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Sample records for plasma propranolol levels

  1. Effects of propranolol and pindolol on plasma ANP levels in humans at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouissou, P; Galen, F X; Richalet, J P; Lartigue, M; Devaux, F; Dubray, C; Atlan, G

    1989-08-01

    In attempt to elucidate whether the beta-adrenoceptor is involved in the control of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion, plasma immunoreactive ANP level was measured at rest, in recumbent and upright positions, and during graded maximal ergocycle exercise in nine healthy male subjects (23 +/- 0.5 years of age) treated for 3 days with nonselective beta-blockers propranolol (150 mg/day) or pindolol (15 mg/day) or with placebo. The effects of beta-blockers, which differ by their hemodynamic actions at rest because of the intrinsic sympathomimetic activity of pindolol, were compared. Maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) during beta-blockade was not significantly different from the placebo value. Resting heart rate was not affected by pindolol treatment but was decreased with propranolol (-10 beats/min). Both beta-blockers caused a reduction in heart rate at all the exercise intensities. Mean blood pressure was not affected by beta-blockade at rest but was significantly reduced during exercise. During placebo treatment, plasma ANP increased in response to exercise intensities greater than 65% of VO2max. At 100% VO2max plasma ANP was nearly doubled (101.5 +/- 14 pg/ml) compared with the basal value in upright position (56.6 +/- 15 pg/ml). beta-Blockade caused a marked elevation in plasma ANP at all the levels of activity. Despite different hemodynamic responses to pindolol and propranolol, both beta-blockers produced similar increases in the basal level of plasma ANP. These rises were maintained in the course of exercise tests, and no significant difference was found between propranolol and pindolol. We conclude that beta-adrenoceptor mechanisms are not directly responsible for tonic and exercise-induced ANP secretion in humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Controlled treatment of primary hypertension with propranolol and spironolactone. A crossover study with special reference to initial plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlberg, B E; Kågedal, B; Tegler, L; Tolagen, K; Bergman, B

    1976-03-31

    Twenty-seven patients with hypertension were randomly allocated to a 10 month crossover study. Treatment consisted of spironolactone (200 mg/day for 2 months), propranolol (320 mg/day for 2 months) and combined administration of both drugs at half the dosage. Between treatment periods placebo was given for 2 months. Fourteen patients were previously untreated. The average pretreatment blood pressure for the entire group was 188/114 +/- 16/7(mean +/- standard deviation) mm Hg supine and 188/118 +/- 20/9 mm Hg standing. Both spironolactone and propranolol reduced blood pressure significantly in both the supine and standing positions. Upright plasma renin activity was determined by radioimmunoassay of angiotensin I. The average initial level was 1.9 +/- 1.2 (range 0.4 to 5.0) ng/ml/hr. There was a close correlation between plasma renin activity and the effects of the drugs: With increasing renin level the response to propranolol was better whereas the opposite was true for spironolactone. The combination of spironolactone and propranolol decreased the blood pressure still further in the supine and standing positions, irrespective of initial plasma renin activity. All patients achieved a normal supine pressure. Blood pressure and plasma renin activity returned toward pretreatment values during placebo administration. It is concluded that pretreatment levels of plasma renin activity can predict the antihypertensive response to propranolol and spironolactone. The combination of the two drugs, which have different modes of action, will effectively reduce blood pressure in hypertension. The results support the concept that the renin-angiotensin-aldo-sterone system may be involved in primary hypertension.

  3. LC-MS/MS Estimation of Propranolol level in Exhaled Breath Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samin Hamidi 1, Maryam Amini 2, Maryam Khoubnasabjafari 3, Vahid Jouyban-Gharamaleki 4,5, Hossein Sate 6, Abolghasem Jouyban 5,7 *

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC could be used as a non-invasive and alternative specimen to urine and blood for monitoring propranolol levels. A simple, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS method is employed for the determination of propranolol in EBC samples. Methods: Samples directly injected to a C18 analytical column and isocratically separated using a mobile phase composed of methanol + acetic acid (99:1 v/v. Detection was performed by positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring and selected ion recording modes. Results: The chromatographic separation was obtained within 6.0 min and was linear over the concentration range of 5.6–224.0 ng/mL (R2 = 0.999. The accuracy and precision of the method were within 15% according to FDA guideline. The found concentrations of propranolol in EBC of two patients receiving 80 mg/day were 30 and 40 ng/mL. Conclusion: Developed method was applied to determine propranolol levels in three patients receiving propranolol in their medication. The obtained propranolol levels in EBC could be used to develop simpler, cheaper and more feasible analytical methods to be used in routine analysis of propranolol in biomedical analytical laboratories.

  4. One and three doses of propranolol a day in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, G; Boer, P; van Asten, P; Dorhout Mees, E J; Geyskes, G G

    1980-01-01

    In 26 patients with essential hypertension who were on continuous chlorthalidone therapy, 1 and 3 daily doses of propranolol were compared in a crossover study. Plasma propranolol levels and heart rates had larger daily fluctuations on single-dose therapy than on 3 times daily; plasma renin activity was more constant. There was no significant difference in blood pressures. Once-daily propranolol dosage was well tolerated and possibly gave less rise to the troublesome side effect of vivid dreaming.

  5. Comparison of propranolol and metoprolol in the management of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchison, L E; How, J; Bewsher, P D

    1979-01-01

    1 Propranolol and metoprolol were both effective in controlling the symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. 2 Propranolol caused a highly significant increase in serum reverse T3 concentrations with lesser changes in other serum thyroid hormone levels, whereas metoprolol did not have this effect. 3 Steady-state plasma propranolol and metoprolol levels showed marked inter-individual variation. Metoprolol concentrations showed relatively little intra-individual variability, and could be related to the clinical efficacy of the drug, whereas no such relationship was demonstrated for propranolol. PMID:391258

  6. Uptake of propranolol, a cardiovascular pharmaceutical, from water into fish plasma and its effects on growth and organ biometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Stewart F.; Huggett, Duane B.; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Hetheridge, Malcolm J.; Kinter, Lewis B.; Ericson, Jon. F.; Sumpter, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals in the environment (PIE) are of importance since these compounds are designed to affect biological receptors/enzymes that are often conserved across vertebrate families. Across-species extrapolation of these therapeutic targets suggests potential for impacting amphibia and fish in the aquatic environment. Due to the scarcity of relevant ecotoxicological data, the long-tem impact of PIE remains a research question. Efficient use of mammalian data has been proposed to better understand and predict the potential for a given pharmaceutical to impact the environment. Using a model cardiovascular pharmaceutical (propranolol, a non-specific β 1 /β 2 -adrenergic antagonist), the hypothesis that mammalian data can be used to predict toxicity in fish was tested. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)) have β-adrenergic signalling mechanisms analogous to human cardiovascular receptors that respond to pharmacological doses of agonists and antagonists. Trout absorbed propranolol from water such that after 40 days of exposure, the linear relationship was [plasma] = 0.59[water] (n = 31, r = 0.96). Growth rate was affected only at very high aqueous concentrations (10-day growth NOEC = 1.0 and growth LOEC = 10 mg/l). Growth recovered with time (40-day growth NOEC = 10 mg/l), suggesting possible adaptation to the pharmaceutical, although the internal plasma concentration in trout exposed to 10 mg propranolol/l of water was higher than the mammalian therapeutic plasma concentration. Additional endpoints suggested subtle changes of liver and heart size at much lower concentrations may have occurred, although these were not concentration-related. There was, however, a dose-dependent effect upon overall body condition. The trout plasma concentrations at these effective aqueous concentrations fell within the range of mammalian effective plasma concentrations, supporting the potential for developing 'read-across' from mammalian pharmacology safety data to fish

  7. Chronic effects assessment and plasma concentrations of the {beta}-blocker propranolol in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giltrow, Emma [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Eccles, Paul D. [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Winter, Matthew J.; McCormack, Paul J. [AstraZeneca Safety, Health and Environment, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham, Devon TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Rand-Weaver, Mariann [Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Hutchinson, Thomas H. [Natural Environmental Research Council, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom); Sumpter, John P., E-mail: john.sumpter@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-27

    The presence of many human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is now a worldwide concern, yet little is known of the chronic effects that these bioactive substances may be having on aquatic organisms. Propranolol, a non-specific beta adrenoreceptor blocker ({beta}-blocker), is used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease in humans. Propranolol has been found in surface waters worldwide at concentrations ranging from 12 to 590 ng/L. To test the potential for ecologically relevant effects in fish in receiving waters, short-term (21 days) adult reproduction studies were conducted, in which fathead minnows were exposed to nominal concentrations of propranolol hydrochloride [CAS number 318-98-9] ranging from 0.001 to 10 mg/L (measured concentrations typically from 78 to 130%). Exposure of fish to 3.4 mg/L (measured) over 3 days caused 100% mortality or severe toxicity requiring euthanasia. The most sensitive endpoints from the studies were a decrease in hatchability (with regard to the number of days to hatch) and a concentration-related increase in female gonadal somatic index (GSI), giving LOEC{sup hatchability} and LOEC{sup female} {sup GSI} values of 0.1 mg/L. Concentration-related decreases in weights of male fish were also observed, with LOEC{sup m}ale wet weight value of 1.0 mg/L, and the LOEC{sup r}eproduction value was 1.0 mg/L. Collectively, these data do not suggest that propranolol was acting as a reproductive toxin. Plasma concentrations of propranolol in male fish exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were 0.34 and 15.00 mg/L, respectively, which constitutes 436 and 1546% of measured water concentrations. These compare with predicted concentrations of 0.07 and 0.84 mg/L, and thus to a degree support the use of partition coefficient models for predicting concentrations in plasma in fish. In addition, propranolol plasma concentrations in fish exposed to water concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were greater than the human

  8. Chronic effects assessment and plasma concentrations of the β-blocker propranolol in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giltrow, Emma; Eccles, Paul D.; Winter, Matthew J.; McCormack, Paul J.; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Sumpter, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of many human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is now a worldwide concern, yet little is known of the chronic effects that these bioactive substances may be having on aquatic organisms. Propranolol, a non-specific beta adrenoreceptor blocker (β-blocker), is used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease in humans. Propranolol has been found in surface waters worldwide at concentrations ranging from 12 to 590 ng/L. To test the potential for ecologically relevant effects in fish in receiving waters, short-term (21 days) adult reproduction studies were conducted, in which fathead minnows were exposed to nominal concentrations of propranolol hydrochloride [CAS number 318-98-9] ranging from 0.001 to 10 mg/L (measured concentrations typically from 78 to 130%). Exposure of fish to 3.4 mg/L (measured) over 3 days caused 100% mortality or severe toxicity requiring euthanasia. The most sensitive endpoints from the studies were a decrease in hatchability (with regard to the number of days to hatch) and a concentration-related increase in female gonadal somatic index (GSI), giving LOEC hatchability and LOEC female GSI values of 0.1 mg/L. Concentration-related decreases in weights of male fish were also observed, with LOEC m ale wet weight value of 1.0 mg/L, and the LOEC r eproduction value was 1.0 mg/L. Collectively, these data do not suggest that propranolol was acting as a reproductive toxin. Plasma concentrations of propranolol in male fish exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were 0.34 and 15.00 mg/L, respectively, which constitutes 436 and 1546% of measured water concentrations. These compare with predicted concentrations of 0.07 and 0.84 mg/L, and thus to a degree support the use of partition coefficient models for predicting concentrations in plasma in fish. In addition, propranolol plasma concentrations in fish exposed to water concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were greater than the human therapeutic plasma concentration

  9. Uptake of propranolol, a cardiovascular pharmaceutical, from water into fish plasma and its effects on growth and organ biometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Stewart F. [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Global Safety Health and Environment, AstraZeneca, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham, Devon, TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Huggett, Duane B. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton Laboratories, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Hetheridge, Malcolm J. [Global Safety Health and Environment, AstraZeneca, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham, Devon, TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Kinter, Lewis B. [AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals US, 1800 Concord Pike, Wilmington, DE 19850 (United States); Ericson, Jon. F. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton Laboratories, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Sumpter, John P., E-mail: john.sumpter@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-26

    Pharmaceuticals in the environment (PIE) are of importance since these compounds are designed to affect biological receptors/enzymes that are often conserved across vertebrate families. Across-species extrapolation of these therapeutic targets suggests potential for impacting amphibia and fish in the aquatic environment. Due to the scarcity of relevant ecotoxicological data, the long-tem impact of PIE remains a research question. Efficient use of mammalian data has been proposed to better understand and predict the potential for a given pharmaceutical to impact the environment. Using a model cardiovascular pharmaceutical (propranolol, a non-specific {beta}{sub 1}/{beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic antagonist), the hypothesis that mammalian data can be used to predict toxicity in fish was tested. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)) have {beta}-adrenergic signalling mechanisms analogous to human cardiovascular receptors that respond to pharmacological doses of agonists and antagonists. Trout absorbed propranolol from water such that after 40 days of exposure, the linear relationship was [plasma] = 0.59[water] (n = 31, r = 0.96). Growth rate was affected only at very high aqueous concentrations (10-day {sup growth}NOEC = 1.0 and {sup growth}LOEC = 10 mg/l). Growth recovered with time (40-day {sup growth}NOEC = 10 mg/l), suggesting possible adaptation to the pharmaceutical, although the internal plasma concentration in trout exposed to 10 mg propranolol/l of water was higher than the mammalian therapeutic plasma concentration. Additional endpoints suggested subtle changes of liver and heart size at much lower concentrations may have occurred, although these were not concentration-related. There was, however, a dose-dependent effect upon overall body condition. The trout plasma concentrations at these effective aqueous concentrations fell within the range of mammalian effective plasma concentrations, supporting the potential for developing 'read-across' from

  10. Effects of propranolol and clonidine on brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, and endothelial glycocalyx disruption after fluid percussion brain injury in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Bentzer, Peter; Hansen, Morten Bagge

    2018-01-01

    clonidine would decrease brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, and glycocalyx disruption at 24 hours after trauma. METHODS: We subjected 53 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to lateral fluid percussion brain injury and randomized infusion with propranolol (n = 16), propranolol + clonidine (n = 16......), vehicle (n = 16), or sham (n = 5) for 24 hours. Primary outcome was brain water content at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes were blood-brain barrier permeability and plasma levels of syndecan-1 (glycocalyx disruption), cell damage (histone-complexed DNA fragments), epinephrine, norepinephrine, and animal.......555). We found no effect of propranolol and propranolol/clonidine on blood-brain barrier permeability and animal motor scores. Unexpectedly, propranolol and propranolol/clonidine caused an increase in epinephrine and syndecan-1 levels. CONCLUSION: This study does not provide any support for unselective...

  11. Cardiopulmonary bypass alters the pharmacokinetics of propranolol in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.C. Carmona

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of propranolol may be altered by hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, resulting in unpredictable postoperative hemodynamic responses to usual doses. The objective of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of propranolol in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG by CPB under moderate hypothermia. We evaluated 11 patients, 4 women and 7 men (mean age 57 ± 8 years, mean weight 75.4 ± 11.9 kg and mean body surface area 1.83 ± 0.19 m², receiving propranolol before surgery (80-240 mg a day and postoperatively (10 mg a day. Plasma propranolol levels were measured before and after CPB by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic Solutions 2.0 software was used to estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters after administration of the drug pre- and postoperatively. There was an increase of biological half-life from 4.5 (95% CI = 3.9-6.9 to 10.6 h (95% CI = 8.2-14.7; P < 0.01 and an increase in volume of distribution from 4.9 (95% CI = 3.2-14.3 to 8.3 l/kg (95% CI = 6.5-32.1; P < 0.05, while total clearance remained unchanged 9.2 (95% CI = 7.7-24.6 vs 10.7 ml min-1 kg-1 (95% CI = 7.7-26.6; NS after surgery. In conclusion, increases in drug distribution could be explained in part by hemodilution during CPB. On the other hand, the increase of biological half-life can be attributed to changes in hepatic metabolism induced by CPB under moderate hypothermia. These alterations in the pharmacokinetics of propranolol after CABG with hypothermic CPB might induce a greater myocardial depression in response to propranolol than would be expected with an equivalent dose during the postoperative period.

  12. Propranolol plasma monitoring in children submitted to surgery of tetralogy of Fallot by a micromethod using high performance liquid chromatography Monitoramento do propranolol plasmático em crianças operadas da tetralogia de Fallot através de micrométodo utilizando a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sanches

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the analytical micromethod using liquid chromatography for the quantification of propranolol in children submitted to surgery of tetralogy of Fallot (TLF. Methods: Only 0.2 mL of plasma is required for the assay. Peaks eluted at 8.4 (Propranolol and 17.5 min (verapamil, internal standard from a C18 column, with a mobile phase 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH 5.0, and acetonitrile (60:40, v/v at flow rate 0.7 mL/min, detected at 290 nm (excitation and 358 nm (emission. Surgery was started 776 min of drug administration (8.7mg, mean; seven blood samples were collected from six patients (4M/2F; 2.1yrs;11.5kg; 0.80m; 18.9kg/m². RESULTS: Confidence limits of the method showed high selectivity and recovery, sensitivity of 0.02ng/mL, good linearity (0.05-1000ng/mL, precision of 8.6% and accuracy of 3.1%. The mean duration of surgery was 283.2min, with the patients remaining under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB for 114min. A declining curve of propranolol plasma concentration was obtained after the last dose in the night that preceded the day of surgery. Plasma concentration also was normalized with hematocrit due to the hemodilution caused by the CPB procedure. On the other hand a decrease on drug plasma concentration was obtained between periods, the beginning of surgery to the postoperative day 2 (7.09 ng/mL and 0.05 ng/mL, pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o micrométodo analítico empregando a cromatografia líquida para quantificação de propranolol em crianças operadas de tetralogia de Fallot (TLF. MÉTODO: Requereu-se apenas volumes de 0,2mL de plasma para a realização do ensaio. Os picos foram eluídos em 8.4 (Propranolol e 17.5 min (verapamil, padrão interno de uma coluna C18, com fase móvel (tampão acetato 0,1 M pH 5,0 e acetonitrila, 60:40, v/v em fluxo de 0,7 mL/min, sendo detectados em 290 nm (excitação e em 358 nm (emissão. A cirurgia iniciou-se 776 min depois da dose administrada (8,7mg, média e sete amostras de sangue foram

  13. Influence of propranolol on uptake of radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid and thallium-201 in the dog heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, E.E. van der; Eenige, M.J. van; Scholtalbers, S.; Visser, F.C.; Roos, J.P.; Westera, G.; Hollander, W. de

    1983-01-01

    In an experimental study, the influence of propranolol on myocardial uptake of radioiodinated heptadecanoic acid ( 131 I-HDA) and thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) in the dog heart was assessed. Uptake of 131 I-HDA and 201 Tl was evaluated in ten control dogs and in ten dogs 20 min after IV administration of propranolol (0.15 mg/kg). In both groups, four healthy dogs were studied and six dogs were studied after coronary artery occlusion. It was shown that both total uptake of 131 I-HDA and 201 Tl did not alter significantly, regardless of significant changes in hemodynamic parameters and total arterial plasma FFA levels. However, distribution of both 131 I-HDA and 201 Tl was markedly affected by propranolol, since the endocardial to epicardial ratio showed significantly higher values in the ischemic myocardial regions. The results of our study indicate that propranolol (1) preserves myocardial perfusion in the normal and acutely ischemic dog heart, and (2) gives a more favorable distribution in the ischemic myocardial region towards the subendocardial layers. (orig.)

  14. Effects of carvedilol and propranolol on circulatory regulation and oxygenation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise; Bendtsen, Flemming; Hansen, Erik F

    2014-01-01

    =16) or propranolol (n=13). Cardiac, systemic and splanchnic parameters along with oxygen saturation and plasma renin were measured at inclusion and after 3 months. RESULTS: Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output decreased equally, central circulation time and systemic vascular...... oxygen gradient remained constant in both groups. Hepatic venous pressure gradient decreased equally in the carvedilol and propranolol groups (-17% and -20%, non significant). CONCLUSIONS: Systemic haemodynamics and pulmonary effects of carvedilol and propranolol are modest and this study could...

  15. Propranolol attenuates hemorrhage and accelerates wound healing in severely burned adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arham; Herndon, David N; Mamachen, Ashish; Hasan, Samir; Andersen, Clark R; Grogans, Ro-Jon; Brewer, Jordan L; Lee, Jong O; Heffernan, Jamie; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C

    2015-05-04

    Propranolol, a nonselective β-blocker, exerts an indirect effect on the vasculature by leaving α-adrenergic receptors unopposed, resulting in peripheral vasoconstriction. We have previously shown that propranolol diminishes peripheral blood following burn injury by increasing vascular resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether wound healing and perioperative hemodynamics are affected by propranolol administration in severely burned adults. Sixty-nine adult patients with burns covering ≥ 30% of the total body surface area (TBSA) were enrolled in this IRB-approved study. Patients received standard burn care with (n = 35) or without (control, n = 34) propranolol. Propranolol was administered within 48 hours of burns and given throughout hospital discharge to decrease heart rate by approximately 20% from admission levels. Wound healing was determined by comparing the time between grafting procedures. Blood loss was determined by comparing pre- and postoperative hematocrit while factoring in operative graft area. Data were collected between first admission and first discharge. Demographics, burn size, and mortality were comparable in the control and propranolol groups. Patients in the propranolol group received an average propranolol dose of 3.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg/day. Daily average heart rate over the first 30 days was significantly lower in the propranolol group (P operative intervention is optimal.

  16. Plasma homocysteine levels in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsaransing, G S M; Fokkema, M R; Teelken, A; Arutjunyan, A V; Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Background: There is evidence that homocysteine contributes to various neurodegenerative disorders, and elevated plasma homocysteine levels have been observed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: To investigate if and why plasma homocysteine levels are increased in MS, and whether

  17. Dose-response relationships of propranolol in Chinese subjects with different CYP2D6 genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Wei; Lai, Ming-Liang; Lin, Min-Shung; Lee, Hwei-Ling; Huang, Jin-Ding

    2003-01-01

    For clinical treatment, a smaller dosage of propranolol is often used among Chinese people. Propranolol is metabolized by polymorphic CYP2D6. We postulate that the lower propranolol dosage in Chinese is due to a slower CYP2D6 metabolism. A majority of the Chinese population has the nucleotide T188 in the CYP2D6 gene (CYP2D6*10) instead of C188 (CYP2D6*1), which most white subjects have. Chinese subjects of different CYP2D6*1/CYP2D6*10 genotypes have been shown to have different propranolol pharmacokinetic characteristics. In this study, we compared the beta-blockade effects of propranolol in Chinese subjects of the two different CYP2D6 genotypes. Based on the nucleotide 188 genotypes, two groups of 10 healthy subjects each were selected. Each subject was given a 10-, 20-, or 40-mg rac-propranolol tablet three times a day for 3 days in 3 different phases. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured in both supine and upright positions. The heart rate was also determined during treadmill exercise test. Plasma concentration of S-propranolol at 2 hrs after the last-dose administration was measured. Despite therebeing higher S-propranolol plasma concentration in CYP2D6*10 subjects than in CYP2D6*1 subjects at 10- and 20-mg dosage, the dose-response relationship was not significantly different in these subjects. Our results do not support the hypothesis that CYP2D6*1/CYP2D6*10 polymorphism may affect the beta-blockade effect of propranolol in Chinese subjects.

  18. Carvedilol or propranolol in portal hypertension?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise; Møller, Søren; Grønbæk, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Carvedilol is a non-selective ß-blocker with intrinsic anti-a(1)-adrenergic activity, potentially more effective than propranolol in reducing hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). We compared the long-term effect of carvedilol and propranolol on HVPG and assessed whether t...

  19. Fluoride absorption: independence from plasma fluoride levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitford, G.M.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The concept that there are physiologic mechanisms to homeostatically regulate plasma fluoride concentrations has been supported by results in the literature suggesting an inverse relationship between plasma fluoride levels and the absorption of the ion from the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. The validity of the relationship was questioned because of possible problems in the experimental design. The present work used four different methods to evaluate the effect of plasma fluoride levels on the absorption of the ion in rats: (i) the percentage of the daily fluoride intake that was excreted in the urine; (ii) the concentration of fluoride in femur epiphyses; (iii) the net areas under the time-plasma fluoride concentration curves after intragastric fluoride doses; and (iv) the residual amounts or fluoride in the gastrointestinal tracts after the intragastric fluoride doses. None of these methods indicated that plasma fluoride levels influence the rate or the degree or fluoride absorption. It was concluded that, unless extremely high plasma fluoride levels are involved (pharmacologic or toxic doses), the absorption of the ion is independent of plasma levels. The results provide further evidence that plasma fluoride concentrations are not homeostatically regulated

  20. Labetalol compared with propranolol in the treatment of black hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, E; Curry, C; Hinds, J; Kong, B W; Medakovic, M; Poland, M; Roper, K

    1987-09-01

    A double-blind parallel group study was conducted to examine the effects of oral labetalol, in doses from 100 to 800 mg BID, and propranolol, 40 to 320 mg, in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. The doses of labetalol (n = 74) and propranolol (n = 79) were titrated weekly to achieve a sitting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of less than 90 mmHg or at least a 10-mmHg decrease from placebo baseline on two consecutive visits. A 2-month fixed-dose maintenance phase followed in which a diuretic could be added if the sitting DBP was greater than or equal to 100 mmHg on maximum doses of either drug. BP and heart rate were measured 8-12 hours after a dose in the sitting and standing positions. Labetalol was significantly more effective at the end of monotherapy than propranolol was in lowering both the sitting (p less than .05) and standing (p less than .04) DBP. The reduction in the systolic, although more pronounced for those on labetalol, was not significantly different; 53% of patients had a "good" response to labetalol compared with 30% of the propranolol group. Propranolol significantly (p less than 0.01) lowered heart rate compared with labetalol. Nine patients in the labetalol group and 10 in the propranolol group required a diuretic. The decrease in BP after the addition of a diuretic was comparable. Changes in plasma lipids were not significant, but HDL increased 9% with labetalol and decreased 2% with propranolol. Triglycerides increased 25% with labetalol and 31% with propranolol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Successful management of airway hemangioma with propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiratta, Vibhu; Varghese, Bincy; Chander, Ram; Parakh, Ankit; Solanki, Ravi S

    2013-06-01

    Airway hemangiomas can be difficult to manage and cause anxiety in both the parents and the treating physician. Propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, has recently been used for treating proliferating infantile hemangiomas. We report successful management of a proliferating, large, mixed infantile hemangioma with subglottic extension in an Indian infant using oral propranolol in a dose of 2mg/kg/day without any side effects. Induction of early involution and freedom from the side effects of steroid therapy seem encouraging for using propranolol as a first line treatment modality in the management of troublesome hemangiomas. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Altered levels of acetylcholinesterase in Alzheimer plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Salud García-Ayllón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have been conducted in an extensive effort to identify alterations in blood cholinesterase levels as a consequence of disease, including the analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in plasma. Conventional assays using selective cholinesterase inhibitors have not been particularly successful as excess amounts of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE pose a major problem. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have estimated the levels of AChE activity in human plasma by first immunoprecipitating BuChE and measuring AChE activity in the immunodepleted plasma. Human plasma AChE activity levels were approximately 20 nmol/min/mL, about 160 times lower than BuChE. The majority of AChE species are the light G(1+G(2 forms and not G(4 tetramers. The levels and pattern of the molecular forms are similar to that observed in individuals with silent BuChE. We have also compared plasma AChE with the enzyme pattern obtained from human liver, red blood cells, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and brain, by sedimentation analysis, Western blotting and lectin-binding analysis. Finally, a selective increase of AChE activity was detected in plasma from Alzheimer's disease (AD patients compared to age and gender-matched controls. This increase correlates with an increase in the G(1+G(2 forms, the subset of AChE species which are increased in Alzheimer's brain. Western blot analysis demonstrated that a 78 kDa immunoreactive AChE protein band was also increased in Alzheimer's plasma, attributed in part to AChE-T subunits common in brain and CSF. CONCLUSION: Plasma AChE might have potential as an indicator of disease progress and prognosis in AD and warrants further investigation.

  3. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...

  4. Control plasma renin activity and changes in sympathetic tone as determinants of minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, K; Velasco, M; Wells, J; McNay, J L

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the possible mechanism(s) underlying minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity (PRA). 10 patients with essential hypertension were treated with minoxidil and subsequently with a combination of minoxidil plus propranolol. Minoxidil lowered mean arterial pressure 31.6 plus or minus 3.3 mm Hg, mean plus or minus SEM. There was an associated increase in both PRA, 6.26 plus or minus 2.43 NG/ML/H, and heart rate, 21.4 plus or minus 2.7 beats/min. The changes in PRA and heart rate were positively correlated, r, 0.79. Addition of propranolol reduced mean arterial pressure by a further 10.1 plus or minus 1.5 mm Hg and returned heart rate to control levels. Propranolol reduced PRA significantly but not to control levels. Control PRA positively correlated with PRA on minoxidil, r, 0.97, and with PRA on minoxidil plus propranolol, r, 0.98. We conclude that control PRA is a major determinant of change in PRA with minoxidil. Minoxidil increased PRA by at least two mechanisms: (a) an adrenergic mechanism closely related to change in heart rate and blocked by propranolol, and (b) a mechanism(s) not sensitive to propranolol and possibly related to decrease in renal perfusion pressure. PMID:1127099

  5. Daily propranolol prevents prolonged mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells in a rat model of lung contusion, hemorrhagic shock, and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Letitia E; Pasupuleti, Latha V; Gore, Amy V; Sifri, Ziad C; Kannan, Kolenkode B; Mohr, Alicia M

    2015-09-01

    Propranolol has been shown previously to decrease the mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) after acute injury in rodent models; however, this acute injury model does not reflect the prolonged period of critical illness after severe trauma. Using our novel lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock/chronic restraint stress model, we hypothesize that daily administration of propranolol will decrease prolonged mobilization of HPCs without worsening lung healing. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 6 days of restraint stress after undergoing lung contusion or lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock. Restraint stress consisted of a daily 2-hour period of restraint interrupted every 30 minutes by alarms and repositioning. Each day after the period of restraint stress, the rats received intraperitoneal propranolol (10 mg/kg). On day 7, peripheral blood was analyzed for granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stromal cell-derived factor 1 via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for mobilization of HPCs using c-kit and CD71 flow cytometry. The lungs were examined histologically to grade injury. Seven days after lung contusion and lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock, the addition of chronic restraint stress significantly increased the mobilization of HPC, which was associated with persistently increased levels of G-CSF and increased lung injury scores. The addition of propranolol to lung contusion/chronic restraint stress and lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock/chronic restraint stress models greatly decreased HPC mobilization and restored G-CSF levels to that of naïve animals without worsening lung injury scores. The daily administration of propranolol after both lung contusion and lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock subjected to chronic restraint stress decreased the prolonged mobilization of HPC from the bone marrow and decreased plasma G-CSF levels. Despite the decrease in mobilization of HPC, lung healing did not worsen. Alleviating chronic stress with propranolol

  6. The role of propranolol as a radiosensitizer in gastric cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao XH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Xinhua Liao, Prakash Chaudhary, Guanglin Qiu, Xiangming Che, Lin Fan General Surgery Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China Purpose: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines indicate that radiotherapy in gastric cancer shows limited effectiveness at reducing the growth of gastric cancer. Therefore, enhancing the sensitivity and effect of radiotherapy with propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, could reduce tumor growth. The role of propranolol as a radiosensitizer has not been adequately studied; therefore, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of propranolol as a radiosensitizer against gastric cancer in vivo. Methods: Sixty-four male nude mice bearing tumor xenografts were randomly divided into four groups. Cell culture was performed using the human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC-7901. Mice with tumor xenografts were treated with propranolol, isoproterenol, and radiation. The data for tumor weight and volume were obtained for statistical analyses. Furthermore, the expression levels of COX-2, NF-κB, VEGF, and EGFR were examined using immunohistochemical techniques and Western blotting.Results: The growth in the volume and weight of the tumor was lower in mouse models treated with propranolol and radiation therapy compared to the other groups. Decreased expression of NF-κB was also observed in treatment groups where both propranolol and radiation were used, leading to the reduction of COX-2, EGFR, and VEGF expression compared to that in the other groups.Conclusion: The present study indicated that propranolol potentiates the antitumor effects of radiotherapy in gastric cancer by inhibiting NF-κB expression and its downstream genes: VEGF, EGFR, and COX-2. Keywords: propranolol, radiosensitizer, gastric cancer, radiation therapy 

  7. Impairment of memory and plasma flunitrazepam levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bareggi, [No Value; Ferini-Strambi, L; Pirola, R; Smirne, S

    Flunitrazepam was administered to volunteers in three different oral doses. The effects on psychomotor sedation, attention, working memory and explicit memory were then assessed at various intervals after dosing and compared with levels of the drug in the plasma. Three groups of 12 healthy males

  8. Impairment of memory and plasma flunitrazepam levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bareggi, [No Value; Ferini-Strambi, L; Pirola, R; Smirne, S

    1998-01-01

    Flunitrazepam was administered to volunteers in three different oral doses. The effects on psychomotor sedation, attention, working memory and explicit memory were then assessed at various intervals after dosing and compared with levels of the drug in the plasma. Three groups of 12 healthy males

  9. Multi-Accuracy-Level Burning Plasma Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Huynh, P.; Huysmans, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Johner, J.; Scheider, M.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a reactor grade tokamak is based on a hierarchy of tools. We present here three codes that are presently used for the simulations of burning plasmas. At the first level there is a 0-dimensional code that allows to choose a reasonable range of global parameters; in our case the HELIOS code was used for this task. For the second level we have developed a mixed 0-D / 1-D code called METIS that allows to study the main properties of a burning plasma, including profiles and all heat and current sources, but always under the constraint of energy and other empirical scaling laws. METIS is a fast code that permits to perform a large number of runs (a run takes about one minute) and design the main features of a scenario, or validate the results of the 0-D code on a full time evolution. At the top level, we used the full 1D1/2 suite of codes CRONOS that gives access to a detailed study of the plasma profiles evolution. CRONOS can use a variety of modules for source terms and transport coefficients computation with different level of complexity and accuracy: from simple estimators to highly sophisticated physics calculations. Thus it is possible to vary the accuracy of burning plasma simulations, as a trade-off with computation time. A wide range of scenario studies can thus be made with CRONOS and then validated with post-processing tools like MHD stability analysis. We will present in this paper results of this multi-level analysis applied to the ITER hybrid scenario. This specific example will illustrate the importance of having several tools for the study of burning plasma scenarios, especially in a domain that present devices cannot access experimentally. (Author)

  10. Three-compartmental analysis of effects of D-propranolol on thyroid hormone kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Heijden, J.T.M.; Krenning, E.P.; Van Toor, H.; Hennemann, G.; Docter, R.

    1988-01-01

    Tracer thyroxine (T 4 ), 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T 3 ), and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT 3 ) kinetic studies were performed in normal T 4 substituted subjects before and during oral D-propranolol treatment to determine whether changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in a propranolol-induced low-T 3 syndrome result from inhibition of 5'-deiodination or inhibition of transport of iodothyronines into tissues. Data were analyzed according to a three-compartmental model of distribution and metabolism. No changes were observed in size of the three T 4 compartments or in fractional and mass transfer rates of T 4 from plasma to the rapidly (REP) and slowly (SEP) equilibrating pools. Serum T 3 , free T 3 , T 3 plasma pool, T 3 mass transfer rate to REP and SEP, and the T 3 pool masses were all significantly decreased during propranolol to a similar extent as the T 3 plasma production rate (PR). It is concluded that the D-propranolol-induced changes in thyroid hormone metabolism, resulting in a low-T 3 syndrome, are due to inhibition of thyroid hormone deiodination. This is in contrast to the low-T 3 syndrome during caloric deprivation, which results from inhibition of transport of iodothyronines into the liver

  11. Oral versus topical propranolol for management of superficial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was treated with oral propranolol and group B (n = 24) was treated with propranolol .... months during treatment, or if any undesirable drawbacks .... dosage and the serum concentration of the drug in this route [29]. However, McMahon et al.

  12. Control of lithium tremor with propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Y D

    1976-04-03

    Lithium tremor is an irregular, nonrhythmic tremor of the distal extremities, variable in both intensity and frequency. It is clinically differentiated from essential tremor and tremors due to anxiety and neuroleptics. The pathophysiologic mechanisms are hypothesized to be of perpheral origin. Five patients were successfully treated with propranolol. In general, the dosage of propranolol must be individually adjusted and is usually from 30 to 40 mg daily in divided doses. This blocker of beta-adrenergic receptors remains effective with long-term administration and increases in dosage are not required.

  13. Plasma progesterone levels in progesterone treated cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosskopf, J.F.W.; Van Niekerk, C.H.; Morgenthal, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for the radioimmunoassay of progesterone in plasma is described. In one trial the oestrous cycles of four cycling cows and in another trial of one non-cycling cow and two cycling heifers were synchronized by the administration of progesterone. Each female received either 50 mg or 0,1 mg/kg of progesterone intramuscularly on alternate days in two courses of four and six injections respectively. Blood samples of the animals were collected either daily or two-daily before, over the entire period of treatment and for eight days after the last progesterone injection. The results of the progesterone assays are represented graphically for each individual cow or heifer. The plasma progesterone levels during treatment were maintained reasonably well at levels corresponding to those normally encountered during the luteal phase of the cycle. The progesterone levels, however, did not drop as rapidly as desired after the last injection but might have been influenced by a residual corpus luteum from a previous ovulation

  14. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  15. Reversal of propranolol blockade of adrenergic receptors and related toxicity with drugs that increase cyclic AMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, V E; Vick, J A; Alleva, F R; Zhang, J; Joseph, X; Balazs, T

    1999-09-01

    An overdose of propranolol, a widely used nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent, can result in hypotension and bradycardia leading to irreversible shock and death. In addition, the blockade of adrenergic receptors can lead to alterations in neurotransmitter receptors resulting in the interruption of the activity of other second messengers and the ultimate cellular responses. In the present experiment, three agents, aminophylline, amrinone, and forskolin were tested in an attempt to reverse the potential lethal effects of a propranolol overdose in dogs. Twenty-two anesthetized beagle dogs were given a 10-min infusion of propranolol at a dose of 1 mg/kg/min. Six of the dogs, treated only with intravenous saline, served as controls. Within 15-30 min all six control dogs exhibited profound hypotension and severe bradycardia that led to cardiogenic shock and death. Seven dogs were treated with intravenous aminophylline 20 mg/kg 5 min after the end of the propranolol infusion. Within 10-15 min heart rate and systemic arterial blood pressure returned to near control levels, and all seven dogs survived. Intravenous amrinone (2-3 mg/kg) given to five dogs, and forskolin (1-2 mg/kg) given to four dogs, also increased heart rate and systemic arterial blood pressure but the recovery of these parameters was appreciably slower than that seen with aminophylline. All of these animals also survived with no apparent adverse effects. Histopathologic evaluation of the hearts of the dogs treated with aminophylline showed less damage (vacuolization, inflammation, hemorrhage) than the hearts from animals given propranolol alone. Results of this study showed that these three drugs, all of which increase cyclic AMP, are capable of reversing the otherwise lethal effects of a propranolol overdose in dogs.

  16. Plasma progesterone levels following breeding in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, G.C.; Arora, R.C.; Pahwa, G.S.; Batra, S.K.; Pandey, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Progesterone concentration in the peripheral blood plasma of ten lactating goats of mixed breeds following breeding were determined by radioimmunoassay to diagnose early pregnancy. The mean concentration was very low (0.25 +- 0.15 ng/ml) on the day of oestrus and reached at peak level on day 13 (1.30 +- 0.07 ng/ml) and on day 19 (2.77 +- 1.18 ng/ml) in non-pregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The level sharply declined on day 19 (0.40 +- 0.07 ng/ml) of oestrous cycle in non-pregnant goats. However, the level remained below 1.5 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15 and 17 and 3 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 23 in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The progesterone concentration continued to increase to 2.94 +- 0.70, 4.42 +- 0.92 and 6.2 +- 0.61 ng/ml on day 45, 60 and 75 of gestation, respectively. (auth.)

  17. Comparison of propranolol and practolol in the management of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchison, L E; Bewsher, P D; Chesters, M I; Ferrier, W R

    1976-04-01

    Twenty-one hyperthyroid patients participated in an 8-week double-blind crossover trial of propranolol and practolol, and the effecte of these drugs on the clinical and metabolic features of the disease were studied. Propranolol was marginally more effective than practolol, as measured by the hyperthyroid diagnostic index and anxiety scale. Propranolol produced a significant reduction in the serum concentration ratio of tri-iodothyronine to thyroxine, compatible with partial inhibition of peripheral deiodination of thyroxine. Adverse reactions occurred more frequently with propranolol than with practolol. In veiw of the efficacy of practoloo, further trials in hyperthyroid patients of newer beta1-adrenoceptor antagonists, preferably without partial agonist activity, are indicated.

  18. Escitalopram plasma levels and antidepressant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Vincenzo; Porcelli, Stefano; Saria, Alois; Serretti, Alessandro; Conca, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Major Depression Disorder (MDD) has a highly variable treatment response due to the large inter-individual variation in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drug treatments. In detail the correlation between plasma level and efficacy has been much debated. Among first-line drugs for MDD, one of the most used is escitalopram. In the present study we investigated the association between serum concentration of escitalopram (SCE) and antidepressant response (AR). 70 MDD patients treated with escitalopram monotherapy were recruited and followed for three months. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale - 21 (HAMD-21) was administrated at baseline, month 1, and month 3 to assess AR. SCE was measured at steady state. Linear regression analysis and nonlinear least-squares regression were used to estimate association between SCE and AR. We found an association between SCE and AR both at month 1 (pescitalopram the association between SCE and AR likely follows a nearly-asymptotic function, with poor AR at sub-therapeutic SCE and stable AR response at therapeutic SCE. Thus, when a patient reaches the therapeutic SCE range, further increase of escitalopram dosage seems to be useless, although further studies are needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. PLASMA PROGESTERONE LEVELS TN LACTATING EWES AFTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oestrus, ovulation and perrpheral plasma progesterone concentrations were recorded in ... progestagen and PMS were srmilar to those reported for spontaneous oesttous cycles in ..... involved could perhaps cast some light on the problem.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of carvedilol and propranolol on glycemic control and insulin resistance associated with L-thyroxin-induced hyperthyroidism--an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Parloop; Makwana, Dharmesh; Santani, Devdas; Goyal, Ramesh

    2007-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of adrenergic antagonists carvedilol and propranolol on L-thyroxin-induced cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in rats. Treatment with L-thyroxin sodium (75 mg/kg body mass, s.c., every alternate day for 3 weeks), produced a significant increase in food and water intake, body temperature, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, along with an increase in serum T3, T4, and triglyceride levels. Besides a significant reduction in body mass, serum levels of TSH and cholesterol were also reduced following L-thyroxin treatment. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg body mass, orally) and propranolol (10 mg/kg body mass, i.p.) administered daily in the third week to 2 separate groups of L-thyroxin-treated animals reversed thyroxin-induced loss in body mass and rise in body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. Propranolol treatment increased TSH levels and decreased T3 and T4 levels in hyperthyroid animals, whereas carvedilol did not produce any effect on thyroid hormones. Carvedilol treatment reversed thyroxin induced hypertriglyceridemia, whereas propranolol treatment had no effect. Both carvedilol and propranolol prevented decrease in cholesterol levels induced by thyroxine. Compared with normal animals, L-thyroxin-treated animals showed a state of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance, as inferred from elevated fasting serum glucose and insulin levels, higher area under the curve over 120 min for glucose, and decreased insulin sensitivity index (KITT). Propranolol and carvedilol treatment significantly decreased fasting serum glucose levels. Treatment with propranolol did not alter serum insulin levels, area-under-the-curve glucose, or KITT values. However, treatment with carvedilol significantly reduced area-under-the-curve glucose, decreased fasting serum insulin levels and significantly increased KITT values. In conclusion, carvedilol appears to produce

  1. A randomized, controlled trial of oral propranolol in infantile hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Hoeger, Peter; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Guibaud, Laurent; Baselga, Eulalia; Posiunas, Gintas; Phillips, Roderic J; Caceres, Hector; Lopez Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Ballona, Rosalia; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Powell, Julie; Perek, Danuta; Metz, Brandie; Barbarot, Sebastien; Maruani, Annabel; Szalai, Zsuzsanna Zsofia; Krol, Alfons; Boccara, Olivia; Foelster-Holst, Regina; Febrer Bosch, Maria Isabel; Su, John; Buckova, Hana; Torrelo, Antonio; Cambazard, Frederic; Grantzow, Rainer; Wargon, Orli; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Roessler, Jochen; Bernabeu-Wittel, Jose; Valencia, Adriana M; Przewratil, Przemyslaw; Glick, Sharon; Pope, Elena; Birchall, Nicholas; Benjamin, Latanya; Mancini, Anthony J; Vabres, Pierre; Souteyrand, Pierre; Frieden, Ilona J; Berul, Charles I; Mehta, Cyrus R; Prey, Sorilla; Boralevi, Franck; Morgan, Caroline C; Heritier, Stephane; Delarue, Alain; Voisard, Jean-Jacques

    2015-02-19

    Oral propranolol has been used to treat complicated infantile hemangiomas, although data from randomized, controlled trials to inform its use are limited. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, adaptive, phase 2-3 trial assessing the efficacy and safety of a pediatric-specific oral propranolol solution in infants 1 to 5 months of age with proliferating infantile hemangioma requiring systemic therapy. Infants were randomly assigned to receive placebo or one of four propranolol regimens (1 or 3 mg of propranolol base per kilogram of body weight per day for 3 or 6 months). A preplanned interim analysis was conducted to identify the regimen to study for the final efficacy analysis. The primary end point was success (complete or nearly complete resolution of the target hemangioma) or failure of trial treatment at week 24, as assessed by independent, centralized, blinded evaluations of standardized photographs. Of 460 infants who underwent randomization, 456 received treatment. On the basis of an interim analysis of the first 188 patients who completed 24 weeks of trial treatment, the regimen of 3 mg of propranolol per kilogram per day for 6 months was selected for the final efficacy analysis. The frequency of successful treatment was higher with this regimen than with placebo (60% vs. 4%, P<0.001). A total of 88% of patients who received the selected propranolol regimen showed improvement by week 5, versus 5% of patients who received placebo. A total of 10% of patients in whom treatment with propranolol was successful required systemic retreatment during follow-up. Known adverse events associated with propranolol (hypoglycemia, hypotension, bradycardia, and bronchospasm) occurred infrequently, with no significant difference in frequency between the placebo group and the groups receiving propranolol. This trial showed that propranolol was effective at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram per day for 6 months in the treatment of infantile hemangioma. (Funded by

  2. Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Cho, Joo Young; Kim, Jin Oh; Kim, Wan Jung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Jeon, Seong Ran; Jeong, Hoe Su

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Twenty-two female patients with functional dyspepsia and twelve healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. The functional dyspepsia patients were each diagnosed based on the Rome III criteria. Eligible patients completed a questionnaire concerning the severity of 10 symptoms. Plasma acylated ghrelin levels before and after a meal were determined in the study participants using a commercial human acylated enzyme immunoassay kit; electrogastrograms were performed for 50 min before and after a standardized 10-min meal containing 265 kcal. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in plasma acylated ghrelin levels between healthy volunteers and patients with functional dyspepsia. However, in patients with functional dyspepsia, there was a negative correlation between fasting plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the sum score of epigastric pain (r = -0.427, P = 0.047) and a positive correlation between the postprandial/fasting plasma acylated ghrelin ratio and the sum score of early satiety (r = 0.428, P =0.047). Additionally, there was a negative correlation between fasting acylated ghrelin plasma levels and fasting normogastria (%) (r = -0.522, P = 0.013). Interestingly, two functional dyspepsia patients showed paradoxically elevated plasma acylated ghrelin levels after the meal. CONCLUSION: Abnormal plasma acylated ghrelin levels before or after a meal may be related to several of the dyspeptic symptoms seen in patients with functional dyspepsia. PMID:22611317

  3. A study of the relationship between serum bile acids and propranolol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in patients with liver cirrhosis and in healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne B Taegtmeyer

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the study were to determine the exposure and bioavailability of oral propranolol and to investigate their associations with serum bile acid concentration in patients with liver cirrhosis and in healthy controls. A further objective was to study the pharmacodynamics of propranolol. An open-label crossover study was performed to determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propranolol after oral (40 mg and intravenous (1 mg administration as well as the concentration of total and individual fasting serum bile acids in 15 patients with liver cirrhosis and 5 healthy controls. After intravenous propranolol, patients showed a 1.8-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞, a 1.8-fold increase in volume of distribution and a 3-fold increase in the elimination half-life (mean ± SEM: 641±100 vs. 205±43 minutes compared to controls. After oral application, AUC0-∞ and elimination half-life of propranolol were increased 6- and 4-fold, respectively, and bioavailability 3-fold (83±8 vs. 27±9.2%. Maximal effects on blood pressure and heart rate occurred during the first 4 and first 2 hours, respectively, after intravenous and oral application in both patients and controls. Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in patients than controls (42±11 vs. 2.7±0.3 µmol/L and were linearly correlated with the serum chenodeoxycholic acid concentration. There was a linear correlation between the SBA concentration and propranolol oral AUC0-∞ in subjects not receiving interacting drugs (r2 = 0.73, n = 18. The bioavailability of and exposure to oral propranolol are increased in patients with cirrhosis. Fasting serum bile acid concentration may be helpful in predicting the exposure to oral propranolol in these patients.

  4. Effects of propranolol in combination with radiation on apoptosis and survival of gastric cancer cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Xinhua; Che, Xiangming; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Danjie; Long, Houlong; Chaudhary, Prakash; Li, Haijun

    2010-01-01

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend radiotherapy as a standard treatment for patients with a high risk of recurrence in gastric cancer. Because gastric cancer demonstrates limited sensitivity to radiotherapy, a radiosensitizer might therefore be useful to enhance the radiosensitivity of patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated if propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) antagonist, could enhance radiosensitivity and explored its precise molecular mechanism in gastric cancer cells. Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines (SGC-7901 and BGC-823) were treated with or without propranolol and exposed to radiation. Cell viability and clonogenic survival assays were performed, and cell apoptosis was evaluated with flow cytometry. In addition, the expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were detected by western blot and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Propranolol combined with radiation decreased cell viability and clonogenic survivability. Furthermore, it also induced apoptosis in both cell lines tested, as determined by Annexin V staining. In addition, treatment with propranolol decreased the level of NF-κB and, subsequently, down-regulated VEGF, COX-2, and EGFR expression. Taken together, these results suggested that propranolol enhanced the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to radiation through the inhibition of β-ARs and the downstream NF-κB-VEGF/EGFR/COX-2 pathway

  5. Low plasma progranulin levels in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Gehan A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoimmunity to brain may play a pathogenic role in autism. In autoimmune disorders, the formation of antigen-antibody complexes triggers an inflammatory response by inducing the infiltration of neutrophils. Local administration of recombinant progranulin, which is an anti-inflammatory neurotrophic factor, potently inhibit neutrophilic inflammation in vivo, demonstrating that progranulin represents a crucial inflammation-suppressing mediator. We are the first to measure plasma progranulin levels in autism. Methods Plasma levels of progranulin were measured, by ELISA, in 40 autistic patients, aged between 3 and 12 years, and 40 healthy-matched children. Results Autistic children had significantly lower plasma progranulin levels, P = 0.001. Reduced plasma progranulin levels were found in 65% (26/40 of autistic children. On the other hand, there was a non significant difference between plasma progranulin levels of children with mild to moderate autism and patients with severe autism, P = 0.11. Conclusions Plasma progranulin levels were reduced in a subgroup of patients with autism. Progranulin insufficiency in some patients with autism may result in many years of reduced neutrotrophic support together with cumulative damage in association with dysregulated inflammation that may have a role in autism. However, these data should be treated with caution until further investigations are performed, with a larger subject population, to determine whether the decrease of plasma progranulin levels is a mere consequence of autism or has a pathogenic role in the disease. The role of progranulin therapy should also be studied in autism.

  6. Low plasma progranulin levels in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y; Mostafa, Gehan A

    2011-09-05

    Autoimmunity to brain may play a pathogenic role in autism. In autoimmune disorders, the formation of antigen-antibody complexes triggers an inflammatory response by inducing the infiltration of neutrophils. Local administration of recombinant progranulin, which is an anti-inflammatory neurotrophic factor, potently inhibit neutrophilic inflammation in vivo, demonstrating that progranulin represents a crucial inflammation-suppressing mediator. We are the first to measure plasma progranulin levels in autism. Plasma levels of progranulin were measured, by ELISA, in 40 autistic patients, aged between 3 and 12 years, and 40 healthy-matched children. Autistic children had significantly lower plasma progranulin levels, P = 0.001. Reduced plasma progranulin levels were found in 65% (26/40) of autistic children.On the other hand, there was a non significant difference between plasma progranulin levels of children with mild to moderate autism and patients with severe autism, P = 0.11. Plasma progranulin levels were reduced in a subgroup of patients with autism. Progranulin insufficiency in some patients with autism may result in many years of reduced neutrotrophic support together with cumulative damage in association with dysregulated inflammation that may have a role in autism. However, these data should be treated with caution until further investigations are performed, with a larger subject population, to determine whether the decrease of plasma progranulin levels is a mere consequence of autism or has a pathogenic role in the disease. The role of progranulin therapy should also be studied in autism.

  7. [Absence of effect of propranolol on urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, M; Riou, J P; Sautot, G; Mornex, R

    Lean body mass and muscle protein breakdown were evaluated in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects by measuring the urinary excretion of creatinine and 3-methylhistidine. Since catecholamines probably have an inhibitory effect on muscle protein catabolism through a beta-receptor mechanism, the effects of propranolol on 3-methylhistidine excretion were also evaluated in hyperthyroid subjects. Hyperthyroid subjects had a lower lean body mass (34.9 +/- 6.3 kg versus 47.7 +/- 8.9 kg, p less than 0.001) and a greater 3-methylhistidine excretion (25.1 +/- 7.4 versus 19.0 +/- 4.8 mumol/mmol creatinine, p less than 0.05) than euthyroid subjects. Propranolol administered orally to hyperthyroid subjects decreased pulse rate (p less than 0.01) and plasma triiodothyronine concentrations (from 5.40 +/- 2.28 to 3.61 +/- 1.61 nmol/l, p less than 0.01), but did not modify urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion (24.8 +/- 8.7 versus 25.1 +/- 7.4 mumol/mmol creatinine). These results suggest that muscle wasting in hyperthyroidism is related to increased protein catabolism. This increased protein breakdown is not modified by short term administration of propranolol, a beta-blocking agent widely used in the management of hyperthyroidism.

  8. Plasma Total Homocysteine (tHcy) Levels in Healthy Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment and stratification of reference values for a laboratory area of practice enhances the test result interpretation and sensitivity. Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a metabolite of methionine which is dependent on vitamin B6, B12 and folate as co-factors. Plasma level (Hyperhomocysteinemia) is influenced by ...

  9. Effect of experimental quinine administration on plasma levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six hours after the last dose administration, blood samples were withdrawn for the determination of plasma levels of hemoglobin and methemoglobin. Plasma hemoglobin concentration increased from 11.55 +0.32 g/100ml to a critical value of 14.30 g/100ml from the control to 0.08 g/kg dose administration. A further increase ...

  10. Propranolol reduces the anxiety associated with day case surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealy, K; Ngeh, N; Gillen, P; Fitzpatrick, G; Keane, F B; Tanner, A

    1996-01-01

    To find out if propranolol, a non-cardioselective beta-blocker, can reduce the anxiety associated with day case surgery. Prospective randomized double blind trial. University hospital, Ireland. An unselected group of 53 patients undergoing day case surgery. Subjects randomised to receive either propranolol (10 mg) or placebo on the morning of operation. Blood pressure; pulse, anxiety, pain score and patient satisfaction. Mean (SD) Hospital Anxiety and Depression score was significantly lower in the propranolol group than in the control group (2.5 (0.7) compared with 4.6 (0.7), p anxiety.

  11. Niacin treatment increases plasma homocyst(e)ine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R; Malinow, M; Pettinger, M; Upson, B; Hunninghake, D

    1999-12-01

    Studies have reported high levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine as an independent risk factor for arterial occlusive disease. The Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study reported an increase in plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in patients receiving both colestipol and niacin compared with placebo. Thus the objective of this study was to examine the effect of niacin treatment on plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. The Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial, a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial, examined the effect of niacin compared with placebo on homocyst(e)ine in a subset of 52 participants with peripheral arterial disease. During the screening phase, titration of niacin dose from 100 mg to 1000 mg daily resulted in a 17% increase in mean plasma homocyst(e)ine level from 13.1 +/- 4.4 micromol/L to 15.3 +/- 5.6 micromol/L (P ine levels in the niacin group and a 7% decrease in the placebo group (P =.0001). This difference remained statistically significant at the end of follow-up at 48 weeks. Niacin substantially increased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels, which could potentially reduce the expected benefits of niacin associated with lipoprotein modification. However, plasma homocyst(e)ine levels can be decreased by folic acid supplementation. Thus further studies are needed to determine whether B vitamin supplementation to patients undergoing long-term niacin treatment would be beneficial.

  12. Plasma Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Normotensive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Normotensive and Hypertensive Pregnant and Parturient Nigerian Women. Kashope D. Thomas, Oyebola G. Adeosun, Norah O. Akinola, Uche Onwudiegwu, Alexander T. Owolabi ...

  13. the effect of ascorbic acid and propranolol on normal sleep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sleep promoting effects in the wistar rats in doses of propranolol. Conclusion: It is possible ... motor activities as swimming, flying, walking, running, rearing and hopping etc. ..... The Homotypical Cortex - The ssociation Areas. Physiological and ...

  14. The use of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, R J; Stevenson, J M

    1985-01-01

    The authors review the available literature on the use of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders. First studied in 1966, propranolol has been shown to be most effective in the control of certain somatic symptoms associated with anxiety. Despite these studies, however, it is still not certain where this beta-adrenergic blocker fits into the overall treatment of anxiety disorders. Reasons for this uncertainty and other related problems are discussed.

  15. Increased Plasma Levels of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yu-Xue; Fu, Dong-Wei; Gao, Qing-Feng; Ge, Feng-Xia; Liu, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is associated with inflammation and the oxidative stress response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective stress-responsive enzyme that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the role of HO-1 in human brucellosis has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma levels of HO-1 in patients with brucellosis and to evaluate the ability of plasma HO-1 levels as an auxiliary diagnosis, a severity predictor, and a monitor for brucellosis treatments. A total of 75 patients with brucellosis were divided into the acute, subacute, chronic active, and chronic stable groups. An additional 20 volunteers were included as the healthy control group. The plasma HO-1 levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the plasma levels of HO-1 in the acute group were compared before and after treatment. The plasma HO-1 levels were considerably increased in the acute (4.97 ± 3.55), subacute (4.98 ± 3.23), and chronic active groups (4.43 ± 3.00) with brucellosis compared to the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p brucellosis (r = 0.707, p brucellosis status and may be used as a supplementary plasma marker for diagnosing brucellosis and monitoring its treatment.

  16. Postmarketing comparison of labetalol and propranolol in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, D L; Giguere, G C; Plachetka, J R

    1986-01-01

    A survey was conducted to compare the safety and effectiveness of labetalol and propranolol under routine conditions of clinical use. Patients received either labetalol (n = 805) or propranolol (n = 135) twice daily, according to package insert instructions, for six weeks. Every two weeks the patients were evaluated and weight, heart rate, blood pressure, dose, and adverse symptoms were recorded. Both treatment groups experienced a significant decline in blood pressure at six weeks; blood pressure decreased by 24/15 mmHg in the labetalol patients and by 20/14 mmHg in the propranolol patients. Heart rate decreased significantly in both groups, but the drop in the propranolol group was greater than in the labetalol group. Significantly more propranolol-treated patients reported fatigue (15.2% versus 6.3%), impotence (9.0% versus 3.2%), bad dreams (2.3% versus 0.3%), and cold extremities (2.3% versus 0%). Dizziness was reported more frequently by the labetalol group (9.1% versus 3.8%). Overall, both drugs were safe and effective in treating hypertension, but complaints of beta-blocker-associated side effects were more frequent with propranolol.

  17. Propranolol as an adjunct therapy for hyperthyroid tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J M; Portmann, L; Van Melle, G; Haller, E; Ghika, J A

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the use of propranolol as an adjunct to carbimazole in the treatment of hyperthyroid tremor and tachycardia in a double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled study. Seven patients were given carbimazole plus either placebo or propranolol (40 mg) for 1 month and then switched to the alternative adjunct treatment for a further month. All patients showed significant improvements (p tremor amplitude after 1 or 2 months from baseline. One month after the baseline, the mean improvements of heart rate were 23% for the carbimazole + placebo group and 38% for carbimazole + propranolol group. Tremor also improved during the 1st month of the study by 31% in the carbimazole + placebo group versus 59% in the carbimazole + propranolol group. Whereas further improvements were observed in both variables in those receiving propranolol as the second adjunct treatment, this was not the case in those who received placebo during the same period. These findings confirm that the beta-blocker propranolol is a useful adjunct in the early treatment of both the tremor and tachycardia of hyperthyroidism.

  18. Enhanced nuclear level decay in hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, G.; Morel, P.

    2004-01-01

    A model of nuclear level decay in a plasma environment is described. Nuclear excitation and decay by photon processes, nuclear excitation by electron capture, and decay by internal conversion are taken into account. The electrons in the plasma are described by a relativistic average atom model for the bound electrons and by a relativistic Thomas-Fermi-Dirac model for the free electrons. Nuclear decay of isomeric level may be enhanced through an intermediate level lying above the isomer. An enhanced nuclear decay rate may occur for temperatures far below the excitation energy of the transition to the intermediate level. In most cases, the enhancement factor may reach several decades

  19. Ecotoxicological evaluation of propranolol hydrochloride and losartan potassium to Lemna minor L. (1753) individually and in binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Aline A; Kummrow, Fábio; Pamplin, Paulo Augusto Z

    2015-07-01

    Antihypertensive pharmaceuticals, including the beta-blockers, are one of the most detected therapeutic classes in the environment. The ecotoxicity of propranolol hydrochloride and losartan potassium was evaluated, both individually and combined in a binary mixture, by using the Lemna minor growth inhibition test. The endpoints evaluated in the single-pharmaceutical tests were frond number, total frond area and fresh weight. For the evaluation of the mixture toxicity, the selected endpoint was frond number. Water quality criteria values (WQC) were derived for the protection of freshwater and saltwater pelagic communities regarding the effects induced by propranolol and losartan using ecotoxicological data from the literature, including our data. The risks associated with both pharmaceutical effects on non-target organisms were quantified through the measured environmental concentration (MEC)/predicted-no-effect concentration (PNEC) ratios. For propranolol, the total frond area was the most sensitive endpoint (EC50 = 77.3 mg L(-1)), while for losartan there was no statistically significant difference between the endpoints. Losartan is only slightly more toxic than propranolol. Both concentration addition and independent action models overestimated the mixture toxicity of the pharmaceuticals at all the effect concentration levels evaluated. The joint action of both pharmaceuticals showed an antagonistic interaction to L. minor. Derived WQC assumed lower values for propranolol than for losartan. The MEC/PNEC ratios showed that propranolol may pose a risk for the most sensitive aquatic species, while acceptable risks posed by losartan were estimated for most of aquatic matrices. To the authors knowledge these are the first data about losartan toxicity for L. minor.

  20. Plasma diamine oxidase levels in pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, M; Duff, G B

    1981-02-01

    Plasma diamine oxidase levels were assayed in 66 patients who presented with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. Levels within the normal range were associated with continuing pregnancies, whereas levels below the normal range were associated with subsequent abortion. Among those patients in whom gestation was greater than eight weeks, 66.6% of diamine oxidase levels correctly predicted the pregnancy outcome. Assay of the diamine oxidase levels at eight weeks of gestation or less gave little useful information.

  1. Plasma diamine oxidase levels in pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    OpenAIRE

    Legge, M; Duff, G B

    1981-01-01

    Plasma diamine oxidase levels were assayed in 66 patients who presented with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. Levels within the normal range were associated with continuing pregnancies, whereas levels below the normal range were associated with subsequent abortion. Among those patients in whom gestation was greater than eight weeks, 66.6% of diamine oxidase levels correctly predicted the pregnancy outcome. Assay of the diamine oxidase levels at eight weeks of gestation or less ga...

  2. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma kisspeptin levels in male cases with hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Masato; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic hormone kisspeptin (metastin) regulates human reproduction by modulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Kisspeptin is detected in peripheral blood, although GnRH is not. In this study, we measured plasma kisspeptin levels in four male cases with hypogonadism and seven normal male controls using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to elucidate the clinical implications of kisspeptin levels in male hypogonadism. The results showed a variety of plasma kisspeptin levels: 6.0 fmol/mL in a male with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), 43.2 fmol/mL in a male with Kallmann's syndrome, 40.7 fmol/mL in a male with azoospermia, 323.2 fmol/mL in a male with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and 12.3 ± 2.5 fmol/mL (mean ± SD) in seven normal controls. Except for the case with IHH, the plasma kisspetin levels were elevated in the three cases with Kallmann's syndrome, azoospermia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. The reason why the three cases had high values was their lesions were downstream of the kisspeptin neuron in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, suggesting that elevated kisspeptin levels were implicated in hypothalamic kisspeptin secretion under decreased negative feedback of gonadal steroids. The result that the plasma kisspeptin levels were decreased by gonadotropin therapy in the case with Kallmann's syndrome supported this hypothesis. In conclusion, to measure plasma kisspeptin levels could be useful for better understanding of male hypogonadism.

  4. Measurement of plasma 11-deoxycorticosterone levels by radioimmunoassay in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuchi, Soitsu; Nakajima, Katsuo; Takenouchi, Takahiko; Nishisato, Koji

    1974-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay procedure has been developed to measure 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in human peripheral plasma. DOC-oxime was coupled with porcine gamma globulin and antibodies produced in rabbits. One to 3 ml of plasma, with 1, 2 3 H-DOC added for recovery, was extracted with dichloromethane and purification achieved by a silica gel column and by one paper chromatograph. After overnight incubation of the antibody-steroid mixture at 4 0 C, bound and free fractions were separated using ammonium sulfate. The mean recovery of 3 H-DOC, after extraction and chromatography, was 84.6 +- 7.4%. The method showed adequate specificity, precision and accuracy. Normal plasma DOC levels were found to be 4.4 +- 2.5 ng/100 ml (n=8). Plasma DOC levels were almost normal (0.3 - 26.8 ng/100 ml) in fifteen patients with benign essential hypertension. The mean level of 8.1 +- 8.2 ng/100 ml obtained in hypertensive patients with suppressed plasma renin activity, was not significantly different from normal. Plasma DOC showed a high level, 3.0 - 30.5 (11.4 +- 7.5) ng/100 ml, in 9 patients with primary aldosteronism. Four out of 8 patients with Cushing's syndrome were found to have elevated plasma DOC levels. Higher levels of 21.2 +- 15.8 ng/100 ml were found in 5 patients with adrenal hyperplasia than those of 12.3 +- 8.0 ng/100 ml in 3 with adrenal adenoma. Plasma DOC levels were high, 113 - 176 ng/100 ml, in 2 patients with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. ACTH administered to 5 subjects produced a mean increase in plasma DOC from 4.8 to 25.8 ng/100 ml. Angiotensin II infused at a rate of 10 ng/kg/min for 30 min into 4 subjects did not increase mean plasma DOC. Similarly, dietary sodium restriction or postural change did not increase plasma DOC. (auth.)

  5. Association of plasma manganese levels with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Cristina; López-Chaves, Carlos; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; Galindo, Pilar; Aranda, Pilar; Llopis, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Mn excess may be neurotoxic to humans, affecting specific areas of the central nervous system. However, relatively little is known about its physiological and/or toxicological effects, and very few data are available concerning the role of Mn in chronic renal failure (CRF). This paper describes a 12-month study of the evolution of plasma Mn levels in predialysis patients with CRF and the relationship with energy and macronutrient intake. The participants in this trial were 64 patients with CRF in predialysis and 62 healthy controls. Plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, total protein and Mn were measured. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault index. The CRF patients had higher plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid and Mn and a lower GFR than the controls. Plasma Mn was positively correlated with creatinine, plasma urea and plasma uric acid and was negatively correlated with the GFR and the intake of energy and macronutrients. In conclusion, CRF in predialysis patients is associated with increases in circulating levels of Mn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Goktalay, Gokhan; Kayir, Hakan; Eker, Salih S; Sarandol, Asli; Oral, Sema; Buyukuysal, Levent; Ulusoy, Gokhan; Kirli, Selcuk

    2013-08-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous substance, synthesized from l-arginine, and it is proposed to be a new neurotransmitter. Preclinical studies indicated that agmatine may have an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study was organized to investigate plasma agmatine in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy individuals constituted the subjects. Agmatine levels in the plasma were measured using the HPLC method. The S100B protein level, which is a peripheral biomarker for brain damage, was also measured using the ELISA method. While plasma levels of agmatine in patients with schizophrenia were significantly increased (p agmatine levels as a clinical diagnostic test would significantly differentiate between patients with schizophrenia and those in the control group (predictive value: 0.969; p  0.05). A multiple regression analysis revealed that the age of the patient and the severity of the illness, as indicated by the PANSS score, significantly contributed the plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia. These results support the hypothesis that an excess agmatine release is important in the development of schizophrenia. The findings also imply that the plasma agmatine level may be a potential biomarker of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma oxalic acid and calcium levels in oxalate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarembski, P. M.; Hodgkinson, A.

    1967-01-01

    Observations are reported on five cases of suicide or attempted suicide by poisoning with oxalic acid or ethylene glycol. Elevated oxalic acid levels were observed in the plasma, stomach contents, and a number of tissues. Raised oxalic acid levels in plasma were associated with reduced total and ultrafilterable calcium levels. It is suggested that the reduction in plasma total calcium level is due mainly to the deposition of calcium oxalate in the soft tissues, but inhibition of the parathyroid glands may be a contributory factor. Microscopic examination of various tissues indicated that oxalic acid is deposited in the tissues in two forms: (1) crystalline calcium oxalate dihydrate in the kidney and (2) a non-crystalline complex of calcium oxalate and lipid in liver and other tissues. PMID:5602563

  8. Plasma lactoferrin levels in pregnancy and cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, J.A.C.; Thomas, M.J.; Goldie, D.J.; Turner, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma lactoferrin levels have been determined by radioimmunoassay for the different weeks of normal pregnancy, in normal healthy adults and in children with and without cystic fibrosis. The lactoferrin levels were higher in pregnancy than in both male and female normal adults and showed a slight progressive increase up to week 29 and thereafter remained high. Five out of seven children with cystic fibrosis had markedly raised plasma lactoferrin levels from six to 16 times higher than the mean of a control group of children. (Auth.)

  9. Study of plasma adrenomedullin level in normal pregnancy and preclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Azza Abo; Zedan, Magda; el-Salam, Gamal E Abd; el-Mashad, Ashraf I

    2008-02-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether maternal circulating adrenomedullin (AM) values in patients with preeclampsia are different from those in normotensive pregnant women at different gestational ages. In a prospective clinical study, 90 women aged 17 to 40 years old, were divided into 4 main groups: group I (45 women): Normotensive pregnant women at first trimester (15 women), second trimester (15 women), and third trimester (15 women) of pregnancies. Group II (15 women): Pregnant women with preeclampsia at 25 to 38 weeks of gestation. Group III (15 women): Normotensive healthy nonpregnant women. Group IV (15 women): Hypertensive nonpregnant women. The plasma AM concentration was measured in all women by using enzyme immunoassay kits. Plasma AM levels in pregnant women with normal blood pressure at different gestational ages (first, second, and third trimesters) were statistically significantly higher than those detected in nonpregnant normotensive women and significantly increased with increasing gestational age (P < .001). Moreover, there was significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and increasing gestational age (r = 0.915, P < .001). Preeclamptic patients had the highest mean plasma AM levels compared with all other groups, which is statistically significant (P < .001) and there was a significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, severity of preeclampsia, and proteinuria in pregnant patients with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma AM concentration increases throughout pregnancy and increases as gestational age progresses. AM production starts very early in gestation, suggesting that it may have an important role in human reproduction, from implantation to delivery. Maternal plasma AM level in preeclampsia appears to be higher than that in normal pregnancy.

  10. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Silberman, Yuval; Williams, Kayon; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-06-01

    Pavlovian autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs) are complex sequences of conditioned stimulus (CS)-directed skeletal-motor responses that are elicited by CS objects predictive of food unconditioned stimulus (US). Autoshaping CRs are observed under conditions known to be conducive to elevations in plasma corticosterone levels, as, for example, in response to the eating of food as well as in response to signals predictive of food. Two experiments investigated the relationships between Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, the performance of Pavlovian autoshaping CRs, and plasma corticosterone levels in male Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, rats in the CS-US paired group (n=30) were given 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian autoshaping training wherein the insertion of a retractable lever CS was followed by the response-independent presentation of the food US. Tail blood samples obtained after the 20th autoshaping session revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group than in the CS-US random control group (n=10). In Experiment 2, rats (n=35) were assessed for basal plasma corticosterone levels 2 weeks prior to autoshaping training. Plasma samples obtained immediately following the first autoshaping session, and prior to the acquisition of lever-press autoshaping CR performance, revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group (n=24) relative to basal levels. This effect was not observed in the CS-US random control group (n=11). Data suggest that corticosterone release is a physiological endocrine Pavlovian CR induced by lever CS-food US pairings during Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, rather than a by-product of autoshaping CR performance. Implications of the link between autoshaping procedures and corticosterone release are discussed.

  11. Effects of Rakkyofructan on Postprandial Glucose Level in Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    谷, 政八; 池田, 涼子; 谷, 洋子; 小林, 恭一; Tani, Masahachi; Ikeda, Ryouko; Tani, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Kyoichi

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Rakkyofructan on the glucose level in plasma after intake of high carbohydrate diet was investigated.The six healthy female volunteers consumed 50 g of carbohydrate meal (the glucose, the cooked white rice, the bread, or the cooked sweet potato) with or without Rakkyofructan.Blood specimen was collected of before and 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min after intake, and the glucose level in plasma was measured.The peak value (Cmax) and the area under curve (AUC) of blood glucose lev...

  12. A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based method for measuring propranolol on dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Villanelli, Fabio; Giocaliere, Elisa; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Filippi, Luca; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Bagnoli, Paola; Guerrini, Renzo; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2013-05-05

    Propranolol, a non-selective beta blocker drug, is used in young infants and newborns for treating several heart diseases; its pharmacokinetics has been extensively evaluated in adult patients using extrapolation to treat pediatric population. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a method to measure propranolol levels in dried blood spots. The analysis was performed by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curve in matrix was linear in the concentration range of 2.5-200 μg/L with correlation coefficient r=0.9996. Intra-day and inter-day precisions and biases were less than 8.0% (n=10) and 11.5% (n=10) respectively. The recoveries ranged from 94 to 100% and the matrix effect did not result in a severe signal suppression. Propranolol on dried blood spot showed a good stability at three different temperatures for one month. This paper describes a micromethod for measuring propranolol levels on dried blood spot, which determines a great advantage in neonates or young infants during pharmacokinetic studies because of less invasive sampling and small blood volume required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Alteration of plasma prednisolone levels by indomethacin and naproxen.

    OpenAIRE

    Rae, S A; Williams, I A; English, J; Baylis, E M

    1982-01-01

    Eleven patients with stable rheumatoid disease (RD) who were receiving regular corticosteroid therapy (CS) were investigated to discover the effect on plasma prednisolone levels of additional therapy with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs, indomethacin and naproxen. There was a highly significant (P less than 0.001) increase in free prednisolone levels after concurrent therapy with either indomethacin or naproxen for 2 weeks. Total prednisolone levels were unchanged. These resu...

  14. Concentration of (+/-)-propranolol in isolated, perfused lungs of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollery, C T; Junod, A F

    1976-01-01

    1 The metabolism and the accumulation of (+/-)-propranolol have been studied in isolated lungs of the rat, perfused with an artificial medium. 2 Little or no metabolism took place during the perfusion periods (up to 10 minutes). 3 Accumulation was observed with high tissue/medium ratios for substrate concentrations of 0.2 muM to 1 mM; there was evidence for saturability, but no real plateau could be seen. The presence of two binding sites with different affinities was established. 4 Cold greatly inhibited the accumulation process at low substrate concentrations, but had no effect at 1 mM propranolol. 5 Inhibition of accumulation was measured in the presence of imipramine, desmethylimipramine, nortryptiline, chlorpromazine and of Na+-free medium. Cocaine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline had no effect. Lidocaine enhanced the accumulation process. Release of previously bound propranolol was accelerated in the presence of propranolol and imipramine, unaffected by a Na+-free medium and decreased by cold and by lidocaine. 6 Experiments on lung tissue slices yielded qualitatively similar results to those obtained with perfused lungs. Ouabain and KCN had no or little effect on propranolol accumulation. PMID:1276542

  15. Association of plasma protein C levels and coronary artery disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several studies have shown the risk factor causes of coronary heart disease. In this study we tested the hypothesis that plasma protein C level might be used as a biomarker for coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. The study included 60 men that were classified into 3 groups according to clinical examination; ...

  16. Relationship between soil contents and plasma levels of selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil contents of trace elements selenium, chromium and manganese were measured to determine their impact on the plasma levels of 160 healthy adult Nigerians in five different experimental locations in Cross River and Akwa Ibom States, South - South Nigeria. The mean (±SD) soil selenium, chromium and ...

  17. Plasma TGF beta level in rats after hemithoracic irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujaskovic, Z; Down, JD; vanWaarde, MAWH; vanAssen, AJ; Szabo, BG; Konings, AWT

    Changes in TGF-beta plasma levels were observed 18 weeks after hemithoracic irradiation in rats. This coincides with an increase in the breathing frequency, being most pronounced between 22 and 28 weeks after irradiation. The correlation suggests a potential role of the circulating TGF-beta in the

  18. Seasonal changes in plasma testosterone levels in the male South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-18

    Feb 18, 1991 ... It is also known that melatonin, B-endorphin and prolactin are important in the timing of reactivation of reproduction in the European hedgehog (Fowler 1988b). Although the present study, based upon total circulating testosterone levels illustrates a clear seasonal cycle in plasma testosterone in A. fronlalis,.

  19. Disinhibition by propranolol and chlordiazepoxide of nonrewarded lever-pressing in the rat is unaffected by dorsal noradrenergic bundle lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, P; Tsaltas, E; Gray, J A

    1989-03-01

    Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats received 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle and 10 others underwent control operations. The lesion depleted levels of noradrenaline in the hippocampus to 2% of those in the controls. All rats were then trained for 16 sessions to lever-press in a Skinner box on a variable interval 18 sec schedule of food-reinforcement, then for 42 days on a successive discrimination between periods of variable interval (VI 18 sec) food-reinforcement and periods of extinction. This report describes the effects of chlordiazepoxide (CDP; 5 mg/kg) and propranolol (5 and 10 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally in both groups on modified ABBA designs after this training. Both drugs increased the response rates in extinction periods. The effect of propranolol was similar at each dose and smaller than that of CDP. Although CDP and propranolol (5 mg/kg) increased variable interval response rates also, this could not account for the effect on extinction response rates. Responding did not differ between the lesioned and control animals and the effects of drugs were similar in each group. It is unlikely that CDP or propranolol release nonrewarded responding by disrupting transmission in the dorsal noradrenergic bundle.

  20. Obtain and characterization of chitosan / propranolol microparticles by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ednaldo G. do; Silva Junior, Arnobio A. da; Santos, Katia S.C.R. dos

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the application of chitosan microparticles as carriers into hard gelatin capsule containing propranolol, evaluating the variability of the molecular weight and the chitosan particles by spray drying. The formulations were characterized by average weight, dosing unit dose uniformity and dissolution profile according to the pharmacopoeia. While the microparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that chitosan microparticles obtained without the drug and then physically mixed with propranolol promoted a modified release 85% of the drug after 5 hours. While, chitosan microparticles sprayed with propranolol released only 55% at 5 hours is presented both as a modified release system. Samples of dried chitosan showed up amorphous and homogeneous and spherical morphology. (author)

  1. Atenolol vs. propranolol in essential tremor. A controlled, quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T A; Teräväinen, H; Calne, D B

    1982-11-01

    The beta-1 selective, hydrophilic adrenoceptor blocking drug atenolol (100 mg daily) was compared to the non-selective, lipid-soluble beta-blocker propranolol (240 mg daily), and to placebo, in a double-blind cross-over study in 24 patients with essential tremor. Atenolol and propranolol caused a similar decrease in heart rate. Both beta-blockers also suppressed the tremor intensity; there was no significant difference between them, but both were significantly better than placebo. These drugs did not affect tremor frequency. Twelve of the patients preferred propranolol subjectively, one preferred atenolol and none preferred placebo. No marked side-effects were observed. It was concluded that atenolol and other cardio-selective blockers offer an alternative for patients unable to tolerate the non-selective drugs. The site of action and receptor sub-type involved have still to be determined.

  2. Propranolol Effects on Decompression Sickness in a Simulated DISSUB Rescue in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Angela S; Regis, David P; Hall, Aaron A; Mahon, Richard T; Cronin, William A

    2017-04-01

    Disabled submarine (DISSUB) survivors may face elevated CO2 levels and inert gas saturation, putting them at risk for CO2 toxicity and decompression sickness (DCS). Propranolol was shown to reduce CO2 production in an experimental DISSUB model in humans but its effects on DCS in a DISSUB rescue scenario are unknown. A 100% oxygen prebreathe (OPB) reduces DCS incidence and severity and is incorporated into some DISSUB rescue protocols. We used a swine model of DISSUB rescue to study the effect of propranolol on DCS incidence and mortality with and without an OPB. In Experiment 1, male Yorkshire Swine (70 kg) were pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 22 h. Propranolol 1.0 mg · kg-1 (IV) was administered at 21.25 h. At 22 h, the animal was rapidly decompressed and observed for DCS type, onset time, and mortality. Experimental animals (N = 21; 69 ± 4.1 kg), PROP1.0, were compared to PROP1.0-OPB45 (N = 8; 69 ± 2.8 kg) with the same dive profile, except for a 45 min OPB prior to decompression. In Experiment 2, the same methodology was used with the following changes: swine pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 28 h; experimental group (N = 25; 67 ± 3.3 kg), PROP0.5 bis, propranolol 0.5 mg · kg-1 bis (twice) (IV) was administered at 22 h and 26 h. Control animals (N = 25; 67 ± 3.9 kg) received normal saline. OPB reduced mortality in PROP1.0-OBP45 compared to PROP1.0 (0% vs. 71%). PROP0.5 bis had increased mortality compared to CONTROL (60-% vs. 4%). Administration of beta blockers prior to saturation decompression appears to increase DCS and worsen mortality in a swine model; however, their effects in bounce diving remain unknown.Forbes AS, Regis DP, HallAA, Mahon RT, Cronin WA. Propranolol effects on decompression sickness in a simulated DISSUB rescue in swine. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):385-391.

  3. Decreased absorption as a possible cause for the lower bioavailability of a sustained-release propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Ogata, H; Warabioka, R; Kashiwada, K; Ohira, M; Someya, K

    1990-03-01

    The influence of sustained absorption on the oral availability of propranolol (P) and the metabolic disposition of P were investigated by obtaining the partial metabolic clearances (CLm) following long-acting P (LA) dosing in comparison with the conventional propranolol tablet (CP). Ten healthy volunteers were given a single oral dose of an LA capsule (60 mg) and CP (20 mg x 3) using a crossover design. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24- and 48-h postdose periods, respectively. Concentrations of P, propranolol glucuronide (PG), 4-hydroxypropranolol (4P), 4-hydroxypropranolol glucuronide (4PG), 4-hydroxypropranolol sulfate (4PS), and naphthoxylactic acid (NLA) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence and UV detection. Significant differences were observed between LA and CP in the area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs) for P, PG, and NLA and in the amounts excreted into urine (Ae) for all measured metabolites (i.e., PG, 4P, 4PG, 4PS, and NLA). The parallel decrease of the AUC for P and the excreted amounts of all measured metabolites following LA dosing resulted in partial metabolic clearances (CLm) and renal clearances (CL) for P and its metabolites that were similar to those observed for CP. Therefore, the hepatic metabolism of P would not be affected by the slower absorption at a single oral dose of 60 mg. These results indicate that the poor absorption of P from the gastrointestinal tract might be one of the factors causing the low bioavailability of P observed after administration of the sustained-release formulation.

  4. Plasma klotho levels decrease in both anorexia nervosa and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitani, Marie; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Kaimoto, Kaori; Sameshima, Nanami; Koyama, Ken Ichiro; Haruta, Izumi; Tsai, Minglun; Nakahara, Toshihiro; Ushikai, Miharu; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Hamada, Satoshi; Inui, Akio

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of klotho with body mass index (BMI) in patients with restricting-type anorexia nervosa (r-AN) and obesity. We examined plasma klotho as well as adiponectin and its isoform levels in comparison in 11 obese patients, 12 r-AN patients, and 11 control participants. Plasma klotho levels were markedly lower in the obesity and r-AN groups than in the control group. Moreover, plasma klotho levels increased significantly after the recovery of BMI in r-AN patients. Total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin levels were significantly decreased only in obesity. There was no relationship between klotho and total adiponectin levels or klotho and respective adiponectin isoform levels in the entire study population. These results suggest that klotho may reflect normal nutritional state, and that the decrease of klotho in r-AN and obesity may underlie the deteriorating processes of these disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma levels of progesterone in cycling and pregnant ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.P.; Rao, P.N.; Reddy, B.B.; Murthy, A.S.N.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma progesterone profile of six cycling and three pregnant Nellore ewes was estimated by radioimmunoassay. The progesterone level of cycling ewes started rising from undetectable level on the day of oestrus to a mean peak value of 0.41 ± 0.09ng/ml during post oestrus day 10 to 14 and then declined to undetectable levels 1 to 2 days before subsequent oestrus. But the progesterone levels of pregnant ewes exhibited further raise from the post oestrus day 14 to the day 40. However, no correlation between oestrous cycle length and the total progesterone produced during the oestrous cycle was observed. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs

  6. High levels of circulating triiodothyronine induce plasma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Flavia Fonseca; Oliveira, Felipe Leite de; Nobrega, Alberto Félix; Vasconcellos, Rita; Cordeiro, Aline; Paiva, Luciana Souza de; Taub, Dennis D; Borojevic, Radovan; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas; Mello-Coelho, Valéria de

    2014-03-01

    The effects of hyperthyroidism on B-cell physiology are still poorly known. In this study, we evaluated the influence of high-circulating levels of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) on bone marrow, blood, and spleen B-cell subsets, more specifically on B-cell differentiation into plasma cells, in C57BL/6 mice receiving daily injections of T3 for 14 days. As analyzed by flow cytometry, T3-treated mice exhibited increased frequencies of pre-B and immature B-cells and decreased percentages of mature B-cells in the bone marrow, accompanied by an increased frequency of blood B-cells, splenic newly formed B-cells, and total CD19(+)B-cells. T3 administration also promoted an increase in the size and cellularity of the spleen as well as in the white pulp areas of the organ, as evidenced by histological analyses. In addition, a decreased frequency of splenic B220(+) cells correlating with an increased percentage of CD138(+) plasma cells was observed in the spleen and bone marrow of T3-treated mice. Using enzyme-linked immunospot assay, an increased number of splenic immunoglobulin-secreting B-cells from T3-treated mice was detected ex vivo. Similar results were observed in mice immunized with hen egg lysozyme and aluminum adjuvant alone or together with treatment with T3. In conclusion, we provide evidence that high-circulating levels of T3 stimulate plasma cytogenesis favoring an increase in plasma cells in the bone marrow, a long-lived plasma cell survival niche. These findings indicate that a stimulatory effect on plasma cell differentiation could occur in untreated patients with Graves' disease.

  7. Plasma neuropeptide Y levels differ in distinct diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Aysegül; Rasul, Sazan; Dimitrov, Alexander; Handisurya, Ammon; Gartner, Wolfgang; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Wagner, Ludwig; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Base, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important hormone in appetite regulation. Although the contribution of NPY to metabolic disease has been previously demonstrated, there are only a few reports addressing NPY plasma levels under distinct diabetic conditions. In this study we evaluated NPY plasma levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients with (n=34) and without (n=34) diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP) and compared these with age and gender matched healthy controls (n=34). We also analyzed NPY plasma levels in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients with age and pregnancy-week matched controls with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). NPY concentration was determined using a commercially available radioimmunoassay kit. In addition, metabolic parameters of DM2 and GDM patients were recorded. One-way ANOVA tests with appropriate post hoc corrections showed elevated levels of NPY in DM2 patients with and without PNP when compared with those of healthy controls (122.32±40.86 and 117.33±29.92 vs. 84.65±52.17 pmol/L; pwomen with NGT (74.87±14.36 vs. 84.82±51.13 pmol/L, respectively). Notably, the NPY concentration correlated positively with insulin levels in DM2 patients (R=0.35, pDM2 pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Propranolol on Thyroxine-Induced Changes in Body Temperature and Metabolism During Exercise in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Brzezinska, Zofia; Greenleaf, John E.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of thyroxine on temperature and metabolism during exercise were studied in dogs after beta-adrenergic blockade. Dogs performed 60 min treadmill exercise of moderate intensity 5 and 72 h following thyroxine injected s. c. in a single dose of 0.1 mg/kg b.w. Thyroxine increased significantly the lipolytic response to exercise as well as blood lactate (LA) concentrations and rectal temperature (T(sub re)) during exercise as early as 5 h following the hormone administration. The changes became more pronounced 72 h after the injection. At rest T(sub re), blood FFA (free fatty acid) and LA levels in the thyroxine-treated dogs did not differ from the control values, and blood glucose was slightly, but significantly higher. Propranolol given intravenously in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg at 30 min of the exercise performed 72 h following thyroxine injection abolished the plasma FFA rise, and inhibited to a certain extent increases in T(sub re) and blood LA concentrations during the next 30 min of exercise.

  9. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste processing in plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauchyn, V.; Khvedchyn, I.; Van Oost, G.

    2013-01-01

    Methods of low and intermediate level radioactive waste processing comprise: cementation, bituminization, curing in polymer matrices, combustion and pyrolysis. All these methods are limited in their application in the field of chemical, morphological, and aggregate composition of material to be processed. The thermal plasma method is one of the universal methods of RAW processing. The use of electric-arc plasma with mean temperatures 2000 - 8000 K can effectively carry out the destruction of organic compounds into atoms and ions with very high speeds and high degree of conversion. Destruction of complex substances without oxygen leads to a decrease of the volume of exhaust gases and dimension of gas cleaning system. This paper presents the plasma reactor for thermal processing of low and intermediate level radioactive waste of mixed morphology. The equipment realizes plasma-pyrolytic conversion of wastes and results in a conditioned product in a single stage. As a result, the volume of conditioned waste is significantly reduced (more than 10 times). Waste is converted into an environmentally friendly form that suits long-term storage. The leaching rate of macro-components from the vitrified compound is less than 1.10 -7 g/(cm 2 .day). (authors)

  10. Alteration of plasma prednisolone levels by indomethacin and naproxen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, S A; Williams, I A; English, J; Baylis, E M

    1982-01-01

    Eleven patients with stable rheumatoid disease (RD) who were receiving regular corticosteroid therapy (CS) were investigated to discover the effect on plasma prednisolone levels of additional therapy with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs, indomethacin and naproxen. There was a highly significant (P less than 0.001) increase in free prednisolone levels after concurrent therapy with either indomethacin or naproxen for 2 weeks. Total prednisolone levels were unchanged. These results could provide an explanation for clinical reports that these two NSAI drugs possess a steroid-sparing effect. PMID:7126420

  11. Radio frequency plasma nitriding of aluminium at higher power levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gredelj, Sabina; Kumar, Sunil; Gerson, Andrea R.; Cavallaro, Giuseppe P.

    2006-01-01

    Nitriding of aluminium 2011 using a radio frequency plasma at higher power levels (500 and 700 W) and lower substrate temperature (500 deg. C) resulted in higher AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios than obtained at 100 W and 575 deg. C. AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios derived from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis (and corroborated by heavy ion elastic recoil time of flight spectrometry) for treatments preformed at 100 (575 deg. C), 500 (500 deg. C) and 700 W (500 deg. C) were 1.0, 1.5 and 3.3, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that plasma nitrided surfaces obtained at higher power levels exhibited much finer nodular morphology than obtained at 100 W

  12. Haloperidol plasma levels in relation to antimanic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Annette; Bech, P.; Christensen, Christian Broen

    2016-01-01

    n the treatment of mania, lithium (Li) has been found in several controlled studies as clearly superior to placebo, but haloperidol, when compared to Li, seems to be faster acting, at least with regard to motor activity (Shopsin et al., 1975). Hence, haloperidol has increasingly been recommended...... as the antimanic drug of choice (Shaw, 1979). However, the recommended dose of haloperidol for mania varies extremely, from 4 mg to 100 mg daily (Hollister, 1978). The haloperidol dose required obviously depends on the severity of the manic state, but might also depend on the metabolism of the drug, which varies...... in different patients (Forsman, 1977). To our knowledge the relationship between plasma levels of haloperidol and antimanic effect has not been evaluated. In the present study we have measured plasma levels of haloperidol in manic patients treated with a fixed haloperidol dose and examined the relationship...

  13. Effect of propranolol on survival in patients with decompensated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich C; Benfield, Thomas; Hyldstrup, Lars

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We assessed the impact of propranolol on death, risk of hepatorenal syndrome and peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: This study was a retrospective observational study and data were retrieved from Danish databases. We used our own criteria to stratify the patients...

  14. Neuroanatomical heterogeneity of essential tremor according to propranolol response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Jong Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that essential tremor (ET is a more complex and heterogeneous clinical entity than initially thought. In the present study, we assessed the pattern of cortical thickness and diffusion tensor white matter (WM changes in patients with ET according to the response to propranolol to explore the pathogenesis underlying the clinical heterogeneity of ET. METHODS: A total of 32 patients with drug naive ET were recruited prospectively from the Movement Disorders outpatient clinic. The patients were divided into a propranolol-responder group (n = 18 and a non-responder group (n = 14. We analyzed the pattern of cortical thickness and diffusion tensor WM changes between these two groups and performed correlation analysis between imaging and clinical parameters. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics, general cognition, or results of detailed neuropsychological tests between the groups. The non-responder group showed more severe cortical atrophy in the left orbitofrontal cortex and right temporal cortex relative to responders. However, the responders exhibited significantly lower fractional anisotropy values in the bilateral frontal, corpus callosal, and right parietotemporal WM compared with the non-responder group. There were no significant clusters where the cortical thickness or WM alterations were significantly correlated with initial tremor severity or disease duration. CONCLUSIONS: The present data suggest that patients with ET have heterogeneous cortical thinning and WM alteration with respect to responsiveness to propranolol, suggesting that propranolol responsiveness may be a predictive factor to determine ET subtypes in terms of neuroanatomical heterogeneity.

  15. The pathogenesis of propranolol-withdrawal syndrome in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, B O; Steiness, E; Weeke, J

    1979-12-01

    1. In hypertension, the beta-adrenoreceptor-blocker-withdrawal syndrome comprises tachycardia, sweating, tremor and general malaise, symptoms resembling thyrotoxicosis. 2. The effect of abrupt cessation of propranolol on serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) was therefore investigated in five patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension, treated with propranolol in doses from 160 to 480 mg/day. 3. Four of the five patients developed one or more of the above-mentioned symptoms within 2-6 days after withdrawal of propranolol. 4. A mean relative increase in serum free T3 of 51% (range 22-74%) was found in these four patients on the day of onset of symptoms. 5. The increase in free T3 in the five patients correlated positively with total serum propranolol on the last day the drug was given (r = 0.91, 2P = 0.03). 6. As an increase in T3 was found only in patients suffering the withdrawal syndrome, and was maximal the day the symptoms appeared, despite a variation in time of onset from 2 to 6 days, it is suggested that the beta-adrenoreceptor-blocker-withdrawal syndrome, at least partially, is caused by rebound increased production of T3, induced by the well-known inhibition of the monodeiodination of T4 to T3 during beta-adrenoreceptor blockade. 7. This assumption may explain the clinical symptoms and the reported transient increased beta-adrenoreceptor sensitivity with unchanged serum concentrations of catecholamines.

  16. Modulation of Human Plasma Fibronectin Levels Following Exercise,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    forms of this large molecular weight (440 kilodaltons) glycoprotein,(17. While the tissue type is cell-associated and important to cell adhesion and...increased under conditions of pathology, such as in obesity (6). cancer (3). proteinuria (4). diabetic retinopathy (5). and preeclampsia (27). in the absence...Res. 1977: 22:709-716. 27. Stubbs. T.M.. Lazarchick. J.. and Horger. E.O. Plasma fibronectin levels in preeclampsia : A possible biochemical marker

  17. Relationship between Plasma Leptin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone shown to be related to several metabolic, inflammatory, and hemostatic factors related to chronic kidney disease. Recent animal studies have reported that infusion of recombinant leptin into normal rats for 3 weeks fosters the development of glomerulosclerosis. However, few studies have examined the association between leptin and CKD in humans. Therefore, we examined the association between plasma leptin levels and CKD in a representative sample of US adults. Methods. We examined the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age (n=5820, 53.6% women. Plasma leptin levels were categorized into quartiles (≤4.3 Fg/L, 4.4–8.7 Fg/L, 8.8–16.9 Fg/L, >16.9 Fg/L. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine. Results. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with CKD after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI, diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared to quartile 1 of leptin (referent, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval of CKD associated with quartile 4 was 3.31 (1.41 to 7.78; P-trend = 0.0135. Subgroup analyses examining the relation between leptin and CKD by gender, BMI categories, diabetes, and hypertension status also showed a consistent positive association. Conclusion. Higher plasma leptin levels are associated with CKD in a representative sample of US adults.

  18. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transplacental and mammary passage of radioactivity in rats treated vaginally and orally with [14C]propranolol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttar, H.S.; Moffatt, J.H.; Bura, C.

    1988-01-01

    Single doses (10 mg/kg) of an aqueous solution of [14C]propranolol were administered either orally (po) or intravaginally (ivg) on gestational d 15, or on postpartum d 7-10. Upon ivg administration, [14C]propranolol was quickly transferred to systemic circulation and the mean blood [14C] concentrations were significantly greater during the first 0.25-2 h than in po dosed counterparts. About 98% of the ivg applied dose was absorbed after 6 h in gravid rats, and the combined 6-h excretions of radioactivity in the urine (ivg = 24.6%; po = 22.9%) and feces (ivg = 16.8%; po = 14.6%) were equivalent in both groups. At the end of 6 h, the levels of [14C] in the urinary bladder, adrenal, uterus, ovary, spleen, skeletal muscle, brain, heart, lung and fat were significantly higher in ivg treated rats than po dosed animals. Compared with the maternal plasma (ivg = 0.76; po = 0.88 microgram/ml), the mean concentrations of [14C] in the placentas were similar in both groups, while the amounts of [14C] were three to five times lower in the amniotic fluids and the fetuses of both po and ivg treated dams. In lactating rats, over 99% of the administered radioactivity was absorbed from the vagina within 6 h. The blood concentrations of [14C] were significantly elevated at 0.5 and 1 h in the per vaginam treated animals, and afterward the disappearance rate of [14C] followed a similar course in both groups. Following ivg application, the milk radioactivity peaked at 0.5 h and declined rapidly. However, the appearance of [14C] in milk was rather slow after oral dosing: the milk [14C] peaked between 2 and 3 h posttreatment and remained steady thereafter. The milk to blood (M/B) [14C] concentration ratios were markedly greater during 0.5 to 1 h in the ivg group than in their po dosed counterparts

  20. Systemic propranolol acts centrally to reduce conditioned fear in rats without impairing extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Romaguera, Jose; Sotres-Bayon, Francisco; Mueller, Devin; Quirk, Gregory J

    2009-05-15

    Previous work has implicated noradrenergic beta-receptors in the consolidation and reconsolidation of conditioned fear. Less is known, however, about their role in fear expression and extinction. The beta-receptor blocker propranolol has been used clinically to reduce anxiety. With an auditory fear conditioning task in rats, we assessed the effects of systemic propranolol on the expression and extinction of two measures of conditioned fear: freezing and suppression of bar-pressing. One day after receiving auditory fear conditioning, rats were injected with saline, propranolol, or peripheral beta-receptor blocker sotalol (both 10 mg/kg, IP). Twenty minutes after injection, rats were given either 6 or 12 extinction trials and were tested for extinction retention the following day. The effect of propranolol on the firing rate of neurons in prelimbic (PL) prefrontal cortex was also assessed. Propranolol reduced freezing by more than 50%, an effect that was evident from the first extinction trial. Suppression was also significantly reduced. Despite this, propranolol had no effect on the acquisition or retention of extinction. Unlike propranolol, sotalol did not affect fear expression, although both drugs significantly reduced heart rate. This suggests that propranolol acts centrally to reduce fear. Consistent with this, propranolol reduced the firing rate of PL neurons. Propranolol reduced the expression of conditioned fear, without interfering with extinction learning. Reduced fear with intact extinction suggests a possible use for propranolol in reducing anxiety during extinction-based exposure therapies, without interfering with long-term clinical response.

  1. Comparative influence of propranolol and verapamil on glycemic control and histamine sensitivity associated with L-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism - an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Parloop A; Makwana, Dharmesh

    2008-02-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the comparative effectiveness of beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and calcium channel blocker verapamil on L-thyroxine-induced alteration on glycemic control and histamine sensitivity on rats and guinea pigs, respectively. Injection of L-thyroxine sodium every alternate day for 3 weeks in guinea pigs (75 microg/kg, i.p.) and rats (75 mg/kg, s.c.) produced a condition similar to thyrotoxicosis. Verapamil and propranolol administered daily in the third week along with L-thyroxine to two separate groups of hyperthyroid animals reversed thyroxine-induced loss in body weight, reduction in serum TSH levels, and rise in body temperature. Effect on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity was studied on rats. Compared to normal rats, L-thyroxine-treated animals showed a state of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance. Propranolol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment significantly decreased fasting serum glucose levels without affecting serum insulin levels, AUC glucose, and K(ITT) values. Treatment with verapamil (5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced fasting serum glucose and insulin levels, AUC glucose, and significantly increased K(ITT) values. Effect of propranolol (15 mg/kg, orally) and verapamil (20 mg/kg, orally) treatment on histamine sensitivity was studied on L-thyroxine-treated guinea pigs. Compared to normal guinea pigs, L-thyroxine-treated guinea pigs showed an increased sensitivity to histamine-induced asphyxia. Verapamil treatment reversed this increased histamine sensitivity while propranolol aggravated it. In conclusion, compared to propranolol, verapamil has advantageous effects on glucose metabolism, insulin and histamine sensitivity and could therefore be a valuable addition as an adjunctive therapy option currently available for thyrotoxicosis associated with diabetes and/or anaphylaxis.

  2. Tocopherols and tocotrienols plasma levels are associated with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Xu, Weili; Kivipelto, Miia; Costanzi, Emanuela; Ercolani, Sara; Pigliautile, Martina; Cecchetti, Roberta; Baglioni, Mauro; Simmons, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Tsolaki, Magda; Kloszewska, Iwona; Vellas, Bruno; Lovestone, Simon; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin E includes 8 natural compounds (4 tocopherols, 4 tocotrienols) with potential neuroprotective activity. α-Tocopherol has mainly been investigated in relation to cognitive impairment. We examined the relation of all plasma vitamin E forms and markers of vitamin E damage (α-tocopherylquinone, 5-nitro-γ-tocopherol) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Within the AddNeuroMed-Project, plasma tocopherols, tocotrienols, α-tocopherylquinone, and 5-nitro-γ-tocopherol were assessed in 168 AD cases, 166 MCI, and 187 cognitively normal (CN) people. Compared with cognitively normal subjects, AD and MCI had lower levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, and total vitamin E. In multivariable-polytomous-logistic regression analysis, both MCI and AD cases had 85% lower odds to be in the highest tertile of total tocopherols and total vitamin E, and they were, respectively, 92% and 94% less likely to be in the highest tertile of total tocotrienols than the lowest tertile. Further, both disorders were associated with increased vitamin E damage. Low plasma tocopherols and tocotrienols levels are associated with increased odds of MCI and AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ghrelin plasma levels in patients with idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Germán; Román, Rossana; Youlton, Ronald; Cassorla, Fernando; Mericq, Verónica

    2011-02-01

    Novel molecular insights have suggested that ghrelin may be involved in the pathogenesis of some forms of short stature. Recently, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) mutations that segregate with short stature have been reported. To study plasma ghrelin levels in prepubertal patients with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Fasting total plasma ghrelin levels (radioimmunoassay) in 41 prepubertal patients with ISS (18 females, age 7.9 ± 0.5 years) compared with 42 age- and sex-matched controls (27 females, age 8.0 ± 0.3 years) with normal height. In a subset of 28 patients, the ghrelin receptor was sequenced. ISS patients exhibited a higher level of ghrelin (1,458 ± 137 vs. 935 ± 55 pg/ml, p ghrelin levels greater than +2 SDS compared to controls. These patients did not differ in height, BMI or IGF-I SDS compared to ISS patients with ghrelin levels within the normal range. Molecular analysis of GHSR did not show any mutations, but showed some polymorphisms. These results suggest that in ISS patients, short stature does not appear to be frequently caused by abnormalities in ghrelin signaling. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Association between plasma kisspeptin levels and adolescent gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluclu, Mustafa Arif; Sen, Selcuk; Cevik, Muazez

    2016-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as benign proliferation of male breast glandular tissue. To date, the pathophysiology of adolescent gynecomastia (AG) remains unclear. Kisspeptin is a polypeptide that plays an important role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis. In this study, we investigated whether there is a relationship between kisspeptin and AG. This study included 40 males between 9 and 18 years of age diagnosed with gynecomastia. The control group consisted of 30 young healthy males in the same age range. The participants were evaluated with respect to anthropometric measurements (age, height, body weight, body mass index, breast and pubic stages and testicular volume). The levels of kisspeptin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and ratio of E2 to T were measured in both groups. The mean age was 13.8 years. There were no differences between the groups in terms of anthropometric parameters, plasma gonadotropin levels, estrogen levels, and E2/T (P > 0.05). Plasma kisspeptin (0.77 and 0.54 ng/mL, P < 0.05) and T (253.9 ng/dL and 117.9 ng/dL) levels were significantly higher in the AG group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Kisspeptin levels are an important factor in AG.

  5. Association between plasma kisspeptin levels and adolescent gynecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Arif Aluclu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gynecomastia is defined as benign proliferation of male breast glandular tissue. To date, the pathophysiology of adolescent gynecomastia (AG remains unclear. Kisspeptin is a polypeptide that plays an important role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis. In this study, we investigated whether there is a relationship between kisspeptin and AG. Materials and Methods: This study included 40 males between 9 and 18 years of age diagnosed with gynecomastia. The control group consisted of 30 young healthy males in the same age range. The participants were evaluated with respect to anthropometric measurements (age, height, body weight, body mass index, breast and pubic stages and testicular volume. The levels of kisspeptin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, and ratio of E2 to T were measured in both groups. Results: The mean age was 13.8 years. There were no differences between the groups in terms of anthropometric parameters, plasma gonadotropin levels, estrogen levels, and E2/T (P > 0.05. Plasma kisspeptin (0.77 and 0.54 ng/mL, P < 0.05 and T (253.9 ng/dL and 117.9 ng/dL levels were significantly higher in the AG group than in the control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Kisspeptin levels are an important factor in AG.

  6. Plasma debrisoquin levels in the assessment of reduction of plasma homovanillic acid. The debrisoquin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, M A; Jatlow, P I; Anderson, G M; Cho, S C; Hardin, M T; Cohen, D J; Leckman, J F

    1989-06-01

    Plasma concentrations of unconjugated homovanillic acid (pHVA) reflect both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral dopamine metabolism. Debrisoquin sulfate (DBQ) blocks peripheral, but not CNS, production of HVA from dopamine. Administration of DBQ has been used to decrease the proportion of peripherally produced HVA in pHVA measurements, making such measurements more reflective of CNS turnover of dopamine. We studied the relationships between DBQ dose, plasma DBQ (pDBQ) levels, and changes in pHVA in a group of 21 subjects (9 normal controls and 12 with Tourette's syndrome). DBQ dose was moderately correlated with pDBQ levels (r = 0.63, p = 0.002). Subjects (n = 8) with mean pDBQ levels above 60 ng/ml had a 48% to 66% decrease in mean pHVA levels; this may reflect nearly complete inhibition of peripheral HVA production. Subjects (n = 13) with mean pDBQ levels below 55 ng/ml had decreases in pHVA levels from 10% to 58%. No debrisoquin was detected in cerebrospinal fluid samples. These data suggest that pDBQ levels above 60 ng/ml are sufficient to assure substantial inhibition of peripheral HVA production and that monitoring pDBQ levels may be useful when employing this method for studying CNS metabolism.

  7. Decreased plasma levels of the endothelial protective sphingosine-1-phosphate are associated with dengue-induced plasma leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.; Japtok, L.; Alisjahbana, B.; Wisaksana, R.; Sumardi, U.; Puspita, M.; Kleuser, B.; Mast, Q. de; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A transient endothelial hyperpermeability is a hallmark of severe dengue infections. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) maintains vascular integrity and protects against plasma leakage. We related plasma S1P levels to dengue-induced plasma leakage and studied mechanisms that may underlie the

  8. Analysis of Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Patients with Unstable Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Tavares

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To determine the prevalence of hyperhomocystinemia in patients with acute ischemic syndrome of the unstable angina type. METHODS - We prospectively studied 46 patients (24 females with unstable angina and 46 control patients (19 males, paired by sex and age, blinded to the laboratory data. Details of diets, smoking habits, medication used, body mass index, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes were recorded, as were plasma lipid and glucose levels, C-reactive protein, and lipoperoxidation in all participants. Patients with renal disease were excluded. Plasma homocysteine was estimated using high-pressure liquid chromatography. RESULTS - Plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the group of patients with unstable angina (12.7±6.7 µmol/L than in the control group (8.7±4.4 µmol/L (p<0.05. Among males, homocystinemia was higher in the group with unstable angina than in the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant (14.1±5.9 µmol/L versus 11.9±4.2 µmol/L. Among females, however, a statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 groups: 11.0±7.4 µmol/L versus 6.4±2.9 µmol/L (p<0.05 in the unstable angina and control groups, respectively. Approximately 24% of the patients had unstable angina at homocysteine levels above 15 µmol/L. CONCLUSION - High homocysteine levels seem to be a relevant prevalent factor in the population with unstable angina, particularly among females.

  9. The association between estimated average glucose levels and fasting plasma glucose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giray Bozkaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, also known as glycated hemoglobin, determines how well a patient's blood glucose level has been controlled over the previous 8-12 weeks. HbA1c levels help patients and doctors understand whether a particular diabetes treatment is working and whether adjustments need to be made to the treatment. Because the HbA1c level is a marker of blood glucose for the previous 120 days, average blood glucose levels can be estimated using HbA1c levels. Our aim in the present study was to investigate the relationship between estimated average glucose levels, as calculated by HbA1c levels, and fasting plasma glucose levels. METHODS: The fasting plasma glucose levels of 3891 diabetic patient samples (1497 male, 2394 female were obtained from the laboratory information system used for HbA1c testing by the Department of Internal Medicine at the Izmir Bozyaka Training and Research Hospital in Turkey. These samples were selected from patient samples that had hemoglobin levels between 12 and 16 g/dL. The estimated glucose levels were calculated using the following formula: 28.7 x HbA1c - 46.7. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined using hexokinase and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods, respectively. RESULTS: A strong positive correlation between fasting plasma glucose levels and estimated average blood glucose levels (r=0.757, p<0.05 was observed. The difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Reporting the estimated average glucose level together with the HbA1c level is believed to assist patients and doctors determine the effectiveness of blood glucose control measures.

  10. The combined propranolol/TSST paradigm--a new method for psychoneuroendocrinology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Andrews

    Full Text Available Upon perception of a stimulus as stressful, the human brain reacts with the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS, to mobilize energy resources to better cope with the stressor. Since the perception of the stressor is the initial stimulus, a synchronicity between the subjective perception of stress and the physiological stress reactivity should be expected. However, according to a recent meta-analysis, these associations are weak and inconsistent. The goal of the current study was to investigate the interaction between the SNS, HPA and subjective stress perceptions, by introducing an experimental manipulation of this interaction. For this purpose, we combined the SNS inhibitor propranolol with the Trier Social Stress Test, and measured endocrinological and psychological responses to the stressor. Thirty healthy male participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either a propranolol (PROP; n = 15 or placebo (PLC; n = 15 group. All subjects were administered 80 mg of propranolol 60 minutes prior to exposure to psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase (sAA, heart rate, blood pressure and subjective stress responses were assessed throughout the study. We observed significantly reduced sAA levels and heart rate increases in the PROP group in response to stress, with no effects of the drug on systolic or diastolic blood pressure changes. In line with previous studies, a significant increase in cortisol was seen in response to the stress exposure. Importantly, the cortisol increase was significantly higher in the PROP group. A typical increase in subjective stress could be seen in both groups, with no significant group differences emerging. Complementing previous work, this study further demonstrates a significant interaction between the HPA and the SNS during acute stress. The HPA activity was found to be elevated in the presence of a suppressed SNS in

  11. Multi-generational effects of propranolol on Daphnia magna at different environmental concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Tae-Yong; Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Sang Don

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of propranolol on Daphnia magna (D. magna), we employed a multi-generational exposure period for eight generations and an environmentally relevant low concentration with 1.5 ng/L, 0.2 μg/L and 26 μg/L to reflect a realistic exposure scenario. Physiological endpoints were checked, including growth, number of neonates, heart rate, frequency of abdominal appendage movement and malformation rate of neonates. In the results, growth and abdominal appendage movement were affected by environmental concentration during several generations, and the responses showed consistent tendencies of response increase with concentration increase. Heart rate was the only endpoint affected throughout all exposure generations. Inhibitory and acceleratory effects on heart rate, growth and abdominal appendage movement suggest that it is necessary to cover sub-lethal endpoints of non-targeted organisms in eco-toxicity study because the physiological responses were detected at much lower concentrations than the results of traditional toxicity tests, including environmental concentration. - Highlights: • Multi-generational exposure was conducted to evaluate the effect of propranolol on Daphnia magna. • Heart rate was the only endpoint affected throughout all exposure generations. • Growth and abdominal appendage movement were affected at environmental concentrations. • Time series fluctuations in responses appeared with no tendencies throughout all generations. • It is necessary to cover sub-organismal endpoints and long-term exposure in ecotoxicity test. - Heart rate, growth and abdominal appendage movement of D. magna were affected by the multigenerational exposure of propranolol at environmental levels.

  12. Development and validation of an in vitro–in vivo correlation (IVIVC model for propranolol hydrochloride extended-release matrix formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinhwa Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro–in vivo correlation (IVIVC model for hydrophilic matrix extended-release (ER propranolol dosage formulations. The in vitro release characteristics of the drug were determined using USP apparatus I at 100 rpm, in a medium of varying pH (from pH 1.2 to pH 6.8. In vivo plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters in male beagle dogs were obtained after administering oral, ER formulations and immediate-release (IR commercial products. The similarity factor f2 was used to compare the dissolution data. The IVIVC model was developed using pooled fraction dissolved and fraction absorbed of propranolol ER formulations, ER-F and ER-S, with different release rates. An additional formulation ER-V, with a different release rate of propranolol, was prepared for evaluating the external predictability. The results showed that the percentage prediction error (%PE values of Cmax and AUC0–∞ were 0.86% and 5.95%, respectively, for the external validation study. The observed low prediction errors for Cmax and AUC0–∞ demonstrated that the propranolol IVIVC model was valid.

  13. Atomic properties in hot plasmas from levels to superconfigurations

    CERN Document Server

    Bauche, Jacques; Peyrusse, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the calculation of hot-plasma properties which generally requires a huge number of atomic data. It is the first book that combines information on the details of the basic atomic physics and its application to atomic spectroscopy with the use of the relevant statistical approaches. Information like energy levels, radiative rates, collisional and radiative cross-sections, etc., must be included in equilibrium or non-equilibrium models in order to describe both the atomic-population kinetics and the radiative properties. From the very large number of levels and transitions involved in complex ions, some statistical (global) properties emerge. The book presents a coherent set of concepts and compact formulas suitable for tractable and accurate calculations. The topics addressed are: radiative emission and absorption, and a dozen of other collisional and radiative processes; transition arrays between level ensembles (configurations, superconfigurations); effective temperatures of configurat...

  14. Heterogeneity in plasma homovanillic Acid levels in schizophreniform disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, N; Harihar, C; Das, P; Andrade, C

    1992-04-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were estimated in 20 cases of schizophreniform disorder, 14 cases of schizophrenia 'on medication' and 17 cases of schizophrenia 'off medication'. A bimodal distribution of pHVA was seen in schizophreniform disorder subjects, suggesting heterogenous groups in terms of dopaminergic function. No significant difference in the pHVA values was seen in the 3 groups, nor was there a relationship between the severity of the illness and the pHVA values; these results suggest plasticity of the dopaminergic system to neuroleptics.

  15. HETEROGENEITY IN PLASMA HOMOVANILLIC ACID LEVELS IN SCHIZOPHRENIFORM DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, N.; Harihar, C.; Das, P.; Andrade, C.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were estimated in 20 cases of schizophreniform disorder, 14 cases of schizophrenia ‘on medication’ and 17 cases of schizophrenia ‘off medication’. A bimodal distribution of pHVA was seen in schizophreniform disorder subjects, suggesting heterogenous groups in terms of dopaminergic function. No significant difference in the pHVA values was seen in the 3 groups, nor was there a relationship between the severity of the illness and the pHVA values; these res...

  16. Caloric Restriction and Exercise Increase Plasma ANGPTL4 Levels in Humans via Elevated Free Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, A.H.; Lichtenstein, L.L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, C.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective - Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  17. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Muller, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  18. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  19. Plasma testosterone levels in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, M S; DeLong, M R; Hanfelt, J; Gearing, M; Levey, A

    2004-02-10

    Testosterone deficiency, a treatable condition commonly seen in aging men, has been linked to Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD). In normal subjects, low testosterone levels are associated with cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, yet the relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive function in PD and AD remains unclear. To examine the relationship of testosterone levels to age and cognitive function in PD and AD. Plasma testosterone levels were determined in men enrolled in a clinical registry of subjects with PD and AD, and neuropsychological testing was performed on subjects who consented. Testosterone levels in men with PD were compared with those in men with AD. In both groups, the relationship between testosterone levels and neuropsychological test scores was analyzed, adjusting for age and education. Linear regression analysis revealed that testosterone levels decreased with age in male PD patients (p frontal lobe dysfunction in normal aged men, together with these results, suggest that the hormonal deficiency may act as a "second hit" to impair cognitive function in neurodegenerative disease.

  20. Propranolol decreases retention of fear memory by modulating the stability of surface glutamate receptor GluA1 subunits in the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Jie-Ting; Li, Ming-Xing; Wang, Can-Ming; Guan, Xin-Lei; Wu, Peng-Fei; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Jin, You; Ni, Lan; Wang, Fang; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder with enhanced retention of fear memory and has profound impact on quality of life for millions of people worldwide. The β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol has been used in preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of PTSD, but the mechanisms underlying its potential efficacy on fear memory retention remain to be elucidated. We investigated the action of propranolol on the retention of conditioned fear memory, the surface expression of glutamate receptor GluA1 subunits of AMPA receptors and synaptic adaptation in the lateral amygdala (LA) of rats. Propranolol attenuated reactivation-induced strengthening of fear retention while reducing enhanced surface expression of GluA1 subunits and restoring the impaired long-term depression in LA. These effects of propranolol were mediated by antagonizing reactivation-induced enhancement of adrenergic signalling, which activates PKA and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and then regulates the trafficking of AMPA receptors via phosphorylation of GluA1 subunits at the C-terminus. Both i.p. injection and intra-amygdala infusion of propranolol attenuated reactivation-induced enhancement of fear retention. Reactivation strengthens fear retention by increasing the level of noradrenaline and promotes the surface expression of GluA1 subunits and the excitatory synaptic transmission in LA. These findings uncover one mechanism underlying the efficiency of propranolol on retention of fear memories and suggest that β-adrenoceptor antagonists, which act centrally, may be more suitable for the treatment of PTSD. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Effect of oral propranolol administration on azygos, renal and hepatic uptake and output of catecholamines in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J; Sørensen, T I

    1991-01-01

    Circulating catecholamines are increased in cirrhosis with portal hypertension, and increase further after propranolol. In 23 cirrhotic patients, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine were determined in an artery, the azygos vein, the right renal vein and a hepatic vein before and after an oral 80...... to the circulation) and clearance of epinephrine remained unaltered. Hepatointestinal clearance showed no significant change for norepinephrine, but showed a borderline-significant decrease for epinephrine (-23%, p = 0.08). Our results show a net production of norepinephrine in the prehepatic splanchnic area drained...

  2. [Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2003-12-01

    Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations Reference values for plasma cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) are not available for Colombian populations. A representative sample of a working-class population was used to establish these values to provide reference data for use by the social security system. Two working-class populations were sampled from the Aburrá Valley (Aburrá) and eastern Antioquia (Oriente). Cholinesterase activity was measured in 827 workers, with ages spanning 18-49 years, 415 from Aburrá and 412 people from Oriente. Three methods were used to measure cholinesterase: Michel, EQM and Monotest The average values by Michel and EQM were not statistically different between regions (Michel: Aburrá, 1.11, and East, 1.13 deltas pH/hora; EQM: Aburrá, 2.55, and Oriente, 2.48 U/ml). By the Monotest, the enzyme average was statistically higher in Aburra than in Oriente (5,743 and 5,459 U/L respectively; p = 0 .012). By region and technique, men had significantly higher enzymatic levels than women. Within both regions and sexes, no statistically significant difference among the three aged groups was noted. Our obtained Colombian values differed significantly from foreign reference values: Michel and Monotest levels were higher and EQM levels were lower. For making clinical and epidemiologic decisions in Colombia related to these data, the values obtained for the Colombian populations are preferred over values derived from external sources.

  3. Effects of exercise on plasma adiponectin levels in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ which releases biologically active adipokines. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein structurally similar to complement 1q, plays a significant role in metabolic disorders, due to its insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, mediate the metabolic actions of adiponectin by activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- alpha (PPAR-α which leads to an increase in fatty acid combustion and energy consumption, fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in myocytes and reduces gluconeogenesis and thus leads to increased insulin sensitivity. Plasma adiponectin level is affected by multiple factors: gender (females have higher plasma adiponectin levels, obesity-linked diseases (metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 and atherosclerosis are associated with lower adiponectin levels, lifestyle -including exercise. Yet, to date, little is known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in population of athletes. The aim of this review is to overview the published evidence for the effects of exercise on adiponectin levels in athletes. Adiponectin concentration presents a delayed increase (30 min after short-term intense performance, by athletes, both male and female. It seems that adiponectin concentrations do not change in response to long-term exercise. No significant difference was found in total adiponectin and/or high-molecular weight (HMW oligomers in long-term effects of high physical training in athletes. Adiponectin can serve to monitor training loads and the establishment of individual limit values of training loads. Further studies are needed to clarify possible mechanisms by which adiponectin might influence energy homeostasis during heavy training in elite athletes.

  4. Effect of oral propranolol on circulating catecholamines in cirrhosis: relationship to severity of liver disease and splanchnic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Sørensen, T I

    1990-01-01

    propranolol. A borderline significant correlation was observed between the decrease in azygos blood flow and the increase in NA (r = 0.64, p = 0.06). Our results suggest that besides a relationship to liver function and severity of disease, sympathetic nervous activity, as reflected by circulating NA.......01). Azygos blood flow was increased (0.75 l/min) and positively related to plasma NA (r = 0.57, p = 0.05, n = 12). After propranolol intake, plasma NA increased from 0.52 to 0.59 ng/ml (p less than 0.01). This response was found in all Child-Turcotte classes (A: 0.37 to 0.43; B: 0.49 to 0.56; C: 0.78 to 0.......88 ng/ml), and in patients with as well as without ascites. Plasma adrenaline increased in the same way (p less than 0.01). Hepatic blood flow (from 1.10 to 0.93 l/min, p less than 0.01) and azygos blood flow (from 0.75 to 0.55 l/min, n = 9, p less than 0.05) decreased significantly after oral...

  5. Plasma Glucose Level Is Predictive of Serum Ammonia Level After Retrograde Occlusion of Portosystemic Shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Aibe, Yuki; Matsuda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Takuya; Takami, Taro; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate predictors of reduction in ammonia levels by occlusion of portosystemic shunts (PSS) in patients with cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients with cirrhosis (21 women, 27 men; mean age, 67.8 years) with PSS underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) at one institution between February 2008 and June 2014. The causes of cirrhosis were hepatitis B in one case, hepatitis C in 20 cases, alcohol in 15 cases, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in eight cases, and other conditions in four cases. The Child-Pugh classes were A in 24 cases, B in 23 cases, and C in one case. The indication for BRTO was gastric varices in 40 cases and hepatic encephalopathy in eight cases. Testing was conducted before and 1 month after the procedure. Statistical analyses were performed to identify predictors of a clinically significant decline in ammonia levels after BRTO. Occlusion of PSS resulted in a clinically significant decrease in ammonia levels accompanied by increased portal venous flow and improved Child-Pugh score. Univariate analyses showed that a reduction in ammonia levels due to BRTO was significantly related to lower plasma glucose levels, higher RBC counts, and higher hemoglobin concentration before the treatment. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression identified preoperative plasma glucose level as the strongest independent predictor of a significant ammonia reduction in response to BRTO. In addition, although BRTO resulted in significantly declined ammonia levels in patients with normal glucose tolerance before the procedure, ammonia levels were not significantly decreased after shunt occlusion in patients with diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance before BRTO, according to 75-g oral glucose tolerance test results. Preoperative plasma glucose level is a useful predictor of clinically significant ammonia reduction resulting from occlusion of PSS in patients with cirrhosis. Even if PSS are present, control

  6. PLASMA CYTOKINES LEVELS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LONG-TERM HAEMODIALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Polyakov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Аbstract.  Patients  with  end-stage  renal  disease  need  their  kidney  functions  to  be  replaced.  Chronic haemodialysis represents a most common method of such substitution treatment. This procedure results in successful survival of such patients for years. Chronic haemodialysis is accompanied by a complication which is known as β2-microglobulin amyloidosis. In this case, amyloid substance consisting of β2-microglobulin (β2-MG accumulates in bones, ligaments and joints. Biological causes of β2-MG amyloidosis are still not established. To elucidate the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of β2-MG amyloidosis, the levels of  IL-2,  IL-4,  IL-6,  IL-8,  IL-10,  GM-CSF,  IFNγ, TNFα were quantified in plasma of patients undergoing  long-term haemodialysis. Mean amounts of all the mentioned cytokines in haemodialysis patients proved to be significantly higher than in control group consisting of healthy subjects. When comparing a group receiving standard  dialysis  procedure  versus  a  subgroup  receiving  haemodiafiltration,  a  single  reliable  difference  was revealed for GM-CSF levels (p < 0.04, without any differences shown for other cytokines. With increasing terms of chronic haemodialysis, the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, IFNγ, TNFα were increased, or, at least, they did not decrease. After three years of dialysis, IL-10 concentrations were statistically indistinguishable from normal levels. In patients undergoing haemodiafiltration, plasma levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, GM-CSF, IFNγ, TNFα did not drop with increasing terms of dialysis. The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 decreased after three years of dialysis, to near-normal levels.In general, these results suggest that IL-10 and IL-6 may be regarded as candidates for further studies as potential markers of β2-microglobulin amyloidosis. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 2-3, pp 211-218

  7. Propranolol in Treatment of Huge and Complicated Infantile Hemangiomas in Egyptian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Basheir A.; Shreef, Khalid S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were...

  8. Multi-level molecular modelling for plasma medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Khosravian, Narjes; Van der Paal, Jonas; Verlackt, Christof C W; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Kamaraj, Balu; Neyts, Erik C

    2016-01-01

    Modelling at the molecular or atomic scale can be very useful for obtaining a better insight in plasma medicine. This paper gives an overview of different atomic/molecular scale modelling approaches that can be used to study the direct interaction of plasma species with biomolecules or the consequences of these interactions for the biomolecules on a somewhat longer time-scale. These approaches include density functional theory (DFT), density functional based tight binding (DFTB), classical reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) and united-atom or coarse-grained MD, as well as hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. Specific examples will be given for three important types of biomolecules, present in human cells, i.e. proteins, DNA and phospholipids found in the cell membrane. The results show that each of these modelling approaches has its specific strengths and limitations, and is particularly useful for certain applications. A multi-level approach is therefore most suitable for obtaining a global picture of the plasma–biomolecule interactions. (paper)

  9. Decreasing adrenergic or sympathetic hyperactivity after severe traumatic brain injury using propranolol and clonidine (DASH After TBI Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Mayur B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe TBI, defined as a Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8, increases intracranial pressure and activates the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic hyperactivity after TBI manifests as catecholamine excess, hypertension, abnormal heart rate variability, and agitation, and is associated with poor neuropsychological outcome. Propranolol and clonidine are centrally acting drugs that may decrease sympathetic outflow, brain edema, and agitation. However, there is no prospective randomized evidence available demonstrating the feasibility, outcome benefits, and safety for adrenergic blockade after TBI. Methods/Design The DASH after TBI study is an actively accruing, single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, two-arm trial, where one group receives centrally acting sympatholytic drugs, propranolol (1 mg intravenously every 6 h for 7 days and clonidine (0.1 mg per tube every 12 h for 7 days, and the other group, double placebo, within 48 h of severe TBI. The study uses a weighted adaptive minimization randomization with categories of age and Marshall head CT classification. Feasibility will be assessed by ability to provide a neuroradiology read for randomization, by treatment contamination, and by treatment compliance. The primary endpoint is reduction in plasma norepinephrine level as measured on day 8. Secondary endpoints include comprehensive plasma and urine catecholamine levels, heart rate variability, arrhythmia occurrence, infections, agitation measures using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and Agitated Behavior scale, medication use (anti-hypertensive, sedative, analgesic, and antipsychotic, coma-free days, ventilator-free days, length of stay, and mortality. Neuropsychological outcomes will be measured at hospital discharge and at 3 and 12 months. The domains tested will include global executive function, memory, processing speed, visual-spatial, and behavior. Other assessments include

  10. Antibacterial plasma at safe levels for skin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, B.K.H.L.; Hofmann, S.; van Ham, B.T.J.; Bruggeman, P.J.; Middelkoop, E.

    2013-01-01

    Plasmas produce various reactive species, which are known to be very effective in killing bacteria. Plasma conditions, at which efficient bacterial inactivation is observed, are often not compatible with leaving human cells unharmed. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma settings for

  11. Changes in plasma TIMP-1 levels after resection for primary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, C.; Lomholt, A.F.; Davis, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) are associated with poor outcome in colorectal cancer (CRC), however postoperative changes in plasma TIMP-1 levels after resections for CRC have not been thoroughly evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samp...

  12. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase plasma irisin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atici, Emine; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Menevse, Esma

    2017-11-28

    Background A recently discovered hormone, irisin is accepted to be significantly involved in the regulation of body weight. Thyroid functions may be, directly or indirectly, associated with irisin. Aim The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of experimental thyroid dysfunction on irisin levels in rats. Methods The study registered 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were allocated to groups as follows: 1. Control; 2. Hypothyroidism induced by injection of 10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal propylthiouracil (PTU) for 3 weeks; 3. Hypothyroidism (PTU 2 weeks) + L-thyroxin (1.5 mg/kg/day for 1 week); 4. Hyperthyroidism induced in rats by 3-week thyroxin (0.3 mg/kg/day); 5. Hyperthyroidism + PTU. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected to quantify free triiodothyronine (FT3), free triiodothyronine (FT4) and irisin levels. Results FT3 and FT4 levels were reduced in hypothyroidism and were significantly elevated in hyperthyroidism (p hyperthyroidism groups (p hyperthyroidism, and that when hypothyroidism is corrected by thyroxin administration and hyperthyroidism by PTU injection, plasma irisin values go back to normal.

  13. Plasma levels of 8-methoxypsoralen following PUVA-bath photochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobyletzki, G. von; Hoffmann, K.; Kerscher, M.; Altmeyer, P. [Ruhr-Univ., Dept. of Dermatology, Bochum (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    Administration of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in a dilute bath water solution is an effective therapeutic alternative to oral PUVA therapy, avoiding systemic side effects, offering better bioavailability of the psoralen and requiring much smaller amounts of UVA for induction of therapeutic effects. To obtain exact data about the percutaneous absorption of 8-MOP during a psoralen bath, the plasma levels of the drug were determined in 26 patients with different skin diseases by a reverse high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Fifteen patients receiving oral PUVA therapy (0.8 mg 8-MOP/kg body weight) served as a positive control group. Bath solutions were prepared by diluting 15 ml of 0.5% stock solution of 8-MOP in 150 l of bath water (0.5 mg/l, 37 deg. C). Blood samples were drawn from patients 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the bath. In the oral PUVA group, blood samples were obtained 1 1/2 h after administration of the drug. In 23 og 26 patients, 8-MOP levels were undetectable in every blood sample. After 30 min, two patients showed detectable levels of 8-MOP (5 ng/ml, 7 ng/ml), while 60 min after the PUVA bath 8-MOP was detectable in only one volunteer (5 ng/ml). In patients receiving oral 8-MOP therapy, serum levels varied between 45 and 360 ng/ml 1 1/2 h after drug administration. Our data confirm extremely low 8-MOP levels resulting from 8-MOP bath water treatments and provide confirmation of the absence of systemic side effects in patients who are undergoing PUVA-bath therapy. (au) 15 refs.

  14. Plasma levels of 8-methoxypsoralen following PUVA-bath photochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobyletzki, G. von; Hoffmann, K.; Kerscher, M.; Altmeyer, P.

    1998-01-01

    Administration of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in a dilute bath water solution is an effective therapeutic alternative to oral PUVA therapy, avoiding systemic side effects, offering better bioavailability of the psoralen and requiring much smaller amounts of UVA for induction of therapeutic effects. To obtain exact data about the percutaneous absorption of 8-MOP during a psoralen bath, the plasma levels of the drug were determined in 26 patients with different skin diseases by a reverse high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Fifteen patients receiving oral PUVA therapy (0.8 mg 8-MOP/kg body weight) served as a positive control group. Bath solutions were prepared by diluting 15 ml of 0.5% stock solution of 8-MOP in 150 l of bath water (0.5 mg/l, 37 deg. C). Blood samples were drawn from patients 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the bath. In the oral PUVA group, blood samples were obtained 1 1/2 h after administration of the drug. In 23 og 26 patients, 8-MOP levels were undetectable in every blood sample. After 30 min, two patients showed detectable levels of 8-MOP (5 ng/ml, 7 ng/ml), while 60 min after the PUVA bath 8-MOP was detectable in only one volunteer (5 ng/ml). In patients receiving oral 8-MOP therapy, serum levels varied between 45 and 360 ng/ml 1 1/2 h after drug administration. Our data confirm extremely low 8-MOP levels resulting from 8-MOP bath water treatments and provide confirmation of the absence of systemic side effects in patients who are undergoing PUVA-bath therapy. (au)

  15. Association of plasma fatty acid composition with plasma irisin levels in normal weight and overweight/obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitasalo, A; Ågren, J; Venäläinen, T; Pihlajamäki, J; Jääskeläinen, J; Korkmaz, A; Atalay, M; Lakka, T A

    2016-08-01

    Irisin has been suggested to protect against overweight. There are no previous data on the association of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition with plasma irisin. We studied the association of FA composition with plasma irisin in normal weight and overweight/obese children. This cross-sectional study included pre-pubertal children (388 normal weight children and 55 overweight/obese children); 6-9 years of age, taking part in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. After an overnight fast, we measured plasma FA composition by gas chromatography and plasma irisin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher proportion of total monounsaturated fatty acids in plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) (β = 0.139, P = 0.003) and phospholipids (PLs) (β = 0.147, P = 0.002) and lower proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma CE (β = -0.130, P = 0.006) and PL (β = -0.165, P overweight/obese children compared to normal weight children. Higher proportion of γ-linolenic acid (β = 0.324, P = 0.017) and lower proportion of linoleic acid (β = -0.397, P = 0.005) in plasma CE were related to higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children, indicating the direct association of estimated D6D activity in plasma CE (β = 0.343, P = 0.011) with plasma irisin. Furthermore, higher proportion of oleic acid in plasma CE (β = 0.345, P = 0.012) and PL (β = 0.292, P = 0.033) and higher proportion of adrenic acid (β = 0.366, P = 0.008) and docosapentaenoic acid (β = 0.351, P = 0.010) in plasma PL were associated with higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children. Metabolically unfavourable plasma FA profile was associated with higher plasma irisin level especially in overweight/obese children, suggesting that excess body fat might modulate these relationships. © 2015 World Obesity.

  16. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as Reproduction II ( b = -.0020, p = .026) and log of the Trail Making Test, Part B (b = .0001, p = .044). Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Effect of carvedilol treatment on plasma neuropeptides levels in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qian; Cheng Guanghua; Yang Jian

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma neuropeptide Y(NPY) and neurotension (NT) levels in patients with essential hypertension after treatment with carvedilol. Methods: Blood pressure and plasma NPY and NT concentrations (with RIA) were measured in 56 patients with essential hypertension both before and after carvedilol therapy (5-10 mg bid) for 3 months as well as 30 controls. Results: Before treatment plasma NPY levels were significantly higher in hypertensive patients than those in controls (P<0.01), but plasma NT levels were significantly lower (P also <0.01). After carvedilol treatment, blood pressure and plasma NPY levels were reduced significantly and plasma NT levels were increased significantly. Conclusion: Treatment with carvedilol results in the correction of plasma concentrations of NPY and NT in patients with essential hypertension, the effect may be related to blood pressure decrease. (authors)

  18. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with hepatic cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiaming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and development of hepatic cirrhosis as well as the diagnostic value of plasma Hcy determination. Method: Plasma Hcy levels were measured with ELISA in: (1) 64 patients with post-hepatitis cirrhosis (2) 42 patients with various types of hepatitis but no cirrhosis and (3) 60 controls. Results: The plasma levels of Hcy in patients with cirrhosis were significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.01). The plasma Hcy levels in cirrhotic patients were well correlated with the levels of other hepatic fibrosis markers such as hyaluronic acid and laminin (r=0.87 and r=0.88 respectively, P<0.01), but were not correlated with cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL levels. Conclusion: Plasma Hcy levels was markedly elevated in cirrhotic patients and might be taken as a diagnostic marker. (authors)

  19. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development

  20. Propranolol for the treatment of anxiety disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Steenen (Serge A.); A.J. van Wijk (Arjen); G.J.M.G. Van Der Heijden (Geert J.M.G.); R. van Westrhenen (Roos); J. de Lange (Jan); A. de Jongh (Ad)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of propranolol in the treatment of anxiety disorders have not been systematically evaluated previously. The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, addressing the efficacy of oral propranolol versus placebo or other medication

  1. A multibiomarker approach to explore interactive effects of propranolol and fluoxetine in marine mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzellitti, Silvia; Buratti, Sara; Du, Bowen; Haddad, Samuel P.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.; Fabbri, Elena

    2015-01-01

    A multi-biomarker approach, including several lysosomal parameters, activity and mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, and DNA damage, was employed to investigate the nominal effects of 0.3 ng/L fluoxetine (FX) and 0.3 ng/L propranolol (PROP) alone or in combination (0.3 ng/L FX + 0.3 ng/L PROP) on Mediterranean mussels after a 7 day treatment. FX co-exposure appears to facilitate PROP bioaccumulation because PROP only accumulated in digestive gland of FX + PROP treated mussels. Lysosomal parameters were significantly impaired by FX + PROP treatment, while no clear antioxidant responses at the catalytic and transcriptional levels were observed. Biomarker responses led to a “medium stress level” diagnosis in FX + PROP treated mussels, according to the Expert System, whereas 0.3 ng/L PROP or FX alone did not induce consistent stress conditions. These findings suggest vulnerability of coastal marine mussels to FX and PROP contamination at environmentally relevant levels. - Highlights: • FX and PROP combined effects were assessed in marine mussels using biomarkers. • PROP bioaccumulation was observed in digestive gland of FX + PROP treated mussels. • Lysosomal parameters were significantly impaired by FX + PROP treatment. • No clear antioxidant responses at the catalytic and mRNA levels were observed. • FX + PROP treatment increased stress levels of mussels compared with the single chemicals. - Fluoxetine and propranolol induce interactive effects on marine mussels biomarker responses and pharmaceutical bioaccumulation

  2. Plasma Etching of Tapered Features in Silicon for MEMS and Wafer Level Packaging Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, H-D; Hiess, Andre; Seidemann, Volker; Studzinski, Daniel; Lange, Martin; Leib, Juergen; Shariff, Dzafir; Ashraf, Huma; Steel, Mike; Atabo, Lilian; Reast, Jon

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a brief report of plasma etching as applied to pattern transfer in silicon. It will focus more on concept overview and strategies for etching of tapered features of interest for MEMS and Wafer Level Packaging (WLP). The basis of plasma etching, the dry etching technique, is explained and plasma configurations are described elsewhere. An important feature of plasma etching is the possibility to achieve etch anisotropy. The plasma etch process is extremely sensitive to many variables such as mask material, mask openings and more important the plasma parameters

  3. Plasma levels of immunosuppressive mediators during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borrelli

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma levels of two mediators with immunosuppressive properties, complement fraction C3a (C3a and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, during extracorporeal circulation. The proliferation index after phytohaemagglutinin (PHA stimulation of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also investigated. Sixteen patients undergoing hypothermic (n = 8, group 1 and normothermic (n = 8, group 2 cardiopulmormry bypass (CPB were enrolled in this study. As a control, we evaluated four patients undergoing thoracovascular operations without CPB. Blood samples were collected before CPB but after anaesthesia, every 30 min during CPB, at the end of CPB and 10 min after protamine administration. Both C3a and TGF-β1 increased significantly during CPB and after protamine administration in the hypothermic as well as the normothermic group. In the latter case the increase of C3a and TGF-β1, although more prominent, was not significantl higher than in the former group. Conversely, the proliferation, index of peripheral mononuclear cells had already decreased 30 min after CPB was started and remained depressed throughout the CPB time. These results suggest a possible role of C3a and TGF-β1 in the immunological changes occurring during extracorporeal circulation.

  4. Selection of Suitable Microorganism for Biocatalytic Oxidation Reaction of Racemic Propranolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime SONGÜR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Propranolol is one of the β-blockers which are pharmaceutically important, especially used for treatment of cardiovasculer disease. In this study, the production of enantiomerically pure propranolol was aimed via biocatalytic deracemization including tandem oxidation-reduction reactions of racemic propranolol. Within this content, firstly suitable microorganism for the oxidation of racemic propranolol was investigated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH enzyme for oxidation of propranolol and NADH oxidase enzyme for cofactor regeneration were necessary for the oxidation reactions. For this reason, ADH and NADH oxidase enzymes activities of different microorganisms were measured to select the microorganism for using as enzyme source. These microorganisms are Lactobacillus kefir NRRL B-1839, Rhodotorula glutunis DSM 70398, Rhizopus oryzae CBS 111718, Rhizopus arhizus. The highest ADH and NADH oxidase activities were obtained for L. kefir.

  5. Long-term effects of oral propranolol on splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1991-01-01

    1 year of treatment with propranolol, whereas a decrease in azygos blood flow was observed only in the propranolol group. The beneficial effect of propranolol on the risk of bleeding from oesophageal varices may, therefore, mostly be due to a selective decrease in collateral blood flow and thereby...

  6. Differences in Plasma Cytokine Levels between Elite Kayakers and Nonathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Borges

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular moderate exercise has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects that help prevent several chronic diseases. However, the effects of chronic training an elite athletes have not been the focus of much research. This study aimed to determine whether there were differences in cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in circulating peripheral blood (PB between elite kayakers and nonathletes. Subjects were 13 elite male kayakers, aged 20.0±3 years, with average body mass of 75.0±7.9 kg and 177.3±7.1 cm height and with a VO2max of 58.3±7.8 mL·kg−1·min−1. The nonathletes were 7 men, aged 18.2±1.1 years, body mass of 81.3±13.8 kg, and 171.9±4.5 cm height. Blood samples were collected after six weeks of offtraining and before the start of a new training season. PB leukocyte populations were determined by flow cytometry. Cytokine levels were quantified by ELISA. When nonathletes were compared with the kayakers, the latter exhibited lower plasma concentrations of IL-1β, IL-18, and IFN-γ as well as a lower concentration of IL-1ra. Positive correlations between IL-18 and B cells in the athletes were also found. These results seem to reinforce the anti-inflammatory role of regular training.

  7. Differences in plasma cytokine levels between elite kayakers and nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, G F; Rama, L; Pedreiro, S; Alves, F; Santos, A; Massart, A; Paiva, A; Teixeira, A M

    2013-01-01

    Regular moderate exercise has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects that help prevent several chronic diseases. However, the effects of chronic training an elite athletes have not been the focus of much research. This study aimed to determine whether there were differences in cytokine levels (IL-1 β , IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, IFN- γ , and TNF- α ) in circulating peripheral blood (PB) between elite kayakers and nonathletes. Subjects were 13 elite male kayakers, aged 20.0 ± 3 years, with average body mass of 75.0 ± 7.9 kg and 177.3 ± 7.1 cm height and with a VO2max of 58.3 ± 7.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1). The nonathletes were 7 men, aged 18.2 ± 1.1 years, body mass of 81.3 ± 13.8 kg, and 171.9 ± 4.5 cm height. Blood samples were collected after six weeks of offtraining and before the start of a new training season. PB leukocyte populations were determined by flow cytometry. Cytokine levels were quantified by ELISA. When nonathletes were compared with the kayakers, the latter exhibited lower plasma concentrations of IL-1 β , IL-18, and IFN- γ as well as a lower concentration of IL-1ra. Positive correlations between IL-18 and B cells in the athletes were also found. These results seem to reinforce the anti-inflammatory role of regular training.

  8. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency Departments suspected of having AAS underwent LDH assay at presentation. A final diagnosis was obtained by aortic imaging. Patients diagnosed with AAS were followed-up for in-hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients were clinically eligible, and 999 patients were included in the study. The final diagnosis was AAS in 201 (20.1%) patients. Median LDH was 424 U/L (interquartile range [IQR] 367–557) in patients with AAS and 383 U/L (IQR 331–460) in patients with alternative diagnoses (P < 0.001). Using a cutoff of 450 U/L, the sensitivity of LDH for AAS was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37–51) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 69–76). Overall in-hospital mortality for AAS was 23.8%. Mortality was 32.6% in patients with LDH ≥ 450 U/L and 16.8% in patients with LDH < 450 U/L (P = 0.006). Following stratification according to LDH quartiles, in-hospital mortality was 12% in the first (lowest) quartile, 18.4% in the second quartile, 23.5% in the third quartile, and 38% in the fourth (highest) quartile (P = 0.01). LDH ≥ 450 U/L was further identified as an independent predictor of death in AAS both in univariate and in stepwise logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.11–4.66; P = 0.025), in addition to well-established risk markers such as advanced age and hypotension. Subgroup analysis showed excess mortality in association with LDH ≥ 450 U/L in elderly, hemodynamically stable

  9. Determinants of Propranolol's Selective Effect on Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Lackovic, Sandra F; Tobe, Russell H; Camerer, Colin F; Leventhal, Bennett L; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-01

    Research on emotion and decision making has suggested that arousal mediates risky decisions, but several distinct and often confounded processes drive such choices. We used econometric modeling to separate and quantify the unique contributions of loss aversion, risk attitudes, and choice consistency to risky decision making. We administered the beta-blocker propranolol in a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects study, targeting the neurohormonal basis of physiological arousal. Matching our intervention's pharmacological specificity with a quantitative model delineating decision-making components allowed us to identify the causal relationships between arousal and decision making that do and do not exist. Propranolol selectively reduced loss aversion in a baseline- and dose-dependent manner (i.e., as a function of initial loss aversion and body mass index), and did not affect risk attitudes or choice consistency. These findings provide evidence for a specific, modulatory, and causal relationship between precise components of emotion and risky decision making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. The Brain and Propranolol Pharmacokinetics in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R. Eugene

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Propranolol, a non-selective β-blocker, has been found to have a tremendous array of indications. Recent evidence has suggested that propranolol may be effective in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder by suppressing activity in the amygdala and thereby inhibiting emotional memory formation. Dosage requirements have been well established in the pediatric and adult population, however, there has been no definitive geriatric dose recommended in the package inserts made available to the public. The aim of this paper is to use pharmacokinetic simulations in order to establish a pharmacokinetic profile dosage equivalent for the elderly as has been found in young patients. After completing the Monte-Carlo simulations for the elderly and young patients, a single 10mg dose in the elderly has shown comparable pharmacokinetic profiles as found in young patients administered a 40mg single dose.

  11. Corticosterone and propranolol's role on taste recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetti, E; Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M

    2014-12-01

    Taste recognition is a robust procedure to study learning and memory processes, as well as the different stages involved in them, i.e. encoding, storage and recall. Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones and the noradrenergic system play an important role in aversive and appetitive memory formation in rats and humans. The present experiments were designed to characterize the effects of immediate post training corticosterone (Experiment 1) and propranolol administration (Experiment 2 and 3) on taste recognition memory. Administration of a high dose of corticosterone (5mg/kg, sc) impairs consolidation of taste memory, but the low and moderate doses (1 and 3mg/kg, sc) didn't affect it. On the other hand, immediate post-training administration of propranolol (1 and 2mg/kg, ip) impaired taste recognition memory. These effects were time-dependent since no effects were seen when drug administration was delayed 3h after training. These findings support the importance of stress hormones and noradrenergic system on the modulation of taste memory consolidation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. AAS and spectrophotometric determination of propranolol HCl and metoprolol tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ries, M A; Abou Attia, F M; Ibrahim, S A

    2000-12-15

    Two simple and accurate spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of propranolol hydrochloride (I) and metoprolol tartrate (II). The methods are based on the reaction of each drug as a secondary amine: (a) with carbon disulphide, the formed complex extracted into iso-butyl methyl ketone (IBMK) after chelation with Cu(II) ions at pH 7.5, followed by measuring the absorbance at 435.4 nm or indirectly for the drug by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The calibration graph is linear up to 40 and 60 microg ml(-1) with apparent molar absorptivities of 6.89 x 10(3) and 1.08 x 104 l mol(-1) cm(-1) and correlation coefficients of 0.9994 and 0.9995 for propranolol and metoprolol, respectively; (b) with pi-acceptors, tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), or chloranilic acid (CLA) to give highly coloured complex species. The coloured products are quantitated spectrophotometrically at 415 or 510 nm for the two drugs with TCNE and CLA, respectively, and obey Beer's Law with RSD less than 2.0. The methods were applied to the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical preparation without interferences.

  13. Temporomandibular joint dislocation due to acute propranolol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Aghabiklooei

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abbas Aghabiklooei1, Homan Elahi2, Babak Mostafazadeh31Department of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Firouzgar Hospital, Department of ENT, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Shaheed Beheshty University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ dislocation has not previously been reported as a complication of beta-blocker toxicity. We are reporting two cases of TMJ dislocation resulted from acute severe intoxication with pure propranolol (PPL for the first time. Bilateral TMJ dislocation happened in two patients who were admitted to intensive care unit with diagnosis of severe acute PPL toxicity. Clinical diagnosis of TMJ dislocation was obtained by physical examination. Successful reduction was performed for both patients without subsequent recurrence in two weeks following hospital discharge. Both of our subjects had no previous history of lower jaw dislocation. There was not any risk factor for dislocation such as convulsion during admission period, recent face trauma, or oral manipulation by the medical team. This study showed that TMJ dislocation may occur after severe acute PPL toxicity probably due to spastic contraction of the lateral pterygoid muscle. This is against previously mentioned hypothesis that stated masseteric muscles contraction as the main cause of a bilateral dislocated TMJ.Keywords: propranolol, toxicity, temporomandibular joint dislocation

  14. Plasma levels and symptom complaints in patients maintained on daily dosage of methadone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horns, W H; Rado, M; Goldstein, A

    1975-06-01

    Plasma methadone levels, symptom complaints, and urine tests for illicit opiate use were followed weekly in 17 patients on a methadone maintenance program. There were very large differences between patients in the plasma level established at a given dosage, implying large differences in the rate of methadone metabolism. Despite virtually constant daily dosage, the plasma methadone levels fluctuated greatly from week to week and from day to day in individual patients. With rate exceptions there was no relationship between plasma methadone level and symptom complaints or between weekly chamges in plasma methadone level and changes in symptom complaints. Except possible to identify the ocassional patient with unusually low plasam methadone levels, the determination of methadone levels is not likely to be or practical value in methadone programs.

  15. Zumbido pulsátil: tratamento com clonazepan e propranolol Pulsatile tinnitus: treatment with clonazepam and propranolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Albertino

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O zumbido pulsátil sincrônico com os batimentos cardíacos é pouco freqüente, sendo de etiologia tanto vascular arterial (malformações, fístulas artério-venosas ou venosa (anormalidades do bulbo jugular, tumor glômico jugular ou timpânico. A identificação precoce da etiologia é essencial para que a terapêutica adequada possa ser instituída. A angioressonância possibilita a identificação de alterações vasculares com maior precisão. Relatamos um caso onde, após o diagnóstico de uma alteração vascular arterial, foi instituído o tratamento com propranolol e clonazepam, com melhora da sintomatologia.Pulsatile tinnitus synchronous with heartbeat is rare and normally has vascular origin: arterial (malformation, arterial anatomical variation or venous (aberrant jugular bulb, glomus tumors, tympanic glomus tumor. Early etiology identification is essential for appropriate treatment to be established. Magnetic angioresonance makes the vascular identification possible and precise. We report a case of arterial anatomical variation in which the treatment was propranolol and clonazepam, showing tinnitus improvement.

  16. Clinical significance of changes of plasma ET and NPY levels after treatment in patients with AMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jinbao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of plasma ET and NPY levels in patients with AMI. Methods: Plasma ET and NPY levels were dynamically determined in 36 patients with AMI right after establishment of diagnosis and 8h, 24h, 4ph, 72h, 7d, 14d later. Levels in 35 healthy individuals were taken as control. Results: Before treatment was initiated, the levels of Et and Np in patients with AMI were significantly higher than those in controls (P <0.01). After one week of treatment, the levels dropped toward normal. Conclusion: Dynamic measurement of plasma ET and NPY levels in patients with AMI is of clinical importance. (authors)

  17. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, M; Mortensen, S P; Hellsten, Y

    2013-03-01

    Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study 2, young (23 ± 1 years, n = 8), older lifelong sedentary (66 ± 2 years, n = 8) and older lifelong endurance-trained (62 ± 2 years, n = 8) subjects were studied in a cross-sectional design. Skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels were increased with age and plasma endothelin-1 levels were higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals. Eight weeks of exercise training normalized plasma endothelin-1 levels in the hypertensive subjects and increased the protein expression of the ET(A) receptor in skeletal muscle of normotensive subjects. Similarly, individuals that had performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  18. Propranolol in Treatment of Huge and Complicated Infantile Hemangiomas in Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheir A. Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  19. Propranolol in treatment of huge and complicated infantile hemangiomas in egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Basheir A; Shreef, Khalid S

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  20. Oral Propranolol: A New Treatment for Infants with Retinopathy of Prematurity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bührer, Christoph; Bassler, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Oral propranolol has improved the treatment of infantile hemangiomas, and a pediatric oral solution of propranolol has recently been licensed in the USA and Europe. In very preterm infants, infantile hemangiomas are associated with the occurrence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and both diseases share a peculiar time course, featuring a lag phase after birth followed by rapid growth and then gradual regression. To identify clinical studies evaluating the use of oral propranolol in preterm infants with ROP. Two small bicentric, pilot, randomized controlled trials found a nonsignificant reduction of ROP requiring intervention by laser treatment or bevacizumab injection of similar magnitude. Together, 6 of 35 (17%) infants who had been receiving oral propranolol underwent ROP intervention, as opposed to 14 of 36 (39%) controls (relative risk 0.42, 95% CI: 0.15-1.16). Randomized controlled trials are ongoing that investigate early preventive oral propranolol starting at 1 week of age and propranolol eye drops in preterm infants with stage 2 ROP. Further, large interventional studies are required to determine the clinical benefit-risk ratio of oral propranolol to prevent vision-threatening ROP in very preterm infants. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels induced by fasting and sunflower oil challenge test in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, C. C.; de Almeida, I. T.; Jakobs, C.; Poll-The, B. T.; Duran, M.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels in 1- to 7-y-old children during fasting and after the ingestion of sunflower oil were studied. Glucose, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, FFA, and individual plasma acylcarnitine levels were monitored in both conditions. Fasting experiments lasted

  2. Plasma cortisol and metabolite level profiles in two isogenic strains of common carp during confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Huisman, E.A.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A rapid increase in common carp Cyprinus carpio plasma cortisol levels was noted, in two experiments, after 30 mins of a 3 h net confinement, which was sustained while the fish were held in the nets. After release from the nets, cortisol levels returned to control values in 1 h. Plasma glucose and

  3. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ciprofibrate and gemfibrozil in primary hyperlipidaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Maat, M. P.; Knipscheer, H. C.; Kastelein, J. J.; Kluft, C.

    1997-01-01

    An elevated plasma fibrinogen level is increasingly accepted as an independent risk indicator of cardiovascular disease. This has enhanced the interest in identifying agents that can normalize elevated plasma fibrinogen levels. One group of agents with this capacity are the fibric acid derivatives,

  4. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine frompatients with bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Andersen, MN; Brunner, N; Nielsen, HJ

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. Methods: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...... (n=3) or adenocarcinoma (n=7). Results: Free and total TIMP-1 in plasma were weakly but significantly correlated with age; urinary TIMP-1 was not. A strong correlation between free and total TIMP-1 in plasma was observed, with an average ratio of 0.85. No correlation between total TIMP-1 in urine...... and plasma was found (p=0.55). No significant differences in free or total TIMP-1 in plasma were found between healthy individuals, patients with cystitis or bladder cancer (p=0.4). Urinary TIMP-1 levels were significantly increased in patients with cystitis (p=0.001). No apparent differences in TIMP-1...

  5. The antimicrobial propeptide hCAP-18 plasma levels in neutropenia of various aetiologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Ying; Carlsson, Göran; Karlsson-Sjöberg, Jenny M T

    2015-01-01

    The underlying cause of neutropenia may be difficult to determine due to similar clinical presentation in many neutropenic conditions. The neutrophil protein hCAP-18 (pro-LL-37) is a major component of neutrophil secondary granules and in this prospective study we assessed the use of hCAP-18 levels...... in blood plasma for differential diagnosis of neutropenic patients (n = 133) of various aetiologies. Plasma levels of hCAP-18 were determined using immunoblot and ELISA. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia (n = 23) presented with the lowest levels of plasma hCAP-18 and differential diagnostic...... diagnostic value in differential diagnosis of chronic neutropenia. Neutropenic patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Barth syndrome, Cohen syndrome, acute myeloid leukaemia and specific granule deficiency presented with reduced plasma hCAP-18 levels as well. The blood plasma level of hCAP-18 was thus low...

  6. Study of plasma amino acid levels in children with autism: An Egyptian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida M. ElBaz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Autistic children had lower levels of some plasma amino acids except for glycine and glutamic acids and phosphoserine were increased with normal serum levels of urea, ammonia, total proteins, albumin and globulins (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma.

  7. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis : Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Esmee M.; Kuipers, Johanna; Assa, Solmaz; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Groen, Henk; Westerhuis, Ralf; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli

  8. Plasma serotonin level is a predictor for recurrence and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Wang, Dawei; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Zhihao; Pang, Li

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of plasma serotonin levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). Preoperative plasma serotonin levels of 150 healthy control (HC) cases, 150 benign colorectal polyp (BCP) cases, and 176 CRC cases were determined using radioimmunoassay assay. Serotonin levels were compared between HC, BCP, and CRC cases, and those in CRC patients were related to 5-year outcome. Plasma serotonin levels were markedly higher in CRC patients than in either HCs or BCP cases. An elevated serotonin level was significantly associated with advanced tumor node metastasis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the level of serotonin had a high predictive value for disease recurrence and mortality. Multivariate analysis revealed that high serotonin level was significantly associated with poor recurrence-free survival and overall survival. Our results suggest that a high peri-operative plasma serotonin level is useful as a prognostic biomarker for CRC recurrence and poor survival. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. HLA-G levels in serum and plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudstein-Svetlicky, N.; Loewenthal, R.; Hořejší, Václav; Gazit, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 1 (2007), s. 140-142 ISSN 0001-2815 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HLA-G * serum * plasma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.245, year: 2007

  10. Plasma cholesterol and related lipid levels of seemingly healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was achieved through analysis of fasting plasma samples for the following: Total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerols (TG), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and molar ratios of LDL/HDL, TC/ HDL, and TC/TG. Methods: One hundred and seventy four ...

  11. Plasma Ascorbic Acid and Non-Enzymatic Antioxidants Level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals have been implicated in the pathology of several diseases including cataract. Ascorbic acid functions as the major chain breaking antioxidant vitamin in the aqueous phase. Bilirubin, albumin and uric acid are regarded as natural antioxidants. There are conflicting reports on plasma concentrations of these ...

  12. Continuous delivery of propranolol from liposomes-in-microspheres significantly inhibits infantile hemangioma growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo XN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaonan Guo,1,* Xiaoshuang Zhu,1,* Dakan Liu,1 Yubin Gong,1 Jing Sun,2 Changxian Dong1 1Department of Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To reduce the adverse effects and high frequency of administration of propranolol to treat infantile hemangioma, we first utilized propranolol-loaded liposomes-in-microsphere (PLIM as a novel topical release system to realize sustained release of propranolol.Methods: PLIM was developed from encapsulating propranolol-loaded liposomes (PLs in microspheres made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid-b-poly(ethylene glycol-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid copolymers (PLGA-PEG-PLGA. The release profile of propranolol from PLIM was evaluated, and its biological activity was investigated in vitro using proliferation assays on hemangioma stem cells (HemSCs. Tumor inhibition was studied in nude mice bearing human subcutaneous infantile hemangioma.Results: The microspheres were of desired particle size (~77.8 µm and drug encapsulation efficiency (~23.9% and achieved sustained drug release for 40 days. PLIM exerted efficient inhibition of the proliferation of HemSCs and significantly reduced the expression of two angiogenesis factors (vascular endothelial growth factor-A [VEGF-A] and basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] in HemSCs. Notably, the therapeutic effect of PLIM in hemangioma was superior to that of propranolol and PL in vivo, as reflected by significantly reduced hemangioma volume, weight, and microvessel density. The mean hemangioma weight of the PLIM-treated group was significantly lower than that of other groups (saline =0.28 g, propranolol =0.21 g, PL =0.13 g, PLIM =0.03 g; PLIM vs saline: P<0.001, PLIM vs propranolol: P<0.001, PLIM vs PL: P<0.001. The mean microvessel density of

  13. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes......AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. METHODS: In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study...

  14. Plasma oxalate levels in prevalent hemodialysis patients and potential implications for ascorbic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuguan; Weisberg, Lawrence S; Langman, Craig B; Logan, Amanda; Hunter, Krystal; Prasad, Deepali; Avila, Jose; Venkatchalam, Thaliga; Berns, Jeffrey S; Handelman, Garry J; Sirover, William D

    2016-10-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation may increase hemoglobin levels and decrease erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose requirement in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). While plasma AA levels >100μM may be supratherapeutic, levels of at least 30μM may be needed to improve wound healing and levels may need to reach 70μM to optimize erythropoiesis. Of concern, oxalate (Ox), an AA metabolite, can accumulate in ESRD. Historically, if plasma Ox levels remain ≥30μM, oxalosis was of concern. Contemporary hemodialysis (HD) efficiencies may decrease the risk of oxalosis by maintaining pre-HD Ox levels HD patients. A prospective, observational study of 197 HD patients with pre-HD AA levels and pre-HD and post-HD Ox levels. Mean plasma Ox levels decreased 71% during the intradialytic period (22.3±11.1μM to 6.4±3.2μM, PHD plasma AA levels ≤100μM were not associated with a pre-HD plasma Ox level≥30μM, even if ferritin levels were increased. Pre-HD plasma Ox levels ≥20 or ≥30μM were not associated with lower cumulative 4-year survival. Pre-HD plasma AA levels up to 100μM in HD patients do not appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing secondary oxalosis, as the corresponding pre-HD plasma Ox level appears to be maintained at tolerable levels. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The observation on plasma endothelin levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiaojun; Liu Changshan; Yang Lianrong; Zhang Qiliang; Wang Honggang; Liu Xudong

    2002-01-01

    Observing the plasma endothelin levels in patients with Graves' disease to probe its clinical significance, plasma endothelin levels were measured in 55 cases of Graves' disease before and after treatment respectively, and these were compared with that of 23 health subjects. Results: plasma endothelin levels in patients with Graves' disease significantly increase, compared with heath subjects (150.4 +- 29.31 ng/L vs 42.80 +- 7.58 ng/L, P < 0.01); post-treatment endothelin levels apparently decrease (97.61 +- 15.99 ng/L vs 150.4 +- 29.31 ng/L, P < 0.01). Plasma endothelin levels in patients with Graves' disease significantly increase, and after treatment the endothelin levels decrease following decreasing of thyroid hormone level and high hemodynamics

  16. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  17. Multi-Level iterative methods in computational plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, D.A.; Barnes, D.C.; Brackbill, J.U.; Chacon, L.; Lapenta, G.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma physics phenomena occur on a wide range of spatial scales and on a wide range of time scales. When attempting to model plasma physics problems numerically the authors are inevitably faced with the need for both fine spatial resolution (fine grids) and implicit time integration methods. Fine grids can tax the efficiency of iterative methods and large time steps can challenge the robustness of iterative methods. To meet these challenges they are developing a hybrid approach where multigrid methods are used as preconditioners to Krylov subspace based iterative methods such as conjugate gradients or GMRES. For nonlinear problems they apply multigrid preconditioning to a matrix-few Newton-GMRES method. Results are presented for application of these multilevel iterative methods to the field solves in implicit moment method PIC, multidimensional nonlinear Fokker-Planck problems, and their initial efforts in particle MHD

  18. Clinical significance of the changes of plasma cortisol levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhiqiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of plasma cortisol levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: Plasma cortisol levels were measured with RIA at 24:00 and 8:00 right after admission in 68 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage and the tests were repeated in 61 patients one week later 40 controls entered this study. Results: The plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in the patients than the corresponding readings in controls (P<0.001) with obliteration of the normal diurnal rhythm of secretion. The increase of the cortisol levels was positively correlated with the severity of the disease. As the condition of the patients improved, the cortisol levels dropped gradually. Conclusion: The plasma cortisol levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage were closely related to the severity of the disease and were of prognostic value. (authors)

  19. Immunoglobulin G levels during collection of large volume plasma for fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Thomas; Rothe, Remo; Moog, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    There is a need of comprehensive work dealing with the quality of plasma for fractionation with respect to the IgG content as today most plasma derivates are used to treat patients with immunodeficiencies and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, a prospective study was carried out to analyse IgG levels before plasmapheresis and every 200ml collected plasma. Fifty-four experienced plasmapheresis donors were recruited for subsequent 850ml plasmapheresis using the Aurora Plasmapheresis System. Donorś peripheral blood counts were analysed before and after plasmapheresis using an electronic counter. Total protein, IgG and citrate were measured turbidometrically before, during and after apheresis as well as in the plasma product. Furthermore, platelets, red and white blood cells were analysed as parameters of product quality. An average of 2751±247ml blood was processed in 47±6min. The collected plasma volume was 850±1mL and citrate consumption was 177±15mL. A continuous drop of donors' IgG level was observed during plasmapheresis. The drop was 13% of the IgG baseline value at 800mL collected plasma. Total protein, IgG and cell counts of the plasma product met current guidelines of plasma for fractionation. Donors' IgG levels during apheresis showed a steady decrease without compromising the quality of plasma product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Psychophysiologic Study of Weakening Traumatic Combat Memories With Post-Reactivation Propranolol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pitman, Roger K

    2008-01-01

    ...) propranolol, will show significantly smaller psychophysiologic responses during script-driven imagery testing a week later, indicative of weakening of the emotional memory, compared to those who receive (non-reactivation...

  1. A Psychophysiologic Study of Weakening Traumatic Combat Memories With Post-Reactivation Propranolol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pitman, Roger K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to test whether the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol, given following combat memory reactivation, results in a significantly greater weakening of traumatic memories...

  2. A clinical trial of the beta blocker propranolol in premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Magnus, R V

    1984-01-01

    Twelve male patients, with a primary complaint of premature ejaculation in a setting of chronic anxiety with prominent somatic manifestations, participated in a double-blind trial: propranolol against placebo. The study consisted of 5 X 4 week phases: run-in, propranolol or placebo--120 mg/day allocated randomly, wash-out; placebo or propranolol and run-out, in a balanced design. Anxiety was rated initially, and every 2 weeks, throughout the trial using the Hamilton Rating Scale. Sitting blood pressure and pulse were also noted. The time to coital ejaculation (every 3 days) was recorded using a stopwatch, and subjects were also required to rate "overall coital satisfaction" and "quality of erection". Neither prematurity nor other signs/symptoms of anxiety improved on the preparations, which were statistically equivalent. Moderate beta-blockade was achieved with propranolol as evidenced by a median reduction in pulse rate of 5 beats/min.

  3. Obtain and characterization of chitosan / propranolol microparticles by spray drying; Obtencao e caracterizacao de microparticulas de quitosana / propranolol por spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ednaldo G. do; Silva Junior, Arnobio A. da, E-mail: ednaldogn@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Santos, Katia S.C.R. dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated the application of chitosan microparticles as carriers into hard gelatin capsule containing propranolol, evaluating the variability of the molecular weight and the chitosan particles by spray drying. The formulations were characterized by average weight, dosing unit dose uniformity and dissolution profile according to the pharmacopoeia. While the microparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that chitosan microparticles obtained without the drug and then physically mixed with propranolol promoted a modified release 85% of the drug after 5 hours. While, chitosan microparticles sprayed with propranolol released only 55% at 5 hours is presented both as a modified release system. Samples of dried chitosan showed up amorphous and homogeneous and spherical morphology. (author)

  4. Plasma Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Level Is Inversely Associated with HDL Cholesterol Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Meguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Relation between atherosclerosis and innate immunity has attracted attention. As the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, could have an important role in atherosclerosis, we supposed that there could be a meaningful association of plasma LL-37 level with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We evaluated plasma LL-37 level and other clinical markers in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=133, 115 men and 18 women; age 64.7±11.5 years; HbA1c 8.1±1.6%. Plasma level of LL-37 was measured by ELISA. Results. Mean plasma LL-37 level was 71.2±22.3 ng/mL. Plasma LL-37 level showed significant correlations with HDL cholesterol (r=−0.450, P<0.01, triglyceride (r=0.445, P<0.01, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.316, P<0.01 but no significant correlation with age, body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or vitamin D binding protein. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations of plasma LL-37 level with HDL cholesterol (β=−0.411, P<0.01 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (β=0.193, P<0.05. Conclusion. Plasma LL-37 level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Effect of deafferentation of the rat tongue on plasma corticosterone, aldosterone, angiotensin and ACTH levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyntsev, Yu.V.; Serova, O.N.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of deafferentation of the tongue on the plasma level of hormones involved in regulation of the sodium ion level -- aldosterone, corticosterone, ACTH, and angiotensin -- was studied. Plasma hormone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results indicate the important role of orosensory and taste perception in the processes of regulation of the sodium balance in the body. The experiments in this study were conducted on rats

  6. Parvovirus B19 infection modulates the levels of cytokines in the plasma of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naciute, Milda; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Rugiene, Rita; Maciunaite, Gabriele; Mauricas, Mykolas; Murovska, Modra; Girkontaite, Irute

    2017-08-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection is associated with various autoimmune diseases. We investigated the levels of pro-inflammatory (IFNᵧ, TNFα, IL-2, IL-12) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines in the plasma of B19V DNA positive (B19 + ) and negative (B19 - ) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in comparison with the control group (healthy persons). Blood samples were collected from 118 patients with RA and 49 healthy voluntaries. B19V sequence was determined in whole blood and cell-free plasma DNA by nested PCR. The levels of cytokines in the plasma and cell culture medium from Concanavalin A (ConA) or B19V VP1 protein stimulated PBMC were determined by ELISA. The levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-2 and TNFα were higher in plasma of RA patients in comparison with control persons. B19 + controls and RA patients had lower levels of IFNᵧ in comparison with B19 - controls and RA patients. Within RA patients the plasma levels of IFNᵧ were lower in patients with low RA disease activity or remission. Plasma level of IL-4 was increased and IL-10 level was decreased in B19 + RA patients in comparison with B19 - RA patients and did not differ between B19 + and B19 - controls. B19V infection did not affect plasma levels of IL-12, IL-2, and TNFα. ConA and B19 VP1 protein stimulated PBMC from RA patients produced less IFNᵧ than stimulated PBMC from the healthy controls. B19V infection could differently modulate the amount of cytokines in the plasma of healthy persons and RA patients. Decreased production of IFNᵧ and raised level of plasma IL-4 in RA patients could lower antiviral clearance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Level lifetimes of Au52+ in Au plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bo; Zhu Zhiyan; Jiang Gang; Zhu Zhenghe

    2003-01-01

    Based on the extended relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock theory, the level lifetimes, level widths and wavelengths of Au 52+ have been calculated using the General-purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Program. The wavelengths obtained are in good agreement with the experimental data available. The relationship between the level lifetimes and the level widths satisfies the Heisenberg uncertainty principle

  8. Effect of meal and propranolol on whole body and splanchnic oxygen consumption in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Simonsen, Lene; Henriksen, Jens H

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to measure whole body energy expenditure after a mixed liquid meal, with and without simultaneous propranolol infusion, in patients with cirrhosis. We also wanted to investigate the effect of propranolol on substrate fluxes and oxygen uptake in the tissues drained by the hepatic vein ...... as splanchnic oxygen uptake. The splanchnic reduction in oxygen consumption can explain almost the entire reduction in whole body oxygen consumption....

  9. Evaluation of Propranolol Effect on Experimental Acute and Chronic Toxoplasmosis Using Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Mahbobeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sharif, Mehdi; Sarvi, Shahabeddin

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies against toxoplasmosis are limited, and drugs have significant side effects and low efficacies. We evaluated the potential anti-Toxoplasma activity of propranolol at a dose of 2 or 3 mg/kg of body weight/day in vivo in the acute and chronic phases. Propranolol as a cell membrane-stabilizing agent is a suitable drug for inhibiting the entrance of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites into cells. The acute-phase assay was performed using propranolol, pyrimethamine, and propranolol plus pyrimethamine before (pretreatment) and after (posttreatment) intraperitoneal challenge with 1 × 103 tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii strain RH in BALB/c mice. Also, in the chronic phase, treatment was performed 12 h before intraperitoneal challenge with 1 × 106 tachyzoites of the virulent strain RH of T. gondii in rats. One week (in the acute phase) and 2 months (in the chronic phase) after postinfection, tissues were isolated and DNA was extracted. Subsequently, parasite load was calculated using quantitative PCR (qPCR). In the acute phase, in both groups, significant anti-Toxoplasma activity was observed using propranolol (P toxoplasmosis. Also, propranolol combined with pyrimethamine reduced the parasite load as well as significantly increased survival of mice in the pretreatment group. In the chronic phase, anti-Toxoplasma activity and decreased parasite load in tissues were observed with propranolol. In conclusion, the presented results demonstrate that propranolol, as an orally available drug, is effective at low doses against acute and latent murine toxoplasmosis, and the efficiency of the drug is increased when it is used in combination therapy with pyrimethamine. PMID:27645234

  10. Terazosin and propranolol as blockers to the deleterious effect of nicotine in a random skin flap, in the rat Terazosina e propanolol como bloqueadores do efeito deletério da nicotina em um retalho cutâneo randômico, no rato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre V. Fonseca

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of Terazosin and Propranolol on the prevention of necrosis induced by nicotine, in a random skin flap. METHODS: This study utilized 32 adult male Wistar-EPM rats divided, at random, into four groups of eight animals each. All the 32 animals received nicotine (2 mg/kg/day subcutaneously, for one week before and one week after flap elevation. CG (Control group received distilled water (0.2 ml/day by gavage and saline (0.5 ml intraperitoneally, for seven days in the postoperative period. TG (Terazosin group received terazosin hydrochloride (3 mg/day by gavage and saline, intraperitoneally, for seven days in the postoperative period. PG (Propranolol group received propranolol (1.5 mg/day intraperitoneally and distilled water, by gavage, following the stablished pattern. TPG (Terazosin + Propranolol group received both drugs. On the seventh postoperative day, the distal necrotic area of the flaps was determined via the paper template method. Blood and skin samples were collected in order to allow determination of Malondialdehyde (MDA levels RESULTS: The control group had a mean value of 39.5 % of necrosis; the Terazosin group 25.1 %; the Propranolol group 34.5 % and the Terazosin + Propranolol group 26.2 % of necrosis. MDA levels in the serum and in the skin samples behave similarly, with an exception regarding Propranolol group in this case. CONCLUSION: Terazosin is effective in the prevention of necrosis in this animal model and Propranolol is not effective in this case.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo experimental foi avaliar o efeito da Terazosina e do Propranolol na prevenção da necrose induzida pela nicotina, em um retalho cutâneo randômico. MÉTODOS: Este estudo utilizou 32 ratos machos adultos Wistar-EPM divididos, ao acaso, em quatro grupos de oito animais. Todos os 32 animais receberam nicotina (2 mg/kg/dia, por via subcutânea, por uma semana antes e uma semana após a elevação do retalho. O grupo CG

  11. A Taiwanese food frequency questionnaire correlates with plasma docosahexaenoic acid but not with plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels: questionnaires and plasma biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Kuo-Liong; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Yi-Tsen; Chen, Pey-Rong; Lin, Hung-Ju; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Lee, Yuan-The; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2013-02-16

    Little evidence is available for the validity of dietary fish and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake derived from interviewer-administered questionnaires and plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. We estimated the correlation of DHA and EPA intake from both questionnaires and biochemical measurements. Ethnic Chinese adults with a mean (± SD) age of 59.8 (±12.8) years (n = 297) (47% women) who completed a 38-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and provided a plasma sample were enrolled. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. The Spearmen rank correlation coefficients between the intake of various types of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids as well as plasma DHA were significant, ranging from 0.20 to 0.33 (P food frequency questionnaire, were correlated with the percentages of these fatty acids in plasma, and in particular with plasma DHA. Plasma DHA levels were correlated to dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids.

  12. Increased osteopontin plasma levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with bone-specific markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, M.H.J.; ten Kate, J.; Drent, R.J.M.; Polman, C.H.; Hupperts, R.

    2010-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine osteopontin has been found to be highly expressed in multiple sclerosis lesions and plasma levels are increased during relapses in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis patients. The objective was to determine the relationship between osteopontin plasma and cerebrospinal

  13. Contrast media effect on interleukin-2 levels in human plasma in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolov, Yu.K.; Borsukova, N.M.; Shimanovskij, N.L.

    1992-01-01

    As shown in the study of bilignost, iodamide and triombrast action on interleukin-2 (IL-2) level in human plasma in vitro, these contrast media (2.5x10 -2 -2.5x10 -4 M) elevate IL-2 content in blood plasma of sensitive to contrast media subjects in dose-dependent manner

  14. Decline of plasma 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels upon testosterone administration to elderly men with subnormal plasma testosterone and high DHT levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L J; Saad, F; Haide, A; Yassin, A

    2008-10-01

    The study was performed to measure the impact of testosterone (T) administration on circulating levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Group 1 (32 men; mean age 61 years; mean T 6.9 +/- 1.9 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 15 months with long-acting T undecanoate. Group 2 (23 men, mean age 60 years, mean T 7.6 +/- 2.0 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 9 months with T gel. Plasma T and DHT were measured before and after 9 months T administration. In the men treated with T undecanoate plasma T and DHT were also measured after 12 and 15 months. Before T administration, plasma DHT ranged from 0.39 to 1.76 nmol l(-1) (0.30-1.90 nmol l(-1)). Mean DHT declined upon T administration from 0.95 +/- 0.50 to 0.55 +/- 0.30 nmol l(-1) (P DHT > 0.60 nmol l(-1) had fallen from 1.29 +/- 0.50 to 0.70 +/- 0.60 nmol l(-1) (P DHT levels declined upon T administration when they were in the higher range of normal (>0.6 nmol l(-1)), with a profound shift of DHT/T ratios presumed to be an indicator of a reduced 5alpha-reductase activity. Below plasma DHT levels of 0.6 nmol l(-1), responses of plasma DHT to T administration varied.

  15. Plasma visfatin level in lean women with PCOS: relation to proinflammatory markers and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, Ramazan; Akbay, Esen; Muslu, Necati; Sezer, Kerem; Cayan, Filiz

    2009-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the association between plasma visfatin concentrations and inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in company with several metabolic parameters in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study group consisted of 21 lean women with PCOS (BMI 20.74 +/- 1.74 kg/m(2)) and 15 healthy, normally menstruating women (BMI 20.85 +/- 2.08 kg/m(2) control group). PCOS was defined according to the Rotterdam criteria. Visfatin, IL-6, hsCRP, hyperandrogenism markers and metabolic markers were examined in all PCOS and control women. Plasma visfatin level in the PCOS group was higher than that in the control group. Plasma hsCRP and IL-6 levels in PCOS group were similar with the control group. Plasma visfatin levels were positively associated with total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, hirsutism score, total testosterone and FAI. Plasma visfatin level was negatively associated with SHBG. However, there were no correlation between plasma visfatin level and IL-6 and hsCRP. In multivariate regression analyses, only FAI and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) showed a significant association with serum visfatin. Our data indicates that plasma visfatin levels are associated with HDL-C and markers of hyperandrogenism, but it is not associated with proinflammatory markers and insulin resistance in lean women with PCOS.

  16. Relationship between respiratory failure and plasma noradrenaline levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, A; Koike, Y; Takahashi, A; Hirayama, M; Murakami, N; Sobue, G

    1997-08-01

    We evaluated plasma noradrenaline (NA) levels at test and during head-up tilt test in 20 patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Their fasting plasma NA levels ranged from 195 to 4227 pg/ml. The average plasma NA level was 483 pg/ml in five ambulatory patients, 341 in two wheelchair-bound patients, 1264 in 11 bedridden patients, and 208 in two respirator-dependent patients whose disability grading was the worst among the four groups. Arterial carbon dioxide (PCO2) was evaluated as a measure of respiratory function. The coefficient of correlation between PCO2 and plasma NA was r = 0.654 (p respiratory failure or lower motor neuron dysfunction may relate to the elevation of plasma NA levels. In the two bedridden patients, plasma NA levels and heart rate at rest increased significantly as the disease progressed. Cardiovascular responses to head-up tilting were normal. These data suggest that the elevation of plasma NA levels may be related to progression of respiratory failure and lower motor neuron dysfunction. In conclusion, sympathetic hyperactivity in ALS is considered to be not primary, but secondary to somatic motor disabilities and respiratory failure.

  17. Measurement of plasma neuropeptide Y levels with RIA in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Guanghua; Zhang Xinlu; Yang Jun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the levels of plasma neuropeptide Y(NPY) in NIDDM patients with the occurrence of vascular complications. Methods: The plasma NPY levels were measured in 67 cases with DM (Group A: no Vascular complication, n = 38, Group B: with renal and retinal Vascular Changes, n = 29) and 37 normal subjects by radioimmunoassay. Results: NPY levels were higher in diabetic patients than those in normal subjects (p < 0.001). Also the plasma NPY levels were higher (p < 0.001) in diabetic patients with angiopathy (29 cases) than in those without it (38 cases). Conclusion: These data suggested that the changes of plasma NPY levels might be closely related to the occurrence and development of complications in DM patients

  18. Propranolol medication among coronary patients: relationship to type A behavior and cardiovascular response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, D S; Durel, L A; Davia, J E; Shaffer, R T; Arabian, J M; Dembroski, T M; MacDougall, J M

    1982-09-01

    The present correlational study compared behavioral and psychophysiological characteristics of coronary patients who were either medicated or not medicated with the beta-adrenergic blocking drug propranolol. Eighty-eight patients were given a structured Type A interview (SI) and a history quiz while heart rate and blood pressure were monitored. Data were analyzed controlling for age, sex, extent of coronary artery disease, and history of angina. Results indicated that patients taking propranolol (n = 65) were significantly lower in intensity of Type A behavior than patients not taking propranolol (n = 23). No effects were obtained for patients medicated or not medicated with diuretics, nitrates, or other CNS active drugs. Propranolol patients also showed lesser heart rate and rate-pressure product responses to the interview, but did not differ in blood pressure responses. Components of Type A which were lower in propranolol patients included speech stylistics (loud/explosive, rapid/accelerated, potential for hostility). Content of responses to the SI and scores on the Jenkins Activity Survey did not differ between the groups. An explanation for these results is offered in terms of the effects of propranolol on peripheral sympathetic responses, and evidence for a physiological substrate for Type A behavior. A conceptualization of the Type A pattern in terms of cognitive and physiological components is advanced, and implications for clinical intervention are discussed.

  19. Clinical significance of changes of plasma CGRP and VIP levels in infants with bronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chun; Gu Ling; Zhang Yanjun; Xin Haiyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels in infants (2-24months) with bronchiolitis. Methods: Plasma levels of CGRP and VIP were determined with RIA in 31 infants with bronchiolitis both during acute infection and convalescence as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma CGRP levels in patients during acute infection were significantly higher than those in patients during convalescence and in controls (P<0.05). Levels of CGRP dropped during convalescence, but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The reverse was true for the plasma VIP levels. The plasma VIP levels in patients during acute infection were significantly lower than those in patients during convalescence and in controls (P<0.05). During convalescence, the plasma VIP levels rose but remained significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: There were dynamic changes of plasma CGRP and VIP levels in the course of infant bronchiolitis and the two peptides played opposite roles. (authors)

  20. Radioimmunoassay of Human Thyrotropin - Part 1. Plasma TSH levels in various thyroid functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Ro, Heung Kyu; Lee, Mun Ho

    1972-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay of human thyrotropin was performed in various thyroid states, utilizing the anti-h-T.S.H. antibody and purified human thyrotropin supplied from National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, Bethesda, Ma., U.S.A., and human thyrotropin standard-A obtained from National Institute for Biologic Standards, Mill Hill, London, England. 131 I labelled h-TSH was prepared after the Chloramine-T method of Greenwood et al. This double antibody system had a assay sensitivity of about l. 0 μU/ml of plasma HTS-A and could detect the plasma h-TSH level in the euthyroid patients. Plasma h-TSH level of the normal 26 Korean was l.1±0. 83 μU/ml, and that of the 8 hypothyroidisms were 8.3 to 67.5 μU/ml. In hyperthyroidisms, no cases showed the plasma h-TSH levels over l. 0 μU/ ml. Between the hypothyroidism and euthyroidism, no overlap is noticed on plasma h-TSH levels. A case of transient hypothyroid state identified by determination of plasma h-TSH level is presented. These results revealed that the radioimmunoassay of h-TSH in plasma could be a sensitive method to diagnose the hypothyroidism, if not caused by a pituitary disease.

  1. Effects of in vivo irradiation on plasma levels of carotenoids and vitamin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.S.; Roe, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were to determine whether ultraviolet irradiation induces alterations in plasma carotenoid and vitamin A levels in human subjects. Twelve Caucasian women participated in an 8-week crossover trial. UV exposures were given to the anterior and posterior sides of the body on 11 days of a 2-week period. Mean cumulative UVA (320-400 nm) doses of 17.9 +/- 2.6 J/cm 2 and 24.1 +/- 1.5 J/cm 2 were delivered to the anterior and posterior sides, respectively. UVB (280-320 nm) doses were equivalent to 10% of the UVA doses given. Intake of carotenoids and preformed vitamin A was held constant. Plasma samples were collected weekly for spectrophotometric analysis of total carotenoids and vitamin A. A significant reduction (p < 0.003) in plasma carotenoid levels was observed following repeated irradiation. Although a significant treatment response could not be demonstrated for plasma vitamin A (p=0.11), a significant test for carryover (p < 0.02) suggested a delayed or continuing increase in plasma levels following irradiation. It is concluded that UV irradiation can reduce plasma carotenoid levels in vivo and may also affect plasma vitamin A levels in an adaptive response

  2. Plasma cytokine levels and risks of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Mengyang; Liu, Cong-Lin; Lv, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by inflammatory cell accumulation in AAA lesions that produce inflammatory cytokines and advance its pathogenesis. Peripheral cytokines may predict the degree or risk of AAA. METHODS AND RESULTS: ELISA determined plasma interleukin-6 (IL6......), IL10, IL17A, IFN-γ, and C-reactive protein (CRP) from 476 AAA patients and 200 controls. AAA patients had lower IL6, IFN-γ, IL10, IL17A, and higher CRP than controls. IL10 correlated positively with IFN-γ, IL17A, or IL6, but not CRP in control or AAA populations. IL10 associated negatively...... with systolic blood pressure, whereas CRP associated positively with diastolic blood pressure and body mass index. CRP was an independent AAA risk factor and correlated positively with aortic diameters before and after adjustments for other risk factors. IFN-γ, IL17A, and CRP correlated positively with cross...

  3. Effects of acute doses of prosocial drugs methamphetamine and alcohol on plasma oxytocin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Anya K; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Seiden, Jacob A; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-06-01

    Many drugs, including alcohol and stimulants, demonstrably increase sociability and verbal interaction and are recreationally consumed in social settings. One drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), seems to produce its prosocial effects by increasing plasma oxytocin levels, and the oxytocin system has been implicated in responses to several other drugs of abuse. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of 2 other "social" drugs on plasma oxytocin levels--methamphetamine and alcohol. Based on their shared capacity to enhance sociability, we hypothesized that both methamphetamine and alcohol would increase plasma oxytocin levels. In study 1, 11 healthy adult volunteers attended 3 sessions during which they received methamphetamine (10 mg or 20 mg) or placebo under double-blind conditions. Subjective drug effects, cardiovascular effects, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals throughout the sessions. In study 2, 8 healthy adult volunteers attended a single session during which they received 1 beverage containing placebo, and then a beverage containing alcohol (0.8 g/kg). Subjective effects, breath alcohol levels, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals. Both methamphetamine and alcohol produced their expected physiological and subjective effects, but neither of these drugs increased plasma oxytocin levels. The neurobiological mechanisms mediating the prosocial effects of drugs such as alcohol and methamphetamine remain to be identified.

  4. Plasma homocysteine level in cardiac syndrome X and its relation with duke treadmill score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timurkaynak, T.; Balcioglu, S.; Arslan, U.; Kocaman, Sinan A.; Cengel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the plasma homocysteine level and relationship between plasma homocysteine level and duke treadmill score (DTS) in cardiac syndrome X (CSX) patients. Seventy-nine patients (36 male, 43 female, mean age: 50+-8.8 years) admitted to Gazi University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey with typical effort angina, positive stress test and angiographically normal coronary arteries between January and September 2006 were included in this prospective and controlled study. Thirty asymptomatic patients (11 male, 19 female, mean age: 47.6+-8.3 years) with two cardiovascular risk factors were chosen as a control group. Plasma homocysteine level was measured in both groups and DTS was calculated in the CSX group. Plasma homocysteine was measured with AxSYM homocysteine immunoassay method in both groups. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in the CSx group compared to the control group 16.5+-4.9 umol/L, n=79, versus 12.4+-4.1 umol/L, n=30, p<0.001). The DTS was -2.7+-5.3 in the CSX group. There was a negative correlation between the DTS and homocysteine levels in the CSX group. (r=-0.506, p<0.001). Plasma homocysteine level, which is known to cause endothelial dysfunction and microvascular ischemia were higher in CSX patients. Also, this increase in homocysteine level correlated with the DTS, which represents the magnitude of ischemia. (author)

  5. The clinical application of determination of plasma NPY levels for diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qing; Bao Yimin; Yang Yongqing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical usefulness of determination of plasma NPY levels for diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Methods: Plasma levels of NPY were determined with RIA in 180 patients with heart failure from CHD, 89 patients with AMI, 58 patients with essential hypertension, 109 patients with PIH and 47 controls. Results: The plasma levels of NPY in 180 patients with heart failure were 206.37±40.1 pg/ml (I grade, P<0.05), 218.62±64.83 pg/ml (II grade, P<0.05), 269.16±56.57 pg/ml (III grade, P<0.01) and 314.82±56.73 pg/ml (IV grade, P<0.001), respectively. The plasma levels were 345.12±68.71 pg/ml and 191.46±38.92 pg/ml in patients with AMI and hypertension as a whole, respectively. All these levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05∼0.001). Among the patients, the plasma NPY levels increased along with advance of the disease process. Conclusion: Plasma NPY level was a useful marker for diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. (authors)

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers--plasma levels and thyroid status of workers at an electronic recycling facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, A; Karlsson, M; Hagström, K; Ohlson, C G; Engwall, M; Bryngelsson, I-L; Westberg, H; van Bavel, B

    2005-08-01

    Personnel working with electronic dismantling are exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which in animal studies have been shown to alter thyroid homeostasis. The aim of this longitudinal study was to measure plasma level of PBDEs in workers at an electronic recycling facility and to relate these to the workers' thyroid status. PBDEs and three thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were repeatedly analysed in plasma from 11 workers during a period of 1.5 years. Plasma levels of PBDEs at start of employment were plasma levels of PBDEs fluctuated during the study period. Due to small changes in thyroid hormone levels it was concluded that no relevant changes were present in relation to PBDE exposure within the workers participating in this study.

  7. Gold in semen: Level in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.P. Skandhan

    2016-07-01

    Jul 1, 2016 ... Gold level in sediment (spermatozoa) of normal was almost same as observed in its seminal plasma ... showed, gold was not detected in semen by Direct Couple ... Diffraction Analysis, revealed presence of gold throughout.

  8. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, G.R.S.; Verhoef, P.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Betaine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can remethylate homocysteine into methionine via independent reactions. We determined the effect of daily betaine supplementation, compared with both folic

  9. Plasma levels of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegbrant, J.; Thysell, H.; Ekmann, R.

    1991-01-01

    The fasting plasma levels of nine gastrointestinal regulatory peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 13 stable patients with chronic renal failure, receiving hemodialysis treatment regularly and compared with those of ten healthy controls. The plasma concentrations of gastrin-releasing peptide, motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were increased. The plasma level of gastrin was not statistically different from that of the control (p=0.077). It is concluded that patients with chronic renal failure, receiving hemodialysis treatment regularly, have increased concentrations of eight of nine measured gastrointestinal regulatory peptides. The elevated levels of gastrointestinal peptides in patients with chronic renal failure may contribute to uremic gastrointestinal symptoms and dysfunctions. It is necessary to make a renal function evaluation before interpreting measured plasma levels of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides. 62 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Observation on the changes of plasma neuroendocrine hormones levels in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui Shibao; Xia Chaohoung; Cheng Guanghua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma levels of endothelin (ET), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and adrenomedullin (ADM) both before and after treatment in patients with CHF. Methods: Plasma levels of ET, CGRP, NPY and ADM were determined with RIA both before and after treatment in 79 patients with CHF and once in 31 controls. The 79 patients were of two groups: Group A cardiac function Grade III or better, n=45, Group B, cardiac function Grade IV, n=34 with 3 deaths. Results: Before treatment, the plasma levels of ET and CGRP were significantly higher in both groups of patients than those in controls, with higher values in more severe cases. After treatment,the levels dropped markedly but remained significantly higher than those in controls. Most remarkably was that in the three deaths: the CGRP levels before treatment, though higher than those in the controls, were significantly lower than the mean value in Group B patients as a whole, and dropped furthur to below those in controls as the patients deteriorated. With NPY and ADM, before treatment the plasma levels in both groups of patients were also significantly higher than those in controls. The levels also dropped markedly after treatment, but still remained significantly higher than those in controls. Again, in the 3 deaths, the plasma levels of ADM were significantly lower than the mean value of Group B patients and were not much different from those in controls (P>0.05) and dropped furthur to even below the levels of controls as the patients deteriorated. Conclusion: Changes of plasma levels of ET and NPY might reflect the severity of the disease process of CHF while changes of plasma CGRP and ADM levels might even be of prognostic value. (authors)

  11. Plasma NOV/CCN3 Levels Are Closely Associated with Obesity in Patients with Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakradouni, Jihane; Le Goff, Wilfried; Calmel, Claire; Antoine, Bénédicte; Villard, Elise; Frisdal, Eric; Abifadel, Marianne; Tordjman, Joan; Poitou, Christine; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Bittar, Randa; Bruckert, Eric; Clément, Karine; Fève, Bruno; Martinerie, Cécile; Guérin, Maryse

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evidence points to a founder of the multifunctional CCN family, NOV/CCN3, as a circulating molecule involved in cardiac development, vascular homeostasis and inflammation. No data are available on the relationship between plasma NOV/CCN3 levels and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. This study investigated the possible relationship between plasma NOV levels and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. Methods NOV levels were measured in the plasma from 594 adults with a hyperlipidemia history and/or with lipid-lowering therapy and/or a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2. Correlations were measured between NOV plasma levels and various parameters, including BMI, fat mass, and plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, and C-reactive protein. NOV expression was also evaluated in adipose tissue from obese patients and rodents and in primary cultures of adipocytes and macrophages. Results After full multivariate adjustment, we detected a strong positive correlation between plasma NOV and BMI (r = 0.36 p<0.0001) and fat mass (r = 0.33 p<0.0005). According to quintiles, this relationship appeared to be linear. NOV levels were also positively correlated with C-reactive protein but not with total cholesterol, LDL-C or blood glucose. In patients with drastic weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery, circulating NOV levels decreased by 28% (p<0.02) and 48% (p<0.0001) after 3 and 6 months, respectively, following surgery. In adipose tissue from obese patients, and in human primary cultures NOV protein was detected in adipocytes and macrophages. In mice fed a high fat diet NOV plasma levels and its expression in adipose tissue were also significantly increased compared to controls fed a standard diet. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that in obese humans and mice plasma NOV levels positively correlated with NOV expression in adipose tissue, and support a possible contribution of NOV to obesity-related inflammation. PMID:23785511

  12. Impact of elective resection on plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J. H.; Basse, L.; Svedsen, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pre- and post-operative plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels have a prognostic impact on patients with colorectal cancer. However, the surgical trauma may play an essential role in regulation of plasma TIMP-1 levels, which in turn may influence subsequent TIMP......-1 measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutively, 48 patients with colon cancer (CC) and 12 patients with nonmalignant colonic disease were randomised to undergo elective laparoscopically assisted or open resection followed by fast track recovery. Plasma samples were collected just before and 1...

  13. Impact of elective resection on plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J. H.; Basse, L.; Svedsen, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    -1 measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutively, 48 patients with colon cancer (CC) and 12 patients with nonmalignant colonic disease were randomised to undergo elective laparoscopically assisted or open resection followed by fast track recovery. Plasma samples were collected just before and 1......OBJECTIVE: Pre- and post-operative plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels have a prognostic impact on patients with colorectal cancer. However, the surgical trauma may play an essential role in regulation of plasma TIMP-1 levels, which in turn may influence subsequent TIMP...

  14. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement' eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  15. Plasma arc and cold crucible furnace vitrification for medium level waste: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitou, S.; Fiquet, O.; Bourdeloie, C.; Gramondi, P.; Rebollo, F.; Girold, C.; Charvillat, J.P.; Boen, R.; Jouan, A.; Ladirat, C.; Nabot, J.P.; Ochem, D.; Baronnet, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Initially developed for high-level waste reprocessing, several vitrification processes have been under study since the 80's at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) for other waste categories. According to the French law concerning waste management research passed on December 30, 1991, vitrification may be applied to mixed medium-level waste. A review of processes developed at CEA is presented: cold crucible furnace heated by induced current, refractory furnace heated by nitrogen transferred arc plasma torch, and coupling of cold crucible furnace with oxygen transferred plasma arc twin torch. Furthermore, gas post-combustion has been studied with an oxygen non-transferred plasma torch. (authors)

  16. Factors Associated With Plasma IL-6 Levels During HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    (Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy) trial, CD4/CD8 ratio, smoking, comorbid conditions, serum lipids, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]), and educational level were assessed. RESULTS: Demographics associated with higher IL-6 levels were older age and lower...

  17. Decreased plasma chemerin levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, K J; Bonde, L; Svare, J A

    2014-01-01

    circulating chemerin levels, which may act to reduce pregnancy-induced insulin resistance and prevent glucose intolerance. Women with gestational diabetes, however, have severely reduced chemerin levels that remain low after delivery, which may contribute to the insulin resistance, glucose intolerance......AIMS: To evaluate fasting and post-prandial serum chemerin levels in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes, and again following delivery when normal glucose homeostasis is re-established. METHODS: Chemerin levels were measured in serum from nine women with gestational diabetes......, and from eight age- and BMI-matched pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance during two meal tests: in the third trimester and 3-4 months post partum. All women with gestational diabetes re-established normal glucose tolerance after delivery. RESULTS: Meal intake did not affect serum chemerin levels...

  18. Plasma taurine levels are not affected by vigabatrin in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelbrink, Emily M; Mabud, Tarub S; Reimer, Richard; Porter, Brenda E

    2016-08-01

    Vigabatrin is a highly effective antiseizure medication, but its use is limited due to concerns about retinal toxicity. One proposed mechanism for this toxicity is vigabatrin-mediated reduction of taurine. Herein we assess plasma taurine levels in a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy, including a subset receiving vigabatrin. All children who underwent a plasma amino acid analysis as part of their clinical evaluation between 2006 and 2015 at Stanford Children's Health were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in plasma taurine levels between children taking vigabatrin (n = 16), children taking other anti-seizure medications, and children not taking any anti-seizure medication (n = 556) (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.841). There were, however, age-dependent decreases in plasma taurine levels. Multiple linear regression revealed no significant association between vigabatrin use and plasma taurine level (p = 0.87) when controlling for age. These results suggest that children taking vigabatrin maintain normal plasma taurine levels, although they leave unanswered whether taurine supplementation is necessary or sufficient to prevent vigabatrin-associated visual field loss. They also indicate that age should be taken into consideration when evaluating taurine levels in young children. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Ansiedade social e abuso de propranolol: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontanella Bruno José Barcellos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paciente com grave ansiedade social automedicou-se com propranolol durante seis anos, em doses de até 320 mg/d. Além do tratamento psicanalítico que já havia iniciado, foi tratada com tranilcipromina, apresentando melhora parcial do quadro fóbico e do abuso do betabloqueador. Após introdução de paroxetina, houve melhora ainda mais pronunciada. Apesar da automedicação com uma substância potencialmente eficaz em alguns casos, perpetuou-se durante anos um grave padrão fóbico de comportamento. O caso exemplifica as dificuldades de procura de tratamento específico pela população de fóbicos sociais. Levanta-se a hipótese da existência de uma prática crescente de automedicação com betabloqueadores entre fóbicos sociais e pessoas com ansiedade de desempenho, problema cuja relevância para a saúde pública ainda não foi pesquisada.

  20. Clinical significance of detection of plasma β-amyloid protein (β-AP) levels in patients with senile dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Binwei; Xu Shangao; Lu Zhifeng; Wang Weihua; Mao Xiaohua; Zhou Chaohua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of determination of plasma β-AP levels in the diagnosis and monitoring of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Plasma β-AP levels were weasured with RIA in 43 patients with AD and 58 controls, as well as in 8 AD patients after a course of cerebrolysin treatment. Results: The plasma β-AP levels in the AD patients were significance higher those in controls (P<0.01). The plasma β-AP levels were especially higher in the severe eases, however, the plasma β-AP levels in some late AD patients dropped again, even lower than those in the controls. The plasma β-AP levels in the 8 AD patients decreased significantly after treatment with cerebrolysin. Conclusion: The plasma β-AP is a biochemical maker of AD. Dynamic examnation of plasma β-AP levels is valuable in assessing the progression and prognosis of the disease. (authors)

  1. High levels of exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in plasma of melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logozzi, Mariantonia; De Milito, Angelo; Lugini, Luana; Borghi, Martina; Calabrò, Luana; Spada, Massimo; Perdicchio, Maurizio; Marino, Maria Lucia; Federici, Cristina; Iessi, Elisabetta; Brambilla, Daria; Venturi, Giulietta; Lozupone, Francesco; Santinami, Mario; Huber, Veronica; Maio, Michele; Rivoltini, Licia; Fais, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an untreatable cancer lacking reliable and non-invasive markers of disease progression. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by normal as well as tumor cells. Human tumor-derived exosomes are involved in malignant progression and we evaluated the presence of exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients as a potential tool for cancer screening and follow-up. We designed an in-house sandwich ELISA (Exotest) to capture and quantify exosomes in plasma based on expression of housekeeping proteins (CD63 and Rab-5b) and a tumor-associated marker (caveolin-1). Western blot and flow cytometry analysis of exosomes were used to confirm the Exotest-based findings. The Exotest allowed sensitive detection and quantification of exosomes purified from human tumor cell culture supernatants and plasma from SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma. Plasma levels of exosomes in melanoma-engrafted SCID mice correlated to tumor size. We evaluated the levels of plasma exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in melanoma patients (n = 90) and healthy donors (n = 58). Consistently, plasma exosomes expressing CD63 (504+/-315) or caveolin-1 (619+/-310) were significantly increased in melanoma patients as compared to healthy donors (223+/-125 and 228+/-102, respectively). While the Exotest for CD63+ plasma exosomes had limited sensitivity (43%) the Exotest for detection of caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes showed a higher sensitivity (68%). Moreover, caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes were significantly increased with respect to CD63+ exosomes in the patients group. We describe a new non-invasive assay allowing detection and quantification of human exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients. Our results suggest that the Exotest for detection of plasma exosomes carrying tumor-associated antigens may represent a novel tool for clinical management of cancer patients.

  2. High levels of exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in plasma of melanoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariantonia Logozzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma is an untreatable cancer lacking reliable and non-invasive markers of disease progression. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by normal as well as tumor cells. Human tumor-derived exosomes are involved in malignant progression and we evaluated the presence of exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients as a potential tool for cancer screening and follow-up. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed an in-house sandwich ELISA (Exotest to capture and quantify exosomes in plasma based on expression of housekeeping proteins (CD63 and Rab-5b and a tumor-associated marker (caveolin-1. Western blot and flow cytometry analysis of exosomes were used to confirm the Exotest-based findings. The Exotest allowed sensitive detection and quantification of exosomes purified from human tumor cell culture supernatants and plasma from SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma. Plasma levels of exosomes in melanoma-engrafted SCID mice correlated to tumor size. We evaluated the levels of plasma exosomes expressing CD63 and caveolin-1 in melanoma patients (n = 90 and healthy donors (n = 58. Consistently, plasma exosomes expressing CD63 (504+/-315 or caveolin-1 (619+/-310 were significantly increased in melanoma patients as compared to healthy donors (223+/-125 and 228+/-102, respectively. While the Exotest for CD63+ plasma exosomes had limited sensitivity (43% the Exotest for detection of caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes showed a higher sensitivity (68%. Moreover, caveolin-1+ plasma exosomes were significantly increased with respect to CD63+ exosomes in the patients group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We describe a new non-invasive assay allowing detection and quantification of human exosomes in plasma of melanoma patients. Our results suggest that the Exotest for detection of plasma exosomes carrying tumor-associated antigens may represent a novel tool for clinical management of cancer patients.

  3. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in hypoadrenal patients.

  4. Propranolol for extensive hemangiomas of infancy: two case reports Hemangiomas extensos da infância tratados com propranolol: relato de dois caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luíza Helena dos Santos Cavaleiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are the most common benign tumors of childhood. They show rapid growth, followed by a regression phase that culminates in the partial or total disappearance of the lesion. Therapeutic options should be evaluated for extensive cases. Systemic glucocorticoids are the therapy of choice; however, there are reports that propranolol offers better and faster results. We report two cases of large volume infantile hemangioma associated with functional limitation and aesthetic disfigurement, treated successfully with propranolol, a drug that comes as a therapeutic option providing satisfactory and maintained results, with few side effects.Hemangiomas são os tumores benignos mais frequentes da infância, apresentando como história natural crescimento rápido, seguido de uma fase de regressão que culmina com o desaparecimento parcial ou total da lesão. Opções terapêuticas devem ser avaliadas para casos extensos. Os glicocorticoides sistêmicos são a terapia de escolha; contudo, há relatos de que o propranolol oferece resultados melhores e mais rápidos. Este trabalho descreve dois casos de hemangioma infantil de grande volume associados à limitação funcional e desfiguração estética com significativa resposta ao propranolol, droga esta que surge como uma proposta terapêutica oferecendo resultados satisfatórios e mantidos, com poucos efeitos colaterais.

  5. The changes of plasma adrenomedullin level in Han and tibetan health adult men in plateau area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaolin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the changes and clinical significance of plasma adrenomedullin in Han and Tibetan health adult men at the state of chronic hypoxia. The Han health adult who migrated and lived above sea level 4200 meter for 1∼3 years and the native Tibetan were involved in this study. The plasma adrenomedullin levels in both Han and Tibetan health adult men were measured by RIA. The results showed that the plasma adrenomedullin levels of native Tibetan were significantly higher than that of migrated Han worker (P<0.05). The plasma adrenomedullin might play a regulatory role on the physiological function in the health adult men who live in high altitude hypoxic state. (authors)

  6. Variability of fasting and post-menthionine plasma homocysteine levels in normo- and hyperhomocysteinaemic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.; de Jong, S.C.; Devilli, W.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Pals, G.; Boers, G.H.J.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the variability of plasma homocysteine levels, fasting and post-methionine homocysteine levels were measured twice, at baseline and after follow-up of 1-4 months, in 16 individuals with normal and 26 with elevated homocysteine levels after methionine loading. The intra-individual

  7. Plasma glutamine levels before cardiac surgery are related to post-surgery infections; an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Buter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low plasma glutamine level was found in 34% of patients after elective cardiothoracic surgery. This could be a result of the inflammation caused by surgical stress or the use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC. But it is also possible that plasma glutamine levels were already lowered before surgery and reflect an impaired metabolic state and a higher likelihood to develop complications. In the present study plasma glutamine levels were measured before and after cardiac surgery and we questioned whether there is a relation between plasma glutamine levels and duration of ECC and the occurrence of postoperative infections. Methods We performed a single-centre prospective, observational study in a closed-format, 20-bed, mixed ICU in a tertiary teaching hospital. We included consecutive patients after elective cardiac surgery with use of extracorporeal circulation. Blood samples were collected on the day prior to surgery and at admission on the ICU. The study was approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (Regional Review Committee Patient-related Research, Medical Centre Leeuwarden, nWMO 115, April 28th 2015. Results Ninety patients were included. Pre-operative plasma glutamine level was 0.42 ± 0.10 mmol/l and post-operative 0.38 ± 0.09 mmol/l (p < 0.001. There was no relation between duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic occlusion time and changes in plasma glutamine levels. A logistic regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the presence of a positive culture during the post-operative course and pre-operative plasma glutamine levels (p = 0.04. Conclusion Plasma glutamine levels are significantly lower just after cardiac surgery compared to pre-operative levels. We did not find a relation between the decrease in plasma glutamine levels and the duration of extracorporeal circulation or aortic clamp time. There was a correlation between pre-operative plasma glutamine levels

  8. Potentiation of Morphine-Induced Antinociception by Propranolol: The Involvement of Dopamine and GABA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham A. Afify

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine is a major clinical problem which can be managed by co-administration of another drug. This study investigated the ability of propranolol to potentiate the antinociceptive action of morphine and the possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Antinociception was assessed in three nociceptive tests (thermal, hot plate, (visceral, acetic acid, and (inflammatory, formalin test in mice and quantified by measuring the percent maximum possible effect, the percent inhibition of acetic acid-evoked writhing response, and the area under the curve values of number of flinches for treated mice, respectively. The study revealed that propranolol (0.25–20 mg/Kg, IP administration did not produce analgesia in mice. However, 10 mg/Kg propranolol, enhanced the antinociceptive effect of sub-analgesic doses of morphine (0.2, 1, and 2 mg/Kg, IP in the three nociceptive tests. It also shifted the dose response curve of morphine to the left. The combined effect of propranolol and morphine was attenuated by haloperidol (D2 receptor antagonist, 1.5 mg/Kg, IP, and bicuculline (GABAA receptor antagonist, 2 mg/Kg, IP. Repeated daily administration of propranolol (10 mg/Kg, IP did not alter the nociceptive responses in the three pain tests, but it significantly potentiated morphine-induced antinociception in the hot plate, acetic acid-evoked writhing, and in the second phase of formalin tests. Together, the data suggest that a cross-talk exists between the opioidergic and adrenergic systems and implicate dopamine and GABA systems in this synergistic effect of morphine-propranolol combination. Propranolol may serve as an adjuvant therapy to potentiate the effect of opioid analgesics.

  9. Quantification of pulmonary thallium-201 activity after upright exercise in normal persons: importance of peak heart rate and propranolol usage in defining normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-nine normal patients (34 angiographically normal and 25 clinically normal by Bayesian analysis) underwent thallium-201 imaging after maximal upright exercise. Lung activity was quantitated relative to myocardial activity and a lung/myocardial activity ratio was determined for each patient. Stepwise regression analysis was then used to examine the influence of patient clinical characteristics and exercise variables on the lung/myocardium ratio. Peak heart rate during exercise and propranolol usage both showed significant negative regression coefficients (p less than 0.001). No other patient data showed a significant relation. Using the regression equation and the estimated variance, a 95% confidence level upper limit of normal could be determined for a give peak heart rate and propranolol status. Sixty-one other patients were studied to validate the predicted upper limits of normal based on this model. None of the 27 patients without coronary artery disease had an elevated lung/myocardial ratio, compared with 1 of 8 with 1-vessel disease (difference not significant), 6 of 14 with 2-vessel disease (p less than 0.005), and 6 of 12 with 3-vessel disease (p less than 0.0001). Thus, lung activity on upright exercise thallium-201 studies can be quantitated relative to myocardial activity, and is inversely related to peak heart rate and propranolol use. Use of a regression analysis allows determination of a 95% confidence upper limit of normal to be anticipated in an individual patient

  10. Plasma arc melting treatment of low level radioactive waste with centrifugal hearth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Yukito

    1997-01-01

    Plasma Arc Melting technology may possible be able to treat various kinds of waste streams through volume reduction and stabilization into a disposal waste form. The ability of other melting technologies to convert inorganic material in a single step, however, varies according to the characteristics of the materials. Plasma technology also can treat organic waste by selecting the oxidation atmosphere. The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) has decided to construct a low level radioactive waste treatment facility using the Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) process with an 8 ft rotating hearth and 1.2 MW transferred torch developed by Retech (Ukiah, CA. USA) in the Tsuruga power station. In Japan, the plasma technology has been developed for incineration ash treatment, but the JAPC plant will be the first treatment system using plasma technology for solid waste with various characteristics and shapes. (author)

  11. The influence of exothermic reactions on the nonequilibrium level of discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyak, V.Ya.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Prysiazhnevych, I.V.; Martysh, Eu.V.

    2013-01-01

    The comparative analysis of plasma parameters of transverse arc and discharge in the gas channel with liquid wall was made for different working gas and liquids (for air, distilled water and for its mixtures with ethanol). Electronic excitation temperatures Te of atoms, vibrational Tv and rotational Tr temperatures of molecules in the generated plasma were determined by optical emission spectroscopy. It was shown that both discharges generate nonequilibrium plasma in the case of working gas air and working liquid-distilled water. Adding a fuel (ethanol) into the plasma system with O 2 leads to the increasing of rotational and vibrational temperatures of molecules, which became equal to each other within the errors. This may indicate that the exothermic reactions reduce the level of nonthermality of the generated plasma as a result of additional energy supply for heavy components in the process of complete combustion of hydrocarbons.

  12. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Pereg, David; Shochat, Tzippora; Kochba, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf

    2005-10-06

    The normal fasting plasma glucose level was recently defined as less than 100 mg per deciliter (5.55 mmol per liter). Whether higher fasting plasma glucose levels within this range independently predict type 2 diabetes in young adults is unclear. We obtained blood measurements, data from physical examinations, and medical and lifestyle information from men in the Israel Defense Forces who were 26 to 45 years of age. A total of 208 incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 74,309 person-years of follow-up (from 1992 through 2004) among 13,163 subjects who had baseline fasting plasma glucose levels of less than 100 mg per deciliter. A multivariate model, adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, body-mass index, physical-activity level, smoking status, and serum triglyceride levels, revealed a progressively increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men with fasting plasma glucose levels of 87 mg per deciliter (4.83 mmol per liter) or more, as compared with those whose levels were in the bottom quintile (less than 81 mg per deciliter [4.5 mmol per liter], P for trend <0.001). In multivariate models, men with serum triglyceride levels of 150 mg per deciliter (1.69 mmol per liter) or more, combined with fasting plasma glucose levels of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter (5.05 to 5.50 mmol per liter), had a hazard ratio of 8.23 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.6 to 19.0) for diabetes, as compared with men with a combined triglyceride level of less than 150 mg per deciliter and fasting glucose levels of less than 86 mg per deciliter (4.77 mmol per liter). The joint effect of a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30 or more and a fasting plasma glucose level of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter resulted in a hazard ratio of 8.29 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.8 to 17.8), as compared with a body-mass index of less than 25 and a fasting plasma glucose level of less than 86 mg per deciliter. Higher fasting plasma glucose

  13. Arterial and venous plasma levels of bupivacaine following peripheral nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D C; Mather, L E; Bridenbaugh, L D; Balfour, R I; Lysons, D F; Horton, W G

    1976-01-01

    Mean arterial plasma (MAP) and peripheral mean venous plasma (MVP) levels of bupivacaine were ascertained in 3 groups of 10 patients each for: (1) intercostal nerve block, 400 mg; (2) block of the sciatic, femoral, and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves, with or without block of the obturator nerve, 400 mg; and (3) supraclavicular brachial plexus block, 300 mg. MAP levels were consistently higher than simultaneously sampled MVP levels, the highest levels occurring from bilateral intercostal nerve block. No evidence of systemic toxicity was observed. The results suggest that bupivacaine has a much wider margin of safety in humans than is now stated.

  14. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    children. With this assay, leptin proved to be a comparatively stable protein under common conditions of blood sampling and storage. Leptin levels increased in girls with age (r = 0.47, P stage showed a steady...... increase in girls between 2.51 micrograms/L (median) at Tanner stage 1 to 6.24 micrograms/L at Tanner stage 5. In boys, leptin levels were highest at Tanner stage 2 (2.19 micrograms/L) and declined thereafter to 0.71 microgram/L at Tanner stage 5. A strong exponential relationship was observed for leptin...... levels with body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat as determined by bioelectric impedance measurements in a subgroup of subjects. This relationship was similar between boys and girls at Tanner stages 1 and 2. In boys, there was a significant decline of leptin at a given BMI with further...

  15. Relationship between Plasma Triglyceride Level and Severity of Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Huei Wang

    Full Text Available Hypertriglyceridemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis, but whether the level of triglyceride (TG is related to severity of pancreatitis is unclear.To evaluate the effect of TG level on the severity of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP.Retrospective cohort study.We reviewed the records of 144 patients with HTGP from 1999 to 2013 at Tri-Service General Hospital. Patients with possible etiology of pancreatitis, such as gallstones, those consuming alcohol or drugs, or those with infections were excluded. The classification of severity of pancreatitis was based on the revised Atlanta classification. We allocated the patients into high-TG and low-TG groups based on the optimal cut-off value (2648 mg/dL, which was derived from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve between TG level and severity of HTGP. We then compared the clinical characteristics, pancreatitis severity, and mortality rates of the groups.There were 66 patients in the low-TG group and 78 patients in the high-TG group. There was no significant difference in the age, sex ratio, body mass index, and comorbidity between the 2 groups. The high-TG group had significantly higher levels of glucose (P = 0.022, total cholesterol (P = 0.002, and blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.037, and lower levels of sodium (P = 0.003 and bicarbonate (P = 0.002 than the low-TG group. The incidences of local complication (P = 0.002 and severe and moderate form of pancreatitis (P = 0.004 were significantly higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group. The mortality rate was higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group (P = 0.07.Higher TG level in patients with HTGP may be associated with adverse prognosis, but randomized and prospective studies are needed in the future verify this relationship.

  16. Relationship between Plasma Triglyceride Level and Severity of Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Huei; Chou, Yu-Ching; Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Wei, Kuang-Yu; Pan, Yu-Han; Lin, Hung-Che

    2016-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis, but whether the level of triglyceride (TG) is related to severity of pancreatitis is unclear. To evaluate the effect of TG level on the severity of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP). Retrospective cohort study. We reviewed the records of 144 patients with HTGP from 1999 to 2013 at Tri-Service General Hospital. Patients with possible etiology of pancreatitis, such as gallstones, those consuming alcohol or drugs, or those with infections were excluded. The classification of severity of pancreatitis was based on the revised Atlanta classification. We allocated the patients into high-TG and low-TG groups based on the optimal cut-off value (2648 mg/dL), which was derived from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between TG level and severity of HTGP. We then compared the clinical characteristics, pancreatitis severity, and mortality rates of the groups. There were 66 patients in the low-TG group and 78 patients in the high-TG group. There was no significant difference in the age, sex ratio, body mass index, and comorbidity between the 2 groups. The high-TG group had significantly higher levels of glucose (P = 0.022), total cholesterol (P = 0.002), and blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.037), and lower levels of sodium (P = 0.003) and bicarbonate (P = 0.002) than the low-TG group. The incidences of local complication (P = 0.002) and severe and moderate form of pancreatitis (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group. The mortality rate was higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group (P = 0.07). Higher TG level in patients with HTGP may be associated with adverse prognosis, but randomized and prospective studies are needed in the future verify this relationship.

  17. Levels of plasma selenium and urinary total arsenic interact to affect the risk for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Su, Chien-Tien; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Jen; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lin, Ying-Chin; Tsai, Cheng-Shiuan; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether plasma selenium levels modified the risk for prostate cancer (PC) related to arsenic exposure. We conducted a case-control study that included 318 PC patients and 318 age-matched, healthy control subjects. Urinary arsenic profiles were examined using HPLC-HG-AAS and plasma selenium levels were measured by ICP-MS. We found that plasma selenium levels displayed a significant dose-dependent inverse association with PC. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for PC was 0.07 (0.04-0.13) among participants with a plasma selenium level >28.06 μg/dL vs. ≤19.13 μg/dL. A multivariate analysis showed that participants with a urinary total arsenic concentration >29.28 μg/L had a significantly higher OR (1.75, 1.06-2.89) for PC than participants with ≤29.89 μg/L. The combined presence of a low plasma selenium level and a high urinary total arsenic concentration exponentially increased the OR for PC, and additively interacted with PSA at levels ≥20 ng/mL. This is the first epidemiological study to examine the combined effects of plasma selenium and urinary total arsenic levels on the OR for PC. Our data suggest a low plasma selenium level coupled with a high urinary total arsenic concentration creates a significant risk for aggressive PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of operative plasma endotoxin levels in jaundiced and non-jaundiced patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, J A; Bailey, M E

    1987-01-01

    A study of portal plasma endotoxin levels was performed using a chromogenic limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. The assay proved sensitive and reproducible. In only 1 of 25 healthy subjects was the systemic plasma endotoxin level above 100 pg/ml (equivalent Escherichia coli 0111B4). In 30 non-jaundiced patients undergoing surgery the mean (+SEM) portal plasma endotoxin level (60 + 9 pg/ml) was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) than the mean level in the systemic blood (46 + 6 pg/ml), supporting the concept of endotoxin absorption from the intestine into the portal blood. In 20 patients with obstructive jaundice undergoing surgery 42% of portal, 45% of inferior mesenteric and 35% of systemic venous plasma endotoxin levels were above 100 pg/ml. There were significantly higher levels in the portal (p less than 0.05) and inferior mesenteric (p less than 0.05) compared with the systemic blood. Neither the presence of malignancy nor the duration of surgery appeared to influence endotoxin absorption. The significance of raised plasma endotoxin levels in obstructive jaundice is discussed.

  19. DNA damage and plasma homocysteine levels are associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the association between levels of DNA damage and homocysteine (Hcy) in persistent diarrheic (PD) patients and correlates them with serum biochemical metabolites and mineral components. PD patients (n = 36) age 4 - 6 years from Faisalabad hospitals were examined for anthropometric factors, ...

  20. Lamivudine plasma levels in chronic hepatitis B patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.M. Wolters (Leonieke); C.J. Geerlings; L.J. van Dijk (Laurens); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); A.G. Vulto (Arnold); R.A. de Man (Robert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractLamivudine has recently been registered for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B patients. The main therapeutic outcome in the studies on which the registration was based was a drop of HBV DNA below 10(7) genome equivalents/ml, the level of detection of the insensitive

  1. Effect of the stage of lactation in humans on carotenoid levels in milk, blood plasma and plasma lipoprotein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Florian J; Bathe, Katharina; Chen, Frank; Büscher, Ulrich; Dudenhausen, Joachim W

    2004-02-01

    In mammals the composition of milk changes during early lactation, with a rapid decline of fat-soluble vitamins and a continuous increase in total lipids. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood, but might involve selective mechanisms related to mammary uptake or secretion into the milk. Since carotenoids are specifically distributed among the lipoprotein fractions in plasma, the simultaneous determination of carotenoids in plasma, lipoprotein fractions and milk might offer an opportunity to gain insight into this phenomenon. In 21 healthy mothers carotenoids in plasma and lipoprotein fractions were investigated at day 2 and 19 and milk on day 4 and 19 after delivery. Plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol as well as lutein, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin were significantly lower later in lactation (day 19) than shortly after birth (P milk, triacylglycerol increased (P milk it was similar to the pattern found in the high density lipoprotein fraction. Based on these observations a selective mechanism might be responsible for the transfer of these components in milk involving different lipoprotein fractions at specific times of lactation.

  2. Progranulin Levels in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Granulin Mutation Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke H.H. Meeter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathogenic mutations in the granulin gene (GRN are causative in 5-10% of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD, mostly leading to reduced progranulin protein (PGRN levels. Upcoming therapeutic trials focus on enhancing PGRN levels. Methods: Fluctuations in plasma PGRN (n = 41 and its relationship with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, n = 32 and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms were investigated in pre- and symptomatic GRN mutation carriers and controls. Results: Plasma PGRN levels were lower in carriers than in controls and showed a mean coefficient of variation of 5.3% in carriers over 1 week. Although plasma PGRN correlated with CSF PGRN in carriers (r = 0.54, p = 0.02, plasma only explained 29% of the variability in CSF PGRN. rs5848, rs646776 and rs1990622 genotypes only partly explained the variability of PGRN levels between subjects. Conclusions: Plasma PGRN is relatively stable over 1 week and therefore seems suitable for treatment monitoring of PGRN-enhancing agents. Since plasma PGRN only moderately correlated with CSF PGRN, CSF sampling will additionally be needed in therapeutic trials.

  3. Clinical significance of determination of plasma ET and serum NSE, NPY levels in patients with Alzheimer diseases (AD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Hua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma ET and serum NSE, NPY levels in patients with Alzheimer diseases. Methods: Plasma ET and serum NSE, NPY levels were determined with RIA in 31 patients with Alzheimer diseases and 30 controls. Results: The plasma ET and serum NSE, NPY levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Plasma ET and serum NSE, NPY levels were mutually positively correlated (r=0.4895, 0.6014, P<0.01). Conclusion: Detection of plasma ET and serum NSE, NPY levels was helpful for the prediction of treatment effieacy in patients with Alzheimer diseases. (authors)

  4. Plasma levels of cortisol and opioid peptide beta-endorphin during spontaneous vaginal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Ljubica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Labor pain is very frequent in clinical practice, but the underlying mechanisms as well as numerous neuroendocrine responses activated by such pain have not been fully explained yet. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine the influence of labor pain on plasma levels of cortisol and opioid peptide ß-endorphin. METHOD Cortisol and ß-endorphin levels were measured in blood plasma of: health, non-pregnant women (group 1, n=8, health pregnant women (group 2, n=8 and in parturitions, through fourth ages (group 3, n=8, Plasma level of cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay, and ß-endorphin by enzyme immunoassay. Data were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean and were analyzed by Student's t test and Mann Whitney test. RESULTS Plasma level of cortisol in group 2 was significantly increased compared to the group 1. During labor progression, plasma level of cortisol was rising till the third labor age. Plasma level of cortisol in fourth labor age was not significantly different from the ag.e one and group 1. Plasma level of ß-endorphin was (n.g/L: in group 1:64±20, group 2:70±22, group 3:the first labor age: 75±15, the second labor age: 193±54, the third labor age: 346+97 and the fourth labor age: 114±31. CONCLUSION These results indicate that both ß-endorphin and cortisol are involved in regulation and modulation of labor pain and stress.

  5. Plasma levels of secretin in man and dogs: validation of a secretin radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayford, P.L.; Curtis, P.J.; Fender, H.R.; Thompson, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    We have developed and validated a secretin radioimmunoassay that is sufficiently sensitive to measure circulating levels of secretion in the plasma of man and dogs. At a final dilution of 1 : 50,000, the antibody bound 30 percent to 40 percent of radioiodinated ( 125 I) 6-tyrosyl synthetic secretin. Pure natural porcine secretin was used as a reference standard and a linear dose-response curve was generated with 10 to 1,000 pg. of the polypeptide. Little or no cross-reactivity was found when graded doses of other gastrointestinal polypeptides were assayed in the radioimmunoassay and immunoreactive secretin (IRS) in volumes of serum up to 300 μl could be measured accurately. Mean basal levels of IRS in the peripheral plasma of 22 normal human subjects was 216 +- 11.8 pg. per milliliter, in the peripheral plasma of dogs was 154 +- 6.1 pg. per milliliter, and in the portal plasma of dogs was 283 +- 22.2 pg. per milliliter. Basal IRS levels in portal plasma were significantly higher than in peripheral plasma (p < 0.05). In studies on the release of secretin in three normal human subjects, the mean basal level of secretin in peripheral plasma was 124 +- 8 pg. per milliliter. This level was increased to 137 +- 6, 137 +- 7, 149 +- 9, and 169 +- 10 pg. per milliliter during duodenal acidification with 0.15, 0.30, 0.77, and 1.25 mEq. 0.1N HCl per minute. The secretin response was related to the amount of acid used to irrigate the duodenum. In six dogs mean basal levels of secretin in the portal vein were 438 +- 102 pg. per milliliter. Secretin levels were significantly elevated above basal (p < 0.05) at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes during irrigation of the duodenum with 0.1N HCl and remained elevated for 5 and 10 minutes after duodenal acidification

  6. Resistin polymorphims, plasma resistin levels and obesity in Tunisian volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayani, Nesrine; Hamdouni, Haithem; Boumaiza, Imen; Achour, Ons; Neffati, Fadoua; Omezzine, Asma; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bouslama, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of adipokines, like Resistin (RETN); it's an adipocytes-secreted cytokine and has been proposed as a link between obesity and diabetes. Many resistin gene polymorphisms were described and their implication in obesity was controversial. This study was to investigate the prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RETN gene 420C/G; 44G/A; 62G/A; 394C/G and 299 G/A and their association with Resistin level and obesity in Tunisian volunteers. We recruited 169 nonobese (mean age=42.16-14.26 years; mean body mass index [BMI]=24.51-3.69 kg/m 2 ) and 160 obese (mean age=47.86-11.17 years; mean BMI=36-4.78 kg/m 2 ). Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Anthropometric parameters, lipid levels, Glycemia and insulinemia were measured, BMI was calculated and insulinresistance was evaluated with the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and resistin level was measured by ELISA. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS19.0. After adjustment for confounding parameters; the Odds Ratio (OR) of obesity associated with mutated genotypes at 420C/G compared with normal genotype was as: OR=2.17; 95% CI [1.28-3.68], P=.004. The serum Resistin levels present no significant association with all RETN polymorphisms and it was significantly associated with BMI (P=.047). In our haplotype analysis, one haplotype seems to be protective and one other seems to be the highest risk to obesity. The 420 C/G Polymorphism were associated with obesity and Leptin concentration in our population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Circulating FGF23 levels in response to acute changes in plasma Ca(2+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, E; Mace, M.L.; Hofman-Bang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) synthesis and secretion is still incompletely understood. FGF23 is an important regulator of renal phosphate excretion and has regulatory effects on the calciotropic hormones calcitriol and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate...... FGF23 levels and whether a close relationship, similar that known for Ca and PTH, exists between Ca and FGF23. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia regulate FGF23 levels in the rat. Acute hypercalcemia was induced by an intravenous Ca infusion...... and hypocalcemia by infusion of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) in normal and acutely parathyroidectomized rats. Intact plasma FGF23 and intact plasma PTH and plasma Ca(2+) and phosphate were measured. Acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia resulted as expected in adequate PTH secretory responses. Plasma FGF...

  8. Post-cardiac arrest level of free-plasma DNA and DNA-histone complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, A N; Hvas, A-M; Grejs, A M

    2017-01-01

    Background Plasma DNA-histone complexes and total free-plasma DNA have the potential to quantify the ischaemia-reperfusion damages occurring after cardiac arrest. Furthermore, DNA-histone complexes may have the potential of being a target for future treatment. The aim was to examine if plasma DNA-histone...... after 22, 46 and 70 h. Samples for DNA-histone complexes were quantified by Cell Death Detection ELISAplus. The total free-plasma DNA analyses were quantified with qPCR by analysing the Beta-2 microglobulin gene. The control group comprised 40 healthy individuals. Results We found no difference...... in the level of DNA-histone complexes between the 22-h sample and healthy individuals (P = 0.10). In the 46-h sample, there was an increased level of DNA-histone complexes in non-survivors compared with survivors 30 days after the cardiac arrest (P

  9. Increased plasma levels of microparticles expressing CD39 and CD133 in acute liver injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelzle, Moritz; Splith, Katrin; Wiuff Andersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that CD133 and CD39 are expressed by hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which are mobilized after liver injury and target sites of injury, limit vascular inflammation, and boost hepatic regeneration. Plasma microparticles (MP) expressing CD39 can block...... sacrificed and plasma MP were isolated by ultracentrifugation. HSC and CD133 MP levels were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Patients were enrolled with acute (n=5) and acute on chronic (n=5) liver injury with matched controls (n=7). Blood was collected at admission and plasma CD133 and CD39...... MP subsets were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. RESULTS: HSC and CD133 MP levels were significantly increased only in the plasma of wild-type mice with acetaminophen hepatotoxicity (P

  10. Study on plasma homocysteine (HCY) levels in patients with cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Guozhong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the plasma levels of HCY, folate and vitamin B 12 and the development of cerebrovascular accidents (infarction and hemorrhage). Methods: Plasma HCY concentrations (with fluorescence polarization immunoassay FPIA) and folate, VitB 12 contents (with immunofluorescence technique) were measured in 150 patients with cerebral infarction, 171 patients with cerebral hemorrhage (all patients confirmed with CT/MRI) and 96 controls. Results: Plasma HCY concentrations were significantly higher (P 12 contents were significantly lower (P 12 concentrations were critically involved in the development and pathogenesis of cerebrovascular accidents. (authors)

  11. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis: Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée M Ettema

    Full Text Available Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP, are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli for copeptin release, i.e. plasma osmolality, blood volume and mean arterial pressure (MAP, are operational in hemodialysis patients.One hundred and eight prevalent, stable hemodialysis patients on a thrice-weekly dialysis schedule were studied during hemodialysis with constant ultrafiltration rate and dialysate conductivity in this observational study. Plasma levels of copeptin, sodium, MAP, and blood volume were measured before, during and after hemodialysis. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the association between copeptin (dependent variable and the physiological stimuli plasma sodium, MAP, excess weight as well as NT-pro-BNP immediately prior to dialysis and between copeptin and changes of plasma sodium, MAP and blood volume with correction for age, sex and diabetes during dialysis treatment.Patients were 63 ± 15.6 years old and 65% were male. Median dialysis vintage was 1.6 years (IQR 0.7-4.0. Twenty-three percent of the patients had diabetes and 82% had hypertension. Median predialysis copeptin levels were 141.5 pmol/L (IQR 91.0-244.8 pmol/L. Neither predialysis plasma sodium levels, nor NT-proBNP levels, nor MAP were associated with predialysis copeptin levels. During hemodialysis, copeptin levels rose significantly (p<0.01 to 163.0 pmol/L (96.0-296.0 pmol/L. Decreases in blood volume and MAP were associated with increases in copeptin levels during dialysis, whereas there was no significant association between the change in plasma sodium levels and the change in copeptin levels.Plasma copeptin levels are elevated predialysis and increase further during hemodialysis. Volume stimuli, i.e. decreases in MAP and blood volume, rather than osmotic

  12. Successful Treatment of Mild Pediatric Kasabach-Merritt Phenomenon with Propranolol Monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawut Choeyprasert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP is relatively rare in childhood and adolescents with high mortality rate because of its hemorrhagic complications and unresponsiveness to treatments such as corticosteroids, vincristine, intravascular embolization, and/or surgery. Propranolol, a β-adrenergic receptor blocker, has a promising efficacy against vascular tumors such as infantile hemangiomas. But limited and variable data has been reported regarding the role of propranolol in treatment of KMP. We herein reported the successful treatment of mild pediatric KMP with propranolol monotherapy in a case of a five-week-old child with kaposiform hemangioendothelioma with successful treatment of both clinical and hematologic responses. After eight months of follow-up, patient still had stable cutaneous lesion while receiving propranolol monotherapy. Regular hematologic monitoring was done in order to detect any late relapse of the disease. Six months after discontinuation of propranolol, patient has still remained free of hematologic relapse, and primary cutaneous lesion has become a pale pink, 1 cm sized skin lesion.

  13. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Rong Ju

    Full Text Available To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin.The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95 than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09, and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79, with each p<0.01. Significant differences were also found in plasma BNP levels among the three groups (p<0.05. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that myostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each p<0.05.Plasma myostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD.

  14. Administration of Bioflavonoides Improves Plasma Levels of Adipocyte Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boncheva M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial the fruits of aronia melanocarpa (rich of bioflavonoides have been known for their medicinal properties. Present-day research of the pharmacological effects of aronia melanocarpa juice and fruits intake indicates that their high contents of anthocyanins is closely related to the health enhancing properties of this plant. This is a key fact which can be used in the prevention of most commonly spread, socially significant diseases, reducing for instance the total risk of cardio-vascular diseases. The great molecular variety anthocyanins possess and the role they play in cell metabolism, are still being investigated. This gives grounds to study the effects of Aronia melanocarpa on human cells, tissues, and organs. The aim of this study is to trace the effect of 150-200 ml aronia melanokarpa juice daily oral intake on the adipocyte hormones leptin (Lp, resistine (Rs and adiponectin (Adn blood levels in 10 patients with high body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 and high waist circumference. We used ELISA methods for hormonal analyses. During the study-period of two months patients did not change anything in their lifestyle. In the study group, the levels of Rs, Lp and Adn changed significantly compared to their baseline levels (averages, ng/mL - 6.93 ± 0.137, 18.40 ±1.021 and 7.98 ± 0.077 vs. 5.06 ± 0.011, 15.23 ± 0.906 and 10.45 ± 0.103 at the end of the second month, respectively. Compared with the control group of 6 people, matched for BMI, not receiving aronia melanocarpa juice, these values were markedly different. Patients taking aronia melanokarpa juice report improvement in various conditions that have caused them discomfort before the research started: pain in the muscles and joints faded away and were replaced by a new feeling of strength, headache attacks disappeared, improvement in memory and sleep were reported, regular defecation, no signs of gastric discomfort, better vision, a quicker auditory reaction, motivation

  15. Association between cholesterol plasma levels and craving among heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Hsieh, Pei Chun; Chen, Po See; Lu, Ru-Band; Chen, Kao Chin

    2012-12-01

    Lipids may play some roles in the central nervous system functions that are associated with drug addiction. To date, cholesterol is known to influence relapse of cocaine use. However, the relationship between cholesterol and heroin craving is unclear. This study examined the concurrent association between cholesterol and craving. The serum lipid levels of 70 heroin users who were undergoing or had undergone a methadone maintenance therapy were measured. Their craving and demographic data were assessed. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are negatively associated with craving before (r = -0.33, P cognitive aspect of craving and may be a potential marker to predict risk of drug relapse.

  16. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  17. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Janice J; Johnson, Andrea; Cline, Gary; Belfort-DeAguiar, Renata; Snegovskikh, Denis; Khokhar, Babar; Han, Christina S; Sherwin, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS) fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose) contributes to brain exposure to fructose. In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM) undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section. As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001), and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001). Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02) and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001). Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001). There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups. These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  18. Plasma ghrelin levels during exercise - effects of intensity and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Johannes; Tahbaz, Rana; Lippl, Florian; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schusdziarra, Volker

    2007-10-04

    Ghrelin, a recently discovered hormone of gastric origin has been shown to stimulate appetite and food intake. In man it is considered to play a role in energy homeostasis and regulation of somatropic function. As exercise affects hunger/satiety sensations and food intake, at least under some experimental conditions, we investigated the effect of exercise intensity and duration on ghrelin release and subsequent ad libitum food intake in normal weight subjects. Bicycle exercise on an ergometer for 30 min at 50 W which was below the aerob-anaerobic threshold led to an increase of ghrelin which remained unchanged during the higher intensity at 100 W. Respective hunger/satiety ratings and subsequent food intake and postprandial ghrelin suppression were identical and not different from controls. In a second group 7 subjects cycled at 50 W for 30, 60 and 120 min, respectively. Ghrelin concentrations rose significantly by 50-70 pg/ml above baseline for the respective period of exercise. While postexercise premeal ghrelin levels were not significantly different subsequent food intake after 120 min of cycling was significantly greater compared to control, 30 min and 60 min exercise, respectively. The present data suggest that low rather than high-intensity exercise stimulates ghrelin levels independent of exercise duration. Stimulation of food intake during prolonged exercise is most likely not due to changes of ghrelin.

  19. Relevance of plasma malondialdehyde level and severity of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Lan; Zhu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Dong-Wei; Zhang, Zhao-Jie; Gao, Heng-Jun; Yang, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Portal hypertension is one of the death reasons for the liver cirrhosis patients. The oxidative stress is related to the occurrence and development of portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Malondialdehyde (MDA), one of the lipid peroxides, increases substantially in cirrhotic patients. To evaluate the relevance between the MDA level and portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. 60 liver cirrhotic patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. The plasma MDA level and general blood tests including ALT, AST, ALB, total bilirubin, and platelet were measured. All people enrolled accepted endoscopic examination and B-Ultrasound check to evaluate the severity of portal hypertension. The MDA plasma level of cirrhotic patients was significantly higher than the controls (Pportal hypertension (Pportal vein (r=0.652, Pportal hypertension. Plasma MDA level may correlate with the severity of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients.

  20. L-carnitine plasma levels in dogs and cats. A diagnostic parameter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    1993-04-01

    The relation between levels of carnitine in plasma and lesions of organs should be demonstrated. 52 dogs and 58 cats examined in veterinary clinics for several reasons and routinely screened for blood chemistry also were analysed for free plasma carnitine by a radiocarbon method. Increased carnitine levels were observed in both species in case of heart, liver and kidney disorders. Additionally the influence of food intake on carnitine levels in dogs was studied. Postprandial changes were insignificant. Because of lack of information about carnitine levels in cats and changes with age plasma carnitine was determined in cats and kittens. The range of normal values was 8.2 to 24.2 μmol/l without any significance of age

  1. Plasma beta-endorphin levels in obese and non-obese patients with polycystic ovary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Guisasola, J; Guerrero, M; Alonso, F; Díaz, F; Cordero, J; Ferrer, J

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of body weight on circulating plasma levels of beta-endorphin and insulin in women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD), as well as the correlation between the plasma levels of beta-endorphin and insulin. One-hundred and sixty-seven consecutive subjects with PCOD were recruited, 117 of whom had normal weight (body mass index (BMI) 25). A venous blood sample was taken and plasma concentrations of beta-endorphin, insulin, gonadotropins, prolactin, progesterone, 17 beta-estradiol, estrone, androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Mean beta-endorphin and insulin plasma levels were significantly higher (p PCOD women than in non-obese ones. Correlation analysis showed a positive association between insulin and beta-endorphin, beta-endorphin and BMI (and weight), insulin and BMI (and weight), and a negative correlation was found between insulin and SHBG. A weak association was found between beta-endorphin and luteinizing hormone (LH) in peripheral plasma. Stratified and linear regression analysis showed that plasma beta-endorphin concentrations correlate more with BMI than with insulinemia.

  2. VEGF-121 plasma level as biomarker for response to anti-angiogenetic therapy in recurrent glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Maurizio; de Pascalis, Ivana; D'Alessandris, Quintino Giorgio; Fiorentino, Vincenzo; Pierconti, Francesco; Marei, Hany El-Sayed; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Pallini, Roberto; Larocca, Luigi Maria

    2018-05-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms, particularly the diffusible VEGF-121, could play a major role in the response of recurrent glioblastoma (GB) to anti-angiogenetic treatment with bevacizumab. We hypothesized that circulating VEGF-121 may reduce the amount of bevacizumab available to target the heavier isoforms of VEGF, which are the most clinically relevant. We assessed the plasma level of VEGF-121 in a brain xenograft model, in human healthy controls, and in patients suffering from recurrent GB before and after bevacizumab treatment. Data were matched with patients' clinical outcome. In athymic rats with U87MG brain xenografts, the level of plasma VEGF-121 relates with tumor volume and it significantly decreases after iv infusion of bevacizumab. Patients with recurrent GB show higher plasma VEGF-121 than healthy controls (p = 0.0002) and treatment with bevacizumab remarkably reduced the expression of VEGF-121 in plasma of these patients (p = 0.0002). Higher plasma level of VEGF-121 was significantly associated to worse PFS and OS (p = 0.0295 and p = 0.0246, respectively). Quantitative analysis of VEGF-121 isoform in the plasma of patients with recurrent GB could be a promising predictor of response to anti-angiogenetic treatment.

  3. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  4. PLASMA OXYTOCIN LEVELS PREDICT SOCIAL CUE RECOGNITION IN INDIVIDUALS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Keller, William R.; Koenig, James I.; Gold, James M.; Frost, Katherine H.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Lower endogenous levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin may be an important biological predictor of social cognition impairments in schizophrenia (SZ). Prior studies have demonstrated that lower-level social cognitive processes (e.g., facial affect perception) are significantly associated with reduced plasma oxytocin levels in SZ; however, it is unclear whether higher-level social cognition, which requires inferential processes and knowledge not directly presented in the stimulus, is associated ...

  5. Arterial and venous plasma levels of bupivacaine following epidural and intercostal nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D C; Mather, L E; Bridenbaugh, P O; Bridenbaugh, L D; Balfour, R I; Lysons, D F; Horton, W G

    1976-07-01

    Arterial and peripheral venous plasma levels of bupivacaine were determined in 30 patients following epidural anesthesia using 150 and 225 mg, as well as following intercostal nerve block with 400 mg. Arterial levels were consistently higher than levels in simultaneously sampled venous blood, and the highest levels occurred with bilateral intercostal nerve block. No evidence of systemic toxicity was observed. The results suggest that bupivacaine may have a wider margin of safety in man than is now stated.

  6. Clinical Significance of Plasma CEA Levels in the Patients with Cervical Carcinoma during Follow-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Sung Beom; Kim, Joo Young; Choi, Myung Sun; Rha, Joong Yeol; Lee, Min Jae [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-12-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been studied in the field of gynecologic malignancy to determine whether it can be used as a tumor marker for early detection of recurrence or evaluation of therapeutic results. From January 1985 through December 1989, a total of 239 cervical cancer patients were entered for an analysis of plasma CEA level in the group with cervical cancer compared to the control group consisting of 65 normal healthy women and 18 women with benign gynecologic disease. Plasma CEA levels appear to be directly related with the tumor extension and as stages advance, the incidence of patients with abnormal plasma CEA levels is increased. Also, there seems to be a little higher incidence of abnormal CEA levels in patients with adenocarcinomas or adenosquamous carcinoma but not statistically significant because of small number of patients. When the patients developed recurrence, plasma CEA levels are markedly elevated in the majority, particularly in patients with hepatic metastases. In conclusion, serial plasma CEA checks could be used to detect recurrence during follow-up after treatment of cervical cancer.

  7. Reduced plasma taurine level in Parkinson's disease: association with motor severity and levodopa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yuan, Yongsheng; Tong, Qing; Jiang, Siming; Xu, Qinrong; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Lian; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the level of taurine in plasma, and its association with the severity of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) and chronic levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). Plasma taurine level was measured in treated PD (tPD), untreated PD (ntPD) and control groups. Motor symptoms and NMS were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease for Autonomic Symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Longtime exposure to levodopa was indicated by its approximate cumulative dosage. The plasma taurine levels of PD patients were decreased when compared with controls and negatively associated with motor severity but not NMS. Moreover, tPD patients exhibited lower levels of plasma taurine than ntPD patients. Interestingly, plasma taurine levels negatively correlated with cumulative levodopa dosage in tPD. After controlling for potential confounders, the association between taurine and levodopa remained significant. Our study supports that taurine may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PD and the disturbances caused by chronic levodopa administration.

  8. Propranolol, but not naloxone, enhances spinal reflex bladder activity and reduces pudendal inhibition in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Marc J; Xiao, Zhiying; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of β-adrenergic and opioid receptors in spinal reflex bladder activity and in the inhibition induced by pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) or tibial nerve stimulation (TNS). Spinal reflex bladder contractions were induced by intravesical infusion of 0.25% acetic acid in α-chloralose-anesthetized cats after an acute spinal cord transection (SCT) at the thoracic T9/T10 level. PNS or TNS at 5 Hz was applied to inhibit these spinal reflex contractions at 2 and 4 times the threshold intensity (T) for inducing anal or toe twitch, respectively. During a cystrometrogram (CMG), PNS at 2T and 4T significantly (P reflex bladder contractions. After administering propranolol (3 mg/kg iv, a β₁/β₂-adrenergic receptor antagonist), the effects of 2T and 4T PNS on bladder capacity were significantly (P reflex bladder contractions or PNS inhibition. At the end of experiments, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg iv, a ganglionic blocker) significantly (P reflex bladder contractions. This study indicates an important role of β₁/β₂-adrenergic receptors in pudendal inhibition and spinal reflex bladder activity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Elevated plasma procalcitonin level predicts poor prognosis of ST elevation myocardial infarction in Asian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junru; Xia, Bangbo; Wu, Xiaomiao

    Previous studies have focused on relationship between plasma procalcitonin level and myocardial infarction risk, but this relationship in Asian elderly has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to reveal the association of peripheral procalcitonin concentration (both immediate and average levels) with myocardial infarction prognosis in Asian elderly. A total of 400 ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients, 400 unstable angina patients and 400 controls were included. Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were measured using commercially available kits. Each myocardial infarction patient received a standard therapy and a 12-month follow-up unless major adverse cardiac events occurred. On admission, plasma procalcitonin level was higher in myocardial infarction patients than in unstable angina patients and controls (p < .001). In the follow-up period, 142 myocardial infarction patients suffered from major adverse cardiac events, and other 258 myocardial infarction patients did not. Higher admission, peak and average plasma levels of procalcitonin in the first week after chest pain onset were associated with elevated risk of major adverse cardiac events (HR: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.18-1.99; HR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.99-3.52; HR: 2.36, 95%CI: 1.81-3.00). Plasma procalcitonin level had a positive linear correlation with plasma level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein on admission (r = 0.650, p < .001). In conclusion, peripheral concentration of procalcitonin (both immediate and average levels) might be an independent predictor for prognosis in myocardial infarction patients. Prognostic significance of procalcitonin might be implicated in inflammation.

  10. Progranulin Levels in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Granulin Mutation Carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.H. Meeter (Lieke H.H.); Patzke, H. (Holger); Loewen, G. (Gordon); E.G.P. Dopper (Elise); Y. Pijnenburg (Yolande); A.S. Thornton (Andrew); J.C. van Swieten (John)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pathogenic mutations in the granulin gene (GRN) are causative in 5-10% of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), mostly leading to reduced progranulin protein (PGRN) levels. Upcoming therapeutic trials focus on enhancing PGRN levels. Methods: Fluctuations in plasma PGRN

  11. Effect of anticonvulsants on plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragry, J M; Makin, H L; Trafford, D J; Scott, D F

    1978-01-01

    Plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels were measured in 29 patients with epilepsy (16 men and 13 women), most of them on chronic therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in both sexes and testosterone levels in male patients. It is postulated that anticonvulsants may induce hepatic synthesis of SHBG. PMID:569688

  12. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chun-Rong; Chen, Miao; Zhang, Jian-Heng; Lin, Zhi-Ya; Chen, Rong-Chang

    2016-01-01

    To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV) function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin. The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95) than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09), and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79), with each pmyostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each pmyostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD.

  13. Plasma tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) levels in Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelakakis, H.; Spanou, C.; Kondyli, A.; Dimitriou, E.; van Weely, S.; Hollak, C. E.; van Oers, M. H.; Aerts, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) levels were measured in the plasma of patients with different types of Gaucher disease (GD) and patients with other lysosomal storage diseases. The highest TNF-a levels were observed in the most severe neuronopathic type of GD, exceeding those found in healthy

  14. Influence of Erythropoietin Dose and Albumin Level on the Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsuwaida Abdulkareem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels increase in patients with congestive heart failure. Theoretically, BNP levels can be helpful in the determination of the "dry weight" of hemodialysis patients. To evaluate the effect of hemodialysis on the plasma concentration of BNP and to determine the factors that affect BNP levels during hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure, we studied five stable patients with chronic renal failure. A total of 15 blood samples were obtained for BNP levels at 24, 48 and 72 hours after the last hemodialysis session. The plasma BNP levels did not change significantly either with ultrafiltration volume or with time since last dialysis. However, the BNP levels correlated positively with the erythropoietin (EPO dose (r=0.98, P< 0.001 and negatively with the serum albumin levels (r = 0.94, P=0.02. Univariate analysis showed that the EPO dose (P=0.001 and the albumin level (P=0.02 were significant predictors of BNP level. Adjusted multivariate analysis showed significant interaction between the EPO dose and the albumin level (P=0.01, P=0.03 respectively. In conclusion: the plasma BNP levels were not significantly influenced by ultrafiltration volume or time since last dialysis. However, the BNP levels may be a useful prognostic parameter for assessing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients.

  15. Changes of plasma neuropeptide Y levels in patients with ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Guanghua; Zhang Xinlu; Yang Jun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathophysiological significance of neuropeptide Y(NPY) in ischemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: The plasma NPY levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 35 patients with angina pectoris (Group A), 31 patients with acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) without heart failure (Group B), 29 patients of AMI with left heart failure (Group C) and 27 normal subjects. Results: The plasma NPY levels were higher in all these patients on admission than those in controls with the highest values in the most severe patients. The NPY levels in group A decreased to normal levels on day 1. In group B a significant increase in the levels of NPY was observed on day 1. Their NPY levels decreased significantly on days 4 and 7, but never to normal levels until day 28. Considerable increase in the levels of NPY were observed in group C on days 1 and 4. The levels of NPY were extremely high in six AMI patients with acute left heart failure before death. The NPY levels began to decrease on day 7 but never to their levels on admission until day 28; at that time the NPY levels were still higher than those in controls. Conclusion: These information indicated that plasma NPY might be useful for monitoring and predicting prognosis in patients with ischemic heart disease

  16. Decreased plasma prorenin levels in primary aldosteronism: potential diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Constance; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Harbaoui, Brahim; Paget, Vinciane; Khettab, Fouad; Bricca, Giampiero; Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Lantelme, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism could exert a negative feedback on prorenin secretion, of possibly different magnitude, whether it is related to an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or an idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of prorenin in three subgroups: APA, IHA, and essential hypertension; and the performance of the aldosterone-to-prorenin ratio (APR) for the diagnosis of an APA. Seven hundred and forty-six hypertensive patients with a standardized work-up, including a prorenin measurement, were considered. Ninety-six patients without neutral treatment and 38 patients with other forms of secondary hypertension were excluded. APA and IHA were categorized according to computed tomography scan, adrenal venous sampling, pathological analysis and improvement of hypertension after surgery. Thirty-five patients had a diagnosis of APA, 57 of IHA and 504 of essential hypertension. Prorenin was lower in APA and IHA than in essential hypertension (32.9, 40.4 and 50.3  pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). APR was higher in patients with APA and IHA than in those with essential hypertension (24.0, 11.8, and 4.0  pmol/l per pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). The APR was more discriminant than the aldosterone-to-renin ratio to identify APA compared to IHA (area under the receiver operating curve at 0.750 and 0.639, respectively; P = 0.04). The optimal cut-off values were 22  pmol/l per pg/ml for APR (sensitivity 57.0%, specificity 93.0%) and 440  pmol/l per pg/ml for aldosterone-to-renin ratio (sensitivity 54.3%, specificity 82.5%). Primary aldosteronism and particularly its most caricatural form, that is APA, seems associated with a lower level of prorenin than essential hypertension. The APR could be included in the diagnostic strategy of APA.

  17. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  18. Correlation of plasma endothelin-1 levels with pulmonary hypertension after inhaled nitric oxide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzaq, Z.; Naqvi, S.; Aslam, M.

    2009-01-01

    Variable response to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy in patients with mitral stenosis (MS) having pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been documented in early studies. The objectives of this study were to measure plasma Endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in those patients and to correlate them with pulmonary vascular indices after iNO therapy. It was Quesi-experimental study. Methods: Thirty patients with mitral or mixed mitral and aortic valve disease with severe pulmonary hypertension and enrolled for valve replacement surgery were included. Before the replacement, baseline pulmonary vascular indices and cardiac output were recorded. After the surgery, 10 - 20 was in administered for 1 hour and all the parameters were again recorded. Patients were grouped into responders and non responders on the basis of % reduction in Pulmonary Vascular Resistance (PVR) after iNO therapy. Plasma ET-1 levels were measured in both groups by ELISA before and after the iNO therapy. Paired sample t-test was used to compare mean values for significance. The correlations between variables were then calculated by using Pearson's coefficient. Results: The plasma ET-1 levels were very high in all patients. They reduced in responders after iNO therapy; non-responders paradoxically showed significant increase in the levels of ET-1 after iNO therapy. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed in plasma ET-1 levels and post operative levels of PVR. Conclusion: The correlation of changes in PVR and plasma ET-1 levels in responders suggests that high plasma ET-1 is a key mediator of poor response in PH secondary to MS, after iNO therapy. (author)

  19. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  20. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Lian-Hua Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients’ clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR (95% confidence intervals (CI of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15–0.60, 0.33 (0.17–0.65, and 0.19 (0.09–0.38. Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02–3.98. HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels, whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results.

  1. Partitioning the variability of fasting plasma glucose levels in pedigrees. Genetic and environmental factors.

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    Boehnke, M; Moll, P P; Kottke, B A; Weidman, W H

    1987-04-01

    Fasting plasma glucose measurements made in 1972-1977 on normoglycemic individuals in three-generation Caucasian pedigrees from Rochester, Minnesota were analyzed. The authors determined the contributions of polygenic loci and environmental factors to fasting plasma glucose variability in these pedigrees. To that end, fasting plasma glucose measurements were normalized by an inverse normal scores transformation and then regressed separately for males and females on measured concomitants including age, body mass index (weight/height2), season of measurement, sex hormone use, and diuretic use. The authors found that 27.7% of the variability in normalized fasting plasma glucose in these pedigrees is explained by these measured concomitants. Subsequent variance components analysis suggested that unmeasured polygenic loci and unmeasured shared environmental factors together account for at least an additional 36.7% of the variability in normalized fasting plasma glucose, with genes alone accounting for at least 27.3%. These results are consistent with the known familiality of diabetes, for which fasting plasma glucose level is an important predictor. Further, these familial factors provide an explanation for at least half the variability in normalized fasting plasma glucose which remains after regression on known concomitants.

  2. The association between estimated average glucose levels and fasting plasma glucose levels in a rural tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Reddy P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, also known as glycated hemoglobin, determines how well a patient’s blood glucose level has been controlled over the previous 8-12 weeks. HbA1c levels help patients and doctors understand whether a particular diabetes treatment is working and whether adjustments need to be made to the treatment. Because the HbA1c level is a marker of blood glucose for the previous 60- 90 days, average blood glucose levels can be estimated using HbA1c levels. Aim in the present study was to investigate the relationship between estimated average glucose levels, as calculated by HbA1c levels, and fasting plasma glucose levels. Methods: Type 2 diabetes patients attending medicine outpatient department of RL Jalappa hospital, Kolar between March 2010 and July 2012 were taken. The estimated glucose levels (mg/dl were calculated using the following formula: 28.7 x HbA1c-46.7. Glucose levels were determined using the hexokinase method. HbA1c levels were determined using an HPLC method. Correlation and independent t- test was the test of significance for quantitative data. Results: A strong positive correlation between fasting plasma glucose level and estimated average blood glucose levels (r=0.54, p=0.0001 was observed. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Reporting the estimated average glucose level together with the HbA1c level is believed to assist patients and doctors determine the effectiveness of blood glucose control measures.

  3. Effect of propranolol in head tremor: quantitative study following single-dose and sustained drug administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, S; Sasso, E; Negrotti, A; Baratti, M; Fava, R

    1992-12-01

    The effect of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol has been investigated in nine patients suffering from isolated (six patients) or prominent (three patients) essential tremor of the head. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the tremorolytic efficacy of propranolol has been assessed by a quantitative accelerometric method after a single oral dose (120 mg) and following 2 weeks of sustained treatment with two different dosage regimens of the drug (120 and 240 mg daily). As compared with placebo, a significant reduction in tremor magnitude was found following a single oral dose but not on sustained administration of the beta-blocker at either dosage. The results suggest that the efficacy of sustained propranolol on isolated or prominent essential head tremor is less predictable and satisfactory than expected on the basis of the single-dose response, as compared with hand tremor.

  4. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer-related muscle wasting was not associated with increases in plasma MG or CK in this study.

  5. [Is plasma selenium correlated to transthyretin levels in critically ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renata G B O N; Nogueira, Roberto Jose Negrão; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Ferreira, Matthew Thomas; Hessel, Gabriel

    2017-06-05

    Selenium is an essential trace element, but critically ill patients using total parenteral nutrition (PN) do not receive selenium because this mineral is not commonly offered. Threfore, the eval uation of plasma selenium levels is very important for treating or preventing this deficiency. Recent studies have shown that transthyretin may reflect the selenium intake and could be considered a biomarker. However, this issue is still little explored in the literature. This study aims to investigate the correlation of transthyretin with the plasma selenium of critically ill patients receiving PN. This was a prospective cohort study with 44 patients using PN without selenium. Blood samples were carried out in 3 stages: initial, 7th and 14th day of PN. In order to evaluate the clinical condition and the inflammatory process, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), transthyretin, creatinine and HDL cholesterol levels were observed. To assess the selenium status, plasma selenium and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in whole blood were measured. Descriptive analyses were performed and the ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Spearman's coefficient tests were conducted; we assumed a significance level of 5%. A positive correlation of selenium with the GPx levels (r = 0.46; p = 0.03) was identified. During two weeks, there was a positive correlation of transthyretin with plasma selenium (r = 0.71; p = 0.05) regardless of the CRP values. Transthyretin may have reflected plasma selenium, mainly because the correlation was verified after the acute phase.

  6. Elevated levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine and asymmetric dimethylarginine in elderly patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J H; Lee, S C

    2001-10-01

    Cerebrovascular risk factors, including hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, aging, dyslipidemia, and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia are linked to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) has inhibitory effects on key processes in atherothrombosis. Although asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase, is associated with atherosclerotic disease, there has been no report on association of ADMA with ischemic stroke. Here we investigated the relation of plasma ADMA, stroke, and homocyst(e)inemia in the elderly. Plasma ADMA and homocyst(e)ine concentration was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Patients with ischemic stroke had significantly higher concentrations of plasma ADMA than controls (1.85+/-1.32 vs. 0.93+/-0.32 micromol/l, P=0.0001). After adjustment for risk factors, elevated ADMA levels, above 90th percentile of normal controls (> or =1.43 micromol/l) was associated with stroke (OR=6.05, 95% CI; 2.77-13.3, P=0.02). ADMA plasma levels were positively correlated to homocyst(e)ine levels (r=0.43, P=0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that hyperhomocyst(e)inemia (plasma homocyst(e)ine concentration > or =15.0 micromol/l) was a significant predictor of elevated ADMA level. Altogether, findings indicate that elevated ADMA concentrations are at increased risk for ischemic stroke in the elderly, and may account for increased risk of stroke in patients with hyperhomocyst(e)inemia.

  7. Propranolol transport across the inner blood-retinal barrier: potential involvement of a novel organic cation transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Yoshimi; Kusagawa, Yusuke; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    The influx transport of propranolol across the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was investigated. In the in vivo analysis of carotid artery single-injection method, [(3) H]propranolol uptake by the retina was greater than that of an internal reference compound, and was reduced by several organic cations. In the in vitro uptake study, TR-iBRB2 cells, an in vitro model of the inner BRB, showed a time-, concentration-, pH- and temperature-dependent [(3) H]propranolol uptake, suggesting the involvement of a carrier-mediated transport process in the influx of propranolol across the inner BRB. In the inhibition study, various organic cations, including drugs and candidates for the treatment of the retinal diseases, inhibited the [(3) H]propranolol uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells with no significant effects by the substrates and inhibitors of well-characterized organic cation transporters, suggesting that the influx transport of propranolol is performed by a novel transporter at the inner BRB. An analysis of the relationship between the inhibitory effect and the lipophilicity of inhibitors suggests a lipophilicity-dependent inhibitory effect of amines on the [(3) H]propranolol uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells. These results showed that influx transport of propranolol across the inner BRB is performed by a carrier-mediated transport process, suggesting the involvement of a novel organic cation transporter. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pre-storage centrifugation conditions have significant impact on measured microRNA levels in biobanked EDTA plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Helle Glud; Houlind, Kim; Madsen, Jonna Skov

    2016-01-01

    in platelets this may partly be explained by residual platelets in the plasma samples used. When collecting fresh plasma samples, it is possible to produce cell-free/platelet-poor plasma by centrifugation. In this study, we systematically investigated whether biobanked EDTA plasma samples could be processed...... to be suitable for miRNA analysis. Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from ten healthy volunteers and centrifuged to produce platelet-poor-plasma (PPP) and standard biobank plasma. After one week at -80 °C the biobanked EDTA plasma was re-centrifuged by different steps to remove residual...... platelets. Using RT-qPCR the levels of 14 miRNAs in the different plasma preparations were compared to that of PPP. Results: We were able to remove residual platelets from biobanked EDTA plasma by re-centrifugation of the thawed samples. Nevertheless, for most of the investigated miRNAs, the miRNA level...

  9. Soluble CD206 plasma levels in rheumatoid arthritis reflect decrease in disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heftdal, Line Dam; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll

    2017-01-01

    internalization and degradation. The soluble form has been suggested as a biomarker of M2A-macrophage activation. The aim of this study was to investigate sCD206 plasma levels in early RA patients initiating anti-TNFα treatment. Plasma levels of sCD206 were measured by ELISA in samples from 155 early RA patients...... from baseline after 6 months. In the ADA group, however, levels remained lower than baseline throughout the treatment period. In conclusion, initially, plasma sCD206 in early RA patients decreased in accordance with disease activity and initiation of DMARD treatment. Treatment with anti-TNFα preserved......Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic joint inflammation and infiltration by activated macrophages. TNFα is a central mediator in this process. The mannose receptor, CD206, is a scavenger receptor expressed by M2A-macrophages and dendritic cells. It is involved in collagen...

  10. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum TSGF and plasma VEGF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Shaohong; Tian Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum TSGF and plasma VEGF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum TSGF levels were determined with ELISA mad plasma VEGF levels with biochemistry in 31 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum TSGF and plasma VEGF levels in patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Development of endometriosis were closely related to the plasma levels of VEGF and serum TSGF levels. (authors)

  11. Atenolol Versus Propranolol for Treatment of Infantile Hemangiomas During the Proliferative Phase: A Retrospective Noninferiority Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayart, Cheryl B; Tamburro, Joan E; Vidimos, Allison T; Wang, Lu; Golden, Alex B

    2017-07-01

    The nonselective beta-blocker propranolol is the current criterion standard for treatment of infantile hemangiomas (IHs) and the first therapy that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved for the condition, but concern about adverse effects, such as bronchospasm, hypoglycemia, and sleep disturbances, has sparked interest in the use of alternative agents such as the selective β1 antagonist atenolol. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of atenolol with those of propranolol in the treatment of IHs in a retrospective noninferiority trial. Twenty-seven children with IHs treated with atenolol according to the Cleveland Clinic foundation's standardized clinical assessment and management plan (SCAMP) met inclusion criteria and were compared with a matched group of 53 children with IHs treated with propranolol. Three reviewers assessed response to therapy using a modified version of the previously validated Hemangioma Activity Score (HAS). The mean change in HAS was -2.94 ± 1.20 for patients treated with atenolol and -2.96 ± 1.42 for those treated with propranolol. There was no statistically significant difference in pre- and posttreatment modified HAS scores between the two groups (p = 0.60). There was no significant difference in the overall rate of adverse effects (p = 0.10), although 11% of patients treated with propranolol experienced reactive airway symptoms, whereas this was not seen in any of the patients treated with atenolol. Our study supports previous findings that atenolol is at least as effective as propranolol for treatment of IHs and poses less risk of bronchospasm. Our SCAMP proposes guidelines for dosing and monitoring parameters. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Influence of preoperative propranolol on cardiac index during the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Seiberlich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Liver transplantation is the best therapeutic option for end-stage liver disease. Non-selective beta-blocker medications such as propranolol act directly on the cardiovascular system and are often used in the prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding resulting from HP. The effects of propranolol on cardiovascular system of cirrhotic patients during liver transplantation are not known. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the influence of propranolol used preoperatively on cardiac index during the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation. METHOD: 101 adult patients (73 male [72.2%] who underwent cadaveric donor orthotopic liver transplantation by piggyback technique with preservation of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava performed at Hospital das Clinicas, Federal University of Minas Gerais were evaluated. There was no difference in severity between groups by the MELD system, p = 0.70. The preoperative use of propranolol and the cardiac index outcome were compared during the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation in 5 groups (I: increased cardiac index, II: cardiac index reduction lower than 16%, III: cardiac index reduction equal to or greater than 16% and less than 31%, IV: cardiac index reduction equal to or greater than 31% and less than 46%, V: cardiac index reduction equal to or greater than 46%. RESULTS: Patients in group I (46.4% who received propranolol preoperatively were statistically similar to groups II (60%, III (72.7%, IV (50% and V (30.8%, p = 0.57. CONCLUSION: The use of propranolol before transplantation as prophylaxis for gastrointestinal bleeding may be considered safe, as it was not associated with worsening of cardiac index in anhepatic phase of liver transplantation.

  13. Cyproheptadine versus propranolol in the prevention of migraine headaches in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadi, B.; Khorvash, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There are conflicting results on the efficacy of propranolol and cyproheptadine in the prevention of migraine headaches in children. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the efficacy of propranolol versus cyproheptadine in the prevention of migraine headaches. Methodology: This was a randomized, double-blind trial. Sixty children aged 8-15 yrs with migraine headaches were randomized to be treated with either propranolol (40-80 mg per day) or cyproheptadine (8-12 mg per day) for 4 weeks. The patients were requested to record the Severity and duration of their headaches during a 2-week period before starting the intervention. The patients were followed at 2-week intervals for a period of 1 month after starting treatment. The headache diary was analyzed for each patient and was compared with baseline using SPSS software and statistical tests including the student's t-test. Results: Out of 60 patients at baseline, nine patients in the cyproheptadine group and six patients in the propranolol group did not appear at the appropriate time for follow-up visits and therefore were excluded from the study. The mean age in the cyproheptadine group was 11.9+-2.23 years and in the propranolol group was 0.7 +- 2.33 years. Based on the diaries, the results Showed that propranolol and cyproheptadine decreased headaches by 54.61% and 70.53% (p < 0.05), respectively, at the end of four weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Overall, the results of our study suggest that cyproheptadine is a good choice for prevention of migraine headache in pediatric group although more prolonged study with higher number of the patient is recommended. (author)

  14. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries.

  15. Interleukin-7 Plasma Levels in Human Differentiate Anorexia Nervosa, Constitutional Thinness and Healthy Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Natacha; Viltart, Odile; Loyens, Anne; Bruchet, Céline; Nadin, Katia; Wolowczuk, Isabelle; Estour, Bruno; Galusca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine involved in energy homeostasis as demonstrated in rodents. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrained eating behavior despite adaptive orexigenic regulation profile including high ghrelin plasma levels. Constitutional thinness is a physiological condition of resistance to weight gain with physiological anorexigenic profile including high Peptide YY plasma level. Healthy obesity can be considered as a physiological state of resistance to weight loss with opposite appetite regulating profile to constitutional thinness including low Peptide YY plasma level. No studies in IL-7 are yet available in those populations. Therefore we evaluated circadian plasma levels of IL-7 in anorexia nervosa compared to constitutional thinness, healthy obese and control females. 10 restrictive-type anorexia nervosa women, 5 bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa woman, 5 recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa women, 4 bulimic females, 10 constitutional thinness women, 7 healthy obese females, and 10 normal weight women controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, performed in endocrinology unit and academic laboratory. Twelve-point circadian profiles of plasma IL-7 levels were measured in each subject. 24h mean IL-7 plasma levels (pg/ml, mean±SEM) were decreased in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (123.4±14.4, panorexia nervosa (24.2±5.6, panorexia nervosa (64.2±16.1, p = 0.01) and healthy obese patients (51±3.2, panorexia nervosa, confirming its difference with constitutional thinness. Healthy obesity, with low IL-7, is once again in mirror image of constitutional thinness with normal high IL-7.

  16. YKL-40 tissue expression and plasma levels in patients with ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Høgdall, Estrid VS; Christensen, Lise H; Ringsholt, Merete; Høgdall, Claus K; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Johansen, Julia S; Kjaer, Susanne K; Blaakaer, Jan; Ostenfeld-Møller, Lene; Price, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like-1) is a member of 'mammalian chitinase-like proteins'. The protein is expressed in many types of cancer cells and the highest plasma YKL-40 levels have been found in patients with metastatic disease, short recurrence/progression-free intervals, and short overall survival. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of YKL-40 in tumor tissue and plasma in patients with borderline ovarian tumor or epithelial ovarian cancer (OC), and investigate prognostic value of this marker. YKL-40 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in tissue arrays from 181 borderline tumors and 473 OC. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by ELISA in preoperative samples from 19 patients with borderline tumor and 76 OC patients. YKL-40 protein expression was found in cancer cells, tumor associated macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells. The tumor cell expression was higher in OC than in borderline tumors (p = 0.001), and associated with FIGO stage (p < 0.0001) and histological subtype (p = 0.0009). Positive YKL-40 expression (≥ 5% staining) was not associated with reduced survival. Plasma YKL-40 was also higher in patients with OC than in patients with borderline tumors (p < 0.0001), and it was positively correlated to serum CA-125 (p < 0.0001) and FIGO stage (p = 0.0001). Univariate Cox analysis of plasma YKL-40 showed association with overall survival (p < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox analysis, including plasma YKL-40, serum CA125, FIGO stage, age and radicality after primary surgery as variables, showed that elevated plasma YKL-40 was associated with a shorter survival (HR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.40–3.25, p = 0.0004). YKL-40 in OC tissue and plasma are related to stage and histology, but only plasma YKL-40 is a prognostic biomarker in patients with OC

  17. Experimental relationships between levels of corticosterone in plasma and feathers in a free-living bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Graham D; Marchant, Tracy A; Soos, Catherine; Machin, Karen L; Clark, Robert G

    2013-11-01

    Integrated measures of corticosterone (CORT), such as from feathers (CORTf), have intuitive appeal because they incorporate both the duration and amplitude of glucocorticoid secretion. An association between CORTf and plasma CORT has never been shown in wild birds, and it is unclear as to when and whether these measures should be correlated, given that they are fundamentally different yet related measures of physiology. We hypothesized that CORTf should correlate with instantaneous measurements of plasma CORT when the latter reflect sustained changes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To test this, we experimentally manipulated levels of plasma CORT in wild nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) using 5 day time-release CORT pellets, and measured plasma CORT and growth parameters before, during and at the end of hormone manipulation (days 7, 9 and 11 post-hatch, respectively). CORTf and plasma CORT were significantly positively related only when the latter was at its highest and most variable among individuals (day 9). A similar relationship was expected at day 11, but plasma CORT had returned to near-original levels. Nestlings with higher CORTf were smaller, lighter and less likely to fledge, but we did not detect seasonal effects on CORTf. Our results clearly demonstrate that CORTf from free-living birds can reflect plasma CORT, but correlations may not always be expected, especially if elevations in plasma CORT are relatively modest and of short duration. Our work suggests that CORTf is best used to study the activity of the HPA axis over relatively long time frames and can be used effectively to advance avian ecology.

  18. Higher plasma level of STIM1, OPG are correlated with stent restenosis after PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Zhian; Liu, Xiangdong; Yang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is one of the most effective treatments for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but the high rate of In Stent Restenosis (ISR) has plagued clinicians after PCI. We aim to investigate the correlation of plasma Stromal Interaction Molecular 1 (STIM1) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) level with stent restenosis after PCI. A total of 100 consecutive patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) received PCI procedure were recruited. Coronary angiography was performed 8 months after their PCI. Then patients were divided into 2 groups: observation group was composed by patients who existing postoperative stenosis after intervention; Control group was composed by patients with no postoperative stenosis. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG in all patients were tested before and after intervention. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analysis the correlation between STIM, OPG level and postoperative stenosis. 35 cases were divided into observation group and other 65 were divided into control group. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG have no statistical difference before their PCI procedure, but we observed higher level of High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) existed in observation group. We observed higher level of plasma STIM, OPG in observation group when compared with control group after PCI procedure (P PCI, which could provide useful information for the restenosis control after PCI.

  19. The therapeutic efficacy of propranolol in children with recurrent primary epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelakovic, Bojko; Bojanovic, Mila; Lukic, Stevo; Saranac, Ljiljana; Vukomanovic, Vladislav; Prijic, Sergej; Zivkovic, Nikola; Randjelovic, Dusica

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that some characteristics of beta-blockers, including negative inotropic, peripheral vasoconstrictor, and antiangiogenic effects, might be potentially useful in treating children with epistaxis. From June 2010 to March 2012, a total of seven children with recurrent primary epistaxis resistant to conventional management were observed at our institution. An overall effectiveness of propranolol was noted in all seven children when given a dose of 1.5–2 mg/kg/day (divided into three doses) as a second line therapy for terminating epistaxis. Based on our first experience, we believe that propranolol could be a favorable treatment option for patients with primary epistaxis. PMID:23467483

  20. Effects of Propranolol on the Left Ventricular Volume of Normal Subjects During CT Coronary Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yuan Heng; Jaw, Fu Shan; Wang, Yung Cheng; Jeng, Chin Ming; Peng, Shinn Forng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of propranolol on the left ventricular (LV) volume during CT coronary angiography. The LV volume of 252 normal Chinese subjects (126 subjects with propranolol medication and 126 age- and gender-matched Chinese subjects without medication) was estimated using 64 slices multi-detector CT (MDCT). The heart rate difference was analyzed by the logistic linear regression model with variables that included gender, age, body height, body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the dosage of propranolol. The following global LV functional parameters were calculated: the real-end diastolic volume (EDV), the real-end systolic volume (ESV) and the real-ejection fraction (EF). The female subjects had a greater decrease of heart rate after taking propranolol. The difference of heart rate was negatively correlated with the dosage of propranolol. The real-EDV, the real-ESV and the real-EF ranged from 48.1 to 109 mL/m2, 6.1 to 57.1 mL/m2 and 41% to 88%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the SBP and DBP between the groups without and with propranolol medication (123 ± 17 and 80 ± 10 mmHg; 120 ± 14 and 80 ± 11 mmHg, respectively). The real-EDV showed no significant difference between these two groups, but the real-ESV and real-EF showed significant differences between these two groups (69.4 ± 9.3 and 70.6 ± 8.9 mL/m2; 23.5 ± 5.7 and 25.6 ± 3.7 mL/m2, 66.5 ± 5.1% and 63.5 ± 4.6%, respectively). The difference of heart rate is significantly influenced by gender and the dosage of propranolol. Propranolol will also increase the ESV, which contributes to a decreased EF, while the SBP, DBP and EDV are not statistically changed.

  1. Determination of the changes of the plasma catecholamine level by radioenzymatic method following noise-exposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, Cs.; Vincze, I.

    1982-01-01

    A new method was applied for the determination of plasma catecholamine levels: all the catecholamines were methylated in the presence of S-adenosyl-1-methyl 3 H-methyonine and the radioactivity of the components - separated with thin-layer chromatography - was measured by liquid scintillation. It is concluded that noise exposition for one hour per day significantly increases the plasma concentration of noradrenaline and dopamine whereas the adrenaline-level shows biphasic change: after a short increase it decreases. (L.E.)

  2. SEMINAL PLASMA LEVELS OF LEAD AND MERCURY IN INFERTILE MALES IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emokpae MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Studies on environmental exposure to toxic metals and their effects on male reproductive function are scare in our setting. This study evaluates the levels of lead and mercury in seminal plasma of infertile males who are non-occupationally exposed in Benin City, Nigeria and to determine the relationship between seminal quality and these toxic metals. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects participated in this study which includes 60 infertile males on routine visit to the infertility clinics in Benin City and 20 fertile males as controls. The concentration of lead in seminal plasma was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the concentration of mercury was measured using inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry. Semen analyses were performed using standard techniques as recommended by World Health Organization. Results: Mean seminal plasma lead and mercury levels were significantly higher (p<0.001 in infertile males compared with controls. Mercury and lead correlated negatively (p<0.001 with sperm count, progressive motility, total motility and morphology but not with semen volume. There was no significant correlation between toxic metals and sperm indices in fertile males (controls. Conclusion: The levels of the studied toxic metals were higher in seminal plasma of infertile males and appear to have adverse effect on seminal indices in non -occupationally exposed males.

  3. Plasma levels of selenium-containing proteins in Inuit adults from Nunavik.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouba, Adel; Dumas, Pierre; Ouellet, Nathalie; Lemire, Mélanie; Ayotte, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is highly abundant in marine foods traditionally consumed by Inuit of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada) and accordingly, their Se intake is among the highest in the world. However, little is known regarding the biological implications of this high Se status in this Arctic indigenous population. We used a method combining affinity chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with quantification by post-column isotope dilution to determine total Se levels and concentrations of Se-containing proteins in archived plasma samples of Inuit adults who participated to the 2004 Nunavik Inuit Health Survey (N = 852). Amounts of mercury (Hg) associated with Se-containing proteins were also quantified. Results show that glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), selenoprotein P (SelP) and selenoalbumin (SeAlb) represented respectively 25%, 52% and 23% of total plasma Se concentrations. In addition, small amounts of Hg co-eluted with each Se-containing protein and up to 50% of plasma Hg was associated to SelP. Total plasma Se concentrations (median = 139 μg L− 1; interquartile range (IQR) = 22.7 μg L− 1) were markedly lower and less variable than whole blood Se concentration (median = 261 μg L− 1, IQR = 166 μg L− 1). A non linear relation was observed between whole blood Se and plasma Se levels, with plasma Se concentrations leveling off at approximately 200 μg L− 1, whereas 16% and 3% of individuals exhibited whole blood concentrations higher than 500 μg L− 1 and 1000 μg L− 1, respectively. In contrast, a linear relationship was previously reported in communities consuming Brazil nuts which are rich Se, mainly present as selenomethionine. This suggests that a different selenocompound, possibly selenoneine, is present in the Arctic marine food chain and accumulates in the blood cellular fraction of Inuit.

  4. Plasma Orexin-A Levels in COPD Patients with Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure

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    Lin-Yun Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Orexins have previously been shown to promote wakefulness, regulate lipid metabolism and participate in energy homeostasis. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between plasma orexin-A and body composition in COPD in-patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure. 40 patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure and 22 healthy individuals were enrolled prospectively in this study. Plasma orexin-A levels, BMI, SaO2, PaCO2 and PaO2 were noted for all the patients. Plasma orexin-A levels were higher in the underweight (UW group, normal weight (NW group and overweight (OW group of COPD patients as compared with UW, NW and OW group of the control group (P<.05. Plasma orexin-A in COPD patients were higher in the OW group than in the NW group and the UW group. Plasma orexin-A levels showed significant correlation with body mass index (BMI, independent of PaO2 (r=0.576; P<.05 and %fat (r=0.367; P<.05; a negative correlation was noted between plasma orexin-A levels and PaO2 (r=−0.738; P<.05 and SaO2 (r=−0.616; P<.05. Our results suggest that orexin-A levels are high in COPD patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure, and vary according to BMI and body composition. Orexin-A may be associated with the severity of hypoxemia in COPD patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  5. Study on the rhythmic variation of plasma cortisol levels in patients with essential hypertension (EH) and coronary heart disease (CHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mei; Wu Guo; Li Ying

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the rhythmic fluctuation of plasma cortisol levels in patients with EH and CHD. Methods: Plasma cortisol levels were determined with RIA at 8Am, 4Pm and midnight in 61 patients with EH, 46 patients with CHD and 36 controls. Results: The normal rhythmic fluctuation pattern of plasma cortisol levels was retained in the EH and CHD patients. However, the levels were all significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls, especially in the midnight specimens. Conclusion: Marked elevated plasma cortisol levels were observed in patients with EH and CHD, with the normal rhythmic fluctuation pattern retained. (authors)

  6. Clinical value of plasma endothelin levels in children with cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Nianfa; Duan Yongqiang

    2009-01-01

    To explore the clinical value of plasma endothelin (ET-1) levels in children with cardiovascular diseases, 77 children with heart failure, obesity, hyperlipemia, fatty liver and hypertension were divided into 5 experimental groups and 21 health children with same age and gender as control group. The plasma levels of ET-1 in these children were tested by RIA. The results showed that plasma levels of ET-1 in 5 experimental groups were 112.8 ± 34.1ng/L, 57.8 ± 19.1ng/L,64.5 ± 25.3ng/L, 74.9 ± 28.4ng/L and 60.7 ± 21.6ng/L, respectively. The ET-1 levels in 5 groups were significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01). The results indicate the higher plasma ET-1 levels in children are related with cardiovascular diseases, and it is useful in the diagnosis of children cardiovascular diseases. (authors)

  7. Association Between Seminal Plasma Copper and Magnesium Levels with Oxidative Stress in Iraqi Infertile Men

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    Omar F. Abdul-Rasheed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the association between copper, magnesium and malondialdehyde levels in seminal plasma of oligozoospermic, azoospermic in relation to normozoospermic men.Methods: The present study was conducted at the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq during September 2007 to February 2008 after obtaining approval from the research and ethics committee and obtaining written consent, 78 infertile men (age range 33.01±4.20 years were recruited at the institute of embryo research and infertility treatment, Al-Kadhimiya teaching hospital, Iraq and were categorized according to their seminal fluid parameters to oligozoospermia (n=43 and azoospermia (n=35. 41 fertile men (age range 30.29±2.30 years were selected as controls. Seminal plasma copper and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde was measured calorimetrically using thiobarbituric acid assay which detects thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results: Seminal plasma copper level was decreased significantly (p=0.000 in the azoospermic group compared to the control group. Whereas, the level decreased non-significantly in the oligozoospermic group. Seminal plasma magnesium levels were decreased significantly (p=0.000 in all the infertility groups studied. On the other hand, malondialdehyde levels which is an end product of lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated (p=0.000 in all the infertility groups studied.Conclusion: Copper and magnesium work in different ways in order to maintain normal environment for spermatozoa for normal fertilization to occur.

  8. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-03-05

    ..beta..-endorphin, (met)enkephalin, and (leu)enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO/sub 4/ or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. ..beta..-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; (met)enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; (leu)-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs.

  9. Assessments of plasma ghrelin levels in the early stages of parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ning; Wang, Weiwei; Jia, Fengjv; Du, Xixun; Xie, Anmu; He, Qing; Shen, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jing; Rogers, Jack T; Xie, Junxia; Jiang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are early events in Parkinson's disease (PD). The gastrointestinal hormone ghrelin was neuroprotective in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. The objective of this study was to assess ghrelin levels in the early stages of PD. Plasma was collected in the fasting state in 291 PD patients in stages 1-3 and 303 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Additional samples were taken in the glucose response test to assess nutrition-related ghrelin levels in 20 PD patients and 20 healthy controls. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure total and active plasma ghrelin levels. We reported that total and active plasma ghrelin levels were decreased in PD, although there was no difference across progressive PD stages. Postprandial ghrelin suppression and preprandial peak responses were both attenuated in PD. Plasma ghrelin levels were decreased in PD; however, this event might be irrelevant to PD progression. Ghrelin responses to meals were also impaired in PD. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    β-endorphin, [met]enkephalin, and [leu]enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO 4 or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. β-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; [met]enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; [leu]-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs

  11. Enantiomeric separation and quantitative determination of propranolol enantiomers in pharmaceutical preparations by chiral liquid chromatography Separação e determinação quantitativa dos enantiômeros do propranolol em preparações farmacêuticas por cromatografia quiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Singh

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes validated direct liquid chromatographic chiral methods for enantiomeric separation and quantitative determination of clinically significant ²-blocking agent, propranolol. A liquid chromatographic method was validated and applied for enantiomeric determination of propranolol enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulations. Separation were obtained in polar organic mode on a ±-Burke 2® chiral stationary phase (250 x 4.6 mm, 5µm with mobile phase composed of dichloromethane:methanol (90:10 v/v, along with 12 mM of ammonium acetate, at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. Detection was made by ultraviolet absorption at 280 nm. In all cases the run time was less than 10 min. The correlation coefficient for linear regression curves of R-propranolol and S-propranolol were 0.9995 and 0.9998 respectively. The intra-day precision, expressed as RSD was less than 2%. The accuracy determined by average recovery of R-propranolol and S-propranolol from sample matrices were 97.3% and 100.1% in commercial sample and 99.5% and 100.4% in simulated samples, respectively. Excellent levels of limit of detection (mean value = 1.34 ng and limit of quantitation (mean value = 4.47 ng, along with rapid elution time of both enantiomers, makes the method useful for routine enantiomeric quality control applications.Neste trabalho é descrito um método validado empregando a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com fase estacionária quiral para a separação e determinação quantitativa dos enantiômeros do propranolol em formulações farmacêuticas. A separação foi obtida em meio orgânico polar empregando a coluna ±-Burke 2® como fase estacionária quiral (250 x 4,6 mm, 5 µm e fase móvel constituída por diclorometano: metanol (90:10 v/v juntamente com 12 mM de acetato de amônio e vazão de 0,9 mL/min. A detecção foi efetuada por absorção no ultravioleta a 280 nm. Em todos casos o tempo de corrida foi menor do que 10 min. O coeficiente de

  12. Plasma apelin levels in obstructive sleep apnea and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, David E; Buchanan, Fiona; Gibson, Rosemary; Douthwaite, Jennie A; Wood, Susan A; Woltersdorf, Wolfram W; Catterall, James R; Lightman, Stafford L

    2009-10-01

    Apelin is a peptide hormone with cardiovascular and glucose homeostasis properties, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is complicated by cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. Plasma apelin has not been previously assessed in OSA. We investigated the response of plasma apelin to a 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the effect of 3 months compliant continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in 15 obese males with newly diagnosed OSA. Plasma apelin and serum cortisol were recorded 10 minutely, while serum insulin and glucose were measured 30 minutely. Ten subjects had plasma apelin measured at intervals across a 24-h period to investigate for circadian variation in apelin levels, and this was repeated following 3 months compliant CPAP therapy. Fasting (0.342+/-0.038 vs 0.288+/-0.024 ng/ml, P=0.04), 30 min (0.399+/-0.035 vs 0.312+/-0.036 ng/ml, P=0.007) and 120 min (0.402+/-0.030 vs 0.259+/-0.024 ng/ml, P<0.001) apelin levels were reduced following CPAP. The area under curve for apelin OGTT response was lower post-CPAP (44.1+/-3.3 vs 35.8+/-2.3 ng/ml per min, P<0.001). Mean OGTT apelin levels showed a significant treatment effect (P=0.006) and a time effect (P<0.001), and the effect of time was different pre- versus post-CPAP (P=0.005). No significant variability in apelin levels existed across the 24-h period at diagnosis. Lower levels were evident overnight following treatment (P=0.004). Improvements in insulin and glucose parameters and reduced cortisol levels were found post-CPAP. In summary, untreated OSA was associated with elevated plasma apelin levels, altered apelin secretory dynamics in response to oral glucose and lack of an apparent circadian variability, which was restored following CPAP.

  13. Better prognosis in overweight/obese coronary heart disease patients with high plasma levels of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiti, Luminita Animarie Vida; Todor, Irina; Stoia, Mirela Anca; Goidescu, Cerasela Mihaela; Anton, Florin Petru; Farcas, Anca Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of leptin in atherosclerosis is very complex, including inflammation, the oxidative stress and thrombosis. Leptin has atherogenic and also antiatherogenic actions. In obesity elevated leptin levels are not sufficient to prevent disturbances of energy balance, suggesting that obese people are leptin resistant. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between baseline plasma levels of leptin and the incidence of new ischemic events in patients with CHD. Plasma levels of leptin in fifty nine consecutive patients (29 men and 30 women) with CHD hospitalized in the County Emergency Clinical Hospital of Cluj-Napoca were measured using commercially available ELISA at admission. Patients with active infectious disease, neoplasia, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, hepatic or renal failure and severe heart failure were excluded The relationship between leptin levels and incident cardiovascular events (angina, nonfatal myocardial infarction or heart failure) over two years follow-up was studied using MEDCALC version 9.6. 73.6% patients with CHD were overweight or suffered of obesity. There were no significant differences between women and men regarding the plasma levels of leptin, the body mass index (BMI), the number of rehospitalizations, rehospitalizations/patient, diabetes mellitus, hypertension or dyslipidemia. Only in women plasma levels of leptin are correlated with BMI. As compared with men with overweight and obesity (BMI≥25kg/m(2)), plasma levels of leptin were significantly higher in women with overweight and obesity (3905.97±463.91 pg/ml vs 1835.17±533.9 pg/ml) (p2000 pg/ml and BMI >28kg/m(2) had a better prognosis, suggesting a protective role of leptin in overweight/mild obesity.

  14. Effects of dietary coconut oil, butter and safflower oil on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lathosterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C; Sutherland, W; Mann, J; de Jong, S; Chisholm, A; Skeaff, M

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this present study was to determine plasma levels of lathosterol, lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins during diets rich in butter, coconut fat and safflower oil. The study consisted of sequential six week periods of diets rich in butter, coconut fat then safflower oil and measurements were made at baseline and at week 4 in each diet period. Forty-one healthy Pacific island polynesians living in New Zealand participated in the trial. Subjects were supplied with some foods rich in the test fats and were given detailed dietary advice which was reinforced regularly. Plasma lathosterol concentration (P safflower oil diets compared with butter diets. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and apoA-levels were also significantly (Psafflower oil compared with diets rich in butter and might be associated with lower production rates of apoB-containing lipoproteins.

  15. Elevated Plasma YKL-40 Levels and Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, A.D.; Bojesen, S.E.; Johansen, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    inside the vessel wall. Methods: We measured plasma YKL-40 in 8,899 21- to 93-year-old participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 examination, and followed them for up to 18 years. Endpoints were ischemic stroke, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic heart......% confidence interval, 11%-30%) for ischemic stroke, 16% (8%-24%) for ischemic cerebrovascular disease, 3% (-5%-11%) for myocardial infarction, and 7% (1%-12%) for ischemic heart disease. Interpretation: In the general population, elevated plasma YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of ischemic...... stroke and ischemic cerebrovascular disease, independent of plasma CRP levels. ANN NEUROL 2010;68:672-680...

  16. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Levels as a Marker for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Pedersen, Lars; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    ) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), stratified by plasma Cbl levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 333 667 persons without prevalent cancer and not receiving Cbl treatment. Six percent had Cbl levels greater than the upper reference limit (≥601 pmol/L). Cancer risk......BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients referred for plasma vitamin B12 (cobalamin [Cbl]) measurement present with high Cbl levels, which have been reported in patients with different cancer types. However, the cancer risk among patients with newly diagnosed high Cbl levels has not been...... adequately examined. METHODS: We conducted this cohort study using population-based Danish medical registries. Patients referred for Cbl measurement with levels greater than the lower reference limit (≥200 pmol/L) were identified from the population of Northern Denmark during the period of 1998 to 2009 using...

  17. Decreased plasma levels of soluble CD18 link leukocyte infiltration with disease activity in spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Jalilian, Babak; Hvid, Malene

    2014-01-01

    of arthritis patients to have anti-inflammatory functions. Here, we study the mechanisms for these alterations and their association with SpA disease activity. METHODS: Plasma levels of sCD18 in a study population with 84 SpA patients and matched healthy controls were analyzed with a time resolved......A patients compared with healthy volunteers (P levels in the HLA-B27-positive subgroup (P levels exhibited an inverse correlation with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) (P level of morning...... immunoflourometric assay (TRIFMA). Binding of sCD18 to endothelial cells and fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) was studied with confocal microscopy. Shedding of CD18 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was studied with flow cytometry and TRIFMA. RESULTS: Plasma levels of sCD18 were decreased in Sp...

  18. Influence of hydralazine on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered d-propranolol and lidocaine in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzow, B G; Somogyi, A; McLean, A J

    1987-03-01

    A study was conducted on the influence of oral coadministration of hydralazine (H) on the pharmacokinetics of d-propranolol (P) and lidocaine (L) in 6 conscious dogs. They were given an oral solution containing P (2 mg/kg) and L (15 mg/kg) alone or together with 25 mg H. Plasma concentrations of P and L and the metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and glycinexylidide (GX) were measured by specific HPLC methods. Concomitant administration of H caused a significant (p less than 0.05) increase in P peak concentrations (Cmax, 34 +/- 5: 73 +/- 10 ng/ml) and the area under plasma concentration time curve (AUC, 142 +/- 18: 254 +/- 56 ng/ml X hr) of P with significant (p less than 0.05) 24% reduction of the apparent oral clearance. The time to reach peak concentrations (Tmax) and the terminal half life (t1/2 beta) were not altered. In contrast to the pattern seen with P the disposition of L was not affected by H. The change in presystemic clearance of P by H cannot be explained by a general underlying mechanism such as an alteration in liver blood flow alone or portal-systemic shunting, since then the pharmacokinetics of L should parallel those of P. It is speculated that other mechanisms, most likely alteration of P metabolism, are primarily responsible for the observed interaction between P and H.

  19. Effect of sinus rhythm restoration on plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Liping; Jin Zhexiu; Zhang Chengqiu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels before and after sinus rhythm restoration in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) but normal left ventricle function and to explore the role of BNP in AF. Methods: Plasma BNP levels were measured with RIA in 68 patients and 34 controls. Results: Twenty four hours after successful cardioversion, plasma BNP levels decreased significantly in all the patients. The 30 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were all restored to sinus rhythm and levels of plasma BNP dropped from 96±42pg/ml to 28 ±21pg/ml. Of the 38 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation, 28 of them were restored to sinus rhythm, in whom levels of plasma BNP dropped from 73±38pg/ml to 38±25pg/ml. Conclusion: The presence of AF should be taken into consideration when interpreting plasma BNP levels in patients with heart disease. (authors)

  20. Investigation on the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongwei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Plasma homocysteine (with ELISA), blood glucose (with hexokinase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels were measured in 66 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma homocysteine levels in the diabetic patients (n=66) were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), especially in those patients complicated with nephropathy (n=32). The homocysteine levels were positively correlated with those of blood glucose and insulin (r=0.3515, r=0.3486, both P<0.01). Conclusion: Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. The levels of plasma cysteine are significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in those complicated with nephropathy. Therefore, monitoring of plasma homocysteine level changes is clinically useful. (authors)

  1. Plasma amyloid levels within the Alzheimer's process and correlations with central biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bombois, Stéphanie; Allinquant, Bernadette; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Gelé, Patrick; Delmaire, Christine; Blanc, Fredéric; Mangin, Jean-François; Buée, Luc; Touchon, Jacques; Hugon, Jacques; Vellas, Bruno; Galbrun, Evelyne; Benetos, Athanase; Berrut, Gilles; Paillaud, Elèna; Wallon, David; Castelnovo, Giovanni; Volpe-Gillot, Lisette; Paccalin, Marc; Robert, Philippe-Henri; Godefroy, Olivier; Dantoine, Thierry; Camus, Vincent; Belmin, Joël; Vandel, Pierre; Novella, Jean-Luc; Duron, Emmanuelle; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Schraen-Maschke, Suzanna; Gabelle, Audrey

    2018-02-17

    Diagnostic relevance of plasma amyloid β (Aβ) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) process yields conflicting results. The objective of the study was to assess plasma levels of Aβ 42 and Aβ 40 in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), nonamnestic MCI, and AD patients and to investigate relationships between peripheral and central biomarkers. One thousand forty participants (417 amnestic MCI, 122 nonamnestic MCI, and 501 AD) from the Biomarker of AmyLoïd pepTide and AlZheimer's diseAse Risk multicenter prospective study with cognition, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and magnetic resonance imaging assessments were included. Plasma Aβ 1-42 and Aβ 1-40 were lower in AD (36.9 [11.7] and 263 [80] pg/mL) than in amnestic MCI (38.2 [11.9] and 269 [68] pg/mL) than in nonamnestic MCI (39.7 [10.5] and 272 [52] pg/mL), respectively (P = .01 for overall difference between groups for Aβ 1-42 and P = .04 for Aβ 1-40 ). Globally, plasma Aβ 1-42 correlated with age, Mini-Mental State Examination, and APOE ε4 allele. Plasma Aβ 1-42 correlated with all CSF biomarkers in MCI but only with CSF Aβ 42 in AD. Plasma Aβ was associated with cognitive status and CSF biomarkers, suggesting the interest of plasma amyloid biomarkers for diagnosis purpose. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation of reversely increased level of plasma glucose during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ya SHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of the reversely increased results of 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome, so as to provide a reliable theoretical basis of the early intervention for the pregnant women with high plasma glucose. Methods The clinical data of 461 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were chosen from the pregnant women undergoing routine antenatal examination in our hospital during 2014. According to the results of 75g OGTT, 226 patients were analyzed as the observation group, in whom the level of postprandial 2-hour plasma glucose was higher than that of postprandial 1-hour plasma glucose. Meanwhile 235 pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were randomly selected as the control group. Results The levels of fasting plasma glucose and 1-hour postprandial plasma glucose were lower, but those of 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose was higher in observation group than in control group (P0.05 in the incidences of polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction (FGR, premature labor (PTL, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, complicated with premature rupture of membrane (PROM, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD and non scar uterus cesarean section rate (CSR. Compared with the observation group, the rates of neonatal dysplasia and neonatal asphyxia and the newborn transfer rate were lower in the control group, of which the newborn transfer rate was statistically different (P<0.01. Conclusions There might be a delayed plasma glucose metabolism in the patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT during pregnancy, which may affect the long-term prognosis of the newborn. Therefore, more attention should be paid to such patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.09

  3. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  4. Plasma PCSK9 levels are significantly modified by statins and fibrates in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbikay Majambu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin-like 9 (PCSK9 is a secreted glycoprotein that is transcriptionally regulated by cholesterol status. It modulates levels of circulating low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC by negatively regulating low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR levels. PCSK9 variants that result in 'gain of function' have been linked to autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia, while significant protection from coronary artery disease has been documented in individuals who carry 'loss of function' PCSK9 variants. PCSK9 circulates in human plasma, and we previously reported that plasma PCSK9 is positively correlated with total cholesterol and LDLC in men. Results Herein, we report the effects of two lipid-modulating therapies, namely statins and fibrates, on PCSK9 plasma levels in human subjects. We also document their effects on endogenous PCSK9 and LDLR expression in a human hepatocyte cell line, HepG2, using immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analyses. Changes in plasma PCSK9 following fenofibrate or gemfibrozil treatments (fibric acid derivatives were inversely correlated with changes in LDLC levels (r = -0.558, p = 0.013. Atorvastatin administration (HMGCoA reductase inhibitor significantly increased plasma PCSK9 (7.40%, p = 0.033 and these changes were inversely correlated with changes in LDLC levels (r = -0.393, p = 0.012. Immunoblot analyses of endogenous PCSK9 and LDLR expression by HepG2 cells in response to statins and fibrates showed that LDLR is more upregulated than PCSK9 by simvastatin (2.6× vs 1.5×, respectively at 10 μM, while fenofibrate did not induce changes in either. Conclusion These results suggest that in vivo (1 statins directly increase PCSK9 expression while (2 fibrates affect PCSK9 expression indirectly through its modulation of cholesterol levels and (3 that these therapies could be improved by combination with a PCSK9 inhibitor, constituting a novel hypercholesterolemic therapy

  5. Effects of Red Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Plasma Carotenoids Level in Chinese Male Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN ZHANG; CHUN-RONG WANG; AN-NA XUE; KE-YOU GE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Effects of red palm oil on major plasma carotenoids, tocopherol, retinol and serumlipids were evaluated when used in Chinese diet. Methods Red palm oil group (RPO) composed of 20 male subjects(aged 18-32) and soybean oil group (SBO) composed of 22 male subjects (aged18-32). Dietary fat provided about 28% of total calories, and the test oil accounted for about 60% of total dietary fat. In the 3 weeks of pretest period, diets were prepared with soybean oil, and then in the next 6 weeks subjects in each group consumed the diet prepared by test oil. Results Plasmaα-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentration of RPO group significantly increased at the time of interim (21 days) and of the end (42 days) (P<0.05), and α-tocopherol concentration significantly increased at the time of the end (42 days) in this study. Though Chinese plasma retinol level was relatively low when compared with that of Westerners, red palm oil diet showed no significant effect on adult Chinese plasma retinol level. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B of all subjects showed no significant changes in RPO group during the study. Conclusions The data in our study suggest that red palm oil is a good source of carotenoids and vitamin E when used in Chinese diet preparation, and it can significantly increase plasma concentration of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene andα-tocopherol.

  6. Adopting plasma pyrolysis for management of low-level solid radioactive waste in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Singh, A.K.; Yeotikar, R.G.; Patil, S.P.; Jha, Jyoti; Mishra, S.K.; Gandhi, K.G.; Misra, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Since Plasma Pyrolysis of Low-Level Solid Radioactive Waste has the potential of reducing waste volumes by a factor of up to 1000:1, the new technology is seen as a sound engineering and economic option for managing voluminous low-active wastes. Development and adoption of such technique, to replace existing methods of Low-Level Solid Radioactive Waste management, is borne out of a compelling need to conserve disposal space. While Plasma-based systems are already in use for disposal of medical, toxic and other industrial wastes, the level of maturity is yet to be attained in their radioactive applications. A Prototype Plasma Pyrolysis Unit is being set up in India which, after extensive trials, will function as a full-scale plant for the volume reduction of Low-Level Solid Radioactive Wastes. This paper deals with the transition philosophy from the current techniques to the Plasma-based process. The design and engineering of the proposed facility and various system components is also briefly touched upon. (author)

  7. Study of plasma amino acid levels in children with autism: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aetiology of autism is unclear and autistic symptoms had been attributed to an abnormal functional imbalance in neurotransmitter amines such as dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. Objective: To study plasma essential and non-essential amino acid levels, protein electrophoresis, serum ammonia, ...

  8. Elevated levels of IL-18 in plasma and skeletal muscle in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A M W; Penkowa, M; Iversen, M

    2007-01-01

    COPD [12 women, 66 +/- 9.4 years of age and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) of 32% +/- 12 % of predicted value] and 20 healthy age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (10 nonsymptomatic smokers and 10 nonsmokers) were included in the study. Plasma levels of IL-18 were...

  9. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid composition and prostanoid synthesis in pregnant rats. Four groups consisting of seven rats per group of non pregnant rats were fed diets with either a very low n-6:n-3 ratio of 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil ...

  10. Changes in plasma (hydrocortisone) levels after whole-body irradiation with ultraviolet rays of defined wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    One hour after whole-body irradiation with a radiation source having its maximum of emission in the UVB range, at a radiation dose of 0.44 J/cm 2 , a significant fall in the mean values of the blood plasma hydrocortisone level (p [de

  11. Plasma levels of cathepsins L, K, and V and risks of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Bing-Jie; Lindholt, Jes S; Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsin L (CatL), cathepsin K (CatK), and cathepsin V (CatV) are potent elastases implicated in human arterial wall remodeling. Whether plasma levels of these cathepsins are altered in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains unknown....

  12. Plasma levels of antioxidants are not associated with Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhart, M.J.; Ruitenberg, A.; Meijer, J.T.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Swieten, J. van; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.; Breteler, M.M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Antioxidants prevent oxidative stress that possibly causes neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined whether high plasma levels of the antioxidant vitamins A and E were associated with lower prevalence of AD or cognitive decline (CD). We performed a cross-sectional study within the

  13. Plasma coenzyme Q10 levels in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Orhan; Bilen, Habip; Keles, Sadullah; Alp, H. Hakan; Keleş, Mevlüt Sait; Yıldırım, Kenan; Öndaş, Osman; Pınar, L. Can; Civelekler, Mustafa; Baykal, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine the relationship between proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDRP) and plasma coenzyme Q10(CoQ10) concentration. METHODS Patients with type 2 diabetes and PDRP were determined to be the case group (n=50). The control group was consist of healthy individuals (n=50). Plasma CoQ10 and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in both groups. RESULTS Ubiquinone-10 (Coenzyme Q10) levels in PDRP and control subjects are 3.81±1.19µmol/L and 1.91±0.62µmol/L, respectively. Plasma MDA levels in PDRP and control subjects were 8.16±2µmol/L and 3.44±2.08µmol/L, respectively. Ratio of Ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 in PDRP and control subjects were 0.26±0.16 and 1.41±0.68, respectively. CONCLUSION The ratio of ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 is found lower in patients with PDRP. High levels of plasma ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 ratio indicate the protective effect on diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24195048

  14. Plasma coenzyme Q10 levels in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Ates

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the relationship between proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDRP and plasma coenzyme Q10(CoQ10 concentration.METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes and PDRP were determined to be the case group (n=50. The control group was consist of healthy individuals (n=50. Plasma CoQ10 and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured in both groups.RESULTS: Ubiquinone-10 (Coenzyme Q10 levels in PDRP and control subjects are 3.81±1.19µmol/L and 1.91±0.62µmol/L, respectively. Plasma MDA levels in PDRP and control subjects were 8.16±2µmol/L and 3.44±2.08µmol/L, respectively. Ratio of Ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 in PDRP and control subjects were 0.26±0.16 and 1.41±0.68, respectively.CONCLUSION:The ratio of ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 is found lower in patients with PDRP. High levels of plasma ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 ratio indicate the protective effect on diabetic retinopathy.

  15. Ghrelin plasma levels, gastric ghrelin cell density and bone mineral density in women with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksud, F A N; Kakehasi, A M; Guimarães, M F B R; Machado, C J; Barbosa, A J A

    2017-05-18

    Generalized bone loss can be considered an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may lead to the occurrence of fractures, resulting in decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. The peptide ghrelin has demonstrated to positively affect osteoblasts in vitro and has anti-inflammatory actions, but the studies that correlate ghrelin plasma levels and RA have contradictory results. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between total ghrelin plasma levels, density of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells in the gastric mucosa, and bone mineral density (BMD) in twenty adult women with established RA with 6 months or more of symptoms (mean age of 52.70±11.40 years). Patients with RA presented higher ghrelin-immunoreactive cells density in gastric mucosa (P=0.008) compared with healthy females. There was a positive relationship between femoral neck BMD and gastric ghrelin cell density (P=0.007). However, these same patients presented a negative correlation between plasma ghrelin levels and total femoral BMD (P=0.03). The present results indicate that ghrelin may be involved in bone metabolism of patients with RA. However, the higher density of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastric mucosa of these patients does not seem to induce a corresponding elevation in the plasma levels of this peptide.

  16. Ghrelin plasma levels, gastric ghrelin cell density and bone mineral density in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.N. Maksud

    Full Text Available Generalized bone loss can be considered an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA that may lead to the occurrence of fractures, resulting in decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. The peptide ghrelin has demonstrated to positively affect osteoblasts in vitro and has anti-inflammatory actions, but the studies that correlate ghrelin plasma levels and RA have contradictory results. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between total ghrelin plasma levels, density of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells in the gastric mucosa, and bone mineral density (BMD in twenty adult women with established RA with 6 months or more of symptoms (mean age of 52.70±11.40 years. Patients with RA presented higher ghrelin-immunoreactive cells density in gastric mucosa (P=0.008 compared with healthy females. There was a positive relationship between femoral neck BMD and gastric ghrelin cell density (P=0.007. However, these same patients presented a negative correlation between plasma ghrelin levels and total femoral BMD (P=0.03. The present results indicate that ghrelin may be involved in bone metabolism of patients with RA. However, the higher density of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastric mucosa of these patients does not seem to induce a corresponding elevation in the plasma levels of this peptide.

  17. Comparison of plasma endothelin levels between osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biçimoğlu Ali

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that endothelins (ET have significant roles in bone remodeling, metabolism and physiopathology of several bone diseases. We aimed to investigate if there was any difference between the plasma ET levels of osteoporotic patients and normals. Methods 86 patients (70 women and 16 men with a mean age of 62.6 (ranges: 51–90 years were included in this study. Patients were divided into groups of osteoporosis, osteopenia and normal regarding reported T scores of DEXA evaluation according to the suggestions of World Health Organization. According to these criteria 19, 43 and 24 were normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic respectively. Then total plasma level of ET was measured in all patients with monoclonal antibody based sandwich immunoassay (EIA method. One-way analysis of variance test was used to compare endothelin values between normals, osteopenics and osteoporotics. Results Endothelin total plasma level in patients was a mean of 98.36 ± 63.96, 100.92 ± 47.2 and 99.56 ± 56.6 pg/ml in osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal groups respectively. The difference between groups was not significant (p > 0.05. Conclusion No significant differences in plasma ET levels among three groups of study participants could be detected in this study.

  18. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E.M.; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2006-01-01

    Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer....

  19. Development of psychopathology in deployed armed forces in relation to plasma GABA levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schür, Remmelt R; Boks, Marco P; Geuze, Elbert; Prinsen, Hubertus C M T; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Joëls, Marian; Kahn, René S; Vermetten, Eric; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2016-01-01

    The GABA system is pivotal for an adequate response to a stressful environment but has remained largely unexplored in this context. The present study investigated the relationship of prospectively measured plasma GABA levels with psychopathology symptoms in military deployed to Afghanistan at risk

  20. Effect of Physical and Flexibility Exercise on Plasma Levels of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of physical and flexibility exercise on plasma levels of some liver enzymes and biomolecules of young Nigerian adults. Methods: Participants were subjected to a 2-h daily continuous physical and flexibility exercise for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-exercise blood samples were obtained and the ...

  1. Heterogeneity at the CETP gene locus. Influence on plasma CETP concentrations and HDL cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuivenhoven, J.A.; de Knijff, P.; Boer, J M; Smalheer, H A; Botma, G.J.; Seidell, J C; Kastelein, J.J.; Pritchard, P H

    This study was designed to investigate the association(s) between heterogeneity at the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene locus, CETP plasma concentrations, and HDL cholesterol levels. Healthy men with the lowest, median, and highest deciles of HDL cholesterol were selected from a large

  2. Gold in semen: Level in seminal plasma and spermatozoa of normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to understand the amount of gold in semen of normal and different infertile conditions. Gold was estimated in normal (n38) and pathological conditions (n86) by employing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Gold level observed in seminal plasma was as follows: in normozoospermia (n38) ...

  3. Plasma levels of C-Reactive Protein and Fibrinogen in Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we determined the changes in plasma C- reactive protein (C-RP) and Fibrinogen levels in Drug sensitive Tuberculosis (DSTB) patients at diagnosis, Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) patients at diagnosis and during chemotherapy. Twenty-four (24) patients MDRTB patients and 24 newly diagnosed ...

  4. Effect of B vitamin supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels in celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadithi, M. al; Mulder, C.J.J.; Stam, F.; Azizi, J.; Crusius, J.B.A.; Pena, A.S.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Smulders, Y.M.

    2009-01-01

    0.001, P = 0.007, for vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12, respectively). Lower plasma homocysteine levels were found in patients using vitamin supplements than in patients who did not (P = 0.001) or healthy controls (P = 0.003). However, vitamin B6 and folate, not vitamin B12, were significantly

  5. Neuroactive steroid levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of male multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Donatella; Melis, Marta; Fenu, Giuseppe; Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Grimoldi, Maria; Crippa, Donatella; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Cavaletti, Guido; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2014-08-01

    Neuroactive steroid family includes molecules synthesized in peripheral glands (i.e., hormonal steroids) and directly in the nervous system (i.e., neurosteroids) which are key regulators of the nervous function. As already reported in clinical and experimental studies, neurodegenerative diseases affect the levels of neuroactive steroids. However, a careful analysis comparing the levels of these molecules in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in plasma of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is still missing. To this aim, the levels of neuroactive steroids were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in CSF and plasma of male adults affected by Relapsing-Remitting MS and compared with those collected in control patients. An increase in pregnenolone and isopregnanolone levels associated with a decrease in progesterone metabolites, dihydroprogesterone, and tetrahydroprogesterone was observed in CSF of MS patients. Moreover, an increase of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and of 17β-estradiol levels associated with a decrease of dihydrotestosterone also occurred. In plasma, an increase in pregnenolone, progesterone, and dihydrotestosterone and a decrease in dihydroprogesterone and tetrahydroprogesterone levels were reported. This study shows for the first time that the levels of several neuroactive steroids, and particularly those of progesterone and testosterone metabolites, are deeply affected in CSF of relapsing-remitting MS male patients. We here demonstrated that, the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma levels of several neuroactive steroids are modified in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis male patients. Interestingly, we reported for the first time that, the levels of progesterone and testosterone metabolites are deeply affected in cerebrospinal fluid. These findings may have an important relevance in therapeutic and/or diagnostic field of multiple sclerosis. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Increased Plasma Cell-Free DNA Level during HTNV Infection: Correlation with Disease Severity and Virus Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free DNA (cf-DNA in blood represents a promising DNA damage response triggered by virus infection or trauma, tumor, etc. Hantavirus primarily causes two diseases: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, depending on different Hantavirus species. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma cf-DNA levels in acute phase of HFRS, and to correlate plasma cf-DNA with disease severity and plasma Hanttan virus (HTNV load. We observed the appearance of cf-DNA in 166 plasma samples from 76 HFRS patients: the plasma cf-DNA levels peaked at the hypotensive stage of HFRS, and then decreased gradually. Until the diuretic stage, there was no significant difference in plasma cf-DNA level between patients and the healthy control. Exclusively in the febrile/hypotensive stage, the plasma cf-DNA levels of severe/critical patients were higher than those of the mild/moderate group. Moreover, the plasma cf-DNA value in the early stage of HFRS was correlated with HTNV load and disease severity. In most of the patients, plasma cf-DNA displayed a low-molecular weight appearance, corresponding to the size of apoptotic DNA. In conclusion, the plasma cf-DNA levels were dynamically elevated during HFRS, and correlated with disease severity, which suggests that plasma cf-DNA may be a potential biomarker for the pathogenesis and prognosis of HFRS.

  7. Unraveling atomic-level self-organization at the plasma-material interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, J. P.; Shetty, A.

    2017-07-01

    The intrinsic dynamic interactions at the plasma-material interface and critical role of irradiation-driven mechanisms at the atomic scale during exposure to energetic particles require a priori the use of in situ surface characterization techniques. Characterization of ‘active’ surfaces during modification at atomic-scale levels is becoming more important as advances in processing modalities are limited by an understanding of the behavior of these surfaces under realistic environmental conditions. Self-organization from exposure to non-equilibrium and thermalized plasmas enable dramatic control of surface morphology, topography, composition, chemistry and structure yielding the ability to tune material properties with an unprecedented level of control. Deciphering self-organization mechanisms of nanoscale morphology (e.g. nanodots, ripples) and composition on a variety of materials including: compound semiconductors, semiconductors, ceramics, polymers and polycrystalline metals via low-energy ion-beam assisted plasma irradiation are critical to manipulate functionality in nanostructured systems. By operating at ultra-low energies near the damage threshold, irradiation-driven defect engineering can be optimized and surface-driven mechanisms controlled. Tunability of optical, electronic, magnetic and bioactive properties is realized by reaching metastable phases controlled by atomic-scale irradiation-driven mechanisms elucidated by novel in situ diagnosis coupled to atomistic-level computational tools. Emphasis will be made on tailored surface modification from plasma-enhanced environments on particle-surface interactions and their subsequent modification of hard and soft matter interfaces. In this review, we examine current trends towards in situ and in operando surface and sub-surface characterization to unravel atomic-scale mechanisms at the plasma-material interface. This work will emphasize on recent advances in the field of plasma and ion

  8. Psychophysiological responding to emotional memories in healthy young men after cortisol and propranolol administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Propranolol is found to reduce physiological hyper-responsiveness in post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), possibly by affecting reconsolidation after the reactivation of traumatic memories. Cortisol is found to attenuate declarative memory retrieval, but it is unknown whether it also

  9. Psychophysiological responding to emotional memories in healthy young men after cortisol and propranolol administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.T.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Propranolol is found to reduce physiological hyper-responsiveness in post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), possibly by affecting reconsolidation after the reactivation of traumatic memories. Cortisol is found to attenuate declarative memory retrieval, but it is unknown whether it also reduces

  10. Using Propranolol to Block Memory Reconsolidation in Female Veterans with PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    half-time support for an undergraduate student to process de- identified data and help with dissemination of recruitment materials. REPORTABLE...experience with Male Veterans and presents an important limitation to the consideration of propranolol as a PTSD treatment. Further, patient dropout

  11. Insulin versus Lipid Emulsion in a Rabbit Model of Severe Propranolol Toxicity: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective. Beta-blocker overdose may result in intractable cardiovascular collapse despite conventional antidotal treatments. High dose insulin/glucose (ING, and more recently intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE, have been proposed as potentially beneficial therapies in beta blocker intoxication. We compare efficacy of the novel antidotes ING, with ILE, in a rabbit model of combined enteric/intravenous propranolol toxicity. Methods. Sedated, mechanically ventilated and invasively monitored New Zealand White rabbits underwent mini-laparotomy and enterostomy formation with 40 mg/kg propranolol instilled into the proximal small bowel. At 30 minutes propranolol infusion was commenced at 4 mg/kg/hr and continued to a target mean arterial pressure (MAP of 50% baseline MAP. Animals were resuscitated with insulin at 3 U/kg plus 0.5 g/kg glucose (ING group, or 10 mL/kg 20% Intralipid (ILE group. Results. Rate pressure product (RPP; RPP = heart rate × mean arterial pressure was greatest in the ING group at 60 minutes (P<.05. A trend toward greater heart rate was observed in the ING group (P=.06. No difference was observed in survival between groups (4/5 ING versus 2/5 ILE; P=.524. Conclusions. High dose insulin resulted in greater rate pressure product compared with lipid emulsion in this rabbit model of severe enteric/intravenous propranolol toxicity.

  12. Effect of ethanol, cimetidine and propranolol on toluene metabolism in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, M; Bælum, Jesper; Hansen, S H

    1984-01-01

    In a climatic exposure chamber four healthy volunteers were exposed to 100ppm toluene, 100ppm toluene + ethanol, 100ppm toluene + cimetidine, and 100ppm toluene + propranolol for 7h each at random over four consecutive days. A control experiment and 3.5h of exposure to 200ppm toluene were also...

  13. A Psychophysiologic Study of Weakening Traumatic Combat Memories with Post-Reactivation Propranolol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Research Protection Office, subjects gave written informed consent. Study medication Propranolol hydrochloride is a non-selective synthetic β1...confounding substances, including opiates, barbiturates, and methadone , at the time of the script-driven imagery procedure. When the analyses were repeated

  14. The effect of ascorbic acid and propranolol on normal sleep and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of ascorbic acid on open field locomotor activity and normal sleep in healthy adult rats and evaluate how these correlate with those of propranolol. MethodS: Eighty healthy adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups of 40 animals each group.

  15. Relationship between Plasma Ferritin Level and Siderocyte Number in Splenectomized β-Thalassemia/HbE Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tripatara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In iron overload status, excess iron deposits in reticuloendothelial cells and tissues and can be detected using Prussian blue staining. The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between siderocyte numbers and plasma ferritin levels (a practically standard marker of iron overload in the blood of the splenectomized and nonsplenectomized β-thalassemia/HbE patients, who are at risk of iron overload. Methods. EDTA blood samples from 64 patients with 35 splenectomized and 29 nonsplenectomized β-thalassemia/HbE patients, who received regular blood transfusions, and 20 normal individuals were investigated for siderocyte numbers, plasma ferritin levels, and complete blood counts. Results. The average percent siderocytes in splenectomized and nonsplenectomized β-thalassemia/HbE patients were 11.5% and 0.08%, respectively, and plasma ferritin levels of 2,332 μg/L and 1,279 μg/L, respectively. Percent siderocytes showed a good correlation with plasma ferritin levels only in splenectomized patients (r=0.69, P<0.001. A receiver operating curve analysis from splenectomized patients’ data indicated that siderocytes at 3% cut-off are the best predictor for plasma ferritin level ≥1,000 μg/L with 92.9% sensitivity and 42.9% specificity. Conclusion. Circulating siderocyte numbers can be used as a screening test for the assessment of the iron overload in splenectomized β-thalassemia/HbE patients in the place where serum ferritin is not available.

  16. Role of plasma EBV DNA levels in predicting recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a western population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Daris; Alterio, Daniela; Foa, Paolo; Codecà, Carla; Bertuzzi, Cecilia; Broggio, Francesca; Crepaldi, Francesca; Luciani, Andrea; Floriani, Irene; Ansarin, Mohssen; Chiesa, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas can be cured by the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In Eastern countries, plasma levels of viral Epstein-Barr deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are accurate in predicting recurrence, but few data are available in Western populations. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between viral Epstein-Barr DNA copy numbers in plasma and the response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival in a cohort of Western patients with stage IIb-IVb nasopharyngeal cancer. We evaluated plasma samples from 36 consecutive patients treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation. EBV copy numbers were determined after DNA extraction using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels were measured before treatment, at the end of concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy, and during the follow-up period. Pre-treatment levels significantly correlated with the initial stage and probability of relapse. Their increase was 100% specific and 71.3% sensitive in detecting loco-regional or metastatic recurrence (an overall accuracy of 94.4%). Three-year progression-free and overall survival were respectively 78.2% and 97.1%. The results of this study confirm that patients from a Western country affected by loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma have high plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels at diagnosis. The monitoring of plasma levels is sensitive and highly specific in detecting disease recurrence and metastases

  17. Association of Post-Saline Load Plasma Aldosterone Levels With Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Cristiana; Verheyen, Nicolas D; Url-Michitsch, Marion; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Colussi, GianLuca; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pieske, Burkert; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2016-03-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity in hypertension. Current evidence suggests a contribution to LVH of plasma aldosterone levels that are inappropriately elevated for the salt status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inappropriate modulation of aldosterone production by a saline load is associated with left ventricular (LV) mass in hypertensive patients. In 90 hypertensive patients free of clinically relevant cardiovascular complications in whom secondary forms of hypertension were ruled out, we performed a standard intravenous saline load (0.9% NaCl, 2 l in 4 hours) with measurement of plasma aldosterone and active renin at baseline and end of infusion. Bi-dimensional echocardiography was performed for the assessment of cardiac morphology and function. LVH was present in 19% of patients who had significantly worse renal function and higher body mass, blood pressure, and plasma aldosterone levels measured both at baseline and after the saline load than patients without LVH. LV mass was directly related to age, body mass, systolic blood pressure, duration of hypertension, baseline, and post-saline load plasma aldosterone levels and inversely to glomerular filtration. Multivariate regression analysis showed independent correlation of LV mass with body mass, systolic blood pressure, and plasma aldosterone levels measured after intravenous saline load, but not at baseline. In patients with hypertension, aldosterone levels measured after intravenous saline load are related to LV mass independent of age, body mass, and blood pressure, suggesting that limited ability of salt to modulate aldosterone production could contribute to LVH. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Exposure to DEHP decreased four fatty acid levels in plasma of prepartum mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Yumi; Khalequzzaman, Md.; Jia, Xiaofang; Wang, Dong; Naito, Hisao; Ito, Yuki; Kamijima, Michihiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Tamie

    2013-01-01

    Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased the plasma triglyceride in prepartum mice. To identify the fatty acid (FA) species involved and to understand the underlying mechanisms, pregnant Sv/129 wild-type (mPPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-null (Pparα-null) and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice were treated with diets containing 0%, 0.01%, 0.05% or 0.1% DEHP. Dams were dissected on gestational day 18 together with fetuses, and on postnatal day 2 together with newborns. n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated, saturated, and monounsaturated FAs in maternal plasma and in liver of wild-type offspring, and representative enzymes for FA desaturation and elongation in maternal liver, were measured. The plasma levels of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid were higher in the pregnant control mPPARa mice than in Ppara-null and hPPARa mice. DEHP exposure significantly decreased the levels of these four FAs only in pregnant mPPARα mice. Plasma levels of many FAs were higher in pregnant mice than in postpartum ones in a genotype-independent manner, while it was lower in the livers of fetuses than pups. DEHP exposure slightly increased hepatic arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid in fetuses, but not in pups. However, DEHP exposure did not clearly influence FA desaturase 1 and 2 nor elongase 2 and 5 expressions in the liver of all maternal mice. Taken together, the levels of plasma four FAs with shorter carbon chains were higher in pregnant mPPARα mice than in other genotypes, and DEHP exposure decreased these specific FA concentrations only in mPPARα mice, similarly to triglyceride levels

  19. The Effects of Muscle Mass on Homocyst(e)ine Levels in Plasma and Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M René; Lister, Craig L; DE Crée, Carl

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between homocyst(e)ine (H[e]) levels and muscle mass. Two experimental groups each of 24 Caucasian males, one consisting of higher-muscle mass subjects (HMM) and the other of lower-muscle mass subjects (LMM) participated in this study. Muscle mass was estimated from 24-hour urine collections of creatinine (Crt). Muscle mass was 40.3 ± 15.9 kg in HMM and 37.2 ± 11.4 kg in LMM (P= 0.002). Mean plasma H(e) levels in HMM were 10.29 ± 2.9 nmol/mL, and in LMM were 10.02 ± 2.4 nmol/L (Not significant, [NS]). Urinary H(e) levels (UH[e]) were 9.95 ± 4.3 nmol/mL and 9.22 ± 2.9 nmol/mL for HMM and LMM, respectively (NS). Plasma H(e) levels correlated well with UH(e) (HMM: r= 0.58, P= 0.009; LMM: r= 0.66, P= 0.004). Muscle mass and was not correlated to either plasma H(e) or UH(e). However, in HMM trends were identified for body mass to be correlated with UH(e) (r= 0.39, P= 0.10) and UCrt (r= 0.41, P= 0.08). Surprisingly, in HMM plasma and UCrt were only weakly correlated (r= 0.44, P= 0.06). Our results do not support a causal relationship between the amount of muscle mass and H(e) levels in plasma or urine.

  20. Plasma levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Wu Yiwei; Li Xiangdong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determinate the plasma levels of Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and Insulin like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in patients with glioma and meningioma. Methods: IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 Immunoradiometric assay on coated tubes kits (BIOCODE-HYCEL Belgium) were used to determinate the plasma levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in 41 cases of glioma (12 cases age 40), 14 cases of meningioma(age>40), and 22 cases of healthy subjects (10 cases age 40). All the diagnosis of patients was confirmed by pathology. Cap-Ria 16 Gamma Counter (CAPINTEC, INC U.S.A) was used to count the radioactivity. Results: Plasma levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with glioma were 322.20±80.89 ng/mL, 1524.63±373.18 ng/mL (age 40), respectively. Plasma levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with meningioma were 211.06±75.11 ng/mL, 1403.08±350.78 ng/mL (age >40); control groups were 272.46±49.67 ng/mL, 1453.38±378.73 ng/mL (age 40), respectively. Plasma levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with glioma(age>40) were significantly higher than in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: IGF-1 is a risk factor for glioma and play important role in the pathophysiological process of glioma. Endogenous regulation of the balance between IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 may be a model of regulation of cellular growth in tumor cells. (authors)

  1. Plasma intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in women with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani Makoto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor (FGF23 is a novel phosphaturic factor associated with inorganic phosphate homeostasis. Previous human studies have shown that serum FGF23 levels increase in response to a high phosphate diet. For anorexia nervosa (AN patients, inorganic phosphate homeostasis is important in the clinical course, such as in refeeding syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23 in restricting-type AN (AN-R patients, binge-eating/purging-type AN (AN-BP patients, and healthy controls. Methods The subjects consisted of 6 female AN-R patients, 6 female AN-BP patients, and 11 healthy female controls; both inpatients and outpatients were included. Plasma iFGF23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH2D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD levels were measured. Data are presented as the median and the range. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess differences among the three groups, and a value of p Results There were no differences between AN-R patients and controls in the iFGF23 and 1,25-(OH2D levels. In AN-BP patients, the iFGF23 level (41.3 pg/ml; range, 6.1–155.5 pg/ml was significantly higher than in controls (3.8 pg/ml; range, not detected-21.3 pg/ml; p = 0.001, and the 1,25-(OH2D was significantly lower in AN-BP patients (7.0 pg/ml; range, 4.2–33.7 pg/ml than in controls (39.7 pg/ml; range, 6.3–58.5 pg/ml; p = 0.015. No differences in plasma 25-OHD levels were observed among the groups. Conclusion This preliminary study is the first to show that plasma iFGF23 levels are increased in AN-BP patients, and that these elevated plasma FGF23 levels might be related to the decrease in plasma 1,25-(OH2D levels.

  2. Level crossings, excess times, and transient plasma–wall interactions in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorsen, A., E-mail: audun.theodorsen@uit.no; Garcia, O. E., E-mail: odd.erik.garcia@uit.no [Department of Physics and Technology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2016-04-15

    Based on a stochastic model for intermittent fluctuations in the boundary region of magnetically confined plasmas, an expression for the level crossing rate is derived from the joint distribution of the process and its derivative. From this the average time spent by the process above a certain threshold level is obtained. This provides novel predictions of plasma–wall interactions due to transient transport events associated with a radial motion of blob-like structures in the scrape-off layer.

  3. Plasma adrenomedullin levels in children with asthma: any relation with atopic dermatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukosmanoglu, E; Keskin, O; Karcin, M; Cekmen, M; Balat, A

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the airway, and adrenomedullin (ADM) may have some effects against bronchoconstriction. However, the role(s) of ADM in asthmatic children have not been evaluated yet. The aims of this study were to determine if there are any changes in plasma ADM levels during acute asthma attack, and to search for any association between allergen sensitivity and ADM level in asthmatic children. Twenty-seven children with acute asthma attack, ranging in age from 5 to 15 years were investigated and compared with 20 controls. Plasma ADM levels (ng/mL) were measured by ELISA method. No significant difference was found in ADM levels between the controls and patients in either the acute attack or remission period. Plasma ADM levels were significantly higher in the acute attack (p=0.043) compared to the remission period in patients who were considered as having a "severe attack" according to GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) classification. There were statistically significant correlations between the patients' AlaTOP and Food Panel 7 levels and plasma ADM levels in the acute attack period (p=0.010, p=0.001, respectively). The ADM levels in patients with a history of atopic dermatitis were significantly higher in the acute attack period compared to those without a history of atopic dermatitis (p=0.007). We speculate that ADM may have a role in children with atopic dermatitis, and may also have a role in the immuno-inflammatory process of asthma. Copyright © 2011 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Basal levels of pesticide organ chlorates in the plasma of dogs of Zaragoza, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raldua Demetrio; Martinez Carmen

    1997-01-01

    During the month of January of 1992 they took samples of plasma in 83 dogs of the Center of Animal Protection of Zaragoza, Spain, specify their concentrations of pesticides organ chlorates. The biggest levels means were reached by the Endosulfan Sulfate and the Lindano, being also detected beta residuals and alpha - HCL, Endosulfan I and II, Dieldr and p,p - DDE. They have not been significant differences in the pesticides levels according to the sex, age or weight of it lauds animals

  5. Clinical relevance of β₂-glycoprotein-I plasma levels in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, Alessandra; Pengo, Vittorio

    2014-06-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies associated with thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity. The antibodies mainly involved in this disorder are directed against β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI). β2-GPI plasma level is usually not reported in studies on APS, because it is not regarded as relevant to the diagnosis and prognosis of APS. Nevertheless its measurement may be important for understanding the pathophysiology of the syndrome. This review summarizes available data from the literature on plasma concentrations of β2-GPI in patients with different antibody profiles.

  6. A study of factors influencing plasma CEA levels in an unselected population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeth, B; Bagrel, A

    1980-01-01

    Plasma carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were measured by an immunoenzymic method (Abbott) in 1020 subjects attending the Preventive Medicine Centre (Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy). The results are assessed in relation to: sex, age, body build, fasting/normal food intake, smoking, alcohol intake, drug medication, and working environment. The mean plasma CEA level is 1.53 ng/ml. 87% of the total group has levels less than 2.5 ng/ml, 11.2% levels between 2.5 ng/ml and 5 ng/ml and 1.8% levels above 5 ng/ml. One person had a level above 10 ng/ml. Men had significantly higher CEA levels than women. Smoking was more frequent in both men and women with CEA levels above 2.5 ng/ml. Only in men were age, alcohol consumption and a poor work environment significantly associated with CEA levels higher than 2.5 ng/ml. Obesity in women was related to higher CEA levels. Food intake and drug medication were without influence on the CEA level.

  7. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(a)lipoproteinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Mazza, Fabio; Steiner, Michael; Watts, Gerald F.; De Nève, Joel; Pasqualetti, Daniela; Paal, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI) (LA) on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(a)lipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55 ± 9.3 years (mean ± SD), were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p < 0.001). The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R 2 = 0.99; p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins. PMID:26903710

  8. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(alipoproteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stefanutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI (LA on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3, an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(alipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55±9.3 years (mean ± SD, were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p<0.001. The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R2=0.99; p<0.001. Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins.

  9. Perioperative changes of serum cortisol and plasma angiotensin II levels in patients undergoing thoracotomy for malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Runhua; Lun Limin; Li Yusheng; Yu Yunyun; Li Xin; Zheng Chunxi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the perioperative changes of serum stress hormones cortisol and plasma angiotensin II in patients undergoing thoracotomy for malignancy. Methods: Serum cortisol and plasma angiotensin II levels were measured with RIA repeatedly in 35 thoracotomy patients operated for malignancy before operation, 1 h after starting operation, at the end of operation, and one day later, Heart rate and blood pressure were constantly monitored during operation. Results: The serum levels of cortisol and plasma angiotensin-II rose gradually during operation with significant differences among the measurements (P < 0. 001 -0.05), No age-difference for the measurements was observed except for a higher systolic pressure in patients over 60. Heart rates at 1 h were positively correlated with 1 h angiotensin-II levels. Heart rates at the end of operation were positively correlated with the cortisol and angiotensin-II levels at that time. Conclusion: The serum levels of these stress hormones rose significantly during the operation. Stress responses in older patients were adequate, yet the higher levels of stress hormones might bring more adverse effect in elderly people, especially cognition impairment. Smooth anaesthesia and adequate post-operative analgesia would lessen the stress effect, providing more ideal recovery, especially for the older patients. (authors)

  10. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and serotonin in response to specific spinal based exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sokunbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercises as the primary mode of treatment for low back disorders aim to achieve pain reduction, improvement in functional abilityand quality of life of for low back disorder sufferers. However the bio-chemical events associated with the use of these exercises in terms of theireffects on pain relieving neuropeptides have not been well established. Thisstudy was carried out to investigate the effects of spinal stabilisation, backextension and treadmill walking exercises on plasma levels of serotonin andbeta-endorphin.Twenty volunteers (10 males and 10 females without low back pain participated in the study. They were randomly allocated either to one of theexercise groups, where participants carried out one of the spinal stabilisation, back extension and treadmill walkingexercises or the control (no exercise group. The main outcome measures used in this study were plasma levels of serotonin and beta-endorphin measured with Enzyme linked immuno absorbent assay (ELISA technique.The results of this study showed that spinal stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises produced significantincrease in plasma serotonin levels (P 0.05.It could be that biochemical effects associated with stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises therefore mayinvolve production of serotonin and its release into the plasma.

  11. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p . 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p . 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy

  12. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p = 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p = 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy

  13. Nickel exposure and plasma levels of biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress in nickel electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Gu, Po-Wen; Liu, Su-Hsun; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Chen, Jau-Yuan; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John

    2017-07-01

    The mechanism of nickel-induced pathogenesis remains elusive. To examine effects of nickel exposure on plasma oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers. Biomarker data were collected from 154 workers with various levels of nickel exposure and from 73 controls. Correlations between nickel exposure and oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers were determined using linear regression models. Workers with a exposure to high nickel levels had significantly lower levels of anti-oxidants (glutathione and catalase) than those with a lower exposure to nickel; however, only glutathione showed an independent association after multivariable adjustment. Exposure to high levels of nickel may reduce serum anti-oxidative capacity.

  14. Relationship of plasma level of NT- ProBNP with development of AF in CABG patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaray B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Studies of the association between post operative AF and Plasma level of NT- Pro BNP have reported conflicting findings. The aim of the present study was evaluation of the association between post coronary bypass graft- Atrial Fibrillation (AF and Plasma level of NT- ProBNP as an independent risk factor of AF development in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft."n "nMethods: In a cohort study, 79 patients with sinus rhythm who admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during February 2009 and February 2010 for CABG are included the study and followed for developing post operative AF rhythm."n "nResults: Post operative AF was found in 17.7% of patients. The peak time from the operation to the first AF episode was in second post op day in ten patients (71.4%. The serum level of ProBNP in patients with AF was significantly higher (1624± 647 versus 221± 238 pg/ml, p< 0/0001. Increased age, Increased LA size and high plasma level of ProBNP were associated with increased risk for post op AF. After adjustment of risk factors, plasma level of ProBNP was the most important risk factor with odds ratio of 15.34 with CI 95% 1.77-132.95 and then LA diameter with odds ratio of 6.11 with CI 95% 0.99-37.42 was independently correlated with post op AF. Correlation between plasma level of ProBNP with age and LA size was seen too (LA size r = 0.0281, p= 0.012. Between age and ProBNP (r= 0.337, p= 0.002. The best cut off point for plasma ProBNP as a predictor of post op AF was 854 pg/ml."n "nConclusion: Increased level of preoperative ProBNP levels could be an independent predictor of post operative Atrial Fibrillation.

  15. Influence of semiclassical plasma on the energy levels and radiative transitions in highly charged ions★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Wei; Chen, Zhan-Bin; Chen, Wen-Cong; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Fu, Nian; Wang, Kai

    2017-11-01

    Considering the quantum effects of diffraction and the collective screening effects, the potential of test charge in semiclassical plasmas is derived. It is generalized exponential screened Coulomb potential. Using the Ritz variational method incorporating this potential, the effects of semiclassical plasma on the energy levels and radiative transitions are investigated systematically, taking highly charged H-like ion as an example. The Debye plasma model is also employed for comparison purposes. Comparisons and analysis are made between these two sets of results and the differences are discussed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  16. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (phealthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  17. Possibility of combining nuclear level pumping in plasma with lasing in solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamyan, S.A.; Carroll, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear isomers can be used for the storage and release of 'clean' nuclear energy, and the visible schemes are discussed. Resonance between the atomic and nuclear transitions may be manifested in a form of the hybridization of atomic-nuclear excitation at the appropriate case. The nuclear levels - candidates for triggering via atomic transitions are described. A variety of the ionization states and atomic-shell configurations arises in hot plasma generated by the short powerful pulse of laser light. The nonradiative conversion of the ionization energy within atom can be suppressed in the hot-plasma surroundings. Time-scales of different processes in nuclear, atomic and condensed-matter subsystems are compared. The processes of fast ionization in solid, X-ray radiance in plasma, sample melting and recrystallisation may precede nuclear fluorescence. Time-scale shorter 0.1 ns makes this sequence promising for the group excitation of short-lived modes in nuclear subsystem

  18. Relationship between plasma cholesterol levels and cholesterol esterification in isolated human mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallongeville, J.; Davignon, J.; Lussier-Cacan, S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the relationship between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and cholesterol esterification in freshly isolated human mononuclear cells from 27 normolipidemic and 32 hyperlipidemic individuals. Cells were either incubated for 5 hours with radiolabeled oleate immediately after isolation or were preincubated for 18 hours in the presence of exogenous cholesterol, and then incubated with [ 14 C]sodium-oleate-albumin complex. In the absence of exogenous cholesterol, control and hypercholesterolemic subjects had similarly low values of intracellular cholesterol esterification. In the presence of exogenous cholesterol, both hypertriglyceridemic and hypercholesterolemic subjects had higher cholesterol esterification than controls. There was a significant correlation between the rate of cholesterol esterification and plasma total cholesterol. These results suggest that plasma cholesterol levels may regulate mononuclear cell intra-cellular cholesterol esterification in humans

  19. Plasma levels of nitrate and risk of prostate cancer: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianying; Wang, Yushan; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Giovannucci, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Nitrate and nitrite supplements have recently been shown to improve cardiovascular health, but there is concern that these supplements could contribute to the development of cancer. Previous small, cross-sectional studies reported positive associations between circulating nitrate/nitrite levels and cancer. Prospective studies examining the association between plasma nitrate and cancer, especially prostate cancer, are lacking. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Baseline blood samples were collected in 1994, and incident cases of prostate cancer were identified from 1997 to 2005. Baseline plasma levels of nitrate were measured in the 630 cases and 630 matched controls. We have found that baseline levels of plasma nitrate were not associated with risk of prostate cancer. Compared to quintile 1, the relative risk from quintiles 2 to 5 were 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-1.63], 0.93 (95% CI, 0.63-1.38), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.65-1.39), and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.68-1.48); Ptrend was 0.9 after adjustment of multivariate risk factors. When analyses were restricted to men fasting more than 6 hours, the trend was similar. Furthermore, plasma nitrate seemed to be inversely associated with advanced-stage prostate cancer. The relative risk across extreme quartiles was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.17-1.12; Ptrend = 0.07) for the whole dataset and 0.30 (95% CI, 0.09-0.99; Ptrend = 0.05) for the fasting dataset. In summary, we did not find an increased risk of prostate cancer associated with higher plasma nitrate levels. A potential protective association between nitrate and aggressive forms of prostate cancer requires confirmation. Nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic pathway for chronic diseases. The results of this study certainly merit replications in other prospective studies.

  20. In vitro transdermal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride through rat skin from various niosomal formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: The purpose of the present study was to prepare and to evaluate a novel niosome as transdermal drug delivery system for propranolol hydrochloride and to compare the in vitro efficiency of niosome by either thin film hydration or hand shaking method.   Materials and Methods: Niosomes were prepared by Thin Film Hydration (TFH or Hand Shaking (HS method. Propranolol niosomes were prepared using different surfactants (span20, 80 ratios and a constant cholesterol concentration. In vitro characterization of niosomes included microscopical observation, size distribution, laser light scattering evaluation, stability of propranolol niosomes and permeability of formulations in phosphate buffer (pH=7 through rat abdominal skin. Results: The percentage of entrapment efficiency (%EE increased with increase in surfactant concentration in all formulations. Among them, F3 formulation (containing span80:cholesterol ratio of 3:1 showed the highest entrapment efficiency (86.74±2.01%, Jss (6.33μg/cm2.h and permeability coefficient ( . By increasing the percentage of entrapment efficiency (resulting in increase in surfactant concentration, the drug released time is not prolonged. Among all the formulations, F4 needed more time for maximum drug release. Among these formulations, F4 was also found to have the maximum vesicle size as compared to other formulations. It was observed that niosomal suspension prepared from span 80 was more stable than span 20. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that niosomal formulations may offer a promise transdermal delivery of propranolol which improves drug efficiency and can be used for controlled delivery of propranolol

  1. Effects of intravenous propranolol on heat pain sensitivity in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinhardt, P; Abulhasan, Y B; Koeva, V; Balderi, T; Kim, D J; Alhujairi, M; Carli, F

    2013-05-01

    Clinical studies have shown opioid-sparing effects of β-adrenergic antagonists perioperatively and β-blockers are being investigated for chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, the direct analgesic effects of β-blockers have rarely been examined in healthy humans. In a randomized, counter-balanced, double-blind, within-subject crossover design, we tested the effect of the lipophilic β-blocker propranolol (0.035 mg/kg body weight i.v.) on heat pain sensitivity in 39 healthy males, compared with placebo. To test for peripheral versus central effects, the peripherally acting β-blocker sotalol was also examined. Experimental stimuli were brief superficial noxious heat stimuli applied to the volar forearm. Non-painful cold stimuli were included to test for specificity. Sedation, mood and anxiety were assessed to investigate potential mechanisms underlying any analgesic effect. β-blocker effects on blood pressure were incorporated into the analysis because of a known inverse relationship between pain sensitivity and systolic blood pressure. Propranolol significantly decreased perceived intensity of heat pain stimuli but only in participants with small propranolol-induced blood pressure decreases. Even in this group, the effect was small (4%). Propranolol did not influence perceived intensity of non-noxious stimuli and had no effect on sedation, anxiety or mood. Sotalol did not influence heat pain sensitivity. Propranolol decreased pain sensitivity but its analgesic effects were small and counteracted by blood pressure decreases. The analgesic effects were not mediated by peripheral β-receptor blockade, sedation, mood or anxiety. The small effect indicates that the utility of β-blockers for clinical pain must be related to factors that do not play a significant role for experimental pain. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  2. Very low levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin F 1/sub α/ in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siess, W.; Dray, F.

    1982-01-01

    Two stable derivatives of PGI 2 , its nonenzymatic hydrolysis product (6-keto-PGF 1 /sub α/) and an enzymatic metabolite (6, 15-diketo-PGF 1 /sub α/) were determined in human plasma and urine. These compounds were measured by RIA after separation on rp-HPLC. Previous purification of the samples on rp=HPLC markedly enhanced the specificity of the RIA determinations of those compounds in plasma and urine. The PGI 2 derivative 6-keto-PGF 1 /sub α/ was detected in both plasma (4.7 +/- 3.2 pg/ml, mean +/- S.D., n = 34) and urine (166 +/- 61 pg/ml, n = 9). No gender differences of the plasma or urinary levels of 6-keto-PGF 1 /sub α/ were found. The PGI 2 metabolite 6, 15-diketo-PGF 1 /sub α/ was not measurable in plasma or urine ( 2 in man. When [ 3 H]PGI 2 was added to citrated blood immediately after venipuncture, it was recovered entirely as [ 3 H]6-keto-PGF 1 /sub α/ after rp-HPLC. Therefore any circulating PGI 2 would be measured as 6-keto-PGF 1 /sub α/ by our method. The results obtained suggest that PGI 2 could be present in human venous blood under physiological conditions, but only in very low concentrations

  3. Differences in cardiovascular risk profile based on relationship between post-load plasma glucose and fasting plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Elena; Marini, Maria Adelaide; Grembiale, Alessandro; Lugarà, Marina; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sciacqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Lauro, Renato; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    It has been shown that subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), whose plasma glucose (PG) levels do not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (Group I), have a significantly higher risk to develop type 2 diabetes than NGT subjects whose 2-h glucose returns to, or drops below, the fasting level (Group I). However, it is still unsettled whether individuals in Group II have a more atherogenic profile than Group I subjects. To address this issue, we examined 266 non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic patients, recruited in the context of EUGENE2 cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent an euglycaemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were evaluated. Individuals in Group II exhibited significantly higher waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, 2-h post-load PG, hsC-reactive protein, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IMT, and lower insulin sensitivity than subjects in Group I. Subjects with NGT, whose PG concentration does not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during OGTT, have an atherogenic profile, suggesting that performing OGTT with measurement of PG every 30 min may be useful to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease in glucose-tolerant subjects.

  4. Plasma GLP-2 levels and intestinal markers in the juvenile pig during intestinal adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paris, Monique C; Fuller, Peter J; Carstensen, Bendix

    2004-01-01

    ) or supplemented either with fiber (n = 6) or with bovine colostrum protein concentrate (CPC; n = 10) for 8 weeks until sacrifice. Plasma GLP-2 levels were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 8 postoperatively. In addition, end-stage parameters were studied at week 8 including weight gain, ileal villus height, crypt......Adaptation of the residual small bowel following resection is dependent on luminal and humoral factors. We aimed to establish if circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-2) change under different dietary regimens following resection and to determine if there is a relationship between plasma...... GLP-2 levels and markers of intestinal adaptation. Four-week-old piglets underwent a 75% proximal small bowel resection (n = 31) or transection (n = 14). Postoperatively they received either pig chow (n = 14), nonpolymeric (elemental) infant formula (n = 7), or polymeric infant formula alone (n = 8...

  5. Correlations between plasma endothelin-1 levels and breakthrough pain in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan XB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xue-bin Yan, Tuo-chao Peng, Dong Huang Department of Anesthesiologist, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Endothelin-1 (ET-1 may be involved in driving pain in patients with advanced cancer. However, a few studies focus on the role of ET-1 in breakthrough pain (BP. The aim of this pivotal study was to explore the correlation between the plasma (ET-1 level and BP intensity. A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study, and they were divided into two groups: BP group and non-BP group. Moreover, 20 healthy adults were used as the normal control group. Pain intensity was measured using visual analog scale (VAS scores of 1–10. Plasma ET-1 levels were detected by an ET radioimmunoassay kit. Subsequently, the correlation of ET-1 level with the VAS score and cancer types was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The plasma ET-1 level in the BP group (35.31±8.02 pg/mL was higher than that in the non-BP group (29.51±6.78 pg/mL and the normal control group (24.77±10.10 pg/mL, P<0.05. In addition, the VAS score in the BP group (7.45±0.82 was higher than that in the non-BP group (2.80±1.23, P<0.05. The plasma ET-1 level was positively correlated with the VAS score of the BP group (Pearson’s r=0.42. There was no significant correlation between the plasma ET-1 level and VAS score of the non-BP group (Pearson’s r=–0.22 or/and cancer types (P>0.05. The elevated plasma ET-1 levels were positively related to BP, and targeting ET-1 may provide a novel pain-reducing therapeutic treatment in BP. Keywords: visual analog scale, correlation, cancer types, background pain

  6. Development of psychopathology in deployed armed forces in relation to plasma GABA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schür, Remmelt R; Boks, Marco P; Geuze, Elbert; Prinsen, Hubertus C; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Joëls, Marian; Kahn, René S; Vermetten, Eric; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2016-11-01

    The GABA system is pivotal for an adequate response to a stressful environment but has remained largely unexplored in this context. The present study investigated the relationship of prospectively measured plasma GABA levels with psychopathology symptoms in military deployed to Afghanistan at risk for developing psychopathology following trauma exposure during deployment, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Plasma GABA levels were measured in military personnel (N=731) one month prior to deployment (T0), and one (T1) and six months (T2) after deployment using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Mental health problems and depressive symptoms were measured with the Dutch revised Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) and PTSD symptoms with the Dutch Self-Rating Inventory for PTSD (SRIP). Six months after deployment increases in GABA concentrations were present in individuals who had developed mental health problems (T2: β=0.06, p=1.6×10 -2 , T1: β=4.7×10 -2 , p=0.13), depressive symptoms (T2: β=0.29, p=7.9×10 -3 , T1: β=0.23, p=0.072) and PTSD symptoms at T2 (T2: β=0.12, p=4.3×10 -2 , T1: β=0.11, p=0.13). Plasma GABA levels prior to and one month after deployment poorly predicted a high level of psychopathology symptoms either one or six months after deployment. The number of previous deployments, trauma experienced during deployment, childhood trauma, age and sex were not significantly associated with plasma GABA levels over time. Exclusion of subjects who either started or stopped smoking, alcohol or medication use between the three time points rendered the association of increasing GABA levels with the emergence of psychopathology symptoms more pronounced (mental health problems at T2: β=0.09, p=4.2×10 -3 ; depressive symptoms at T2: β=0.35, p=3.5×10 -3 , PTSD symptoms at T2: β=0.17, p=1.7×10 -2 ). To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide

  7. Study of plasma neuropeptide levels in patients with acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Youfen; Lan Suixin; Chen Yu; He Ling; Huang Yuan; Ma Yaling

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the dynamic changes of plasma neuropeptide (β-EP, NT, NPY) levels and the pathogenesis as well as clinical outcomes of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Methods: The concentrations of serum neuropeptides (β-EP, NT, NPY) were measured on the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th, 14 th day after the onset of disease with RIA in 103 patients with acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (38 cases of acute cerebral infarction, 32 cases of cerebral hemorrhage, 33 cases of acute myocardial infarction and acute heart failure) and 66 controls. Results: 1. NPY, NT and β-EP levels in patients with acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.01). (F=39.54, p<0.01; F=33.38, p<0.01; F=8.38, p<0.01 For β-EP, NPY and NT respectively). 2. The plasma neuropeptide levels were highest at onset and gradually lowered till to normal levels on the 14 th day. Conclusion: Plasma neuropeptide levels were closely related to the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, study of which might be useful in the clinical management of the diseases

  8. Impact of restraint and disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C; Robertson, M D; Morgan, L M

    2010-10-01

    The impact of eating behaviours on circulating levels of appetite-regulating hormones remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the role of restraint and disinhibition on fasting/postprandial peptide YY (PYY) plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite in normal-weight individuals and to determine whether the effect was energy load dependent. 33 participants (12 men) were classified as restrained/unrestrained and low/high in disinhibition based on Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18R and Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The impact of restraint/disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and feelings of appetite was measured, after a 500kcal and 1000kcal breakfast, using a randomised crossover design. Restraint did not impact on either fasting or postprandial PYY plasma levels, but participants with high disinhibition had a tendency towards a blunted postprandial PYY response. Moreover, restrained eaters reported lower ratings of prospective food consumption postprandially, and a tendency towards higher fullness/lower hunger. In conclusion, circulating PYY is unaffected by restrained eating behaviour, despite being associated with increased fullness and reduced hunger in the fed state. High levels of disinhibition tend to be associated with a blunted PYY response and this may contribute towards the susceptibility to overconsumption and increased risk of weight gain characteristic of this trait.

  9. Plasma cathepsin S and cystatin C levels and risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a randomized population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Jie Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA lesions contain high levels of cathepsin S (CatS, but are deficient in its inhibitor, cystatin C. Whether plasma CatS and cystatin C levels are also altered in AAA patients remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma samples were collected from 476 male AAA patients and 200 age-matched male controls to determine CatS and cystatin C levels by ELISA. Student's t test demonstrated higher plasma levels of total, active, and pro-CatS in AAA patients than in controls (P<0.001. ROC curve analysis confirmed higher plasma total, active, and pro-CatS levels in AAA patients than in controls (P<0.001. Logistic regression suggested that plasma total (odds ratio [OR] = 1.332, active (OR = 1.21, and pro-CatS (OR = 1.25 levels were independent AAA risk factors that associated positively with AAA (P<0.001. Plasma cystatin C levels associated significantly, but negatively, with AAA (OR = 0.356, P<0.001. Univariate correlation demonstrated that plasma total and active CatS levels correlated positively with body-mass index, diastolic blood pressure, and aortic diameter, but negatively with the lowest ankle-brachial index (ABI. Plasma cystatin C levels also correlated negatively with the lowest ABI. Multivariate linear regression showed that plasma total, active, and pro-CatS levels correlated positively with aortic diameter and negatively with the lowest ABI, whereas plasma cystatin C levels correlated negatively with aortic diameter and the lowest ABI, after adjusting for common AAA risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Correlation of plasma CatS and cystatin C with aortic diameter and the lowest ABI suggest these serological parameters as biomarkers for human peripheral arterial diseases and AAA.

  10. Propranolol modulates the collateral vascular responsiveness to vasopressin via a G(α)-mediated pathway in portal hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jing-Yi; Huo, Teh-Ia; Huang, Hui-Chun; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lin, Han-Chieh; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Chang, Ching-Chih; Wang, Sun-Sang; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2011-12-01

    Gastro-oesophageal variceal haemorrhage is one of the most dreadful complications of portal hypertension and can be controlled with vasoconstrictors. Nevertheless, sympathetic tone abnormality and vascular hyporesponsiveness in portal hypertension may impede the haemostatic effects of vasoconstrictors. Propranolol, a β-blocker binding the G-protein-coupled adrenoceptor, is a portal hypotensive agent. However, whether propranolol influences the collateral vasoresponse is unknown. Portal hypertension was induced by PVL (portal vein ligation) in Sprague-Dawley rats. In an acute study with an in situ perfusion model, the collateral responsiveness to AVP (arginine vasopressin) was evaluated with vehicle, propranolol (10 μmol/l), propranolol plus suramin (100 μmol/l, a G(α) inhibitor) or suramin pre-incubation. G(α) mRNA expression in the splenorenal shunt, the most prominent intra-abdominal collateral vessel, was measured. In the chronic study, rats received DW (distilled water) or propranolol (10 mg x kg(-1) of body weight x day(-1)) for 9 days. Then the concentration-response relationship of AVP and G(α) mRNA expression were assessed. Propranolol pre-incubation elevated the perfusion pressure changes of collaterals in response to AVP, which was inhibited by suramin. The splenorenal shunt G(αq) and G(α11) mRNA expression were enhanced by propranolol. The group treated with propranolol plus suramin had a down-regulation of G(α11) as compared with the propranolol group. Chronic propranolol treatment reduced mean arterial pressure, PP (portal pressure) and the perfusion pressure changes of collaterals to AVP. G(αs) expression was up-regulated. In conclusion, propranolol pre-incubation enhanced the portal-systemic collateral AVP responsiveness in portal hypertensive rats, which was related to G(αq) and G(α11) up-regulation. In contrast, the attenuated AVP responsiveness by chronic propranolol treatment was related to G(αs) up-regulation. The G(α) signalling

  11. Hypergravity-induced increase in plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Juraj; Mravec, Boris; Jurani, Marian; Baranovska, Magda; Tillinger, Andrej; Hapala, Ivan; Frollo, Ivan; Kvetnanský, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and corticosterone. However, the collection of blood was performed after a centrifugation finished, and therefore the levels could be affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels in blood collected directly during centrifugation after reaching different G (2-6), using newly developed remote-controlled equipment. Animals placed into the centrifuge cabins had inserted polyethylene tubing in the tail artery, which was connected with a preprogrammed device for blood withdrawals. Plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels were measured at different time intervals of hypergravity of 2-6G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity-level-dependent increase. After the last blood collection was completed during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples, plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels were significantly increased after 6G only. The increase in plasma corticosterone was dependent on level of G, however after the centrifuge stopped, corticosterone levels remained elevated. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical systems, whereas the sympathoneural system is activated only at high hypergravity. Immediately after centrifugation is over, EPI levels quickly return to control values. Our technique of blood collection during centrifugation allows assessment of the real hormonal levels at the particular hypergravity value.

  12. [Effects of dietary wheat gluten level on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqun; Han, Feng; Sun, Licui; Lu, Jiaxi; Sugiyama, Kimio; Huang, Zhenwu

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different level of casein and wheat gluten on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats. 48 rats of the Wistar were fed with different level of casein (12.5%, 25% and 50%) and wheat gluten (14.5%, 29% and 58%) diets for 14 days, and they were killed by decapitation to obtain blood and livers was subject to analysis the concentration of homocysteine, cysteine and other amino acids, as well as BHMT and CBS activities. Body weight gain in rats fed wheat gluten dietary was significantly less than casein dietary, but food intake was significantly decreased in wheat gluten group with increasing of the protein content. The plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed wheat gluten was marketly less than casein, however plasma cysteine concentration in wheat gluten was higher than casein group. The effects of wheat gluten on plasma homocysteine concentration are mainly depends on the low contents of methionine and high cysteine content, but the low contents of lyscine and threonine are not ignored. The mainly mechanism is that the increased cysteine concentration promot enzyme activities of homocystein metabolism, and increase the consumption of homocysteine.

  13. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and risk of dementia in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine L.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease and dementia. However, it remains unclear whether plasma levels of apoE confer additional risk. We tested this hypothesis. METHODS: Using 75,708 participants from the general population, we tested...... whether low plasma levels of apoE at study enrollment were associated with increased risk of future Alzheimer disease and all dementia, and whether this association was independent of ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype. RESULTS: Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for Alzheimer disease and all dementia...... adjustment for ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype, plasma apoE tertiles remained associated with Alzheimer disease (p for trend = 0.007) and all dementia (p for trend = 0.04). Plasma apoE tertiles did not interact with ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype on risk of Alzheimer disease (p = 0.53) or all dementia (p = 0...

  14. Low levels of plasma endothelin-1 in patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ohguro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Ohguro1, Yukihiko Mashima2, Mitsuru Nakazawa31Department of Ophthalmology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1 in the pathophysiology of retinitis pigmentosa (RP.Methods: Plasma ET-1 levels and ophthalmic features in 50 RP patients were compared with those in 20 healthy-eye control subjects. Plasma ET-1 concentrations were determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.Results: Mean plasma ET-1 levels of RP patients (1.88 ± 0.56 pg/mL were significantly lower than those of control subjects (2.30 ± 0.30 pg/mL, Mann-Whitney’s U test; P < 0.01. However, ET-1 concentrations varied markedly in each patient. Among RP patients, a significant correlation of ET-1 concentrations was not observed in terms of its hereditary forms or other clinical factors.Conclusion: ET-1 may be important in the pathogenesis of RP, and measurement of its plasma concentrations may also contribute to additional insights into the retinal hemodynamics of RP.Keywords: endothelin-1, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal hemodynamics

  15. Effect of endurance training on plasma levels of AGRP and HOMA-IR in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mehrabani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a strong central controller of appetite that secretes different neuropeptides including AGRP. Plasma levels of AGRP are effective in controlling obesity and hunger. Therefore, the current study was performed with the aim of investigating the effect of endurance training on plasma levels of AGRP and HOMA-IR in diabetic rats. The Current study was experimental by posttest and control group. Eighteen male Wistar rats (200-220 grams with 8-10 weeks were randomly divided into the control group and diabetic training. Eight weeks endurance training program included in the group of animal diabetic training for 5 days per week (15-40 minutes at 50 to 65 percent of vo2max. To determine the serum concentrations of AGRP was used by ELISA. A comparison of two groups showed significantly increased plasma concentrations of AGRP (p=0.006 and insulin resistance index, decreased significantly (p=0.002 compared to the control group after eight weeks, endurance training. According to the results, increased plasma concentrations of AGRP can be attributed to the negative balance caused by training. This agent destroys the body's energy balance and hypothalamus for balancing increases the secretion of AGRP. This neuropeptide is likely will cause higher fat metabolism.

  16. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  17. Reduced levels of S-nitrosothiols in plasma of patients with systemic sclerosis and Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Devi; Abraham, David; Black, Carol M; Denton, Christopher P; Bruckdorfer, K Richard

    2014-12-01

    S-Nitrosothiols (RSNOs) are bioactive forms of nitric oxide which are involved in cell signalling and redox regulation of vascular function. Circulating S-nitrosothiols are predominantly in the form of S-nitrosoalbumin. In this study plasma concentrations of S-nitrosothiols were measured in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) where NO metabolism is known to be abnormal. Venous blood was collected from 16 patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), 45 with systemic sclerosis (SSc) (34 patients had limited SSc (IcSSc) and 11 diffuse cutaneous disease (dcSSc)). Twenty six healthy subjects were used as controls. Plasma S-nitrosothiol concentrations were measured by chemiluminescence. The measurements were related to the extent of biological age, capillary/skin scores and disease duration. Plasma RSNO levels in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and in those with SSc was significantly lower compared to the concentrations in control subjects. In SSc, plasma S-nitrosothiols were often below the level of detection (1nM). Low S-nitrosothiol concentrations were observed in the blood of patients with SSc and patients with RP indicating a profound disturbance of nitric oxide metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Levels of pentraxin-3 in gingival crevicular fluid and plasma in periodontal health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, A R; Kathariya, Rahul; Raghavendra, N M; Sharma, Anuj

    2011-05-01

    Pentraxins are classic mediators of inflammation and markers of acute-phase reactions. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is the first-identified long pentraxin and is believed to be a true independent indicator of disease activity. Although a classic pentraxin, C-reactive protein, and its association with various systemic diseases is well documented in the periodontal literature, there is no data on PTX3 to our knowledge. Forty participants (20 males and 20 females; age range: 23 to 50 years) were involved in the study. Participants were divided into three groups based on gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level: the healthy group (group 1; n = 10), gingivitis group (group 2; n = 15), and periodontitis group (group 3; n = 15). Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and plasma samples collected from each subject were quantified for PTX3 levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In tandem with the disease progression from healthy to gingivitis to periodontitis, the mean PTX3 concentrations increased in GCF and plasma. However, GCF values were higher than plasma values. It was found that PTX3 concentration was highest in group 3 and lowest in group 1. PTX3 concentrations also correlated positively with periodontal parameters. GCF and plasma PTX3 concentrations correlated positively in all groups. However, within the limits of the present study, the differences in plasma PTX3 levels were not found to be statistically significant. Hence, GCF PTX3 values were considered a marker of inflammatory activity in periodontal disease. However, PTX3 deserves further consideration as a therapeutic target. Additional large-scale studies should be carried out to confirm positive correlations.

  19. The Correlation of Plasma Levels of Apelin-13 with Insulin Resistance Index and Plasma Leptin of Diabetic Male Rats after 8-Week Aerobic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Kazemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The physiological role of apelin, an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes has been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of plasma levels of apelin-13 with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR and plasma leptin of diabetic male rats after 8-week aerobic exercise. Materials and Methods: Peresent study was an experimental study with animal model. Twenty eight diabetic male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: Non-diabetic (n=9, control diabetic (n=9 and trained diabetic (n=10. Type 2 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. The trained diabetic rat ran 8-week on treadmill progressively. After the training period, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, leptin and apelin-13 were measured and HOMA-IR was calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation were used for analyzing data. p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A significant decrease in plasma levels of glucose, insulin and leptin and HOMA-IR in trained diabetic vs control diabetic rats, a significant increase in plasma levels of apelin in trained diabetic vs non-diabetic and control diabetic rats and a significant negative correlation of plasma levels of apelin with HOMA-IR and plasma leptin in trained diabetic rats was observed. Conclusion: In present study, 8-week aerobic training by improvement of insulin sensitivity (decrease of HOMA-IR and plasma leptin increased plasma levels of apelin-13 in diabetic male rats.

  20. Plasma Oxytocin and Arginine-Vasopressin Levels in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in China: Associations with Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Feng; Dai, Yu-Chuan; Wu, Jing; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ji-Shui; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by impairments of social interaction and the presence of obsessive behaviors. The "twin" nonapeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are known to play regulatory roles in social behaviors. However, the plasma levels and behavioral relevance of OXT and AVP in children with ASD have seldom been investigated. It is also unknown whether their mothers have abnormal plasma peptide levels. Here, using well-established methods of neuropeptide measurement and a relatively large sample size, we determined the plasma levels of the two neuropeptides in 85 normal children, 84 children with ASD, and 31 mothers from each group of children. As expected, children with ASD had lower plasma OXT levels than gender-matched controls (P = 0.028). No such difference was found for plasma AVP concentrations. Correlation analysis showed that ASD children with higher plasma OXT concentrations tended to have less impairment of verbal communication (Rho = -0.22, P = 0.076), while those with higher plasma AVP levels tended to have lower levels of repetitive use of objects (Rho = -0.231, P = 0.079). Unlike the findings in children, maternal plasma OXT levels showed no group difference. However, plasma AVP levels in the mothers of ASD children tended to be lower than in the mothers of normal children (P = 0.072). In conclusion, our results suggest that the OXT system is dysregulated in children with ASD, and that OXT and AVP levels in plasma seem to be associated with specific autistic symptoms. The plasma levels of OXT or AVP in mothers and their ASD children did not seem to change in the same direction.

  1. Relationship among plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Tohidhi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a new risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is a sensitive marker of the vitamin B12 and folate insufficiency. Folate and vitamin B12 may be a protective effect on cardiovascular disease. According to limited data about role of vitamin B12 and folate in coronary artery disease (CAD, we conducted this study to measure these factors in patients with coronary artery disease and in control subjects. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 139 subjects who underwent coronary angiography in Shiraz. Plasma vitamin B12 and folate level were measured and compared between patients with CAD and control subjects. Results: 139 individuals with a mean age 56.99±11.93 were enrolled in this study. 31.2% of them had a normal coronary angiography. Mean plasma level of folate in patients with CAD was lower than control subjects (4.46±1.28 ng/ml versus 5.00±1.81 ng/ml, P = 0.04. Also mean plasma level of vitamin B12 in patients CAD and control subjects were 451.43±138.90 and 503.60±199.35 pg/ml respectively. Although mean level of vitamin B12 in patients with CAD was lower than control group, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.07. Conclusion: Mean plasma level of vitamin B12 and folate were lower in patients with CAD than control group. It seems that supplementation with this vitamins may be useful in patients with CAD.

  2. Does high intensity exercise affects irisin plasma levels in hemodialysis patients? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gormicho Boavida Marques Esgalhado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that stimulates the "browning" of the white adipose tissue, at least in mice. In chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, irisin regulation is not fully understood, and little attention has been given to the effects of exercise on irisin levels in these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high intensity exercise on irisin plasma levels in CKD patients under hemodialysis (HD. Methods: Fifteen HD patients (5 men, 44.4 ± 15.1 years old were studied and served as their own controls. High intensity (single session intradialytic strength exercises consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with four different movements in both lower limbs during 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected on different days (exercise and non-exercise day at exactly the same time (30 and 60 minutes after the start of dialysis session. Plasma irisin levels were measured by ELISA assay and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results: Irisin plasma levels were significantly reduced in both exercise day (125.0 ± 18.5 to 117.4 ± 15.0 ng/mL, p=0.02 and non-exercise day (121.5 ± 13.7 to 115.4 ± 17.2 ng/mL, p=0.02 after 60 minutes of dialysis. Conclusion: These data suggest that intense intradialytic strength exercise was unable to increase the circulating concentration of irisin in HD patients. Moreover, our data show that after one hour of dialysis session, irisin plasma levels may be reduced.

  3. Understanding the time dependence of atomic level populations in evolving plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, Philip G.

    2005-01-01

    The time dependence of atomic level populations in evolving plasmas is studied using an eigenfunction expansion of the non-LTE rate equations. The work aims to develop understanding without the need for, and as an aid to, numerical solutions. The discussion is mostly limited to linear systems, especially those for optically thin plasmas, but the implicitly non-linear case of non-LTE radiative transfer is briefly discussed. Eigenvalue spectra for typical atomic systems are examined using results compiled by Hearon. Diagonal dominance and sign symmetry of rate matrices show that just one eigenvalue is zero (corresponding to the equilibrium state), that the remaining eigenvalues have negative real parts, and that oscillations, if any, are necessarily damped. Gershgorin's theorems are used to show that many eigenvalues are determined by the radiative lifetimes of certain levels, because of diagonal dominance. With other properties, this demonstrates the existence of both 'slow' and 'fast' time-scales, where the 'slow' evolution is controlled by properties of meta-stable levels. It is shown that, when collisions are present, Rydberg states contribute only 'fast' eigenvalues. This justifies use of the quasi-static approximation, in which atoms containing just meta-stable levels can suffice to determine the atomic evolution on time-scales long compared with typical radiative lifetimes. Analytic solutions for two- and three-level atoms are used to examine the basis of earlier intuitive ideas, such as the 'ionizing plasma' approximation. The power and limitations of Gershgorin's theorems are examined through examples taken from the solar atmosphere. The methods should help in the planning and interpretation of both experimental and numerical experiments in which atomic evolution is important. While the examples are astrophysical, the methods and results are applicable to plasmas in general

  4. Elevated Plasma Cardiac Troponin T Levels Caused by Skeletal Muscle Damage in Pompe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wens, Stephan C A; Schaaf, Gerben J; Michels, Michelle; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; van Gestel, Tom J M; In 't Groen, Stijn; Pijnenburg, Joon; Dekkers, Dick H W; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Verdijk, Lex B; Brusse, Esther; van Schaik, Ron H N; van der Ploeg, Ans T; van Doorn, Pieter A; Pijnappel, W W M Pim

    2016-02-01

    Elevated plasma cardiac troponin T (cTnT) levels in patients with neuromuscular disorders may erroneously lead to the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or myocardial injury. In 122 patients with Pompe disease, the relationship between cTnT, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase (CK), CK-myocardial band levels, and skeletal muscle damage was assessed. ECG and echocardiography were used to evaluate possible cardiac disease. Patients were divided into classic infantile, childhood-onset, and adult-onset patients. cTnT levels were elevated in 82% of patients (median 27 ng/L, normal values normal in all patients, whereas CK-myocardial band levels were increased in 59% of patients. cTnT levels correlated with CK levels in all 3 subgroups (Pmass index measured with echocardiography was normal in all the 3 subgroups. cTnT mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was not detectable in controls but was strongly induced in patients with Pompe disease. cTnT protein was identified by mass spectrometry in patient-derived skeletal muscle tissue. Elevated plasma cTnT levels in patients with Pompe disease are associated with skeletal muscle damage, rather than acute myocardial injury. Increased cTnT levels in Pompe disease and likely other neuromuscular disorders should be interpreted with caution to avoid unnecessary cardiac interventions. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Effect of aerobic exercise and fish oil supplements on plasma levels of inflammatory indexes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Koushki, Maryam; Sobhani, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has positive and negative effects on immune system. Herein, we would like to investigate the effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplementation on the plasma levels of CRP, CPK and IL-17 in trained mice. One of the major roles of immune system is to produce soluble or cellular components that provide the immunity against inflammatory agent. The purpose of this study is to investigate distinct and combine effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplement on plasma levels of IL-17, CPK and CRP in trained male mice. Totally, 54 healthy male mice (2 months old, weight= 34±1 grams) were selected. At first 10 mice were killed to determine base line values, the rest of them were randomly divided into four groups, control group (C, n=11), supplement group (S, n=11), training group (T, n=11) and supplement-training group (ST, n=11).The supplement and supplement-training groups were fed with 0.2cc/day fish oil for 8 weeks. Training and supplement-training groups underwent exercise for 5 sessions per week for a period of 8 weeks on animal treadmill. SPSS 16.0 software and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis of data Exercise and fish oil supplement lead to a decrease in CRP levels and subsequently causing a reduction in plasma levels of IL-17 and CK in mice (poil can reduce regulate inflammatory response caused by incremental exercise.

  6. Elevated Plasma Levels of 3-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid Are Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes

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    Adil Mardinoglu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs metabolite, 3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid (3-HIB has been identified as a secreted mediator of endothelial cell fatty acid transport and insulin resistance (IR using animal models. To identify if 3-HIB is a marker of human IR and future risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (T2D, we measured plasma levels of 3-HIB and associated metabolites in around 10,000 extensively phenotyped individuals. The levels of 3-HIB were increased in obesity but not robustly associated with degree of IR after adjusting for BMI. Nevertheless, also after adjusting for obesity and plasma BCAA, 3-HIB levels were associated with future risk of incident T2D. We also examined the effect of 3-HIB on fatty acid uptake in human cells and found that both HUVEC and human cardiac endothelial cells respond to 3-HIB whereas human adipose tissue-derived endothelial cells do not respond to 3-HIB. In conclusion, we found that increased plasma level of 3-HIB is a marker of future risk of T2D and 3-HIB may be important for the regulation of metabolic flexibility in heart and muscles.

  7. Plasma ghrelin levels and polymorphisms of ghrelin gene in Chinese obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J F; Liang, L; Zou, C C; Fu, J F

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the role of fasting plasma ghrelin levels [ln(ghrelin)] and polymorphisms of ghrelin gene in Chinese obese children. Genotyping for ghrelin polymorphism was performed in 230 obese and 100 normal weight children. Among them, plasma ghrelin levels were measured in 91 obese and 23 health subjects. (1) Bivariate correlation analysis showed the ln(ghrelin) was inversely correlated with abnormality of glucose metabolism (r = -0.240, P = 0.023). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that abnormality of glucose metabolism was an independent determinant of plasma ghrelin levels (P = 0.023). (2) There was no difference in frequency of Leu72Met polymorphisms between obese and control groups (36.09 vs. 41.00%). Ghrelin is associated with obesity in childhood, especially associated with the glucose homeostasis. Lower ghrelin levels might be a result of obesity, but not a cause of obesity. The Leu72Met polymorphism of ghrelin gene is not associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in Chinese children.

  8. Plasma insulin levels are increased by sertraline in rats under oral glucose overload

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    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and control of depression symptoms are important to increase patient compliance with treatment and to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. Clinical studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are better antidepressants for diabetic patients than other drugs. However, preclinical trials have demonstrated that not all SSRI reduce plasma glucose levels. In fact, fluoxetine increases and sertraline decreases glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the present study we evaluated plasma insulin levels during fasting and after glucose overload after treatment with sertraline. Adult male Wistar rats were fasted and treated with saline or 30 mg/kg sertraline and submitted or not to glucose overload (N = 10. Blood was collected and plasma insulin was measured. The mean insulin levels were: fasting group: 25.9 ± 3.86, sertraline + fasting group: 31.10 ± 2.48, overload group: 34.1 ± 3.40, and overload + sertraline group: 43.73 ± 5.14 µU/ml. Insulinemia was significantly increased in the overload + sertraline group. There were no differences between the other groups. No difference in glucose/insulin ratios could be detected between groups. The overload + sertraline group was the only one in which a significant number of individuals exceeded the upper confidence limit of insulin levels. This study demonstrates that sertraline increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  9. Evolution of plasma homovanillic acid (HVA) levels during treatment in schizo-affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinowski, A; Castelnau, C; Spreux-Varoquaux, O; Bourdel, M C; Olie, J P; Loo, H; Poirier, M F

    2000-11-01

    1. Plasma Homovanillic Acid (p HVA) levels were measured by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) in 5 schizo-affective depressed patients receiving a standardized treatment. (lithium, chlorpromazine and clomipramine) during 4 weeks. 2. Four patients were pretreated, without a washout period. 3. No significant difference was observed between patients and normal controls at baseline. Under treatment, pHVA levels increased (ppHVA levels that increase with clinical improvement, unlike schizophrenic patients whose increased pHVA concentrations decline with neuroleptic treatment.

  10. Relationship Between Plasma Homocystein Levels and Polyneuropaty in Patients Using Levodopa For Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease

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    Mithat Bedir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent studies showed high plasma homocysteine levels in patients treated with Levodopa for Parkinson’s disease (PD. Homocysteine, due to its exotoxic effect, might be the cause of polyneuropathy seen in PD. In this study, our aim was to show the correlation between high concentration of plasma homocysteine levels and polyneuropathy associated with PD.. Material and Methods: Forty-one patients with PD receiving levodopa treatment (patient group and 30 healthy subjects (control group were included in this study. We compared the two groups in terms of electrophysiological findings. Twelve patients had high plasma homocysteine levels and 29 of them had low plasma homocysteine levels. Results: Six of the 41 patients had sensorial polyneuropathy and decreased compound muscle action potantiel amplitude compared to controls. Two patients had high plasma homocysteine levels, two patients had nearly high plasma homocysteine levels, two patients had low plasma homocysteine levels who had sensorial polyneuropathy. Conclusion: Although in our study, we did not show any correlation between polyneuropathy and high plasma homocysteine levels, further studies including homogeneous groups of younger patients with PD are needed. (The Me di cal Bul - le tin of Ha se ki 2012; 50: 53-8

  11. Functional variation in the arginine vasopressin 2 receptor as a modifier of human plasma von Willebrand factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Robben, J H; Deen, P M T

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) with arginine vasopressin (AVP) results in a rise in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII plasma levels. We hypothesized that gain-of-function variations in the V2R gene (AVPR2) would lead to higher plasma levels of V...

  12. The Effect of Naloxone on Plasma ET-1 and CGRP Levels in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyin; Guang Ming; Cai Liang; Chen Boxun; Gan Xilun

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of naloxone on the changes of plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in patients with traumatic brain injury, ninety patients with traumatic brain injury were randomly divided into naloxone treated group and conventionally treated group (both n=45). The plasma levels of ET-1 and CGRP in both groups before and after treatment and in 30 healthy controls were measured by RIA. The results showed that the plasma levels of ET-1 were significantly increased in the patient before treatment and decreased markedly after treatment in both groups. The magnitude of decrease of the plasma ET-1 levels in the naloxone treated group was significantly higher than that in the conventionally treated group (P<0.01). The plasma levels of CGRP were significantly decreased in the patients before treatment and increased markedly after treatment in both groups. The magnitude of increase of the plasma CGRP levels in the naloxone treated group was significantly higher than that in the conventionally treated group (P<0.01). The plasma ET-1 levels in patients with traumatic brain injury was remarkably increased and markedly decreased after treatment with naloxone. The plasma CGRP levels in patients with traumatic brain injury was remarkably decreased and markedly increased after treatment with naloxone. Naloxone has a favorable effect on patient with traumatic brain injury, it may protect the neural cells and improve their living quality. (authors)

  13. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and risk of venous thromboembolism among cancer patients: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Both venous thromboembolism (VTE) and high plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are markers of occult cancer and aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis. In this population-based cohort study, we assessed VTE risk among cancer patients with high plasma Cbl levels. MATERIALS...

  14. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels.

  15. Plasma lysophosphatidylcholine levels are reduced in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa N Barber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are associated with increased circulating free fatty acids and triacylglycerols. However, very little is known about specific molecular lipid species associated with these diseases. In order to gain further insight into this, we performed plasma lipidomic analysis in a rodent model of obesity and insulin resistance as well as in lean, obese and obese individuals with T2DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lipidomic analysis using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed marked changes in the plasma of 12 week high fat fed mice. Although a number of triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol species were elevated along with of a number of sphingolipids, a particularly interesting finding was the high fat diet (HFD-induced reduction in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC levels. As liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue play an important role in metabolism, we next determined whether the HFD altered LPCs in these tissues. In contrast to our findings in plasma, only very modest changes in tissue LPCs were noted. To determine when the change in plasma LPCs occurred in response to the HFD, mice were studied after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of HFD. The HFD caused rapid alterations in plasma LPCs with most changes occurring within the first week. Consistent with our rodent model, data from our small human cohort showed a reduction in a number of LPC species in obese and obese individuals with T2DM. Interestingly, no differences were found between the obese otherwise healthy individuals and the obese T2DM patients. CONCLUSION: Irrespective of species, our lipidomic profiling revealed a generalized decrease in circulating LPC species in states of obesity. Moreover, our data indicate that diet and adiposity, rather than insulin resistance or diabetes per se, play an important role in altering the plasma LPC profile.

  16. [Evaluation of leptin levels in plasma and their reliance on other hormonal factors affecting tissue fat levels in people with various levels of endogenous cotisol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaczyk, Maciej G

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of leptin (LEP) shed new light on mechanisms regulating body fat mass (BFM). In this aspect, interactions between LEP and glucocorticoids at hypothalamic level may be of great importance. Factors that influence plasma LEP levels have not been fully recognized and available data on LEP levels are often inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate absolute and BFM-corrected plasma LEP levels and their diurnal variation, as well as to assess the relationship between LEP levels, body fat distribution, and hormones influencing body fat in subjects with various levels of endogenous cortisol and different nutritional status. Group I was composed of 14 women aged 14-58 yrs, BMI of 23.9-37.1 kg/m2, with hypercortisolism due to ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CUS). 17 women with visceral obesity (OTY) and normal or disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, i.e. impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM), aged 24 do 50 yrs, BMI 30.0-46.1 kg/m2, were included in group II. Group III consisted of 14 women with Addison's disease (AD), aged 18 do 63 yrs, BMI 15.4-31.6 kg/m2. The control group IV (KON) included 17 healthy women with normal BMI. BMI, WHR, body composition, and body fat distribution (DEXA method) were assessed in all subjects. Basal plasma levels of LEP, beta-endorphin (B-EP), cortisol (F), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured with RIA test kits. Plasma adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) levels, serum levels of insulin (IRI) and growth hormone (GH) were measured with IRMA test kits. Blood glucose (G) concentration was determined with an enzymatic method. Adiposity-corrected LEP levels were expressed as LEP/BFM and LEP/%BF indices. Fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) was also calculated. Higher BFM and %BF values were found in the OTY group as compared with CUS KON and AD groups. BFM distribution did not differ in KON and AD groups whereas CUS subjects exhibited a higher accumulation of fat in the trunk

  17. Adrenomedullin plasma levels predict left ventricular reverse remodeling after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Maria-Aurora; Maltinti, Maristella; Piacenti, Marcello; Turchi, Stefano; Giannessi, Daniela; Del Ry, Silvia

    2010-07-01

    Increase in adrenomedullin (ADM) plasma levels in congestive heart failure (HF) patients is due to many cardiac and systemic factors, particularly to greater fluid retention and to activation of sympathetic nervous system. Aim of this study was to assess the role of plasma ADM levels in HF patients treated by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). 50 patients, mean age 70 years, 34 male, New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III-IV HF, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or=1 NYHA Class improvement was observed in 38 patients. However, a >10% reduction in end-systolic dimensions (ESD) was reported in 21 patients (Group I): -16.6 +/- 1.8%; in the remaining 29 patients ESD change was almost negligible: -2.0 +/- 1.03% (Group II), P values before CRT could represent a group in whom the dysfunction is so advanced that no improvement can be expected.

  18. Decreased plasma neurotrophin-4/5 levels in bipolar disorder patients in mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Izabela G; Morato, Isabela B; Huguet, Rodrigo B; Rocha, Fabio L; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Antônio L

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate two poorly explored neurotrophins (NT), NT-3 and NT-4/5, in bipolar disorder (BD). Forty patients with type I BD (18 in remission and 22 in mania) and 25 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and educational attainment were enrolled in this study. All subjects were assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview; the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to evaluate severity of symptoms in BD patients. Plasma levels of NT-3 and NT-4/5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BD patients in mania presented decreased NT-4/5 plasma levels in comparison with controls (p neurotrophin dysfunction is associated with mood states in patients with BD.

  19. Plasma levels of cAMP, cGMP and CGRP in sildenafil-induced headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Frandsen, E; Schifter, S

    2004-01-01

    Sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) degrading phosphodiestrase 5 (PDE5), induced migraine without aura in 10 of 12 migraine patients and in healthy subjects it induced significantly more headache than placebo. The aim of the present study was to determine...... whether the pain-inducing effects of sildenafil would be reflected in plasma levels of important signalling molecules in migraine: cGMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Ten healthy subjects (four women, six men) and 12 patients (12 women) suffering from...... migraine without aura were included in two separate double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over studies in which placebo or sildenafil 100 mg was administered orally. Plasma levels of CGRP, cAMP and cGMP were determined in blood from the antecubital vein. Despite the ability of sildenafil to induce...

  20. Diet, plasma levels of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, and risk of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, W S; Stampfer, M J; Stein, E A; Kaplan, L; Louis, T A; Sober, A; Willett, W C

    1990-04-01

    Dietary intake and the plasma levels of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, lycopene, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene for 204 cases with malignant melanoma were compared with those of 248 controls. Cases and controls were patients 18 years of age or older making their first visit to a dermatology subspecialty clinic for pigmented lesions from July 1, 1982 to September 1, 1985. Intakes of nutrients were estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. No significant associations with malignant melanoma were observed for higher plasma levels of lycopene, retinol, or alpha-carotene in logistic regression analyses after controlling for age, sex, plasma lipids, and known constitutional risk factors (hair color and ability to tan). In similar models, the odds ratio comparing the highest with the lowest quintile was 0.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5-1.5) for plasma beta-carotene, 0.7 (95% CI 0.5-1.3) for plasma alpha-tocopherol, 0.7 (95% CI 0.4-1.2) for carotene intake, and 0.7 (95% CI 0.4-1.3) for total vitamin E intake. A trend toward reduced risk of melanoma was observed for increasing intake of iron (not including supplements); this was related to the more frequent consumption of baked goods, such as cake, among controls. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of melanoma (chi for trend = 2.1, p = 0.03); the odds ratio for consumption of over 10 g/day compared with persons with no alcohol intake was 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.3).

  1. Analysis of OLAB, BNP and CRP levels in the plasma of patients with cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Fu Lei; Luo Jun

    2004-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of coronary heart disease and the effect of therapy on unstable angina pectoris (UAP) OLAB, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and supersensitive C reaction protein(CRP) levels in the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease were detected. The OLAB, BNP and CRP levels and their correlations in the plasma of 124 patients with coronary heart disease and 30 controls were determined by chemiluminescence and ELISA technique, respectively. The OLAB, BNP and CRP levels of 48 UAP patients after PTCA were also analyzed. The BNP and CRP levels of patients with coronary heart disease, especially acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and UAP patients to stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients were higher than those of controls (P<0.01). The OLAB levels in AMI patients was higher than UAP, SAP and controls (P<0.05). There was a significant difference of OLAB, BNP and CRP levels in UAP patients before and after PTCA therapy (P<0.05). OLAB, BNP and CRP, which is involved in the developing procedure of coronary heart disease, may be used to predict the long-term cardiac function recover. OLAB, BNP and CRP levels in UAP patients were decreased significantly after PTCA and may also be considered as the therapy effect observing markers. OLAB takes part in the whole procedure of coronary atherosclerosis and the occurrence and ending of AMI. (authors)

  2. Sex differences in plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenia and normal controls: relation to neuroleptic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Hasegawa, M; Jayathilake, K; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-03-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were compared in a large number of neuroleptic-resistant and -responsive schizophrenic patients (male/female = 161/46) and normal controls (67/27), and correlated with various measures of psychopathology. Psychopathology was evaluated with the brief psychiatric rating scale, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Change version (SADS-C) and SADS-C Global Assessment Scale, the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), and the Quality of Life Scale. No significant differences in pHVA levels between neuroleptic-resistant (n = 104) or -responsive (n = 103) schizophrenic patients, and normal controls, were found; however, there was a main effect for sex, due to higher pHVA levels in women than men. There were no diagnosis x gender or age effects on pHVA levels. No significant correlations were observed between psychopathology ratings and baseline pHVA levels, except with the Hallucinations subscale of SAPS in neuroleptic-responsive patients. Neither duration of neuroleptic washout nor plasma prolactin levels correlated with pHVA levels. Further studies on the origin and significance of the gender difference in pHVA are indicated.

  3. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise and fish oil supplements on plasma levels of inflammatory indexes in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Koushki, Maryam; Sobhani, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exercise has positive and negative effects on immune system. Herein, we would like to investigate the effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplementation on the plasma levels of CRP, CPK and IL-17 in trained mice. One of the major roles of immune system is to produce soluble or cellular components that provide the immunity against inflammatory agent. The purpose of this study is to investigate distinct and combine effects of incremental aerobic training and fish o...

  5. Plasma IL-17A levels in patients with late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraykar, Smita; Cao, Bo; Barroso, Lucelia S; Pereira, Kelly S; Bertola, Laiss; Nicolau, Mariana; Ferreira, Jessica D; Dias, Natalia S; Vieira, Erica L; Teixeira, Antonio L; Silva, Ana Paula M; Diniz, Breno S

    2018-01-01

    A consistent body of research has confirmed that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, the soluble IL-2 receptor, and C-reactive protein, compared to controls; however, there is limited information on IL-17A in MDD. Moreover, information about IL-17A in older populations, i.e., patients with late-life depression (LLD), is conspicuously missing from the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of IL-17A in LLD. A convenience sample of 129 individuals, 74 with LLD and 55 non-depressed controls, were enrolled in this study. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare plasma IL-17A levels between LLD and controls subjects, and Spearman's rank order correlation was used to investigate correlation of these levels with clinical, neuropsychological, and cognitive assessments. Plasma IL-17A levels were not statistically different between LLD patients and controls (p = 0.94). Among all subjects (LLD + control), plasma IL-17A did not correlate significantly with depressive symptoms (rho = -0.009, p = 0.92) but a significant correlation was observed with cognitive assessments (rho = 0.22, p = 0.01). Our findings do not support an association between plasma IL-17A levels and LLD. Nevertheless, IL-17A may be associated with cognitive impairment in LLD patients. If this finding is confirmed in future longitudinal studies, modulation of the T-helper 17 cell (Th17) immune response may be a treatment target for cognitive impairment in this population.

  6. Normal levels of plasma FSH and LH in the menstrual cycle as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemgruber, I.; Pinto, J.C.M.; Linhares, E.; Granafer, A.

    1981-01-01

    The biological methods were not able to establish adequately the separate determination of FSH and LH. The introduction of radioimmunoassay had allowed the identification of plasma FSH and LH for the purpose of routine clinical use. The utilization of commercial kits, however, obliges each laboratory to have normal levels of his own. Such is the finality of this work, studying samples from 200 normal women, hospitalized for surgical reasons and having not any endocrinological problem. (author) [pt

  7. Relationship between plasma glutamate levels and post-stroke depression in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱方媛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the association between the plasma glutamate levels during acute ischemic stroke andpost-stroke depression(PSD)initially.Methods Seventy-four ischemic stroke patients admitted to the hospital within the first day of stroke onset were evaluated at a follow-up of 2 weeks.The Beck Depression Inventory(BDI,21-item)and DSM-Ⅳcriteria was used to diagnose post-stroke depression(PSD)at 2 weeks after stroke.

  8. Elevated plasma angiopoietin-2 levels and primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Diamond

    Full Text Available Primary graft dysfunction (PGD is a significant contributor to early morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Increased vascular permeability in the allograft has been identified as a possible mechanism leading to PGD. Angiopoietin-2 serves as a partial antagonist to the Tie-2 receptor and induces increased endothelial permeability. We hypothesized that elevated Ang2 levels would be associated with development of PGD.We performed a case-control study, nested within the multi-center Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. Plasma angiopoietin-2 levels were measured pre-transplant and 6 and 24 hours post-reperfusion. The primary outcome was development of grade 3 PGD in the first 72 hours. The association of angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and PGD was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE.There were 40 PGD subjects and 79 non-PGD subjects included for analysis. Twenty-four PGD subjects (40% and 47 non-PGD subjects (59% received a transplant for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Among all subjects, GEE modeling identified a significant change in angiopoietin-2 level over time in cases compared to controls (p = 0.03. The association between change in angiopoietin-2 level over the perioperative time period was most significant in patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of IPF (p = 0.02; there was no statistically significant correlation between angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and the development of PGD in the subset of patients transplanted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (p = 0.9.Angiopoietin-2 levels were significantly associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation. Further studies examining the regulation of endothelial cell permeability in the pathogenesis of PGD are indicated.

  9. FABP4 dynamics in obesity: discrepancies in adipose tissue and liver expression regarding circulating plasma levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FABP4 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and its circulating levels are linked with obesity and a poor atherogenic profile. OBJECTIVE: In patients with a wide BMI range, we analyze FABP4 expression in adipose and hepatic tissues in the settings of obesity and insulin resistance. Associations between FABP4 expression in adipose tissue and the FABP4 plasma level as well as the main adipogenic and lipolytic genes expressed in adipose tissue were also analyzed. METHODS: The expression of several lipogenic, lipolytic, PPAR family and FABP family genes was analyzed by real time PCR. FABP4 protein expression in total adipose tissues and its fractions were determined by western blot. RESULTS: In obesity FABP4 expression was down-regulated (at both mRNA and protein levels, with its levels mainly predicted by ATGL and inversely by the HOMA-IR index. The BMI appeared as the only determinant of the FABP4 variation in both adipose tissue depots. FABP4 plasma levels showed a significant progressive increase according to BMI but no association was detected between FABP4 circulating levels and SAT or VAT FABP4 gene expression. The gene expression of FABP1, FABP4 and FABP5 in hepatic tissue was significantly higher in tissue from the obese IR patients compared to the non-IR group. CONCLUSION: The inverse pattern in FABP4 expression between adipose and hepatic tissue observed in morbid obese patients, regarding the IR context, suggests that both tissues may act in a balanced manner. These differences may help us to understand the discrepancies between circulating plasma levels and adipose tissue expression in obesity.

  10. Comparison of p53 levels in lymphocytes and in blood plasma of nuclear power plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessner, Pavel; Chvatalova, Irena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Roessner, Pavel; Sram, Radim J.

    2004-01-01

    p53 levels were assessed in lymphocytes and in blood plasma of workers from two Czech nuclear power plants (NPP): 114 subjects working in Temelin and 108 subjects working in Dukovany. Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure data were available for 64 and 59 subjects working in the monitored zones from the NPP in Temelin and Dukovany, respectively. The short-term doses of IR for these subjects were 0.01 and 0.12 mSv, and the long-term doses were 0.46 and 5.68 mSv, in the Temelin and Dukovany NPP, respectively. As a control group, 46 subjects living in Ceske Budejovice, a city nearby the Temelin NPP, were analyzed. The concentration of p53 in lymphocytes was significantly higher in workers from the monitored zone in the Dukovany NPP (median value 6.4 pg/μg protein, P < 0.001) than in workers from the Temelin NPP (3.2 pg/μg) as well as in the control group (3.5 pg/μg). In contrast, plasma levels of p53 were comparable in the control group (median value 116 pg/ml plasma) and workers from the monitored zone of Dukovany NPP (102 pg/ml), but lower in workers from Temelin NPP (5 pg/ml). Other factors affecting p53 levels were studied. Smoking resulted in increased p53 lymphocyte levels. The effect of polymorphisms in metabolic and DNA repair genes on p53 levels was analyzed. The correlation was found between p53 levels in lymphocytes and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in subjects working in NPPs, but not in the control group. The results of measurement p53 levels in lymphocytes suggest that this biomarker could reflect the short-term as well as long-term effects of low doses IR. Its impact on human health should be further explored

  11. Gingival crevicular fluid and plasma oxidative stress markers and TGM-2 levels in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerik, Sema; Öztürk, Veli Özgen; Celec, Peter; Kamodyova, Natalia; Atilla, Gül; Emingil, Gülnur

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and plasma transglutaminase-2 (TGM-2), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in patients with chronic periodontal disease. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 20 patients with gingivitis and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical periodontal parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index and papillary bleeding index were recorded. GCF and plasma levels of TGM-2, TAC, TOS, TBARS and FRAP were analyzed. GCF TGM-2 was significantly lower in CP group than in gingivitis patients (P=0.006). GCF FRAP in CP and gingivitis groups was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (P0.05). GCF TGM-2 level was positively correlated with GCF TAC and negatively correlated with CAL. Decreased FRAP in GCF and plasma indicating lower antioxidant status of CP patients might suggest the role of oxidative stress in periodontitis. GCF TGM-2 data might suggest that TGM2 is associated with stabilization of the extracellular matrix and wound healing in periodontium rather than gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Association of plasma PCB levels and HbA1c concentration in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Sahar; Aminian, Omid; Moinfar, Zeinab; Schettgen, Thomas; Kaifie, Andrea; Felten, Michael; Kraus, Thomas; Esser, André

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus over the last decades warrants more attention to the effects of environmental and occupational exposures on glucose metabolism. Our study aimed to assess the association between the plasma levels of various congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the serum concentration of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Our study population consisted of 140 Iranian adults from seven different occupational groups and a group of non-occupationally exposed female participants. The plasma concentration of PCBs were determined at the laboratory of occupational toxicology at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. We considered an HbA1c concentration of 5.7% and more as indicating a disturbed glucose metabolism. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between quartiles of concentrations of PCB congeners and serum HbA1c. Participants with an increased HbA1c value had higher plasma levels of PCB 138, 153, 180 and the PCB sum, although this association was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference between the levels of PCB 138, 153, 180, the sum of these congeners, and PCB 118 in their quartiles when comparing with HbA1c concentrations. For our cohort, we could not demonstrate a significant association between PCB and HbA1c concentrations indicating a disturbance of glucose metabolism.

  13. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman R

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite, progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  14. Diurnal Variation of Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Women with Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Casarosa, Elena; Bucci, Fiorella; Piccinino, Manuela; Wenger, Jean-Marie; Nappi, Rossella Elena; Polyzos, Nicholas; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Pluchino, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is strongly related to hormonal networks and is modulated by hypothalamic activity. To evaluate plasma BDNF concentration in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA), with reference to the BDNF circadian rhythm and its relation with the cortisol (F) rhythm, and to assess whether the duration of amenorrhea might influence the BDNF:F ratio in FHA. This was an observational study evaluating 36 amenorrheic and 30 eumenorrheic women. Basal values of BDNF and hormones were examined in blood samples collected from 7:00 to 9:00 h in all the women. Basal BDNF and F levels were determined in blood samples collected in 12 subjects from each group at 8:00, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00, and 24:00 h. BDNF plasma levels are significantly lower in amenorrheic women (p 0.05), sex steroids, and F in FHA. Low plasma BDNF levels in FHA are not significantly correlated with duration of amenorrhea. The 24-hour variation of BDNF in amenorrheic women is significantly lower when compared to the control group, and normal daily variations of BDNF disappeared in FHA patients. F preserved its circadian rhythm in both groups. Interactions between BDNF, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, and sex steroids might be critical in clinical conditions of modified homeostasis/adaptation, such as FHA. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Lack of relationship between plasma insulin and glucogen levels and angiographically-documented coronary atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mookherjee, S; Potts, J L; Hill, N E; Warner, R; Raheja, K L; Patel, D G; Vardan, S; Smulyan, H [Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, NY (USA)

    1983-10-01

    In 120 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic coronary arteriography, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucagon, serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were measured. The insulin-glucose ratio and insulin-glucagon ratio were calculated. Forty-five patients had normal coronary arteries, 19 had single vessel coronary artery disease and 56 patients had multiple vessel disease. Fasting blood glucose was >120 mg/100 ml in 37 patients (group A) and included 9 of the 10 known diabetics, 3 of whom were being treated with insulin. Seventy-seven patients included in group B had fasting blood glucose concentration <120 mg/100 ml. Patients with multiple vessel coronary disease in either group had higher blood glucose and cholesterol concentrations than those with normal coronary arteries or glucagon levels nor increased insulin-glucose or insulin-glucagon ratios. With comparable extent of coronary artery disease patients in group A had higher plasma insulin levels and insulin-glucagon ratios than those in group B, but no correlation exists between the presence of extent of coronary atherosclerosis and these variables in either group. Thus, neither fasting plasma insulin level nor insulin-glucagon ratio predicts the status of underlying coronary atherosclerosis in either diabetes or nondiabetes.

  16. 99mTc-HMDP Bone Uptake Quantification and Plasma Osteocalcin, PTH Levels in Hemodialysis Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Euy Neyng; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Bang, Chan Young; Chung, Soo Kyo; Kim, Choon Yul; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Park, Chul Whee; Chang, Yoon Sik

    1996-01-01

    In this preliminary study, plasma osteocalcin, PTH level and Tc-99m-HMDP (hydro-xymetylene diphosphonate) bone uptake(BU) were measured in 14 patients with chronic end-stage renal failure who were on maintenance hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the difference of bone uptake between renal failure patients and normal volunteers, and to determine the correlation between bone uptake and osteocalcin a sensitive and specific marker of osteoblastic activity and PTH-a important hormone of bone metabolism. There was a statistically significant increase in 180 minute uptake in the patient group when compared to the normal volunteers while there was no statistically significant difference in 20 minute uptake. Plasma osteocalcin and PTH levels were also significantly elevated compared to normal values. But the correlation between osteocalcin, PTH and 20 and 180 minute bone uptake was not significant. In conclusion, our preliminary study suggests that, in chronic renal failure patients, 180 minute Tc-99m-HMDP bone uptake is increased significantly without direct correlation with serum osteocalcin or PTH levels. It seems that further study is needed to evaluate other unknown factors that may influence the direct correlation between bone uptake and plasma osteocalcin and PTH in patients with chronic renal failure.

  17. Dietary Intake and Plasma Levels of Choline and Betaine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C. Hamlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism have been reported in many children with autism. Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. Three-day food records were analyzed for 288 children with autism (ASDs who participated in the national Autism Intervention Research Network for Physical Health (AIR-P Study on Diet and Nutrition in children with autism. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. The results indicated that 60–93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI for choline. Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling.

  18. Relationship between plasma matrix metalloproteinase levels, pulmonary function, bronchodilator response, and emphysema severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Hong, Yoonki; Lim, Myoung Nam; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airway and lung. A protease-antiprotease imbalance has been suggested as a possible pathogenic mechanism for COPD. We evaluated the relationship between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels and COPD severity. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-12 were measured in 57 COPD patients and 36 normal controls. The relationship between MMP levels and lung function, emphysema index, bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life was examined using general linear regression analyses. There were significant associations of MMP-1 with bronchodilator reversibility and of MMP-8 and MMP-9 with lung function. Also, MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 levels were correlated with the emphysema index, independent of lung function. However, MMP-12 was not associated with lung function or emphysema severity. Associations between MMP levels and bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life were not statistically significant. Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 are associated with COPD severity and can be used as a biomarker to better understand the characteristics of COPD patients.

  19. Plasma lipid levels in Alzheimer's disease patients treated by Donepezil hydrochloride: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunsky, Abraham; Chesnin, Vladimir; Ravona, Ramit; Harats, Dror; Davidson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Donepezil hydrochloride is a central acetylcholine esterase inhibitor that is widely used in Alzheimer disease (AD). We have recently observed some differences in lipid profile between occasional cases of Donepezil hydrochloride users (DU) and non-users (DNU). This prompted us to study the levels of plasma lipids in these two groups, cross-sectionally. The medical charts of patients with probable AD were screened for current use of Donepezil hydrochloride and lipids profile, along with other clinical and demographic data. A total number of 105 patients were identified and included in the final analysis. Patients were divided into two groups (DU and DNU). Plasma levels of lipids were recorded. Mann-Whitney or t-test for continuous variables and Fisher exact test for categorical variables were used to test for significant differences between the groups. Regression analysis was applied to identify independently the factors associated with lipid levels. Thirty-three patients were DU and 72 DNU. The two groups differed in terms of age, lipid levels and cognitive level. DU had statistically significant higher levels of triglycerides compared with those not using the drug (P=0.036), higher total cholesterol (Phydrochloride. Alternatively, this may indicate that the effect of the medication may involve lipid metabolism, rather than other proposed mechanisms.

  20. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chun Lu

    Full Text Available This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters.631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT, estradiol (E2 and SHBG levels were detected.Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001, while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05. For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042. There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV, sperm concentration (SC, total sperm count (TSC, sperm motility, progressive motility (PR and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS. Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012, both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002, and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051.The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility.

  1. Plasma Endothelin-1 Levels in Preterm Neonatal Infants with Acute Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Dmitriyev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased pulmonary vascular resistance in preterm infants is associated with acute respiratory failure (ARF and at the same time endothelin-1 (E-1 plays an important role in neonatal pulmonary vascular responsiveness. Methods. Endothelin-1 levels were measured in two blood samples in 12 preterm infants with ARF and in 12 controls (at 32.2±1.3 and 29.8±1.2 weeks of gestation, respectively by enzyme immunoassay. For this, the first and second blood samples were taken at 18 to 40 hours after birth. Results. The plasma level of E-1 in the first sample did not differ between the neonates of both groups. In the second sample, significantly higher E-1 concentrations were observed in the newborns with ARF than in the controls. In the first sample, E-1 concentration were higher than in the second one in both groups (p<0.001. There was a significant positive correlation between the second E-1 sample and the SNAPPE 2 scale rating (r=0.38; p=0.02. The plasma level of E-1 in the first sample did not differ in both groups (11.9 and 12.2 pg/ml, respectively. Conclusion. Neonates with and without ARF had the similar plasma E-1 levels in the first sample, by taking into account the fact that the E-1 levels were higher in ARF than in the controls at 18 to 40 hour after birth. Increased vascular resistance in ARF may be associated with the high level of E-1. Key words: endothe-lin-1, acute respiratory failure.

  2. Plasma Riboflavin Level is Associated with Risk, Relapse, and Survival of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan-Shan; Xu, Yi-Wei; Wu, Jian-Yi; Tan, Hua-Zhen; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Xue, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Riboflavin is an essential micronutrient for normal cellular activity, and deficiency may result in disease, such as cancer. We performed a case-control study to explore the association of riboflavin levels with risk and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Plasma riboflavin levels, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in ESCC patients were significantly lower than in those of healthy controls (7.04 ± 6.34 ng/ml vs. 9.32 ± 12.40 ng/ml; P riboflavin level and risk of ESCC (odds ratio (OR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.95-0.99, P =  0.02). The 5-year relapse-free and overall survival rates were significantly lower when riboflavin levels were ≤0.8 ng/ml than >0.8 ng/ml (relapse-free survival rate: 29.4% vs. 54.8%; overall survival rate: 28.6% vs. 55.6%). Plasma riboflavin level was an independent protective factor for both relapse-free (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.325, 95% CI = 0.161-0.657, P = 0.002) and overall survival of ESCC patients (HR = 0.382, 95% CI = 0.190-0.768, P = 0.007). In conclusion, plasma riboflavin levels are significantly related to risk and prognosis of ESCC patients, suggesting that moderate supplementation of riboflavin will decrease risk and prevent recurrence of ESCC and also improve prognosis of ESCC patients.

  3. Plasma progesterone levels and corpus luteum morphology in the female prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, D; Garris, D

    1984-08-01

    Plasma progesterone levels in female prairie dogs were determined by a radioimmunoassay specific for progesterone. Plasma progesterone levels were determined in samples taken before estrus, at estrus, during the luteal phase, and during anestrus from females maintained all year in the laboratory. Progesterone levels were also determined in plasma samples taken in the laboratory from two pregnant and three postparturient females captured in the field. Progesterone levels were low before estrus and continued low during estrus. They rose on the first week after estrus to 0.8 ng/ml or above and continued at or above this level for 9-14 weeks following estrus. Gestation in prairie dogs is 35 days in this species. Progesterone levels of three postparturient females were above 1.0 ng/ml for 7 weeks after their arrival in the laboratory. These females all had uterine scars showing that they had delivered their litters before they were captured. Two females were determined to be pregnant at the time of their capture. These females later reabsorbed their fetuses (determined by laparotomy). Progesterone values of samples from these females were all above 1.0 ng/ml except for one low value in one female which occurred 3 weeks after her capture and after reabsorption of her fetuses was in progress. The cells of the corpus lutea (CL) of nonpregnant, pregnant, and postparturient females had well-developed rings of cytoplasmic basophilia but as the CL regressed this pattern became disorganized and disappeared. The function of this basophilia is not known. The long luteal phase found in female prairie dogs is compared to those found in other species of mammals. This is the first annually breeding rodent reported to have a longer luteal phase that the period of gestation.

  4. Plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites predict the response to sulpiride or fluvoxamine in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, N; Yoshimura, R; Shinkai, K; Nakamura, J

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between the changes in plasma catecholamine metabolites obtained from depressed patients before and after administration of sulpiride, a benzamide compound, or fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and between clinical responses to treatment with each of these drugs. Responders to sulpiride had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels before administration of sulpiride than did non-responders or controls (responders: 4.5 +/- 3.1 ng/ml, non-responders: 11.1 +/- 5.9 ng/ml, controls: 10.9 +/- 5.3 ng/ml). Positive relationships were observed between changes in pHVA levels and improvement rates in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D). In contrast, responders to fluvoxamine had significantly higher plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) levels before administration of fluvoxamine than did non-responders or controls (responders: 8.5 +/- 1.8 ng/ml, non-responders: 5.9 +/- 2.I ng/ml, controls: 5.2 +/- 2.9 ng/ml). Negative relationships were observed between changes in pMHPG levels and improvement rates in Ham-D. These results suggest that lower pretreatment pHVA levels and higher pretreatment levels of pMHPG might be predictors of response to sulpiride and fluvoxamine, respectively, and that sulpiride might produce a functional increase in the dopaminergic system, resulting in improvement in some depressive symptoms; fluvoxamine, on the other hand, might produce a functional decrease in the noradrenergic system via serotonergic neurons, resulting in improvement of those symptoms.

  5. Plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Khera, Amit V; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P

    2015-08-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have emerged as causal risk factors for developing coronary heart disease independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) modulates triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Mutations causing loss-of-function of ApoC-III lower triglycerides and reduce coronary heart disease risk, suggestive of a causal role for ApoC-III. Little data exist about the relationship of ApoC-III, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we examined the relationships between plasma ApoC-III, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in patients with T2DM. Plasma ApoC-III levels were measured in a cross-sectional study of 1422 subjects with T2DM but without clinically manifest coronary heart disease. ApoC-III levels were positively associated with total cholesterol (Spearman r=0.36), triglycerides (r=0.59), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.16), fasting glucose (r=0.16), and glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.12; Ptriglycerides (Tobit regression ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-2.18; P=0.086) and separately for very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Tobit regression ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.71; P=0.53). In persons with T2DM, increased plasma ApoC-III is associated with higher triglycerides, less favorable cardiometabolic phenotypes, and higher coronary artery calcification, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of ApoC-III may thus be a novel strategy for reducing plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and cardiovascular risk in T2DM. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Plasma iron levels appraised 15 days after spinal cord injury in a limb movement animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, F M; Esteves, A M; Tufik, S; de Mello, M T

    2011-03-01

    Experimental, controlled trial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma iron and transferrin levels in a limb movement animal model with spinal cord injury (SCI). Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Psicobiologia. In all, 72 male Wistar rats aged 90 days were divided into four groups: (1) acute SCI (1 day, SCI1), (2) 3 days post-SCI (SCI3), (3) 7 days post-SCI (SCI7) and (4) 15 days post-SCI (SCI15). Each of these groups had corresponding control (CTRL) and SHAM groups. Plasma iron and transferrin levels of the different groups were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test. We found a significant reduction in iron plasma levels after SCI compared with the CTRL group: SCI1 (CTRL: 175±10.58 μg dl(-1); SCI: 108.28±11.7 μg dl(-1)), SCI3 (CTRL: 195.5±11.00 μg dl(-1); SCI: 127.88±12.63 μg dl(-1)), SCI7 (CTRL: 186±2.97 μg dl(-1); SCI: 89.2±15.39 μg dl(-1)) and SCI15 (CTRL: 163±5.48 μg dl(-1); SCI: 124.44±10.30 μg dl(-1)) (P<0.05; ANOVA). The SHAM1 group demonstrated a reduction in iron plasma after acute SCI (CTRL: 175±10.58 μg dl(-1); SHAM: 114.60±7.81 μg dl(-1)) (P<0.05; ANOVA). Reduced iron metabolism after SCI may be one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of sleep-related movement disorders.

  7. Changes in Plasma Sex Hormone Levels in Women with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N Yezhova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of the plasma levels of 11 sex hormones and their functional values in women with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 16 women aged 18—45 years who had SCI. Admission APACHE II scores were 18.9±1.3. According to the outcome of a posttraumatic period, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased subjects. The normal values were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of reproductive hormones. The time course of changes in hormone concentration was studied on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7. The hormone profile was examined by BSL test kits (USA on a STAT Fax 2100 enzyme immunoanalyzer (Awareness Technology Inc., USA. The content of prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, and estradiol (E were measured. Results. The complex study of changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in women in the posttraumat-ic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels, a decrease in the concentrations of gonadotropins, and increases in some androgens, A, T, and E. The deceased women showed lower concentrations of DHEA-S and T. Analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the plasma concentration of DHEA-S and the injury severity. This change seems to suggest that an adrenal adaptation reaction is exhausted. The changes revealed in hormonal levels are of significance in understanding the pathogenesis of SCT. This may serve as a basis for the development of new therapy modalities using reproductive hormones in the postresuscitative period. Key words: severe concomitant injury, sex hormones, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androgens, estrogens.

  8. Plasma homovanillic acid levels in first-episode schizophrenia. Psychopathology and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreen, A R; Lieberman, J; Alvir, J; Mayerhoff, D; Loebel, A; Chakos, M; Amin, F; Cooper, T

    1994-02-01

    To examine plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels in first-episode schizophrenia, to compare pHVA levels in patients and controls, and to assess the association of pHVA levels with psychopathology and treatment response. Forty-one patients entered the study, and pHVA levels were measured at baseline and on a weekly basis for up to 6 weeks of open standardized neuroleptic treatment. Psychopathology was evaluated with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the Clinical Global Impressions scale. Ten healthy controls were used for comparison of baseline pHVA levels. No differences were observed between patients and controls. Baseline pHVA level was not associated with psychopathology but was associated with time to reach remission. Baseline pHVA levels and week-1 pHVA levels were higher in responders than nonresponders. Regardless of responsiveness, female participants had higher pHVA levels than male participants throughout the study. The pattern of pHVA levels with treatment was similar in all patients with a short-term rise initially and then a decrease toward baseline values. These findings suggest that pHVA levels have prognostic significance for response and time to reach remission. Qualitative and quantitative differences between first-episode patients' pHVA levels and studies using a long-term, neuroleptic-exposed population suggest that changes occur with neuroleptic treatment or the progression of the illness.

  9. Myocardial scintigraphy with 16 123I hexadecene-9 oic acid. Study of the influence of isoproterenol, propranolol, dipyridamole and isoptine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comet, M.; Wolf, J.E.; Pilichowski, P.; Busquet, G.; Dubois, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Pernin, C.; Riche, F.; Vidal, M.

    1983-01-01

    After I.V. injection of 123 I hexadecene-9 oic acid to dogs, the decreasing part of the myocardial activity curve is fitted with an exponential which period is calculated. Tacking the anesthetized dogs as his own reference, we study the influence of isoproterenol, propranolol, dipyridamole and isoptine on value of the period. None of the drugs modify significatively the period. Nevertheless, propranolol and isoptine and to a lesser extent dipyridamole have a tendancy to increase the value of the period [fr

  10. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on......-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...

  11. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control desi......Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3......, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (pdifference in BDNF levels...

  12. Elevated Plasma Levels of 3-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid Are Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mardinoglu A; Gogg S; Lotta LA; Stancáková A; Nerstedt A; Boren J; Blüher M; Ferrannini E; Langenberg C; Wareham NJ; Laakso M; Smith U

    2018-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) metabolite, 3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid (3-HIB) has been identified as a secreted mediator of endothelial cell fatty acid transport and insulin resistance (IR) using animal models. To identify if 3-HIB is a marker of human IR and future risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (T2D), we measured plasma levels of 3-HIB and associated metabolites in around 10,000 extensively phenotyped individuals. The levels of 3-HIB were increased in obesity but not robustly associat...

  13. Plasma-screening effects upon energy levels and electron scattering from neutral and ionized caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Y.J.; Radtke, R.; Zimmermann, R.

    1988-01-01

    Using interaction potentials screened with the Debye-Hueckel length, the effects of plasma shielding on energy levels and electrons scattering from neutral and ionized caesium are estimated. Both energy levels and atomic scattering cross-sections are found to be sensitive to the inclusion of screening. Relating to the scattering by the Cs + ion, a low-energy resonance near E = 0.3 Ryd is found which arises from the f-wave phase shift and reflects the individual behaviour of the scattering ion. (author)

  14. Plasma-screening effects upon energy levels and electron scattering from neutral and ionized caesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Y J; Radtke, R; Zimmermann, R

    1988-01-01

    Using interaction potentials screened with the Debye-Hueckel length, the effects of plasma shielding on energy levels and electrons scattering from neutral and ionized caesium are estimated. Both energy levels and atomic scattering cross-sections are found to be sensitive to the inclusion of screening. Relating to the scattering by the Cs/sup +/ ion, a low-energy resonance near E = 0.3 Ryd is found which arises from the f-wave phase shift and reflects the individual behaviour of the scattering ion.

  15. Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Newborn Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Lochan; Huang, Hong; Pant, Amrita; Westgate, Philip M; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, John A; Giannone, Peter J; Sithisarn, Thitinart

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a type of growth factor that promotes growth and survival of neurons. Fetal exposure to opiates can lead to postnatal withdrawal syndrome, which is referred as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between opiates exposure and alteration in BDNF expression in the brain and serum levels in adult. However, to date, there are no data available on the effects of opiate exposure on BDNF levels in infant who are exposed to opiates in utero and whether BDNF level may correlate with the severity of NAS. To compare plasma BDNF levels among NAS and non-NAS infants and to determine the correlation of BDNF levels and the severity of NAS. This is a prospective cohort study with no intervention involved. Infants ≥35 weeks of gestation were enrolled. BDNF level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique from blood samples drawn within 48 h of life. The severity of NAS was determined by the length of hospital stay, number of medications required to treat NAS. 67 infants were enrolled, 34 NAS and 33 non-NAS. Mean gestational age did not differ between the two groups. Mean birth weight of NAS infants was significantly lower than the non-NAS infants (3,070 ± 523 vs. 3,340 ± 459 g, p  = 0.028). Mean BDNF level in NAS group was 252.2 ± 91.6 ng/ml, significantly higher than 211.3 ± 66.3 ng/ml in the non-NAS group ( p  = 0.04). There were no differences in BDNF levels between NAS infants that required one medication vs. more than one medication (254 ± 91 vs. 218 ± 106 ng/ml, p  = 0.47). There was no correlation between the BDNF levels and length of hospital stay ( p  = 0.68) among NAS infants. Overall, there were no significant correlations between BDNF levels and NAS scores except at around 15 h after admission (correlation 0.35, p  = 0.045). Plasma BDNF level was significantly increased in NAS infants

  16. Influence of D-thyroxine on plasma thyroid hormone levels and TSH secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gless, K.H.; Oster, P.; Huefner, M.; Heidelberg Univ.

    1977-01-01

    Triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ), basal TSH and TSH after stimulation with TRH were determined by labelling with Iodine 127 in healthy subjects and patients treated with D-thyroxine (DT 4 ). After a dosage of 6 mg DT 4 , the D/L T 4 plasma concentration rose about 4-fold 4 hours after application and was only moderately elevated 14 hours later. To achieve constantly elevated T 4 levels, 3 mg DT 4 were applied in the further experiment every 12 hours. The D/L T 4 plasma concentration rose 2.5-4-fold, and there was a small but significant increase of the D/L T 3 plasma concentration. 74 hours after onset of treatment basal TSH was below detecable limits and the increase of TSH 30 min after injection of 200 μg TRH (TRH test) was only about 15% compared to zero time. The time course of TSH suppression was investigated after treatment with DT 4 and LT 4 (single dosage of 3 mg). TRH-tests were performed before, 10, 26, 50 and 74 hours after the first dosage of D or LT 4 . There was no difference in the time course of basal TSH and TSH stimulated by TRH. In 10 patients on DT 4 longterm therapy, basal and stimulated TSH were found to be below the detectable limits of 0.4 μg/ml. Our results show that (1) plasma half-life of DT 4 is less than 1 day, (2) TSH suppression after D and LT 4 treatment is very similar, and (3) in patients on lang-term DT 4 treatment, TSH plasma concentration is below detectable limits even after stimulation with TRH. (orig.) [de

  17. Plasma levels of hypoxia-regulated factors in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioanna, Zygoula; Christian, Schori; Christian, Grimm; Daniel, Barthelmes

    2018-02-01

    Various hypoxia-related proteins are differentially expressed in the retina and secreted to the vitreous and/or aqueous humor of patients affected by dry or neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). To determine whether these conditions alter concentrations of cytokines also in the systemic circulation, we measured plasma levels of six hypoxia-related proteins. Plasma was prepared from EDTA blood that was collected from patients affected by dry AMD (n = 5), nAMD (n = 11), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR; n = 9), and patients with an epiretinal membrane (ERM; n = 11). ERM samples served as negative controls, PDR samples as positive controls. Protein concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), placental growth factor (PlGF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentration of PlGF was significantly increased in plasma of patients affected by nAMD. Although no statistically significant differences were found for EPO, ANGPTL4, PlGF, TNF-α, and PEDF, the mean concentration of VEGF was lowest in the nAMD group. Plasma concentrations of the six factors did not correlate with gender or age of patients. nAMD may increase plasma concentrations of PlGF, making it a candidate as a biomarker for the neovascular form of AMD. Other factors, however, were not differentially regulated, suggesting that their systemic concentrations are not generally increased in hypoxia-related retinal diseases.

  18. Consolidation and reconsolidation are impaired by oral propranolol administered before but not after memory (re)activation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Émilie; Saumier, Daniel; Pitman, Roger K; Tremblay, Jacques; Brunet, Alain

    2017-07-01

    Propranolol administered immediately after learning or after recall has been found to impair memory consolidation or reconsolidation (respectively) in animals, but less reliably so in humans. Since reconsolidation impairment has been proposed as a treatment for mental disorders that have at their core an emotional memory, it is desirable to understand how to reliably reduce the strength of pathogenic memories in humans. We postulated that since humans (unlike experimental animals) typically receive propranolol orally, this introduces a delay before this drug can exert its memory impairment effects, which may render it less effective. As a means to test this, in two double-blind placebo-controlled experiments, we examined the capacity of propranolol to impair consolidation and reconsolidation as a function of timing of ingestion in healthy subjects. In Experiment 1, (n=36), propranolol administered immediately after learning or recall failed to impair the consolidation or reconsolidation of the memory of a standardized slideshow with an accompanying emotional story. In Experiment 2 (n=50), propranolol given 60-75min before learning or recall successfully impaired memory consolidation and reconsolidation. These results suggest that it is possible to achieve reliable memory impairment in humans if propranolol is given before learning or before recall, but not after. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Homocysteine plasma levels in patients suspected coronary artery disease: Relation to myocardial perfusion image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Z.Y.; He, Q.; Qu, W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Although there is considerable epidemiologic evidence for a relationship between plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and coronary artery disease (CAD), not all studies, especially prospective ones have shown such a relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible association between Hcy plasma levels and myocardial perfusion defect by SPECT in patients suspected CAD. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 238 patients suspected CAD (age: 60.65±10.43, male to female: 172: 66) was examined for Hcy, tetrahydrofolic acid (FH4), vitamine B12 and coronary angiography (CAG). Furthermore, 42 patients also underwent 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial perfusion images (MPI) to assess the myocardial perfusion. Results: There were 69 patients with normal CAG and 63, 60, 42 and 4 patients with 1 vessel, two vessel, 3 vessel and left main coronary stenosis. The plasma Hcy of this group was significantly increased, p 0.05. In patients with >=3 segments myocardial perfusion defect, 10 of them had normal Hcy, and 7 with hyperhomocysteinemia, in patients with 0.05). Conclusion: Our data may indicate that hyperhomocysteinemia represents an independent risk factor in patients with high possibility of CAD rather than a mark of myocardial ischemia or coronary stenosis

  20. Zinc and copper levels in the plasma of Nubian goat as affected by the physiological status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, Tag-Eldin Mohamed [Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-11-01

    This study is undertaken directed to determine the blood concentration of micro (trace) minerals, particularly zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in dairy goats as affected by the different physiological status. Animals selected were the Nubian goats as an important dairy breed in sudan. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: Young animals (4-6 month old), adult animals (9-12 month old), up to 50 days after first kidding, up to 50 days after second kidding, up to 50 days after third kidding, low yielder, high yielder. Each of the above groups consisted of 5 animals. The analysis was carried by using the spectrophotometer technique and the results revealed that, plasma Zn concentration decreased with increase of age while that of Cu increased with the increase of age. The plasma Zn level showed continuous increase through first pregnancy, after first kidding, after second kidding and after third kidding. It increased in the lactating animals. The plasma Cu concentration fluctuated throughout the groups with different physiological status, it showed the same levels in the pregnant group, up to 50 days after second kidding, and up to 50 days after third kidding groups, while it showed a marked decrease in the group of up to 50 days after first kidding. No significant differences were observed between the low lactating and the high lactating groups. (Author) 68 refs. , 3 tabs. , 2 figs.

  1. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  2. Cells deficient in the FANC/BRCA pathway are hypersensitive to plasma levels of formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, John R; Nakamura, Ayumi; Tano, Keizo; Luke, April M; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Gillespie, David A F; Sale, Julian E; Yamazoe, Mitsuyoshi; Bishop, Douglas K; Takata, Minoru; Takeda, Shunichi; Watanabe, Masami; Swenberg, James A; Nakamura, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Formaldehyde is an aliphatic monoaldehyde and is a highly reactive environmental human carcinogen. Whereas humans are continuously exposed to exogenous formaldehyde, this reactive aldehyde is a naturally occurring biological compound that is present in human plasma at concentrations ranging from 13 to 97 micromol/L. It has been well documented that DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) likely play an important role with regard to the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of formaldehyde. However, little is known about which DNA damage response pathways are essential for cells to counteract formaldehyde. In the present study, we first assessed the DNA damage response to plasma levels of formaldehyde using chicken DT40 cells with targeted mutations in various DNA repair genes. Here, we show that the hypersensitivity to formaldehyde is detected in DT40 mutants deficient in the BRCA/FANC pathway, homologous recombination, or translesion DNA synthesis. In addition, FANCD2-deficient DT40 cells are hypersensitive to acetaldehyde, but not to acrolein, crotonaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal. Human cells deficient in FANCC and FANCG are also hypersensitive to plasma levels of formaldehyde. These results indicate that the BRCA/FANC pathway is essential to counteract DPCs caused by aliphatic monoaldehydes. Based on the results obtained in the present study, we are currently proposing that endogenous formaldehyde might have an effect on highly proliferating cells, such as bone marrow cells, as well as an etiology of cancer in Fanconi anemia patients.

  3. Zinc and copper levels in the plasma of Nubian goat as affected by the physiological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Tag-Eldin Mohamed

    1997-11-01

    This study is undertaken directed to determine the blood concentration of micro (trace) minerals, particularly zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in dairy goats as affected by the different physiological status. Animals selected were the Nubian goats as an important dairy breed in sudan. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: Young animals (4-6 month old), adult animals (9-12 month old), up to 50 days after first kidding, up to 50 days after second kidding, up to 50 days after third kidding, low yielder, high yielder. Each of the above groups consisted of 5 animals. The analysis was carried by using the spectrophotometer technique and the results revealed that, plasma Zn concentration decreased with increase of age while that of Cu increased with the increase of age. The plasma Zn level showed continuous increase through first pregnancy, after first kidding, after second kidding and after third kidding. It increased in the lactating animals. The plasma Cu concentration fluctuated throughout the groups with different physiological status, it showed the same levels in the pregnant group, up to 50 days after second kidding, and up to 50 days after third kidding groups, while it showed a marked decrease in the group of up to 50 days after first kidding. No significant differences were observed between the low lactating and the high lactating groups. (Author)

  4. Influence of dense plasma on the energy levels and transition properties in highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhan-Bin; Hu, Hong-Wei; Ma, Kun; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Guo, Xue-Ling; Li, Shuang; Zhu, Bo-Hong; Huang, Lian; Wang, Kai

    2018-03-01

    The studies of the influence of plasma environments on the level structures and transition properties for highly charged ions are presented. For the relativistic treatment, we implemented the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method incorporating the ion sphere (IS) model potential, in which the plasma screening is taken into account as a modified interaction potential between the electron and the nucleus. For the nonrelativistic treatment, analytical solutions of the Schrödinger equation with two types of the IS screened potential are proposed. The Ritz variation method is used with hydrogenic wave function as a trial wave function that contains two unknown variational parameters. Bound energies are derived from an energy equation, and the variational parameters are obtained from the minimisation condition of the expectation value of the energy. Numerical results for hydrogen-like ions in dense plasmas are presented as examples. A detailed analysis of the influence of relativistic effects on the energy levels and transition properties is also reported. Our results are compared with available results in the literature showing a good quantitative agreement.

  5. Venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after nitroglycerin infusion in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Emmeluth, C

    1995-01-01

    before and immediately (5-30 s) after 80 min infusion of NTG (glyceryl trinitrate) or saline in 12 healthy subjects. On two different days separated by at least 1 week, NTG in four different doses, 0.015, 0.25, 1.0, and 2.0 micrograms. kg-1. min-1, or placebo (isotonic saline) was infused successively...... for 20 min each dose. During the infusion blood pressure and heart rate were measured. NTG infusion significantly decreased systolic blood pressure from 112.4 to 103.4 mmHg and pulse pressure from 39.3 to 29.5 mmHg. Heart rate increased from 62.7 to 73.1 beats. min-1. No changes in endothelin-1 plasma...... levels were induced by NTG infusion (2.4 pg.ml-1 before NTG vs. 2.7 pg.ml-1 after NTG) and placebo infusion also did not affect plasma endothelin-1. It is concluded that venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after NTG infusion....

  6. Relation between individual differences in sexual behavior and plasma testosterone levels in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, C F; Feder, H H

    1976-05-01

    After 3 tests for male sex behavior, adult male guinea pigs were classified as either low-activity (LA, no ejaculations) or high-activity (HA, ejaculation during at least 2 behavior tests). In one experiment, resting levels of peripheral plasma testosterone (T), measured by radioimmunoassay, did not differ between the groups (LA=2.22 +/- 0.17 ng/ml, HA=2.09 +/- 0.11 ng/ml, X +/- SEM). However, plasma T levels were significantly higher in HA males 2 min after a sex test (2.27 +/- 0.24 ng/ml) than in LA males (1.40 +/- 0.20 ng/ml). A second experiment confirmed these results and also demonstrated that exposure of HA or LA males to an estrous female placed on the opposite side of a wire mesh barrier similarly led to higher T levels in HA than in LA males. These results indicate that a) behavioral differences between HA and LA guinea pigs are not attributable to differences in resting T levels, b) HA and LA males perceive the sex test situation differently, leading to slight increases in T in HA males and slight decreases in T in LA males, and c) these changes in T level are not dependent on copulation but can be induced by mere exposure to the sight smell and/or sound of an estrous female.

  7. Plasma cytokine levels fall in preterm newborn infants on nasal CPAP with early respiratory distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Clarissa Gutierrez; Silveira, Rita de Cassia; Neto, Eurico Camargo; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2015-01-01

    Early nCPAP seems to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury in humans, although the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect have not been clarified yet. To evaluate plasma levels IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α immediately before the start of nCPAP and 2 hours later in preterm infants. Prospective cohort including preterm infants with 28 to 35 weeks gestational age with moderate respiratory distress requiring nCPAP. Extreme preemies, newborns with malformations, congenital infections, sepsis, surfactant treatment, and receiving ventilatory support in the delivery room were excluded. Blood samples were collected right before and 2 hours after the start of nCPAP. 23 preterm infants (birth weight 1851±403 grams; GA 32.3±1.7 weeks) were treated with nCPAP. IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α levels were similar, IL-8 levels were reduced in 18/23 preterm infants and a significant decrease in IL-6 levels was observed after 2 hours of nCPAP. All newborns whose mothers received antenatal steroids had lower cytokine levels at the onset of nCPAP than those whose mothers didn't receive it; this effect was not sustained after 2 hours of nCPAP. Early use nCPAP is not associated with rising of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines and it seems to be a less harmful respiratory strategy for preterm with moderate respiratory distress.

  8. Plasma cytokine levels fall in preterm newborn infants on nasal CPAP with early respiratory distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Gutierrez Carvalho

    Full Text Available Early nCPAP seems to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury in humans, although the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect have not been clarified yet.To evaluate plasma levels IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α immediately before the start of nCPAP and 2 hours later in preterm infants.Prospective cohort including preterm infants with 28 to 35 weeks gestational age with moderate respiratory distress requiring nCPAP. Extreme preemies, newborns with malformations, congenital infections, sepsis, surfactant treatment, and receiving ventilatory support in the delivery room were excluded. Blood samples were collected right before and 2 hours after the start of nCPAP.23 preterm infants (birth weight 1851±403 grams; GA 32.3±1.7 weeks were treated with nCPAP. IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α levels were similar, IL-8 levels were reduced in 18/23 preterm infants and a significant decrease in IL-6 levels was observed after 2 hours of nCPAP. All newborns whose mothers received antenatal steroids had lower cytokine levels at the onset of nCPAP than those whose mothers didn't receive it; this effect was not sustained after 2 hours of nCPAP.Early use nCPAP is not associated with rising of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines and it seems to be a less harmful respiratory strategy for preterm with moderate respiratory distress.

  9. Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-6 in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Konuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Recent research implicated place of an immune mechanism in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Despite increasing evidence involvement of cytokine release in OCD, results of the studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma levels of the cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in OCD patients. Methods. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in 31 drug-free outpatients with OCD, and 31-year age and sex-matched healthy controls. TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in blood were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Both TNF-α and IL-6 levels showed statistically significant increases in OCD patients compared to controls (P<.000, P<.001, resp.. In addition, the age of onset was negatively correlated with TNF-α level (r=−.402, P=.025 and duration of illness was weakly correlated with IL-6 levels (r:.357; P:.048 in patients group. Conclusion. OCD patients showed increases in TNF-α and IL-6 levels compared to the healthy controls. This study provides evidence for alterations in the proinflamatory cytokines which suggest the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of OCD.

  10. Plasma thromboxane B2 levels in horses experimentally infected with Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, H; Reynoldson, J A; Dunsmore, J D

    1989-06-01

    Plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2) the stable inactive metabolite of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), was measured daily by specific radioimmunoassay in three groups of animals before and after experimental infection with Strongylus vulgaris. Infection of four 'parasite naive' foals produced a typical acute syndrome with intermittent but statistically insignificant rises in TXB2 levels. Interpretation of results was complicated by the presence of a non-septic peritonitis associated with implantation of the foals with electrodes for recording myoelectrical activity. In two foals of similar age, with some natural exposure to S. vulgaris, there was little or no clinical response to infection and increases in TXB2 were absent. Baseline levels were also much lower, indicating that the peritonitis may have affected the results obtained in the first group of foals. Severe mesenteric arteritis was confirmed at necropsy in all six foals. A third group of yearling horses, all with natural exposure to the parasite, were generally resistant to infection. One animal developed arteritis with clinical signs of diarrhoea and mild colic, and also showed intermittent increases in TXB2. The mean plasma TXB2 level after infection was significantly higher than in the control period, although absolute levels were lower than those recorded in the 'parasite naive' foals. Other animals in this group had low TXB2 levels and minimal arteritis was found at necropsy. These results indicate that although infection appears to have an effect on plasma TXB2, the changes are inconsistent and not reliable indicators of the presence of verminous arteritis. The results also confirm the difficulty in establishing infection and the variability of the response in animals with previous exposure.

  11. Influence of insulin on beta-endorphin plasma levels in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunani, A; Pincelli, A I; Pasqualinotto, L; Tibaldi, A; Baldi, G; Scacchi, M; Fatti, L M; Cavagnini, F

    1996-08-01

    To establish the possible role of hyperinsulinemia in the elevation of plasma beta-endorphin (beta-EP) levels observed in obese patients after an oral glucose load. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Two groups of six (age: 22-39 y, BMI: 30-48 kg/m2) and eight obese men (age: 18-37 y, BMI: 35-45 kg/m2), respectively, and five normal weight healthy men (age: 22-30 y, BMI 22-23 kg/m2). Glucose, insulin and beta-EP levels at baseline and every 30 min until 180 min during the OGTT; glucose, insulin, C-peptide and beta-EP concentrations at baseline and in steady state condition (i.e. during the last 30 min of insulin infusion) in the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. In the six obese patients undergoing the OGTT a significant elevation of beta-EP plasma levels was observed between 60 and 90 min after glucose ingestion. In the clamp studies no significant differences in beta-EP plasma levels, blood glucose and serum insulin were observed between obese and normal weight subjects both at baseline and at steady state. A markedly diminished insulin sensitivity along with a lower inhibition of C-peptide during insulin infusion was observed in obese patients compared to control subjects. A rise in serum insulin levels unaccompanied by a concomitant increase in blood glucose concentration is unable to elicit a beta-EP response in obese patients.

  12. Plasma Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Levels in Angiographically Defined Coronary Artery Disease Among Saudis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Habib

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD and to determine its correlation with its severity.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA. Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity.Results: There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006 and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015.Conclusion: Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.

  13. A model to study intestinal and hepatic metabolism of propranolol in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, P C; Siebert, G A; Roberts, M S

    2004-02-01

    A model to investigate hepatic drug uptake and metabolism in the dog was developed for this study. Catheters were placed in the portal and hepatic veins during exploratory laparotomy to collect pre- and posthepatic blood samples at defined intervals. Drug concentrations in the portal vein were taken to reflect intestinal uptake and metabolism of an p.o. administered drug (propranolol), while differences in drug and metabolite concentrations between portal and hepatic veins reflected hepatic uptake and metabolism. A significant difference in propranolol concentration between hepatic and portal veins confirmed a high hepatic extraction of this therapeutic agent in the dog. This technically uncomplicated model may be used experimentally or clinically to determine hepatic function and metabolism of drugs that may be administered during anaesthesia and surgery.

  14. Losartan in combination with propranolol slows the aortic root dilatation in neonatal Marfan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Hang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal Marfan syndrome, in contrast to classical Marfan syndrome, is characterized by rapidly progressive multi-valvular cardiac disease and death from congestive heart failure, typically within the first year of life. Due to the rarity of this condition, treatment for neonatal Marfan syndrome has not been well studied. In this report, a combination of losartan and propranolol reduced the aortic root dilatation rate after three months of losartan therapy. Genetic analysis in this patient revealed a mutation in exon 25 of the FBN1 gene, which typically results in a shorter life expectancy. However, the patient's heart failure was controlled by losartan, propranolol and other anti-congestive medications, which may have prolonged his survival. Key Words: FBN1, losartan, neonatal Marfan syndrome

  15. Losartan in combination with propranolol slows the aortic root dilatation in neonatal Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu-Hang; Lin, Shan-Miao; Lin, Dar-Shong; Chen, Ming-Ren

    2018-04-01

    Neonatal Marfan syndrome, in contrast to classical Marfan syndrome, is characterized by rapidly progressive multi-valvular cardiac disease and death from congestive heart failure, typically within the first year of life. Due to the rarity of this condition, treatment for neonatal Marfan syndrome has not been well studied. In this report, a combination of losartan and propranolol reduced the aortic root dilatation rate after three months of losartan therapy. Genetic analysis in this patient revealed a mutation in exon 25 of the FBN1 gene, which typically results in a shorter life expectancy. However, the patient's heart failure was controlled by losartan, propranolol and other anti-congestive medications, which may have prolonged his survival. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Propranolol, clonidine, urapidil and trazodone infusion in essential tremor: a double-blind crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, M R; Osio, M; Galimberti, V; Cataldi, G; Mangoni, A

    1989-05-01

    Accelerometric tremorgrams were recorded from 25 subjects affected by essential tremor and analysed by a Berg-Fourier frequency analyser before and during venous infusion of the following drugs: propranolol (beta-blocker), clonidine (alpha-presynaptic adrenergic agonist), urapidil (alpha-postsynaptic blocker), trazodone (adrenolytic agent) and placebo. The washout interval between infusions was 3 days. Recordings and data analyses were performed in a double-blind crossover trial. Tremor was classified as: at rest; postural (arms hyperextended); and intention (finger-nose test). Analysis of the results showed that propranolol and clonidine reduced significantly (P = 0.01 and P = 0.009, respectively) the power spectrum of postural tremor, but left at rest and intention tremors unchanged. No significant effects on the tremor power spectrum were observed after placebo, urapidil or trazodone administration. None of the drugs had any effect on tremor frequency.

  17. Plasma levels of soluble CD30 in kidney graft recipients as predictors of acute allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, K; Abdallah, T B; Bardi, R; Abderrahim, E; Kheder, A

    2006-09-01

    In renal transplant recipients elevated soluble serum CD30 levels are associated with increased rejection and graft loss. We sought to determine the sCD30 plasma levels before and after kidney transplantation and to assess whether sCD30 was a predictive factor of immunological risk. sCD30 plasma levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay assay in 52 kidney graft recipients before as well as 7, 15, and 21 days after transplantation. Eighteen patients developed acute allograft rejection (group I) and 34 patients showed uneventful courses (group II). Before transplantation sCD30 plasma levels were elevated in both groups (mean: 162.6 +/- 89.5 U/mL). After transplantation, group I recipients with acute rejection showed higher relative levels of plasma sCD30 on days 7 and 15 (120.8 +/- 74.6 U/mL and 210.6 +/- 108.7 U/mL respectively) compared with group II patients without rejection (95 +/- 45 U/mL and 59.4 +/- 31.6 U/mL), a difference that was significant for group I (P = .0003) and not significant for group II (P = .09). On day 21, sCD30 decreased in the two groups but remained higher among group I patients (120.6 +/- 92.7 U/mL). HLA antibodies were positive in 18 patients (34.6%) with 9 (50%) experiencing at last one episode of acute rejection. Among 34 patients negative for anti-HLA antibodies, nine displayed acute rejection only (26.4%), a difference that was not significant (P > .05). If we consider 100 U/mL as the minimum predictive level for allograft rejection, our results suggested that levels of sCD30 should be taken into consideration with the presence of HLA-antibodies detectable before and after transplantation, especially in patients with more than three HLA mismatches [RR = 3.20 (0.94 sCD30 is a useful procedure for the recognition of rejection in its earliest stages.

  18. Changes in plasma ghrelin and leptin levels in patients with peptic ulcer and gastritis following eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Chika; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Moritani, Isao; Tanaka, Junichiro; Oya, Yumi; Inoue, Hidekazu; Tameda, Masahiko; Shiraki, Katsuya; Ito, Masaaki; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Takase, Kojiro

    2016-10-04

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and eradication therapy have been known to influence gastric ghrelin and leptin secretion, which may lead to weight gain. However, the exact relationship between plasma ghrelin/leptin levels and H. pylori infection has remained controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma ghrelin and leptin levels in H. pylori-positive and -negative patients, to compare the two levels of the hormones before and after H. pylori eradication, and to examine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and active ghrelin or leptin levels, as well as that between atrophic pattern and active ghrelin or leptin levels. Seventy-two H. pylori-positive patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 46 diagnosed as having peptic ulcer and 26 as atrophic gastritis, were enrolled. Control samples were obtained from 15 healthy H. pylori-negative volunteers. The extent of atrophic change of the gastric mucosa was assessed endoscopically. Body weight was measured and blood was collected before and 12 weeks after H. pylori eradication therapy. Blood samples were taken between 8 and 10 AM after an overnight fast. Plasma ghrelin levels were significantly lower in H. pylori-positive patients than in H. pylori-negative patients. In particular, plasma active ghrelin levels were significantly lower in patients with gastritis compared with patients with peptic ulcer. Plasma ghrelin levels decreased after H. pylori eradication in both peptic ulcer and gastritis patients, while plasma leptin levels increased only in peptic ulcer patients. Plasma leptin levels and BMI were positively correlated, and active ghrelin levels and atrophic pattern were weakly negatively correlated in peptic ulcer patients. H. pylori infection and eradication therapy may affect circulating ghrelin/leptin levels. This finding suggests a relationship between gastric mucosal injury induced by H. pylori infection and changes in plasma ghrelin and leptin levels.

  19. Elevated Plasma Level of Leukotrienes in Bronchial Asthma Patients: A Possible Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma from bronchial asthma patients and healthy controls was investigated for the content of lipoxygenase products. After lipid extraction using SEP-PAK C18 Cartridges, the lipoxygenase products were measured by Enzyme-Immunoassay. Elevated chemotactic B4 was found in plasma from asthmatic patients with mean value (483±75 pmoUL, while the mean value in normal healthy donors was (140± 12.1 pmol/L (M±SE. The levels of spasmogenic cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were also very high in the bronchial asthma patients. Elevations of leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were detected during attacks of bronchial asthma. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 may be important in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and confirmed that peptidoleukotrienes playa role as chemical mediators during the asthmatic attack.

  20. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  1. Inductively coupled plasma induced deep levels in epitaxial n-GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auret, F.D.; Janse van Rensburg, P.J.; Meyer, W.E.; Coelho, S.M.M.; Kolkovsky, Vl.; Botha, J.R.; Nyamhere, C.; Venter, A.

    2012-01-01

    The electronic properties of defects introduced by low energy inductively coupled Ar plasma etching of n-type (Si doped) GaAs were investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace DLTS. Several prominent electron traps (E c —0.046 eV, E c —0.186 eV, E c —0.314 eV. E c —0.528 eV and E c —0.605 eV) were detected. The metastable defect E c —0.046 eV having a trap signature similar to E1 is observed for the first time. E c —0.314 eV and E c —0.605 eV are metastable and appear to be similar to the M3 and M4 defects present in dc H-plasma exposed GaAs.

  2. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of total budesonide levels in dog plasma after inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Seija; Melamies, Marika; Rajamäki, Minna; Vainio, Outi; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method to quantify budesonide in dog plasma samples was developed and fully validated. Liquid-liquid extraction was followed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. After reconstitution of the analytes in the mobile phase, samples were analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with isocratic elution. d8-Budesonide was used as an internal standard, and characteristic transitions of d8-budesonide and budesonide were used for quantification. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, specificity, linearity, recovery, repeatability, reproducibility and limits of detection and quantification. The validated method was successfully applied to monitor the plasma levels of budesonide in dogs exposed to clinical doses of inhaled and intravenous drug.

  3. High plasma triglyceride levels strongly correlate with low kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus of male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, A; Axel, A M; Lie, M E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is well known that reproductive capacity is lower in obese individuals, but what mediators and signals are involved is unclear. Kisspeptin is a potent stimulator of GnRH release, and it has been suggested that kisspeptin neurons located in the arcuate nucleus transmit metabolic...... signals to the GnRH neurons. METHODS: In this study, we measured body weight and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, testosterone, and triglycerides after high fat diet exposure and correlated these parameters with the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of male rats...... with increased fat in the diet. Kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells are not correlated with body weight, testosterone, leptin or insulin. However, we find that the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells is strongly and negatively correlated with the level of plasma triglycerides (R2=0.49, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: We...

  4. Association between plasma neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin level and obstructive sleep apnea or nocturnal intermittent hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiko Murase

    Full Text Available Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and a novel lipocalin, neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (Ngal, have been reported to be closely linked with cardiovascular disease and loss of kidney function through chronic inflammation. However, the relationship between OSA and Ngal has never been investigated.To evaluate the relationship between Ngal and OSA in clinical practice.In 102 patients, polysomnography was performed to diagnose OSA and plasma Ngal levels were measured. The correlations between Ngal levels and OSA severity and other clinical variables were evaluated. Of the 46 patients who began treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, Ngal levels were reevaluated after three months of treatment in 25 patients.The Ngal level correlated significantly with OSA severity as determined by the apnea hypopnea index (r = 0.24, p = 0.01 and 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI (r = 0.26, p = 0.01. Multiple regression analysis showed that the Ngal level was associated with 4%ODI independently of other clinical variables. Compliance was good in 13 of the 25 patients who used CPAP. Although the OSA (4%ODI: 33.1±16.7 to 1.1±1.9/h, p<0.01 had significantly improved in those with good compliance, the Ngal levels were not significantly changed (60.5±18.1 before CPAP vs 64.2±13.9 ng/ml after CPAP, p = 0.27.Plasma Ngal levels were positively associated with the severity of OSA. However, the contribution rate of OSA to systemic Ngal secretion was small and changes in Ngal levels appeared to be influenced largely by other confounding factors. Therefore, it does not seem reasonable to use the Ngal level as a specific biomarker of OSA in clinical practice.