postoperative period if the rectal dose was given 2 h before the planned end of the procedure.

  8. Effect of cortex mori on pharmacokinetic profiles of main isoflavonoids from pueraria lobata in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bingxin; Sun, Zengxian; Sun, Shu Yang; Dong, Jie; Li, Yanli; Gao, Shan; Pang, Jie; Chang, Qi

    2017-09-14

    Radix pueraria (the root of pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi.), which contains a class of isoflavonoids as the main active components, as well as cortex mori (the root bark of Morus alba L), which contains abundant active alkaloids, have been employed for the treatment of diabetes in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. In previous studies, pharmacodynamic synergistic reactions have been observed in compatible application of pueraria lobata isoflavonoids extracts (PLF) and cortex mori alkaloids extracts (CME) for inhibiting α-glycosidase activity. It has also been demonstrated that PLF can effectively slow down the absorption of active alkaloid from CME, so as to produce a higher effective concentration in small intestine for depressing the elevation of postprandial blood glucose through inhibiting α-glycosidase activity. In this study, the hypoglycemic effect of PLF, CME or CME-PLF mixture (the mixture of CME and PLF at a ratio of 1:6.3) was further evaluated through in vivo glucose tolerance studies. And the effect of CME on pharmacokinetic profiles of main isoflavonoids from PLF in rat plasma was investigated to further underlie compatibility mechanism of the two herbs. Four groups of rats received an oral dose of starch solution alone or simultaneously with drugs by gavage feeding. The blood samples were collected to determine glucose concentrations by glucose oxidase method. In addition, another two groups of rats were orally administered with PLF or CME-PLF. The plasma samples were collected and assayed using an LC/MS/MS method for comparatively pharmacokinetic studies of five main isoflavonoids. For starch loading, co-administration of CME-PLF resulted in more potent inhibition effects on glucose responses compared to those by CME or PLF in rat. The isoflavonoids from PLF were rapidly absorbed, presenting similarly low concentrations in plasma. When CME was added, the C max and AUC of all the five isoflavonoids were increased. A phenomenon of double

  9. Plasma Free Amino Acid Profiling of Five Types of Cancer Patients and Its Application for Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Yohei; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Gochi, Akira; Akaike, Makoto; Ishikawa, Takashi; Miura, Takeshi; Saruki, Nobuhiro; Bando, Etsuro; Kimura, Hideki; Imamura, Fumio; Moriyama, Masatoshi; Ikeda, Ichiro; Chiba, Akihiko; Oshita, Fumihiro; Imaizumi, Akira; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Horimoto, Katsuhisa; Tochikubo, Osamu; Mitsushima, Toru; Yamakado, Minoru; Okamoto, Naoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, rapid advances have been made in metabolomics-based, easy-to-use early cancer detection methods using blood samples. Among metabolites, profiling of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) is a promising approach because PFAAs link all organ systems and have important roles in metabolism. Furthermore, PFAA profiles are known to be influenced by specific diseases, including cancers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the PFAA profiles in cancer patients and the possibility of using this information for early detection. Methods and Findings Plasma samples were collected from approximately 200 patients from multiple institutes, each diagnosed with one of the following five types of cancer: lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Patients were compared to gender- and age- matched controls also used in this study. The PFAA levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–electrospray ionization (ESI)–mass spectrometry (MS). Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the PFAA profiles between the controls and the patients with any of the five types of cancer listed above, even those with asymptomatic early-stage disease. Furthermore, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated the cancer patients from the controls in terms of the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC >0.75 for each cancer), regardless of cancer stage. Because this study was designed as case-control study, further investigations, including model construction and validation using cohorts with larger sample sizes, are necessary to determine the usefulness of PFAA profiling. Conclusions These findings suggest that PFAA profiling has great potential for improving cancer screening and diagnosis and understanding disease pathogenesis. PFAA profiles can also be used to determine various disease diagnoses from a single blood sample, which involves a relatively simple

  10. Plasma free amino acid profiling of five types of cancer patients and its application for early detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Miyagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, rapid advances have been made in metabolomics-based, easy-to-use early cancer detection methods using blood samples. Among metabolites, profiling of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs is a promising approach because PFAAs link all organ systems and have important roles in metabolism. Furthermore, PFAA profiles are known to be influenced by specific diseases, including cancers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the PFAA profiles in cancer patients and the possibility of using this information for early detection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Plasma samples were collected from approximately 200 patients from multiple institutes, each diagnosed with one of the following five types of cancer: lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Patients were compared to gender- and age- matched controls also used in this study. The PFAA levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI-mass spectrometry (MS. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the PFAA profiles between the controls and the patients with any of the five types of cancer listed above, even those with asymptomatic early-stage disease. Furthermore, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated the cancer patients from the controls in terms of the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC >0.75 for each cancer, regardless of cancer stage. Because this study was designed as case-control study, further investigations, including model construction and validation using cohorts with larger sample sizes, are necessary to determine the usefulness of PFAA profiling. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PFAA profiling has great potential for improving cancer screening and diagnosis and understanding disease pathogenesis. PFAA profiles can also be used to determine various disease diagnoses from a single blood sample, which involves a

  11. Investigating plasma-rotation methods for the Space-Plasma Physics Campaign at UCLA's BAPSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, S. M.; Koepke, M. E.; Reynolds, E. W.

    2006-10-01

    In D'Angelo et al., JGR 79, 4747 (1974), rigid-body ExB plasma flow was inferred from parabolic floating-potential profiles produced by a spiral ionizing surface. Here, taking a different approach, we report effects on barium-ion azimuthal-flow profiles using either a non-emissive or emissive spiral end-electrode in the WVU Q-machine. Neither electrode produced a radially-parabolic space-potential profile. The emissive spiral, however, generated controllable, radially-parabolic structure in the floating potential, consistent with a second population of electrons having a radially-parabolic parallel-energy profile. Laser-induced-fluorescence measurements of spatially resolved, azimuthal-velocity distribution functions show that, for a given flow profile, the diamagnetic drift of hot (>>0.2eV) ions overwhelms the ExB-drift contribution. Our experiments constitute a first attempt at producing controllable, rigid-body, ExB plasma flow for future experiments on the LArge-Plasma-Device (LAPD), as part of the Space-Plasma Physics Campaign (at UCLA's BAPSF).

  12. Modelling of profile control with LH wave injection in the HL-2A single-null divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Qingdi; Yuan Baoshan; Li Fangzhu; Wang, Aike; Budny, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    In the HL-2A tokamak a single-null divertor configuration has been established. The separatrix of the single-null diverted plasma was identified with a filament model, and the determined striking area on the target plate is in agreement with the measurements of electric probe array. Higher power LH wave (1.5MW) is injected to the diverted plasma with a nearly symmetric spectrum. Dominant electron heating and current profile control are investigated with numerical simulation. Plasma heating by electron Landau interaction results in operation scenarios of preferentially dominant electron heating. Due to the off-axis driven current, an optimized q-profile is formed, and an enhanced confinement regime with steep electron temperature gradient is produced. The clear decrease of the electron thermal conductivity in the LH power deposition region shows that an electron-ITB is developed. When higher LH power injects into the target plasma that is heated by NBI (0.5MW), the ion temperature has a large increment in addition to the high increase of electron temperature. The temperature profiles indicate that an enhanced core confinement is established with both ion-ITB and electron-ITB developed. (author)

  13. The significance and robustness of a plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile-based multiplex function for detecting lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingyoji, Masato; Mitsushima, Toru; Yamakado, Minoru; Kimura, Hideki; Iizasa, Toshihiko; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Imamura, Fumio; Saruki, Nobuhiro; Imaizumi, Akira; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Daimon, Takashi; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported on the changes in plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles in lung cancer patients and the efficacy of a PFAA-based, multivariate discrimination index for the early detection of lung cancer. In this study, we aimed to verify the usefulness and robustness of PFAA profiling for detecting lung cancer using new test samples. Plasma samples were collected from 171 lung cancer patients and 3849 controls without apparent cancer. PFAA levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–electrospray ionization (ESI)–mass spectrometry (MS). High reproducibility was observed for both the change in the PFAA profiles in the lung cancer patients and the discriminating performance for lung cancer patients compared to previously reported results. Furthermore, multivariate discriminating functions obtained in previous studies clearly distinguished the lung cancer patients from the controls based on the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC = 0.731 ~ 0.806), strongly suggesting the robustness of the methodology for clinical use. Moreover, the results suggested that the combinatorial use of this classifier and tumor markers improves the clinical performance of tumor markers. These findings suggest that PFAA profiling, which involves a relatively simple plasma assay and imposes a low physical burden on subjects, has great potential for improving early detection of lung cancer

  14. Influence of the arc plasma parameters on the weld pool profile in TIG welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropchin, A; Frolov, V; Pipa, A V; Kozakov, R; Uhrlandt, D

    2014-01-01

    Magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the arc and fluid simulations of the weld pool can be beneficial in the analysis and further development of arc welding processes and welding machines. However, the appropriate coupling of arc and weld pool simulations needs further improvement. The tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process is investigated by simulations including the weld pool. Experiments with optical diagnostics are used for the validation. A coupled computational model of the arc and the weld pool is developed using the software ANSYS CFX. The weld pool model considers the forces acting on the motion of the melt inside and on the surface of the pool, such as Marangoni, drag, electromagnetic forces and buoyancy. The experimental work includes analysis of cross-sections of the workpieces, highspeed video images and spectroscopic measurements. Experiments and calculations have been performed for various currents, distances between electrode and workpiece and nozzle diameters. The studies show the significant impact of material properties like surface tension dependence on temperature as well as of the arc structure on the weld pool behaviour and finally the weld seam depth. The experimental weld pool profiles and plasma temperatures are in good agreement with computational results

  15. Plasma metabolic profiling analysis of nephrotoxicity induced by acyclovir using metabonomics coupled with multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuxiu; Li, Yubo; Zhou, Huifang; Fan, Simiao; Zhang, Zhenzhu; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yanjun

    2014-08-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral agent. However, its use is limited by adverse side effect, particularly by its nephrotoxicity. Metabonomics technology can provide essential information on the metabolic profiles of biofluids and organs upon drug administration. Therefore, in this study, mass spectrometry-based metabonomics coupled with multivariate data analysis was used to identify the plasma metabolites and metabolic pathways related to nephrotoxicity caused by intraperitoneal injection of low (50mg/kg) and high (100mg/kg) doses of acyclovir. Sixteen biomarkers were identified by metabonomics and nephrotoxicity results revealed the dose-dependent effect of acyclovir on kidney tissues. The present study showed that the top four metabolic pathways interrupted by acyclovir included the metabolisms of arachidonic acid, tryptophan, arginine and proline, and glycerophospholipid. This research proves the established metabonomic approach can provide information on changes in metabolites and metabolic pathways, which can be applied to in-depth research on the mechanism of acyclovir-induced kidney injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of the arc plasma parameters on the weld pool profile in TIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropchin, A.; Frolov, V.; Pipa, A. V.; Kozakov, R.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2014-11-01

    Magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the arc and fluid simulations of the weld pool can be beneficial in the analysis and further development of arc welding processes and welding machines. However, the appropriate coupling of arc and weld pool simulations needs further improvement. The tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process is investigated by simulations including the weld pool. Experiments with optical diagnostics are used for the validation. A coupled computational model of the arc and the weld pool is developed using the software ANSYS CFX. The weld pool model considers the forces acting on the motion of the melt inside and on the surface of the pool, such as Marangoni, drag, electromagnetic forces and buoyancy. The experimental work includes analysis of cross-sections of the workpieces, highspeed video images and spectroscopic measurements. Experiments and calculations have been performed for various currents, distances between electrode and workpiece and nozzle diameters. The studies show the significant impact of material properties like surface tension dependence on temperature as well as of the arc structure on the weld pool behaviour and finally the weld seam depth. The experimental weld pool profiles and plasma temperatures are in good agreement with computational results.

  17. Glutaminemia prognostic significance in critical surgical patients - An analysis of plasma aminogram profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Beatriz Pinto; Martins, Paulo; Verissimo, Carla; Simões, Marta; Tomé, Marisa; Grazina, Manuela; Pimentel, Jorge; Sousa, Francisco Castro

    2017-07-28

    Glutamine depletion is common in the critically-ill patients. Glutaminemia lower than 420 μmol/l has been considered as an independent predictive factor of mortality, but the indications for exogenous glutamine supplementation remain controversial. This study intends to determine the glutaminemia profile in critical surgical patients and to investigate its correlation with the severity indexes and the prognosis. A prospective study of 28 adult critical surgical patients was performed. Plasma amino acid concentrations were quantified, by ion exchange chromatography, at the moment of admission and at the first and third days, and compared with those of 11 reference healthy individuals. Severity indexes and parameters of prognosis were registered. In critical surgical patients, mean glutaminemia at admission was lower than that of control individuals (385.1 ± 123.1 versus515 ± 57.9 μmol/l, p = 0.002) and decreased until the third day (p = 0.042). Prevalence of severe hypoglutaminemia (definition of the indications for glutamine supplementation.

  18. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L Frelinger

    Full Text Available Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma.To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity.PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, endothelial growth factor (EGF and platelet factor 4 (PF4, and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin.PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the presence of platelet

  19. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, Andrew L; Gerrits, Anja J; Garner, Allen L; Torres, Andrew S; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A; Berny-Lang, Michelle A; Carmichael, Sabrina L; Neculaes, V Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF) pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma. To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF) bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity. PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF) and platelet factor 4 (PF4), and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin. PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the presence of platelet

  20. Perfil radial e uniformidade de precipitação do aspersor NaanDanJain 427, em função da regulagem do defletor Radial profile and precipitation uniformity of sprinkler NaanDanJain 427, depending on the setting of the deflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E. S. Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho o objetivo foi avaliar o perfil radial e a uniformidade de distribuição de água do aspersor fabricado pela empresa NaanDanJain, modelo 427 1/2"M e bocal de 2,8 mm de diâmetro interno, operando com pressões de 150, 200, 300 e 400 kPa em cinco posições do defletor de ajuste (0, 20, 50, 80 e 100%. Para a determinação dos parâmetros avaliados utilizou-se o método da malha e, com o auxílio do aplicativo computacional CATCH 3D, calculou-se a sobreposição das lâminas de água com dez espaçamentos. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que o defletor de ajuste influencia o raio de molhamento e o perfil de distribuição enquanto a uniformidade de aplicação de água se mostrou como mecanismo importante, visto que permite comportamento diferenciado para o aspersor, garantindo ampla faixa de utilização do equipamento.The study aimed to evaluate the radial profile and the uniformity of water distribution of sprinkler manufactured by the company NaanDanJain, model 427 1/2"M and nozzle with 2.8 mm of internal diameter, operating at pressures of 150, 200, 300 and 400 kPa and five positions of the deflector (0, 20, 50, 80 and 100%. For the determination of the parameters evaluated, the grid method was used and with the help of computer application CATCH 3D, overlapping layers of water depths was calculated with ten spacing. The results show that the deflector adjustment influences the radius of wetness and the distribution profile while the uniformity of water application showed as an important mechanism, since it permits different behavior for the sprinkler, ensuring wide track of utilization of the equipment.

  1. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, Tibor; Balogh, Levente; Mészáros, István; Steinbach, Ágoston

    2014-01-01

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density

  2. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berecz, Tibor, E-mail: berecz@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Balogh, Levente, E-mail: levente@metal.elte.hu [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/a (Hungary); Mészáros, István, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Steinbach, Ágoston, E-mail: sa984@hszk.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary)

    2014-01-13

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density.

  3. Observation and interpretation of topological structures in impurity ion radiation profiles from the hot plasma of a torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurro, B.; McCarthy, K.J.; Ascasibar, E.; Aragon, F.; Burgos, C.; Lopez, A.; Salas, A.

    1997-01-01

    Significant features have been observed in impurity ion ultraviolet line emission profiles measured on the TJ-I U torsatron using a fast-scanning detector system with good spatial resolution. These features, which consist of flats and humps, provide evidence for the existence of topological structure in the plasma interior. It is postulated that these structures arise as a result of perturbations in the electron temperature and ion density profiles caused by magnetic islands. We develop a model to show how these structures can give rise to such features in ultraviolet radiation profiles and we use theoretical iota profiles to correlate the positions of the more prominent features with rational iota values. (orig.)

  4. Reconstruction of the time-averaged sheath potential profile in an argon RF plasma using the ion energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fivaz, M.; Brunner, S.; Schwarzenbach, W.; Howling, A.A.; Hollenstein, C.

    1994-10-01

    Charge-exchange collisions and radio-frequency excitation combine to give peaks in the ion energy distribution measured at the ground electrode of an argon plasma in a capacitive reactor. These peaks are used as a diagnostic to reconstruct the profile of the time-averaged potential in the sheath. Particle-In-Cell simulations show that the method is accurate. The method is applied to investigate the sheath thickness as a function of excitation frequency at constant plasma power. The time-averaged potential is found to be parabolic in both experimental measurements and numerical simulation. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs

  5. Measurements of plasma rotation in an axially magnetized MPD arc-jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobari, Hiroyuki; Ashino, Masashi; Yoshino, Kyohei; Sagi, Yukiko; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Hattori, Kunihiko; Ando, Akira; Inutake, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2001-01-24

    Characteristics of an axially magnetized MPD (magneto-plasma-dynamic) arcjet plasma are investigated by spectroscopy on the HITOP (High density of Tohoku Plasma) device in Tohoku University. Plasma flow and rotational velocity and temperature of He ion and atom near the muzzle region of MPD arcjet are measured by Doppler shift and broadening of the HeI ({lambda}=578.56 nm) and HeII ({lambda}=468.58 nm) lines. From the measured radial profile of rotational velocity and temperature of He ion, the radial profiles of electrical field and space potential are calculated and it has been found that the potential profile in the core region is parabolic, which shows the plasma rotates as a rigid body. (author)

  6. Experimental study of a swept reflectometer with a single antenna for plasma density profile measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, M.A.G.; Simonet, F.

    1984-12-01

    The feasibility of a swept microwave reflectometer, with one antenna only, for plasma electron density measurement is studied. Experimental results obtained in the laboratory by simulating the plasma with a metallic mirror are presented

  7. A simulation of equatorial plasma bubble signatures on the OI 6300A nightglow meridional profile over Brazilian low latitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Sobral, J.H.A.; Abdu, M.A.

    1981-11-01

    A quantitative interpretation of the meridional propagation of the airglow disturbance for events that have their onsets well westward of the photometer observing longitude, representing the post growth phase of a bubble, is attempted by carrying out a numerical simulation of the phenomenon. Airglow intensity as a function of zenith angle in the photometer scanning range was calculated using electron density profiles perturbed by field aligned plasma bubble whose vertical velocity and electron density depletion profile were determined from a numerical simulation of the nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability under ionospheric conditions that best represented those of the observing period and location. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Note: Interpolation for evaluation of a two-dimensional spatial profile of plasma densities at low gas pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se-Jin; Kim, Young-Chul; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2011-01-01

    An interpolation algorithm for the evaluation of the spatial profile of plasma densities in a cylindrical reactor was developed for low gas pressures. The algorithm is based on a collisionless two-dimensional fluid model. Contrary to the collisional case, i.e., diffusion fluid model, the fitting algorithm depends on the aspect ratio of the cylindrical reactor. The spatial density profile of the collisionless fitting algorithm is presented in two-dimensional images and compared with the results of the diffusion fluid model.

  9. Distinct expression profile of HCMV encoded miRNAs in plasma from oral lichen planus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meng; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xiaoshuang; Zen, Ke; Wang, Wenmei; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zhang, Chunni

    2017-06-07

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. The aetiology and molecular mechanisms of OLP remain unclear. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a causal factor in the development of various diseases, but the clinical relevance of HCMV in OLP has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we firstly examined twenty-three HCMV-encoded microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in plasma from training set that including 21 OLP patients and 18 healthy controls using RT-qPCR technology. Dysregulated miRNAs were subsequently confirmed in another larger cohort refereed as validation set consisting of 40 OLP patients and 33 healthy controls. HCMV DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) was also measured in an additional cohort of 13 OLP patients and 12 control subjects. Furthermore, bioinformatics analyses, luciferase reporter assay and western blotting were also performed to predict and verify the direct potential targets of HCMV-encoded miRNAs. The RT-qPCR results showed that the plasma levels of five HCMV-encoded miRNAs including hcmv-miR-UL112-3p, hcmv-miR-UL22a-5p, hcmv-miR-UL148d, hcmv-miR-UL36-5p and hcmv-miR-UL59 were significantly increased in OLP patients in both training and validation sets. HCMV DNA in PBLs was also significantly higher in OLP patients than in control subjects. Additionally, by using a combination of luciferase reporter assay and western blotting, we demonstrated that cytomegalovirus UL16-binding protein 1, a molecule that mediates the killing of virus-infected cells by natural killer cells, is a direct target of hcmv-miR-UL59. Our results demonstrate a distinct expression pattern of HCMV-encoded miRNAs in OLP patients, which may provide insight into the relationship between HCMV infection and OLP, and warrants additional study in the diagnosis and aetiology of OLP.

  10. Effects of low central fuelling on density and ion temperature profiles in reversed shear plasmas on JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaga, H; Ide, S; Sakamoto, Y; Fujita, T [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)], E-mail: takenaga.hidenobu@jaea.go.jp

    2008-07-15

    Effects of low central fuelling on density and ion temperature profiles have been investigated using negative ion based neutral beam injection and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in reversed shear plasmas on JT-60U. Strong internal transport barrier (ITB) was maintained in density and ion temperature profiles, when central fuelling was decreased by switching positive ion based neutral beam injection to ECH after the strong ITB formation. Similar density and ion temperature ITBs were formed for the low and high central fuelling cases during the plasma current ramp-up phase. Strong correlation between the density gradient and the ion temperature gradient was observed, indicating that particle transport and ion thermal transport are strongly coupled or the density gradient assists the ion temperature ITB formation through suppression of drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient mode. These results support that the density and ion temperature ITBs can be formed under reactor relevant conditions.

  11. Effects of low central fuelling on density and ion temperature profiles in reversed shear plasmas on JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaga, H.; Ide, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Fujita, T.; JT-60 Team

    2008-07-01

    Effects of low central fuelling on density and ion temperature profiles have been investigated using negative ion based neutral beam injection and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in reversed shear plasmas on JT-60U. Strong internal transport barrier (ITB) was maintained in density and ion temperature profiles, when central fuelling was decreased by switching positive ion based neutral beam injection to ECH after the strong ITB formation. Similar density and ion temperature ITBs were formed for the low and high central fuelling cases during the plasma current ramp-up phase. Strong correlation between the density gradient and the ion temperature gradient was observed, indicating that particle transport and ion thermal transport are strongly coupled or the density gradient assists the ion temperature ITB formation through suppression of drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient mode. These results support that the density and ion temperature ITBs can be formed under reactor relevant conditions.

  12. Measurements of Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) and Electron Density/Temperature Profiles in Plasmas Produced by the Nike KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    We will present results of simultaneous measurements of LPI-driven light scattering and density/temperature profiles in CH plasmas produced by the Nike krypton fluoride laser (λ = 248 nm). The primary diagnostics for the LPI measurement are time-resolved spectrometers with absolute intensity calibration in spectral ranges relevant to the optical detection of stimulated Raman scattering or two plasmon decay. The spectrometers are capable of monitoring signal intensity relative to thermal background radiation from plasma providing a useful way to analyze LPI initiation. For further understanding of LPI processes, the recently implemented grid image refractometer (Nike-GIR)a is used to measure the coronal plasma profiles. In this experiment, Nike-GIR is equipped with a 5th harmonic probe laser (λ = 213 nm) in attempt to probe into a high density region over the previous peak density with λ = 263 nm probe light ( 4 ×1021 cm-3). The LPI behaviors will be discussed with the measured data sets. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  13. Associations among the plasma amino acid profile, obesity, and glucose metabolism in Japanese adults with normal glucose tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Takashina, Chisa; Tsujino, Ichizo; Watanabe, Taku; Sakaue, Shinji; Ikeda, Daisuke; Yamada, Asuka; Sato, Takahiro; Ohira, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Yoshinori; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Ito, Yoichi M.; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Background Amino acids (AAs) are emerging as a new class of effective molecules in the etiology of obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, most investigations have focused on subjects with obesity and/or impaired glucose regulation; the possible involvement of AAs in the initial phase of glucose dysregulation remains poorly understood. Furthermore, little attention has been given to possible associations between the pattern/degree of fat deposition and the plasma AA profile. Our objective was...

  14. PLUTON: A Three-Group Model for the Radial Distribution of Plutonium, Burnup, and Power Profiles in Highly Irradiated LWR Fuel Rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemehov, Sergei; Nakamura, Jinichi; Suzuki, Motoe

    2001-01-01

    A three-group model (PLUTON) is described, which predicts the power density distribution, plutonium buildup, and burnup profiles across the fuel pellet radius as a function of in-pile time and parameters characterizing the type of reactor system with respect to fuel temperature and changes of density during the irradiation period. The PLUTON model is a part of two fuel performance codes (ASFAD and FEMAXI-V), which provide all necessary input for this model, mainly local temperatures and fuel matrix density across the radius. Comparisons between measurements and predictions of the PLUTON model are made on fuels with enrichments in the range 2.9 to 8.25% and with burnup between 21 000 and 64 000 MWd/t. It is shown that the PLUTON predictions are in good agreement with measurements as well as with predictions of the well-known TUBRNP model. The proposed model is flexibly applicable for all types of light water reactor (LWR) fuels, including mixed oxide, and for fuel tested in the Organization for Economic Corporation and Development's Halden heavy water reactor. The PLUTON three-group model is based on analytical (theoretical) consideration of neutron absorption in a resonant region of the fuel in its apparent form. It makes the model more flexible in comparison with the semi-empirical TUBRNP one-group model and allows the physically based model analysis of commercial LWR-type fuels at high burnup as well as analysis of experimental fuel rods tested in the Halden heavy water reactor, which is one of the main test reactors in the world. The differences in fuel behavior in the Halden reactor in terms of burnup distribution and plutonium buildup can be more clearly understood with the PLUTON model

  15. Optimization and control of plasma shape and current profile in non-circular cross-section tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.W.; Bernard, L.C.; Chan, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    Tokamaks with elongated, non-circular cross-sections are under consideration as fusion reactors because they have the potential for stable operation at high β. Ideal MHD theory, however, predicts that careful current profile control will be required to achieve the potential high-β advantages of non-circular cross-sections. In this paper, high-β equilibria which are stable to all ideal MHD modes are found by optimizing the plasma shape and current profile for doublets, up-down asymmetric dees, and symmetric dees. The ideal MHD stability of these equilibria for low toroidal mode number n is analysed with a global MHD stability code, GATO. The stability to high-n modes is analysed with a localized ballooning code, BLOON. The attainment of high β is facilitated by an automated optimization search on shape and current parameters. The equilibria are calculated with a free-boundary equilibrium code using coils appropriate for the Doublet III experimental device. The optimal equilibria are characterized by broad current profiles with values of βsub(poloidal) approximately equal to 1. Experimental realization of the shapes and current profiles giving the highest β limits is explored with a 1 1/2-D transport code, which simulates the time evolution of the 2-D MHD equilibrium while calculating consistent current profiles from a 1-D transport model. Transport simulations indicate that nearly optimal shapes may be obtained provided that the currents in the field-shaping coils are appropriately programmed and the plasma current profile is sufficiently broad. Obtaining broad current profiles is possible by current ramping, neutral-beam heating, and electron-cyclotron heating. With combinations of these techniques it is possible to approach the optimum β predicted by the MHD theory. (author)

  16. Electron temperature measurement in Maxwellian non-isothermal beam plasma of an ion thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zun; Tang, Haibin; Kong, Mengdi; Zhang, Zhe; Ren, Junxue

    2015-01-01

    Published electron temperature profiles of the beam plasma from ion thrusters reveal many divergences both in magnitude and radial variation. In order to know exactly the radial distributions of electron temperature and understand the beam plasma characteristics, we applied five different experimental approaches to measure the spatial profiles of electron temperature and compared the agreement and disagreement of the electron temperature profiles obtained from these techniques. Experimental results show that the triple Langmuir probe and adiabatic poly-tropic law methods could provide more accurate space-resolved electron temperature of the beam plasma than other techniques. Radial electron temperature profiles indicate that the electrons in the beam plasma are non-isothermal, which is supported by a radial decrease (∼2 eV) of electron temperature as the plume plasma expands outward. Therefore, the adiabatic “poly-tropic law” is more appropriate than the isothermal “barometric law” to be used in electron temperature calculations. Moreover, the calculation results show that the electron temperature profiles derived from the “poly-tropic law” are in better agreement with the experimental data when the specific heat ratio (γ) lies in the range of 1.2-1.4 instead of 5/3

  17. Effects of dietary methionine on feed utilization, plasma amino acid profiles and gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine

    Aquafeed formulation has evolved dramatically in response to shortages in marine raw materials, driven in part by the sustainable management of the wild stocks and an increased demand for nutrient-dense diets. Aquaculture of carnivorous species such as salmonids relies on extruded feeds...... are presented in Paper I and show that the protein source itself (fish meal or plant based) does not affect the plasma EAA profiles, but rather that plasma EAA levels reflect the dietary level. Supplementation with histidine, lysine and threonine in crystalline form to a plant based diet was, on the other hand...... as an apparent “accumulation” in the plasma, compared to fish fed similar dietary level but in protein bound form. The study further showed that the nitrogen excretion resulting from feeding an AA deficient diet was higher than for the fish meal control diet. Supplementation of the plant meal diet...

  18. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, third (HF3 or all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-insulin resistance were also determined. HF3 fetuses were heaviest concomitant with elevated glycemia and insulin resistance (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had elevated plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6 acid proportions (p < 0.05. In the liver, HF3 fetuses displayed elevated linoleic, eicosatrienoic (20:3 n-6 and arachidonic acid proportions (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had reduced hepatic docosatrienoic acid (22:5 n-3 proportions (p < 0.05. High fat maintenance during the final week of fetal life enhances hepatic omega-6 FA profiles in fetuses concomitant with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance thereby presenting a metabolically compromised phenotype.

  19. Konsumsi Daging Sapi Bali Dan Pengaruhnya Pada Profil Lipoprotein Plasma Tikus (CONSUMPTION OF BEEF BALI CATTLE AND IT’S EFFECTS ON RATS PLASMA LIPOPROTEIN PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suarsana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of beef in Indonesia is continuously increasing. Aside from being a source of protein, beef also contains all essential amino acids, vitamins, fats and cholesterol making it an ideal choice for consumers. This study aims to analyze the consumption of beef bali on rats plasma lipoprotein levels. A total of 15 male rats Spraque Dawlly average body weight of 90-100g was used in this study. They were sub-divided into five  groups: a control group, without treatment (I, fed- beef group was treated from 7th day (II,  fed-beef group was treated from 5th day (III,  fed-beef group was treated from 3th day (IV, and fed-beef group was treated from 1st day (V.  At the end of the experiment, i.e 9th days all groups of rats were euthanasia with cethamine-HCl. Blood was taken through the heart and placed in tubes containing EDTA to obtain plasma. Levels of  cholesterol, triglycerides,  HDL was analyzed by spectrophotometric method using cholesterol KIT (Ref10028, TGA (Ref10720P, and HDL (Ref10018. LDL levels were calculated using the formula: LDL= total cholesterol-(TG/5-HDL. The results showed that  rats  given beef bali cattle for 8 days was lead to increased plasma triglyceride levels significantly (P<0.05, while cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein and LDL (low density lipoprotein plasma levels is not increased.

  20. Mutations in HNF1A Result in Marked Alterations of Plasma Glycan Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanabalasingham, Gaya; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Kattla, Jayesh J.; Novokmet, Mislav; Rudan, Igor; Gloyn, Anna L.; Hayward, Caroline; Adamczyk, Barbara; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Muzinic, Ana; Hassanali, Neelam; Pucic, Maja; Bennett, Amanda J.; Essafi, Abdelkader; Polasek, Ozren; Mughal, Saima A.; Redzic, Irma; Primorac, Dragan; Zgaga, Lina; Kolcic, Ivana; Hansen, Torben; Gasperikova, Daniela; Tjora, Erling; Strachan, Mark W.J.; Nielsen, Trine; Stanik, Juraj; Klimes, Iwar; Pedersen, Oluf B.; Njølstad, Pål R.; Wild, Sarah H.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Gornik, Olga; Wilson, James F.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Campbell, Harry; McCarthy, Mark I.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Owen, Katharine R.; Lauc, Gordan; Wright, Alan F.

    2013-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study identified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α (HNF1A) as a key regulator of fucosylation. We hypothesized that loss-of-function HNF1A mutations causal for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) would display altered fucosylation of N-linked glycans on plasma proteins and that glycan biomarkers could improve the efficiency of a diagnosis of HNF1A-MODY. In a pilot comparison of 33 subjects with HNF1A-MODY and 41 subjects with type 2 diabetes, 15 of 29 glycan measurements differed between the two groups. The DG9-glycan index, which is the ratio of fucosylated to nonfucosylated triantennary glycans, provided optimum discrimination in the pilot study and was examined further among additional subjects with HNF1A-MODY (n = 188), glucokinase (GCK)-MODY (n = 118), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-α (HNF4A)-MODY (n = 40), type 1 diabetes (n = 98), type 2 diabetes (n = 167), and nondiabetic controls (n = 98). The DG9-glycan index was markedly lower in HNF1A-MODY than in controls or other diabetes subtypes, offered good discrimination between HNF1A-MODY and both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (C statistic ≥0.90), and enabled us to detect three previously undetected HNF1A mutations in patients with diabetes. In conclusion, glycan profiles are altered substantially in HNF1A-MODY, and the DG9-glycan index has potential clinical value as a diagnostic biomarker of HNF1A dysfunction. PMID:23274891

  1. Glucose ameliorates the metabolic profile and mitochondrial function of platelet concentrates during storage in autologous plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorini, Angela M.; Tuttobene, Michele; Tomasello, Flora M.; Biazzo, Filomena; Gullotta, Stefano; De Pinto, Vito; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background It is essential that the quality of platelet metabolism and function remains high during storage in order to ensure the clinical effectiveness of a platelet transfusion. New storage conditions and additives are constantly evaluated in order to achieve this. Using glucose as a substrate is controversial because of its potential connection with increased lactate production and decreased pH, both parameters triggering the platelet lesion during storage. Materials and methods In this study, we analysed the morphological status and metabolic profile of platelets stored for various periods in autologous plasma enriched with increasing glucose concentrations (13.75, 27.5 and 55 mM). After 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, high energy phosphates (ATP, GTP, ADP, AMP), oxypurines (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid), lactate, pH, mitochondrial function, cell lysis and morphology, were evaluated. Results The data showed a significant dose-dependent improvement of the different parameters in platelets stored with increasing glucose, compared to what detected in controls. Interestingly, this phenomenon was more marked at the highest level of glucose tested and in the period of time generally used for platelet transfusion (0–6 days). Conclusion These results indicate that the addition of glucose during platelet storage ameliorates, in a dose-dependent manner, the biochemical parameters related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. Since there was no correspondence between glucose addition, lactate increase and pH decrease in our experiments, it is conceivable that platelet derangement during storage is not directly caused by glucose through an increase of anaerobic glycolysis, but rather to a loss of mitochondrial functions caused by reduced substrate availability. PMID:22682337

  2. Hollow density profile and particle transport of ECH plasmas in the low-aspect-ratio heliotron/torsatron CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, H.; Kubo, S.; Idei, H.

    1993-01-01

    Transport enhancement due to helical ripples is the main problem for a low-aspect-ratio helical system to survive as a magnetic fusion device. Optimization of the magnetic configuration has been experimentally studied for neutral beam heated plasmas in the Compact Helical System (CHS). A confinement regime compatible with the LHD scaling has been obtained by shifting the magnetic axis inward with respect to the minor axis of the helical windings. However a power balance analysis suggests that the improvement of plasma parameters has mainly been achieved by the improvement of power deposition. On the other hand, electron density profiles become peaked with the inward shifted magnetic axis in contrast to flattened profiles with the outward shifted one. A question arises: Does the magnetic structure really affect transport processes? In order to answer this question, it is most suitable to examine ECH plasmas in a low collisionality regime. In this paper we report some characteristics of the ECH plasmas in the low-aspect-ratio device CHS and discuss the effect of magnetic field ripples on transport processes. (author) 10 refs., 4 figs

  3. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqin Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05. The levels of TG (p<0.001 and LDL-C (p<0.001 were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01. Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01. Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05, and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05 and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05. The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly and SOD (p<0.001, linearly. Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism.

  4. Magnetic fields and uniformity of radio frequency power deposition in low-frequency inductively coupled plasmas with crossed internal oscillating currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakadze, Erekle; Ostrikov, K.N.; Tsakadze, Z.L.

    2004-01-01

    ) discharge modes using two miniature magnetic probes. It is shown that the radial uniformity and depth of the rf power deposition can be improved as compared with conventional sources of inductively coupled plasmas with external flat spiral ("pancake") antennas. Relatively deeper rf power deposition...... in the plasma source results in more uniform profiles of the optical emission intensity, which indicates on the improvement of the plasma uniformity over large chamber volumes. The results of the numerical modeling of the radial magnetic field profiles are found in a reasonable agreement with the experimental...

  5. Radial nerve dysfunction (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

  6. Influence of Plasma Jet Temperature Profiles in Arc Discharge Methods of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raniszewski, Grzegorz; Wiak, Slawomir; Pietrzak, Lukasz; Szymanski, Lukasz; Kolacinski, Zbigniew

    2017-02-23

    One of the most common methods of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesis is application of an electric-arc plasma. However, the final product in the form of cathode deposit is composed of carbon nanotubes and a variety of carbon impurities. An assay of carbon nanotubes produced in arc discharge systems available on the market shows that commercial cathode deposits contain about 10% CNTs. Given that the quality of the final product depends on carbon-plasma jet parameters, it is possible to increase the yield of the synthesis by plasma jet control. Most of the carbon nanotubes are multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). It was observed that the addition of catalysts significantly changes the plasma composition, effective ionization potential, the arc channel conductance, and in effect temperature of the arc and carbon elements flux. This paper focuses on the influence of metal components on plasma-jet forming containing carbon nanotubes cathode deposit. The plasma jet temperature control system is presented.

  7. Influence of Plasma Jet Temperature Profiles in Arc Discharge Methods of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Raniszewski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common methods of carbon nanotubes (CNTs synthesis is application of an electric-arc plasma. However, the final product in the form of cathode deposit is composed of carbon nanotubes and a variety of carbon impurities. An assay of carbon nanotubes produced in arc discharge systems available on the market shows that commercial cathode deposits contain about 10% CNTs. Given that the quality of the final product depends on carbon–plasma jet parameters, it is possible to increase the yield of the synthesis by plasma jet control. Most of the carbon nanotubes are multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. It was observed that the addition of catalysts significantly changes the plasma composition, effective ionization potential, the arc channel conductance, and in effect temperature of the arc and carbon elements flux. This paper focuses on the influence of metal components on plasma-jet forming containing carbon nanotubes cathode deposit. The plasma jet temperature control system is presented.

  8. Thomson scattering on argon surfatron plasmas at intermediate pressures: Axial profiles of the electron temperature and electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares, J.M.; Iordanova, E.; Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Baede, L.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    The axial profiles of the electron density n e and electron temperature T e of argon surfatron plasmas in the pressure range of 6-20 mbar and microwave power between 32 and 82 W have been determined using Thomson Scattering of laser irradiation at 532 nm. For the electron density and temperature we found values in the ranges 5 x 10 18 e 19 m -3 and 1.1 e e and T e down to 8% and 3%, respectively. It is found that n e decreases in the direction of the wave propagation with a slope that is nearly constant. The slope depends on the pressure but not on the power. Just as predicted by theories we see that increasing the power leads to longer plasma columns. However, the plasmas are shorter than what is predicted by theories based on the assumption that for the plasma-wave interaction electron-atom collisions are of minor importance (the so-called collisionless regime). The plasma vanishes long before the critical value of the electron density is reached. In contrast to what is predicted by the positive column model it is found that T e does not stay constant along the column, but monotonically increases with the distance from the microwave launcher. Increases of more than 50% over 30 cm were found.

  9. Revealing the radial modes in vortex beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Light beams that carry orbital angular momentum are often approximated by modulating an initial beam, usually Gaussian, with an azimuthal phase variation to create a vortex beam. Such vortex beams are well defined azimuthally, but the radial profile...

  10. Transport analysis of oscillatory state for plasma dynamics in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2012-11-01

    In helical plasmas, two kinds of the oscillation for the plasma quantities are experimentally observed. Firstly, the limit cycle phenomena in the temporal evolution of the electrostatic potential, namely the electric pulsation, have been observed in the core region. The temporally self-generated oscillation of the radial electric field is shown as a simulation result in the core region. The dependence of the transition point for the radial electric field on the source is examined. Secondly, the density limit oscillation in the helical device was reported. To realize the oscillation phenomena at the density limit, the temporal evolution of the density profile is newly included in a simulation when the radiative loss is calculated in the edge region. Two stationary plasma states, where the transport loss or radiative loss is dominant in the edge region, are obtained. The dynamics of the plasma quantity is found to show the transition from the transport-dominated state to the radiation-dominated state. (author)

  11. Real-time feedback control of the plasma density profile on ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynek, A.; Reich, M.; Giannone, L.; Treutterer, W.; Behler, K.; Blank, H.; Buhler, A.; Cole, R.; Eixenberger, H.; Fischer, R.; Lohs, A.; Lueddecke, K.; Merkel, R.; Neu, G.; Ryter, F.; Zasche, D.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of density in a fusion experiment is of significant importance as it enters in numerous analyses and contributes to the fusion performance. The reconstruction of the density profile is therefore commonly done in offline data analysis. In this paper, we present an algorithm which allows for density profile reconstruction from the data of the submillimetre interferometer and the magnetic equilibrium in real-time. We compare the obtained results to the profiles yielded by a numerically more complex offline algorithm. Furthermore, we present recent ASDEX Upgrade experiments in which we used the real-time density profile for active feedback control of the shape of the density profile.

  12. Optical plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, B.

    1973-01-01

    The measurement is described of the radial courses of temperature and electron, atom and ion density in the plasma of a water-stabilized arc with currents from 20 A to 60 A. For temperature measurement a method based on the determination of the relative intensity of Balmer lines was used. The electron density was measured by determining the Hsub(β) line profile and the relative density of other particles was measured by determining the intensity ratio of radiation emitted by the respective atoms or ions. (author)

  13. Neoclassical transport, poloidal rotation and radial electric field at the L-H transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, E.; Gervasini, G.; Lazzaro, E.

    1993-01-01

    The transition to a high confinement regime in tokamaks operating with a magnetic divertor configuration is accompanied by the strong steepening of the edge temperature profile and the onset of a large positive poloidal mass rotation associated with a negative radial electric field. The latter phenomena are signatures of a neoclassical transport mechanism. We address the question of establishing whether neoclassical transport is indeed sufficient to establish high edge gradients and drive poloidal rotation under strong auxiliary heating. The heat transport equation is solved numerically in a narrow edge layer interfaced to the plasma body through heat flux continuity, but allowing for heat conductivity discontinuity. The results compared with recent experimental measurements support the assumption that a highly sheared neoclassical poloidal velocity profile can suppress the anomalous part of the heat transport, and that the neoclassical residual transport, characterizes the plasma behaviour at the edge during H modes. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs

  14. Sex specific differences in hepatic and plasma lipid profiles in healthy cats pre and post spaying and neutering: relationship with feline hepatic lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Valtolina, Chiara; Vaandrager, Arie B.; Favier, Robert P.; Tuohetahuntila, Maidina; Kummeling, Anne; Jeusette, Isabelle; Rothuizen, Jan; Robben, Joris H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A link between lipid metabolism and disease has been recognized in cats. Since hepatic lipidosis is a frequent disorder in cats, the aim of the current study was to evaluate liver and plasma lipid dimorphism in healthy cats and the effects of gonadectomy on lipid profiling. From six female and six male cats plasma and liver lipid profiles before and after spaying/neutering were assessed and compared to five cats (three neutered male and two spayed female) diagnosed with hepatic li...

  15. (1)H-Nuclear magnetic resonance-based plasma metabolic profiling of dairy cows with clinical and subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L W; Zhang, H Y; Wu, L; Shu, S; Xia, C; Xu, C; Zheng, J S

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the metabolic profile of plasma samples from cows with clinical and subclinical ketosis. According to clinical signs and 3-hydroxybutyrate plasma levels, 81 multiparous Holstein cows were selected from a dairy farm 7 to 21 d after calving. The cows were divided into 3 groups: cows with clinical ketosis, cows with subclinical ketosis, and healthy control cows. (1)H-Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was used to assess the plasma metabolic profiles of the 3 groups. The data were analyzed by principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. The differences in metabolites among the 3 groups were assessed. The orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis model differentiated the 3 groups of plasma samples. The model predicted clinical ketosis with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%. In the case of subclinical ketosis, the model had a sensitivity of 97.0% and specificity of 95.7%. Twenty-five metabolites, including acetoacetate, acetone, lactate, glucose, choline, glutamic acid, and glutamine, were different among the 3 groups. Among the 25 metabolites, 4 were upregulated, 7 were downregulated, and 14 were both upregulated and downregulated. The results indicated that plasma (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics, coupled with pattern recognition analytical methods, not only has the sensitivity and specificity to distinguish cows with clinical and subclinical ketosis from healthy controls, but also has the potential to be developed into a clinically useful diagnostic tool that could contribute to a further understanding of the disease mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma Protein Turnover Rates in Rats Using Stable Isotope Labeling, Global Proteomics, and Activity-Based Protein Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Tyrrell, Kimberly J.; Hansen, Joshua R.; Thomas, Dennis G.; Murphree, Taylor A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Luders, Teresa; Madden, James M.; Li, Yunying; Wright, Aaron T.; Piehowski, Paul D.

    2017-12-06

    Protein turnover is important for general health on cellular and organism scales providing a strategy to replace old, damaged, or dysfunctional proteins. Protein turnover also informs of biomarker kinetics, as a better understanding of synthesis and degradation of proteins increases the clinical utility of biomarkers. Here, turnover rates of plasma proteins in rats were measured in vivo using a pulse-chase stable isotope labeling experiment. During the pulse, rats (n=5) were fed 13C6-labeled lysine (“heavy”) feed for 23 days to label proteins. During the chase, feed was changed to an unlabeled equivalent feed (“light”), and blood was repeatedly sampled from rats over 10 time points for 28 days. Plasma samples were digested with trypsin, and analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). MaxQuant was used to identify peptides and proteins, and quantify heavy:light lysine ratios. A system of ordinary differential equations was used to calculate protein turnover rates. Using this approach, 273 proteins were identified, and turnover rates were quantified for 157 plasma proteins with half-lives ranging 0.3-103 days. For the ~70 most abundant proteins, variability in turnover rates among rats was low (median coefficient of variation: 0.09). Activity-based protein profiling was applied to pooled plasma samples to enrich serine hydrolases using a fluorophosphonate (FP2) activity-based probe. This enrichment resulted in turnover rates for an additional 17 proteins. This study is the first to measure global plasma protein turnover rates in rats in vivo, measure variability of protein turnover rates in any animal model, and utilize activity-based protein profiling for enhancing measurements of targeted, low-abundant proteins, such as those commonly used as biomarkers. Measured protein turnover rates will be important for understanding of the role of protein turnover in cellular and organism health as well as increasing the utility of protein

  17. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  18. Formation and termination of High ion temperature mode in Heliotron/torsatron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Kondo, K.; Nagasaki, K.

    1997-01-01

    Physics of the formation and termination of High ion temperature mode (high T i mode) are studied by controlling density profiles and radial electric field. High ion temperature mode is observed for neutral beam heated plasmas in Heliotron/torsatron plasmas (Heliotron-E). This high T i mode plasma is characterized by a peaked ion temperature profile and is associated with a peaked electron density profile produced by neutral beam fueling with low wall recycling. This high T i mode is terminated by flattening the electron density caused by either gas puffing or second harmonic ECH (core density 'pump-out'). (author)

  19. Plasma equilibrium profiles with applied resonant fields on TBR-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.M. de; Heller, M.V.A.P.; Caldas, I.L.; Silva, R.P. da; Brasilio, Z.A.; Oda, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this work we present the measurements of the plasma potential, in the edge and in the scrape-off layer regions of plasma, with and without the presence of the magnetic field perturbations produced by resonant helical windings. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  20. Plasma cortisol and metabolite level profiles in two isogenic strains of common carp during confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Huisman, E.A.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A rapid increase in common carp Cyprinus carpio plasma cortisol levels was noted, in two experiments, after 30 mins of a 3 h net confinement, which was sustained while the fish were held in the nets. After release from the nets, cortisol levels returned to control values in 1 h. Plasma glucose and

  1. Neutron Profiles and Fuel Ratio nT /nD Measurements in JET ELMy H-mode Plasmas with Tritium Puff

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonheure, G.; Popovichev, S.; Bertalot, L.; Murari, A.; Conroy, S.; Mlynář, Jan; Voitsekhovitch, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 7 (2006), s. 725-740 ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fusion * JET * plasma profile * tomography * neutron diagnostics * fuel * tritium transport Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.839, year: 2006

  2. Influence of consumption of probiotics on the plasma lipid profile: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z; Liu, X M; Zhang, Q X; Shen, Z; Tian, F W; Zhang, H; Sun, Z H; Zhang, H P; Chen, W

    2011-11-01

    Human clinical studies have yielded mixed results on the effects of consumption of probiotics on the plasma lipid profile. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effects of probiotics consumption on blood lipids. A systematic literature search of Embase, Web of Science, PubMed and Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry was conducted for studies that investigated the efficacy of probiotics on the plasma lipid profile of subjects. With the help of Review Manager 4.2, data from 13 trials, which included 485 participants with high, borderline high and normal cholesterol levels, were examined. The pooled mean net change in total cholesterol for those treated with probiotics compared to controls was -6.40 mg dl(-1) (95% confidence interval (CI), -9.93 to -2.87), mean net change in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was -4.90 mg dl(-1) (95% CI, -7.91 to -1.90), mean net change in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was -0.11 mg dl(-1) (95% CI, -1.90-1.69) and mean net change in triglycerides was -3.95 mg dl(-1) (95% CI, -10.32-2.42). These results indicate that a diet rich in probiotics decreases total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentration in plasma for participants with high, borderline high and normal cholesterol levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Plasma Metabolomic Profiling for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous-Cell Carcinoma Using an UPLC/TOF/MS Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Yin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies indicated that esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC is still one of the most common causes of cancer incidence in the world. Searching for valuable markers including circulating endogenous metabolites associated with the risk of esophageal cancer, is extremely important A comparative metabolomics study was performed by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry to analyze 53 pairs of plasma samples from ESCC patients and healthy controls recruited in Huaian, China. The result identified a metabolomic profiling of plasma including 25 upregulated metabolites and five downregulated metabolites, for early diagnosis of ESCC. With a database-based verification protocol, 11 molecules were identified, and six upregulated molecules of interest in ESCC were found to belong to phospholipids as follows: phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and sphinganine 1-phosphate. Clinical estimation of metabolic biomarkers through hierarchical cluster analysis in plasma samples from 17 ESCC patients and 29 healthy volunteers indicated that the present metabolite profile could distinguish ESCC patients from healthy individuals. The cluster of aberrant expression of these metabolites in ESCC indicates the critical role of phospholipid metabolism in the oncogenesis of ESCC and suggests its potential ability to assess the risk of ESCC development in addition to currently used risk factors.

  4. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-07-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05). The levels of TG (pCAT, pCAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism.

  5. Te and ne profiles on JFT-2M plasma with the highest spatial resolution TV Thomson scattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, T.

    1993-01-01

    A high spatial resolution TV Thomson scattering system was constructed on JFT-2M tokamak. This system is similar to those used at PBX-M and TFTR. These systems are providing complete profiles of Te and ne at a single time during a plasma discharge. The characteristics of JFT-2M TVTS are as follows: 1. Measured points are composed of not only 81 points for the scattered light and plasma light, whose time difference is 2 ms, but also 10 points for plasma light measured at the same time with scattered light. 2. Spatial resolution is 0.86 cm, which is higher than any other Thomson scattering system. 3. Sensitivity of detector composed of image intensifier tubes and CCD is as high as that of photomultiplier tube. Te and ne profiles have been measured over one year on JFT-2M. The line-averaged electron density measured was in the region of 5x10 12 cm -3 - 7x10 13 cm -3 and the measured electron temperature was in the region of 50 eV -1.2 keV. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  6. Metabolomic Profiling of Plasma from Melioidosis Patients Using UHPLC-QTOF MS Reveals Novel Biomarkers for Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K. P. Lau

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To identify potential biomarkers for improving diagnosis of melioidosis, we compared plasma metabolome profiles of melioidosis patients compared to patients with other bacteremia and controls without active infection, using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis (PCA showed that the metabolomic profiles of melioidosis patients are distinguishable from bacteremia patients and controls. Using multivariate and univariate analysis, 12 significant metabolites from four lipid classes, acylcarnitine (n = 6, lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LysoPE (n = 3, sphingomyelins (SM (n = 2 and phosphatidylcholine (PC (n = 1, with significantly higher levels in melioidosis patients than bacteremia patients and controls, were identified. Ten of the 12 metabolites showed area-under-receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC >0.80 when compared both between melioidosis and bacteremia patients, and between melioidosis patients and controls. SM(d18:2/16:0 possessed the largest AUC when compared, both between melioidosis and bacteremia patients (AUC 0.998, sensitivity 100% and specificity 91.7%, and between melioidosis patients and controls (AUC 1.000, sensitivity 96.7% and specificity 100%. Our results indicate that metabolome profiling might serve as a promising approach for diagnosis of melioidosis using patient plasma, with SM(d18:2/16:0 representing a potential biomarker. Since the 12 metabolites were related to various pathways for energy and lipid metabolism, further studies may reveal their possible role in the pathogenesis and host response in melioidosis.

  7. Metabolomic Profiling of Plasma from Melioidosis Patients Using UHPLC-QTOF MS Reveals Novel Biomarkers for Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lo, George C S; Ding, Vanessa S Y; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Ke, Tony Y H; Curreem, Shirly O T; To, Kelvin K W; Ho, Deborah T Y; Sridhar, Siddharth; Wong, Sally C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; Hung, Ivan F N; Sze, Kong-Hung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-02-27

    To identify potential biomarkers for improving diagnosis of melioidosis, we compared plasma metabolome profiles of melioidosis patients compared to patients with other bacteremia and controls without active infection, using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the metabolomic profiles of melioidosis patients are distinguishable from bacteremia patients and controls. Using multivariate and univariate analysis, 12 significant metabolites from four lipid classes, acylcarnitine (n = 6), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LysoPE) (n = 3), sphingomyelins (SM) (n = 2) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (n = 1), with significantly higher levels in melioidosis patients than bacteremia patients and controls, were identified. Ten of the 12 metabolites showed area-under-receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) >0.80 when compared both between melioidosis and bacteremia patients, and between melioidosis patients and controls. SM(d18:2/16:0) possessed the largest AUC when compared, both between melioidosis and bacteremia patients (AUC 0.998, sensitivity 100% and specificity 91.7%), and between melioidosis patients and controls (AUC 1.000, sensitivity 96.7% and specificity 100%). Our results indicate that metabolome profiling might serve as a promising approach for diagnosis of melioidosis using patient plasma, with SM(d18:2/16:0) representing a potential biomarker. Since the 12 metabolites were related to various pathways for energy and lipid metabolism, further studies may reveal their possible role in the pathogenesis and host response in melioidosis.

  8. Self-consistent analysis of radial electric field and fast ion losses in CHS Torsatron/Heliotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.

    1992-09-01

    A self-consistent analysis is developed to determine the radial electric field and loss cone boundary in Torsatron/Heliotron plasmas under the influence of non-classical ion losses such as the loss cone loss ans charge exchange loss of fast ions with neutrals. Analysis is applied to the NBI heated plasmas in the Compact Helical System (CHS) device. Comparison is made between theoretical results and experimental observations. The increased ion particle losses caused by the orbit loss and charge exchange loss with neutrals make the radial electric field more negative than the value of purely neoclassical calculation. The partition of the injection energy among the shine through, direct orbit loss, change exchange loss and bulk heating is evaluated by using the self-consistent electric field profile. On-going experiments in the CHS device are briefly introduced. (author)

  9. Profiling of kidney vascular endothelial cell plasma membrane proteins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zan; Xu, Bo; Nameta, Masaaki; Zhang, Ying; Magdeldin, Sameh; Yoshida, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Keiko; Fujinaka, Hidehiko; Yaoita, Eishin; Tasaki, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Yuki; Saito, Kazuhide; Takahashi, Kota; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2013-06-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (VECs) play crucial roles in physiological and pathologic conditions in tissues and organs. Most of these roles are related to VEC plasma membrane proteins. In the kidney, VECs are closely associated with structures and functions; however, plasma membrane proteins in kidney VECs remain to be fully elucidated. Rat kidneys were perfused with cationic colloidal silica nanoparticles (CCSN) to label the VEC plasma membrane. The CCSN-labeled plasma membrane fraction was collected by gradient ultracentrifugation. The VEC plasma membrane or whole-kidney lysate proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and digested with trypsin in gels for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Enrichment analysis was then performed. The VEC plasma membrane proteins were purified by the CCSN method with high yield (approximately 20 μg from 1 g of rat kidney). By Mascot search, 582 proteins were identified in the VEC plasma membrane fraction, and 1,205 proteins were identified in the kidney lysate. In addition to 16 VEC marker proteins such as integrin beta-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2), 8 novel proteins such as Deltex 3-like protein and phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM) were identified. As expected, many key functions of plasma membranes in general and of endothelial cells in particular (i.e., leukocyte adhesion) were significantly overrepresented in the proteome of CCSN-labeled kidney VEC fraction. The CCSN method is a reliable technique for isolation of VEC plasma membrane from the kidney, and proteomic analysis followed by bioinformatics revealed the characteristics of in vivo VECs in the kidney.

  10. Transitionless Enhanced Confinement and the Role of Radial Electric Field Shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Ernst, D.R.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Budny, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence for the role of radial electric field shear in enhanced confinement regimes attained without sharp bifurcations or transitions is presented. Temperature scans at constant density, created in the reheat phase following deuterium pellet injection into supershot plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [J.D. Strachan, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 (1987) 1004] are simulated using a first-principles transport model. The slow reheat of the ion temperature profile, during which the temperature nearly doubles, is not explained by relatively comprehensive models of transport due to Ion Temperature Gradient Driven Turbulence (ITGDT), which depends primarily on the (unchanging) electron density gradient. An extended model, including the suppression of toroidal ITGDT by self-consistent radial electric field shear, does reproduce the reheat phase

  11. Numerical calculation of axisymmetric non-neutral plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.L.; Rasband, S.N.; Vanfleet, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Efficient techniques for computing axisymmetric non-neutral plasma equilibria are described. These equilibria may be obtained either by requiring global thermal equilibrium, by specifying the midplane radial density profile, or by specifying the radial profile of ∫n dz. Both splines and finite-differences are used, and the accuracy of the two is compared by using a new characterization of the thermal equilibrium density profile which gives a simple formula for estimating the radial and axial gradient scale lengths of thermal equilibria. It is found that for global thermal equilibrium 1% accuracy is achieved with splines if the distance between neighboring splines is about two Debye lengths while finite differences require a grid spacing of about one-half Debye length to achieve the same accuracy

  12. Ti(r) profiles from the JET neutron profile monitor for ohmic discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, B. (ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia); Marcus, F.B.; Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Loughlin, M.J.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking); Adams, J.M.; Watkins, N. (AEA Industrial Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    A study has been made of the neutron emissivity, using the JET neutron profile monitor, obtained for ohmically heated deuterium discharges. Both one-dimensional (1-D) best-fit inversion procedures and 2-D tomography have been used to deduce the radial profile of the neutron emission from the line-integral data. The profiles of ion temperature and ion thermal conductivity are then derived. The scaling of the ion thermal conductivity with plasma current is found to be opposite to that of neoclassical theory. (author) 4 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Profiling of tryptophan-related plasma indoles in patients with carcinoid tumors by automated, on-line, solid-phase extraction and HPLC with fluorescence detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, IP; Meijer, WG; Meiborg, G; Ooms, B; Willemse, PHB; de Vries, EGE

    2001-01-01

    Background: Profiling of the plasma indoles tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with carcinoid tumors. We describe an automated method for the profiling of these indoles in protein-containing

  14. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  15. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  16. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, Rene J. J.; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  17. A Healthy Nordic Diet Alters the Plasma Lipidomic Profile in Adults with Features of Metabolic Syndrome in a Multicenter Randomized Dietary Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankinen, Maria; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Background: A healthy Nordic diet is associated with improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, but the effect on lipidomic profile is not known. Objective: The aim was to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet affects the fasting plasma lipidomic profile in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Me...

  18. Lipidomic profiling reveals distinct differences in plasma lipid composition in healthy, prediabetic, and type 2 diabetic individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huanzi; Fang, Chao; Fan, Yanqun; Lu, Yan; Wen, Bo; Ren, Huahui; Hou, Guixue; Yang, Fangming; Xie, Hailiang; Jie, Zhuye; Peng, Ye; Ye, Zhiqiang; Wu, Jiegen; Zi, Jin; Zhao, Guoqing; Chen, Jiayu; Bao, Xiao; Hu, Yihe; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) has been extensively reported, but the global lipid profiles, especially in the East Asia population, associated with the development of T2D remain to be characterized. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was applied to detect the global lipidome in the fasting plasma of 293 Chinese individuals, including 114 T2D patients, 81 prediabetic subjects, and 98 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed a gradual change in plasma lipid features with T2D patients exhibiting characteristics close to those of prediabetic individuals, whereas they differed significantly from individuals with NGT. We constructed and validated a random forest classifier with 28 lipidomic features that effectively discriminated T2D from NGT or prediabetes. Most of the selected features significantly correlated with diabetic clinical indices. Hydroxybutyrylcarnitine was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Lysophosphatidylcholines such as lysophosphatidylcholine (18:0), lysophosphatidylcholine (18:1), and lysophosphatidylcholine (18:2) were all negatively correlated with HOMA-IR. The altered plasma lipidome in Chinese T2D and prediabetic subjects suggests that lipid features may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2D and that such features may provide a basis for evaluating risk and monitoring disease development. PMID:28505362

  19. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Schild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute physical exercise and repeated exercise stimuli affect whole-body metabolic and immunologic homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine plasma protein profiles of trained (EET, n=19 and untrained (SED, n=17 individuals at rest and in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Participants completed a bicycle exercise test at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their VO2max. Plasma samples were taken before, directly after, and three hours after exercise and analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Seventy-eight plasma variables were included in the final analysis. Twenty-nine variables displayed significant acute exercise effects in both groups. Seven proteins differed between groups, without being affected by acute exercise. Among these A2Macro and IL-5 were higher in EET individuals while leptin showed elevated levels in SED individuals. Fifteen variables revealed group and time differences with elevated levels for IL-3, IL-7, IL-10, and TNFR2 in EET individuals. An interaction effect could be observed for nine variables including IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, and muscle damage markers. The proteins that differ between groups indicate a long-term exercise effect on plasma protein concentrations. These findings might be of importance in the development of exercise-based strategies in the prevention and therapy of chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases and for training monitoring.

  20. Plasma profiles and flows in the high-field side scrape-off layer in Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smick, N. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, NW17-170, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)]. E-mail: nsmick@mit.edu; LaBombard, B. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, NW17-170, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pitcher, C.S. [132 Bowood Ave., Toronto, M4N1Y5 (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    A novel, magnetically-driven swing probe was recently installed near the midplane on the high-field side SOL in Alcator C-Mod. The probe collects plasma from co- and counter-current directions during its respective 0-90 deg and 90-180 deg of motion, thus providing profiles of density, electron temperature and plasma flow parallel to magnetic field lines (Mach number, M{sub parallel}) up to the separatrix. Results are reported from discharges with different magnetic topologies: lower single-null, upper single-null, and double-null. In single-null, a strong parallel flow (vertical bar M{sub parallel} vertical bar {approx} 1) is detected, which is always directed from the low- to high-field SOL. In double-null discharges, e-folding lengths in the high-field SOL are a factor of {approx}4 shorter than the low-field SOL. Thus, plasma appears to 'fill-in' the high-field SOL in single-null plasmas, not by cross-field transport but by parallel flow from the low-field SOL - a picture consistent with a very strong ballooning-like component to the cross-field transport.