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Sample records for plasma progesterone lh

  1. Superovulation of cows with PMSG: Variation in plasma concentrations of progesterone, oestradiol, LH, cortisol, prolactin and PMSG and in number of preovulatory follicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, M.M.; Dieleman, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-two heifers, exhibiting normal oestrous cycles, were treated with 2500 I.U. PMSG and 2 ml prostaglandin (PG) at day 10 and 12 of the oestrous cycle, respectively. In ten heifers progesterone, oestradiol, LH, prolactin, cortisol and PMSG levels were estimated until 10 days after the initiation

  2. Superovulation of cows with PMSG: Variation in plasma concentrations of progesterone, oestradiol, LH, cortisol, prolactin and PMSG and in number of preovulatory follicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, M.M.; Dieleman, S.J.

    Forty-two heifers, exhibiting normal oestrous cycles, were treated with 2500 I.U. PMSG and 2 ml prostaglandin (PG) at day 10 and 12 of the oestrous cycle, respectively. In ten heifers progesterone, oestradiol, LH, prolactin, cortisol and PMSG levels were estimated until 10 days after the initiation

  3. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with pregnancy outcome. Progesterone concentration was measured on stimulation day 1 and on the day of HCG administration in 475 patients who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment following ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and recombinant FSH...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late...

  4. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with pregnancy outcome. Progesterone concentration was measured on stimulation day 1 and on the day of HCG administration in 475 patients who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment following ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and recombinant FSH...

  5. [Simultaneous study of plasma gonadotropins, estrogens, progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone during the ovulatory cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, M; Veinante, A; Soldat, M C; Tardy, J; Tribondeau, E; Scholler, R

    1975-09-20

    Plasma levels of gonadotrophins, estrone, estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone were studied throughout an ovulatory cycle in 11 normal women. For each of these hormones, the initiation of a secretory cycle occured at a different time: on the 10th day after mid-cycle surge for gonadotrophins, on the 3 rd day of menses for estradiol and somewhat later for estrone, on the 8th day of cycle for 17-hydroxyprogesterone and on the day of the LH surge for progesterone. Mean plasma levels and range were reported for every studied hormone. The mid-cycle surges of LH and FSH were found always coincident, after which their concentration decreased simultaneously; during the late follicular phase the increasing LH curve intersected the decreasing FSH curve. A peak of estradiol occured in every subject except one on the day before the mid-cycle surge of LH; a peak of plasma estrone occured either on the day of the LH peak or on the day before. For these two hormones the luteal phase range is always below the peak level. A peak of 17-hydroxyprogesterone occured in every subject on the same day than the mid-cycle LH peak, but the plasma level increased during the luteal phase up to higher levels. Progesterone concentration increased on the day of the LH surge, indicating the initiation of luteinization prior to ovulation.

  6. A comparative study of clomiphene and epimestrol on plasma progesterone, CBG, TBG and SHBG, and salivary progesterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicovic, P M; Luisi, M; Cortés-Prieto, J; Franchi, F

    1982-01-01

    The plasma levels of CBG, TBG, SHBG and progesterone, and salivary progesterone levels were measured in eight young ovulatory volunteers. After the control cycle four subjects received 50 mg/day of Clomiphene from days 5 to 9 of the first treatment cycle, and 10 mg/day of Epimestrol from days 5 to 15 of the second treatment cycle. The other four subjects received the treatments in reverse order. Between the two treatments there was one cycle without medication as a "wash-out" period. Plasma and saliva samples were obtained on days +6, +8 and +10 (day of LH peak was denoted by 0), always between 08.00 and 09.00 h. Statistical evaluation was done by means of an analysis of variance (ANOVA), and correlation coefficients were also calculated. Evaluation of data on effects of Clomiphene and Epimestrol on the plasma levels of CBG and salivary progesterone showed that Clomiphene induced a highly significant rise (p less than 0.001) in the CBG levels and decrease (p less than 0.001) in salivary progesterone levels, while no changes were seen following administration of Epimestrol. Both Clomiphene and Epimestrol treatments led towards higher plasma progesterone levels, those following Clomiphene administration being higher. Neither treatment induced significant changes in TBG or SHBG levels. It is concluded that Clomiphene induces significant elevations of CBG and decrease in salivary progesterone, which is thought to reflect the free progesterone fraction and may have significance in relation to a discrepancy between the ovulation and pregnancy rates following Clomiphene therapy.

  7. Progesterone (CIDR)-based timed AI protocols using GnRH, porcine LH or estradiol cypionate for dairy heifers: ovarian and endocrine responses and pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, J D; Kastelic, J P; Rajamahendran, R; Aali, M; Dinn, N

    2005-10-15

    The overall objective was to compare the efficacy of GnRH, porcine LH (pLH) and estradiol cypionate (ECP), in a modified Ovsynch/fixed-time AI (FTAI) protocol that included a controlled internal drug [progesterone] release (CIDR) device. In Experiment 1, heifers received a CIDR on Day -10, and PGF (25mg) on Day -3. At CIDR insertion, heifers received 100 microg of GnRH (n=6), 0.5mg of ECP (n=6), 5.0mg of pLH (n=6) or 2 mL of saline (n=7); these treatments were repeated on Day -1, except for ECP, that was repeated on Day -2, concurrent with CIDR-removal. The 5.0 mg pLH was the least effective with a longer interval to ovulation than the other groups combined (102 versus 64 h; PpLH compared to all other groups (4.5 versus 10.3 ng/mL; PpLH (n=6; pLH-low), 25.0 mg pLH (n=6, pLH-high), or 100 microg GnRH (n=5; control). Heifers in the pLH-high group had greater (PpLH treatments did not differ (P>0.10). Area under the curve for LH (ng/32 h) was at least 50% greater (PpLH-treated heifers compared to GnRH-treated heifers (mean, 41.3, 56.3 and 20.3 for pLH-low, pLH-high and GnRH, respectively). Ovulation occurred in 15 of 17 heifers. Progesterone concentrations were higher on Days 9 and 14 in heifers given 25mg of pLH, suggesting enhanced CL function. In Experiment 3, 240 heifers were assigned to CIDR-based Ovsynch/FTAI protocols. The first and second hormonal treatments (with an intervening PGF treatment on Day -3) were GnRH/GnRH (100 microg), ECP/ECP (0.5 mg), pLH/pLH (12.5 mg) or GnRH/ECP, respectively; pregnancy rates were 58.7, 66.1, 45.9 and 48.3%, respectively (ECP/ECP>both pLH/pLH and GnRH/ECP; P

  8. Effects of endocannabinoid 1 and 2 (CB1; CB2) receptor agonists on luteal weight, circulating progesterone, luteal mRNA for luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors, and luteal unoccupied and occupied receptors for LH in vivo in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutahara, Nicole M; Weems, Yoshie S; Arreguin-Arevalo, J Alejandro; Nett, Torrance M; LaPorte, Magen E; Uchida, Janelle; Pang, Janelle; McBride, Tonya; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

    2011-02-01

    Thirty to forty percent of ruminant pregnancies are lost during the first third of gestation due to inadequate progesterone secretion. During the estrous cycle, luteinizing hormone (LH) regulates progesterone secretion by small luteal cells (SLC). Loss of luteal progesterone secretion during the estrous cycle is increased via uterine secretion of prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) starting on days 12-13 post-estrus in ewes with up to 4-6 pulses per day. Prostaglandin F(2α) is synthesized from arachidonic acid, which is released from phospholipids by phospholipase A2. Endocannabinoids are also derived from phospholipids and are associated with infertility. Endocannabinoid-induced infertility has been postulated to occur primarily via negative effects on implantation. Cannabinoid (CB) type 1 (CB1) or type 2 (CB2) receptor agonists and an inhibitor of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase, which catabolizes endocannabinoids, decreased luteal progesterone, prostaglandin E (PGE), and prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) secretion by the bovine corpus luteum in vitro by 30 percent. The objective of the experiment described herein was to determine whether CB1 or CB2 receptor agonists given in vivo affect circulating progesterone, luteal weights, luteal mRNA for LH receptors, and luteal occupied and unoccupied LH receptors during the estrous cycle of ewes. Treatments were: Vehicle, Methanandamide (CB1 agonist; METH), or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-1H-indole-3-acetic acid morpholineamide (CB2 agonist; IMMA). Ewes received randomized treatments on day 10 post-estrus. A single treatment (500 μg; N=5/treatment group) in a volume of 1 ml was given into the interstitial tissue of the ovarian vascular pedicle adjacent to the luteal-containing ovary. Jugular venous blood was collected at 0 h and every 6-48 h for the analysis of progesterone by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Corpora lutea were collected at 48 h, weighed, bisected, and frozen in liquid nitrogen until analysis of unoccupied and

  9. Plasma and ovarian oestradiol and the variability in the LH surge induced in ewes by the ram effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre-Nys, Claude; Chanvallon, Audrey; Debus, Nathalie; François, Dominique; Bouvier, Frédéric; Dupont, Joelle; Lardic, Lionel; Lomet, Didier; Ramé, Christelle; Scaramuzzi, Rex J

    2015-05-01

    The proportion of anoestrous ewes ovulating after exposure to a sexually active ram is variable mainly due to whether an LH surge is induced. The aim of this study was to determine the role of oestradiol (E2) in the ram-induced LH surge. In one study, we measured the plasma concentrations of E2 in ewes of different breeds before and after the 'ram effect' and related these patterns to the presence and latency of the LH surge, while another compared ovarian responses with the 'ram effect' following exposure to rams for 2 or 12 h. In all ewes, the concentration of E2 increased 2-4 h after rams were introduced and remained elevated for 14.5 ± 0.86 h. The quantity of E2 secreted before the LH surge varied among breeds as did the mean concentration of E2. The granulosa cells of IF ewes collected after 12 h exposure to rams secreted more E2 and progesterone and had higher levels of StAR than the 2 h group but in MV ewes there was no differences between these groups for any of these parameters. These results demonstrate that the LH surge induced by the rams is a result of increased E2 secretion associated with increased levels of STAR in granulosa cells and that these responses varied among breeds. The results suggest that the variable occurrence of a LH surge and ovulation may be the result of variable ovarian responses to the 'ram effect' and insensitivity of the hypothalamus to the E2-positive feedback signal.

  10. Cetrorelix suppresses the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation induced by ovulation-inducing factor (OIF present in llama seminal plasma

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    Letelier Claudia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to determine if the effect of llama OIF on LH secretion is mediated by stimulation of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Methods Using a 2-by-2 factorial design to examine the effects of OIF vs GnRH with or without a GnRH antagonist, llamas with a growing ovarian follicle greater than or equal to 8 mm were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 7 per group and a pre-treated with 1.5 mg of GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix acetate followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF, b pre-treated with 1.5 mg of cetrorelix followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH, c pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline followed by 1 mg of purified llama OIF or d pre-treated with a placebo (2 ml of saline followed by 50 micrograms of GnRH. Pre-treatment with cetrorelix or saline was given as a single slow intravenous dose 2 hours before intramuscular administration of either GnRH or OIF. Blood samples for LH measurement were taken every 15 minutes from 1.5 hours before to 8 hours after treatment. The ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to detect ovulation and CL formation. Blood samples for progesterone measurement were taken every-other-day from Day 0 (day of treatment to Day 16. Results Ovulation rate was not different (P = 0.89 between placebo+GnRH (86% and placebo+OIF groups (100%; however, no ovulations were detected in llamas pre-treated with cetrorelix. Plasma LH concentrations surged (P Conclusion Cetrorelix (GnRH antagonist inhibited the preovulatory LH surge induced by OIF in llamas suggesting that LH secretion is modulated by a direct or indirect effect of OIF on GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus.

  11. LH transition characteristics due to bipolar losses in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Shinichiro [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae-I.

    1998-10-01

    The L/H transition theory is extended based on the electrostatic bifurcation. We study the bipolar losses which have not been examined as the transition mechanisms yet and investigate the L/H transition characteristics. The comparison study with the experimental results is also done. It is found that the equation of motions has the solutions with various hysteresis types of electrostatic bifurcation phenomena when the mechanisms of bipolar losses are considered. The dependences of the particle flux and the diffusivity on the thermodynamic force in the presence of the electric field are examined. ELMs (Edge Localizes Modes) phenomena which are typical in the H-mode are studied. The model equation is newly extended to include the effect of the electric field shear in addition to the electric field shear. This model is also extended to the dynamic model which includes the temporal evolution of the density from the static model with the hysteresis characteristics. (author)

  12. Spontaneous and electrochemically stimulated changes in plasma LH in the female rat following hypothalamic deafferentation.

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    Phelps, C P; Krieg, R J; Sawyer, C H

    1976-01-16

    Plasma LH levels in adult female rats were studied by radioimmunoassay 6 weeks after making frontal cuts (FC) at the optic chiasm with Halász knives of various sizes. Cuts made with a small knife (radius 1.3 mm) permitted a spontaneous rise in plasma LH during proestrus from a mean of 96 +/- 25 ng/ml at 14:00 h to 545 +/- 207 ng/ml at 18:00 h in 13 rats. Seven of the latter, with a mean plasma LH of 967 +/- 281 ng/ml at 18:00 h exhibited tubal ova at hemicastration (hemi-ovx) the following morning. In a similar experiment 6 FC females lesioned with a 1.5 mm knife had plasma LH levels of 53 +/- 7 ng/ml at 14:00 h, but showed neither detectable changes at 2 h intervals through 20:00 h nor ovulation at hemi-ovx. Similar results were obtained in 13 rats deafferented with a 2.0 mm knife. Nine weeks after FC and 3 weeks following hemi-ovx all animals were given pentobarbital (32 mg/kg i.p.) at 13:30 h and stimulated bilaterally in the medial preoptic area (MPO) passing 20 muA anodal DC X 60 sec through concentric bipolar steel electrodes placed 0.8 mm from the midline. All 3 groups of FC animals showed increases in plasma LH to comparable levels (range: 197 +/- 45-357 +/- 156 ng/ml) 1 h after stimulation. Electrochemical stimulation sites extended lateral to the cut locations on at least one side in all animals. The results of these studies suggest that chronically (9 week) deafferented female rats have the capacity to release pituitary LH in response to MPO electrochemical stimulation in spite of retrochiasmatic deafferentation, but that the ovaries of the persistent estrus rat are unresponsive to these amounts of circulating LH.

  13. Effect of incremental levels of crude degummed canola oil on milk progesterone, plasma

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    John R. Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of lactating cows with fat can alter the profiles of key reproductive hormones and boost postpartum energy balance. However, published data under Australian pasture-based dairy production conditions are scanty and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether dietary inclusion of crude degummed canola oil (CDCO at incremental levels for eight-weeks will have significant influence on progesterone (P4, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows grazing pastures. We tested the hypothesis that postpartum supplementation of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows with dietary CDCO in a pasture-based system will alter the concentrations of P4, LH and FSH reproductive hormones. A random allocation of twenty primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows into four treatment groups that consisted of a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with no supplemental CDCO (control, or a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with CDCO added at 25 ml/kg (low, 35 ml/kg (medium and 50 ml/kg (high was employed in an eight-week feeding trial after two weeks of adjustment. Supplementation levels of CDCO and week of data collection were significant sources of variation (P  0.05. It was apparent that cows in the high (0.459 ng/ml, medium (0.367 ng/ml and low (0.251 ng/ml levels of oil treatments had higher mean plasma FSH concentrations compared to the control (0.172 ng/ml cows. It was concluded that the current levels of CDCO can be used in pasture-based dairy systems to increase FSH, but not LH and P4.

  14. FSH and LH Secretion from in-vitro Cultured Buffalo Anterior Pituitary Cells Following Treatment with Diethyl-Stilbestrol and Medroxy-Progesterone and Their Effects on Ovarian Activity and Hematological Variables of Female Rabbits

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    Kaleem Iqbal1, Nafees Akhtar1*, Nazir Ahmad1 and Sajjad-ur-Rahman2

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this study were: to investigate whether FSH and LH secretion from in-vitro cultured buffalo adenohypophyseal cells can be increased by supplementing culture media with diethyl-stilbestrol and medroxy-progesterone, respectively; to monitor bioactivity of these in-vitro produced gonadotropins and to see if these gonadotropins have any adverse effects on hematology and internal body organs of female rabbits. Pituitary glands collected from 36 adult buffaloes slaughtered at a local abattoir were used. The anterior pituitary cells were cultured in-vitro using medium RPMI-1640 (code R6504-Sigma enriched with 10% fetal calf serum and GnRH and treated with 0.5 or 1.0 mg/100 ml diethyl-stilbestrol, and 2.5 or 5.0 mg/ml medroxy-progesterone, or left as untreated control. The results showed that FSH and LH concentrations from cultures treated with low or high dose of respective steroids were higher (P<0.05 than those for controls. Treatment of pre-pubertal female rabbits with in-vitro extracted FSH increased serum FSH and LH concentrations, ovarian size and number of developing follicles (GFs on the ovaries compared to controls (P<0.01. However, rabbits treated with in-vitro produced extract of LH showed increased serum FSH and LH, while there was no effect on ovarian size and number of GFs. Moreover, treatment of rabbits with both gonadotropins had no effects on body weight, hematological variables and internal body organs. In conclusion, diethyl-stilbestrol and medroxy-progesterone enhanced the secretion of FSH and LH, respectively, from cultured pituitary cells. Moreover, in-vitro produced FSH increased ovarian size, serum FSH and LH and stimulated ovarian activity, while in-vitro produced LH neither increased ovarian size nor stimulated ovarian activity.

  15. Determination of Ovsynch Efficiency for Estrus Synchronization by Plasma LH and P4 Levels in Nili Ravi Buffalo during Peak and Low Breeding Seasons

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    S. Jabeen, M. Anwar1*, S. M. H. Andrabi1, A. Mehmood1, S. Murtaza2 and M. Shahab

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oestrus synchronization may be used to overcome poor oestrus expression and seasonality of breeding in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. The present work was conducted to compare the efficiency of an oestrus synchronization protocol “ovsynch” in Nili Ravi buffalo during peak (n=8 and low breeding seasons (n=11 by determining luteinizing hormone (LH peak and progesterone (P4 rise in blood plasma using ELISA. Buffaloes were administered gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH analogue (50 µg lecirelin; day 0 followed by prostaglandinF2α (PGF2α analogue (150 µg cloprostenol; day 7 and again GnRH analogue at 36 hours after PGF2α. Blood sampling for LH was started 12 h after PGF2α injection and done at 3 h interval up to 108 h. An animal was considered to have responded to ovsynch protocol if it showed LH peak within 48 h after PGF2α injection (and within 3-6 h after second GnRH injection and showed a P4 concentration of >2.0 ng/ml on day 18 after the 1st GnRH injection. 87.5% animals showed positive response to ovsynch protocol in term of oestrus and ovulation synchronization during the peak season as assessed by LH peak and P4 level while only 36.36 % animals responded to synchronization treatment during low breeding season (P<0.05. The LH peak in responsive animals was 11.48±1.98 and 10.38±1.77 ng/ml in peak and low breeding season respectively. It is concluded that ovsynch protocol in buffaloes resulted in a significantly better response during peak breeding season as compared to that in low breeding season.

  16. Heat loads on JET plasma facing components from ICRF and LH wave absorption in the SOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, P.; Colas, L.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Arnoux, G.; Bobkov, V.; Brix, M.; Coad, P.; Czarnecka, A.; Dodt, D.; Durodie, F.; Ekedahl, A.; Frigione, D.; Fursdon, M.; Gauthier, E.; Goniche, M.; Graham, M.; Joffrin, E.; Korotkov, A.; Lerche, E.; Mailloux, J.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Ongena, J.; Petrzilka, V.; Portafaix, C.; Rimini, F.; Sirinelli, A.; Riccardo, V.; Vizvary, Z.; Widdowson, A.; Zastrow, K.-D.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2011-10-01

    In JET, lower hybrid (LH) and ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) wave absorption in the scrape-off layer can lead to enhanced heat fluxes on some plasma facing components (PFCs). Experiments have been carried out to characterize these heat loads in order to: (i) prepare JET operation with the Be wall which has a reduced power handling capability as compared with the carbon wall and (ii) better understand the physics driving these wave absorption phenomena and propose solutions for next generation systems to reduce them. When using ICRF, hot spots are observed on the antenna structures and on limiters close to the powered antennas and are explained by acceleration of ions in RF-rectified sheath potentials. High temperatures up to 800 °C can be reached on locations where a deposit has built up on tile surfaces. Modelling which takes into account the fast thermal response of surface layers can reproduce well the surface temperature measurements via infrared (IR) imaging, and allow evaluation of the heat fluxes local to active ICRF antennas. The flux scales linearly with the density at the antenna radius and with the antenna voltage. Strap phasing corresponding to wave spectra with lower kpar values can lead to a significant increase in hot spot intensity in agreement with antenna modelling that predicts, in that case, an increase in RF sheath rectification. LH absorption in front of the antenna through electron Landau damping of the wave with high Npar components generates hot spots precisely located on PFCs magnetically connected to the launcher. Analysis of the LH hot spot surface temperature from IR measurements allows a quantification of the power flux along the field lines: in the worst case scenario it is in the range 15-30 MW m-2. The main driving parameter is the LH power density along the horizontal rows of the launcher, the heat fluxes scaling roughly with the square of the LH power density. The local electron density in front of the grill increases

  17. Plasma transport properties at the L-H transition and high performance phase of JET discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balet, B.; Cordey, J.G.; Erba, M.; Jones, T.T.C.; Lomas, P.J.; Smeulders, P.; Springmann, E.M.; Stubberfield, P.M.; Taroni, A.; Thomsen, K. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Parail, V.V. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    Numerical analysis are performed which show that both electron and ion thermal diffusivities are reduced by one order of magnitude everywhere, not only in a narrow region near separatrix during the L-H transition. There is no separate H-VH transition on JET, this transition coincides with the cessation of ELMs. In the ELM free phase ion transport in the core is close to its neoclassical value, but probably rises towards plasma edge (however still remaining much less than it was in L-mode). The best agreement with experiment is obtained with the model which simultaneously takes into account both the global reduction of Bohm type anomalous transport in plasma core and formation of temperature pedestal near plasma edge. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Response of plasma cortisol and progesterone after ACTH challenge in ovariectomized lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Chikako; Nakao, Toshihiko

    2005-02-01

    Shortened and weakened estrous expressions could be one of the causes of poor heat detection rate. Non-specific acute stresses are assumed to depress expression of estrus by an increase of plasma progesterone which may originate from the adrenal cortex. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the adrenal cortex can secrete significant amounts of progesterone in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in lactating cows. Four cows had estrus synchronized and were ovariectomized in the luteal phase. The cows were given 25 IU ACTH through an indwelling catheter 5 h after catheterization. Blood samples were collected at an interval of 30 min. In 3 of the 4 cows, plasma progesterone concentrations increased significantly 0.5-1.5 h after the first ACTH challenge with a mean peak value of 4.2 +/- 0.4 (S.D.) ng/ml. A similar response was also observed after the second ACTH challenge. Peak plasma progesterone concentrations in the 3 cows after first ACTH challenge were comparable with the progesterone values in the luteal phase of each cow. The results suggest that lactating cows have the capability to secrete a significant amount of progesterone from the adrenal cortex.

  19. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and progesterone plasma levels association with the onset and progression of labor.

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    Stamatelou, F; Deligeoroglou, E; Vrachnis, N; Iliodromiti, S; Iliodromiti, Z; Sifakis, S; Farmakides, G; Creatsas, G

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF LNVESTIGATION: To examine the relationship between maternal plasma progesterone along with corticotropin- releasing hormone (CRH) plasma levels and the progression of labor. Maternal serum CRH and progesterone were measured during the latent phase of labor, active labor, and 24 hours postpartum in women who went into spontaneous labor and delivered vaginally at term. Progesterone (P) levels in women delivered by an elective cesarean section at term were also measured as baseline. Mean maternal plasma P was 18% higher in the active phase than in the latent phase of labor (p labor (p labor progresses, P and CRH increase and subsequently decrease precipitously in the immediate postpartal period. P levels tend to drop in women who are in early labor compared with non-laboring full-term women.

  20. Locality effects on bifurcation paradigm of L-H transition in tokamak plasmas

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    Boonyarit Chatthong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The locality effects on bifurcation paradigm of L-H transition phenomenon in magnetic confinement plasmas are investigated. One dimensional thermal transport equation with both neoclassical and anomalous transports effects included is considered, where a flow shear due to pressure gradient component is included as a transport suppression mechanism. Three different locally driven models for anomalous transport are considered, including a constant transport model, pressure gradient driven transport model, and critical pressure gradient threshold transport model. Local stability analysis shows that the transition occurs at a threshold flux with hysteresis nature only if ratio of anomalous strength over neoclassical transport exceeds a critical value. The depth of the hysteresis loop depends on both neoclassical and anomalous transports, as well as the suppression strength. The reduction of the heat flux required to maintain H-mode can be as low as a factor of two, which is similar to experimental evidence.

  1. Plasma prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations around parturition in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverne, M.; Willemse, A.H.; Dieleman, S.J.; Bevers, M.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples taken from 2–15 days before until 1–4 days after spontaneous parturition in four sows and in one sow around prostaglandin F2α-induced parturition. Between Days −15 and −2 (Day 0 = partur

  2. Plasma prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations around parturition in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverne, M.; Willemse, A.H.; Dieleman, S.J.; Bevers, M.

    Plasma concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples taken from 2–15 days before until 1–4 days after spontaneous parturition in four sows and in one sow around prostaglandin F2α-induced parturition. Between Days −15 and −2 (Day 0 =

  3. Effects of ergocryptine on plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone, and progesterone in the periparturient sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, M D; Threlfall, W R

    1981-09-01

    Effects of ergocryptine (ERG) on the periparturient sow were assessed by measuring changes in prolactin, luteinizing hormone, and progesterone in plasma. Hormones in plasma were determined on samples collected daily from 21 days before parturition until postpartum day (PPD) 21. Administration of ERG completely blocked the initiation of lactation and prevented the surge in prolactin that occurred just before parturition, as compared with effects in control sows. The gestation period was shorter (P less than 0.01) in ERG-treated sows compared with the gestation period in controls. Although the number of pigs farrowed was not different between treated and control sows, the ERG-treated sows did not raise any pigs to PPD 21. Luteinizing hormone concentrations were higher (P less than 0.01) from 10 days before parturition until PPD 21, but plasma progesterone concentrations were not different in treated sows when compared with concentrations in control sows.

  4. Investigation of pig sperm plasma membrane reorganization using progesterone-albumin-fluorescein probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfredo Medrano; Paul F Watson; William V Holt

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To relate semen susceptibility in cooling protocols to sperm plasma membrane properties.Methods:A series of experiments was performed using the fluorescent markers, progesterone-BSA-FITC andBSA-FITC.Results:These experiments indicated that both progesterone-BSA-FITC andBSA-FITC bound to specific sperm plasma membrane domains, thus producing four different binding patterns, revealing probable changes in membrane organization during capacitation and during cooling.Those patterns seem to make a sequence progressing from non-capacitated status to capacitated status.The proportion of each pattern was different during incubation than during cooling, showing the latter had a higher proportion of dead sperm than the former.Conclusions:At this stage, the association of sperm plasma membrane alterations was revealed byBSA-FITC probes and cryosensitivity remains unclear.

  5. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  6. The influence of season of lambing and lactation on reproductive activity and plasma LH concentrations in Merino ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, B J; Starr, B G

    1977-03-01

    Groups of Merino ewes which were lactating for 40 days (Group I) or had had their lambs removed at birth (Group II) after lambing in the winter (June) or spring (November) were fed on a high plane of nutrition. Ovarian inspections were carried out at 15 and 30 days after lambing and plasma LH levels were measured at 6-h intervals for 20-30 days. First ovulation was earlier in ewes lambing in the winter (16-6 days, range 11-26) than in the spring (24-7 days, range 15-30) but there was no difference in the number of ewes ovulating. LH levels were higher in winter-lambing ewes (2-79 +/- 3-4 ng/ml) than in those lambing in the spring (1-78 +/- 0-23 ng/ml). LH peaks were usually associated with an ovulation in spring lambing ewes but were not consistently so in the others. More ewes ovulated in Group II (72%) than in Group I (40%) but the mean time of first ovulation was similar. In the winter-lambing ewes the mean daily LH concentration was 2-40 +/- 0-32 ng/ml in Group I and 3-18 +/- 0-31 ng/ml in Group II but there were no differences between the spring-lambing ewes, (I, 1-75 +/- 0-20 ng/ml; II, 1-80 +/- 0-26 ng/ml). There were more elevations in LH levels in Group II ewes (64%) than in Group I ewes (43-8%). After lambing the LH levels increased slowly, indicating a gradual recovery of pituitary function.

  7. Effect of progesterone on renal sodium handling in man: relation to aldosterone excretion and plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparil, S; Ehrlich, E N; Lindheimer, M D

    1975-08-01

    1. The effect of progesterone on renal haemodynamics and intrarenal sodium handing was evaluated in thirteen normal men on a constant diet. Clearances were measured during maximal water diuresis and again 4-7 days later, this time 3 h after progesterone was given intramuscularly. Seven additional studies were performed 3 days after progesterone administration. Another four tests were performed on volunteers who had manifested renal 'escape' from the sodium-retaining effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate. 2. In acute progesterone studies glomerular filtration rate was unchanged, whereas effective renal plasma flow increased, so that filtration fraction decreased significantly. A similar in crease in urinary sodium occurred whether subjects received a low or high sodium diet. Indices which related to the distal delivery of filtrate (fractional urine flow and the sum of fractional free water and sodium clearances) increased significantly in both groups. The progesterone-induced increase in sodium excretion was not related to changes in plasma renin activity, renin substrate or urinary aldosterone. After 3 days of progesterone, the increase of sodium excretion was less than in the acute studies and urinary aldosterone increased tow- to four-fold. Progesterone failed to produce an acute increse in urinary sodium in subjects hyperexpanded by administration of exogenous mineralocorticoids. 3. Results suggest that the acute natriuretic action of progesterone is in part independent of aldosterone inhibition and that progesterone may inhibit sodium reabsorption at proximal as well as distal sites in the nephron.

  8. Prediction of ovulation in women using a rapid progesterone radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.; Coults, J.R.T. (Glasgow Univ. (UK))

    1982-02-01

    A rapid (3-h) radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone has been developed and used successfully to predict the time of ovulation in women undergoing artificial insemination. The results obtained using progesterone levels to date the stage of the cycle were analysed retrospectively by (1) estimation of the length of the ensuing luteal phases and comparison of these with luteal phase lengths of a control group (2) comparison of the dating using progesterone levels with retrospective determination of LH values and (3) by analysis of the dating in cycles in which conception occurred.

  9. Electrochemical stimulation of plasma LH and hypothalamic norepinephrine concentrations at short- and long-term intervals after hypothalamic knife cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, C P; Saporta, S

    1985-11-18

    Norepinephrine (NE) concentrations in several diencephalic locations were studied in female rats in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) release after medial preoptic area (MPOA) stimulation at short (7 days) and longer time intervals after surgical interruption of anterior or anterolateral neural connections of mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). Concentrations of diencephalic NE were altered in two general ways after brain surgery: (1) transient early postoperative increases in some regions which appeared unrelated to the type of surgery performed; and (2) other specific decreases in NE concentration which were related to the types of surgery performed and whether a particular ascending noradrenergic pathway was interrupted. At 180 days after surgery, these two types of change in NE concentrations were no longer present. Maximum increases in plasma LH concentrations observed after electrochemical stimulation of the MPOA at either 7 or 180 days after MBH deafferentation also varied according to: (1) the postoperative interval studied; and (2) the location of pathway interruption. Interruption of anterior MBH pathways showed only a transient (7 day interval) reduction in LH release after MPOA stimulation, whereas when both lateral and anterior pathways were severed, there was a more nearly permanent (180 day interval) disruption of LH release after stimulation. The results of these studies support the contention that anterolateral MBH neural connections may constitute a dynamic neural substrate contributing to a gradual improvement in neuroendocrine function observed after early surgical disconnections.

  10. Atrazine-induced elevation or attenuation of the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estrogen-primed female rat: role of adrenal progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine have been reported to suppress the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in both cycling female rats and those that are ovariectomized (OVX) and exogenously primed with steroids. Additional studies have also found elevations in both ...

  11. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

  12. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elvations in progesterone (P4) on the LH Surge in the ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depen...

  13. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

  14. Atrazine-induced elevation or attenuation of the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estrogen-primed female rat: role of adrenal progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine have been reported to suppress the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in both cycling female rats and those that are ovariectomized (OVX) and exogenously primed with steroids. Additional studies have also found elevations in both ...

  15. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elvations in progesterone (P4) on the LH Surge in the ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depen...

  16. CORRELATION OF PROGESTERONE AND CORTISOL PLASMA LEVELS BETWEEN OVULATED AND NON-OVULATED ETTAWA CROSSBREDS DOES

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    Pudji Astuti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the correlation of progesterone and cortisol levels in plasma between ovulated and non-ovulated Crossbreds Ettawa does. Eight does were used in this experiment and they were divided equally into 2 groups, i.e. group I consisting of 4 normal ovulated does with the average body weight of 37.5 ± 3.109 kg and group II consisting of 4 non-ovulated does with the average body weight of 28 ± 2.160 kg as group II. The estrus cycles of all does were synchronized using intravaginal device of controlled internal drug release (CIDR accompanied by intra-muscular injection of prostaglandin F2 (PGF2 alpha. Immediately after the onset of estrus, blood samples were collected from jugular every 3 and 6 hours for 72 hours after onset of estrus. The concentration of cortisol and progesterone in plasma was assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results showed that the average concentrations of cortisol in ovulated does (90.89±26.22 ng/mL was higher than in non-ovulated does (42.70±37.18 ng/mL. Similarly, the concentrations of progesterone in ovulated does (0.098±0.0423 ng/mL was higher than in non-ovulated does (0.093±0.056 ng/mL. It was evident that the change in progesterone level was closely associated with the change in cortisol level in plasma.

  17. The involvement of luteinizing hormone (LH) and Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein family (PAG) in pregnancy maintenance in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasiewicz, Grzegorz; Majewska, Marta; Szafrańska, Bozena

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents the effect of in vivo immuno-neutralization of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) by species-homologous porcine antiserum (anti-pLH) administrations on pregnancy maintenance and immunodetection of the PAG proteins in precipitated plasma proteins of pregnant gilts. Pregnant gilts were passively immunized with 100 ml of porcine anti-pLH (titer 1:10 000) by multiple intravenous infusions performed from 37(th) to 42(nd) day post coitum (dpc; 12-h intervals). Blood samples of pregnant gilts were taken 12 times daily from 35 until 50 dpc. Concentrations of progesterone (P(4)) and pLH were determined by radioimmunoassays in systemic blood plasma of treated gilts and control pregnant gilts. The immuno-neutralization of peripheral pLH with the use of homologous anti-pLH serum resulted in a significant reduction (ppLH) did not affect the pregnancy maintenance. Thus, the maintenance of mid-pregnancy in gilts may depend also on other than LH luteotrophic factors. In addition, Western analysis of precipitated plasma proteins of pregnant pigs suggests a role of the PAG family during pregnancy in the pig.

  18. Plasma PGFM and progesterone concentrations, luteolysis moment and estrous cycle length in Nelore cows submitted to uterine biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Martin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn this study, endometrial samples were collected in 14 Nelore cows on days zero (ovulation, five, nine, thirteen and nineteen of the estrous cycle (biopsy group, and in 15 females these collections weren't performed (control group. Biopsies were done on the uterine horn endometrium contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum. Blood samples were taken at -24, -16, -8, 0 +8, +16 and +24 hours in relation to progesterone drop (<1ng/mL, zero moment and evaluated for 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGFM by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Plasma progesterone concentration was determined by RIA every 24 hours. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the PROC GLM and MIXED of the SAS. The mean value for PGFM during the entire period evaluated was greater in the biopsy group. The mean concentration of PGFM at moment zero was not different between the groups; the mean concentration of PGFM was higher in the biopsy group before and after the drop in progesterone level. The maximum mean concentration observed was not different between the groups; however, the mean minimum concentration was different with high values in the biopsy group. Although the PGFM concentrations were higher in the biopsy group, the biopsy and control groups had similar length of estrous cycle showing that repeated endometrial biopsy on the side contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum does not affect luteolysis and the length of the estrous cycle.

  19. Detection and identification of plasma progesterone metabolites in the female Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) using GC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, K M; Dubois, M; Delahaut, P; Verstegen, J P

    2009-08-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) have relatively low peripheral concentrations of progesterone (P4). The objective of this study was to determine if these relatively low P4 concentrations are associated with a high ratio of progestin metabolites and to document metabolite concentrations from individual blood samples obtained from manatees during diestrus or pregnancy. Metabolites known to exist in elephants-terrestrial manatee relatives-were targeted. These included 5alpha-reduced progestins (5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione [5alpha-DHP] and 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one [5alpha-P3-OH]) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP), which occurs in Asian elephants. An additional, inactive metabolite, 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (20alpha-OHP), indicative of P4 overproduction, was also targeted. Progesterone itself was the predominant progestin detected in pregnant and nonpregnant manatee plasma (n = 10) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with tandem quadrupole detectors (GC/MS/MS). Progesterone concentrations in pregnant females varied from early (moderate to high) through mid and late (low) pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations ranged from low to high in nonpregnant, nonlactating females. The most commonly detected metabolite was 5alpha-P3-OH (n = 7), which occurred in pregnant (lower limit of detection [LLOD] to high) and nonpregnant (trace to high) females. The 5alpha-DHP metabolite was also detected in pregnant (LLOD to moderate) and nonpregnant (low) females. The 17alpha-OHP metabolite was not detected in any tested female. The 20alpha-OHP metabolite was detected in one nonpregnant, nonlactating, captive female (LLOD). Metabolites were most prevalent during early pregnancy, concurrent with maximum P4 concentrations. Based on their concentrations in peripheral circulation, we inferred that these metabolites may have, opposite to elephants, a limited physiologic role during luteal, pregnant, and nonpregnant phases in the manatee.

  20. Effect of GnRH and hCG on progesterone concentration and ovarian and luteal blood flow in diestrous mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, L F C; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A; Ginther, O J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of reproductive hormones (GnRH, hCG, LH and progesterone) on the regulation of corpus luteum (CL) and ovarian blood flow. Diestrous mares received a single treatment of saline, 100μg gonadorelin (GnRH), or 1500IU hCG 10days after ovulation. Plasma LH and progesterone concentrations, resistance index (RI) for ovarian artery blood-flow, and percentage of corpus luteum (CL) with color-Doppler signals of blood flow were determined immediately before treatment (hour 0) and at hours 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. In the GnRH group, LH increased (Pblood-flow signals was greater at hour 0.5 in the GnRH group than in the saline group and was intermediate in the hCG group. The similarity among groups in progesterone concentration indicated that changes in progesterone were not involved in the GnRH and hCG stimulation of ovarian vascular perfusion. Effects of treatment might have been mediated through LH; however, since hCG biological activity is primarily LH-like, the differences in timing and degree of ovarian and luteal blood flow changes after GnRH or hCG administration in the present study suggest that GnRH might have a direct effect on ovarian blood vessels and vascular control.

  1. Longitudinal studies of plasma aldosterone, corticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, and cortisone determined simultaneously in mother and child at birth and during the early neonatal period. I. Spontaneous delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippell, W G; Becker, H; Versmold, H T; Bidlingmaier, F; Knorr, D

    1978-06-01

    In order to obtain the still lacking reference data of individual plasma steroids in the immediate postnatal period needed for the assessment of adrenocortical function in various neonatal maladaptation syndromes, aldosterone (A), corticosterone, deoxycorticosterone (DOC), progesterone (P), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), cortisol, and cortisone were simultaneously followed in the same human newborn in a single 250-500 microliters peripheral plasma sample obtained at constant times during the first week of life using a mechanized Sephadex LH-20 multicolumn chromatography and standardized RIAs. Mean concentrations in 12 spontaneously delivered full term newborns of either sex and in paired umbilical (UV) and peripheral maternal (MV) venous plasma are given in the table. Besides significant maternoumbilical gradients in each steroid, DOC, P, 17-OHP, and cortisone, originating predominantly from the fetoplacental unit, disappear rapidly with steadily increasing half-lives. A, corticosterone, and cortisol, however, remain elevated in comparison with later infancy, with the exception of a marked "glucocorticoid dip" in cortisol and corticosterone levels between 2 and 12 h after birth.

  2. Alterations in bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, and gene expression in granulosa cells in preovulatory follicles of dairy cows given porcine LH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrouzi, Amir; Colazo, Marcos Germán; Ambrose, Divakar Justus

    2016-04-15

    In a previous work, using porcine LH (pLH) in lieu of GnRH for synchronizing ovulation in dairy cows improved pregnancy rates without increasing plasma progesterone concentrations after ovulation. The LH profile is known to remain elevated above basal concentrations (≥1 ng/mL) for up to 20 hours in pLH-treated cows compared to less than 6 hours in GnRH-treated cows. Because LH triggers a cascade of signaling networks in the preovulatory follicle to promote final maturation and support oocyte competence, we hypothesized that dissimilar LH profiles will differentially regulate the intrafollicular factors and expression of downstream genes associated with improved oocyte competence. Specific objectives were to determine differences in the abundance of oocyte-secreted factors in the preovulatory follicular fluid and target genes in granulosa cells associated with oocyte competence, in response to exogenous porcine LH or GnRH-induced endogenous bovine LH exposure, in dairy cows. Follicular contents were aspirated by a transvaginal ultrasound-guided procedure from the preovulatory follicle of cyclic, nonlactating Holstein cows 21 ± 1 hour after administration of either pLH (25-mg) or GnRH (100-μg). Mature forms of bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, and transforming growth factorβ1 were approximately 2-fold more abundant in pLH-treated cows which were exposed to an extended, low LH profile, than in GnRH-treated cows that had a short, high LH profile. The relative abundance of messenger RNA for cyclooxygenase-2, LH receptor, and progesterone receptor in granulosa cells, was about two-, eight-, and two-fold higher, respectively, in cows subjected to pLH than GnRH treatment. We infer that the improved pregnancy rate after pLH-induced ovulation reported previously, occurred through greater activation of intrafollicular transforming growth factor-β1 superfamily members, as these proteins promote cumulus expansion and oocyte competence.

  3. Concentration of progesterone during the development of the ovulatory follicle: II. Ovarian and uterine responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, R L A; Chebel, R C; Rivera, F; Narciso, C D; Oliveira, R A; Amstalden, M; Baez-Sandoval, G M; Oliveira, L J; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2011-07-01

    Two experiments evaluated the influence of altering the concentrations of progesterone during the development of the ovulatory follicle on the composition of the follicular fluid, circulating LH and PGF(2α) metabolite (PGFM), and expression of endometrial progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor-α. In both experiments, the estrous cycles were presynchronized (GnRH and progesterone insert followed by insert removal and PGF(2α) 7 d later, and GnRH after 48 h) and cows were then enrolled in 1 of 2 treatments 7 d later (study d -16): high progesterone (HP) or low progesterone (LP). In experiment 1 (n=19), cows had their estrous cycle synchronized starting on study d -9 (GnRH and progesterone insert on d -9, and insert removal and PGF(2α) on d -2). In experiment 2 (n=25), cows were submitted to the same synchronization protocol as in experiment 1, but had ovulation induced with GnRH on study d 0. In experiment 1, plasma was sampled on d -4 and analyzed for concentrations of LH; the dominant follicle was aspirated on d 0 and the fluid analyzed for concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, and free and total IGF-1. In experiment 2, follicular development and concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in plasma were evaluated until study d 16. Uterine biopsies were collected on d 12 and 16 for progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor-α protein abundance. An estradiol/oxytocin challenge for PGFM measurements in plasma was performed on d 16. In experiments 1 and 2, LP cows had lower plasma concentrations of progesterone and greater concentrations of estradiol, and had larger ovulatory follicle diameter (20.4 vs. 17.2mm) at the end of the synchronization protocol than HP cows. Concentration of LH tended to be greater for LP than HP cows (0.98 vs. 0.84 ng/mL). The dominant follicle of LP cows had greater concentration of estradiol (387.5 vs. 330.9 ng/mL) and a lower concentration of total IGF-1 (40.9 vs. 51.7 ng/mL) than that of HP cows. In experiment 2

  4. Plasma concentration of progesterone and 17ß-estradiol of black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha during the estrous cycle

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    Diva Anelie Guimarães

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasma concentration of progesterone and 17β-estradiol of black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha during the estrous cycle. The agouti is a game animal that have been raised in captivity for conservation and sustainability purposes. However, the management of wild animals in an intensive breeding system requires an assertive knowledge of its reproductive parameters, one of the most important features for production improvement. Besides, little information is available regarding changes in reproductive hormone profiles in agouti. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hormonal profile of progesterone and 17β-estradiol during the estrous cycle of the agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha. The hormones were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Blood samples were collected without sedation twice a week. The concentrations of progesterone were as follows: proestrus 0.78+0.39ng/ml, estrus 2.83+2.34ng/ml, metestrus 1.49+1.24ng/ml, diestrus 3.71+1.48ng/ml. In the estrous phase, an increase in the progesterone level was observed during a period of 24h. The average 17 β-estradiol levels were as follows: proestrus 2 030.98+961.00pg/ml, estrus 1 910.56+650.54pg/ml, metestrus 1 724.83+767.28pg/ml, diestrus 1 939.94+725.29pg/ml. The current results suggest that the progesterone plasma concentration during the estrous cycle in the agouti has a similar increasing, stabilizing and decreasing pattern, as in domestic mammals. Agoutis have two phases of follicular development, as two periods of 17β-estradiol peaks were observed, the first one in the metestrus and the second during the proestrus. Spontaneous ovulation seems to occur after the progesterone peak, possibly indicating that this hormone is associated with the ovulatory process. A more detailed investigation is needed for better understanding of how progesterone influences ovulation. Studies on the involvement of progesterone in follicular rupture can be carried out, using steroid biosynthesis

  5. Plasmas pour la destruction de l'H2S et des mercaptans Plasmas for Destruction of H2s and Mercaptans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czernichowski A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue l'utilisation des plasmas comme milieu activateurs d'une oxydation de H2S ou CH3SH dilués dans l'air, le CO2 ou la vapeur d'eau, à fins de conversion en SO, moins malodorant. Le produit peut être ensuite utilisé comme réactif dans un processus similaire à celui de Claus, en présence d'eau, ce qui permet de convertir deux fois plus de polluants initiaux en soufre élémentaire. Une attention particulière est portée aux décharges électriques glissantes (GlidArc. Ces décharges puissantes produisent un plasma non thermique qui active des réactions oxydatrices. La plupart des expériences ont été réalisées en utilisant les réacteurs GlidArc-I à un ou à quatre étages. Les sulfures dilués dans l'air dans des concentrations initiales atteignant jusqu'à 1 %( H2S ou 0,1 % (CH3SH ont été traités sous des flux jusqu'à 70 m3(n/h d'air pollué et sous une puissance de 5 kW. Les essais ont été réalisés sous 1 atm. Une dépollution jusqu'à 100 % a été obtenue moyennant un coût énergétique assez bas dépendant de la concentration initiale du polluant : environ 1000 kWh par kilogramme de soufre extrait pour 100 ppm de H2S et seulement 10 kWh/kg pour 1 % initial d'H2S dans l'air. Pratiquement les mêmes coûts ont été observés dans le cas de mélanges CH3SH-air. En utilisant une très simple douche en recirculation d'eau qui lave les gaz sortants (l'eau se sature avec le SO2 et capture ainsi l'H2S non traité nous avons divisé ces coûts d'énergie par trois, en évitant également l'émission de SO2, et en obtenant du soufre non toxique. Un nouveau principe (et réacteur GlidArc-II est ensuite présenté ; il s'agit d'une brosseà décharges électriques. Nos premiers tests sont très prometteurs car dès à présent, nous divisons déjà la dépense énergétique par deux par rapport au GlidArc-I. L'échelle industrielle peut par conséquent être envisagée. Plasmas are reviewed as activation

  6. Plasma progesterone, metabolic hormones and beta-hydroxybutyrate in Holstein-Friesian cows after superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bényei, Balázs; Komlósi, István; Pécsi, Anna; Kulcsár, Margit; Huzsvai, László; Barros, C W C; Huszenicza, Gyula

    2011-12-01

    Metabolic hormones [insulin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)], progesterone (P4) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) serum concentrations were evaluated and their effect on the superovulation results of donor cows was investigated in a semi-arid environment. Body weight, body condition score (BCS) and lactation stage were also included in the analysis. Twenty-three Holstein-Friesian cows were superovulated with 600 IU FSHp following the routine procedure and flushed on day 7 in a Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer Centre in the semi-arid area of Brazil. The corpora lutea (CL) were counted and blood samples were collected for assays. All of the hormones investigated and BHB serum concentrations were within the physiological ranges. There was a positive correlation between hormones, except between BHB and all the others. The leptin level was influenced by feeding status, as indicated by the BCS. Insulin, T4, T3 and BHB levels were affected by milking status. Dry cows had higher levels of all hormones except BHB. An optimum level of leptin resulted in the highest number of CL, while the linear increase of P4, T4 and IGF significantly increased the number of CL.

  7. The association among cytochrome P450 3A, progesterone receptor polymorphisms, plasma 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate concentrations, and spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Martha L; Caritis, Steve N; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Reddy, Uma M; Sorokin, Yoram; Manuck, Tracy; Varner, Michael W; Wapner, Ronald J; Iams, Jay D; Carpenter, Marshall W; Peaceman, Alan M; Mercer, Brian M; Sciscione, Anthony; Rouse, Dwight J; Ramin, Susan M

    2017-09-01

    Infants born preterm birth are the leading cause of mortality in children preterm birth by 33% in women with history of spontaneous preterm birth. We demonstrated previously that plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate vary widely among pregnant women and that women with 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate plasma concentrations in the lowest quartile had spontaneous preterm birth rates of 40% vs rates of 25% in those women with higher concentrations. Thus, plasma concentrations are an important factor in determining drug efficacy but the reason 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate plasma concentrations vary so much is unclear. Predominantly, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate is metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 enzymes. We sought to: (1) determine the relation between 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate plasma concentrations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5; (2) test the association between progesterone receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms and spontaneous preterm birth; and (3) test whether the association between plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate and spontaneous preterm birth varied by progesterone receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated genetic polymorphism in 268 pregnant women treated with 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, who participated in a placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the benefit of omega-3 supplementation in women with history of spontaneous preterm birth. Trough plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate were measured between 25-28 weeks of gestation after a minimum of 5 injections of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate. We extracted DNA from maternal blood samples and genotyped the samples using TaqMan (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays for the following single nucleotide polymorphisms: CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A4*22, and CYP3A5*3; and rs

  8. Differential effects of the persistent DDT metabolite methylsulfonyl-DDE in nonstimulated and LH-stimulated neonatal porcine Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Cesilie Granum; Sørvik, Irene Beate; Tanum, Marte Bruu; Verhaegen, Steven; Brandt, Ingvar; Ropstad, Erik

    2013-03-15

    3-Methylsulfonyl-DDE (MeSO₂-DDE) is a potent adrenal toxicant formed from the persistent insecticide DDT. MeSO₂-DDE is widely present in human plasma, milk and fat, and in tissues of marine mammals. In the present study, we investigated endocrine-disrupting properties of MeSO₂-DDE in primary neonatal porcine Leydig cells. Unstimulated and LH-stimulated cells were exposed to MeSO₂-DDE at concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 20 μM for 48 h. Cell viability, hormone secretion and expression of steroidogenesis related genes were recorded. Secretion of testosterone and estradiol was increased in a concentration-dependent fashion in unstimulated Leydig cells, while in LH-stimulated cells, secretion of testosterone, estradiol and progesterone was decreased. The expression of important steroidogenic genes was down-regulated both in unstimulated and LH-stimulated cells. Notably, no significant impairment of cell viability occurred at any exposure except the highest concentration (20 μM) in LH-stimulated cells. This indicated that the effects on hormone secretion and gene expression were not caused by cytotoxicity. We conclude that the adrenal toxicant MeSO₂-DDE disrupts hormone secretion in a complex fashion in neonatal porcine Leydig cells. The different endocrine responses in unstimulated and LH-stimulated cells imply that the endocrine disruptive activity of MeSO₂-DDE is determined by the physiological status of the Leydig cells.

  9. Plasma oxidative stress biomarkers and progesterone profiles in a dairy cow diagnosed with an ovarian follicular cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, S; Ingenhoff, L; Kerrisk, K L; Celi, P

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the oxidative stress biomarkers in a cow diagnosed with a follicular cyst in her left ovary. Progesterone (P4) and plasma oxidative stress status was measured in 13 Holstein cows after synchronization of oestrus with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandinF2α (PGF2α) protocol. The presence and size of ovarian structures were monitored by transrectal ultrasound at 4 hourly intervals. Of the 13 cows, 12 were monitored until ovulation was detected and recorded, whereas one cow failed to ovulate and developed a follicular cyst. Oxidative stress biomarkers; reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), oxidative stress index (OSI), glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were measured in the cystic cow and compared to those of the 12 ovulated cows and are referred to as higher or lower if they are outside the mean ± standard error of mean of those of ovulated cows. The cystic cow had lower ROMs and OSI between 36 and 84 h after PGF2α injection and at 9 h, from 36 to 60 h after PGF2α injection respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant (BAP and GSH) was higher in the cystic cow compared to her ovulated herd mates. The observed imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant might have disrupted the physiological events for ovulation to occur, leading to cystic ovarian disease.

  10. [Sex hormones in young pigs. I. Concentrations of plasma progesterone and estrogens of sows and urinary estrogens after synchronization of estrus and ovulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F; Bergfeld, J; Brauer, M; Brüssow, K P

    1980-01-01

    Treatment for synchronised heat and ovulation, using Suisynchron-Prämix, Bernburg, pregnant-mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG), and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), was followed with twelve gilts by daily measurement over 31 days of urine oestrogens, plasma progesterone as well as of plasma oestrogens during the oestric phases. Hormonal developments recorded during the oestrus and luteum phases were in agreement with the concepts and data so far known for the subject. An intermediate peak of oestrogen concentration was clearly recordable in the di-oestrus, that is between the tenth and 15th days of cycle. Its physiological importance will have to be further investigated.

  11. Serum progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more commonly) Determine the risk of miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy early in pregnancy Normal Results Progesterone levels vary ... levels may be due to: Amenorrhea (no periods) Ectopic pregnancy Failure to ovulate Fetal death Possible miscarriage Alternative ...

  12. Indução da ovulação em cabras, fora da estação reprodutiva, com LH e GnRH e com estro induzido por progestágenos Induction of the out-of-season ovulation (with LH and GnRH and estrus (with progesterone in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.G. Leite

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e cinco cabras foram sincronizadas com o uso de esponjas intravaginais impregnadas com 60mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MAP por nove dias, associadas com 200UI de gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG e 37,5µg de cloprostenol no sétimo dia. Os animais foram separados em três grupos e receberam, 24 horas após a retirada das esponjas, solução salina ou hormônios, no seguinte esquema: T1 (controle - 1ml de solução salina; T2 - 5mg de hormônio luteinizante (LH e T3 - 12,5µg do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH. Houve diferença (P0,05 quanto ao intervalo da retirada da esponja ao aparecimento do estro, que foi, em média, 34,8, 29,3 e 31,5 horas, respectivamente. O intervalo médio da retirada da esponja à ovulação foi de 46,6, 52,1 e 41,6 horas, respectivamente, com diferença significativa entre T2 e T3 (P0,05. A aplicação de LH e do GnRH para induzir e sincronizar a ovulação em cabras fora da estação reprodutiva não apresentou resultados satisfatórios.In order to achieve estrous synchronization, intravaginal sponges impregnated with 60mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA were implanted in 45 goats for nine days. On day 7, 200IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG and 37.5µg of cloprostenol were administered to each doe. The animals were randomly allocated in three treatments with 15 animals each. Twenty four hours after intravaginal sponge removal, does were administered 1ml saline solution (control T1, 5mg LH (T2 and 2.5µg GnRH (T3 intramuscular injection. Percentages of animals in estrus were 100.0; 73.3 and 66.6 (P<0.05 and average intervals from sponge removal to start of estrus were 34.8, 29.3 and 31.5 hours for T1, T2 and T3, respectively, being those differences not statistically significant. The average intervals from sponge removal to ovulation were 46.6, 52.1 and 41.6 hours for T1, T2 and T3, respectively, with the difference between T2 and T3 being statistically significant (P<0

  13. Plasmas pour valorisation totale ou partielle des gaz contenant de l'H2S Plasmas for Total Or Partial Upgrading of H2s Containing Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czernichowski A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Des procédés par plasmas alternatifs au procédé Claus sont proposés pour produire de l'hydrogène et récupérer du soufre à partir des gaz contenant une forte teneur en H2S. Quand la teneur en H2S est moins importante, des techniques plasma peuvent également être utiles pour assister certains étages du procédé classique Claus ou réaliser ce procédé pour des gaz non conventionnels. Les tests allant jusqu'à l'échelle industrielle sont menés dans divers réacteurs à plasmas et les résultats encourageants rapportés de la littérature et de la recherche propre laissent envisager des prochaines applications. Plasma assisted processes are proposed to act as an alternative to the Claus process in order to recover hydrogen and sulphur from high H2S gases. For less concentrated gases plasma techniques may also be inserted into classical Claus plant or may allow treatment of non conventional gases. Up to industrial scale tests are performed using different plasma reactors. The literature-based results as well as our own ones make the future applications quite optimistic.

  14. Importance of intense male sexual behavior for inducing the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation in seasonally anovulatory female goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alfaro, J C; Hernández, H; Flores, J A; Duarte, G; Fitz-Rodríguez, G; Fernández, I G; Bedos, M; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A; Vielma, J

    2014-10-15

    The present study was carried out to determine whether the presence of photostimulated sedated male goats could stimulate the LH preovulatory surge and ovulation in seasonal anestrous goats. Sexually experienced male goats were treated with artificial long days (16 hours light per day) from 1 November to 15 January to stimulate their sexual activity in March and April, corresponding to the natural sexual rest. A female group of goats (n=20) was exposed to non-sedated males who displayed an intense sexual behavior and provided strong odor (non-sedated group). Another female group of goats (n=20) was exposed to the photo-stimulated male goats, but these males were sedated with Xylazine 2% to prevent the expression of sexual behavior (sedated group). The sedated males also provided a strong odor. Females of both groups had full physical and visual contact with non-sedated or sedated males. In both groups, the males remained with females during 4 days. The LH preovulatory surge of 10 female goats per group was measured by determination of LH plasma concentrations in samples taken every 3 hours. In addition, in all goats, (n=20 by group), ovulation was determined by measuring plasma concentrations of progesterone. The proportion of female goats showing a preovulatory LH surge was higher in goats exposed to non-sedated (10/10) than in those exposed to sedated bucks (0/10; Psexual behavior by male goats is necessary to induce LH preovulatory surge and ovulation in seasonally anovulatory goats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. LUTEINIZING HORMONE SECRETION IN NELLORE HEIFER’S AFTER WEANING TO FIRST OVULATION CONCENTRAÇÃO DE LH EM NOVILHAS DA RAÇA NELORE DA DESMAMA À PRIMEIRA OVULAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim was to evaluate the LH secretion in B. indicus heifers, on the presence or absence of gonadal steroid, generating information about the mechanisms evolved on sexual maturation in Nellore heifers. LH and progesterone concentration were quantified by RIA. First ovulation was determined by plasma progesterone concentration (>1 ng/ml. Greater mean LH concentrations was observed in ovariectomized (OVX; P?0.05 compared to intact heifers (INT. Mean LH concentration increased (P?0.05 during the sexual maturation, in both intact and ovariectomized heifers. The number of peaks was higher (P?0.05 in ovariectomized heifer. The results suggest decrease in estradiol hypothalamus negative feedback during Nellore heifer’s sexual maturation. It was possible to conclude that in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers the increase on positive gonadal steroids feedback was necessary to increase LH secretion before first ovulation.

    KEY WORDS: Cattle, endocrinology, hypothalamus, puberty, steroids.
    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a variação na secreção de LH na presença ou não de esteroides gonadais e, dessa forma, gerar informações sobre os mecanismos envolvidos na maturação sexual de novilhas da raça Nelore. Quantificou-se a concentração de LH e progesterona por radioimunoensaio. A primeira ovulação foi determinada pela concentração plasmática de progesterona (>1 ng/ml. As novilhas ovariectomizadas (OVX apresentaram maior concentração basal de LH (P?0,05 que as novilhas inteiras (INT. Houve uma concentração de LH durante a maturação sexual, tanto nas novilhas INT quanto nas OVX. O número de picos de secreção de LH foi maior (P?0,05 nas novilhas OVX. Os resultados indicam uma diminuição da sensibilidade do hipotálamo aos esteroides gonadais durante o processo de maturação sexual nas novilhas da raça Nelore. Conclui-se que, em novilhas pré-púberes da raça Nelore, o

  16. The effects of knife cuts in the sub-paraventricular zone of the female rat hypothalamus on oestrogen-induced diurnal surges of plasma prolactin and LH, and circadian wheel-running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A G; Sheward, W J; Whale, D; Fink, G

    1989-08-01

    To investigate the role of suprachiasmatic efferent connections in the expression of diurnal hormone rhythms, the efferent pathway from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (the putative circadian generator in the rat) to the subparaventricular zone (the main terminal area of suprachiasmatic efferents) was disrupted using bilateral horizontal knife cuts in ovariectomized oestrogen-treated rats. The position of the knife cut was assessed by observing its effect on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity (a marker for suprachiasmatic efferents into the sub-paraventricular zone). The size of both the diurnal plasma LH and prolactin surges was markedly and consistently reduced over the 3-week period following the lesion in animals with a total deafferentation of the subparaventricular zone, compared with sham-operated animals or lesioned animals with an intact subparaventricular zone. When lesioned animals were grouped according to the presence or absence of damage to the preoptic area, no significant differences were found in the sizes of the plasma hormone surges. When similar knife cuts were given to animals whose activity cycles were observed, no significant effects were noted in the ability of the animals to synchronize to a light/dark regime or to free-run in constant light conditions. These results suggest that the suprachiasmatic nucleus influences the diurnal surges of plasma LH and prolactin in oestrogen-treated ovariectomized rats, initially by an interaction with the subparaventricular zone and not by a direct influence on gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones or other more rostral structures.

  17. Etude de l’impact des flux zonaux sur la turbulence dans les plasmas, sur la transition L-H et la production d’entropie.

    OpenAIRE

    Berionni, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    One of the main obstacle to the success of thermonuclear magnetic confinement fusion is turbulence, which is mainly responsible for radial transport towards the walls. A shell model is used to study the mecanism of turbulence suppression by zonal flows, which are considered to play an important role in the L-H transition. Based on generalized Hasegawa-Mima equations, it gives an insight of predator-prey interactions between zonal flows and drift wave turbulence. The collisional drag of zonal ...

  18. GnRH treatment at artificial insemination in beef cattle fails to increase plasma progesterone concentrations or pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, G A; Perry, B L

    2009-03-15

    Treatment with GnRH at the onset of standing estrus increased pregnancy percentages and circulating concentrations of progesterone in repeat breeder dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of treatment with GnRH at AI on concentrations of progesterone and conception rates in beef cattle that exhibited estrus. Two hundred ninety-three heifers at four locations were synchronized with the Select Synch plus CIDR protocol (given GnRH and a CIDR was placed into the vagina, and 7 d later, given PGF(2alpha) and CIDR removed; n=253) or the 14-19 melengestrol acetate (MGA) protocol (MGA fed at 0.5mg/head/d for 14 d, with PGF(2alpha) 19 d after MGA withdrawal n=40) and AI was done after detection of estrus. At Location 1, blood samples were collected on Day 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 after AI (Day 0=AI). Two hundred and fifty postpartum cows at two locations were synchronized with the Select Synch plus CIDR protocol, and AI was performed after detection of estrus. At AI, cattle were alternately assigned to one of two treatments: (1) treatment with GnRH (100microg) at AI (n=127 heifers and n=108 cows); or (2) non-treated control (n=120 heifers and n=119 cows). Concentrations of progesterone tended to be greater in control heifers compared to GnRH-treated heifers on Days 6 (P=0.08), 10 (P=0.07), and 15 (P=0.11). Overall conception rates were 68% and 66% for GnRH treated and control, respectively, and were not different between treatments (P=0.72). In summary, treatment with GnRH at time of AI had no influence on conception rates in cattle that had exhibited estrus.

  19. Comparative efficacy of different estrus synchronization protocols on estrus induction response, fertility and plasma progesterone and biochemical profile in crossbred anestrus cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Dhami

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate estrus induction response and fertility including plasma progesterone and biochemical profile following use of three standard hormonal protocols in anestrus crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 40 true anestrus and 10 normal cyclic cows. 10 anestrus cows each were treated with standard intravaginal controlled internal drug release (CIDR device, Ovsynch (GPG protocol, and Norgestomet ear implant with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI. 10 anestrus cows were kept as untreated control while 10 cows exhibiting the first estrus within 90 days postpartum without any treatment served as normal cyclic control. Blood samples were obtained from treated cows on day 0, 7, 9 (AI of treatment and day 21 post-AI, and from control groups on the day of AI and day 21 post-AI for estimation of plasma progesterone, protein, cholesterol, calcium, and inorganic phosphorus profile. Results: The use of CIDR, Ovsynch, and Norgestomet ear implant protocols resulted in 100% estrus induction with conception rates at induced estrus of 60%, 50%, and 50%, and the overall of three cycles as 80%, 80%, and 70%. In untreated anestrus control (n=10, only three cows exhibited spontaneous estrus within 90 days of follow-up and conceived giving the first service and overall conception rates of 66.66% and 30.00%, respectively. In normal cyclic control (n=10, the conception rates at first and overall of three cycles were 50% and 80%. The overall mean plasma progesterone (P4 concentrations in anestrus cows studied on day 0 (initiation, 7 (prostaglandin injection and/or removal of implant, 9 (FTAI of treatment and on day 21 post-AI revealed that the values on day 7 and 21 were significantly (p<0.01 higher than other two periods in all three groups. The concentrations were significantly (p<0.05 higher in conceived than non-conceived group on day 21 post-AI in CIDR (4.36±0.12 vs. 1.65±0.82 ng/ml and Ovsynch (4.85±0.62 vs. 1.59±0

  20. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin-releasing pituitary tumor: possible malignant transformation of the LH cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertini, F; Deruaz, J P; Perentes, E; Pelet, B; Gomez, F

    1986-05-01

    A pituitary tumor was diagnosed in a prepubertal 13-yr-old girl, who had elevated plasma LH (58 mIU/ml) and PRL (93 ng/ml) levels; decreased GH, ACTH, and FSH secretion; and diabetes insipidus. After surgery, plasma LH and PRL declined, but not to normal levels. Conventional external radiotherapy to the pituitary was immediately followed by a decrease in LH to prepubertal values (0.7 mIU/ml), while PRL levels became normal only after a long course of bromocriptine therapy. The pituitary tumor was composed of two distinct cell types: small polygonal cells, which were PRL positive by immunohistochemistry, and clusters of pleomorphic large frequently mitotic polynucleated cells, which were LH positive, some of them also being positive for the alpha-subunit or beta LH but not for beta FSH. Four years after surgery and radiotherapy, the patient deteriorated neurologically. Computed tomographic scan showed widespread frontal and periventricular tumor, which had the histological features of a poorly differentiated carcinoma. No PRL, LH, or alpha- or beta-subunits were detectable on immunocytochemistry. While the PRL-positive cells of the pituitary tumor displayed the histological and clinical features of PRL adenomas, the morphological characteristics of LH cells and the sharp decline of plasma LH levels after radiotherapy were suggestive of malignant transformation. In this context, the later brain tumor could have been the result of subependymal spread of the pituitary tumor after it lost its hormone-secreting capacity.

  1. Application of ovine luteinizing hormone (LH) radioimmunoassay in the quantitation of LH in different mammalian species. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, R.P.; Aehnelt, C.

    1977-09-01

    A sensitive double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed for measuring luteinizing hormone (LH) in various African mammalian species, using rabbit anti-ovine LH serum (GDN 15) and radioiodinated rat LH or ovine LH. Serum and pituitary homogenates from some African mammals (hyrax, reedbuck, sable, impala, tsessebe, thar, spring-hare, ground squirrel and cheetah, as well as the domestic sheep, cow and horse and laboratory rat and hamster) produced displacement curves parallel to that of the ovine LH standards. The specificity of the assay was examined in detail for one species, the rock hyrax. Radioimmunoassay and bioassay estimates of LH in hyrax pituitaries containing widely differing quantities of pituitary hormones were similar. In sexually active male hyrax mean plasma LH was 12.1 ng/ml and pituitary LH 194 ..mu..g/gland, but in sexually quiescent hyrax mean plasma LH was 2.4 ng/ml and mean pituitary LH 76 ..mu..g/gland. Intravenous injection of 10 ..mu..g of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone increased mean LH levels in hyrax from 0.9 ng/ml to 23.2 ng/ml by 30 min. Conversely, im injection of 250 ..mu..g testosterone induced a fall in LH levels in male hyrax from 1.7 ng/ml to 0.7 ng/ml 6 h after administration. Although the specificity of the assay for quantitating plasma LH in other species was not categorically established, there was a good correlation between plasma LH concentration and reproductive state in the bontebok, impala, spring-hare, thar, cheetah, domestic horse and laboratory rat, suggesting the potential use of the antiserum in quantitating LH in a variety of mammalian species.

  2. Influence of bovine LH tracer quality on levels of LH in GnRH-treated cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madej, A.; Hallin, P.; Madej, M.; Seguin, B.; Edqvist, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Chromatography of 125I-bovine LH (LER-1716-2 and USDA-I-1) by means of anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed two main peaks of radioactivity regardless as to whether or not the tracer was initially purified on cellulose CF11. The content of radioactivity in the first peak tended to increase as the storage time of the bLH preparation, either before or after iodination, increased. The first peak of radioactivity after HPLC fractionation either with or without cellulose adsorption consisted of material with low binding ability to bLH antiserum (6.9% +/- 0.5 and 13.0% +/- 1.0, respectively) and high binding ability to ovine LH alpha antiserum (51.0% +/- 2.7 and 35.2% +/- 3.6, respectively). The average ratio of alpha-subunit immuno-reactivity to 125I-bLH immunoreactivity in this material was 7.4 +/- 0.1 and 2.7 +/- 0.2, respectively (P less than 0.001). Peaks in 125I-bLH radioactivity and 125I-bLH immunoreactivity had different elution times. Radioimmunoassays with tracers obtained from fractions derived from the first radioactive peak after HPLC chromatography (i.e. 125I-bLH-LER-1716-2) both with and without cellulose adsorption, yielded significantly lower mean plasma LH levels in GnRH-treated cows compared with the control tracer routinely purified only on cellulose CF11 (e.g. 5.7 vs. 8.2 micrograms/; 4.6 vs. 8.2 micrograms/l). Plasma LH levels in GnRH-treated cows were significantly (P less than 0.001) lower as measured by radioimmunoassay utilizing 125I-USDA-blH-I-1 tracers than by radioimmunoassays utilizing 125I-blH-LER-1716-2 tracers (i.e. either Y = 0.17 + 0.75X or Y = 1.18 + 0.60X).

  3. RU486 administration blocks neuropeptide Y potentiation of luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone-induced LH surges in proestrous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Dantoin, A C; Tabesh, B; Norgle, J R; Levine, J E

    1993-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that NPY potentiates LHRH-induced LH secretion specifically under endocrine conditions in which preovulatory LH surges are generated. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that NPY's facilitatory actions are dependent upon preovulatory progesterone secretion. In Exp 1, female rats were fitted with atrial catheters on diestrus. On proestrus, hourly blood samples were collected from 1100-2100 h. At 1230 h, rats received a sc injection of the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 (6 mg/kg BW) or oil. At 1330 h, rats received pentobarbital (40 mg/kg BW), to block hypothalamic LHRH release, or saline. Every 30 min from 1400-1800 h, pentobarbital-treated rats received iv pulses of LHRH (15 ng/pulse) or saline along with concurrent pulses of NPY (5 micrograms/pulse), or saline. In Exp 2, rats received jugular catheters on diestrus, but were sampled every hour throughout the morning (0700-1600 h), rather than the afternoon, of proestrus. In these morning groups, pentobarbital was injected at 0830 h, and peptides (LHRH or combined LHRH and NPY solutions) were administered as pulses at 30-min intervals between 0900-1300 h. Results from Exp 1 were as follows: administration of RU486 to rats given an ip injection of vehicle at 1330 h and pulses of saline from 1400-1800 h completely blocked the endogenous LH surge. In oil-treated pentobarbital-blocked rats, concurrent administration of NPY with LHRH significantly (P < 0.01) potentiated the ability of LHRH to restore LH surges. However, NPY was without any potentiating effects in animals pretreated with RU486 at 1230 h. RU486 also attenuated the ability of LHRH alone to restore LH surges in pentobarbital-blocked rats. In Exp 2, NPY was without effect on LHRH-induced LH secretion during the morning hours of proestrus. Our results demonstrate that 1) NPY facilitates LHRH-induced LH surges on the afternoon of proestrus; 2) presumptive progesterone receptor blockade by RU486 completely

  4. Neither plasma progesterone concentrations nor exogenous eCG affects rates of ovulation or pregnancy in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols for puberal Nellore heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegorer, M Figueira; Ereno, R L; Satrapa, R A; Pinheiro, V G; Trinca, L A; Barros, C M

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations and exogenous eCG on ovulation and pregnancy rates of pubertal Nellore heifers in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols. In Experiment 1 (Exp. 1), on Day 0 (7 d after ovulation), heifers (n = 15) were given 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) im and randomly allocated to receive: an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device containing 0.558 g of P4 (group 0.5G, n = 4); an intravaginal device containing 1 g of P4 (group 1G, n = 4); 0.558 g of P4 and PGF(2α) (PGF; 150 μg d-cloprostenol, group 0.5G/PGF, n = 4); or 1 g of P4 and PGF (group 1G/PGF, n = 3). On Day 8, PGF was given to all heifers and intravaginal devices removed; 24 h later (Day 9), all heifers were given 1 mg EB im. In Exp. 2, pubertal Nellore heifers (n = 292) were treated as in Exp. 1, with FTAI on Day 10 (30 to 36 h after EB). In Exp. 3, pubertal heifers (n = 459) received the treatments described for groups 0.5G/PGF and 1G/PGF and were also given 300 IU of eCG im (groups 0.5G/PGF/eCG and 1G/PGF/eCG) at device removal (Day 8). In Exp. 1, plasma P4 concentrations were significantly higher in heifers that received 1.0 vs 0.588 g P4, and were significantly lower in heifers that received PGF on Day 0. In Exp. 2 and 3, there were no significant differences among groups in rates of ovulation (65-77%) or pregnancy (Exp. 2: 26-33%; Exp. 3: 39-43%). In Exp. 3, diameter of the dominant ovarian follicle on Day 9 was larger in heifers given 0.558 g vs 1.0 g P4 (10.3 ± 0.2 vs 9.3 ± 0.2 mm; P decreased plasma P4 from Days 1 to 8 and increased diameter of the dominant follicle on Day 9. However, neither of these nor 300 IU of eCG on Day 8 significantly increased rates of ovulation or pregnancy.

  5. The cytoskeleton proteins and LH-regulated steroidogenesis in porcine luteal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L.; Slomczynska, Maria [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The involvement of microtubules (MT) and microflilaments (MF) in LH-regulation of luteal cell stereoidogenesis was assessed at the middle stage of corpus luteum development. The influence microtubule- and microfilament-altering agents on basal and LH-stimulated progesterone (P4) production and secretion into the incubation medium was determined by RIA. LH-stimulated P4 production was 2.5 times higher than in the control cultures. Cytochalasis B (Cyt B) was without effect on basal P4 synthesis but increased the basal fraction of P4 secreted into the incubation medium, while colchicine (Col) increased both basal P4 synthesis and the fraction of P4 secreted into the incubation medium. LH-stimulated progesterone synthesis was reduced by Col, but the fraction secreted into the incubation medium increased. Cyt B had no effect on LH-stimulated synthesis but it decreased the fraction of P4 secreted into the incubation medium. Our findings demonstrate significant differences in the effect of Cyt B and Col on steroidogenesis in corpus luteum. We conclude that microtubules play an important role in the process of LH-stimulated P4 synthesis, while microfilaments act in the process of basal and LH-stimulated P4 secretion. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs.

  6. Setting-up and validation of two radioimmunoassay methods for determination of plasma progesterone concentration in mares, cows and rats; Padronizacao e validacao de dois metodos de radioimunoensaio (RIE) para dosagem da progesterona (P{sub 4}) no plasma de equinos, bovinos e ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa e Silva, A.A.M.; Caldas, M.C.S.; Campos, L.M.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Fisiologia; Gradela, A. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    1993-06-01

    Two reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods which permits the measurement of progesterone (P{sub 4}) in plasma of equine, bovine and rats are described. After extraction of plasma with diethylic ether the RIA methods were performed. The first one utilizes {sup 125} I progesterone (double antibody method) and the other 1,2,6,7,16, 17 {sup 3} H progesterone (adsorption in charcoal/dextran). Both two methods were suitable in the valuation of plasma P{sub 4} concentration in different physiological reproductive conditions. The method of the double antibody showed higher sensibility beyond to be less expensive than the other method. Despite it, the two RIA methods were much less expensive than available commercial Kits in the market. (author) 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Effects of metformin treatment on luteal phase progesterone concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Meenakumari K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of luteal phase progesterone deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are not known. To determine the possible involvement of hyperinsulinemia in luteal phase progesterone deficiency in women with PCOS, we examined the relationship between progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and insulin during the luteal phase and studied the effect of metformin on luteal progesterone levels in PCOS. Patients with PCOS (19 women aged 18-35 years were treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily for 4 weeks prior to the test cycle and throughout the study period, and submitted to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 5, same age range as PCOS women and PCOS women during the late follicular (one sample and luteal (3 samples phases and LH, insulin and progesterone concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Duncan's test and Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r. The endocrine study showed low progesterone level (4.9 ng/ml during luteal phase in the PCOS women as compared with control (21.6 ng/ml. A significant negative correlation was observed between insulin and progesterone (r = -0.60; P < 0.01 and between progesterone and LH (r = -0.56; P < 0.05 concentrations, and a positive correlation (r = 0.83; P < 0.001 was observed between LH and insulin. The study further demonstrated a significant enhancement in luteal progesterone concentration (16.97 ng/ml in PCOS women treated with metformin. The results suggest that hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance may be responsible for low progesterone levels during the luteal phase in PCOS. The luteal progesterone level may be enhanced in PCOS by decreasing insulin secretion with metformin.

  8. Patterns of plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone, progesterone, estradiol, and estriol change and the onset of human labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger; Smith, Julia I; Shen, Xiaobin; Engel, Patricia J; Bowman, Maria E; McGrath, Shaun A; Bisits, Andrew M; McElduff, Patrick; Giles, Warwick B; Smith, David W

    2009-06-01

    Clinical prediction of preterm delivery is largely ineffective, and the mechanism mediating progesterone (P) withdrawal and estrogen activation at the onset of human labor is unclear. Our objectives were to determine associations of rates of change of circulating maternal CRH in midpregnancy with preterm delivery, CRH with estriol (E3) concentrations in late pregnancy, and predelivery changes in the ratios of E3, estradiol (E2), and P. A cohort of 500 pregnant women was followed from first antenatal visits to delivery during the period 2000-2004 at John Hunter Hospital, New South Wales, Australia, a tertiary care obstetric hospital. Unselected subjects were recruited (including women with multiple gestations) and serial blood samples obtained. CRH daily percentage change in term and preterm singletons at 26 wk, ratios E3/E2, P/E3, and P/E2 and the association between E3 and CRH concentrations in the last month of pregnancy (with spontaneous labor onset) were assessed. CRH percentage daily change was significantly higher in preterm than term singletons at 26 wk (medians 3.09 and 2.73; P = 0.003). In late pregnancy, CRH and E3 concentrations were significantly positively associated (P = 0.003). E3/E2 increased, P/E3 decreased, and P/E2 was unchanged in the month before delivery (medians: E3/E2, 7.04 and 10.59, P onset of labor. Our evidence provides a rationale for the use of CRH in predicting preterm birth and informs approaches to delaying labor using P supplementation.

  9. Pituitary regulation of corpus luteum progesterone secretion in cyclic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Criado, J E; López, F; Aguilar, E

    1986-09-01

    Pituitary LH and PRL secretion during the early postovulatory period of the rat estrous cycle seem to affect the corpus luteum (CL) autonomy to secrete progesterone. Thus, while PRL would act luteotropically, LH would be luteolytic. To further investigate these facts, 4-day cyclic rats, treated with either 1 mg bromocriptine (CB) or 0.25 ml 70% ethanol (ETOH) at 1600 h on estrus, were injected with 0.5 ml of either an anti-LH serum (LHAS) or normal horse serum (NHS) at 0800 h on metestrus. Rats treated at 0800 h on metestrus with both, CB and LHAS, were also used. To verify through a different procedure the effect of LH and/or PRL deprivation in estrous cycle CL progesterone secretion, hypophysectomy (HYPOX) and sham HYPOX (SHAM) were done at 0800 h on metestrus in either CB- or ETOH-injected rats at 1600 h on estrus. Hypophysectomized rats at 1600 h on estrus were also used. Progesterone secretion was prolonged up to 0800 h on diestrus in those rats deprived of LH from 0800 h on metestrus (ETOH/LHAS, -/CB + LHAS, ETOH/HYPOX) compared with controls (ETOH/NHS, ETOH/SHAM). This luteotropic effect was absent in those rats lacking estrous afternoon PRL (CB/LHAS, CB/HYPOX, HYPOX/-). No effect on CL progesterone secretion was detected in those rats exclusively deprived of PRL on the afternoon of estrus (CB/NHS, CB/SHAM). These results suggest that in the absence of the protective effects of PRL secretion on the afternoon of estrus, rat CL become extremely sensitive to the luteolytic effects of early diestrous LH levels, and this results in 4-day estrous cycles.

  10. Effect of nutrition on plasma progesterone levels, metabolic parameters and small follicles development in unstimulated goats reared under constant photoperiod regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondina, D; Freitas, V J F; Spinaci, M; Galeati, G

    2005-12-01

    Sixteen local adult goats were submitted for 9 weeks to 2.09 (high group) and 0.54 (low group) x dietary maintenance respectively. During the experimental period, goats were weighed, oestrus was detected and plasma insulin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids and progesterone concentrations were assessed. At the end of the experiment, ovarian small follicles population was studied by histological analysis. Final weight loss in low group was 18.37 +/- 2.02%, whereas weight gain of high group was 13.84 +/- 2.70%. Insulin and urea were lower in low group, while non-esterified fatty acids were significantly higher. A lower number of fasted goats was in oestrus or ovulated and an extended length of oestrus (p goats a significant qualitative alteration of follicle classes involved in the initiation process of primordial pool was found. In this phase, granulosa thickness and oocyte size were the most affected (p 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that opposite dietary intakes for a medium period induce a composite reproductive response in goats and can regulate the early onset of follicle growth.

  11. Human ovulation and plasma oxytocin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaresan, Perianna; Kumaresan, Malathi; Hossini, Mahmood; Arellano, Carolina; Vasicka, Alois (State Univ. of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn (USA))

    1983-10-01

    Plasma oxytocin (OT) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) method without extracting plasma in 11 normal menstruating women. Mean plasma OT level began to increase steadily from the 7th day of the menstrual cycle and this level rose up to 20+-5 ..mu..U/ml (Mean+-S.E.) on the 10th day of the cycle. OT level declined to 13+-6 ..mu..U/ml on the day of the LH peak and continuously declined for another 2 days - then rose. The OT level was higher during the follicular phase than during the luteal phase. In 1 individual OT measured in 2 cycles a year apart showed the highest level of OT coincided with LH and FSH peak and abruptly declined. When there was the highest level of progesterone, the OT level was measurable 1 out of 11 cycles. From this study, we conclude that OT may have a role in human ovulation either synergistically or alone with other ovulatory mechanisms and ovarian estradiol and progesterone control the secretion of OT and also suggests that OT may play some role in the regulation of the luteolysis and the menstrual cycle in women.

  12. Influence of estradiol, progesterone, and nutrition on concentrations of gonadotropins and GnRH receptors, and abundance of mRNA for GnRH receptors and gonadotropin subunits in pituitary glands of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looper, M L; Vizcarra, J A; Wettemann, R P; Malayer, J R; Braden, T D; Geisert, R D; Morgan, G L

    2003-01-01

    Nutritionally induced anovulatory cows (n = 28) were used to determine the effect of steroids on regulation of synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins. Anovulatory cows were ovariectomized and received intravaginal inserts containing estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), E2 and P4 (E2P4), or a sham intravaginal insert (C) for 7 d. Concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were quantified in serum and E2 and P4 were quantified in plasma. Cows were exsanguinated within 1 to 2 h after removal of intravaginal inserts and pituitary glands were collected and stored at -80 degrees C until messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) and gonadotropin subunits, pituitary content of GnRH-R, and LH and FSH were quantified. Pituitary glands from five proestrous cows were harvested to compare gonadotropin characteristics between ovariectomized, anovulatory cows and intact cows. Plasma concentrations of E2 were greater (P nutritionally induced anovulatory cows was increased (P nutritionally induced anovulatory cows with progesterone and estradiol may cause pulsatile secretion of LH.

  13. [Plasma concentrations of folic acid, vitamin B12 and progesterone of cyclic bitches, bitches during pregnancy and induced abortion and bitches with pyometra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, H; Beceriklisoy, H B; Kanca, H; Findik, M; Erünal-Maral, N; Handler, J; Aslan, S

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma concentrations of folic acid, vitamin B12 and progesterone at different stages of the sexual cycle and pregnancy, during induced abortion and in bitches with pyometra. Bitches (n = 97) were assigned to groups as follows: a) oestrous cycle (n = 42) b) pregnancy (n = 25) c) induction of abortion (n = 10 and d) pyometra (n = 20). Oestrous cycle stages were determined by vaginal inspection and cytology. Pregnancies were estimated by ultrasound (5.0 Mhz; linear transducer; Schimadzu) at days 15-25, 35-45 and 46-63 of pregnancy. Treatments for the induction of abortion were started between days 25 and 35 after mating (5 microg/kg cabergoline daily, Galastop; 5-10 microg/kg Alfaprostol every other day, Gabbrostim). Diagnosis of pyometra was confirmed by ultrasound and vaginoscopy. Folic acid and vitamin B12 concentrations did not differ among different stages of the oestrous cycle. The mean concentration of folic acid during early pregnancy (days 15-25) exceeded levels of later stages (days 46-63): 9.4 +/- 3.7 microg/ml and 4.7 +/- 1.8 microg/ml, respectively (p dogs ( r = 0.925; p pyometra significantly differed from that of bitches at different stages of the oestrous cycle (p pyometra (p < 0.05). The decrease of serum concentrations of folic acid during pregnancy and induced abortion show that fetal growth and abortion caused higher consumption of folic acid. Concerning bitches did not show any deficiency symptoms, which is why it can be concluded that this decrease is physiological.

  14. 2-bromopalmitate inhibition of stimulatory effect on LH in isolated luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C H; Robinson, J

    1982-04-05

    The effect of 2-bromopalmitate, an inhibitor of fatty acids oxidation, on progesterone synthesis in isolated luteal cells was studied. Incubation of the cells with increasing concentrations (0 - 2 mM) of the inhibitor resulted in an initial enhancement of progesterone synthesis, both in the presence and absence of LH (1 microgram/ml). In the LH-treated cells, this stimulation in steroid synthesis becomes markedly impaired at 2 mM 2-bromopalmitate. In the control cells, however, progesterone synthesis was sustained at the elevated level. At high concentrations of 2-bromopalmitate, the stimulatory effect of LH (relative to the controls) on steroidogenesis was progressively diminished, until it was completely abolished at an inhibitor concentration of 2 mM. The oxidation of labelled palmitic acid by luteal cells was also effectively inhibited by 2-bromopalmitate (1 mM). The results indicate that the steroidogenic effect of LH is mediated, in part, by fatty acid oxidation, and were explained in terms of the interaction between carbohydrate and fatty acid oxidation in supporting ovarian steroidogenesis.

  15. Effects of luteectomy in early pregnancy on the maintenance of gestation and plasma progesterone concentrations in the viviparous temperate lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata

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    Moreno-Fierros Leticia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that the corpus luteum is the principal source of progesterone during the gravidity period in reptiles; however, its participation in the maintenance of gestation in the viviparous squamata is in dispute. The effects of ovariectomy or luteectomy vary according to the species and the time at which the procedure is performed. In this paper, we describe the effects of luteectomy during early pregnancy on the maintenance of gestation and progesterone concentrations in the temperate Mexican viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata. Methods Twenty-four lizards were subjected to three different treatments: luteectomy, sham luteectomy or non-surgical treatment, and blood samples were obtained before and after surgical treatment at different stages of gestation to determine the effects of luteectomy on the maintenance of gestation and progesterone concentrations. Results Spontaneous abortion was not observed in any of the females. However, luteectomy provoked abnormal parturition and a significant reduction in the number of young born alive. Parturition was normal in untreated females as well as those submitted to sham luteectomy. The surgical treatment also caused a significant reduction in progesterone concentrations in luteectomised females during early and middle gestation. However, no significant differences in hormone concentrations were observed among the three groups during late gestation or immediately post-parturition. Conclusions Our observations indicate that the presence of the corpus luteum is not necesary for the maintenance of gestation, but that it does participate in parturition control. Moreover, the corpus luteum of the viviparous lizard B. i. imbricata produces progesterone, at least during the first half of pregnancy, and that an extra-ovarian source of progesterone must maintain gestation in the absence of luteal tissue.

  16. The presence and role of progesterone receptor in the ovaries of postmenopausal women who have not applied hormone replacement therapy.

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    Małgorzata Piasecka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, not much is known about progesterone receptor (PR expression and localization in postmenopausal women ovaries. In the ovaries of reproductive age women, PR is localized in internal theca and granulosa cells, corpus luteum, ovary surface epithelium (OSE and in stroma. PR expression depends on the serum concentration of progesterone, estrogen, gonadotropin and androgen. The goal of the conducted studies was to examine PR localization and expression in the ovaries of postmenopausal women who have not applied hormone replacement therapy so far. Also, the correlation was examined between PR expression and localization in the ovaries, steroid and gonadotropin hormone serum concentrations, and influence of the time from the last menstruation. The material came from 50 postmenopausal women who had their ovaries removed due to non-neoplastic diseases. The women were divided into 3 groups (A, B, C depending on the time from the last menstruation. The follitropin (FSH, luteotropin (LH, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, androstendione (A and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS concentrations in blood plasma were measured. Monoclonal mouse anti-human PR antibody was used for immunohistochemical detection (examination involved 50 postmenopausal ovaries. Between particular groups, E2 serum concentrations did not differ, but FSH, LH, T, A, DHEAS serum concentrations were significantly different. Immunohistochemical nuclear localization of PR in postmenopausal women ovaries was observed. PR expression was similar in all three groups (A, B, C. PR expression was observed in OSE nuclei and invaginations cysts deriving from the isolation of invaginated epithelium and metaplastic columnar epithelium and in stroma. In the ovaries of postmenopausal women who have not applied hormone replacement therapy so far, PR was detected in all three groups. Its expression did not depend on the time from menopause and was similar in all examined groups. FSH, LH, T, A

  17. Autoimmune Progesterone Anaphylaxis

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    Mohammad Hassan Bemanian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone induced dermatitis is a rare disorder. It typically occurs in females due to anautoimmune phenomenon to endogenous progesterone production, but can also be caused byexogenous intake of a synthetic progestin. Here in, we present a case of autoimmune progesterone anaphylaxis (AIPA observed in an adolescent female.The patient is an 18-year-old Caucasian female with no significant past medical history and noprior exogenous hormone use, who presented to her primary care physician complaining of cyclic skin eruptions with dyspnea, cough and respiratory distress. She noted that her symptoms occurred monthly, just prior to her menses. An intradermal skin test using 0.1 cml of progesterone was performed. The patient developed a 15mm wheal after 15 minutes, confirming the diagnosis of AIPA.The patient was started on a continuous regimen of an oral conjugated estrogen (0.625mg. The skin eruptions and respiratory symptoms have not returned since the initiation of this therapy.Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis manifests via the occurrence of cyclic skin eruptions.Women with the disorder commonly present with dermatologic lesions in the luteal phase of themenstrual cycle, if there are any other organ involvement in addition to skin (e.g. lung, GI thereaction should be called as autoimmune progesterone anaphylaxis. Diagnosis of AIPA is confirmed by performing a skin allergen test using progesterone.

  18. Give progesterone a chance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Florencia Labombarda; Daniel Garcia-Ovejero

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no standard pharmacological treatment for spinal cord injury. Here, we suggest that progesterone, a steroid hormone, may be a promising therapeutical candidate as it is already for traumatic brain injury, where it has reached phase II clinical trials. We rely on previous works showing anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and promyelinating roles for progesterone after spinal cord injury and in our recent paper, in which we demonstrate that progesterone dimin-ishes lesion, preserves white matter integrity and improves locomotor recovery in a clinically relevant model of spinal cord lesion.

  19. Perfil hormonal de Progesterona durante o ciclo Estral em novilhas Nelore confinadas com Diferentes Ondas de Crescimento Folicular Plasma Progesterone Level during the Estrous Cycle in Nelore Heifers Confined with Two, Three and Four Waves of Follicular Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Lomas Santiago

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Efetuaram-se coletas diárias de sangue, de 16 novilhas Nelore confinadas, para análise de progesterona plasmática pelo método de radioimunoensaio (RIA. Os dias analisados para progesterona foram o dia zero (estro e a cada três dias até o dia -1 e o dia zero. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: 1 com ciclo estral de 21 dias aproximadamente (novilhas que apresentaram duas e três ondas de crescimento folicular e 2 com ciclo estral superior a 25 dias (novilhas com quatro ondas de crescimento folicular. As concentrações médias de progesterona plasmática dos animais durante o ciclo estral diferiram entre os dois grupos, sendo superiores (4,27 ng/mL para os ciclos de maior duração. A concentração média de progesterona no ciclo de aproximadamente 21 dias foi de 2,54 ng/mL. Os resultados sugerem que as novilhas que apresentam maior duração do ciclo estral necessitam de tempo adicional para que seus folículos cheguem ao estádio pré-ovulatório, havendo, dessa maneira, prolongamento e aumento da secreção de progesterona.Blood were collected daily from 16 Nelore heifers confined, for radioimmunoassay (RIA.analyses of progesterone The plasma progesterone assay were at day zero (estrus and at each three days until the -1 and the day zero.again The animals were divided in two groups: 1 with regular estrous cycle of 21 days (heifers with two and three follicular growth waves and 2 with prolonged estrous cycle, greater than 25 days (heifers with four follicular growth waves. The mean plasma progesterone level from the animals during the estrous cycle differed between the two groups, being greater (4,27 ng/mL for the extended cycles.(above 25 days; 4,27 ng/mL than for the regular estrous cycle (21 days; 2,54 ng/mL. Results suggest that those heifers which showed an extended estrous cycles, needs an additional time for the follicles to each the pre-ovulatory stadium, resulting in prolonged and increased progesterone secretion.

  20. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  1. Progesterone, BDNF and Neuroprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Meharvan; Su,Chang

    2012-01-01

    While the effects of progesterone in the central nervous system (CNS), like those of estrogen, have generally been considered within the context of reproductive function, growing evidence supports its importance in regulating non-reproductive functions including cognition and affect. In addition, progesterone has well-described protective effects against numerous insults in a variety of cell models, animal models and in humans. While ongoing research in several laboratories continues to shed ...

  2. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Murat; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring. Thirty-two rats and their forty newborn offspring were divided into the following four groups according to the type of EMR exposure they were subjected to: the control, 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz groups. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during the pregnancy and growth periods. The pregnant rats were allowed to stand for four generations (total 52 weeks) before, plasma and uterine samples were obtained. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, plasma and uterine samples were also obtained from the developing rats. Although uterine lipid peroxidation increased in the EMR groups, uterine glutathione peroxidase activity (4th and 5th weeks) and plasma prolactin levels (6th week) in developing rats decreased in these groups. In the maternal rats, the plasma prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels decreased in the EMR groups, while the plasma total oxidant status, and body temperatures increased. There were no changes in the levels of reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, or vitamins A, C, and E in the uterine and plasma samples of maternal rats. In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and

  3. LH and hCG Action on the Same Receptor Results in Quantitatively and Qualitatively Different Intracellular Signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Lispi, Monica; Longobardi, Salvatore; Milosa, Fabiola; La Marca, Antonio; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Pignatti, Elisa; Simoni, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Human luteinizing hormone (hLH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) act on the same receptor (LHCGR) but it is not known whether they elicit the same cellular and molecular response. This study compares for the first time the activation of cell-signalling pathways and gene expression in response to hLH and hCG. Using recombinant hLH and recombinant hCG we evaluated the kinetics of cAMP production in COS-7 and hGL5 cells permanently expressing LHCGR (COS-7/LHCGR, hGL5/LHCGR), as well as cAMP, ERK1/2, AKT activation and progesterone production in primary human granulosa cells (hGLC). The expression of selected target genes was measured in the presence or absence of ERK- or AKT-pathways inhibitors. In COS-7/LHCGR cells, hCG is 5-fold more potent than hLH (cAMP ED50: 107.1±14.3 pM and 530.0±51.2 pM, respectively). hLH maximal effect was significantly faster (10 minutes by hLH; 1 hour by hCG). In hGLC continuous exposure to equipotent doses of gonadotropins up to 36 hours revealed that intracellular cAMP production is oscillating and significantly higher by hCG versus hLH. Conversely, phospho-ERK1/2 and -AKT activation was more potent and sustained by hLH versus hCG. ERK1/2 and AKT inhibition removed the inhibitory effect on NRG1 (neuregulin) expression by hLH but not by hCG; ERK1/2 inhibition significantly increased hLH- but not hCG-stimulated CYP19A1 (aromatase) expression. We conclude that: i) hCG is more potent on cAMP production, while hLH is more potent on ERK and AKT activation; ii) hGLC respond to equipotent, constant hLH or hCG stimulation with a fluctuating cAMP production and progressive progesterone secretion; and iii) the expression of hLH and hCG target genes partly involves the activation of different pathways depending on the ligand. Therefore, the LHCGR is able to differentiate the activity of hLH and hCG. PMID:23071612

  4. Feedback effects of estradiol and progesterone on ovulation and fertility of dairy cows after gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced release of luteinizing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Pulley, S L

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted with the objective to determine the effects of estradiol, progesterone, presence of a corpus luteum (CL), and size of a dominant follicle on the characteristics and patterns of GnRH-induced LH release and subsequent ovulation during a timed artificial insemination (TAI) program, or a combination of these. In 70 lactating dairy cows, a total of 163 blood collection periods resulting in a GnRH-induced LH release were analyzed. Concentrations of LH were measured in hourly samples (0 through 6 h after GnRH) during each of the blood collection periods, whereas concentrations of progesterone and estradiol were measured in the sample before GnRH treatment (0 h). Measures of LH included time to LH peak concentration during the 6-h blood collection period, the 2 largest concentrations of LH, mean, and variance of the 6 LH concentrations under each LH curve. Individual and combination effects of CL presence and a dominant follicle ≤ or >13.5mm, in addition to individual and combination effects of progesterone: low (release during 6 h after each of 163 injections. Measures of GnRH-induced LH concentration were inhibited at greater concentrations of progesterone and in the presence of a CL. In contrast, GnRH-induced LH concentrations were increased when estradiol was ≥4.0 pg/mL, but relatively unaffected by the size of the dominant follicle. Furthermore, resulting incidences of ovulation were decreased at greater progesterone concentrations and presence of a CL, and increased at greater estradiol concentrations and presence of follicles >13.5mm. In cows with or without a CL, the presence of a follicle >13.5mm did not increase mean LH concentration or incidence of ovulation. We conclude that when progesterone concentration exceeded 0.5 ng/mL at the time of GnRH treatment, subsequent LH concentrations and ovulation were suppressed. At that same concentration of progesterone or when concentrations of estradiol were ≥4 pg/mL, TAI pregnancy

  5. Temporary undernutrition during early gestation, corpora lutea morphometrics, ovarian progesterone secretion and embryo survival in gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Bouwman, E.G.; Chen, T.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Soede, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports effects of severe undernutrition on luteal function and pregnancy in pigs. Gilts were inseminated and either fasted on Day 10 and 11 after conception (n = 11) or fully fed throughout (n = 10). Fasting did not affect LH or progesterone pulsatile secretion pattern on Day 11 i

  6. The "Ram Effect": A "Non-Classical" Mechanism for Inducing LH Surges in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre-Nys, Claude; Chanvallon, Audrey; Dupont, Joëlle; Lardic, Lionel; Lomet, Didier; Martinet, Stéphanie; Scaramuzzi, Rex J

    2016-01-01

    During spring sheep do not normally ovulate but exposure to a ram can induce ovulation. In some ewes an LH surge is induced immediately after exposure to a ram thus raising questions about the control of this precocious LH surge. Our first aim was to determine the plasma concentrations of oestradiol (E2) E2 in anoestrous ewes before and after the "ram effect" in ewes that had a "precocious" LH surge (starting within 6 hours), a "normal" surge (between 6 and 28h) and "late» surge (not detected by 56h). In another experiment we tested if a small increase in circulating E2 could induce an LH surge in anoestrus ewes. The concentration of E2 significantly was not different at the time of ram introduction among ewes with the three types of LH surge. "Precocious" LH surges were not preceded by a large increase in E2 unlike "normal" surges and small elevations of circulating E2 alone were unable to induce LH surges. These results show that the "precocious" LH surge was not the result of E2 positive feedback. Our second aim was to test if noradrenaline (NA) is involved in the LH response to the "ram effect". Using double labelling for Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) we showed that exposure of anoestrous ewes to a ram induced a higher density of cells positive for both in the A1 nucleus and the Locus Coeruleus complex compared to unstimulated controls. Finally, the administration by retrodialysis into the preoptic area, of NA increased the proportion of ewes with an LH response to ram odor whereas treatment with the α1 antagonist Prazosin decreased the LH pulse frequency and amplitude induced by a sexually active ram. Collectively these results suggest that in anoestrous ewes NA is involved in ram-induced LH secretion as observed in other induced ovulators.

  7. Towards a Physics-Based L-H Transition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Neiser, T.; Bardoczi, L.; Jenko, F.; Zeng, L.; Gohil, P.; Chrystal, C.; Grierson, B. A.; Eldon, D.; Yan, Z.; McKee, G. R.; Boedo, J.

    2016-10-01

    L-mode turbulence properties, collisionality, and ion transport fluxes across the separatrix are shown to determine the pre-transition ion poloidal and diamagnetic L-mode edge flow and the shear flow amplification triggering the L-H transition. L-mode ion thermal fluxes increase with density above the power threshold minimum, and are higher in hydrogen than in deuterium plasmas. The long-range toroidal ExB flow correlation at the L-H transition trigger time is observed to peak at intermediate plasma density around the L-H power threshold minimum, and is higher in D-plasmas in comparison to H-plasmas, indicating a possible link between trigger physics and power threshold. The turbulence-driven poloidal ion flow is found decisive for initial turbulence suppression, with a Reynolds stress gradient sufficiently large to account for the measured poloidal flow acceleration in the plateau collisionality. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-08ER54984, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG02-89ER53296, DE-FG02-07ER54917.

  8. Dynamics of Progesterone, TNF-α, and a Metabolite of PGF2α in Blood Plasma of Beef Cows following Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Mason

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactating beef cows previously synchronized for estrus (d 0 were assigned to four treatments to assess their effectiveness in increasing blood progesterone (P4 and its effects on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α after the transfer of embryos. At the time of transfer (d 7, cows received no treatment (control; n=16, a controlled internal drug releasing device (CIDR; n=16, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; n=15, or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; n=15. Blood samples were taken on d 7, 14, and 21 for analysis of P4 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Blood was collected (every 15 min for 2 h in half the animals in each treatment group on d 14 and the remaining half on d 21 for analysis of prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGFM. Retention rates were 56.2, 62.5, 46.7, and 13.3% for cows in the control, CIDR, hCG, and GnRH groups, respectively. Progesterone was greater (P≤0.05 in cows receiving hCG compared to others on d 14. Progesterone in all treatment groups increased from d 7 to d 14 and declined (P≤0.05 from d 14 to d 21. Contrary to pregnant cows, P4 and TNF-α declined from d 7 to d 21 in nonpregnant cows (P≤0.05. Although PGFM increased by d 21, there was no difference between pregnant and nonpregnant cows.

  9. Production of specific antisera for radioimmunoassay of human luteinizing hormone (LH) in the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). [/sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorell, J.I.; Jeppsson, S.; Holmstrom, B.

    1976-09-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay for LH, which measures plasma LH in the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is described. Rabbits were immunized with highly purified native LH. One of the antisera with a difference in its reactivity against LH and hCG was further purified by affinity chromatography on a column with hCG coupled to Sepharose 4B. The adsorbed antiserum and /sup 125/I-LH was used in a double antibody assay. The LH standard (MRC/68/40) efficiently inhibited the binding of /sup 125/I-LH, and the standard curve showed a sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml in the sample. hCG up to 10,000 ng/ml did not inhibit the binding of /sup 125/I-LH. The plasma level of LH in pregnant women in the first trimester was low (1.3 +- 0.1 ng/ml). When LH was measured in fertile or menopausal women with or without stimulation with LH/FSH releasing hormone (LH-RH)/sup x/ the results agreed to those found with our conventional LH-assay based on antiserum against hCG.

  10. Spatial structure of compound dither in L/H transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Shinichiro; Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Fukuyama, Atsushi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-03-01

    To study the plasma evolution and spatial structure at the L/H transition, the double hysteresis is examined by use of the 1-dimensional transport model equations. Three mechanisms for the bipolar losses, i.e., the loss cone loss, collisional bulk viscosity loss of ions and the anomalous loss are simultaneously retained. Five-fold multiple bifurcations are found to exist at the plasma edge, similar to the previous 0-dimensional study. Double hysteresis causes a self-generated oscillation, which is attributed to the compound dither, a kind of ELMs. Spatio-temporal evolution of the compound dither is analyzed. (author)

  11. The influence of nutrition on the insulin-like growth factor system and the concentrations of growth hormone, glucose, insulin, gonadotropins and progesterone in ovarian follicular fluid and plasma from adult female horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ortiz, Juan; Monget, Philippe; Guillaume, Daniel

    2014-07-31

    Feed intake affects the GH-IGF system and may be a key factor in determining the ovarian follicular growth rate. In fat mares, the plasma IGF-1 concentration is high with low GH and a quick follicular growth rate, in contrast to values observed in thin mares. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of differential feed intake on the IGF system. The objective of this experiment was to quantify IGFs, IGFBPs, GH, glucose, insulin, gonadotropin and progesterone (P4) in blood and in preovulatory follicular fluid (FF) in relation to feeding levels in mares. Three years prior to the experiment, Welsh Pony mares were assigned to a restricted diet group (R, n = 10) or a well-fed group (WF, n = 9). All mares were in good health and exhibited differences in body weight and subcutaneous fat thickness. Follicular development was scanned daily and plasma was also collected daily. Preovulatory FF was collected by ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration. Hormone levels were assayed in FF and plasma with a validated RIA. According to scans, the total number of follicles in group R was 53% lower than group WF. Insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were higher in WF than in R mares. GH and IGF-2 concentrations were lower in plasma from WF mares than from R mares, but the difference was not significant in FF. The IGFBP-2/IGFBP-3 ratio in FF was not affected by feeding but was dramatically increased in R mare plasma. No difference in gonadotropin concentration was found with the exception of FSH, which was higher in the plasma of R mares. On the day of puncture, P4 concentrations were not affected by feeding but were higher in preovulatory FF than in plasma. The bioavailability of IGF-1 or IGF-2, represented by the IGFBP2/IGFBP3 ratio, is modified by feed intake in plasma but not in FF. These differences partially explain the variability in follicular growth observed between well-fed mares and mares on restricted diets.

  12. Progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Fan; Haichao Li; Yuwei Wang; Yanglin Zheng; Lianjun Jia; Zhihui Wang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of progesterone on peripheral nerve regeneration.DATA SOURCES: An online search of Medline and OVID databases was under taken to identify articles about progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration published in English between January 1990 and June 2004 by using the keywords of "peripheral nerve, injury, progesterone, regeneration".STUDY SELECTION: The data were primarily screened, those correlated with progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration were involved, and their original articles were further searched, the repetitive studies or reviews were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 59 articles about progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration were collected, and 26 of them were involved, the other 33 excluded ones were the repetitive studies or reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS: Recent researches found that certain amount of progesterone could be synthetized in peripheral nervous system, and the expression of progesterone receptor could be found in sensory neurons and Schwann cells. After combined with the receptor, endogenous and exogenous progesterone can accelerate the formation of peripheral nerve myelin sheath, also promote the axonal regeneration.CONCLUSION: Progesterone plays a role in protecting neurons, increasing the sensitivity of nerve tissue to nerve growth factor, and accelerating regeneration of nerve in peripheral nerve regeneration, which provides theoretical references for the treatment of demyelinated disease and nerve injury, as well as the prevention of neuroma, especially that the in vivo level of progesterone should be considered for the elderly people accompanied by neuropathy and patients with congenital luteal phase defect, which is of positive significance in guiding the treatment.

  13. Intrauterine devices containing progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, F

    1977-05-01

    Characteristics of progesterone-releasing IUDs are reported. At present, the only progesterone-containing IUD on the market is Progestasert, a T-shaped ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer device containing 38 mg progesterone in silicone. The device releases approximately 65 mcg/day into the uterine cavity over the course of 1-year. The device does not alter pituitary function or ovulation, nor does it depend on a local mechanical effect. Rather, it may exert its effect by inhibiting sperm capacitation or survival, or it may prevent nidation by alterning the endometrium. The reported pregnancy rate for Progestasert is 1.9% in parous women and 2.5% in nulliparous women. This efficacy rate is similar to that for other IUDs and low-dose progestin-only oral contraceptives. Breakthrough bleeding is the most common side effect, and perhaps 10-15% of the acceptors will have the device removed for either bleeding, pain, or infection. The rate of spontaneous expulsion of the device is about 3-8%. It is recommended that the device be inserted during or shortly after the menstrual period.

  14. Effect of subluteal concentrations of progesterone on luteinizing hormone and ovulation in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatler, T B; Hayes, S H; Ray, D L; Reames, P S; Silvia, W J

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if administration of progesterone within a low, subluteal range (0.1-1.0 ng/mL) blocks the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (experiments 1 and 2) and ovulation (experiment 2) in lactating dairy cows. In experiment 1, progesterone was administered to cycling, lactating dairy cows during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle using a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device. CIDRs were pre-incubated in other cows for either 0 (CIDR-0), 14 (CIDR-14) or 28 days (CIDR-28). One group of cows received no CIDRs and served as controls. One day after CIDR insertion, luteolysis was induced by two injections of prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) (25 mg) at 12 h intervals. Two days after the first injection, estradiol cypionate (ECP; 3 mg) was injected to induce a LH surge. Concentrations of progesterone after luteolysis were 0.11, 0.45, 0.78 and 1.20 ng/mL for cows treated with no CIDR, CIDR-28, CIDR-14, and CIDR-0, respectively. LH surges were detected in 4/4 controls, 4/5 CIDR-28, 2/5 CIDR-14 and 0/5 CIDR-0 cows following ECP. In experiment 2, progesterone was administered to cycling, lactating, Holstein cows during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle as in experiment 1. Luteolysis was induced as in experiment 1. The occurrence of an endogenous LH surge and ovulation were monitored for 7 days. Concentrations of progesterone after luteolysis were 0.13, 0.30, 0.70 and 1.20 ng/mL for cows treated with no CIDR, CIDR-28, CIDR-14 and CIDR-0, respectively. LH surges and ovulation were detected in 5/5 controls, 3/7 CIDR-28, 0/5 CIDR-14 and 0/5 CIDR-0 cows. It was concluded that low concentrations of progesterone can reduce the ability of either endogenous or exogenous estradiol to induce a preovulatory surge of LH and ovulation.

  15. Do FSH/LH ratio and gonadal hormone levels predict clinical improvement in postmenopausal schizophrenia women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Bernardo, Miquel; Penadés, Rafael; Arias, Bárbara; Ruiz Cortés, Victoria; Seeman, Mary V; Catalán, Rosa

    2017-07-12

    Menopause is a process characterized by a decline in estrogen levels and is therefore a period of biological vulnerability for psychotic relapse in women with schizophrenia. Our goal was to correlate not only gonadal hormone levels but also follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels with improvement in specific clinical symptoms. Thirty-seven acutely ill postmenopausal schizophrenia women with a newly initiated, clinically determined change in antipsychotic medication participated in a 12-week prospective observational outcome study. Scales used were the PANSS scale for psychotic symptoms, the PSP for functioning, and CGI for global clinical impression. Circulating FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone serum levels were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Partial correlational analyses were performed along with a Bonferroni significance correction (p schizophrenia symptom domains, we recommend further investigation of pituitary, adrenal, and gonadal hormone ratios as potential markers of clinical improvement in this population.

  16. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Lamb, G C

    2016-07-01

    The role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy is well known in the bovine. Subtle differences exist between dairy and beef cows because of differing concentrations of progesterone during recrudescence of postpartum estrous cycles, rate of follicular growth and maturation, proportions of 2- and 3-follicular wave cycles, and other effects on pregnancy outcomes per artificial insemination (P/AI). Because proportions of anovulatory cows before the onset of the artificial insemination (AI) period are greater and more variable in beef (usually ranging from 30 to 70%) than dairy (25%) cows, AI programs were developed to accommodate anovulatory and cycling beef cows enrolled therein. Incorporating a progestin as part of an AI program in beef cows improved P/AI by reducing the proportion of cows having premature luteal regression and short post-AI luteal phases. In both genotypes, prolonged dominant follicle growth in a reduced progesterone milieu resulted in increased (1) LH pulses, (2) preovulatory follicle diameter, and (3) concentrations of estradiol and a subsequently larger corpora lutea (CL). In contrast, the progesterone milieu during growth of the ovulatory follicle in an ovulation control program does not seem to affect subsequent P/AI in beef cows, whereas in dairy cows follicle development in an elevated compared with a low progesterone environment increases P/AI. Progesterone status in beef cows at the onset of ovulation synchronization is not related to P/AI in multiparous cows, whereas P/AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began a timed AI program in a low-progesterone environment. In timed AI programs, elevated concentrations of progesterone just before PGF2α and reduced concentrations at AI are critical to maximizing subsequent P/AI in dairy cows, but seemingly much less important in beef cows. By inducing ancillary CL and increasing concentrations of progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin may increase P/AI when administered to beef cows 7d

  17. 国产天然孕酮阴道环的抗生育作用药效学和动物体内血药浓度变化研究%Study on Pharmacodynamics and Plasma Concentration of Progesterone Vaginal Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂幼伦; 郭湘洁; 谢淑武; 邵海浩; 曹霖; 朱焰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study on long-term contraceptive effectiveness and plasma concentration and release duration of natural progesterone vaginal ring. Methods: 1) Twenty-four fertility New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: high-dose progesterone vaginal ring (840 mg/ring), mid-dose progesterone vaginal ring (420 mg / ring), tings low-dose progesterone vaginal ring (210 mg/ring), blank vaginal ting. After recovering to be mating, the long-term contraceptive effects of progesterone vaginal ring on rabbit were observed. 2) Twelve castred goats were randomly divided into 2 groups and given the domestic ring and Chile ting, respectively. Blood samples were taken before and after inserting tings at different time points via jugular vein. Magnetic enzymelinked immunosorbent system was applied to assay the concentration of progesterone. Results: 1) There was no significant effect on the general condition of the animals, the contraceptive effect in high-dose group and mid-dose group was good, long performance could maintain 3 months, while the low-dose contraceptive was less effective. 2) Plasma concentration of domestic and Chilean progesterone vaginal ring except 20 d, 27 d, 90 d was not significantly different outside (P>0.05). Conclusion: Natural progesterone vaginal rings and high-dose and mid-dose groups had long-term contraceptive effect. The domestic vaginal ring of progesterone can be as a substitute of imported vaginal ring of progesterone.%目的:研究和观察天然孕酮阴道环的长效避孕效果,及其在山羊体内的血药浓度和持续释放时间.方法:①将24只具有生育能力的新西兰雌兔随机分为4组,分别阴道置入空白环、天然孕酮阴道环低剂量(210 mg/环)、中剂量(420 mg/环)和高剂量((840 mg/环).手术15 d后进行交配,观察天然孕酮阴道环对家兔的长效避孕效果.②将12只去卵巢山羊随机分为2组,分别给予国产和智利产天然孕酮阴道环,并于置入阴道环

  18. Role of ghrelin in regulating rabbit ovarian function and the response to LH and IGF-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Rafay, Ján; Kotwica, Ján; Darlak, Krzysztof; Valenzuela, Francisco

    2009-04-01

    The aim of these in vivo and in vitro studies was to examine the role of ghrelin in the control of plasma hormone concentrations, the proliferation, apoptosis and secretory activity of ovarian granulosa cells and the response of these cells to hormonal treatments. Female rabbits were injected with ghrelin (10 microg/animal/day for one week before ovulation induced by 25IU PMSG and 0.25IU LHRH). On the day of ovulation, blood samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of progesterone (P(4)), testosterone (T), estradiol (E(2)), estrone-sulphate (ES), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and leptin (L) by RIA. Some control and ghrelin-treated animals were killed in the periovulatory period, their ovaries were weighed and granulosa cells were isolated and cultured for 2d. Cell proliferation (expression of PCNA) and apoptosis (expression of TdT) were evaluated by immunocytochemistry and TUNEL respectively. Secretion of P(4), T, E(2), IGF-I, and prostaglandin F (PGF) by granulosa cells cultured with and without LH or IGF-I (1, 10 or 100 ng/ml medium) was assessed by RIA. The remaining control and treated animals were kept until parturition, while the number, viability and body weight of pups were recorded. Ghrelin treatment increased rabbit plasma T and decreased ES concentrations but did not influence P(4), E(2), IGF-I or L. Granulosa cells from ghrelin-treated animals showed higher expression of PCNA and lower expression of TdT, than those from control animals. They also secreted less P(4), T, E(2), IGF-I and PGF than granulosa cells from untreated animals. Treatment of cultured granulosa cells with ghrelin (1, 10 or 100 ng/ml medium) either increased (at 1 ng/ml) or decreased (at 10 ng/ml) P(4) secretion, increased (at 100 ng/ml) or decreased (at 10 ng/ml) IGF-I secretion, decreased T (at 1 and 10 ng/ml) and OT (at 1 ng/ml) secretion, and increased (at 100 ng/ml) PGF secretion. LH treatment of cells from control animals stimulated P(4) (at 1 and 10 ng

  19. Bifurcation analysis and dimension reduction of a predator-prey model for the L-H transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Magnus; Brøns, Morten; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The L-H transition denotes a shift to an improved confinement state of a toroidal plasma in a fusion reactor. A model of the L-H transition is required to simulate the time dependence of tokamak discharges that include the L-H transition. A 3-ODE predator-prey type model of the L-H transition...... is investigated with bifurcation theory of dynamical systems. The analysis shows that the model contains three types of transitions: an oscillating transition, a sharp transition with hysteresis, and a smooth transition. The model is recognized as a slow-fast system. A reduced 2-ODE model consisting of the full...... model restricted to the flow on the critical manifold is found to contain all the same dynamics as the full model. This means that all the dynamics in the system is essentially 2-dimensional, and a minimal model of the L-H transition could be a 2-ODE model....

  20. Bifurcation analysis and dimension reduction of a predator-prey model for the L-H transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Magnus; Brøns, Morten; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Naulin, Volker; Xu, Guosheng

    2013-10-01

    The L-H transition denotes a shift to an improved confinement state of a toroidal plasma in a fusion reactor. A model of the L-H transition is required to simulate the time dependence of tokamak discharges that include the L-H transition. A 3-ODE predator-prey type model of the L-H transition is investigated with bifurcation theory of dynamical systems. The analysis shows that the model contains three types of transitions: an oscillating transition, a sharp transition with hysteresis, and a smooth transition. The model is recognized as a slow-fast system. A reduced 2-ODE model consisting of the full model restricted to the flow on the critical manifold is found to contain all the same dynamics as the full model. This means that all the dynamics in the system is essentially 2-dimensional, and a minimal model of the L-H transition could be a 2-ODE model.

  1. Bifurcation analysis and dimension reduction of a predator-prey model for the L-H transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, Magnus; Brøns, Morten [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Naulin, Volker [Association Euratom-DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Risø Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Xu, Guosheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2013-10-15

    The L-H transition denotes a shift to an improved confinement state of a toroidal plasma in a fusion reactor. A model of the L-H transition is required to simulate the time dependence of tokamak discharges that include the L-H transition. A 3-ODE predator-prey type model of the L-H transition is investigated with bifurcation theory of dynamical systems. The analysis shows that the model contains three types of transitions: an oscillating transition, a sharp transition with hysteresis, and a smooth transition. The model is recognized as a slow-fast system. A reduced 2-ODE model consisting of the full model restricted to the flow on the critical manifold is found to contain all the same dynamics as the full model. This means that all the dynamics in the system is essentially 2-dimensional, and a minimal model of the L-H transition could be a 2-ODE model.

  2. The Relationship between Plasma Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Sex Hormones during the Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavilani, H. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: There is increasing evidence for the role of oxidative stress in female reproductive tract. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes during menstrual cycle. In addition, the relationship between activity of antioxidant enzyme and sex hormones was evaluated. Material and Methods: In this study the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity during the menses, follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in twenty women with regular menstrual cycle were studied. Furthermore, the correlation between activity of antioxidant enzymes and estradiol, progesterone, LH, FSH and testosterone were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity during the menses, follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (P>0.05. We found significant correlation, in luteal phase, between superoxide dismutase and FSH (P<0.05، r=0.44 and LH P<0.05،r=0.54. Also it is observed between LH and glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05، r=0.44. Conclusion: Based on the results, there is no significant difference between antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma during menstrual cycle. In other words, physiologic system of women with regular menstrual cycle can protect body against oxidative stress and this is probably performed due to action of FSH and LH hormones. Keywords: Antioxidants; Menstrual cycle; Sex hormones

  3. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  4. Physics of GAM-initiated L-H transition in a tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askinazi, L. G.; Belokurov, A. A.; Bulanin, V. V.; Gurchenko, A. D.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Kiviniemi, T. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Kornev, V. A.; Korpilo, T.; Krikunov, S. V.; Leerink, S.; Machielsen, M.; Niskala, P.; Petrov, A. V.; Tukachinsky, A. S.; Yashin, A. Yu; Zhubr, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on experimental observations using the TUMAN-3M and FT-2 tokamaks, and the results of gyrokinetic modeling of the interplay between turbulence and the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in these installations, a simple model is proposed for the analysis of the conditions required for L-H transition triggering by a burst of radial electric field oscillations in a tokamak. In the framework of this model, one-dimensional density evolution is considered to be governed by an anomalous diffusion coefficient dependent on radial electric field shear. The radial electric field is taken as the sum of the oscillating term and the quasi-stationary one determined by density and ion temperature gradients through a neoclassical formula. If the oscillating field parameters (amplitude, frequency, etc) are properly adjusted, a transport barrier forms at the plasma periphery and sustains after the oscillations are switched off, manifesting a transition into the high confinement mode with a strong inhomogeneous radial electric field and suppressed transport at the plasma edge. The electric field oscillation parameters required for L-H transition triggering are compared with the GAM parameters observed at the TUMAN-3M (in the discharges with ohmic L-H transition) and FT-2 tokamaks (where no clear L-H transition was observed). It is concluded based on this comparison that the GAM may act as a trigger for the L-H transition, provided that certain conditions for GAM oscillation and tokamak discharge are met.

  5. L-H transition in the mega-Amp spherical tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akers, R.J.; Counsell, G.F.; Sykes, A.

    2002-01-01

    H-mode plasmas have been achieved on the MAST spherical tokamak at input power considerably higher than predicted by conventional threshold scalings. Following L-H transition, a clear improvement in energy confinement is obtained, exceeding recent international scalings even at densities approach...

  6. Dynamics of L-H transition and I-phase in EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G. S.; Wang, H. Q.; Xu, M.

    2014-01-01

    The turbulence and flows at the plasma edge during the L-I-H, L-I-L and single-step L-H transitions have been measured directly using two reciprocating Langmuir probe systems at the outer midplane with several newly designed probe arrays in the EAST superconducting tokamak. The E × B velocity, tu...

  7. [Secondary amenorrhea and LH hypersecretion. An unusual report of a granulosa cell ovarian tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, E; Campusano, C; Fernández, C

    1993-04-01

    Granulosa cell ovarian tumors are infrequent. Since they originate from the gonadal stroma, they retain a high secretory potential and some of their clinical manifestations may be secondary to the production of sexual steroids. A 36 year old woman with an ovarian tumor presenting as a secondary amenorrhea is reported. This patient had a positive progesterone test and her hormonal profile showed a maintained LH hypersecretion (> 75 mUl/ml) which, joined to the presence of a hypophyseal microadenoma lead to suspect the presence of a gonadotrophin secreting tumor. The absence of LH response to TRH and its adequate suppression using oral contraceptives discarded this diagnosis. The histopathology of the excised ovarian tumor demonstrated that it is was a granulosa cell tumor. The physiopathological explanation of the case is based on the maintained levels of estrogens produced by the tumor that, through a positive feed-back mechanism similar to that of the polycystic ovary syndrome, produced a tonic LH elevation and GnRH hyper response. After the tumor excision, ovulatory cycles resumed and the patient became pregnant, facts that confirm the postulated hypothesis.

  8. Changes in plasma melanocyte-stimulating hormone, ACTH, prolactin, GH, LH, FSH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in response to injection of sulpiride, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, or vehicle in insulin-sensitive and -insensitive mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, N Arana; Thompson, D L; Mitcham, P B

    2013-05-01

    Six insulin-sensitive and 6 insulin-insensitive mares were used in a replicated 3 by 3 Latin square design to determine the pituitary hormonal responses (compared with vehicle) to sulpiride and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 2 compounds commonly used to diagnose pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) in horses. Mares were classified as insulin sensitive or insensitive by their previous glucose responses to direct injection of human recombinant insulin. Treatment days were February 25, 2012, and March 10 and 24, 2012. Treatments were sulpiride (racemic mixture, 0.01 mg/kg BW), TRH (0.002 mg/kg BW), and vehicle (saline, 0.01 mL/kg BW) administered intravenously. Blood samples were collected via jugular catheters at -10, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min relative to treatment injection. Plasma ACTH concentrations were variable and were not affected by treatment or insulin sensitivity category. Plasma melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) concentrations responded (P sulpiride and TRH injection and were greater (P sulpiride and TRH injection, and the response was greater (P sulpiride; no effect of insulin sensitivity was observed. Plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations responded (P sulpiride and TRH in insulin-insensitive mares were similar to, but not as exaggerated as, those observed by others for PPID horses. In addition, the reduced TSH concentrations in insulin-insensitive mares are consistent with our previous observation of elevated plasma triiodothyronine concentrations in hyperleptinemic horses (later shown to be insulin insensitive as well).

  9. Inhibin secretion in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome before and after treatment with progesterone

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    Anifandis George

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives It has been suggested that inhibin secretion is altered in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. However, the contribution of a preceding luteal phase has not been taken into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether progesterone in the context of a simulated luteal phase affects basal and FSH-induced inhibin secretion in women with PCOS and elevated LH. Methods Ten women with PCOS and 8 normally cycling women participated in an experimental procedure (Exp involving the administration of a single injection of recombinant FSH (450 IU sc. In the women with PCOS, the procedure was performed before (Exp 1 and after a 20-day treatment with progesterone (Exp 2, while in the normal women on day 2 of the cycle (Exp 3. Inhibin A and B levels were measured in blood samples taken before and 24 hours after the FSH injection. Results Basal LH levels were significantly higher and inhibin A levels were significantly lower in the PCOS group compared to the control group, while inhibin B levels were comparable in the two groups. In the PCOS group, after treatment with progesterone inhibin A and LH but not inhibin B levels decreased significantly (p Conclusions In women with PCOS, as compared to control women, the dissimilar pattern of inhibin A and inhibin B secretion in response to FSH appears to be independent of a preceding simulated luteal phase. It is possible that compared to normal ovaries, the PCOS ovaries are less sensitive to endogenous LH regarding inhibin A secretion and more sensitive to exogenous FSH stimulation in terms of inhibin A and inhibin B secretion.

  10. Preliminary report on plasma homocysteine and hormonal variations in infertile women in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Vincent Oluseye Osunkalu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between infertility and hormonal variations has been variously documented, but little has been reported on the interactions between hormonal factors, homocysteine (Hcy, and female infertility. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between plasma Hcy levels and hormonal variations in infertile women. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among eligible infertile and fertile women seeking care at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. The subjects were 100 women referred for management of infertility, and the controls were 50 fertile women who had given birth within the past year. Fasting plasma levels of Hcy were estimated using enzyme immunoassay. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol, prolactin, and progesterone were measured using  Access 2 (Immunoassay systems-beckman coulter, inc.250S.Kraemer blvd.Brea, ca 92821. U.S.A. Results: Mean plasma Hcy levels for subjects and controls were 9.50 ± 1.88 μmol/L and 9.44 ± 1.85 μmol/L, respectively, with no significant variation (P = 0.952. Plasma Hcy was not significantly associated with infertility and hormone levels. The mean serum levels of LH, FSH, and prolactin were significantly higher among subjects compared to controls. Conclusion: Hormonal variations observed in infertile women did not appear to significantly alter plasma Hcy levels, and hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy may not have significantly contributed to female infertility in our environment.

  11. Study of EAST LH antennas coupling at ENEA-Frascati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panaccione, L.; Mirizzi, F. [Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125, Napoli (Italy); Ceccuzzi, S.; Cesario, R.; Tuccillo, A. A., E-mail: angelo.tuccillo@enea.it [ENEA for EUROfusion, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Ding, B. J.; Li, M.; Liu, F.; Liu, L.; Shan, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-12-10

    The two Lower Hybrid (LH) launchers of the EAST tokamak have been analysed using some tools available at ENEA-Frascati research centre. The antennas, working at 2.45 and 4.6 GHz, have been assessed in terms of reflection coefficient and launched power spectrum for several plasma loads differing in the electron density profile. Fitting an experimental profile we derived a set of parameterised realistic density profiles to compute the coupling performances of different spectra, launched by considering different phasing between antenna modules. The sensitivity to the tilt of the magnetic field with respect to the equatorial plane as well as to an additional progressive phasing at the mouth due to the toroidal curvature has been studied too. The most suitable operational conditions for the minimization of reflected power and side lobes in the n{sub ||} spectra are identified.

  12. Understanding the role of LH: myths and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert

    2007-10-01

    This review summarizes a series of lectures given at a recent Continuing Medical Education meeting in Hamburg, Germany (May 2007), aiming to understand the role of luteinizing hormone (LH) in follicular development during the natural menstrual cycle and controlled ovarian stimulation. Clinical situations and target groups of patients who might benefit from LH supplementation during their ovarian stimulation were discussed and defined. The lectures updated knowledge on the physiology of LH during the normal menstrual cycle and the role of LH in ovarian stimulation. The concept of the 'LH window' was presented, and the use of LH supplementation in different groups of patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation was discussed, including those with advanced age, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, pituitary down-regulation and poor response. In addition, the different ways of using LH or human chorionic gonadotrophin supplementation in ovulation induction protocols were described.

  13. Overview of L-H power threshold studies in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingi, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Bell, R. E.; Biewer, T. M.; Chang, C. S.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Hosea, J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Meyer, H.; Mueller, D.; Park, G.-Y.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Stevenson, T. A.; Wilson, J. R.

    2010-06-01

    A summary of results from recent L-H power threshold (PLH) experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is presented. First PLH (normalized linearly by plasma density) was found to be a minimum in double-null configuration, tending to increase as the plasma was shifted more strongly towards lower- or upper-single null configuration with either neutral beam or rf heating. The measured PLH/ne was comparable with neutral beam or rf heating, suggesting that rotation was not playing a dominant role in setting the value of PLH. The role of triangularity (δbot) in setting PLH/ne is less clear: while 50% less auxiliary heating power was required to access H-mode at low δbot than at high δbot, the high δbot discharges had lower ohmic heating and higher dW/dt, leading to comparable loss of power over a range of δbot. In addition, the dependences of PLH on the density, species (helium versus deuterium), plasma current, applied non-axisymmetric error fields and lithium wall conditioning are summarized.

  14. Superovulation in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae): Effects of progesterone, treatment protocol and gonadotropin preparations for the induction of ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, J Manuel; Cervantes, Miriam P; McCorkell, Robert B; Mapletoft, Reuben J; Adams, Gregg P

    2016-04-01

    Experiments were done to determine the ovarian response and embryo production following superstimulation of wood bison. In Experiment 1 (Anovulatory season), the efficacy of pLH vs. hCG for inducing ovulation was compared in wood bison superstimulated with a single dose of pFSH in 0.5% hyaluronan and the effect of exogenous progesterone (PRID) on superovulatory response and embryo quality was examined. In Experiment 2 (Ovulatory season), the efficacy of pLH vs. hCG for the induction of ovulation was compared in wood bison superstimulated with pFSH in a single intramuscular dose vs. a two-dose regimen 48 h apart (split dose) in 0.5% hyaluronan. In Experiment 1, the number of CL was greater (P pLH (6.6 ± 1.8 vs. 2.8 ± 0.8) and in those that were not given PRID (6.0 ± 1.5 vs. 2.7 ± 1.0). There was no effect of progesterone treatment on embryo quality. In Experiment 2, the number of CL was greater (P pLH (6.3 ± 0.8 vs. 3.8 ± 1.2) and in bison superstimulated with split dose vs. single dose of FSH (7.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.0 ± 0.8). The number of ova/embryos and freezable embryos did not differ among groups in either experiment. In conclusion, hCG induced a greater ovulatory response than pLH in both seasons. Two doses of FSH induced the greatest superovulatory response during the ovulatory season. Exogenous progesterone did not improve embryo quality during the anovulatory season.

  15. Profiling of FSHR negative allosteric modulators on LH/CGR reveals biased antagonism with implications in steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Mohammed Akli; Yvinec, Romain; Jégot, Gwenhaël; Dias, James A; Poli, Sonia-Maria; Poupon, Anne; Crépieux, Pascale; Reiter, Eric

    2016-11-15

    Biased signaling has recently emerged as an interesting means to modulate the function of many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Previous studies reported two negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), ADX68692 and ADX68693, with differential effects on FSHR-mediated steroidogenesis and ovulation. In this study, we attempted to pharmacologically profile these NAMs on the closely related luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin hormone receptor (LH/CGR) with regards to its canonical Gs/cAMP pathway as well as to β-arrestin recruitment in HEK293 cells. The NAMs' effects on cAMP, progesterone and testosterone production were also assessed in murine Leydig tumor cell line (mLTC-1) as well as rat primary Leydig cells. We found that both NAMs strongly antagonized LH/CGR signaling in the different cell models used with ADX68693 being more potent than ADX68692 to inhibit hCG-induced cAMP production in HEK293, mLTC-1 and rat primary Leydig cells as well as β-arrestin 2 recruitment in HEK293 cells. Interestingly, differential antagonism of the two NAMs on hCG-promoted steroidogenesis in mLTC-1 and rat primary Leydig cells was observed. Indeed, a significant inhibition of testosterone production by the two NAMs was observed in both cell types, whereas progesterone production was only inhibited by ADX68693 in rat primary Leydig cells. In addition, while ADX68693 totally abolished testosterone production, ADX68692 had only a partial effect in both mLTC-1 and rat primary Leydig cells. These observations suggest biased effects of the two NAMs on LH/CGR-dependent pathways controlling steroidogenesis. Interestingly, the pharmacological profiles of the two NAMs with respect to steroidogenesis were found to differ from that previously shown on FSHR. This illustrates the complexity of signaling pathways controlling FSHR- and LH/CGR-mediated steroidogenesis, suggesting differential implication of cAMP and β-arrestins mediated by

  16. Efeitos da progesterona exógena sobre o desenvolvimento folicular em ovelhas Effects of exogen progesterone on follicular development in sheep

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    L.F. Uribe-Velásquez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da progesterona (P4 sobre o crescimento folicular e na endocrinologia reprodutiva em ovelhas Bergamácia. Quatorze ovelhas sincronizadas com prostaglandinas (PGF2alfa foram distribuídas em dois grupos (n=7/grupo: grupo-controle e grupo tratado com progesterona (CIDR depois da ovulação (dia zero. Desde o dia anterior à aplicação de PG até o dia 10, realizaram-se monitoramentos ultra-sonográficos para estabelecer o crescimento folicular. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas para a determinação de P4 desde o dia anterior à aplicação de PG até o dia 10 depois da ovulação. Para o perfil dos pulsos de hormônio luteinizante (LH, as colheitas de sangue ocorreram em intervalos de 30 minutos por um período de oito horas, nos dias um e seis. As taxas de crescimento diferiram (PThe effects of progesterone (P4 on ovarian follicular growth and reproductive endocrinology were studied. Fourteen ewes, synchronized using prostaglandin (PGF2alpha , were randomly divided in two groups (n=7/group; control group and progesterone-treated group (CIDR after ovulation (day zero. From one day before PG injection until day 10, daily ultrasonic examinations were done to establish follicular growth. Blood samples for P4 plasma concentration determinations were collected from one day before PG until day 10 post-ovulation. For profile of LH pulses, blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals for a period of 8h on days one and six. The growth rate was different between groups (P<0.001, being 0.91±0.15 and 0.70±0.16mm/d for control and treated-group, respectively. The lengthened of the static phase for control and treated group were 1.9±0.72 and 2.9±0.45d (P<0.05, respectively. Mean concentrations of P4 (P<0.001 were different between treatments. Differences in LH pulse frequency on day one (P<0.01 were observed with values of 2.55±0.09 pulses/8 h in control group and 1.49±0.11 pulses/8h in treated-group. On day six, control

  17. Synchronization of ovulation in cyclic gilts with porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) and its effects on reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenstein, K L; O'Donoghue, R; Patterson, J L; Beltranena, E; Ambrose, D J; Foxcroft, G R; Dyck, M K

    2008-10-15

    The overall objective was to evaluate the use of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) for synchronization of ovulation in cyclic gilts and its effect on reproductive function. In an initial study, four littermate pairs of cyclic gilts were given altrenogest (15 mg/d for 14 d). Gilts received 500 microg cloprostenol (Day 15), 600 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) (Day 16) and either 5mg pLH or saline (Control) 80 h after eCG. Blood samples were collected every 4h, from 8h before pLH/saline treatment to the end of estrus. Following estrus detection, transcutaneous real-time ultrasonography and AI, all gilts were slaughtered 6d after the estimated time of ovulation. Peak plasma pLH concentrations (during the LH surge), as well as the amplitude of the LH surge, were greater in pLH-treated gilts than in the control (P=0.01). However, there were no significant differences between treatments in the timing and duration of estrus, or the timing of ovulation within the estrous period. In a second study, 45 cyclic gilts received altrenogest for 14-18d, 600 IU eCG (24h after last altrenogest), and 5mg pLH, 750 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or saline, 80 h after eCG. For gilts given pLH or hCG, the diameter of the largest follicle before the onset of ovulation (mean+/-S.E.M.; 8.1+/-0.2 and 8.1+/-0.2mm, respectively) was smaller than in control gilts (8.6+/-0.2mm, P=0.05). The pLH and hCG groups ovulated sooner after treatment compared to the saline-treated group (43.2+/-2.5, 47.6+/-2.5 and 59.5+/-2.5h, respectively; PpLH-treated gilts. Embryo quality (total cell counts and embryo diameter) was not significantly different among groups. In conclusion, pLH reliably synchronized ovulation in cyclic gilts without significantly affecting embryo quality.

  18. L-H power threshold studies in JET with Be/W and C wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, C. F.; Delabie, E.; Biewer, T. M.; Groth, M.; Hawkes, N. C.; Lehnen, M.; de la Luna, E.; McCormick, K.; Reux, C.; Rimini, F.; Solano, E. R.; Andrew, Y.; Bourdelle, C.; Bobkov, V.; Brix, M.; Calabro, G.; Czarnecka, A.; Flanagan, J.; Lerche, E.; Marsen, S.; Nunes, I.; Van Eester, D.; Stamp, M. F.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-02-01

    A comparison of the L-H power threshold (Pthr) in JET with all carbon, JET-C, and beryllium/tungsten wall (the ITER-like choice), JET-ILW, has been carried out in experiments with slow input power ramps and matched plasma shapes, divertor configuration and IP/BT pairs. The low density dependence of the L-H power threshold, namely an increase below a minimum density ne,min, which was first observed in JET with the MkII-GB divertor and C wall and subsequently not observed with the current MkII-HD geometry, is observed again with JET-ILW. At plasma densities above ne,min, Pthr is reduced by ˜30%, and by ˜40% when the radiation from the bulk plasma is subtracted (Psep), with JET-ILW compared to JET-C. At the L-H transition the electron temperature at the edge, where the pedestal later develops, is also lower with JET-ILW, for a given edge density. With JET-ILW the minimum density is found to increase roughly linearly with magnetic field, n_{e,min} \\sim B_{T}^{4/5} , while the power threshold at the minimum density scales as P_{sep,\\min} \\sim B_{T}^{5/2} . The H-mode power threshold in JET-ILW is found to be sensitive both to variations in main plasma shape (Psep decreases with increasing lower triangularity and increases with upper triangularity) and in divertor configuration. When the data are recast in terms of Psep and Zeff or subdivertor neutral pressure a linear correlation is found, pointing to a possible role of Zeff and/or subdivertor neutral pressure in the L-H transition physics. Depending on the chosen divertor configuration, Pthr can be up to a factor of two lower than the ITPA scaling law for densities above ne,min. A shallow edge radial electric field well is observed at the L-H transition. The edge impurity ion poloidal velocity remains low, close to its L-mode values, ⩽5 km s-1 ± 2-3 km s-1, at the L-H transition and throughout the H-mode phase, with no measureable increase within the experimental uncertainties. The edge toroidal rotation

  19. Bioactivity of ovulation inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) in bovine seminal plasma and its effects on ovarian function in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribulo, P; Bogle, O; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P

    2015-06-01

    To understand the role of ovulation-inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) (OIF [NGF]) in bovine seminal plasma, we (1) used an in vivo llama bioassay to test the hypothesis that bovine seminal plasma induces ovulation and CL development in llamas similar to that of llama seminal plasma when the dose of seminal plasma is adjusted to ovulation-inducing factor content (experiment 1) and (2) determined the effect of bovine seminal plasma on the interval to ovulation and luteal development in heifers (experiment 2). Within species, seminal plasma was pooled (n = 160 bulls, n = 4 llamas), and the volume of seminal plasma used for treatment was adjusted to a total dose of 250 μg of ovulation-inducing factor. In experiment 1, mature female llamas were assigned randomly to four groups and treated intramuscularly with either 10 mL of PBS (negative control, n = 5), 50-μg GnRH (positive control, n = 5), 6-mL of llama seminal plasma (n = 6), or 12 mL of bull seminal plasma (n = 6). Ovulation and CL development were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment 2, beef heifers were given a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin followed by 25-mg porcine LH (pLH) 12 hours later to induce ovulation. Heifers were assigned randomly to three groups and given 12 mL bovine seminal plasma intramuscularly 12 hours after pLH treatment (n = 10), within 4 hours after ovulation (n = 9), or no treatment (control, n = 10). Ovulation was monitored by ultrasonography every 4 hours, and the CL development was monitored daily until the next ovulation. In experiment 1, ovulation was detected in 0/5, 4/5, 4/6, 4/6 llamas in the PBS, GnRH, llama seminal plasma, and bovine seminal plasma groups, respectively (P pLH. Plasma progesterone concentration tended to be higher in heifers given bovine seminal plasma within 4 hours after ovulation, suggesting that bovine ovulation-inducing factor is luteotrophic.

  20. Correlation between plasma levels of luteinizing (LH and folliclestimulating hormones (FSH and the state of skeletal maturation in a group of children from Medellin, Colombia. Correlación entre los niveles plasmáticos de hormona luteinizante (LH y hormona folículo-estimulante (FSH y el estadio de maduración esquelética en un grupo de niños de Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the association between skeletal maturation and the changes in the levels of gonadotrophins during the initial stages of puberty, serum levels of luteinizing (LH and follicle-stimulating hormones (FSH were correlated with the state of skeletal maturation (determined by the method of Greulich and Pyle, and with the age, weight, height and sexual maturity (according to the classification of Tanner and using Prader´s orchidometer in a healthy population of Medellin, Colombia. Our report includes 16 boys and 15 girls, ranging in age from 8 to 12 years, who completed a total of sixblood specimens for hormone levels determination,and six radiographic studies of the carpo-phalangealbone structures. The study lasted 30 months. Boys with progressive weight gain showed a trend towards higher concentrations of FSH and a discreteadvance in skeletal age. On the other hand, in both girls and boys, changes in the LH values were better

  1. Membrane progesterone receptors: evidence for neuroprotective, neurosteroid signaling and neuroendocrine functions in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei

    2012-01-01

    Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are novel G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the progestin and adipoQ receptor family (PAQR) that mediate a variety of rapid cell surface-initiated progesterone actions in the reproductive system involving activation of intracellular signaling pathways (i.e. nonclassical actions). The mPRs are highly expressed in the brain, but research on their neural functions has only been conducted in a single neuronal cell line, GT1-7 cells, which have negligible nuclear progesterone receptor (PR) expression. GT1-7 cells express mPRα and mPRβ on their plasma membranes which is associated with the presence of high-affinity, specific [(3)H]-progesterone receptor binding. The neurosteroid, allopregnanolone, is an effective ligand for recombinant mPRα with a relative binding affinity of 7.6% that of progesterone. Allopregnanolone acts as a potent mPR agonist on GT1-7 cells, mimicking the progesterone-induced decrease in cAMP accumulation and its antiapoptotic actions at low nanomolar concentrations. The decrease in cAMP levels is associated with rapid progesterone-induced downregulation of GnRH pulsatile secretion from perifused GT1-7 cells. The recent suggestion that mPRs are alkaline ceramidases and mediate sphingolipid signaling is not supported by empirical evidence that TNFα does not bind to mPRs overexpressed in human cells and that exogenous sphingomyelinase is ineffective in mimicking progestin actions through mPRs to induce meiotic maturation of fish oocytes. Taken together, these recent studies indicate that mPRs mediate neuroprotective effects of progesterone and allopregnanolone and are also the likely intermediaries in progesterone-induced inhibition of pulsatile GnRH secretion in GT1-7 cells. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Progesterone inhibition of oxytocin signaling in endometrium

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    Cecily Vauna Bishop

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Expression of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR in the endometrium of ruminant species is regulated by the ovarian steroids progesterone (P and estradiol (E. Near the end of the estrous cycle, long-term exposure of endometrial epithelial cells to P results in loss of genomic P receptors (PGRs, leading to an increase in E receptors (ERs. Genomic regulation of the OXTR is mediated via suppression of ER signaling by P. Upon OT binding at the plasma membrane of endometrial cells, a signaling cascade is generated stimulating release of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha. Transport of PGF2alpha to the ovary results in release of OT by luteal cells in a positive feedback loop leading to luteal regression. This signaling cascade can be rapidly blocked by exposing endometrial cells to physiologic levels of P. This mini review will focus on the mechanisms by which P may act to block OXTR signaling and the luteolytic cascade in the ruminant endometrium, with special focus on both non-genomic signaling pathways and non-receptor actions of P at the level of the plasma membrane. While this review focuses on ruminant species, non-classical blockage of OXTR signaling may be important for fertility in women.

  3. 'Carriers of variant luteinizing hormone (V-LH) among 1593 Baltic men have significantly higher serum LH'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punab, A M; Grigorova, M; Punab, M; Adler, M; Kuura, T; Poolamets, O; Vihljajev, V; Žilaitienė, B; Erenpreiss, J; Matulevičius, V; Laan, M

    2015-05-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein essential in male and female reproduction. Its functional polymorphic variant (V-LH) is determined by two missense mutations (rs1800447, A/G, Trp8Arg; rs34349826, A/G, Ile15Thr) in the LH β-subunit encoding gene (LHB; 19q13.3; 1111 bp; 3 exons). Among women, V-LH has been associated with higher circulating LH and reduced fertility, but the knowledge of its effect on male reproductive parameters has been inconclusive. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of V-LH on hormonal, seminal and testicular parameters in the Baltic young men cohort (n = 986; age: 20.1 ± 2.1 years) and Estonian idiopathic infertility patients (n = 607; 35.1 ± 5.9 years). V-LH was detected by genotyping of the underlying DNA polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP combined with resequencing of a random subset of subjects. Genetic associations were tested using linear regression under additive model and results were combined in meta-analysis. No significant difference was detected between young men and infertility patients for the V-LH allele frequency (11.0 vs. 9.3%, respectively). V-LH was associated with higher serum LH in both, the young men cohort (p = 0.022, allelic effect = 0.26 IU/L) and the idiopathic infertility group (p = 0.008, effect = 0.59 IU/L). In meta-analysis, the statistical significance was enhanced (p = 0.0007, resistant to Bonferroni correction for multiple testing; effect = 0.33 IU/L). The detected significant association of V-LH with increased serum LH remained unchanged after additional adjustment for the SNPs previously demonstrated to affect LH levels (FSHB -211G/T, FSHR Asn680Ser, FSHR -29A/G). Additionally, a suggestive trend for association with reduced testicular volume was observed among young men, and with lower serum FSH among infertility patients. The V-LH carrier status did not affect sperm parameters and other circulating reproductive hormones. For the first time, we show a conclusive

  4. Changes in the Plasma Sex Hormone Profile in Males with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N Yezhova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of typical plasma sex hormone changes and their functional significance in males with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. Fifty-nine males aged 18—49 years who had SCI were enrolled in the study. The admission severity was an APACHE II score of 18.6±2.4. According to the outcome of the disease, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased persons. A control comprised 12 healthy male donors aged 19-36 years, in whom the levels of 8 sex steroids were measured. The standard procedures were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of pituitary reproductive hormones and aldosterone. Hormonal concentrations were studied over time on posttraumatic days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15. The plasma hormone profile was examined by test kits (BSL, USA on a Stat Fax 2100 device (Awareness Technology Inc., USA for enzyme immunoassay. Prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, progesterone (P, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH-P, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estrone (E1, estradiol (E2, and aldosterone were determined. Results. The complex study of phasic changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in males in the posttraumatic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels and their phasic variations, normal LH and FSH levels with a tendency for further phasic LH changes and FSH reduction. After the injury, the plasma concentration of P was increased and that of 17-OH-P was decreased. The levels of A and DHEA-S varied in the normal range with a tendency for DHEA-S to be lower during the process. In the posttraumatic period, the plasma content of T and DHT was substantially reduced and that of E1 and E2 was increased. The deceased patients generally showed higher levels of A, DHEA-S, and estrogens as a reflection of

  5. Biochemical isolation and purification of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in seminal plasma of llamas

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    Pierson Roger A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to isolate and purify the protein fraction(s of llama seminal plasma responsible for the ovulation-inducing effect of the ejaculate. Methods Semen collected from male llamas by artificial vagina was centrifuged and the seminal plasma was harvested and stored frozen. Seminal plasma was thawed and loaded onto a Type 1 macro-prep ceramic hydroxylapatite column and elution was carried out using a lineal gradient with 350 mM sodium phosphate. Three protein fractions were identified clearly (Fractions A, B, and C, where a prominent protein band with a mass of 14 kDa was identified in Fraction C. Fraction C was loaded into a sephacryl gel filtration column for further purification using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC. Isocratic elution resulted in 2 distinct protein fractions (Fractions C1 and C2. An in vivo bioassay (n = 10 to 11 llamas per group was used to determine the ovarian effect of each fraction involving treatment with saline (negative control, whole seminal plasma (positive control, or seminal plasma Fractions A, B or C2. Ultrasonography was done to detect ovulation and CL formation, and blood samples were taken to measure plasma progesterone and LH concentrations. Results Ovulation and CL formation was detected in 0/10, 10/11, 0/10, 2/11, and 10/11 llamas treated with saline, whole seminal plasma, Fractions A, B and C2 respectively (P Conclusion Ovulation-inducing factor was isolated from llama seminal plasma as a 14 kDa protein molecule that elicits a preovulatory LH surge followed by ovulation and CL formation in llamas, suggesting an endocrine effect at the level of the hypothalamus (release of GnRH or the pituitary (gonadotrophs.

  6. Dopamine control of LH release in the tench (Tinca tinca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhorec, Peter; Socha, Magdalena; Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, Miroslawa; Policar, Tomas; Svinger, Viktor W; Drozd, Borek; Kouril, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Tench (Tinca tinca) is apparently the only known member of the Cyprinidae in which ovulation is stimulated following administration of a low dose of GnRH analogue (GnRHa) without a dopamine inhibitor. This study evaluated LH release effectiveness of the most commonly used GnRHa and clarified whether LH secretion followed by ovulation is subject to inhibitory dopaminergic control in tench. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with three types of GnRHa, GnRHa with dopamine inhibitor metoclopramide (combined treatment), or the dopamine inhibitor metoclopramide alone. LH concentrations at five sampling times (0, 6, 12, 24, and 33 h) together with ovulation success and fecundity index were recorded. The combined treatment triggered an almost immediate LH release peak with a gradual decline, and resulted in a high ovulation rate. In contrast to the combined treatment, an application of GnRHa alone at 10 μg kg(-1) induced gradual increase of LH concentrations with peaks close to ovulation time, and with high ovulation success. Significant differences in LH concentrations at 6 and 12h and no differences in ovulation success were found between the combined and the GnRHa alone treatments. Metoclopramide alone induced a small increase in LH with no ovulation. The study presents clear evidence of dopaminergic control of LH release in tench, with a high ovulation rate obtained after application of GnRHa alone or in combination with dopamine inhibitor.

  7. Melatonin reduces LH, 17 beta-estradiol and induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in reproductive tissues during rat ovulation

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    Pinheiro Patrícia Fernanda F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin is associated with direct or indirect actions upon female reproductive function. However, its effects on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovulation are not clearly defined. This study aimed to verify whether exposure to long-term melatonin is able to cause reproductive hormonal disturbances as well as their role on sex steroid receptors in the rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation. Methods Twenty-four adult Wistar rats, 60 days old (+/- 250 g were randomly divided into two groups. Control group (Co: received 0.9% NaCl 0.3 mL + 95% ethanol 0.04 mL as vehicle; Melatonin-treated group (MEL: received vehicle + melatonin [100 μg/100 g BW/day] both intraperitoneally during 60 days. All animals were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4 a.m. Results Melatonin significantly reduced the plasma levels of LH and 17 beta-estradiol, while urinary 6-sulfatoximelatonin (STM was increased at the morning estrus. In addition, melatonin promoted differential regulation of the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, androgen receptor (AR and melatonin receptor (MTR along the reproductive tissues. In ovary, melatonin induced a down-regulation of ER-alpha and PRB levels. Conversely, it was observed that PRA and MT1R were up-regulated. In oviduct, AR and ER-alpha levels were down-regulated, in contrast to high expression of both PRA and PRB. Finally, the ER-beta and PRB levels were down-regulated in uterus tissue and only MT1R was up-regulated. Conclusions We suggest that melatonin partially suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, in addition, it induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in the ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.

  8. Biological activities of recombinant equine luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (eLH/CG) expressed in Sf9 and Mimic insect cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legardinier, Sébastien; Duonor-Cérutti, Martine; Devauchelle, Gérard; Combarnous, Yves; Cahoreau, Claire

    2005-02-01

    Equine luteinizing hormone (eLH) and chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) are composed of identical alpha and beta polypeptide chains, but eCG subunits are much more heavily glycosylated and sialylated. Consequently, eCG exhibits a much longer half-life than eLH in blood. Recombinant eLH/CG, expressed in Sf9 and Mimic insect cells, were compared with one another and to the natural hormones eCG and eLH. Mimic cells are stably-transformed Sf9 cells, expressing five mammalian genes encoding glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of complex N-carbohydrate chains. Recombinant eLH/CG expressed in Mimic cells exhibited a higher apparent molecular weight (MW) than that expressed in Sf9 cells, suggesting that its N-glycosylation was, as expected, more complete. Nevertheless, the two recombinant eLH/CG exhibited lower MW than natural eCG from pregnant mare plasma. The two eLH/CG produced in Sf9 and Mimic cells were found to be active in in vitro LH and FSH bioassays, with potencies similar to those of eCG. By contrast, they exhibited no significant in vivo bioactivity, neither in the specific follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) assay nor in the specific eCG assay. Although recombinant eLH/CG produced in Mimic cells bears more elaborate carbohydrate chains than recombinant eLH/CG from Sf9 cells, it exhibits no significant in vivo bioactivity, probably because of insufficient terminal sialylation of its carbohydrate chains, leading to its rapid removal from blood.

  9. Abnormal regulation for progesterone production in placenta with prenatal cocaine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Yan, J; Qu, S C; Feng, Y Q; Jiang, X L

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine abuse in pregnant women is currently a significant public hygiene problem and is tightly associated with elevated risk for preterm delivery. Placental steroidogenesis especially progesterone production was essential for success and maintenance of pregnancy in humans and rodents. In the present study, we determined the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on pathways of placental progesterone synthesis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated cocaine twice daily (15 mg/kg/day) during the third trimester, and the maternal and fetal plasma progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations were detected. We also examined both the protein and mRNA expression of some key enzymes and regulators for progesterone production in placenta. Results showed that, after maternal cocaine use during pregnancy, progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations in both maternal and fetal rats were significantly decreased. Although prenatal cocaine exposure had no effects on placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) expression, protein and mRNA expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11a) in placenta was significantly inhibited. Moreover, protein and mRNA expressions of MLN64 that regulating cholesterol transport and activating protein 2γ (AP2γ/Tfap2c) that controlling P450scc/CYP11a gene expression in placenta were both decreased following maternal cocaine use in pregnancy. Collectively, this study suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure could insult the placental progesterone production in rats possibly associated with the high risk for preterm delivery.

  10. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blavy, P.; Derks, M.; Martin, O.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the variability in shape and features of all progesterone profiles during oestrus cycles in cows, and to create templates for cycle shapes and features as a base for further research. Milk progesterone data from 1418 oestrus cycles, comi...

  11. Progesterone selectively increases amygdala reactivity in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Broekhoven, F. van; Verkes, R.J.; Petersson, K.M.; Backstrom, T.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2008-01-01

    The acute neural effects of progesterone are mediated by its neuroactive metabolites allopregnanolone and pregnanolone. These neurosteroids potentiate the inhibitory actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Progesterone is known to produce anxiolytic effects in animals, but recent animal studies s

  12. Loss of Fertility in the Absence of Progesterone Receptor Expression in Kisspeptin Neurons of Female Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnon Gal

    Full Text Available Ovarian steroids, estradiol and progesterone, play central roles in regulating female reproduction by acting as both positive and negative regulators of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH secretion in the hypothalamus. Recent studies have identified kisspeptin neurons of the hypothalamus as the target of estrogenic regulation of GnRH secretion. In this study, we aimed to determine the significance of progesterone receptor (PGR expression in the kisspeptin neurons. To this end, the Pgr gene was selectively ablated in mouse kisspeptin neurons and the reproductive consequence assessed. The hypothalamus of the Pgr deficient female mouse expressed kisspeptin, the pituitary released LH in response to GnRH stimulation, and the ovary ovulated when stimulated with gonadotropins. However, the mutant mouse gradually lost cyclicity, was unable to generate a LH surge in response to rising estradiol, and eventually became infertile. Taken together, these results indicate that the loss of PGR impairs kisspeptin secretory machinery and therefore that PGR plays a critical role in regulating kisspeptin secretion.

  13. Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis: A Case Report

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    Rachana George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is a rare cyclic premenstrual allergic reaction to progesterone produced during the luteal phase of a woman's menstrual cycle. Patients present with a variety of conditions including erythema multiforme, eczema, urticaria, angioedema, and progesterone-induced anaphylaxis. Case. Thirty-eight-year-old woman G2P2002 presents with erythema multiforme and urticarial rash one week prior to her menses starting one year after menarche. She was treated with oral contraceptive pills and the symptoms resolved. Conclusion. This is a typical case of progesterone autoimmunity. The diagnosis is based on cyclic nature of the dermatitis. This differentiates the condition from other allergies or systemic diseases with skin manifestations. Inhibition of ovulation in such cases results in decrease in progesterone secretion and prevention of symptoms.

  14. Probabilistic nature in L/H transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Shinichiro; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Itoh, Kimitaka; Fukuyama, Atsushi

    1999-11-01

    Statistical picture for an excitation of a plasma transition is examined, which occurs in a strongly turbulent state. The physical picture of transition phenomena is extended to include the statistical variances. The dynamics of the plasma density and turbulent-driven flux is studied with hysteresis nature in the flux-density relation. The probabilistic excitation is predicted and the critical conditions are described by the probabilistic distribution function. The stability for the model equations is also discussed. (author)

  15. The effect of nutrition on the neural mechanisms potentially involved in melatonin-stimulated LH secretion in female Mediterranean goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazaga, Luis A; Celi, Irma; Guzmán, José Luis; Malpaux, Benoît

    2011-12-01

    This research examines which neural mechanisms among the endogenous opioid, dopaminergic, serotonergic and excitatory amino acid systems are involved in the stimulation of LH secretion by melatonin implantation and their modulation by nutritional level. Female goats were distributed to two experimental groups that received either 1.1 (group H; n=24) or 0.7 (group L; n=24) times their nutritional maintenance requirements. Half of each group was implanted with melatonin after a long-day period. Plasma LH concentrations were measured twice per week. The effects of i.v. injections of naloxone, pimozide, cyproheptadine and N-methyl-d,l-aspartate (NMDA) on LH secretion were assessed the day before melatonin implantation and again on days 30 and 45. The functioning of all but the dopaminergic systems was clearly modified by the level of nutrition, melatonin implantation and time elapsed since implantation. Thirty days after implantation, naloxone increased LH concentrations irrespective of the level of nutrition (Pgoats (HM; Pnutritional level and melatonin implantation. Endogenous opioids seem to be most strongly involved in the inhibition of LH secretion on days 30 and 45 after melatonin implantation. However, the serotonergic mechanism appears to be most influenced by nutritional level.

  16. EFFECT OF POST-MATING GNRH TREATMET ON SERUM PROGESTERONE, LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS, DURATION OF ESTROUS CYCLE AND PREGNANCY RATES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. YILDIZ, E. KAYGUSUZOĞLU, M. KAYA1 AND M. ÇENESIZ1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy rate, estrous cycle lenght, serum progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH concentrations were determined in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 10.5 μg synthetic gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist, receptal administered cows on day 12 post-mating (n=9 compared to control cows (n=8. Their oestrous cycles were synchronised by intramuscular administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha (its analog, cloprostenol twice at 11 days interval. Estrous exhibited cows were mated naturally. Blood samples were collected every two days from all animals. Serum progesterone and LH concentrations were measured by ELISA method. GnRH administration significantly increased serum LH concentration which reached peak levels 2-3 h after treatment. However, serum progesterone concentration was not affected. There were no differences in mean progesterone concentrations on days 12 to 24 post-mating between GnRH administrated and control pregnant cows. However, in non pregnant animals, progesterone concentrations on days 16 in the treated group were lower than control group (P<0.01. Pregnancy diagnosis in animals made by B-mode ultrasonography between the 30th and 35th day showed that 77.7% of treated cows were pregnant compared to 50% in control group. Duration of the estrous cycle in the non-pregnant animals was not affected by the treatment (control, 21.3 ± 0.8 days; treated, 22.5 ± 0.5 days. In conclusion, this study supports the use of GnRH on day 12 post-mating as a method for enhancing pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cattle.

  17. Aerodigitalni senzori - LH Systems ADS 40 / Airborne digital sensors: LH Systems ADS 40

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    Marko Pejić

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prezentovane osnove prikupljanja prostornih podataka metodom daljinske detekcije i klasičnim fotogrametrijskim metodom. Ukazano je na kompromis između dva metoda koji nudi digitalna aerokamera. Kompanija LH Systems proizvela je digitalnu aerokameru ADS 40 koja nudi sasvim nov koncept prikupljanja prostornih podataka. Sistem kamere obezbeđuje panhromatske i trodimenzionalne informacije koristeći tri CCD linije i opciono još pet linija iz multispektralnog opsega. Kamera skenira teren sa prostornom rezolucijom od 25 cm, površine od 300 kvadratnih kilometara, uz vreme trajanja leta koje je nešto kraće od jednog sata. / This paper presents basics of collecting spatial data with remote sensing and the classical photogrammetric method. A compromise between two methods, offered by a digital aero camera, is also suggested. The LH Systems has produced a new camera concept called Airborne Digital Sensor (ADS 40 which uses a new way of collecting spatial data. The camera system provides panchromatic and stereo information using three CCD lines and up to five more lines for multispectral imagery. The performance of the camera allows a three dimensional and multispectral image with a ground sample distance of 25 cm for an area of 300 square miles within a flight time shorter than one hour.

  18. L-H Threshold Studies in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, S M; Battaglia, D; Bell, R E; Chang, C S; Hosea, J; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B P; Meyer, H; Park, G Y

    2011-09-06

    Recent experiments in the low aspect ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have been run in support of the high priority ITER and ITPA issue of access to the H-mode. Specifically, a series of experiments showed reduced power threshold values for deuterium vs helium plasmas, and for plasmas with lower current, lower triangularity and with lithium conditioning. Application of n=3 fields at the plasma edge resulted in higher power thresholds. To within the constraints of temporal and spatial resolutions, no systematic difference in T{sub e}, n{sub e}, p{sub e}, T{sub i}, v or their derivatives was found in discharges that transitioned into the H-mode versus those at slightly lower power that did not. Finally, H{sub 98y,2} {approx} 1 confinement quality could be achieved for powers just above the threshold power in ELM-free conditions.

  19. Correlation of brain levels of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone with neurological recovery after traumatic brain injury in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Acaz-Fonseca, Estefania; Giatti, Silvia; Caruso, Donatella; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Melcangi, Roberto C; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of disability in humans. Neuroactive steroids, such as progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are neuroprotective in TBI models. However in order to design potential neuroprotective strategies based on neuroactive steroids it is important to determine whether its brain levels are altered by TBI. In this study we have used a weight-drop model of TBI in young adult female mice to determine the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain and plasma at 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after injury. We have also analyzed whether the levels of neuroactive steroids after TBI correlated with the neurological score of the animals. TBI caused neurological deficit detectable at 24 and 72 h, which recovered by 2 weeks after injury. Brain levels of progesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), isopregnanolone and 17β-estradiol were decreased 24h, 72 h and 2 weeks after TBI. DHEA and brain testosterone levels presented a transient decrease at 24h after lesion. Brain levels of progesterone and DHEA showed a positive correlation with neurological recovery. Plasma analyses showed that progesterone was decreased 72 h after lesion but, in contrast with brain progesterone, its levels did not correlate with neurological deficit. These findings indicate that TBI alters the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain with independence of its plasma levels and suggest that the pharmacological increase in the brain of the levels of progesterone and DHEA may result in the improvement of neurological recovery after TBI.

  20. Efeitos do estresse térmico nas concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona (P4 e estradiol 17-b (E2 e temperatura retal em cabras da raça Pardo Alpina Effects of heat stress on progesterone (P4 and estradiol-17b plasma concentrations and rectal temperature of Alpine Brown goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras lactantes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em um delineamento experimental em "crossover", em dois grupos: sob condições termoneutras e estresse térmico. Um período de adaptação de 28 dias foi seguido por quatro períodos de 14 dias cada, quando os animais sob estresse térmico foram expostos à temperatura média de 33,84ºC; THI de 86,20; BGT de 36,18 e BT de 32,11ºC das 8 às 17 horas, incluindo radiação solar simulada das 10 às 15 horas. Não houve diferença entre as concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona, mas as fêmeas submetidas ao estresse térmico apresentaram diminuição nas concentrações plasmáticas de estradiol, quando comparados ao grupo termoneutro. A temperatura retal dos animais sob estresse térmico foi mais elevada quando foi comparada à do grupo de animais em condições de termoneutralidade. As cabras mantiveram as concentrações plasmáticas da progesterona, com diminuição na secreção de estradiol, quando expostas a um estresse repetido e intermitente, a despeito de ocorrer hipertermia durante o estresse pelo calor.Six lactating goats were randomly assigned to a crossover experimental design in two groups, under thermoneutral and heat stress conditions. An adaptation period of 28 days were followed by 4-periods of 14 days each, when the animals under heat stress were exposed to an average temperature of 33.34ºC; THI of 86.20; BGT of 36.18 and BT of 32.11ºC from 8 to 17 hours, including simulated solar radiation from 10 to 15 hours. There was no difference for progesterone plasma concentrations but the animals under heat stress showed a reduction of estradiol plasma concentrations as compared to the thermoneutral group. The rectal temperature of the animals under heat stress was higher when compared to the animals under thermoneutral conditions. The goats maintained progesterone plasma concentrations with reduction of estradiol secretion when exposed to repeat stress and intermittent

  1. Tracing of backward energy transfer from LH1 to LH2 in photosynthetic membranes grown under high and low irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanzani G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By introducing derivative transient absorption spectroscopy, we obtain rate constants for backward and forward energy transfer between LH1 and LH2 complexes in purple bacterial membranes. We find that backward energy transfer is strongly reduced in membranes grown under low irradiation conditions, compared to high light grown ones. We conclude that backward energy transfer is managed actively by the bacteria to avoid LH1 exciton deactivation under high irradiation conditions. The analytical method is generally applicable to excitonically coupled systems.

  2. Fast renal trapping of porcine Luteinizing Hormone (pLH shown by 123I-scintigraphic imaging in rats explains its short circulatory half-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Alain

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar moieties of gonadotropins play no primary role in receptor binding but they strongly affect their circulatory half-life and consequently their in vivo biopotencies. In order to relate more precisely hepatic trapping of these glycoproteic hormones with their circulatory half-life, we undertook a comparative study of the distribution and elimination of porcine LH (pLH and equine CG (eCG which exhibit respectively a short and a long half-life. This was done first by following half-lives of pLH in piglets with hepatic portal circulation shunted or not. It was expected that such a shunt would enhance the short half-life of pLH. Subsequently, scintigraphic imaging of both 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in intact rats to compare their routes and rates of distribution and elimination. Methods Native pLH or eCG was injected to normal piglets and pLH was tested in liver-shunted anæsthetized piglet. Blood samples were recovered sequentially over one hour time and the hormone concentrations were determined by a specific ELISA method. Scintigraphic imaging of 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in rats using a OPTI-CGR gamma camera. Results In liver-shunted piglets, the half-life of pLH was found to be as short as in intact piglets (5 min. In the rat, the half-life of pLH was also found to be very short (3–6 min and 123I-pLH was found to accumulate in high quantity in less than 10 min post injection at the level of kidneys but not in the liver. 123I-eCG didn't accumulate in any organ in the rats during the first hour, plasma concentrations of this gonadotropin being still elevated (80% at this time. Conclusion In both the porcine and rat species, the liver is not responsible for the rapid elimination of pLH from the circulation compared to eCG. Our scintigraphic experiments suggest that the very short circulatory half-life of LH is due to rapid renal trapping.

  3. Simulations of the L-H transition on experimental advanced superconducting Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Jan [Department Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, S41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-12-15

    We have simulated the L-H transition on the EAST tokamak [Baonian Wan, EAST and HT-7 Teams, and International Collaborators, “Recent experiments in the EAST and HT-7 superconducting tokamaks,” Nucl. Fusion 49, 104011 (2009)] using a predictive transport code where ion and electron temperatures, electron density, and poloidal and toroidal momenta are simulated self consistently. This is, as far as we know, the first theory based simulation of an L-H transition including the whole radius and not making any assumptions about where the barrier should be formed. Another remarkable feature is that we get H-mode gradients in agreement with the α – α{sub d} diagram of Rogers et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4396 (1998)]. Then, the feedback loop emerging from the simulations means that the L-H power threshold increases with the temperature at the separatrix. This is a main feature of the C-mod experiments [Hubbard et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 056109 (2007)]. This is also why the power threshold depends on the direction of the grad B drift in the scrape off layer and also why the power threshold increases with the magnetic field. A further significant general H-mode feature is that the density is much flatter in H-mode than in L-mode.

  4. The Effects of Progesterone on Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Zavareh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte maturation and embryo development are controlled by intra-ovarian factors suchas steroid hormones. Progesterone (P4 exists in the follicular fluid that contributes tonormal mammalian ovarian function and has several critical functions during embryodevelopment and implantation, including endometrial receptivity, embryonic survivalduring gestation and transformation of the endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells.It is well known that the physiological effects of P4 during the pre-implantation stages ofsome mammal’s embryos are mediated by P4 receptors and their gene expression is determined.The effects of P4 on oocytes and embryo development have been assessed bysome investigations, with contradictory results. P4, a dominant steroid in follicular fluidat approximately 18 hours after the luteinizing hormone (LH surge may have a criticalrole in maturation of oocytes at the germinal stage. However, it has been shown that differentconcentrations of P4 could not improve in vitro maturation rates of germinal vesicles(GV in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs and cumulus denuded oocytes (CDOs.Culture media supplemented with P4 significantly improved mouse embryo development.In addition, an in vivo experimental design has shown high blastocyst survival andimplantation rates in P4-treated mice.In this review we explain some of the findings that pertain to the effects of P4 onoocyte maturation and embryo development both in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Edge radial electric field formation after the L-H transition on JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, K.; Matsunaga, G.; Honda, M.; Miyato, N.; Urano, H.; Kamada, Y.; Itoh, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka (Japan); Ida, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki (Japan); Collaboration: The JT-60 team

    2014-06-15

    Spatio-temporal measurements of the impurity ion temperature, density, and rotation profiles around the plasma edge region have been made in the JT-60U tokamak, allowing the determination of radial electric field, E{sub r}, with the key dimensionless parameter (poloidal Mach number, U{sub pm)} at the L-H transition in a number of operational regimes. We found that there is variation in the L-H transition in terms of its time-scale; not only ''hard'' type transition with a faster time-scale than that seen in the plasma transport (as represented by an energy confinement time, τ{sub E}) as seen in the many conventional tokamaks, but also ''soft'' one with a slow time-scale (∼τ{sub E}) is possible solution, including a complex multi-stage E{sub r} transition in the later H-phase. The most important point is that the critical condition for the L-H transition predicted by ion-orbit loss model could be applicable only for ''hard'' transition (occurred at U{sub pm} ≥ 1), and not necessary for ''slow'' one (occurred even at U{sub pm} < 1). Characteristics of the turbulent density fluctuation with the frequency range of 100 kHz at the plasma edge region, in addition to a uniform toroidal MHD oscillation (i.e., n = 0), during ELM-free H-phase are also reported. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Circulating breeding and pre-breeding prolactin and LH are not associated with clutch size in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Calen P; Dawson, Alistair; Sharp, Peter J; Meddle, Simone L; Williams, Tony D

    2014-06-01

    Clutch size is a fundamental predictor of avian fitness, widely-studied from evolutionary and ecological perspectives, but surprisingly little is known about the physiological mechanisms regulating clutch size variation. The only formal mechanistic hypothesis for avian clutch-size determination predicts an anti-gonadal effect of circulating prolactin (PRL) via the inhibition of luteinizing hormone (LH), and has become widely-accepted despite little experimental support. Here we investigated the relationship between pre-breeding and breeding plasma PRL and LH and clutch-size in captive-breeding female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Using a repeated-measures design, we followed individual females from pre-breeding, through multiple breeding attempts, and attempted to decrease PRL using the D2-receptor agonist, bromocriptine. Clutch size was independent of variation in pre-breeding PRL or LH, although pre-breeding LH was negatively correlated with the time between pairing and the onset of laying. Clutch size was independent of variation in plasma PRL on all days of egg-laying. Bromocriptine treatment had no effect on plasma PRL, but in this breeding attempt clutch size was also independent of plasma PRL. Finally, we found no evidence for an inverse relationship between plasma PRL and LH levels, as predicted if PRL had inhibitory effects via LH. Thus, our data fail to provide any support for the involvement of circulating PRL in clutch size determination. These findings suggest that alternative models for hormonal control of avian clutch size need to be considered, perhaps involving downstream regulation of plasma PRL at the level of the ovary, or other hormones that have not been considered to date.

  7. Inhibition of Progesterone Metabolism Mimics the Effect of Progesterone Withdrawal on Forced Swim Test Immobility

    OpenAIRE

    Beckley, Ethan H.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Withdrawal from high levels of progesterone in rodents has been proposed as a model for premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Forced swim test (FST) immobility, used to model depression, was assessed in intact female DBA/2J mice following progesterone withdrawal (PWD) or treatment with the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Following 5 daily progesterone injections (5 mg/kg IP) FST immobility increased only in mice withdrawn for 3 days (p < .05). In another experiment, 3 days of PW...

  8. Excitonic level structures of LH1 and LH2 of purple photosynthetic bacteria using an analytical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光参; 汪力; 杨国桢

    2003-01-01

    The excitonic level structure of a ring-like chain of dimers is discussed analytically in order to aid the understanding of the possible spectral properties of LH1 and LH2 of purple photosynthetic bacteria. Under the approximation of dipoledipole interaction between Bchls, the excitonic levels, bandwidths and energy gap between two Davydov subbands are expressed analytically in terms of interaction energies and configurational parameters of dipoles. Our model includes all the interactions between pigment molecules in the system. The oscillator strengths and circular dichroism (CD) for the excitonic states are also presented analytically. The simulated absorption and CD spectra of LH1 and LH2 complexes reproduce the main features of the measured results.

  9. Direct Visualization of Exciton Reequilibration in the LH1 and LH2 Complexes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by Multipulse Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Stuart, Thomas A.; Vengris, Mikas; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Hunter, C. Neil; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of the excited states of the light-harvesting complexes LH1 and LH2 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides are governed, mainly, by the excitonic nature of these ring-systems. In a pump-dump-probe experiment, the first pulse promotes LH1 or LH2 to its excited state and the second pulse dumps a portion of the excited state. By selective dumping, we can disentangle the dynamics normally hidden in the excited-state manifold. We find that by using this multiple-excitation technique we can visualize a 400-fs reequilibration reflecting relaxation between the two lowest exciton states that cannot be directly explored by conventional pump-probe. An oscillatory feature is observed within the exciton reequilibration, which is attributed to a coherent motion of a vibrational wavepacket with a period of ∼150 fs. Our disordered exciton model allows a quantitative interpretation of the observed reequilibration processes occurring in these antennas. PMID:21539791

  10. Direct Visualization of Exciton Reequilibration in the LH1 and LH2 Complexes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by Multipulse Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Thomas A. Cohen [Free Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vengris, Mikas [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania); Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I. [A.N. Belozersky Inst. of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow State Univ. (Russia); Cogdell, Richard J. [Microbial Photosynthesis Laboratory, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Hunter, C. Neil [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Univ. of Sheffield, (United Kingdom); van Grondelle, Rienk [Free Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of the excited states of the light-harvesting complexes LH1 and LH2 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides are governed, mainly, by the excitonic nature of these ring-systems. In a pump-dump-probe experiment, the first pulse promotes LH1 or LH2 to its excited state and the second pulse dumps a portion of the excited state. By selective dumping, we can disentangle the dynamics normally hidden in the excited-state manifold. We find that by using this multiple-excitation technique we can visualize a 400-fs reequilibration reflecting relaxation between the two lowest exciton states that cannot be directly explored by conventional pump-probe. An oscillatory feature is observed within the exciton reequilibration, which is attributed to a coherent motion of a vibrational wavepacket with a period of ~150 fs. Our disordered exciton model allows a quantitative interpretation of the observed reequilibration processes occurring in these antennas.

  11. Sensor and instrumentation for progesterone detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2012-05-01

    The reported research work uses a real time and noninvasive method to detect progesterone hormone concentration in purified water using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (E.I.S.) technique. Planar capacitive sensor, consisting of inter-digitated microelectrodes, is designed and fabricated on silicon substrate using thin-film Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based semiconductor device fabrication technology. The sensor in conjunction with EIS is used to evaluate conductivity, permeability and dielectric properties of reproductive hormone progesterone and its concentration quantification in purified water. Impedance spectrums are obtained with various concentrations of the hormone in purified water by using an electric circuit in order to extract sample conductance. Relationship of sample conductance with progesterone concentration level is studied in this research work. The ability of E.I.S. to detect progesterone concentration is aimed to be used in dairy farming industry in order to obtain better reproductive performance of the dairy cattle. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Blockade of LH release and ovulation in the rabbit with inhibitory analogues of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, C P; Coy, D H; Schally, A V; Sawyer, C H

    1977-06-01

    Plasma LH levels and ovulation were studied in female rabbits following administration of several inhibitory analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) before and after mating with experienced males. Administration of (D-Phe2, D-Leu6)-LHRH (1.5 mg/kg sc) to does 30 min before mating did not prevent either LH release or ovulation. However, a single sc injection of (D-Phe2, L-Phe3, D-Phe6y-LHRH (6 mg/kg) given 30 min before mating in 4 rabbits resulted in a 30-60 min delay in the coitus-induced release of LH when compared with post-coital changes in the same animals injected with vehicle; however, all of the does ovulated. When multiple dosages of 4 mg/kg (D-Phe2, L-Phe3, D-Phe6)-LHRH were administered 3-5 times at half-hourly intervals beginning 30 min prior to mating there was a considerable reduction in plasma LH elevations at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h after mating and 3/5 treated rabbits showed partial or complete blockade of ovulation. Quite similar results were obtained with the same dosage of (D-Phe2, D-Trp3, D-Phe6)-LHRH. An early sharp peak in LH release and full ovulation were stimulated in 6 out of 6 does by a single iv injection of synthetic LHRH (500 ng/kg). However, in another experiment, three half-hourly sc injections (4 mg/kg) of (D-Phe2, L-Phe3, D-Phe6)-LHRH beginning 30 min before administering LHRH markedly reduced the rise in plasma LH (P less than 0.01) and completely blocked ovulation in all of the same 6 animals. An unsuccessful attempt was made to provide a test animal for LHRH analogue investigations by implanting 4 cm of silastic tubing filled with crystalline estradiol (E2) sc in ovariectomized (OVX) AND INTACT DOES. In OVX does the silastic E2 implants resulted in a progressive decline in the ability to release LH in response to mating at 6 and at 20 days after implantation. With ovaries present, the E2 implant permitted post-coital LH release and ovulation at 4 d but not at 30 d post-implantation. At 30 d after removal of

  13. Effect of two virus inactivation methods. Electron beam irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment on determination of reproductive hormones in equine plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Nansen, P. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Hoeier, R.; Brueck, I. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Clinical Studies, Section of Reproduction, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Ionizing irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment have previously been shown to be effective for in-vitro inactivation of virus in biological material. In the present study the 2 methods were tested for possible effects on measurable concentrations of reproductive hormones in equine plasma (luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (P{sub 4}), and oestradiol-17 {beta} (E{sub 2})). The inactivation methods were electron beam irradiation with a dose from 11 to 44 kGy or treatment with binary ethylenimine (BEI) in concentrations of 1 and 5 mmol/L. Generally, there was a close correlation (r>0.8, p<0.001) between pre- and post-treatment hormone levels. Thus, the different phases of the oestrous cycle could be distinguished on the basis of measured hormone concentrations of treated samples. However, both treatments significantly changed hormone concentrations of the plasma samples. For LH, FSH, and E{sub 2} the effect of irradiation and BEI treatment was depressive and dose-dependant. For P{sub 4} the effect of irradiation was also depressive and dose-dependant. However, the highest dose of BEI resulted in an increase of measured P{sub 4} concentration, which may be attributed to changes in the plasma matrix due to the treatment. Although the treatments affected measured hormone concentrations, the close correlation between pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements means that the diagnostic value will remain unchanged. (au). 17 refs.

  14. Effect of progesterone concentration and duration of proestrus on fertility in beef cattle after fixed-time artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadarwal, D; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P; Pfeifer, L F M; Creelman, C; Singh, J

    2013-03-15

    The objective was to determine the effect of plasma progesterone concentration and the duration of proestrus during growth of the ovulatory follicle on fertility in beef cattle. Heifers (N = 61) and postpartum cows (N = 79) were assigned randomly to four groups in a two-by-two design involving luteal-phase versus subluteal-phase plasma progesterone concentrations and normal versus short proestrus. To synchronize follicular wave emergence, estradiol-17β was given im during the midluteal phase (Day 0) and concurrently, a once-used controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was placed intravaginally. In the subluteal-phase progesterone groups, a luteolytic dose of PGF(2α) was given on Day 0 and again 12 hours later. In the luteal-phase progesterone groups, PGF(2α) was not given (so as to retain a functional CL). The controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was removed and PGF(2α) was given on Days 7 or 8 in the normal- and short-proestrus groups, respectively. Cattle were given lutropin im 12 or 36 hours later in the short- and normal-proestrus groups, respectively, with AI at 12 hours after lutropin treatment. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian response during treatments and to diagnose pregnancy 60 days after AI. Cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups had a larger follicle at the time of AI, and a larger CL that secreted more progesterone 9 days after AI than cattle with luteal-phase progesterone concentrations or those with short proestrus (P < 0.03). There was a higher incidence of ovulation (P < 0.01) the day after AI in heifers (55/61; 90%) than in cows (44/79; 56%). Pregnancy rates ranged from 11% to 54%, and were higher in cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups than in the luteal-phase progesterone or short proestrus groups, respectively, (P < 0.02). In conclusion, a short

  15. Characterization of persistent follicles induced by prolonged treatment with progesterone in dairy cows: an experimental model for the study of ovarian follicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pablo U; Stangaferro, Matías L; Gareis, Natalia C; Silvia, William J; Matiller, Valentina; Salvetti, Natalia R; Rey, Florencia; Barberis, Fabián; Cattaneo, Luciano; Ortega, Hugo H

    2015-10-15

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is a major factor contributing to poor reproductive efficiency of lactating dairy cows. The objective of the present study was to analyze the endocrine profile, growth dynamics, and histologic characteristics of persistent ovarian follicles-cysts developing in response to long-term administration of intermediate levels of progesterone. To this end, after synchronization of cows, a low dose of progesterone was administered for 5, 10, and 15 days after the expected day of ovulation in treated cows (groups P5, P10, and P15, respectively), using an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device. A significant increase in diameter was detected on Day 11 of progesterone treatment and thereafter (P Day 15 of persistence, the diameter of the persistent follicle reached a mean of 23 ± 0.6 mm. Microscopically, the persistent follicles had a complete granulosa, an intensely vascularized theca interna, and a collagenous theca externa layer. Temporal changes in the serum concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and FSH were detected (effects of time, P days of persistence and declined (P days of persistence. The LH pulse concentration and pulse amplitude had a significant reduction (P Day 10 of follicular persistence (P Day 5 of follicular persistence, 17-hydroxyprogesterone showed a significant decrease at 5 days of follicular persistence in relation to proestrus, and testosterone showed a significant increase (P Day 5 of persistence through Day 15 of follicular persistence. Correlation between serum and follicular fluid steroid concentrations was significant for testosterone (P < 0.0001) and not significant for estradiol and progesterone. These findings indicate that ovarian cysts in COD are similar in many ways to the persistent follicles induced by progesterone, with an analogous hormonal and morphologic context, thus confirming a local role of subluteal levels of progesterone in COD pathogenesis and in the regulatory mechanisms of the ovarian

  16. Modeling of progesterone-induced intracellular calcium signaling in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long-Fei; Xiang, Cheng; Zhu, Ya-Bing; Qin, Kai-Rong

    2014-06-21

    Calcium ion is a secondary messenger of mammalian spermatozoa. The dynamic change of its concentration plays a vital role in the process of sperm motility, capacitation, acrosome and fertilization. Progesterone released by the cumulus cells, as a potent stimulator of fertilization, can activate the calcium channels on the plasma membrane, which in turn triggers the dynamic change of intracellular calcium concentration. In this paper, a mathematical model of calcium dynamic response in mammalian spermatozoa induced by progesterone is proposed and numerical simulation of the dynamic model is conducted. The results show that the dynamic response of calcium concentration predicted by the model is in accordance with experimental evidence. The proposed dynamic model can be used to explain the phenomena observed in the experiments and predict new phenomena to be revealed by experimental investigations, which will provide the basis to quantitatively investigate the fluid mechanics and biochemistry for the sperm motility induced by progesterone.

  17. [Cyclic concentration of estradiol and progesterone in hysterectomized women (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso Ron, L; Aznar Ramos, R; Bedolla Tovar, N; Cortés-Gallegos, V

    1975-01-01

    The cyclic concentration of estradiol and progesterone was studied in 6 women, 30 years of age or less, who underwent hysterectomy, 7 to 14 months earlier, because of obstetrical complications. The basal body temperature curve, as well as the daily concentrations of plasma estradiol and progesterone during one cycle, showed a pattern similar to that of the control group, except for 2 women with a luteal phase of 16 days, who had progesterone levels of 5 ng/ml or more. Although these values are indicative of ovulation, they fell in the lower limit of the range considered as ovulatory in the laboratory that conducted the test. It is concluded that hysterectomy, with the interruption of the circulation of the ovaric branch of the uterine artery, does not affect the normal esteroidogenic function of the ovary.

  18. Oxidative stress effect on progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) binding to PIBF-receptor in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haba, Carlos; Palacio, José R; Palkovics, Tamas; Szekeres-Barthó, Júlia; Morros, Antoni; Martínez, Paz

    2014-01-01

    Receptor-ligand binding is an essential interaction for biological function. Oxidative stress can modify receptors and/or membrane lipid dynamics, thus altering cell physiological functions. The aim of this study is to analyze how oxidative stress may alter receptor-ligand binding and lipid domain distribution in the case of progesterone-induced blocking factor/progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor. For membrane fluidity regionalization analysis of MEC-1 lymphocytes, two-photon microscopy was used in individual living cells. Lymphocytes were also double stained with AlexaFluor647/progesterone-induced blocking factor and Laurdan to evaluate -induced blocking factor/progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor distribution in the different membrane domains, under oxidative stress. A new procedure has been developed which quantitatively analyzes the regionalization of a membrane receptor among the lipid domains of different fluidity in the plasma membrane. We have been able to establish a new tool which detects and evaluates lipid raft clustering from two-photon microscopy images of individual living cells. We show that binding of progesterone-induced blocking factor to progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor causes a rigidification of plasma membrane which is related to an increase of lipid raft clustering. However, this clustering is inhibited under oxidative stress conditions. In conclusion, oxidative stress decreases membrane fluidity, impairs receptor-ligand binding and reduces lipid raft clustering.

  19. Levels and actions of progesterone and its metabolites in the nervous system during physiological and pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Giatti, Silvia; Calabrese, Donato; Pesaresi, Marzia; Cermenati, Gaia; Mitro, Nico; Viviani, Barbara; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Caruso, Donatella

    2014-02-01

    Progesterone is synthesized and actively metabolized in the central and peripheral nervous system, into neuroactive steroid metabolites, such as dihydroprogesterone, allopregnanolone and isopregnanolone. Progesterone and/or its metabolites exert a variety of effects acting as physiological regulators of neuronal and glial development and plasticity, controlling reproduction, neuroendocrine events, mood and affection. In addition, these neuroactive steroids maintain neural homeostasis and exert neuroprotective actions. In agreement, metabolic pathways of progesterone are affected by modifications in the level of gonadal hormones and by pathology or injury with a regional specificity and in a sex-dimorphic way. Therefore, observations here summarized may provide a background to design sex-specific therapies based on progesterone metabolites. On this point of view, considering that one of the major limits of a therapy based on neuroactive steroids could be modifications in their plasma levels and their consequent peripheral effects, pharmacological treatments aimed to increase their levels in the nervous system could provide an interesting therapeutic option.

  20. Membrane Progesterone Receptors (mPRs): Evidence for Neuroprotective, Neurosteroid Signaling and Neuroendocrine Functions in Neuronal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei

    2012-01-01

    Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are novel G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the progestin and adipoQ receptor family (PAQR) that mediate a variety of rapid, cell surface-initiated progesterone actions in the reproductive system involving activation of intracellular signaling pathways (i.e. nonclassical actions). The mPRs are highly expressed in the brain but research on their neural functions has only been conducted in a single neuronal cell line, GT1-7 cells, which have negligible nuclear progesterone receptor (PR) expression. GT1-7 cells express mPRα and mPRβ on their plasma membranes which is associated with the presence of high affinity, specific [3H]-progesterone receptor binding. The neurosteroid, allopregnanolone, is an effective ligand for recombinant mPRα with a relative binding affinity of 7.6% that of progesterone. Allopregnanolone acts as a potent mPR agonist on GT1-7 cells, mimicking the progesterone-induced decrease in cAMP accumulation and its antiapoptotic actions at low nanomolar concentrations.. The decrease in cAMP levels is associated with rapid progesterone-induced down-regulation of GnRH pulsatile secretion from perifused GT1-7 cells. The recent suggestion that mPRs are alkaline ceramidases and mediate sphingolipid signaling is not supported by empirical evidence that TNFα does not bind to mPRs over expressed in human cells and that exogenous sphingomyelinase is ineffective in mimicking progestin actions through mPRs to induce meiotic maturation of fish oocytes. Taken together, these recent studies indicate that mPRs mediate neuroprotective effects of progesterone and allopregnanolone and are also the likely intermediaries in progesterone-induced inhibition of pulsatile GnRH secretion in GT1-7 cells. PMID:22687885

  1. Increasing progesterone levels are associated with smoking abstinence among free-cycling women smokers who receive brief pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; McClure, Erin A; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Hartwell, Karen J; Gray, Kevin M

    2015-04-01

    Preclinical and human laboratory research suggests that (a) progesterone may decrease drug reward, craving, and smoking behavior, and (b) estradiol may enhance drug reward and smoking behavior. A modest majority of treatment research examining the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and outcomes suggests that the luteal menstrual phase, with its uniquely higher progesterone levels, is associated with better cessation outcomes. However, no studies to date have examined the effects of naturally occurring variation in progesterone and estradiol levels on medication-assisted smoking cessation. The present study sought to fill this notable gap in the treatment literature. Weekly plasma progesterone and estradiol levels were obtained from nicotine-dependent female smokers enrolled in a 4-week cessation trial. Participants (N = 108) were randomized to receive a 4-week course of either varenicline (VAR) tablets and placebo patches or placebo tablets and nicotine patches. Plasma samples were obtained 1 week before their cessation attempt and weekly during medication administration. Abstinence was assessed weekly. Weekly hormone data replicated commonly observed menstrual cycle patterns of progesterone and estradiol levels. Importantly, increases in progesterone level were associated with a 23% increase in the odds for being abstinent within each week of treatment. This effect was driven primarily by nicotine patch-treated versus VAR-treated females. This study was the first to identify an association between progesterone level (increasing) and abstinence outcomes in free-cycling women smokers who participated in a medication-based treatment. Furthermore, the potential benefits of progesterone may vary across different pharmacotherapies. Implications of these findings for smoking cessation intervention are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For

  2. Progesterone modulates the LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone-receptor independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Schander, Julieta Aylen; Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Franchi, Ana María

    2015-12-15

    Genital tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria induce miscarriage and are one of the most common complications of human pregnancy. LPS administration to 7-day pregnant mice induces embryo resorption after 24h, with nitric oxide playing a fundamental role in this process. We have previously shown that progesterone exerts protective effects on the embryo by modulating the inflammatory reaction triggered by LPS. Here we sought to investigate whether the in vivo administration of progesterone modulated the LPS-induced nitric oxide production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pregnant and non-pregnant mice. We found that progesterone downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone receptor-independent mechanism. Moreover, our results suggest a possible participation of glucocorticoid receptors in at least some of the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone.

  3. ASASSN-15lh: The Most Luminous Supernova Ever Discovered

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Subo; Prieto, J L; Jha, S W; Stanek, K Z; Holoien, T W -S; Kochanek, C S; Thompson, T A; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Brown, J S; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Grupe, D; Kiyota, S; Masi, G; Nicholls, B; Olivares, F; Pignata, G; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Szczygiel, D M; Wozniak, P R

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery and early evolution of ASASSN-15lh, the most luminous supernova ever found. At redshift z=0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of M_{u,AB} ~ -23.5 and bolometric luminosity L_bol ~ 2.2x10^45 ergs/s, which is >~ 2 times more luminous than any previously known supernova. Its spectra match the hydrogen-poor sub-class of super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are poorly understood. In contrast to known SLSNe-I, most of which reside in star-forming, dwarf galaxies, its host appears to be a luminous galaxy (M_V ~ -22; M_K ~ -25.1) with little star formation. In the two months since its first detection, ASASSN-15lh has radiated ~7.5x10^51 ergs, challenging the popular magnetar model for the engine of SLSNe-I.

  4. A mathematical model for LH release in response to continuous and pulsatile exposure of gonadotrophs to GnRH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Michael C

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a previous study, a model was developed to investigate the release of luteinizing hormone (LH from pituitary cells in response to a short pulse of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. The model included: binding of GnRH to its receptor (R, dimerization and internalization of the hormone receptor complex, interaction with a G protein, production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3, release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, entrance of calcium into the cytosol via voltage gated membrane channels, pumping of calcium out of the cytosol via membrane and ER pumps, and release of LH. The extended model, presented in this paper, also includes the following physiologically important phenomena: desensitization of calcium channels; internalization of the dimerized receptors and recycling of some of the internalized receptors; an increase in Gq concentration near the plasma membrane in response to receptor dimerization; and basal rates of synthesis and degradation of the receptors. With suitable choices of the parameters, good agreement with a variety of experimental data of the LH release pattern in response to pulses of various durations, repetition rates, and concentrations of GnRH were obtained. The mathematical model allows us to assess the effects of internalization and desensitization on the shapes and time courses of LH response curves.

  5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF LOX AND LH2 TURBOPUMP TURBINES FOR A 10 TON THRUST LOX/LH2 ROCKET ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    HASHIMOTO, Ryohei; Kamijo, Kenjiro; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Fujita, Toshihiko; 橋本, 亮平; 上絛, 謙二郎; 渡辺, 義明; 長谷川, 敏; 藤田, 敏彦

    1981-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance evaluation of the pump-drive turbines for a 10 ton thrust liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen (LOX and LH2) gas generator cycle propulsion system, which has dual-shaft series turbines, was tested mainly using cold nitrogen gas. At design equivalent speed and pressure ratio, the LOX turbine static efficiency was about 35 percent compared to the design value of 32.8 percent. The LH2 turbine static efficiency was very close to the design value of 45 percent. Equivalent ...

  6. Progesterone Receptor Subcellular Localization and Gene Expression Profile in Human Astrocytoma Cells Are Modified by Progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliesha González-Arenas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular progesterone receptor (PR has been identified in human astrocytomas, the most common and aggressive primary brain tumors in humans. It has been reported that PR cell distribution affects their transcriptional activity and turnover. In this work we studied by immunofluorescence the effects of estradiol and progesterone on the subcellular localization of PR in a grade III human astrocytoma derived cell line (U373. We observed that total PR was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm without hormonal treatment. Estradiol (10 nM increased PR presence in the cytoplasm of U373 cells, whereas progesterone (10 nM and RU486 (PR antagonist, 1 μM blocked this effect. To investigate the role of PR activity in the regulation of gene expression pattern of U373 cells, we evaluated by microarray analysis the profile of genes regulated by progesterone, RU486, or both steroids. We found different genes regulated by steroid treatments that encode for proteins involved in metabolism, transport, cell cycle, proliferation, metastasis, apoptosis, processing of nucleic acids and proteins, adhesion, pathogenesis, immune response, cytoskeleton, and membrane receptors. We determined that 30 genes were regulated by progesterone, 41 genes by RU486 alone, and 13 genes by the cotreatment of progesterone+RU486, suggesting that there are many genes regulated by intracellular PR or through other signaling pathways modulated by progesterone. All these data suggest that PR distribution and activity should modify astrocytomas growth.

  7. Effect of the ovulatory follicle diameter and progesterone concentration on the pregnancy rate of fixed-time inseminated lactating beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Machado Pfeifer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the ovulatory follicle diameter on the reproductive performance of lactating beef cows subjected to low progesterone fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols. Ninety-three lactating beef cows (60-80 days postpartum at random stages of estrous cycle were given a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin F2α (500 μg cloprostenol; PGF twice, 11 d apart. Ten days after the second PGF treatment, cows were given 1.5 mg of estradiol benzoate im and a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (Cue-Mate with a single pod containing 0.78 g progesterone (Day 0. Cows received another luteolytic dose of PGF on Day 0. On Day 8, the Cue-Mate was removed. Fifty-four to 56 hours later, cows received 12.5 mg of porcine LH (pLH i.m. and were concurrently artificially inseminated. Ultrasound examinations of the ovaries were performed on Days 10 and 17 to evaluate the diameter of ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum, respectively. Cows which presented ovulatory follicle > 19 mm resulted in larger corpus luteum than cows that had ovulatory follicle <15 mm in diameter. However, cows with ovulatory follicle between 13-15 mm had higher pregnancy rate than other categories of ovulatory follicle. Although larger ovulatory follicles result in larger corpus luteum and consequently higher progesterone production, the optimal size of ovulatory follicles (13-15 mm may result in positive benefits on pregnancy rate for cows subjected to FTAI with low progesterone concentration protocols.

  8. Extreme Supernova Models for the Superluminous Transient ASASSN-15lh

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzopoulos, E; Vinko, J; Nagy, A P; Wiggins, B K; Even, W P

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of the unprecedentedly superluminous transient ASASSN-15lh (or SN 2015L) challenges all the power-input models that have been proposed for superluminous supernovae. Here we examine some of the few viable interpretations of ASASSN-15lh in the context of a stellar explosion, involving combinations of one or more power inputs. We model the lightcurve of ASASSN-15lh with a hybrid model that includes contributions from magnetar spin-down energy and hydrogen-poor circumstellar interaction. We also investigate models of pure circumstellar interaction with a massive hydrogen-deficient shell and discuss about the lack of interaction features in the observed spectra. We find that ASASSN-15lh can be best modeled by the energetic core-collapse of a ~40 Msun supernova interacting with a hydrogen-poor shell of ~20 Msun. The circumstellar shell and progenitor mass are consistent with a rapidly rotating pulsational pair-instability supernova progenitor as required for strong interaction following the fin...

  9. Astronomy. ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Subo; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Jha, S W; Stanek, K Z; Holoien, T W-S; Kochanek, C S; Thompson, T A; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Brown, J S; Bufano, F; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Grupe, D; Kiyota, S; Masi, G; Nicholls, B; Olivares E, F; Pignata, G; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Szczygiel, D M; Woźniak, P R

    2016-01-15

    We report the discovery of ASASSN-15lh (SN 2015L), which we interpret as the most luminous supernova yet found. At redshift z = 0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of Mu ,AB = -23.5 ± 0.1 and bolometric luminosity Lbol = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10(45) ergs s(-1), which is more than twice as luminous as any previously known supernova. It has several major features characteristic of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are currently poorly understood. In contrast to most previously known SLSNe-I that reside in star-forming dwarf galaxies, ASASSN-15lh appears to be hosted by a luminous galaxy (MK ≈ -25.5) with little star formation. In the 4 months since first detection, ASASSN-15lh radiated (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(52) ergs, challenging the magnetar model for its engine. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Risk Assessment and Scaling for the SLS LH2 ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiychuk, Halyna; Ponizovskaya-Devine, Ekaterina; Luchinsky, Dmitry; Khasin, Michael; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

    2012-01-01

    In this report the main physics processes in LH2 tank during prepress and rocket flight are studied. The goal of this investigation is to analyze possible hazards and to make risk assessment in proposed LH2 tank designs for SLS with 5 engines (the situation with 4 engines is less critical). For analysis we use the multinode model (MNM) developed by us and presented in a separate report and also 3D ANSYS simulations. We carry out simulation and theoretical analysis the physics processes such as (i) accumulation of bubbles in LH2 during replenish stage and their collapsing in the liquid during the prepress; (ii) condensation-evaporation at the liquid-vapor interface and tank wall, (iv) heating the liquid near the interface and wall due to condensation and environment heat, (v) injection of hot He during prepress and of hot GH2 during flight, (vi) mixing and cooling of the injected gases due to heat transfer between the gases, liquid and the tank wall. We analyze the effects of these physical processes on the thermo- and fluid gas dynamics in the ullage and on the stratification of temperature in the liquid and assess the associated hazards. A special emphasize is put on the scaling predictions for the larger SLS LH2 tank.

  11. Elevated progesterone during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azemi, M; Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, E M

    2012-01-01

    of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of the follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials should document the cause and origin...... phase in ovarian stimulation. The databases of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials...

  12. Ghrelin suppresses nocturnal secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Michael; Schmidt, Doreen; Uhr, Manfred; Steiger, Axel

    2013-09-01

    Major depression is associated with various endocrine disturbances. Apart from the well-known hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, also the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis may be altered compared to healthy subjects. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin is involved in mood regulation and may have antidepressant effects. In addition, it has been shown to suppress secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in healthy subjects. Aim of this study was therefore to test the effect of ghrelin on the activity of the HPG and HPT axis in patients with major depression. Therefore, secretion profiles of LH and TSH were determined in 14 unmedicated patients with major depression (7 women) twice, receiving 50 μg ghrelin or placebo at 2200, 2300, 0000, and 0100 h. LH secretion after ghrelin injection as assessed by the AUC (4.05 ± 1.18 mlIU min/ml) was significantly (P = 0.049) lower than after placebo injection (4.75 ± 1.33 mlIU min/ml) during the predefined intervention period (2220-0200 h). In addition, LH pulses occurred significantly (P = 0.045) less frequently after ghrelin injection (3.2 ± 1.4) than after placebo injection (3.9 ± 1.7). Mean TSH plasma levels were significantly lower at 0240 h and from 0320 until 0420 h after ghrelin injection than after placebo injection. In conclusion, ghrelin suppressed nocturnal secretion of LH and TSH in patients with major depression. However, these effects were weaker than previously shown in healthy subjects.

  13. Toward a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida Afina

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at the development of a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in cow's milk. Progesterone is a steroid hormone and regulates ovulation in female mammals. The concentration of progesterone in blood and in milk is in accordance with the reproductive cycle of the individual femal

  14. Sexual Absorption of Vaginal Progesterone: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. Merriam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine if sexual intercourse reduces absorption of vaginal progesterone gel in women and to determine if progesterone is absorbed by the male during intercourse. Study Design. Prospective, randomized, cross over, controlled study of 20 reproductive-aged women and their male sexual partners randomized to receive vaginal progesterone gel (Crinone 8% gel, Actavis Inc., USA or placebo cream. Serum progesterone for both male and female partners were measured 10 hours after intercourse. One week later, subjects were crossed over to receive the opposite formulation. In the third week, women used progesterone gel at night and abstained from intercourse. Results. Serum progesterone was significantly reduced with vaginal progesterone gel + intercourse compared with vaginal progesterone gel + abstinence (P=0.0075. Men absorbed significant progesterone during intercourse with a female partner using vaginal progesterone gel compared to placebo (P=0.0008. Conclusion(s. Vaginal progesterone gel is reduced in women after intercourse which may decrease drug efficacy during luteal phase support. Because men absorb low levels of progesterone during intercourse, exposure could cause adverse effects such as decreased libido. This study is registered under Clinical Trial number NCT01959464.

  15. Progesterone receptor expression declines in the guinea pig uterus during functional progesterone withdrawal and in response to prostaglandins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni N Welsh

    Full Text Available Progesterone withdrawal is essential for parturition, but the mechanism of this pivotal hormonal change is unclear in women and other mammals that give birth without a pre-labor drop in maternal progesterone levels. One possibility suggested by uterine tissue analyses and cell culture models is that progesterone receptor levels change at term decreasing the progesterone responsiveness of the myometrium, which causes progesterone withdrawal at the functional level and results in estrogen dominance enhancing uterine contractility. In this investigation we have explored whether receptor mediated functional progesterone withdrawal occurs during late pregnancy and labor in vivo. We have also determined whether prostaglandins that induce labor cause functional progesterone withdrawal by altering myometrial progesterone receptor expression. Pregnant guinea pigs were used, since this animal loses progesterone responsiveness at term and gives birth in the presence of high maternal progesterone level similarly to primates. We found that progesterone receptor mRNA and protein A and B expression decreased in the guinea pig uterus during the last third of gestation and in labor. Prostaglandin administration reduced while prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor treatment increased progesterone receptor A protein abundance. Estrogen receptor-1 protein levels remained unchanged during late gestation, in labor and after prostaglandin or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor administration. Steroid receptor levels were higher in the non-pregnant than in the pregnant uterine horns. We conclude that the decreasing expression of both progesterone receptors A and B is a physiological mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal in the guinea pig during late pregnancy and in labor. Further, prostaglandins administered exogenously or produced endogenously stimulate labor in part by suppressing uterine progesterone receptor A expression, which may cause functional progesterone

  16. Serum testosterone and progesterone levels and ovarian activity as indicators for seasonal breeding in dromedary camels in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker, E. A,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work was done to investigate the effect of season on level of testosterone, progesterone hormone and ovarian activity in Arabian dromedary camels. Over a period of one year (July 2009–June 2010, jugular blood samples were collected monthly from 7 mature male camels and 12 females at late pregnancy to detect the levels of testosterone and progesterone hormones. A total of 900 ovarian follicles were measured in the slaughterhouses of Tamboul and Um-Elgura to define the effect of season on ovarian activity. The obtained results showed that plasma testosterone levels greatly varied among months of the year. It increased during July and August and decreased during the period from September to February. The level started to increase again during March and remained high until the end of the study in June. Plasma progesterone level was high during July, while it dropped at parturition during August. The level of progesterone remained low during the period from September to February, before it started to rise again in March and remained high until the end of the study in June. The rise of progesterone level in females coincided with the rise of testosterone in males. Ovarian activity was observed throughout the different seasons with a maximum activity during autumn. According to the hormonal findings and ovarian activity, there is a clear breeding season in Arabian dromedary camel in the Butana area, northeast of Sudan extending throughout summer (March – June and autumn (July–October.

  17. Effect of Efavirenz on Endogenous Progesterone Concentrations and Contraceptive Outcomes among Ugandan HIV Infected Women Coadministering Ethinylestradiol/Levonorgestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkwase, Grant; Bisaso, Kuteesa R; Kakaire, Othman; Nanzigu, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of efavirenz mid-dose plasma concentrations on mid-luteal endogenous progesterone concentrations and contraceptive outcomes among 49 HIV infected women coadministering ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel, including 34 HIV positive women on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and 15 HAART naïve HIV infected women, purposively selected from Mulago Hospital, Uganda. A blood sample was collected once between days 20 and 22 of each woman's menstrual cycle for measuring endogenous progesterone and efavirenz concentrations by electrochemiluminescence technology and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Descriptive statistical analysis and correlation and logistic regression analysis were done using SPSS v.21 and R3.1. Efavirenz showed a weak positive linear relationship with endogenous progesterone at efavirenz concentrations below 12 μg/ml. Based on serum endogenous progesterone, the observed hormonal contraceptives failure rate (24.5%) was higher than expected (maximum 8%). A higher proportion of HIV positive women on efavirenz based HAART (26.5%) was at risk of contraceptive failure than their HIV infected HAART naïve counterparts (20%) though it was not statistically significant (p = 0.63). Efavirenz mid-dose plasma concentrations seem to have no significant effect on mid-luteal endogenous progesterone concentrations and contraceptive outcomes among HIV infected Ugandan women coadministering ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel oral pills.

  18. Effect of Efavirenz on Endogenous Progesterone Concentrations and Contraceptive Outcomes among Ugandan HIV Infected Women Coadministering Ethinylestradiol/Levonorgestrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Munkwase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of efavirenz mid-dose plasma concentrations on mid-luteal endogenous progesterone concentrations and contraceptive outcomes among 49 HIV infected women coadministering ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel, including 34 HIV positive women on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART and 15 HAART naïve HIV infected women, purposively selected from Mulago Hospital, Uganda. A blood sample was collected once between days 20 and 22 of each woman’s menstrual cycle for measuring endogenous progesterone and efavirenz concentrations by electrochemiluminescence technology and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, respectively. Descriptive statistical analysis and correlation and logistic regression analysis were done using SPSS v.21 and R3.1. Efavirenz showed a weak positive linear relationship with endogenous progesterone at efavirenz concentrations below 12 μg/ml. Based on serum endogenous progesterone, the observed hormonal contraceptives failure rate (24.5% was higher than expected (maximum 8%. A higher proportion of HIV positive women on efavirenz based HAART (26.5% was at risk of contraceptive failure than their HIV infected HAART naïve counterparts (20% though it was not statistically significant (p=0.63. Efavirenz mid-dose plasma concentrations seem to have no significant effect on mid-luteal endogenous progesterone concentrations and contraceptive outcomes among HIV infected Ugandan women coadministering ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel oral pills.

  19. Regulation of GnRH receptors by progesterone and inhibin in ovine pituitary cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and the gonadal protein, inhibin, on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number and binding affinity were investigated in vitro, using ovine pituitary cells in culture. Changes in GnRH binding were correlated with GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release following pretreatment with P{sub 4} and inhibin. Ovine pituitary cells in culture were preincubated with P{sub 4} or porcine inhibin (I{sub P}) for 24 or 48 hours (h). Cells were collected and analyzed for GnRH binding using a radioligand-receptor assay. des-Gly{sup 10}-(D-Ala{sup 6})-LHRH-ethyl-amide was used as the radiolabeled GnRh superagonist analog (mono-{sup 125}I-GnRH-A) and as competing ligand. Treatment with P{sub 4} progressively decreased GnRH-A binding capacity by 44.3% and 71.8% of the control following pretreatment for 24 or 48 h, respectively. When P{sub 4} was removed from the cultures, GnRH-A binding capacity partially returned to control levels within 24 h. Decreased GnRH-A binding was closely correlated with the reduction in GnRH-stimulated LH release which was observed following 24 or 48 h pretreatment with P{sub 4}.

  20. Photoperiod influences the central effects of ghrelin on food intake, GH and LH secretion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joanne L; Miller, David W; Findlay, Patricia A; Adam, Clare L

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin is a circulating peptide, primarily secreted by the gut, that has reported actions within the hypothalamo-pituitary axis to stimulate food intake, inhibit GnRH/LH secretion and stimulate GH secretion in monogastric species. Here, we examine responses to centrally administered ghrelin in a seasonal ruminant. Estradiol-implanted castrated male sheep with indwelling intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannulae were kept with unrestricted food for 16 weeks in long day photoperiod (LD, 16 h light/day) then 16 weeks in short days (SD, 8 h light/day). In week 16 of each photoperiod they were given a control (saline) i.c.v. injection on day 1 and ghrelin i.c.v. injection on day 2. Mean circulating endogenous plasma ghrelin concentrations showed no diurnal pattern and were similar between the photoperiods. Central ghrelin injection increased voluntary food intake 2-fold in the first hour after administration in LD but not in SD, decreased LH pulse frequency and amplitude in SD but not in LD, and stimulated GH release in both photoperiods, although there was a 1.5-fold larger response in LD. Therefore, central injection of ghrelin to sheep acutely stimulated food intake in LD, suppressed reproductive neuroendocrine output in SD, and stimulated GH secretion irrespective of photoperiod, although more pronounced in LD. These data indicate that photoperiod can influence hypothalamic appetite and reproductive neuroendocrine responses to ghrelin in seasonal species.

  1. Progesterone and oestrogen in pregnancy and parturition: comparative aspects and hierarchical control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, R B; Galil, A K; Harrison, F A; Jenkin, G; Perry, J S

    1977-01-01

    The different ways in which the progesterone requirements of pregnancy are met in various species are reviewed here. Progesterone production expressed in terms of metabolic body weight lies within about one order of magnitude in several species (but not in the rat), whether the hormone is predominantly ovarian or placental in origin. Parturition is usually preceded by a decrease in the plasma concentration of progesterone and the evidence which suggests that a decrease in secretion involves enzyme induction is summarized. In the sheep a sequence of well-marked hormonal changes can be discerned--an increase in fetal cortisol secretion followed by a fall in placental progesterone and a rise in oestrogen and prostaglandin F2alpha secretion. This sequence has been interpreted in terms of hierarchical control theory which envisages a series of levels placed in a descending order of importance and in which there is a downward transmission of a signal from a higher level that modifies activity at a lower level. A dominant level in the hierarchy in the sheep and pig seems to be the fetal hypothalamus and pituitary, but in the rabbit the maternal hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary play a more dominant role.

  2. GLP-1 Increases Preovulatory LH Source and the Number of Mature Follicles, As Well As Synchronizing the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outeiriño-Iglesias, Verónica; Romaní-Pérez, Marina; González-Matías, Lucas C; Vigo, Eva; Mallo, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Control of estrous cycle and reproductive capacity involves a large number of central and peripheral factors, integrating numerous nutritional and metabolic signals. Here we show that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a peptide with anorexigenic and insulinotropic actions, and the GLP-1 receptor agonist Exendin-4 (Ex4) exert a regulatory influence on the gonadal axis, in both adult and prepubertal female rats. In adult rats, Glp-1 receptor expression varies during the estrous cycle at the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. Furthermore, acute treatment with GLP-1 in the morning proestrus doubled the amplitude of the preovulatory LH surge, as well as influencing estradiol and progesterone levels along the estrous cycle. These changes provoked an important increase in the number of Graafian follicles and corpora lutea, as well as in the litter size. Conversely, Ex4 diminished the levels of LH, later producing a partial blockade at the preovulatory surge, yet not affecting either the number of mature follicles or corpora lutea. Chronic administration of low doses of GLP-1 to prepubertal rats synchronized vaginal opening and increased LH levels on the 35th day of life, yet at these doses it did not modify their body weight, food intake, or ovarian and uterine weight. By contrast, chronic exposure to Ex4 produced a significant reduction in ovarian and uterine weight, and serum LH, and the animals treated chronically with Ex4 showed no vaginal opening in the period studied. Overall, our results demonstrate that GLP-1 and Ex4 act on the gonadal axis, involving the hypothalamic kisspeptin system, to influence reproductive efficiency in female rats.

  3. LH and ICRH RF electric field measurements using Doppler-free Saturation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. H.; Zafar, A.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Isler, R. C.; Bell, G. L.

    2016-10-01

    The physics mechanisms of wave heating and current drive processes in the bulk hot plasma are generally well identified, however, details of the wave-plasma interaction in the cold plasma edge are still not fully understood. To investigate the alluding physics non-perturbative diagnostics are required due to the large energy flux traversing the space associated with the corresponding RF antenna/launcher. A spectroscopic diagnostic, based on Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy, is currently under development at ORNL that will be capable of measuring RF electric fields with high precision (20 V/cm). The RF electric field is determined by systematically fitting a Balmer series spectral line profile obtained via DFSS using a previous validated non-perturbative quantum mechanically model. The spectral line profile is measured using Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy (DFSS). DFSS is a laser-based technique involving two counter-propagating beams, referred to as the pump and probe, which are made to overlap at a single point in space. The frequency of the laser is swept over that associated with the electronic transition of interest and the probe beam absorption intensity is measured. In this presentation an active spectroscopic technique allowing for measurements of the RF electric field driving wave-plasma interactions for lower hybrid (LH) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems, based on DFSS, will be discussed. Initial measurements of the electric field in the magnetized capacitively coupled RF sheath obtained on a laboratory test stand will be presented.

  4. LOX/LH2 vane pump for auxiliary propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminger, J. A.; Ulbricht, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Positive displacement pumps offer potential efficiency advantages over centrifugal pumps for future low thrust space missions. Low flow rate applications, such as space station auxiliary propulsion or dedicated low thrust orbiter transfer vehicles, are typical of missions where low flow and high head rise challenge centrifugal pumps. The positive displacement vane pump for pumping of LOX and LH2 is investigated. This effort has included: (1) a testing program in which pump performance was investigated for differing pump clearances and for differing pump materials while pumping LN2, LOX, and LH2; and (2) an analysis effort, in which a comprehensive pump performance analysis computer code was developed and exercised. An overview of the theoretical framework of the performance analysis computer code is presented, along with a summary of analysis results. Experimental results are presented for pump operating in liquid nitrogen. Included are data on the effects on pump performance of pump clearance, speed, and pressure rise. Pump suction performance is also presented.

  5. Levels of FSH, LH and testosterone, and sperm DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowiak, Artur; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Stasiak, Magdalena; Bojar, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Having an offspring is the most important human biological goal, which is necessary for survival of the human species. Lack of offspring is a phenomenon concerning approximately 15% of married couples in Poland. In a half of the cases, a causative agent is the male factor infertility problem. There is evidence that certain male fertility problems are related with disorders of the process of spermatogenesis. The course of normal spermatogenesis depends on proper pituitary secretion of folliculostimulin (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as testicular secretion of testosterone. It is considered that in approximately 20% of patients with idiopathic infertility an elevated level of sperm DNA fragmentation may be the cause of failure in reproduction. The objective of the present study was determination of the relationship between FSH, LH and testosterone levels, and the occurrence of sperm DNA fragmentation. The present study was conducted in the year 2012 in the Non-Public Health Care Unit 'Ovum Reproduction and Andrology' in Lublin, and covered 186 men treated for infertility. For inclusion into the study group we qualified males aged 25-35, who have been treated for infertility for more than 1 year, with no pathological features observed in the female partner. The structure of sperm chromatin was evaluated using the technique of flow cytometry-Sperm Chromatin Structure assay (SCSA). The result of the examination was a sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI), i.e., the percentage of sperm with DNA lesions (DNA fragmentation). A morning blood sample (5 mL volume) was obtained and sent to an authorized laboratory to assess serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH. An intensified sperm DNA fragmentation co-occurred with both extremely low and extremely high levels of FSH and LH. Sperm DNA fragmentation was negatively correlated with testosterone level.

  6. Anti-obesity efficacy of LH-21, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist with poor brain penetration, in diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Mónica; Serrano, Antonia; Vida, Margarita; Crespillo, Ana; Hernandez-Folgado, Laura; Jagerovic, Nadine; Goya, Pilar; Reyes-Cabello, Carmen; Perez-Valero, Vidal; Decara, Juan; Macías-González, Manuel; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco Javier; Suárez, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Pavón, Francisco Javier

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Peripheral blockade of cannabinoid CB1 receptors has been proposed as a safe and effective therapy against obesity, putatively devoid of the adverse psychiatric side effects of centrally acting CB1 receptor antagonists. In this study we analysed the effects of LH-21, a peripherally acting neutral cannabinoid receptor antagonist with poor brain penetration, in an animal model of diet-induced obesity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH To induce obesity, male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 60 kcal% fat) whereas controls received a standard diet (SD; 10 kcal% fat). Following 10 weeks of feeding, animals received a daily i.p. injection of vehicle or 3 mg·kg−1 LH-21 for 10 days. Plasma and liver samples were used for biochemical analyses whereas visceral fat-pad samples were analysed for lipid metabolism gene expression using real-time RT-PCR. In addition, the potential of LH-21 to interact with hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms and cardiac human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene (hERG) channels was evaluated. KEY RESULTS LH-21 reduced feeding and body weight gain in HFD-fed animals compared with the control group fed SD. In adipose tissue, this effect was associated with decreased gene expression of: (i) leptin; (ii) lipogenic enzymes, including SCD-1; (iii) CB1 receptors; and (iv) both PPARα and PPARγ. Although there were no significant differences in plasma parameters between HFD- and SD-fed rats, LH-21 did not seem to induce hepatic, cardiac or renal toxicity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results support the hypothesis that treatment with the peripherally neutral acting CB1 receptor antagonist, LH-21, may promote weight loss through modulation of visceral adipose tissue. PMID:21951309

  7. Parallel Electron Force Balance and the L-H Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Diallo, A.; Zweben, S.; Banerjee, S.

    2016-10-01

    In a popular description of the L-H transition, energy transfer to the mean flows directly depletes turbulence fluctuation energy, resulting in suppression of the turbulence and a corresponding transport bifurcation. However, electron parallel force balance couples nonzonal velocity fluctuations with electron pressure fluctuations on rapid timescales, comparable with the electron transit time. For this reason, energy in the nonzonal velocity stays in a fairly fixed ratio to electron thermal free energy, at least for frequency scales much slower than electron transit. In order for direct depletion of the energy in turbulent fluctuations to cause the L-H transition, energy transfer via Reynolds stress must therefore drain enough energy to significantly reduce the sum of the free energy in nonzonal velocities and electron pressure fluctuations. At low k⊥, the electron thermal free energy is much larger than the energy in nonzonal velocities, posing a stark challenge for this model of the L-H transition. Work supported by U.S. DoE contract #DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. SALT Spectroscopy of ASASSN-15lh: The Most Luminous Supernova?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Travis; Camacho, Yssavo; Dettman, Kyle; Jha, Saurabh W.

    2017-01-01

    In August 2015, ASASSN-15lh was discovered as the most luminous supernova (SN) ever found (Dong et al. 2016), more than twice as bright as other so-called super-luminous supernovae (SLSN). However, the spectral evolution of the transient is unlike any known supernova. To better understand this object, we have observed ASASSN-15lh with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). We obtained spectroscopic data in July 2016 and reduced and calibrated the spectrum for comparison with other supernovae. The new pectrum did not show strong supernova features and was dominated by light from the host galaxy. We used this late spectrum as a galaxy template, subtracting it from earlier data. However, we still find that ASASSN-15lh does not clearly resemble any known supernova. Either it is unique, or perhaps an alternate explanation is needed (e.g., a tidal disruption event; Leloudas et al. 2016). This Research Experience for Undergraduates project in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Rutgers University has been supported by funding from National Science Foundation grants PHY-1263280 and PHY-1560077.

  9. Suboptimal response to GnRHa long protocol is associated with a common LH polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alviggi, C; Clarizia, R; Pettersson, K;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this observational preliminary trial was to estimate the association between the most common polymorphism of LH (LH-β variant: v-βLH), with different profiles of ovarian response to recombinant human FSH (rhFSH). A total of 60 normogonadotrophic patients undergoing a gonadotrophin-rele...

  10. NSTX ELM Pacing and L-H Threshold Experiments for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canik, J. M.; Maingi, R.; Sontag, A. C.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaye, S.; Bell, R. E.; Gates, D.; Goldston, R.; Leblanc, B. P.; Menard, J.; Park, J.-K.; Evans, T.; Osborne, T.; Sabbagh, S.; Unterberg, E. A.

    2009-11-01

    We present a summary of recent edge-localized mode (ELM) pacing and L-H power threshold (PLH) experiments performed in NSTX in support of ITER. ELM triggering using 3D magnetic perturbations was used to perform pacing during ELM-free H-modes induced by lithium conditioning, mitigating the impurity accumulation typically observed in these conditions. The waveform of the applied field has been tailored to provide high reliability triggering at frequencies of >60 Hz to reduce the average ELM size. ELM pacing was also performed using vertical position oscillations, with the ELM frequency increased to ˜30 Hz from a natural frequency of ˜15 Hz. PLH is reduced by ˜50% at low triangularity, and also decreased by ˜50% during discharge with thick lithium wall coatings. PLH was observed to increase strongly with plasma current during sustained H-modes. The influence of heating method, non-axisymmetric fields, and magnetic balance on PLH will be presented.

  11. Statistical theory of L-H transition and its implication to threshold database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka; Toda, Shinichiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    A statistical model for the bifurcation of the radial electric field E{sub r} is analyzed in view of describing L-H transitions of toroidal plasmas. Noise in micro fluctuations is shown to lead to random changes of E{sub r}, if a deterministic approach allows for more than one solution. The probability density function for and the ensemble average of E{sub r} are obtained. The L-to-H and the H-to-L transition probabilities are calculated, and the effective phase limit is derived. Due to the suppression of turbulence by shear in E{sub r}, the limit deviates from Maxwell's rule. (author)

  12. Altrenogest and progesterone therapy during pregnancy in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with progesterone insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, Todd R; Gill, Claudia; Doescher, Bethany M; Sweeney, Jay; De Laender, Piet; Van Elk, Cornelis E; O'Brien, Justine K

    2012-06-01

    Progesterone production is essential for growth and development of the conceptus during pregnancy. Abnormal development of the corpus luteum (CL) after conception can result in early embryonic loss or fetal abortion. Routine monitoring of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) pregnancy after artificial insemination or natural conception with ultrasonography and serum progesterone determination has allowed for the establishment of expected fetal growth rates and hormone concentrations. Using these monitoring techniques, we revealed four pregnant dolphins (12-24 yr old) with abnormally low progesterone production indicative of luteal insufficiency. Once diagnosed, animals were placed on altrenogest (0.044-0.088 mg/kg once daily) alone or with oral progesterone (50-200 mg twice daily). Doses of hormone were increased or decreased in each animal based on how fetal skull biparietal and thoracic growth rates compared with published normal values. Hormones were withdrawn starting from day 358 of gestation in animals 1 and 2, with labor occurring 6 and 7 days after withdrawal and at 376 and 373 days of gestation, respectively. Both deliveries were dystocic, with each calf requiring manual extraction and fetotomy for calf 1. The fetuses in animals 3 and 4 died at 348 and 390 days of gestation, respectively. Induction of labor was attempted in both animals, after fetal death, by using a combination of rapid progesterone withdrawal and steroid and prostaglandin F2alpha administration. The calf of animal 4 had to be removed with manual cervical dilation and fetotomy All adult females survived the procedures. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that the CL is the primary source of progesterone throughout pregnancy in the bottlenose dolphin. Until further characterization of hormones required during pregnancy and at parturition has been accomplished, the exogenous progestagen supplementation protocol described here cannot be recommended for treatment of progesterone

  13. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Graceli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of extracellular Na+ and Cl- concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na+ and Cl- reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg-1·day-1, sc and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg-1·day-1, sc. We assessed Na+ and Cl- fractional excretion (FENa+ and FECl- , respectively and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FENa+ , FECl- , water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FENa+ , FECl- , water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g. Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4 decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen, and progesterone in the modulation of renal function.

  14. Turbulence and sheared flow structure behind the isotopic and q95 dependencies of the L-H power threshold on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z.; McKee, G. R.; Gohil, P.; Petty, C.; Grierson, B.; Eldon, D.; Schmitz, L.; Rhodes, T.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of long wavelength density fluctuation characteristics in the edge of both Deuterium (D) and Hydrogen (H) plasmas across the L-H transition on DIII-D demonstrate the existence of dual frequency counter-propagating modes, which are strongly correlated with a reduced L-H power threshold (PLH) . E ×B shear near r/a 0.95-1.0 is larger in D than in H plasmas at low density, and the dual mode is only observed in D plasmas. Such a dual mode is also observed in a q95 scan of the L-H transition in D plasmas when the PLH is lower, where PLH is found to increase with plasma current but with complex density dependence: the largest increase of PLH is seen at ne 3.2 e 19 m-3. The complex behaviors of the turbulence characteristics (amplitude, decorrelation rate, etc.) and dual frequency modes interactions all together will impact the flow shear generation, the transition process and the power threshold scaling. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-08ER54999, DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Assessment of the LH wave for demo in pulsed and steady state scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinali, A.; Barbato, E.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.; Marinucci, M.; Ravera, G. L.; Tuccillo, A. A. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy); Ceccuzzi, S. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00044, Frascati, Roma, Italy and Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, Via Vito Volterra, 62, 00146, Roma (Italy); Mirizzi, F.; Panaccione, L. [Consorzio CREATE, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125, Napoli (Italy); Santini, F.; Schettini, G. [Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, Via Vito Volterra, 62, 00146, Roma (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    The Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) has been analysed in DEMO tokamak plasma in the 'pulsed and steady state regime' considering two plasma scenarios characterized, respectively, by flat density profile and peaked density profiles. We have obtained LH deposition profiles in cases of neglecting the effect of spectral broadening produced by PI at the edge. By comparing the Power Deposition Profiles for both DEMO scenarios ('flat' and 'peaked'), the SOL of DEMO does not play any role in the absorption of the LH wave. In all cases the deposition is localized inside the separatrix layer r/a≤1. By lowering the parallel wave-number peak of the power spectrum from 1.8 to 1.5, the accessibility condition in both case prevents the power from reaching the deposition layer apart from a small fraction which pertains to the higher n∥ of the power spectrum. The spectrum centred at 1.8 is suggested to be useful in DEMO. More realistically, as supported by available data of LHCD in a wide range of operating densities, the effect of parametric decay instability (PDI) can produce a spectral broadening which should be included in the simulations. Further studies would be necessary for assessing the temperature profiles in the SOL at reactor-graded conditions. This is because, if the SOL temperature is at least of the order of 50 to 100 eV, the effect of PDI broads the spectrum up to n∥≤10, and the deposition profile is slightly wider but not much shifted outwards.

  16. Concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona em borregas lanadas e deslanadas no período de abril a novembro, no Estado de São Paulo Plasma concentrations of progesterone in hair and wool ewe lambs from April to November, in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Sasa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho o fornecimento de informações sobre o padrão de secreção da progesterona (P4 e as características de manifestação do ciclo estral em borregas lanadas e deslanadas, durante o período de abril a novembro, no Estado de São Paulo. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular de 12 borregas das raças Santa Inês (SI, Romney Marsh (RM e Suffolk (SU, e as concentrações foram determinadas pelo método de radioimunoensaio utilizando-se kits comerciais. O estro foi detectado por machos vasectomizados (impregnados com tinta pó xadrez + óleo comestível na região peitoral em 31 borregas (10 SI, 11 RM e 10 SU. O estro foi determinado pelo confronto da observação de fêmeas marcadas pelos machos vasectomizados e dos valores de concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona inferiores a 1 ng/mL. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos ciclos estrais foi de duração normal (14 - 19 dias para todas as raças. A duração dos ciclos de duração normal das borregas SU foi inferior aos das borregas SI e RM, as quais não diferiram entre si. Não houve diferença entre as raças na duração dos ciclos curtos (The goal of this experiment was to provide information about the pattern of progesterone secretion (P4 and on the oestrus cycle characteristics in hair and wool ewe lambs, from April to November, in São Paulo State. Blood samples from jugular vein were collected from 12 ewe lambs Santa Inês (SI, Romney Marsh (RM and Suffolk (SU breeds, and the concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay method, using commercial kits. Oestrus was detected by using vasectomized rams (fitted with raddle crayons + comestible oil on pectoral area in 31 ewe lambs (10 SI, 11 RM and 10 SU. The oestrus was determined by confronting the observation of marked females by vasectomized rams and values of plasma progesterone concentrations lower than 1 ng/mL. The results showed that the majority of oestrus cycles were of

  17. The effect of type of vaginal insert and dose of pLH on embryo production, following fixed-time AI in a progestin-based superstimulatory protocol in Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marcelo F Gouveia; Fragnito, Paulo S; Trinca, Luzia A; Barros, Ciro M

    2007-02-01

    The objective was to analyze and report field data focusing on the effect of type of progesterone-releasing vaginal insert and dose of pLH on embryo production, following a superstimulatory protocol involving fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in Nelore cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Donor heifers and cows (n = 68; 136 superstimulations over 2 years) received an intravaginal, progesterone-releasing insert (CIDR or DIB, with 1.9 or 1.0 g progesterone, respectively) and 3-4 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) i.m. at random stages of the estrous cycle. Five days later (designated Day 0), cattle were superstimulated with a total of 120-200 mg of pFSH (Folltropin-V), given twice daily in decreasing doses from Days 0 to 3. All cattle received two luteolytic doses of PGF2alpha at 08:00 and 20:00 h on Day 2 and progesterone inserts were removed at 20:00 h on Day 3 (36 h after the first PGF2alpha injection). Ovulation was induced with pLH (Lutropin-V, 12.5 or 25 mg, i.m.) at 08:00 h on Day 4 with FTAI 12, 24 and in several cases, 36 h later. Embryos were recovered on Days 11 or 12, graded and transferred to synchronous recipients. Overall, the mean (+/-S.E.M.) number of total ova/embryos (13.3 +/- 0.8) and viable embryos (9.4 +/- 0.6) and pregnancy rate (43.5%; 528/1213) did not differ among groups, but embryo viability rate (overall, 70.8%) was higher in donors with a DIB (72.3%) than a CIDR (68.3%, P = 0.007). In conclusion, the administration of pLH 12 h after progesterone removal in a progestin-based superstimulatory protocol facilitated fixed-time AI in Nelore donors, with embryo production, embryo viability and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer, comparable to published results where estrus detection and AI was done. Results suggested a possible alternative, which would eliminate the need for estrus detection in donors.

  18. [Estrogen dependance of the progesterone "receptor" in human tissues (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitmann, B; Moure, C; Bayard, F

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of specific progesterone receptor (RP) has been measured in the endometrium of 31 normal menstruating women during the two phases of their menstrual cycle, and compared with the plasma oestradiol-17 beta (E2) concentrations. There was no relationship between RP and plasma E2 when the two phases of the cycle were considered, however a correlation was observed when the follicular phase was only considered. The relationship between oestrogen and RP was then more directly studied in a breast cancer cell line in tissue culture (MCF-7). RP induction by E2 as well as oestriol was demonstrated, but oestrone was ineffective.

  19. Estrogen, Progesterone and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Shuk-Mei

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian carcinoma (OCa continues to be the leading cause of death due to gynecologic malignancies and the vast majority of OCa is derived from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE and its cystic derivatives. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that steroid hormones, primarily estrogens and progesterone, are implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, it has proved difficult to fully understand their mechanisms of action on the tumorigenic process. New convincing data have indicated that estrogens favor neoplastic transformation of the OSE while progesterone offers protection against OCa development. Specifically, estrogens, particularly those present in ovulatory follicles, are both genotoxic and mitogenic to OSE cells. In contrast, pregnancy-equivalent levels progesterone are highly effective as apoptosis inducers for OSE and OCa cells. In this regard, high-dose progestin may exert an exfoliation effect and rid an aged OSE of pre-malignant cells. A limited number of clinical studies has demonstrated efficacies of antiestrogens, aromatase inhibitors, and progestins alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of OCa. As a result of increased life expectancy in most countries, the number of women taking hormone replacement therapies (HRT continues to grow. Thus, knowledge of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones on the OSE and OCa is of paramount significance to HRT risk assessment and to the development of novel therapies for the prevention and treatment of OCa.

  20. Inhibition of progesterone metabolism mimics the effect of progesterone withdrawal on forced swim test immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Ethan H; Finn, Deborah A

    2007-10-01

    Withdrawal from high levels of progesterone in rodents has been proposed as a model for premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Forced swim test (FST) immobility, used to model depression, was assessed in intact female DBA/2J mice following progesterone withdrawal (PWD) or treatment with the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Following 5 daily progesterone injections (5 mg/kg IP) FST immobility increased only in mice withdrawn for 3 days (pimmobility. PWD and finasteride treatment, both of which reduce allopregnanolone levels, were associated with increased FST immobility in female DBA/2J mice. These findings suggest that decreased levels of the GABAergic neurosteroid allopregnanolone contribute to symptoms of PWD. Future studies of PWD may provide information about human conditions that are associated with hormone changes such as premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression.

  1. 空降兵新兵跳伞应激对血浆腺垂体激素及性腺激素含量的影响%Effect of parachute jumping stress on plasma LH, FSH, PRL, HGH, E2 and T levels in newly recriuted parachutists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 郝文平; 路长林; 张伟; 王育敏; 扈长茂

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨空降兵新兵群体跳伞应激状态下腺垂体激素及性腺激素的变化. 方法将54名新兵分为3组,即对照组(22人)、试验1组(12人)、试验2组(20人).分别在跳伞前24 h、登机前和着陆后即刻抽取肘正中静脉血10 ml,采用放免法测定黄体生成素(LH)、生长激素(HGH)、促卵泡生成素(FSH)、泌乳素(PRL)、雌二醇(E2)和睾丸酮(T)水平. 结果①试验1组、试验2组腺垂体激素均较对照组明显增加(P<0.01);试验2组促卵泡生成素和生长激素水平较试验1组增加(P<0.01),而黄体生成素和泌乳素在两试验组差异不显著.②性腺激素在跳伞应激时的变化不明显. 结论对新伞兵跳伞应激的生理、心理因素的影响不容忽视.

  2. Progesterone, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Su, C

    2013-06-03

    While the effects of progesterone in the CNS, like those of estrogen, have generally been considered within the context of reproductive function, growing evidence supports its importance in regulating non-reproductive functions including cognition and affect. In addition, progesterone has well-described protective effects against numerous insults in a variety of cell models, animal models and in humans. While ongoing research in several laboratories continues to shed light on the mechanism(s) by which progesterone and its related progestins exert their effects in the CNS, our understanding is still incomplete. Among the key mediators of progesterone's beneficial effects is the family of growth factors called neurotrophins. Here, we review the mechanisms by which progesterone regulates one important member of the neurotrophin family, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and provides support for its pivotal role in the protective program elicited by progesterone in the brain.

  3. Progesterone signals through membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) in MDA-MB-468 and mPR-transfected MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells which lack full-length and N-terminally truncated isoforms of the nuclear progesterone receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yefei; Thomas, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The functional characteristics of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) have been investigated using recombinant mPR proteins over-expressed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Although these cells do not express the full-length progesterone receptor (PR), it is not known whether they express N-terminally truncated PR isoforms which could possibly account for some progesterone receptor functions attributed to mPRs. In the present study, the presence of N-terminally truncated PR isoforms was investigated in untransfected and mPR-transfected MDA-MB-231 cells, and in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. PCR products were detected in PR-positive T47D Yb breast cancer cells using two sets of C-terminus PR primers, but not in untransfected and mPR-transfected MDA-MB-231 cells, nor in MDA-MB-468 cells. Western blot analysis using a C-terminal PR antibody, 2C11F1, showed the same distribution pattern for PR in these cell lines. Another C-terminal PR antibody, C-19, detected immunoreactive bands in all the cell lines, but also recognized α-actinin, indicating that the antibody is not specific for PR. High affinity progesterone receptor binding was identified on plasma membranes of MDA-MB-468 cells which was significantly decreased after treatment with siRNAs for mPRα and mPRβ. Plasma membranes of MDA-MB-468 cells showed very low binding affinity for the PR agonist, R5020, ≤1% that of progesterone, which is characteristic of mPRs. Progesterone treatment caused G protein activation and decreased production of cAMP in MDA-MB-468 cells, which is also characteristic of mPRs. The results indicate that the progestin receptor functions in these cell lines are mediated through mPRs and do not involve any N-terminally truncated PR isoforms. PMID:21291899

  4. Probability of statistical L-H transition in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka; Toda, Shinichiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    A statistical model of bifurcation of radial electric field E{sub r} is analyzed in relation with L-H transitions of tokamaks. A noise from micro fluctuations leads to random noise for E{sub r}. The transition of E{sub r} occurs in a probabilistic manner. Probability density function and ensemble average of E{sub r} are obtained, when hysteresis of E{sub r} exists. Forward- and backward-transition probabilities are calculated. The phase boundary is shown. Due to the suppression of turbulence by E{sub r} shear, the boundary deviates from the Maxwell's construction rule. (author)

  5. The benefits of progesterone therapy in imminent abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes of imminent abortion are multi-factorial. The biggest causal factor is the low level of serum progesterone level. The lowest critical level of serum progesterone for survivability of pregnancy is 10 ng/ml. Eighty percent of patients experiencing abortion showed that their progesterone level was < 10 ng/ml. Patients who realized that their pregnancy would experience hemorrhage generally would suffer from depression. Stress was one of the factors responsible for the occurence of abortion. Administration of natural progesterone substitution (not  progestogen accelerates the disappearance of uterine contractions, and speeds up the stoppage of bleeding. In addition, progesterone has the effect of anti-anxiety. Adminstration of oral progesterone would result in metabolism in the intestine and liver, such that physiological level of serum progesterone could not be reached, while administration of suppositoria progesterone would result in physiological level of serum, such that it was effective to prevent imminent abortion. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:258-62Keywords: progesterone, imminent abortion

  6. Overview of LH experiments in JET with an ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirov, K. K.; Baranov, Yu.; Brix, M.; Corrigan, G.; Mailloux, J.; Rimini, F.; Stamp, M. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Barbato, E. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Roma (Italy); Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Petrzilka, V. [Association EURATOM-IPP.CR, IPP AS CR, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    An overview of the recent results of Lower Hybrid (LH) experiments at JET with the ITER-like wall (ILW) is presented. Topics relevant to LH wave coupling are addressed as well as issues related to ILW and LH system protections. LH wave coupling was studied in conditions determined by ILW recycling and operational constraints. It was concluded that LH wave coupling was not significantly affected and the pre-ILW performance could be recovered after optimising the launcher position and local gas puffing. SOL density measurements were performed using a Li-beam diagnostic. Dependencies on the D2 injection rate from the dedicated gas valve, the LH power and the LH launcher position were analysed. SOL density modifications due to LH were modelled by the EDGE2D code assuming SOL heating by collisional dissipation of the LH wave and/or possible ExB drifts in the SOL. The simulations matched reasonably well the measured SOL profiles. Observations of arcs and hotspots with visible and IR cameras viewing the LH launcher are presented.

  7. Daily low-dose hCG stimulation during the luteal phase combined with GnRHa triggered IVF cycles without exogenous progesterone: a proof of concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Laursen, Rita Jakubcionyte; Povlsen, Betina Boel; Thomsen, Lise; Humaidan, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Can the luteal phase support be improved in terms of efficacy, hormonal profiles and convenience as compared with today's standard care? Daily low-dose rhCG supplementation in GnRHa triggered IVF cycles can replace the traditional used luteal phase support with exogenous progesterone. A bolus of hCG for final maturation of follicles in connection with COS may induce the risk of OHSS and the luteal phase progesterone levels rise very abruptly in the early luteal phase. This is a proof-of-concept study conducted as a three arm RCT with a total of 93 patients. First patient enrolled in January 2012 and the study finished in January 2014. Normal responder women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment in a university hospital. One arm served as control, where women followed a standard antagonist protocol. Two study arms were included both having 125 IU hCG daily for luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone after using a GnRHa trigger for ovulation induction. In both study arms exogenous FSH was stopped on stimulation day 6 and replaced by exogenous hCG that was initiated on either stimulation day 2 or day 6. Blood samples were obtained on the day of ovulation induction, on the day of oocyte pickup (OPU) and day OPU + 7. The mean serum levels of hCG did not exceeded the normal physiological range of LH activity in any samples. Mid-luteal progesterone levels were significantly higher in the two study groups receiving daily low-dose hCG for luteal phase support as compared with the control group (control group: 177 ± 27 nmol/l; study group 1: 334 ± 42 nmol/l; study group 2: 277 ± 27 nmol/l; (mean ± SEM). No differences in reproductive outcome were seen between groups. The number of patients included is limited and conclusions need to be verified in a larger RCT. Endogenous production of progesterone may become more attractive as the luteal phase support with levels of LH-like activity only in the physiological range and may, from the patients' point of view, replace

  8. Progesterone attenuates depressive behavior of younger and older adult C57/BL6, wildtype, and progesterone receptor knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone may have actions independent of intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) to influence depressive behavior. To investigate this, we examined effects of progesterone (P; 10 mg/kg, SC) on the depressive behavior of mice in the forced swim test (FST). In Experiment 1, subjects were 4 to 6 months old, intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female and intact or gonadectomized (GDX) male, C57/BL6 mice. Progesterone reduced depressive behavior of young diestrous and OVX mice but male mice were im...

  9. Seasonal patterns of circulating progesterone and prolactin and response to bromocriptine in the female tammar Macropus eugenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndale-Biscoe, C H; Hinds, L A

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of prolactin and progesterone in the plasma of female tammars (Macropus eugenii) were measured during lactational quiescence and seasonal quiescence and during the period of natural resumption of reproduction after the summer solstice in December. Prolactin concentrations were consistently low (less than 40 ng/ml) during the period of declining day length and consistently elevated (greater than 40 ng/ml) during the period of increasing day length. Basal levels of progesterone were lowest (118.9 +/- 9.1 pg/ml) at the winter solstice and highest (244.1 +/- 21.0 pg/ml) at the summer solstice. Treatment with bromocriptine (CB154) did not depress prolactin levels at either time of the year but during February to June a single injection of 5 mg/kg body wt induced development of the quiescent corpus luteum (CL) and the diapausing embryo was reactivated. In February and March the level of progesterone increased in association with the developing CL, but after treatment at the winter solstice in June plasma progesterone did not increase although pregnancy was successfully completed. From September through November only 1 of 50 females responded to bromocriptine. None responded to bromocriptine given at the summer solstice in December, but all these animals spontaneously reactivated 2 weeks later. The difference in response of female tammars to bromocriptine treatment in the two halves of the year suggests that different endocrine controls operate in lactational and seasonal quiescence and that the latter is more complex.

  10. The involvement of dopaminergic system on LH secretion Nelore heifers Sistema dopaminérgico na secreção de LH de novilhas Nelore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Venturoli Perri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of sulpiride administration (dopamine D2 antagonist, 0.59 m/kg body weight, s.c. and blood collected every 15 min for 10 h thereafter on Luteinizing Hormone (LH secretion in B. indicus pre-pubertal heifers at 8, 12 and 16 month of age. LH was quantified by RIA, sensitivity (0.039 ng/ml and CV (15.51%. In heifers given sulpiride treatment didn’t differ (P≥0.05 in LH concentration, total secretion area, peak total area, number of peaks, area of highest secretion peak and time to highest peak occurrence and maximum LH secretion, from control group. The results suggest absence of dopamine D2 antagonist effect on LH secretion in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers, didn’t neurotransmitter participating on sexual maturation.O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar a variação na secreção do Hormônio Luteinizante (LH em resposta ao tratamento com sulpiride, antagonista de receptor (D2 dopaminérgico, com administração de 0,59mg/kg, s.c. e colheita de amostras de sangue a cada 15min, por 10h. Foram utilizadas 10 novilhas da raça Nelore pré-púberes, aos 8, 12 e 16 meses de idade. A concentração de LH foi quantificada por radioimunoensaio, e o coeficiente de variação intra, o interensaio e a sensibilidade dos ensaios de LH foram respectivamente de: 11,86%; 15,51%; 0,039ng/mL. O tratamento com sulpiride não diferiu na concentração média de LH, área total de secreção de LH e picos, número de picos, área do maior pico, tempo necessário ao aparecimento do maior pico de secreção de LH e amplitude máxima de LH, em comparação ao grupo controle. Os resultados indicam ausência de efeito da dopamina, através de receptores D2, durante a fase pré-púbere, em novilhas da raça Nelore, o que sinaliza a não participação como neurotransmissora na secreção de LH durante o processo de maturação sexual.

  11. Progesterone suppresses triple-negative breast cancer growth and metastasis to the brain via membrane progesterone receptor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Hongwei; Hu, Yan; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Yufei; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Peng; Xia, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Progesterone plays an important role in mammary epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Evidence from experimental and clinical studies indicates that progesterone is a risk factor for breast cancer under certain conditions through binding nuclear progesterone receptor (PR). These mechanisms, however, are not applicable to triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) due to the lack of PR in these cancers. In this study, we demonstrate that membrane progesterone receptor α (mPRα) is expressed in TNBC tissues and the expression level of mPRα is negatively associated with the TNM stage. We found that progesterone suppressed the growth, migration and invasion of mPRα+ human TNBC cells in vitro, which was neither mediated by PR nor by PR membrane component 1 (PGRMCl). Notably, these effects exerted by progesterone were significantly blocked by shRNA specific to mPRα. Moreover, the knockdown of mPRα expression impaired the inhibitory effects of progesterone on mPRα+ tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These data collectively indicate that progesterone suppresses TNCB growth and metastasis via mPRα, which provides evidence of the anti-neoplastic effects of progesterone-mPRα pathway in the treatment of human TNBC.

  12. The study of photo-induced ultrafast dynamics in light-harvesting complex LH2 of purple bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-min; YAN Yong-li; LIU Kang-jun; XU Chun-he; QIAN Shi-xiong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,we introduce the photo-induced ultrafast dynamics taking place in the peripheral light harvesting antenna LH2 from purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides by using absorption,fluorescence emission and ultrafast spectroscopic techniques.Three kinds of LH2 sampies,pH treated LH2 (complete removal of B800 pigments),carotenoid mutated LH2 (GM 309) and electrochemical oxidation treated LH2 were used in comparison with native LH2 to investigate the mechanism of photo-induced ultrafast energy transfer within the LH2 complex.

  13. L-H power threshold scaling with magnetic geometry on NSTX and the role of ion orbit loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, D. J.; Chang, C.-S.; Kaye, S. M.; Ku, S.; Maingi, R.; NSTX Team

    2011-10-01

    The L-H power threshold (PLH) on the National Spherical Torus Experiment varies with X-point radius (RX) , plasma current (Ip) , the direction of the ion grad-B drift and the amount of lithium evaporated on the divertor surfaces. The edge Te and Ti (where Te ~ Ti) just prior to the time of the L-H transition vary with the magnetic geometry, but are fairly independent of the neutral fueling rate and lithium conditioning. These observations are consistent with the X-transport theory, which describes the mean edge radial electric field (Er) profile required to prevent non-ambipolar ion loss in a diverted plasma. A guiding-center orbit calculation in the absence of electric fields, collisions and flows provides insight into the dependence of the ion loss, and thus Er, on the magnetic geometry and edge Ti. For example, the number of ion loss orbits remains constant as RX is reduced from 0.64m to 0.47m only if the edge Ti increases by 60%. This is in agreement with self-consistent calculations of Er using the neoclassical XGC0 code and experiments that measured edge Te and Ti to be 40 - 60% larger. Similar agreement is also observed between guiding-center calculations, XGC0 results and the measured PLH versus Ip and ion grad-B direction. Supported by US DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  14. Does the conceptus of the viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata participates in the regulation of progesterone production and the control of luteolysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, Martín; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Carmen; Cárdenas-León, Mario; Luis, Juana; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2014-08-01

    It is generally accepted that progesterone is necessary to maintain gestation; however, the mechanisms that control the production of this steroid remain unknown. The corpus luteum has been assigned a central role in the maintenance of gestation based on its capacity to produce progesterone. A pseudopregnancy model was performed in a viviparous lizard, Barisia imbricata imbricata, to determine whether the absence of embryos would affect the pattern of progesterone production or the corpus luteum histology. Blood samples were obtained prior to ovulation and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant and pregnant lizards), as well as one day after parturition (pregnant lizards) or 32 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant lizards). The corpus luteum was surgically removed one day after blood samples were obtained. Blood aliquots from nongravid females were obtained at similar timepoints. We found a significant reduction in plasma progesterone concentrations at 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation in pseudopregnant lizards compared with those observed at similar times in intact pregnant lizards, whereas the progesterone levels in non-gestant lizards remained significantly lower than in either pseudopregnant or pregnant lizards. Moreover, we observed that the histological appearance of the corpus luteum from pseudogestational females (obtained 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation) differed from the corpora lutea from lizards in late gestation and intact parturient lizards. These observations suggest that the conceptus participates in the regulation of progesterone production in late gestation and also in luteolysis control.

  15. A Randomized Trial of Progesterone in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomarasamy, Arri; Williams, Helen; Truchanowicz, Ewa; Seed, Paul T; Small, Rachel; Quenby, Siobhan; Gupta, Pratima; Dawood, Feroza; Koot, Yvonne E M; Bender Atik, Ruth; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Brady, Rebecca; Briley, Annette L; Cavallaro, Rebecca; Cheong, Ying C; Chu, Justin J; Eapen, Abey; Ewies, Ayman; Hoek, Annemieke; Kaaijk, Eugenie M; Koks, Carolien A M; Li, Tin-Chiu; MacLean, Marjory; Mol, Ben W; Moore, Judith; Ross, Jackie A; Sharpe, Lisa; Stewart, Jane; Vaithilingam, Nirmala; Farquharson, Roy G; Kilby, Mark D; Khalaf, Yacoub; Goddijn, Mariette; Regan, Lesley; Rai, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. However, whether progesterone supplementation in the first trimester of pregnancy would increase the rate of live births among women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a mult

  16. A Randomized Trial of Progesterone in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomarasamy, A.; Williams, H.; Truchanowicz, E.; Seed, P. T.; Small, R.; Quenby, S.; Gupta, P.; Dawood, F.; Koot, Y. E. M.; Atik, R. Bender; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; Brady, R.; Briley, A. L.; Cavallaro, R.; Cheong, Y. C.; Chu, J. J.; Eapen, A.; Ewies, A.; Hoek, A.; Kaaijk, E. M.; Koks, C. A. M.; Li, T. -C.; MacLean, M.; Mol, B. W.; Moore, J.; Ross, J. A.; Sharpe, L.; Stewart, J.; Vaithilingam, N.; Farquharson, R. G.; Kilby, M. D.; Khalaf, Y.; Goddijn, M.; Regan, L.; Rai, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progesterone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. However, whether progesterone supplementation in the first trimester of pregnancy would increase the rate of live births among women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages is uncertain. METHODS We conducted a multic

  17. Luteotropic and luteolytic factors regulate mRNA and protein expression of progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in the bovine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekawiecki, Robert; Kowalik, Magdalena Karolina; Kotwica, Jan

    2014-12-17

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of luteotropic and luteolytic factors on the mRNA and protein levels of progesterone receptor isoforms A (PGRA) and B (PGRB) in the bovine endometrium. Endometrial slices from Days 6-10 and 17-20 of the oestrous cycle were treated with LH (100ngmL-1), oestradiol (E2; 1×10-8M), prostaglandin (PG) E2 (1×10-6M) and PGF2? (1×10-6M) and the nitric oxide donor NONOate (1×10-4M); these treatments lasted for 6h for mRNA expression analysis and 24h for protein expression analysis. On Days 6-10 of the oestrous cycle PGRAB (PGRAB; the entire PGRA mRNA sequence is common to the PGRB mRNA sequence) mRNA expression in endometrial slices was enhanced by E2 treatment (PPGRB mRNA expression was increased by LH (PPPPGRAB mRNA expression increased after E2 (P2 (PPGRB mRNA expression was increased by PGE2 (P2? (PPPPPP2? (P2 (P2? (P<0.001). These data suggest that luteotropic and luteolytic factors affect PGRA and PGRB mRNA and protein levels, and this may regulate the effects of progesterone on endometrial cells.

  18. The impact of premature progesterone rise on the outcome of intrauterine insemination cycles with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet; Mutlu, Ilknur; Guler, Ismail; Demirdağ, Erhan

    2016-08-01

    To ascertain the incidence of premature progesterone P rise and its impact on outcomes in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intrauterine insemination (COH-IUI) cycles, and also to identify variables related with premature P rise. Four hundred sixty cycles of 460 couples with unexplained infertility having COH-IUI treatment with a starting dose of 75IU recombinant FSH enrolled in this prospective study. Serum P levels were determined on the day of hCG trigger. Premature P rise was defined as progesterone ≥1ng/mL. The primary outcome measure was live birth per cycle with regard to P levels of ≥1ng/mL and ≥1.5ng/mL. Secondary outcome measures were cycle characteristics associated with P rise. The incidence of premature P rise was 22.0%. P levels on hCG day were significantly lower in cycles with live birth as compared to cycles without live birth 0.49±0.51 vs. 0.73±0.82ng/mL. Live birth rates were significantly lower in cycles with hCG day P levels ≥1.0ng/mL (%7.9 vs. %22.6) and ≥1.5ng/mL (%6.4 vs. %20.8). Among age, number of dominant follicles, estradiol, LH and P levels on the day of hCG trigger, it was found that P levels was the only significant variable to predict live birth on multivariate analysis. The number of dominant follicles on hCG day and premature LH surge were the only significant variables related with premature P rise. Premature P is a frequent feature of COH-IUI cycles and associated with decreased live birth rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dimerization of human lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) is mediated by the amino acids 541-547.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Jari; Risteli, Maija; Lampela, Outi; Alavesa, Paula; Karppinen, Marjo; Juffer, André H; Myllylä, Raili

    2011-01-01

    Lysyl hydroxylases (LH), which catalyze the post-translational modifications of lysines in collagen and collagen-like proteins, function as dimers. However, the amino acids responsible for dimerization and the role of dimer formation in the enzymatic activities of LH have not yet been identified. We have localized the region responsible for the dimerization of lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3), a multifunctional enzyme of collagen biosynthesis, to a sequence of amino acids between the glycosyltransferase activity and the lysyl hydroxylase activity domains. This area is covered by amino acids 541-547 in human LH3, but contains no cysteine residues. The region is highly conserved among LH isoforms, and is also involved in the dimerization of LH1 subunits. Dimerization is required for the LH activity of LH3, whereas it is not obligatory for the glycosyltransferase activities. In order to determine whether complex formation can occur between LH molecules originating from different species, and between different LH isoforms, double expressions were generated in a baculovirus system. Heterocomplex formation between mouse and human LH3, between human LH1 and LH3 and between human LH2 and LH3 was detected by western blot analyses. However, due to the low amount of complexes formed, the in vivo function of heterocomplexes remains unclear. Copyright © 2010 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of different FSH/LH ratios on superovulatory response and embryo yield in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martemucci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies carried out in sheep (Chupin et al., 1985 and in goats (Nowshari et al., 1995; Martemucci et al., 1996 have underlined the importance of both FSH and LH to induce a good superovulatory response, but the results on the LH amount necessary to give a higher ovulatory response and embryo production are rather contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in goats, the effect of 2 different FSH/LH ratios (1:1 vs 2:1 kept constant during the treatment, on ovulatory response and embryo production. Moreover, according to the FSH/LH ratio=2:1,.........

  1. Characterisation of the LH2 spectral variants produced by the photosynthetic purple sulphur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Hacking, Kirsty; Picken, Nichola; Honkanen, Suvi; Kelly, Sharon; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Blankenship, Robert E; Shimizu, Yuuki; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu; Cogdell, Richard J

    2014-11-01

    This study systematically investigated the different types of LH2 produced by Allochromatium (Alc.) vinosum, a photosynthetic purple sulphur bacterium, in response to variations in growth conditions. Three different spectral forms of LH2 were isolated and purified, the B800-820, B800-840 and B800-850 LH2 types, all of which exhibit an unusual split 800 peak in their low temperature absorption spectra. However, it is likely that more forms are also present. Relatively more B800-820 and B800-840 are produced under low light conditions, while relatively more B800-850 is produced under high light conditions. Polypeptide compositions of the three different LH2 types were determined by a combination of HPLC and TOF/MS. The B800-820, B800-840 and B800-850 LH2 types all have a heterogeneous polypeptide composition, containing multiple types of both α and β polypeptides, and differ in their precise polypeptide composition. They all have a mixed carotenoid composition, containing carotenoids of the spirilloxanthin series. In all cases the most abundant carotenoid is rhodopin; however, there is a shift towards carotenoids with a higher conjugation number in LH2 complexes produced under low light conditions. CD spectroscopy, together with the polypeptide analysis, demonstrates that these Alc. vinosum LH2 complexes are more closely related to the LH2 complex from Phs. molischianum than they are to the LH2 complexes from Rps. acidophila.

  2. Operation and coupling of LH waves with the ITER-like wall at JET

    CERN Document Server

    Kirov, K K; Ekedahl, A; Petrzilka, V; Arnoux, G; Baranov, Yu; Brix, M; Goniche, M; Jachmich, S; Mayoral, M-L; Ongena, J; Rimini, F; Stamp, M; Contributors, JET EFDA

    2013-01-01

    In this paper important aspects of Lower Hybrid (LH) operation with the ITER Like Wall (ILW) [1] at JET are reported. Impurity release during LH operation was investigated and it was found that there is no significant Be increase with LH power. Concentration of W was analysed in more detail and it was concluded that LH contributes negligibly to its increase. No cases of W accumulation in LH-only heating experiments were observed so far. LH wave coupling was studied and optimised to achieve the level of system performance similar to before ILW installation. Measurements by Li-beam were used to study systematic dependencies of the SOL density on the gas injection rate from a dedicated gas introduction module and the LH power and launcher position. Experimental results are supported by SOL transport modelling. Observations of arcs in front of the LH launcher and hotspots on magnetically connected sections of the vessel are reported. Overall, a relatively troublefree operation of the LH system up to 2.5MW of coup...

  3. Effects of pregnancy in rats on cysteamine-induced peptic ulcers: role of progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoneri, C; Drago, F

    1997-12-01

    After mating with a sexually active male, groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with cysteamine (400 mg/kg, subcutaneously) at day 0 (controls), day 5 (early-stage pregnancy), and day 18 (late-stage pregnancy) of pregnancy. In contrast to late-stage pregnancy rats, early-stage pregnancy animals showed a decrease of cysteamine-induced gastroduodenal lesions. When subjected to cysteamine injection, both nonpregnant female and male rats treated for eight days with progesterone (300 microg/rat, subcutaneously) showed a reduced incidence of gastroduodenal lesions. No effect was found in animals pretreated with 17beta-estradiol (200 microg/rat, subcutaneously). Furthermore, increased gastroduodenal mucus levels were found in early-stage pregnancy rats and in animals pretreated with progesterone. These results suggest that increased progesterone plasma levels during early-stage pregnancy may be involved in pregnancy-induced gastric and duodenal protection. This effect may be related to an increase in gastric and duodenal mucus production induced by this hormone.

  4. The causal impact of magnetic fluctuations in slow and fast L-H transitions at TJ-II

    CERN Document Server

    van Milligen, B Ph; Carreras, B A; Ascasíbar, E; Hidalgo, C; Pastor, I; Fontdecaba, J M; Balbín, R

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the relationship between L-H transitions and MHD activity in the low shear TJ-II stellarator. It is shown that the presence of a low order rational in the plasma edge (gradient) region lowers the threshold density for H-mode access. MHD activity is systematically suppressed before or at the confinement transition. We apply a causality detection technique (the Transfer Entropy) to study the relation between magnetic oscillations and locally measured plasma rotation velocity (related to Zonal Flows). For this purpose, we study a large number of discharges in two magnetic configurations, corresponding to fast and slow transitions. With the slow transitions, the developing Zonal Flow prior to the transition leads to the gradual reduction of magnetic oscillations. The transition itself is marked by a strong spike of 'information transfer' from magnetic to velocity oscillations, suggesting the that the magnetic drive is important for setting up the final sheared flow responsible for the H-mode ...

  5. Precise timing for peak relaxin and decreased progesterone secretion after hysterectomy in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, K J; Molina, J R; Benoit, A M; Anderson, L L

    1986-10-01

    Relaxin and progesterone secretion by aging corpora lutea (days 90-120) was examined in pregnant and lactating gilts compared with that in hysterectomized animals. The length of pregnancy is about 115 days in pigs. Unmated gilts were hysterectomized on day 6 (estrus = day 0). From days 90-101, relaxin concentrations in peripheral plasma remained consistently low in pregnant gilts (range, 0.7-1.5 ng/ml) and less (P less than 0.05) than those in hysterectomized animals (range, 0.9-3.5 ng/ml). Relaxin increased abruptly (P less than 0.01) to a peak of 66 ng/ml in pregnant gilts and 37 ng/ml in hysterectomized animals. Relaxin peaked in pregnant animals at 113 +/- 0.7 days (+/- SE) and in hysterectomized gilts at 113 +/- 0.7 days; gestation length averaged 114 +/- 0.8 days. In pregnant gilts, relaxin decreased from a peak of 66 to 11 ng/ml within 1 day and remained low (less than 1.0 ng/ml) in these lactating dams until day 120. In hysterectomized gilts, peak relaxin also decreased abruptly from 37 to 4.2 ng/ml, but remained consistently greater (P less than 0.05) than that in lactating dams. Although there were abrupt shifts in relaxin concentrations within 20 min, there was no evidence for consistent episodic relaxin release between days 112-116. Plasma progesterone concentrations were consistently greater (P less than 0.05) in hysterectomized than in pregnant gilts from days 102-110. Progesterone decreased abruptly in prepartum gilts (days 111-114) from 16 to 1.2 ng/ml and remained low during lactation (0.5 ng/ml). In hysterectomized animals, it decreased abruptly on days 110-113, ranging from 20-12 ng/ml, and remained at this lower level until day 120. These results clearly indicate that a precisely timed peak release of relaxin and coincident decrease in progesterone secretion occur in unmated hysterectomized gilts at the same time as those found a few hours preceding parturition during normal pregnancy. These abrupt shifts in relaxin and progesterone secretion on

  6. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  7. Evaluation of extraction methods for progesterone determination in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korndoerfer, Clotilde Maria; Meirelles, Cyro Ferreira; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ciencias Animais]. E-mail: cfmeirel@esalq.usp.br

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a practical procedure for the extraction of progesterone (P{sub 4}) from feces and to determine if the P4 plasma profiles during pregnancy were reflected in total fecal P4 of pregnant rabbits. The rabbit was used as model for the techniques. Plasma and feces were collected from 11 rabbits during a period of 42 days. Three different methods of P4 extraction were used. The total P4 was measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) with {sup 125} I-P4 as the tracer. Results suggested that it was possible to extract total P4 from rabbit feces with methanol and petroleum ether. Plasma and fecal P4 profiles were compared for both pregnant and ovariectomized rabbits. It was possible to differentiate total P4 extracted from day two through 28 after breeding (p<0.01). (author)

  8. Concentração plasmática de progesterona em novilhas receptoras submetidas à administração de rbST, GnRH ou hCG no quinto dia do ciclo estral Plasma progesterone concentration in recipient heifers submitted to administration of rbST, GnRH or hCG on day five of the estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Fonseca

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a habilidade de diferentes hormônios administrados no quinto dia do ciclo estral em induzir a ovulação do folículo dominante da primeira onda folicular (FDPO e formar um corpo lúteo acessório (CLa e seus efeitos sobre a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 em novilhas receptoras. Cinqüenta e duas novilhas mestiças Holandês-Zebu foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: T1-controle, T2-administração subcutânea de 500mg de rbST, T3-administração intramuscular (IM de 100mig de GnRH e T4-administração IM de 2000UI e endovenosa de 1000UI de hCG. Realizou-se palpação transretal nos dias 5, 13 e 60 para detecção de corpo lúteo original (CLo, de CLa e de gestação, respectivamente. A formação de CLa foi de: T1-0/12 (0,0%, T2-0/13 (0,0%, T3-5/12 (41,7% e T4-10/15 (66,7%(P0,05. As taxas de gestação, T1=37,5% (3/8, T2=62,5% (5/8, T3=28,6% (2/7 e T4=33,3% (3/9, não diferiram entre tratamentos (P>0,05. Estes resultados mostraram que o FDPO no quinto dia do ciclo estral foi capaz de responder ao GnRH e à hCG, ovular e formar um CLa, o que elevou a concentração plasmática de P4 de novilhas no 13º dia do ciclo estral, período crítico para o estabelecimento da gestação em bovinos.The ability of different hormones administered on day five of the estrous cycle to induce the ovulation of the first wave dominant follicle (FWDF and to form an accessory corpus luteum (CLa, and the respective effects on plasma progesterone concentrations were studied in recipient heifers. Fifty-two crossbred Holstein-Zebu heifers were randomly assigned to four treatments: T1-control, T2-subcutaneous administration of 500mg of rbST, T3-intramuscular administration of 100mug of GnRH and T4-administration of 3000IU of hCG (1000IU endovenous and 2000IU intramuscular. Transrectal palpation was performed on days 5, 13 and 60 to check original corpus luteum, CLa and pregnancy, respectively. CLa formation was as follow

  9. Axisymmetric oscillations at L-H transitions in JET: M-mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Emilia R.; Vianello, N.; Delabie, E.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Buratti, P.; Réfy, D.; Balboa, I.; Boboc, A.; Coelho, R.; Sieglin, B.; Silburn, S.; Drewelow, P.; Devaux, S.; Dodt, D.; Figueiredo, A.; Frassinetti, L.; Marsen, S.; Meneses, L.; Maggi, C. F.; Morris, J.; Gerasimov, S.; Baruzzo, M.; Stamp, M.; Grist, D.; Nunes, I.; Rimini, F.; Schmuck, S.; Lupelli, I.; Silva, C.; contributors, JET

    2017-02-01

    L to H transition studies at JET have revealed an n  =  0, m  =  1 magnetic oscillation starting immediately at the L to H transition (called M-mode for brevity). While the magnetic oscillation is present a weak ELM-less H-mode regime is obtained, with a clear increase of density and a weak electron temperature pedestal. It is an intermediate state between L and H-mode. In ICRH heated plasmas or low density NBI plasmas the magnetic mode and the pedestal can remain steady (with small oscillations) for the duration of the heating phase, of order 10 s or more. The axisymmetric magnetic oscillation has period ~0.5-2 ms, and poloidal mode number m  =  1: it looks like a pedestal localised up/down oscillation, although it is clearly a natural oscillation of the plasma, not driven by the position control system. Electron cyclotron emission, interferometry, reflectometry and fast Li beam measurements locate the mode in the pedestal region. D α , fast infrared camera and Langmuir probe measurements show that the mode modulates heat and particle fluxes to the target. The mode frequency appears to scale with the poloidal Alfvén velocity, and not with sound speed (i.e. it is not a geodesic acoustic mode). A heuristic model is proposed for the frequency scaling of the mode. We discuss the relationship between the M-mode and other related observations near the L-H transition.

  10. Efficacy of goserelin plus anastrozole in premenopausal women with advanced or recurrent breast cancer refractory to an LH-RH analogue with tamoxifen: results of the JMTO BC08-01 phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Anan, Keisei; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Higaki, Kenji; Tanaka, Maki; Shibuta, Kenji; Sagara, Yasuaki; Ohno, Shinji; Tsuyuki, Shigeru; Mase, Takahiro; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue plus an aromatase inhibitor following failure to respond to standard LH-RH analogue plus tamoxifen (TAM) in premenopausal patients. Premenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and/or progesterone-receptor positive, advanced or recurrent breast cancer refractory to an LH-RH analogue plus TAM received goserelin (GOS) in conjunction with anastrozole (ANA). The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), clinical benefit rate (CBR) and safety. Between September 2008 and November 2010, 37 patients were enrolled. Thirty-five patients (94.6%) had ER-positive tumors, and 36 (97.3%) had human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2-negative tumors. Thirty-six (97.3%) had measurable lesions and 1 (2.7%) had only bone metastasis. The ORR was 18.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 8.0-35.2%], the CBR was 62.2% (95% CI, 44.8-77.5%) and the median PFS was 7.3 months. Eight patients had adverse drug reactions but none resulted in discontinuation of treatment. GOS plus ANA is a safe effective treatment for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, recurrent or advanced breast cancer. The treatment may become viable treatment in the future, particularly when TAM is ineffective or contraindicated. Further studies and discussion are warranted.

  11. Estradiol processing by pituitary cells in culture: An examination of the influences of various exposures to progesterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, L.C.; Kamel, F. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Dispersed, estradiol (E{sub 2})-treated pituitary cells were used to examine the cellular mechanisms underlying progesterone (P) suppression of GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH secretion. When cells were exposed to 10{sup {minus}9}M E{sub 2} for 48 h prior to GnRH challenge, P treatment for the last 24 h suppressed gonadotroph responsiveness to GnRH for both LH and FSH secretion. To determine if P acts by blocking E{sub 2} processing and/or uptake, we exposed cells to 2,4,6,7-{sup 3}H-E{sub 2} {plus minus} P and monitored the level and distribution of {sup 3}H-estrogens bound to estrogen receptors salt-extracted from nuclear pellets purified by sucrose density centrifugation. At 1, 4 and 24 h, P had no effect on the level of {sup 3}H-estrogen+receptor complexes or on the distribution of receptor-bound {sup 3}H-E{sub 2}, {sup 3}H-estrone and {sup 3}H-estriol. The results indicate that chronic influences of P to suppress the responsiveness of E{sub 2}-treated gonadotrophs to GnRH cannot be explained by alterations in estrogen receptor occupation as is the case in reproductive tract tissues.

  12. The Effect of Letrozol Tablets and Progesterone on Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome(PCOS) and the Ovarian Function%来曲唑联合黄体酮治疗多囊卵巢综合征不孕及对卵巢功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of letrozol tablets and progesterone on infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) and the ovarian function.Methods:All cases were divided into two groups, treatment group were treated by Letrozol Tablets and Progesterone, control group were treatd only by Letrozol Tablets. Some targets, such as endometrial thickness, dominant follicle, serum FSH, LH, E2 level were observed.Results:After treatment, treatment group had better effect than control group in endometrial thickness and pregent rate, treatmeng group had also better effect than control group in inducing the level of LH, LH/FSH and E2.Conclusion:Letrozol tablets and progesterone has a good effect on infertility caused by PCOS, and can improve the function of female castration.%目的:观察来曲唑联合黄体酮治疗多囊卵巢综合征不孕的疗效及对卵巢功能的影响.方法:所有病例均分为两组,治疗组来曲唑片和孕激素治疗,对照组仅由来曲唑片.观察到的一些目标,如子宫内膜厚度,优势卵泡,血清FSH,LH,E2水平.结果:治疗后治疗组子宫内膜厚度和妊娠率均优于对照组,治疗组降低LH、LH/FSH及增加E2水平优于对照组.结论:来曲唑联合黄体酮治疗多囊卵巢综合征不孕疗效优于单独使用来曲唑治疗,并且能提高卵巢的功能.

  13. Progesterone Receptor and Prostaglandins Mediate Luteinizing Hormone-Induced Changes in Messenger RNAs for ADAMTS Proteases in Theca Cells of Bovine Periovulatory Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    WILLIS, ERIN L.; BRIDGES, PHILLIP J.; FORTUNE, JOANNE E.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Little is known about the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family of extracellular proteases in ovarian follicles of non-rodent species, particularly in theca cells. In the present study, temporal changes in the abundance of mRNA encoding four ADAMTS subtypes and hormonal regulation of mRNA encoding two subtypes were investigated in theca interna cells during the periovulatory period in cattle. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was injected into animals to induce a luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) surge, and follicles were obtained at 0 hr post-GnRH (preovulatory) or at 6, 12, 18, or 24 hr (periovulatory). ADAMTS1, -2, -7, and -9 transcript abundance was then determined in the isolated theca interna. ADAMTS1 and -9 mRNA levels were up-regulated at 24 hr post-GnRH, whereas ADAMTS2 mRNA was higher at r12–24 hr post-GnRH and ADAMTS7 mRNA increased transiently at 12 hr post-GnRH compared to other time points. Subsequent in vitro experiments using preovulatory theca interna (0 hr post-GnRH) showed that application of LH in vitro can mimic the effects of the gonadotropin surge on mRNAs encoding ADAMTS1 and -9 and that progesterone/progesterone receptor and/or prostaglandins may regulate the levels of mRNA encoding ADAMTS1 and -9 in theca interna, downstream of the LH surge. Time- and subtype-specific changes in ADAMTS mRNA abundance in vivo, and their regulation in vitro by hormones, indicate that ADAMTS family members produced by theca cells may play important roles in follicle rupture and the accompanying tissue remodeling in cattle. PMID:27879029

  14. Progesterone and Mental Rotation Task: Is There Any Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Noreika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental rotation task (MRT incorporates elements of spatial abilities, important in many professions, with people of both genders involved. Importantly, these are the areas where spatial tasks might be performed for long time periods; thus adverse effects of mental fatigue are highly unwanted. Substantial variation of MRT performance in relation to estrogen levels has been observed in many studies, whereas the role of progesterone remains elusive. Here we aimed to elucidate the effect of progesterone level on the long-duration (1.5 hours performance of MRT. We included three groups of subjects: a group of males as a control, a group of females in their follicular phase (low progesterone and a group of females in their luteal phase (high progesterone, MRT accuracy and response time, subjective fatigue ratings and cardiovascular measures together with 17β-estradiol and progesterone concentrations were analyzed. We found that subjective ratings of fatigue increased, performance accuracy increased, and mean response times decreased during the task in all groups. Females in luteal phase were significantly slower not only than men, but also than females in their follicular phase. An increase in subjective fatigue ratings was positively related to progesterone level—at higher progesterone levels, females felt more tired.

  15. Intranasal LH-RH treatment of cryptorchidism. A clinical trial and 5 years follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Mauritzen, K; Skakkebaek, N E

    1987-01-01

    The effect of intranasal LH-RH on cryptorchidism was investigated in 45 prepubertal boys with 68 undescended testes. A daily dose of 1.2 mg LH-RH was given for 4 weeks. A total of 16 testes (24%) descended. Follow-up examination 5 years later showed that relapse had occurred in two cases. Fifty-t...

  16. Nanoscale Confinement and Fluorescence Effects of Bacterial Light Harvesting Complex LH2 in Mesoporous Silicas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikemoto, Hideki; Tubasum, Sumera; Pullerits, Tonu;

    2013-01-01

    harvesting complex LH2 in nanoscale chemical environments. Mesoporous silicas (SBA-15 family) with different shapes and pore sizes were synthesized and used to create nanoscale biomimetic environments for molecular confinement of LH2. A combination of UV-vis absorption, wide-field fluorescence microscopy...

  17. Role of exogenous estrogen in initiation of estrus and induction of an LH surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among cattle the LH surge that causes ovulation occurs shortly after the onset of a spontaneous estrus. In addition an injection of 100 'g of GnRH can induce an LH surge capable of inducing ovulation. We hypothesized that different preovulatory estradiol profiles would result in different ovulator...

  18. Progesterone promotes propagation and viability of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shan-Wei; Song, Hou-Yan

    2009-10-25

    It has been known that estrogen-17beta stimulates proliferation of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. To explore the function of another steroid hormone progesterone, we used MTT method and BrdU incorporation assay to obtain growth curves, clone forming assay to detect the propagation and viability of individual mES cells, Western blot to test the expression of ES cell marker gene Oct-4, fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) to test cell cycle, and real-time PCR to detect the expressions of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases and proto-oncogenes. The results showed that progesterone promoted proliferation of mES cells. The number of clones was more in progesterone-treated group than that in the control group. The expression of pluripotency-associated transcriptional factor Oct-4 changed little after progesterone treatment as shown by Western blot, indicating that most of mES cells were in undifferentiated state. The results of FACS proved that progesterone promoted DNA synthesis in mES cells. The proportion of mES cells in S+G(2)/M phase was higher in progesterone-treated group than that in the control group. Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases, as well as proto-oncogenes (c-myc, c-fos) were up-regulated when cells were treated with progesterone. The results obtained indicate that progesterone promotes propagation and viability of mES cells. The up-regulation of cell cycle-related factors might contribute to the function of progesterone.

  19. In vitro regulation of LH biosynthesis and release by GnRH and estradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Anterior pituitaries were taken from female rats at random stages of the estrous cycle, enzymatically dispersed, and cultured for 48h in steroid-free ..cap alpha..-modified Eagles medium followed by 24h in fresh medium +/- estradiol (E/sub 2/). The pituitary cells were then incubated in fresh medium containing radiolabeled precursors +/- gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Radioactive precursor incorporation into LH was determined by immuno-precipitation. The dose-dependent effects of E/sub 2/(10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -8/M) on /sup 3/H-glucosamine (/sup 3/H-Gln) and /sup 35/S-methionine (/sup 35/S-Met) incorporation into LH +/- 1 nM GnRH (4h) were investigated. GnRH (10/sup -9/M) and E/sub 2/ (all doses) significantly increased total /sup 3/H-Gln LH. Moreover, E/sub 2/ at 10/sup -9/M and 10/sup -8/M significantly enhanced GnRH stimulated LH glycosylation. In contrast, addition of GnRH and/or E/sub 2/ did not significantly increase /sup 35/S-Met incorporation into LH over a 4h period. The effects of various GnRH concentrations (10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -9/M; 8h) +/- E/sub 2/ (0.05 nM) on /sup 3/H-Gln LH and /sup 35/S-Met LH production were also investigated. In the absence of E/sub 2/, only 10/sup -9/M GnRH was effective in increasing total /sup 3/H-Gln LH and /sup 35/S-Met LH synthesis. However, in the presence of E/sub 2/, all concentrations of GnRH stimulated LH synthesis with /sup 3/H-Gln LH production responding in a dose related manner whereas /sup 35/S-Met LH production was maximally stimulated at all doses of GnRH. In the final series of experiments, pituitary cells previously exposed to estradiol were incubated for 4 h in normal calcium or low calcium medium containing /sup 3/H-Gln or /sup 35/S-Met +/- GnRH. Removal of extracellular calcium completely inhibited GnRH stimulated /sup 3/H-Gln LH and /sup 35/S-Met LH production.

  20. Transport-driven scrape-off layer flows and the x-point dependence of the L-H power threshold in Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBombard, B.; Rice, J. E.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Greenwald, M.; Granetz, R. S.; Irby, J. H.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E. S.; Marr, K.; Mossessian, D.; Parker, R.; Rowan, W.; Smick, N.; Snipes, J. A.; Terry, J. L.; Wolfe, S. M.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    Factor of ˜2 higher power thresholds for low- to high-confinement mode transitions (L-H) with unfavorable x-point topologies in Alcator C-Mod [Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] are linked to flow boundary conditions imposed by the scrape-off layer (SOL). Ballooning-like transport drives flow along magnetic field lines from low- to high-field regions with toroidal direction dependent on upper/lower x-point balance; the toroidal rotation of the confined plasma responds, exhibiting a strong counter-current rotation when B ×∇B points away from the x point. Increased auxiliary heating power (rf, no momentum input) leads to an L-H transition at approximately twice the edge electron pressure gradient when B ×∇B points away. As gradients rise prior to the transition, toroidal rotation ramps toward the co-current direction; the H mode is seen when the counter-current rotation imposed by the SOL flow becomes compensated. Remarkably, L-H thresholds in lower-limited discharges are identical to lower x-point discharges; SOL flows are also found similar, suggesting a connection.

  1. Effect of supplemental light on growth, prolactin, progesterone and luteinizing hormone in water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, K. S.; Gwazdauskas, F. C.; Akers, R. M.; McGilliard, M. L.

    1989-06-01

    Fifty non-pregnant Surti buffalo heifers aged between 17 and 42 months ( n=24, 24 months) were randomly assigned to groups subject to either natural daylight +4h supplemental light ( n=25) or natural day light ( n=25), to study changes in growth, serum prolactin (Prl), progesterone (P4) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to supplemental lighting. Ambient temperatures (T) and relative humidity (RH) generally were >27° C and <70% during the day-time, respectively. Light-supplemented heifers had 16.2 kg net body weight (BW) gain at 9 weeks compared to 20.8 kg for controls, but higher mean Prl after 6.5 weeks ( P<0.01), and higher P4 (0.41 vs 0.19 ng/ml; P<0.06) than control heifers. Older heifers had 39.7% greater BW ( P<0.01), but a net 4.3% BW gain compared to a 10.1% gain for younger heifers at 10 weeks. Older, light-supplemented heifers had higher mean P4 (0.63 vs 0.19 ng/ml; P<0.07) than the other groups. These weight and hormonal changes suggest that 4 h supplemental light can alter growth and endocrine function in buffaloes under similar planes of nutrition. While light supplementation did not have a positive effect on body wieght during the 10 week study, body weight and endocrine changes due to supplemental light may be important factors for initiation of reproductive cyclicity.

  2. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graceli, J.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Cicilini, M.A.; Bissoli, N.S.; Abreu, G.R.; Moysés, M.R. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2013-07-02

    The maintenance of extracellular Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1}, sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1}, sc). We assessed Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} fractional excretion (FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}} and FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}}, FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}}, FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen

  3. Progesterone induces cellular differentiation in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells transfected with progesterone receptor complementary DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Valerie Chun-Ling; Jin, Rongxian; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Aw, Swee-Eng; Woon, Chow-Thai; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2003-06-01

    Progesterone is an important regulator of growth and differentiation in breast tissues. In this study, the effect of progesterone on cell differentiation was evaluated in the estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative MDA-MB-231 cell line which was transfected with PR-complementary DNA. Morphological changes were analyzed at the ultrastructural level by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Progesterone-treated PR-transfected cells exhibited a more protracted and well spread morphology with an increase in organelles such as mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum as compared to the rounded form of control vehicle (0.1% ethanol)-treated PR-transfected cells. Vehicle and progesterone-treated MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with the pSG5 plasmid (transfection control cells) had similar rounded morphology as control vehicle-treated PR-transfected cells. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that expression of E-cadherin, a differentiation marker, was more prominent in progesterone-treated cells. Expression of keratin and vimentin but not beta-catenin was up-regulated in progesterone treated cells when evaluated by immunoblotting. As signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) molecules have been implicated in mammary differentiation, we analyzed the expression of Stat 1, 3, 5a, and 5b proteins and found a significant up-regulation of the Stat 5b protein in progesterone-treated cells. We have provided in vitro evidence of the close association of PR with differentiation in breast cancer. It is likely that the Stat 5b protein may play a major role in progesterone-induced differentiation in breast cancer cells.

  4. Hybrid Composites for LH2 Fuel Tank Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Loos, Alfred C.; McMahon, William M.

    2001-01-01

    The application of lightweight carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as structure for cryogenic fuel tanks is critical to the success of the next generation of Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The recent failure of the X-33 composite fuel tank occurred in part due to microcracking of the polymer matrix, which allowed cryogen to permeate through the inner skin to the honeycomb core. As part of an approach to solve these problems, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are working to develop and investigate polymer films that will act as a barrier to the permeation of LH2 through the composite laminate. In this study two commercially available films and eleven novel LaRC films were tested in an existing cryogenics laboratory at MSFC to determine the permeance of argon at room temperature. Several of these films were introduced as a layer in the composite to form an interleaved, or hybrid, composite to determine the effects on permeability. In addition, the effects of the interleaved layer thickness, number, and location on the mechanical properties of the composite laminate were investigated. In this initial screening process, several of the films were found to exhibit lower permeability to argon than the composite panels tested.

  5. Full steady state LH scenarios in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Litaudon, X.; Arslanbekov, R.; Hoang, G.T.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1995-12-31

    Lower Hybrid discharge have been realised in Tore Supra using feed-back control of the primary circuit voltage such that the loop voltage was maintained exactly to zero near the plasma surface. This new scenario allows the plasma current to float and quickly reach an equilibrium value determined by the current drive efficiency and Lower Hybrid power. Recent experimental results show that, with the new constant flux scenario the coupled plasma and primary currents reach a steady state in less than 10 s which is a good agreement with theoretical expectations. A complete analysis of this scenario is presented. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Effects of supplemental progesterone after artificial insemination on expression of interferon-stimulated genes and fertility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, P L J; Ribeiro, E S; Maciel, R P; Dias, A L G; Solé, E; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Thatcher, W W; Sartori, R; Santos, J E P

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental progesterone after artificial insemination (AI) on expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) in blood leukocytes and fertility in lactating dairy cows. Weekly cohorts of Holstein cows were blocked by parity (575 primiparous and 923 multiparous) and method of insemination (timed AI or AI on estrus) and allocated randomly within each block to untreated controls, a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) containing 1.38g of progesterone from d 4 to 18 after AI (CIDR4), or a CIDR on d 4 and another on d 7 after AI and both removed on d 18 (CIDR4+7). Blood was sampled to quantify progesterone concentrations in plasma and mRNA expression in leukocytes for the ubiquitin-like IFN-stimulated gene 15-kDa protein (ISG15) and receptor transporter protein-4 (RTP4) genes. Pregnancy was diagnosed on d 34±3 and 62±3 after AI. Treatment increased progesterone concentrations between d 5 and 18 after AI in a dose-dependent manner (control=3.42, CIDR4=4.97, and CIDR4+7=5.46ng/mL). Cows supplemented with progesterone tended to have increased luteolysis by d 19 after AI (control=17.2; CIDR4=29.1; CIDR4+7=30.2%), which resulted in a shorter AI interval for those reinseminated after study d 18. Pregnancy upregulated expression of ISG in leukocytes on d 19 of gestation, but supplementing progesterone did not increase mRNA abundance for ISG15 and RTP4 on d 16 after insemination and tended to reduce mRNA expression on d 19 after AI. For RTP4 on d 19, the negative effect of supplemental progesterone was observed only in the nonpregnant cows. No overall effect of treatment was observed on pregnancy per AI on d 62 after insemination and averaged 28.6, 32.7, and 29.5% for control, CIDR4, and CIDR4+7, respectively. Interestingly, an interaction between level of supplemental progesterone and method of AI was observed for pregnancy per AI. For cows receiving exogenous progesterone, the lower supplementation with CIDR4

  7. Progesterone is neuroprotective by inhibiting cerebral edema after ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-zheng Zhao; Min Zhang; Heng-fang Liu; Jian-ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic edema can alter the structure and permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Recent stud-ies have reported that progesterone reduces cerebral edema after cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, pro-gesterone effectively reduced Evans blue extravasation in the ischemic penumbra, but not in the ischemic core, 48 hours after cerebral ischemia in rats. Progesterone also inhibited the down-reg-ulation of gene and protein levels of occludin and zonula occludens-1 in the penumbra. These results indicate that progesterone may effectively inhibit the down-regulation of tight junctions, thereby maintaining the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and reducing cerebral edema.

  8. Effect of Progesterone Therapy versus Diet Modification on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pregnant women may experience constipation for the first time or ... Aim: To compare the effect of progesterone versus diet modification in the treatment of constipation .... is a natural product that contains several types of fiber.

  9. Assessment of postpartum uterine involution and progesterone profile in Nubian goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdi Elnaim Badawi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A total number of 12 postpartum (pp Nubian goats were included in the study to measure the uterine involution by ultrasonography from day 3 to 31 pp. Coinciding with ultrasonography, blood samples were collected at every 3 days to monitor the ovarian activity by measuring plasma progesterone (P4 concentration using progesterone radio-immuno-assay (RIA. Uterine diameter (UD and uterine lumen (UL were maximum on day 3, and minimum on day 31 pp. More than 50% of uterine involution occurred between day 3 and day 14 pp. The end of uterine involution was characterized by small UD and absence of lochia in the UL. The maximum (0.87±0.4 ng/mL and minimum (0.54±0.2 ng/mL plasma P4 levels were reported on day 27 and day 7 pp, respectively. Completion of uterine involution was recorded at 22±3.3 days pp. There was a negative correlation between P4 level and uterine parameters (UD and UL. It can be concluded that ultrasonography is a reliable tool to determine uterine involution in Nubian goats.

  10. Enhanced Human Decidual Cell-Expressed FKBP51 May Promote Labor-Related Functional Progesterone Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Frederick; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Basar, Murat; Buchwalder, Lynn F; Ocak, Nehir; Guzel, Elif; Guller, Seth; Semerci, Nihan; Kayisli, Umit A; Lockwood, Charles J

    2015-09-01

    Sustained plasma progesterone (P4) levels suggest initiation of human term labor by functional P4 withdrawal, reflecting reduced progesterone receptor (PR) and/or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression or activity. The steroid-induced immunophilin cochaperone FKBP51 inhibits PR- and GR-mediated transcription, suggesting a labor-initiating role. Gestational age-matched decidual sections were immunostained for FKBP51 and decidual cell (DC) and interstitial trophoblast (IT) markers, vimentin and cytokeratin, respectively. Term DC cultures were incubated with vehicle (control), estradiol (E2) with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate, dexamethasone (Dex), or Organon 2058. FKBP51 histologic scoring was significantly higher in DC nuclei during labor versus prelabor decidua, whereas FKBP51 immunostaining was undetected in interstitial trophoblasts (P Organon 2058 inhibited PR expression (P < 0.05), and E2 + Dex inhibited GR expression (P < 0.05). Unlike term DCs, FKBP51 was undetected in control or Dex-treated cultured third-trimester trophoblasts. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that FKPB51 overexpression or silencing in cultured DCs altered PR-DNA binding. Increased FKBP51 levels in term DCs during labor complement our prior in situ observations of significantly lower PR in labor versus prelabor DCs. In a milieu of sustained plasma P4 levels, these reciprocal changes will amplify functional P4 withdrawal in DCs via FKBP51-mediated PR resistance coupled with declining PR levels, whereas the lack of FKBP51 expression in interstitial trophoblasts suggests unopposed constitutive GR action.

  11. Effect of antiprogestin ZK 98. 734 on the ovarian cycle, early pregnancy, and on its binding to progesterone receptors in the myometrium of marmoset Callithrix jacchus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, C.P.; Kholkute, S.D.; Pongubala, J.M.; Patil, R.K.; Elger, W.A.; Jayaraman, S.

    1988-04-01

    The antiprogestin ZK 98.734 (11 beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl-17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-(3-hydroxy-prop-1(Z)-enyl-4,9(10)-estradien-3-one) was administered i.m. (5 mg/day) for three consecutive days to two groups of common marmosets. In one group (nonpregnant, n = 6), it was injected during the luteal phase, and to the second group (pregnant, n = 7), it was injected during early pregnancy, on Days 24-26 of the mid-cycle estradiol peak. Administration of ZK 98.734 during the luteal phase caused a sharp drop in plasma progesterone levels. The luteal phase was shortened whether the drug was administered during the early or the late luteal phase. Similarly, administration of ZK 98.734 during early pregnancy caused a significant drop in progesterone levels, and pregnancy was terminated in all of the animals. The post-treatment cycles in both groups of animals were ovulatory and of normal duration. /sup 3/H-ZK 98.734 showed specific binding to myometrial cytosol fraction. ZK 98.734 also displaced the binding of /sup 3/H-progesterone to progesterone receptors. However, progesterone had higher binding affinity than did ZK 98.734. The antifertility action of ZK 98.734 could be a result either of its luteolytic action or of its blocking the progesterone receptors in the target tissue. This study, therefore, indicates that in the common marmoset ZK 98.734 is a progesterone antagonist with a potential to terminate early pregnancy.

  12. The Activities of Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 (LH3) Regulate the Amount and Oligomerization Status of Adiponectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Heli; Wang, Yu; Karppinen, Marjo; Bergmann, Ulrich; Kvist, Ari-Pekka; Pospiech, Helmut; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Myllylä, Raili

    2012-01-01

    Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) has lysyl hydroxylase, galactosyltransferase, and glucosyltransferase activities, which are sequentially required for the formation of glucosylgalactosyl hydroxylysines in collagens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that LH3 also modifies the lysine residues in the collagenous domain of adiponectin, which has important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. Hydroxylation and, especially, glycosylation of the lysine residues of adiponectin have been shown to be essential for the formation of the more active high molecular weight adiponectin oligomers and thus for its function. In cells that totally lack LH3 enzyme, the galactosylhydroxylysine residues of adiponectin were not glucosylated to glucosylgalactosylhydroxylysine residues and the formation of high and middle molecular weight adiponectin oligomers was impaired. Circulating adiponectin levels in mutant mice lacking the lysyl hydroxylase activity of LH3 were significantly reduced, which indicates that LH3 is required for complete modification of lysine residues in adiponectin and the loss of some of the glycosylated hydroxylysine residues severely affects the secretion of adiponectin. LH mutant mice with reduced adiponectin level showed a high fat diet-induced increase in glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol levels, hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome in humans. Our results reveal the first indication that LH3 is an important regulator of adiponectin biosynthesis, secretion and activity and thus might be a potential candidate for therapeutic applications in diseases associated with obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:23209641

  13. The role of progesterone in prevention of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Dodd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Jodie M Dodd, Caroline A CrowtherDiscipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Preterm birth continues to provide an enormous challenge in the delivery of perinatal health care, and is associated with considerable short and long-term health consequences for surviving infants. Progesterone has a role in maintaining pregnancy, by suppression of the calcium–calmodulin–myosin light chain kinase system. Additionally, progesterone has recognized anti-inflammatory properties, raising a possible link between inflammatory processes, alterations in progesterone receptor expression and the onset of preterm labor. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone in women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth have been published, with primary outcomes of perinatal death, preterm birth <34 weeks, and neurodevelopmental handicap in childhood. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review, involving 2714 women and 3452 infants, with results presented according to the reason women were considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth. While there is a potential beneficial effect in the use of progesterone for some women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth, primarily in the reduction in the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks gestation, it remains unclear if the observed prolongation of pregnancy translates into improved health outcomes for the infant.Keywords: progesterone, preterm birth, systematic review, randomized trial

  14. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Santin Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P<0.0001; 2.39 times, P=0.01; 1.58 times, P=0.0003; and 1.87 times, P<0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P<0.0001; 1.75 times, P=0.037; and 1.95 times, P<0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P=0.069. These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth.

  15. Study of the bacterial diversity of foods: PCR-DGGE versus LH-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Bancalari, Elena; Milanović, Vesna; Cardinali, Federica; Osimani, Andrea; Sardaro, Maria Luisa Savo; Bottari, Benedetta; Bernini, Valentina; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2017-02-02

    The present study compared two culture-independent methods, polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and length-heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR), for their ability to reveal food bacterial microbiota. Total microbial DNA and RNA were extracted directly from fourteen fermented and unfermented foods, and domain A of the variable regions V1 and V2 of the 16S rRNA gene was analyzed through LH-PCR and PCR-DGGE. Finally, the outline of these analyses was compared with bacterial viable counts obtained after bacterial growth on suitable selective media. For the majority of the samples, RNA-based PCR-DGGE revealed species that the DNA-based PCR-DGGE was not able to highlight. When analyzing either DNA or RNA, LH-PCR identified several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase negative cocci (CCN) species that were not identified by PCR-DGGE. This phenomenon was particularly evident in food samples with viable loadsPCR was able to detect a higher number of peaks in the analyzed food matrices relative to species identified by PCR-DGGE. In light of these findings, it may be suggested that LH-PCR shows greater sensitivity than PCR-DGGE. However, PCR-DGGE detected some other species (LAB included) that were not detected by LH-PCR. Therefore, certain LH-PCR peaks not attributed to known species within the LH-PCR database could be solved by comparing them with species identified by PCR-DGGE. Overall, this study also showed that LH-PCR is a promising method for use in the food microbiology field, indicating the necessity to expand the LH-PCR database, which is based, up to now, mainly on LAB isolates from dairy products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulsatile gonadotropin secretion determined by frequent sampling from the intercavernous sinus of the mare: possible modulatory role of progesterone during luteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, P J; Meyer, S L; Fitzgerald, B P

    1995-08-01

    Twelve horse mares were used in a repeated-measures design consisting of 3 replicates of 4 mares each. On Day 6 following ovulation, luteolysis was initiated with an i.m. injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha; Lutalyse, 10 mg). Either 12 (-12) or 36 (-36) h before PGF2 alpha (PRE), blood samples were collected simultaneously from the intercavernous sinus (ICS) and jugular (JUG) vein at 10-min intervals for an 8-h period. Pituitary capacity to exogenous GnRH (2 micrograms/kg BW, i.v.) was evaluated at the alternate time point within this period. Frequent sampling and GnRH challenge were repeated 36 (+36) or 60 (+60) h after PGF2 alpha (POST). Progesterone reached a nadir 48 h after PGF2 alpha, while the first significant elevation in estradiol (p < 0.05) was not detected until 156 h. PRE LH and FSH pulse frequencies in ICS samples were 0.6 +/- 0.3 and 1.8 +/- 0.8 pulses/8 h, respectively. Three high-amplitude, concurrent ICS pulses of LH and FSH were observed during this period. These were associated with elevated gonadotropin levels in the corresponding JUG samples. In contrast, low-amplitude ICS pulses at this time were predominately releases of FSH alone that were not detectable in the JUG. Following luteolysis, POST gonadotropin pulse frequencies in the ICS increased (p < 0.001) to 7.4 +/- 0.4 and 6.8 +/- 0.5 pulses/8 h for LH and FSH, respectively. Concurrent LH and FSH releases of relatively low amplitude characterized 87.7% of the POST ICS pulses, none of which were measurable in corresponding JUG samples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Three Forms of Vaginal Progesterone Administered in Either Single Or Multiple Dose Regimen in Healthy Post-menopausal Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Shentu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A generic vaginal progesterone gel has recently been developed in China. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties in Chinese subjects. The purpose of our study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of three forms of vaginal progesterone gel (test formulations at 4 and 8% strength vs. a reference formulation: Crinone 8% in Chinese healthy post-menopausal women.Methods: This study consisted of two parts study. The part 1 study was a single-center, open-label, 3-period study. Twelve healthy post-menopausal women were to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of 45 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 4% following single dose and multiple doses administered once every other day (q.o.d. for six times or once daily (q.d. for 6 days. The part 2 study was a randomized, open-label, 3-stage crossover study. Twelve post-menopausal women received 90 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 8% or 90 mg Crinone (Reference 8% following single dose and multiple doses (q.o.d. or q.d.. Plasma concentrations of progesterone were measured up to 72 h by using a validated liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞ were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data.Results: Totally 24 subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. Following single dose, The geometric mean Cmax values for Test 4%, Test 8%, and Crinone 8% were 6.35, 10.34, 10.45 ng/mL, and their geometric mean AUC0-t (AUC0-∞ were 113.73 (118.00, 169.39 (173.98, and 190.07 (201.13 ng⋅h/mL, respectively. The mean T1/2 values of progesterone were 11.00, 10.92, and 11.40 h, respectively. For 8% test formulation vs. reference, the 90% CIs of the least squares mean test/reference ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 78.32–124

  18. Effects of circulating progesterone and insulin on early embryo development in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G E; Green, M P; Sinclair, K D; Demmers, K J; Fray, M D; Gutierrez, C G; Garnsworthy, P C; Webb, R

    2003-11-20

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect on early embryo development of feeding a diet formulated to enhance circulating insulin concentrations and secondly to investigate the association between early embryo development and maternal progesterone concentrations in beef heifers. The study was carried out in 32 Simmental x Holstein Friesian heifers 22-25 months of age weighing 506+/-7kg and in condition score 3.1+/-0.1. Animals were fed two diets that were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, but that would encourage either propionate (diet A) or acetate (diet B) production in the rumen. The rationale was that propionate would induce a greater insulin release in response to feeding. Animals were fed a 50:50 mix of the two diets for 14 days at 0.8x maintenance, with straw provided ad libitum. Animals were then fed one of the experimental diets for 3 weeks prior to synchronisation of oestrus and insemination and for a further 16 days following mating. All heifers were blood sampled daily from oestrus synchronisation and eight animals on each diet underwent daily transrectal real-time ultrasonography to determine the day of ovulation. All heifers were slaughtered at Day 16 after mating. While feeding of diet A (propionic) caused a significant (Pbody condition making further increases in insulin difficult to achieve. Diet did not affect size of ovulatory follicle (DIET A: 15.1+/-0.7mm; diet B: 14.6+/-0.7mm), day of ovulation (diet A: 3.5+/-0.2 days; diet B: 3.4+/-0.2 days), mean plasma progesterone concentration (diet A: 4.7+/-0.4ng/ml; diet B: 5.2+/-0.3ng/ml), corpus luteum weight (diet A: 6.0+/-0.2g; diet B: 6.0+/-0.2g) or pregnancy rate (diet A: 81.3%; diet B: 81.3%). However, the proportion of well-elongated (>10cm) embryos on Day 16 was higher in animals fed diet A than in those fed diet B (84.6% versus 38.5%; P10cm) embryos with levels in these animals significantly higher on Days 4 and 5 than in heifers with small (embryos at slaughter. This study

  19. Full steady state LH scenarios in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian-Vilbert, F.; Litaudon, X.; Arslanbekov, R.; Hoang, G.T.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y. [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la fusion, Departement de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, Centre d`detudes de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-02-01

    Lower hybrid discharges have been realised in Tore Supra using feed-back control of the primary circuit voltage (V{sub oh}) such that the loop voltage was maintained exactly zero near the plasma surface. This new scenario allows the plasma current to float and quickly reach an equilibrium value determined by the current drive efficiency and Lower Hybrid power. Recent experimental results show that, with the new {open_quote}{open_quote}constant flux{close_quote}{close_quote} scenario the coupled plasma and primary currents reach a steady state in less than 10 s which is in good agreement with theoretical expectations. A complete analysis of this scenario is presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Crystal structure of the RC-LH1 core complex from Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszak, Aleksander W; Howard, Tina D; Southall, June; Gardiner, Alastair T; Law, Christopher J; Isaacs, Neil W; Cogdell, Richard J

    2003-12-12

    The crystal structure at 4.8 angstrom resolution of the reaction center-light harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complex from Rhodopseudomonas palustris shows the reaction center surrounded by an oval LH1 complex that consists of 15 pairs of transmembrane helical alpha- and beta-apoproteins and their coordinated bacteriochlorophylls. Complete closure of the RC by the LH1 is prevented by a single transmembrane helix, out of register with the array of inner LH1 alpha-apoproteins. This break, located next to the binding site in the reaction center for the secondary electron acceptor ubiquinone (UQB), may provide a portal through which UQB can transfer electrons to cytochrome b/c1.

  1. Regulation of endometrial cancer cell growth by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, S.; Bax, C M R; Chatzaki, E; Chard, Tim; Iles, Ray K.

    2000-01-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used to treat recurrent endometrial cancer. However, the mode of action is uncertain. Our previous studies showed no direct effect of GnRHa on endometrial cancer cell growth in vitro. We have now examined the effect of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on endometrial cancer cell growth. The aim was to determine whether suppression of pituitary LH and FSH by GnRHa could explain the tumour regression seen ...

  2. Influence of monoolein on progesterone transdermal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Souza Cardoso Quintão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This work aimed to investigate in vitro the influence of monoolein (MO on progesterone (PG transdermal delivery and skin retention. Information about the role of MO as an absorption enhancer for lipophilic molecules can help on innovative product development capable of delivering the hormone through the skin in a consistent manner, improving transdermal therapy of hormonal replacement. MO was dispersed in propylene glycol under heat at concentrations of 0% (control, 5% w/w, 10% w/w and 20% w/w. Then, 0.6% of PG (w/w was added to each formulation. Permeation profile of the hormone was determined in vitro for 48 h using porcine skin in Franz diffusion cells. PG permeation doubled when 5% (w/w of MO was present in formulation in comparison to both the control and higher MO concentrations (10% and 20% w/w. An equal trend was observed for PG retention in stratum corneum (SC and reminiscent skin (E+D. PG release rates from the MO formulations, investigated using cellulose membranes, revealed that concentrations of MO higher than 5% (w/w hindered PG release, which indeed negatively reflected on the hormone permeation through the skin. In conclusion, this work demonstrated the feasibility of MO addition (at 5% w/w in formulations as a simple method to increase transdermal PG delivery for therapies of hormonal replacement. In contrast, higher MO concentrations (from 10% to 20% w/w can control active release, and this approach could be extrapolated to other lipophilic, low-molecular-weight molecules.

  3. Effects of recombinant LH treatment on folliculogenesis and responsiveness to FSH stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnerin, Cedrin I; Erb, K; Fleming, R

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of LH in sensitizing antral follicles to FSH is unclear. LH is required for normal hormone production and normal oocyte and embryo development, but follicular responses to LH may depend upon the stage of development. Potential roles at the early follicular phase were explored...... in a clinical setting by employing a sequential approach to stimulation by recombinant human (r-h) LH followed by r-hFSH in women who were profoundly down-regulated by depo GnRH agonist. METHODS: We employed a multi-centre, prospective, randomized approach. Women (n = 146) were treated in a long course high......-dose GnRH agonist (Decapeptyl, 4.2 mg s.c.) protocol and were randomized to receive r-hLH (Luveris, 300 IU/day) for a fixed 7 days, or no r-hLH treatment. This was followed by a standard r-hFSH stimulation regime (Gonal-F, 150 IU/day). Ultrasound and hormone assessments of responses were measured...

  4. Methodologic basis for the radioimmunoassay of endogenous LH-like activity in human prostatic tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorobek, W.; Misiorowski, W.; Niewiadomska, A.; Baranowska, B.; Zgliczynski, S.; Kuzaka, B.; Krzeski, T.

    1983-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the radioimmunological determination of the activity of LH-like substances in the human prostate. The material comprised 19 specimens of prostatic tissue obtained during transbladder extirpation in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Tissues of human testes and human skeletal muscle were used as controls. The method adopted for LH extraction from the membrane fraction of human prostatic tissue appeared to be sufficiently specific, accurate and sensitive for routine laboratory investigations. The concentrations of the LH-like immunoreactivity in human testicular tissue was found to be 57, 46 and 70 mU per g of the membrane fraction while those of the prostatic gland tissues ranged from 34 to 155 mU per g of the membrane fraction. However such LH-like substance was not found in human skeletal muscle tissue. It seems that the LH-type activity is an indirect proof for the existence of LH receptors in the human prostate.

  5. Leaf Downward Curvature and Delayed Flowering Caused by AtLH Overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUHao; YULin; TANGXiang-Rong; SHENRui-Juan; HEYu-Ke

    2004-01-01

    AtLHgene of Arabidopsis is a BcpLH(leafy head) homolog of Chinese cabbage, which encodes a double-stranded RNA-binding protein related to the curvature of folding leaf leading to the formation of leafy head. In order to elucidate the regulatory function of AtLH in the development of leaf curvature, we made a construct of 35S::AtLHand transformed it to Arabidopsis. In transgenic plants for sense-AtLH, transcripts of AtLH gene were increased significantly in leaves and flowers, giving rise to the AtLH-overexpressed plants in which the rosette leaves curved downward or outward in a manner of enhanced epinastic growth. Compared with normal plants, bolting and flowering time of the transgenic plants was significantly delayed. Moreover, the apical dominance of transgenic plants was weaker in vegetative shoots since more axillary shoots emerged from axil of rosette leaves, while stronger in flowering shoots because fewer cauline inflorescences were observed on the main inflorescence. In other aspects, these transgenic plants exhibited an increase in root-stimulating response to IAA and decrease in root-inhibitory reaction on ABA. It indicates that overexpression of AtLH causes downward curvature of transgenic plants.

  6. Mutation Analysis of the LH Receptor Gene in Leydig Cell Adenoma and Hyperplasia and Functional and Biochemical Studies of Activating Mutations of the LH Receptor Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; Lumbroso, Serge; Verhoef-Post, Miriam; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Looijenga, Leendert H. J.; Funaro, Ada; Beishuizen, Auke; van Marle, Andre; Drop, Stenvert L. S.; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Germline and somatic activating mutations in the LH receptor (LHR) gene have been reported. Objective: Our objective was to perform mutation analysis of the LHR gene of patients with Leydig cell adenoma or hyperplasia. Functional studies were conducted to compare the D578H-LHR mutant with t

  7. Distribution of estrogen and progesterone receptors in Epulis Fissuratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrabi Sh.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Epulides Fissurata (EF are common proliferative and denture- induced lesions of the oral cavity with a predilection for female. This suggests a possible role for sex steroid hormones in the development and progression of these lesions. Purpose: The objective of this study was the immunohistochemical evaluation of epulis fissuratum of the oral cavity for estrogen and progesterone receptors expression in epithelial, stromal, inflammatory and endothelial cells populations. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 15 samples of formalin- fixed, paraffin- embedded epulis fissuratums including marginal mucosal tissues in 4 cases as a control group, were immuno-histochemically evaluated for estrogen and progesterone receptors protein expression. Result: In 10 cases, estrogen receptor positivity was found within the epithelium and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity was present in 7 cases. Stromal cells exhibited estrogen and progesterone receptor immunostaining in many cases but only few cases showed expression of these receptors in the inflammatory and endothelial cells. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were also detected in some cases containing salivary glands tissue. Conclusion: Although chronic irritation may be the initiating factor for the occurence of epulis fissuratum, some of the cells in the lesion, could be potential targets for estrogen and progestrone hormones.

  8. Immunohistochemical Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Epulis Fissuratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Seyedmajidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epulis Fissuratum (Epulis Fissuratum (EF or Denture Epulis or inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia is a common hyperplastic tumor-like lesion with reactive nature, related to loose and ill-fitting, full or partial removable dentures and it is more common in women than men. For this reason, hormonal influences may also play role in its creation. The effect of steroid hormones especially sex hormones (Estrogen and progesterone on oral mucosa is identified in some studies. In the present study, the distribution pattern and presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in epithelial, stromal, endothelial and inflammatory cells in Epulis Fissuratum was investigated. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 samples of paraffin blocks with Epulis Fissuratum diagnosis and 30 samples of normal mucosal tissues as a control group who have had surgery as a margin beside the above lesions and had been obtained from the oral and maxillofacial pathology departement of Babol Dental School since 2003 up to 2010. Intensity of staining and immunoreactivity were evaluated using subjective index and considering the positive control group (breast carcinoma.Results: Epithelial, stromal, endothelial and inflammatory cells didn’t show reaction with monoclonal antibodies against estrogen and progesterone in none of the samples. Conclusion: It seems that the hypothesis of the existence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in epulis fissuratum and normal oral mucosa is ruled out. The possibility of direct effect of estrogen and progesterone in occurring of epulis fissuratum is rejected.

  9. Hydrogen Production from Ammonia Using a Plasma Membrane Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kambara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an efficient method for using pulsed plasma to produce hydrogen from ammonia was developed. An original pulsed plasma reactor with a hydrogen separation membrane was developed for efficient hydrogen production, and its hydrogen production performance was investigated. Hydrogen production in the plasma was affected by the applied voltage and flow rate of ammonia gas. The maximum hydrogen production flow rate of a typical plasma reactor was 8.7 L/h, whereas that of the plasma membrane reactor was 21.0 L/h. We found that ammonia recombination reactions in the plasma controlled hydrogen production in the plasma reactor. In the plasma membrane reactor, a significant increase in hydrogen production was obtained because ammonia recombination reactions were inhibited by the permeation of hydrogen radicals generated in the plasma through a palladium alloy membrane. The energy efficiency was 4.42 mol-H2/kWh depending on the discharge power.

  10. Differences in signal activation by LH and hCG are mediated by the LH/CG receptor`s extracellular hinge region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eGrzesik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The human lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR can be activated by binding two slightly different gonadotropic glycoprotein hormones, choriogonadotropin (CG - secreted by the placenta, and lutropin (LH - produced by the pituitary. They induce different signaling profiles at the LHCGR. This cannot be explained by binding to the receptor's leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD, as this binding is similar for the two hormones. We therefore speculate that there are previously unknown differences in the hormone/receptor interaction at the extracellular hinge region, which might help to understand functional differences between the two hormones. We have therefore performed a detailed study of the binding and action of LH and CG at the LHCGR hinge region. We focused on a primate-specific additional exon in the hinge region, which is located between LRRD and the serpentine domain. The segment of the hinge region encoded by exon10 was previously reported to be only relevant to hLH signaling, as the exon10-deletion receptor exhibits decreased hLH signaling, but unchanged hCG signaling. We designed an advanced homology model of the hormone/LHCGR complex, followed by experimental characterization of relevant fragments in the hinge region. In addition, we examined predictions of a helical exon10-encoded conformation by block-wise polyalanine (helix supporting mutations. These helix preserving modifications showed no effect on hormone induced signaling. However, introduction of a structure-disturbing double-proline mutant LHCGR-Q303P/E305P within the exon10-helix has, in contrast to exon10 deletion, no impact on hLH, but only on hCG signaling. This opposite effect on signaling by hLH and hCG can be explained by distinct sites of hormone interaction in the hinge region s. In conclusion, our analysis provides details of the differences between hLH- and hCG-induced signaling that are mainly determined in the L2-beta loop of the hormones and in the hinge region

  11. L-H threshold results in hydrogen plasmas in JET-ILW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabie, E.; Maggi, C.; Solano, E.; Meyer, H.; Lerche, E.; Keeling, D.; JET Contributors Team

    2015-11-01

    The ITPA scaling law for the H-mode power threshold, P(L-H), is strongly weighted to a dataset of carbon wall JET (JET-C) discharges. Identical discharges with the Be/W wall (JET-ILW) in deuterium have shown a 30% reduction of P(L-H) and a minimum as function of density, not observed with the current divertor in JET-C. A strong dependence of P(L-H) on the divertor configuration was found, linked to changes in the divertor recycling pattern. Subsequently, an experiment was conducted in hydrogen to investigate the isotope effect on P(L-H) in JET-ILW. P(L-H) is increased by a factor 2 in the high density branch, as expected. Remarkably, ne,min is shifted to higher density. Comparison between the hydrogen and deuterium discharges show the transition occurs at similar values of stored energy and closely matched edge density and temperature profiles. Work supported, in part, by the US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

  12. Seasonal variation in plasma and corpus luteum oestradiol.17[3and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following ovulation in November, plasma progesterone concentrations were high ... gradually increased as pregnancy proceeded, reaching a peak two months before birth, but declined ..... triggering of ovulation iLlelf (Licht 1982; McPherson,.

  13. Effect of monensin on the estrogen-induced LH surge in prepuberal heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, R D; Rutter, L M; Rhodes, R D

    1982-04-01

    The effect of dietary monensin on the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge following estradiol-17 beta (E2) injection was investigated in prepuberal Simmental X Brahman-Hereford heifers. Ten heifers, weighing approximately 260 kg and approximately 10 mo of age, were equally divided by age and weight into two groups: control (C) heifers each received 1.8 kg/d of a concentrate diet plus Coastal bermudagrass hay ad libitum; monensin (M) heifers each received the same diet plus 200 mg monensin/d. All heifers were maintained in dry lots on their respective diets for 14 d before the E2 challenge. On d 15, all heifers were injected in with 5 mg of E2 in corn oil. Blood samples were collected via tail vessel puncture immediately before E2 injection and at 2-h intervals until 48 h after the E2 injection. The samples were processed for serum and stored at -20 degrees C until LH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Mean concentrations of LH in serum differed (P less than .005) between C and M heifers and with time after E2 injection. A treatment X sampling period interaction (P less than .10) indicated that maximum serum concentrations of LH (LH surge) were detected earlier (P less than .001) for M (17.2 +/- 1.8 h) than C (27.0 +/- 6.0 h) heifers after the E2 injection. When the data were arrayed relative to the time of the LH surge, treatment (P less than .05) and sampling period (P less than .001) effects were significant, but a treatment X sampling period interaction was not detected. Peak LH concentration was 23.1 +/- 3.0 ng/ml for M heifers and 21.6+/- 4.2 ng/ml for controls (P greater than .10). Duration of the LH surge was 8.0 +/- .9 h in M heifers and 4.8 +/- 1.6 h in C heifers (P less than .001). Area under the LH surge was greater (P less than .001) in M heifers than in control heifers. We conclude that dietary monensin altered the estrogen-induced LH surge in prepuberal heifers.

  14. Mechanism and kinetics for scavenging superoxide anion by progesterone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The chemical reaction of progesterone with superoxide anion in 0.1 mol/L NaHCO3 medium is studied by polarography. Differing from the indirect inhibition of generation by synthesized glucocorticoids in mechanism, the function that progesterone scavenges is ascribed to that directly oxidizes the C == C double bond conjugated with the carbonyl moiety of progesterone molecule to a free radical, and then is reduced to H2O2. The result obtained in this work gives new evidence for biomedical research. The equation of rate constant of the oxidization reaction is de-duced, and the apparent rate constant obtained is 308 L·mol-1·s-1.

  15. Long-term effects of prenatal progesterone exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Cathrine; Larsen, Helle; Holmskov, Anni

    2016-01-01

    children from 498 pregnancies. PREDICT is a placebo-controlled randomized trial examining progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in unselected twin pregnancies. Medical histories of the children were reviewed, and neurophysiological development was evaluated by the parent-completed Ages and Stages...... between the groups in number or length of admissions, and we found no overall differences in rates of diagnoses. However, the odds ratio for a diagnosis related to the heart was 1.66 (95%CI 0.80;3.37) in favor of placebo among all children, 2.29 (1.02;5.12) in dichorionic twins, and 8.19 (1......) centile) was decreased in the progesterone group (OR 0.34 (0.14;0.86)). CONCLUSIONS: Second and third trimester exposure to progesterone does not seem to have long-term harmful effects on children, but future studies should focus on cardiac disease in the offspring. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Eudra...

  16. Fluorescent ligand for human progesterone receptor imaging in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstain, Roy; Kanter, Joan; Friedman, Beth; Ellies, Lesley G; Baker, Michael E; Tsien, Roger Y

    2013-05-15

    We employed molecular modeling to design and then synthesize fluorescent ligands for the human progesterone receptor. Boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) or tetramethylrhodamine were conjugated to the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 (Mifepristone) through an extended hydrophilic linker. The fluorescent ligands demonstrated comparable bioactivity to the parent antagonist in live cells and triggered nuclear translocation of the receptor in a specific manner. The BODIPY labeled ligand was applied to investigate the dependency of progesterone receptor nuclear translocation on partner proteins and to show that functional heat shock protein 90 but not immunophilin FKBP52 activity is essential. A tissue distribution study indicated that the fluorescent ligand preferentially accumulates in tissues that express high levels of the receptor in vivo. The design and properties of the BODIPY-labeled RU486 make it a potential candidate for in vivo imaging of PR by positron emission tomography through incorporation of (18)F into the BODIPY core.

  17. Progesterone and reproduction in marsupials: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Felicity J; Bradshaw, Don

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) profiles throughout pregnancy and the oestrous cycle are reviewed in a wide range of marsupial species, representing 12 Families, and focus on the corpus luteum (CL) and its functioning, compared with its eutherian counterpart. Physiologically, P4 subtends the same fundamental processes supporting gestation in marsupials as it does in eutherian mammals, from its role in stimulating the secretory endometrium, effecting nutritional transfer across the placenta and establishing lactogenesis. Before the formation of the CL, however, secretion of P4 is widespread throughout many Families and the dual roles of P4 in the induction of sexual behaviour and ovulation are exposed. In Dasyuridae, raised levels of P4 are linked with the induction of sexual receptivity and are also present around the time of mating in Burramyidae, Petauridae and Tarsipedidae, but their function is unknown. Only in Didelphidae has research established that the pheromonally-induced levels of pro-oestrous P4 trigger ovulation. This is principally the role of oestradiol in the eutherian and may be an important difference between the marsupial and the eutherian. The deposition of the shell coat around the early marsupial embryo is also a function of P4, but perhaps the most striking difference is seen in the time taken to form the CL. This is not always immediate and the maximum secretion of P4 from the granulosa cells may not occur until some 2 weeks after ovulation. The slower development of the CL in some species is linked with delays in the development of the embryo during its unattached phase and results in relatively long gestation periods. A common feature of these, in monovular species, is a short pulse of P4 from the newly-luteinised CL, which is all that is needed for the subsequent development of the embryo to term. Maternal recognition of pregnancy occurs soon after the formation of the blastocyst, with embryo-induced changes in ovarian production of P4 and the uterine

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  19. A novel role for Lh3 dependent ECM modifications during neural crest cell migration in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Banerjee

    Full Text Available During vertebrate development, trunk neural crest cells delaminate along the entire length of the dorsal neural tube and initially migrate as a non-segmented sheet. As they enter the somites, neural crest cells rearrange into spatially restricted segmental streams. Extracellular matrix components are likely to play critical roles in this transition from a sheet-like to a stream-like mode of migration, yet the extracellular matrix components and their modifying enzymes critical for this transition are largely unknown. Here, we identified the glycosyltransferase Lh3, known to modify extracellular matrix components, and its presumptive substrate Collagen18A1, to provide extrinsic signals critical for neural crest cells to transition from a sheet-like migration behavior to migrating as a segmental stream. Using live cell imaging we show that in lh3 null mutants, neural crest cells fail to transition from a sheet to a stream, and that they consequently enter the somites as multiple streams, or stall shortly after entering the somites. Moreover, we demonstrate that transgenic expression of lh3 in a small subset of somitic cells adjacent to where neural crest cells switch from sheet to stream migration restores segmental neural crest cell migration. Finally, we show that knockdown of the presumptive Lh3 substrate Collagen18A1 recapitulates the neural crest cell migration defects observed in lh3 mutants, consistent with the notion that Lh3 exerts its effect on neural crest cell migration by regulating post-translational modifications of Collagen18A1. Together these data suggest that Lh3-Collagen18A1 dependent ECM modifications regulate the transition of trunk neural crest cells from a non-segmental sheet like migration mode to a segmental stream migration mode.

  20. A novel role for Lh3 dependent ECM modifications during neural crest cell migration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Santanu; Isaacman-Beck, Jesse; Schneider, Valerie A; Granato, Michael

    2013-01-01

    During vertebrate development, trunk neural crest cells delaminate along the entire length of the dorsal neural tube and initially migrate as a non-segmented sheet. As they enter the somites, neural crest cells rearrange into spatially restricted segmental streams. Extracellular matrix components are likely to play critical roles in this transition from a sheet-like to a stream-like mode of migration, yet the extracellular matrix components and their modifying enzymes critical for this transition are largely unknown. Here, we identified the glycosyltransferase Lh3, known to modify extracellular matrix components, and its presumptive substrate Collagen18A1, to provide extrinsic signals critical for neural crest cells to transition from a sheet-like migration behavior to migrating as a segmental stream. Using live cell imaging we show that in lh3 null mutants, neural crest cells fail to transition from a sheet to a stream, and that they consequently enter the somites as multiple streams, or stall shortly after entering the somites. Moreover, we demonstrate that transgenic expression of lh3 in a small subset of somitic cells adjacent to where neural crest cells switch from sheet to stream migration restores segmental neural crest cell migration. Finally, we show that knockdown of the presumptive Lh3 substrate Collagen18A1 recapitulates the neural crest cell migration defects observed in lh3 mutants, consistent with the notion that Lh3 exerts its effect on neural crest cell migration by regulating post-translational modifications of Collagen18A1. Together these data suggest that Lh3-Collagen18A1 dependent ECM modifications regulate the transition of trunk neural crest cells from a non-segmental sheet like migration mode to a segmental stream migration mode.

  1. Fsh and Lh direct conserved and specific pathways during flatfish semicystic spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvigné, François; Zapater, Cinta; Crespo, Diego; Planas, Josep V; Cerdà, Joan

    2014-10-01

    The current view of the control of spermatogenesis by Fsh and Lh in non-mammalian vertebrates is largely based on studies carried out in teleosts with cystic and cyclic spermatogenesis. Much less is known concerning the specific actions of gonadotropins during semicystic germ cell development, a type of spermatogenesis in which germ cells are released into the tubular lumen where they transform into spermatozoa. In this study, using homologous gonadotropins and a candidate gene approach, for which the genes' testicular cell-type-specific expression was established, we investigated the regulatory effects of Fsh and Lh on gene expression during spermatogenesis in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), a flatfish with asynchronous and semicystic germ cell development. During early spermatogenesis, Fsh and Lh upregulated steroidogenesis-related genes and nuclear steroid receptors, expressed in both somatic and germ cells, through steroid-dependent pathways, although Lh preferentially stimulated the expression of downstream genes involved in androgen and progestin syntheses. In addition, Lh specifically promoted the expression of spermatid-specific genes encoding spermatozoan flagellar proteins through direct interaction with the Lh receptor in these cells. Interestingly, at this spermatogenic stage, Fsh primarily regulated genes encoding Sertoli cell growth factors with potentially antagonistic effects on germ cell proliferation and differentiation through steroid mediation. During late spermatogenesis, fewer genes were regulated by Fsh or Lh, which was associated with a translational and posttranslational downregulation of the Fsh receptor in different testicular compartments. These results reveal that conserved and specialized gonadotropic pathways regulate semicystic spermatogenesis in flatfish, which may spatially adjust cell germ development to maintain a continuous reservoir of spermatids in the testis.

  2. Development of a GnRH-PGF2α-progesterone-based synchronization protocol with eCG for inducing single and double ovulations in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M F; Tutt, D; Quirke, L D; Tattersfield, G; Juengel, J L

    2014-11-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of different doses and timing of an eCG treatment given during GnRH-based synchronization protocols on follicular dynamics and fertility in cattle. In Exp. 1, Angus heifers (n = 50) received a 7-d Ovsynch + progesterone protocol (on d 0, GnRH and progesterone insert were administered; on d 7, progesterone insert was removed and PGF2α was injected; and on d 9.5, GnRH was injected 56 h after progesterone removal) with eCG (0, 300, 500, 700, or 1,000 IU) administered on d 7. In Exp. 2, Angus cows (n = 27) received the same protocol as Exp. 1 and were assigned randomly to receive 0 or 400 IU eCG i.m. on d 2 or 7. In Exp. 3, Angus cows (n = 18) received a 6-d Ovsynch + progesterone protocol and were randomly assigned to receive 0 or 800 IU eCG on d 3 of the protocol (Exp. 3a). A pilot field trial was also performed using the same treatments in suckled Angus-cross cows (n = 72; Exp. 3b). In Exp. 4, beef heifers (n = 200) were assigned randomly to the same treatments as in Exp. 3, but the second GnRH was not given, with Holstein bulls introduced on d 6. In Exp. 5, Angus cows (n = 12) received the same treatment as in Exp. 3, but were not inseminated. Progesterone concentrations were assessed in plasma collected during the estrous cycle following synchronization. Ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian dynamics and to diagnose pregnancy. In Exp. 1, the mean number of ovulations was affected (P reproductive performance through increased pregnancy rates in single ovulating animals as well as the induction of twin ovulations for twinning.

  3. Nonlinear lower hybrid modeling in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoli, F.; Schettini, G. [Università Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Roma (Italy); Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    We present here new results concerning the nonlinear mechanism underlying the observed spectral broadening produced by parametric instabilities occurring at the edge of tokamak plasmas in present day LHCD (lower hybrid current drive) experiments. Low frequency (LF) ion-sound evanescent modes (quasi-modes) are the main parametric decay channel which drives a nonlinear mode coupling of lower hybrid (LH) waves. The spectrum of the LF fluctuations is calculated here considering the beating of the launched LH wave at the radiofrequency (RF) operating line frequency (pump wave) with the noisy background of the RF power generator. This spectrum is calculated in the frame of the kinetic theory, following a perturbative approach. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear LH wave equation show the evolution of the nonlinear mode coupling in condition of a finite depletion of the pump power. The role of the presence of heavy ions in a Deuterium plasma in mitigating the nonlinear effects is analyzed.

  4. Effects of different supplemental soya bean oil levels on the performance of prepubertal Saanen goats: Oestrogen and progesterone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, G F; Merighe, G K F; de Oliveira, S A; Rodrigues, A D; Augusto, L; Teixeira, I A M A; de Resende, K T; Negrao, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soya bean oil in the total diet on the growth rate, metabolic changes, and oestrogen and progesterone release in Saanen goats. After dietary adaptation, 21 prepubertal goats (weight of 29.12 ± 0.91 kg, 230 days old) were randomly distributed among three diets of D2: inclusion of 2% soya bean oil in the total diet; D3: basal diet - inclusion of 3% soya bean oil in the total diet; and D4: inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the total diet. The basal diet (D3) was formulated to promote a daily gain of 0.140 kg. The goats were weighed, and their blood samples were collected weekly. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma were measured. Prepubertal goats that were fed D4 exhibited a significantly lower dry matter intake, urea and cholesterol levels compared with the goats that were fed D2 and D3. Indeed, goats that were fed D4 displayed a significantly lower final weight than goats that were fed D2 and D3. In contrast, the inclusion of soya bean oil in the diet increased the progesterone and oestrogen concentrations, and goats that were fed D4 released a significantly higher concentration of progesterone than those that were fed D2 and D3. Furthermore, the percentage of goats with a progesterone level greater than 1 ng/ml (functional Corpus luteum) was significantly higher among the goats that were fed D3 and D4 than among those that were fed D2. In this study, although the inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the diet decreased dry matter intake and growth rate, it increased progesterone concentration and the percentage of goats with a functional Corpus luteum, suggesting that the inclusion of soya bean oil accelerated puberty in prepubertal goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Role of nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms in uterine pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bansari; Elguero, Sonia; Thakore, Suruchi; Dahoud, Wissam; Bedaiwy, Mohamed; Mesiano, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone is a key hormonal regulator of the female reproductive system. It plays a major role to prepare the uterus for implantation and in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Actions of progesterone on the uterine tissues (endometrium, myometrium and cervix) are mediated by the combined effects of two progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms, designated PR-A and PR-B. Both receptors function primarily as ligand-activated transcription factors. Progesterone action on the uterine tissues is qualitatively and quantitatively determined by the relative levels and transcriptional activities of PR-A and PR-B. The transcriptional activity of the PR isoforms is affected by specific transcriptional coregulators and by PR post-translational modifications that affect gene promoter targeting. In this context, appropriate temporal and cell-specific expression and function of PR-A and PR-B are critical for normal uterine function. Relevant studies describing the role of PRs in uterine physiology and pathology (endometriosis, uterine leiomyoma, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer and recurrent pregnancy loss) were comprehensively searched using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and critically reviewed. Progesterone, acting through PR-A and PR-B, regulates the development and function of the endometrium and induces changes in cells essential for implantation and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. During pregnancy, progesterone via the PRs promotes myometrial relaxation and cervical closure. Withdrawal of PR-mediated progesterone signaling triggers menstruation and parturition. PR-mediated progesterone signaling is anti-mitogenic in endometrial epithelial cells, and as such, mitigates the tropic effects of estrogen on eutopic normal endometrium, and on ectopic implants in endometriosis. Similarly, ligand-activated PRs function as tumor suppressors in endometrial cancer cells through inhibition of key cellular signaling pathways

  6. Progesterone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics with 3 dosages and 2 regimens of an effervescent micronized progesterone vaginal insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Richard J; Collins, Michael G; Yankov, Vladimir I

    2014-11-01

    Progesterone vaginal insert (PVI), an effervescent delivery system, dissolves rapidly, is absorbed through the vaginal epithelium, and achieves higher endometrial tissue concentrations than those achieved with progesterone in oil (PIO) given im. Our objective was to examine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PVI compared with PIO. Fifty-eight healthy premenopausal women were randomized to 50, 100, or 200 mg PVI once daily; 100 or 200 mg PVI twice daily; or 50 to 100 mg PIO via im injection once daily for 10 days. Serum samples were obtained after the first dose; serum and endometrial tissue were obtained after the last dose. Maximum observed serum concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax, and area under the serum-concentration time curve over the dosing interval were calculated after correcting for baseline progesterone concentrations. ANOVA and paired t test were used to compare results across and within groups. A higher Cmax was observed after PIO than PVI administration. Endometrial tissue progesterone concentrations were higher for PVI regimens. Time to Cmax was 7.3 hours after PIO and 3.3 to 5.9 hours after PVI. Steady state was achieved within 24 and 48 hours for PVI and PIO regimens, respectively. The area under the curve increased with increasing PVI dosage; however, the increase was not proportional to the increase in dosage. Downregulation of estrogen and progesterone receptors was observed in secretory biopsy specimens. The PVI system consistently allowed for rapid progesterone absorption and achieved higher endometrial tissue concentrations and lower systemic exposures than observed after im PIO.

  7. Ovine maternal nutrient restriction from mid to late gestation decreases heptic progesterone inactivating enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we have shown increased concentrations of progesterone and decreased liver weight in mid to late pregnant ewes provided a nutrient restricted vs. adequate diet. This alteration in peripheral progesterone could be due to increased synthesis and/or decreased clearance of progesterone. There...

  8. The putative roles of nuclear and membrane-bound progesterone receptors in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, Magdalena K; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum (CL) is a key regulator of normal cyclical reproductive functions in the females of mammalian species. The physiological effects of progesterone are mediated by the canonical genomic pathway after binding of progesterone to its specific nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), which acts as a ligand-activated transcription factor and has two main isoforms, PGRA and PGRB. These PGR isoforms play different roles in the cell; PGRB acts as an activator of progesterone-responsive genes, while PGRA can inhibit the activity of PGRB. The ratio of these isoforms changes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy, and it corresponds to the different levels of progesterone signaling occurring in the reproductive tract. Progesterone exerts its effects on cells also by a non-genomic mechanism by the interaction with the progesterone-binding membrane proteins including the progesterone membrane component (PGRMC) 1 and 2, and the membrane progestin receptors (mPRs). These receptors rapidly activate the appropriate intracellular signal transduction pathways, and subsequently they can initiate specific cell responses or modulate genomic cell responses. The diversity of progesterone receptors and their cellular actions enhances the role of progesterone as a factor regulating the function of the reproductive system and other organs. This paper deals with the possible involvement of nuclear and membrane-bound progesterone receptors in the function of target cells within the female reproductive tract.

  9. DNA Replication Licensing and Progenitor Numbers Are Increased by Progesterone in Normal Human Breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, J. Dinny; Mote, Patricia A.; Salagame, Usha; van Dijk, Jessica H.; Balleine, Rosemary L.; Huschtscha, Lily I.; Reddel, Roger R.; Clarke, Christine L.

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation in the nonpregnant human breast is highest in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when serum progesterone levels are high, and exposure to progesterone analogues in hormone replacement therapy is known to elevate breast cancer risk, yet the proliferative effects of progesterone in

  10. Fabrication of Progesterone-Loaded Nanofibers for the Drug Delivery Applications in Bovine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppannan, Chitra; Sivaraj, Mehnath; Kumar, J. Ganesh; Seerangan, Rangasamy; Balasubramanian, S.; Gopal, Dhinakar Raj

    2017-02-01

    Progesterone is a potent drug for synchronization of the estrus and ovulation cycles in bovine. At present, the estrus cycle of bovine is controlled by the insertion of progesterone-embedded silicone bands. The disadvantage of nondegradable polymer inserts is to require for disposal of these bands after their use. The study currently focuses on preparation of biodegradable progesterone-incorporated nanofiber for estrus synchronization. Three different concentrations (1.2, 1.9, and 2.5 g) of progesterone-impregnated nanofibers were fabricated using electrospinning. The spun membrane were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Uniform surface morphology, narrow size distribution, and interaction between progesterone and zein were confirmed by SEM. FTIR spectroscopy indicated miscibility and interaction between zein and progesterone. X-ray analysis indicated that the size of zein crystallites increased with progesterone content in nanofibers. Significant differences in thermal behavior of progesterone-impregnated nanofiber were observed by DSC. Cell viability studies of progesterone-loaded nanofiber were examined using MTT assay. In vitro release experiment is to identify the suitable progesterone concentration for estrus synchronization. This study confirms that progesterone-impregnated nanofibers are an ideal vehicle for progesterone delivery for estrus synchronization of bovines.

  11. Implications of progesterone metabolism in MA-10 cells for accurate measurement of the rate of steroidogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommerts, F.F.; King, S.R.; Span, P.N.

    2001-01-01

    In virtually all studies with MA-10 cells, progesterone RIAs have been used to measure steroid synthesis. To test whether progesterone is a stable end product, we investigated the metabolism of added tritiated progesterone and pregnenolone in MA-10 cells over a period of 3 h. Steroids were then extr

  12. LH Dynamics in Overweight Girls with Premature Adrenarche and Slowly Progressive Sexual Precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenfield RobertL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Excess adiposity and premature adrenarche (PA are risk factors for the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods. Girls with slowly progressive precocious breast development, who were overweight and had PA (SPPOPA, 6.2–8.2 years, , overweight PA (6.6–10.8 years, , and overweight premenarcheal controls (OW-PUB, 10.6–12.8 years, underwent hormonal sleep testing and GnRH agonist (GnRHag and ACTH tests. Results. Despite an insignificant sleep-related increase in LH and prepubertal baseline hormone levels, SPPOPA peak LH and estradiol responses to GnRHag were intermediate between those of PA and OW-PUB, the LH being significantly different from both. Conclusions. GnRHag tests indicate that SPPOPA is a slowly progressive form of true puberty with blunted LH dynamics. These results argue against the prepubertal hyperandrogenism of excess adiposity or PA enhancing LH secretion or causing ovarian hyperandrogenism prior to menarche. Excess adiposity may contribute to both the early onset and slow progression of puberty.

  13. Single-molecule spectroscopy on RC-LH1 complexes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 10050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Paul S; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Köhler, Jürgen

    2013-03-21

    We have revisited the RC-LH1 complex from Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) acidophila for single-molecule spectroscopy. For the current study the pigment-protein complexes were stabilized in the detergent buffer solution using a relatively mild detergent (dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM) instead of lauryldimethylamine N-oxide (LDAO)). This leads to a significant reduction of the fraction of broken/dissociated RC-LH1 complexes with respect to previous studies and has allowed us to investigate a sufficiently large sample of individual RC-LH1 complexes. For most of the complexes the fluorescence-excitation spectra exhibit a narrow spectral feature at the red end of the spectrum. Analysis of the statistics of the spectral properties yields a close resemblance with the results obtained on RC-LH1 complexes from Rps. palustris for which a low-resolution X-ray structure is available. Based on this comparison we come to the conclusion that for both species the RC-LH1 complex can be described by the same structural model, that is, an overall elliptical assembly of pigments that features a gap.

  14. Interdigital Line Antennas for Launching LH Waves in MST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M. A.; Goetz, J. A.; Oliva, S. P.

    2002-11-01

    RF current drive has been proposed as a method for reducing the tearing fluctuations that are responsible for anomalous energy transport in the RFP. A system for launching lower hybrid slow waves at 800 MHz and n_||= 7.5 is now in operation on MST. The antenna is an enclosed interdigital line using λ/4 resonators with an opening in the cavity through which the wave is coupled to the plasma. A new antenna has been built incorporating several design improvements. These include larger vacuum feedthroughs, better impedance matching, internal instrumentation and improved directionality. Power handling is 3-4 times that of the original and continues to improve with conditioning. Further design improvements are underway to optimize impedance matching and damping rate along the traveling wave structure.

  15. Efeito de diferentes protocolos de superovulação sobre a concentração plasmática de progesterona e de metabólitos lipídicos de vacas Nelore Effect of different superovulation protocols on plasma progesterone concentration and lypidic metabolites in Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Ramos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as concentrações plasmáticas de triglicérides, colesterol, aspartato transaminase (AST e progesterona (P4 em vacas Nelore não lactantes com elevado escore corporal, superovuladas com diferentes protocolos. Foram utilizados três grupos de animais, G1 (n=11, G2 (n=8 e G3 (n=5, superovulados com 500UI de FSH, 200mg e 180mg de FSH (hormônio folículo estimulante, respectivamente, em doses decrescentes, duas vezes ao dia, durante quatro dias. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes da superovulação (A, no terceiro dia da superovulação (B, no momento da inseminação artificial (C e na coleta dos embriões (D. As concentrações de triglicérides, AST e colesterol foram verificados por espectrofotometria, e a de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio. Não houve alteração (P>0,05 na concentração de triglicérides, AST e colesterol entre as amostras. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 do protocolo de superovulação sobre a concentração de triglicérides, AST e P4 nas diferentes amostras. O G2 apresentou menor concentração de colesterol (PThe purpose of this research was to evaluate the concentration of tryglicerides, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST and progesterone (P4 in embryo donor Nelore cows superovulated with different protocols. Twenty four donors were randomly distributed in three groups: group 1 (n=11, donors superovulated with 500UI of FSH and group 2 (n=8 and group 3 (n=5 respectively with 200mg and 180mg of FSH, in decreasing doses, twice a day, during four consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before superovulation (A, in the third day of superovulation (B, at the artificial insemination time (C and at the embryo collection time (D. The concentrations of tryglicerides, aspartate transaminase (AST and cholesterol were measured by spectrophotometry and progesterone (P4 by radioimmunoassay. There was no alteration (P0.05 of the superovulation protocol on the concentration of tryglicerides, AST and

  16. Progesterone Regulation of Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Rodent Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Michael R.; Akopian, Garnik; Thompson, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian hormones influence memory formation by eliciting changes in neural activity. The effects of various concentrations of progesterone (P4) on synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were studied using in vitro hippocampal slices. Extracellular studies show that the…

  17. Rodent Models of Non-classical Progesterone Action Regulating Ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A. Mittelman-Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming clear that steroid hormones act not only by binding to nuclear receptors that associate with specific response elements in the nucleus but also by binding to receptors on the cell membrane. In this newly discovered manner, steroid hormones can initiate intracellular signaling cascades which elicit rapid effects such as release of internal calcium stores and activation of kinases. We have learned much about the translocation and signaling of steroid hormone receptors from investigations into estrogen receptor α, which can be trafficked to, and signal from, the cell membrane. It is now clear that progesterone (P4 can also elicit effects that cannot be exclusively explained by transcriptional changes. Similar to E2 and its receptors, P4 can initiate signaling at the cell membrane, both through progesterone receptor and via a host of newly discovered membrane receptors (e.g., membrane progesterone receptors, progesterone receptor membrane components. This review discusses the parallels between neurotransmitter-like E2 action and the more recently investigated non-classical P4 signaling, in the context of reproductive behaviors in the rodent.

  18. Progesterone and testosterone production by dispersed rat placental cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, D W; Gibney, J A; Malamed, S; Macdonald, G J

    1986-04-01

    Isopycnic separation and unit gravity sedimentation were employed to identify the rat placental cell types capable of producing progesterone and testosterone. Subdivision of Day 12-dispersed placental cells in Percoll gradients revealed that fractions (less than 1.048 g/ml) containing giant cytotrophoblast cells produced greater quantities of progesterone (p less than 0.01) than did fractions (greater than 1.048 g/ml) with equal numbers of placental cells but void of giant cytotrophoblasts. Unit gravity sedimentation of Day 16-dispersed placental cells revealed that when incubated, isolated giant cytotrophoblast cells were capable of producing both progesterone and testosterone. Both of the separation studies strongly suggested that other cell types also produce steroids. However, the biosynthetic capacity of the giant cytotrophoblast cell appeared to be 1000-fold greater than that of the other cell types. Incubation of Day 12-dispersed placental cells with human chorionic gonadotropin or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate did not further increase progesterone production as compared to untreated control incubates, suggesting rat placental steroidogenesis is not under trophic hormone control. Electron microscopic observations of giant cytotrophoblast cells revealed a complex ultrastructure suggesting a variety of physiological functions.

  19. Glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors in yolk sac placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, J P; Baldridge, R C; Magen, A B; Andrew, C L; Koszalka, T R; Brent, R L

    1986-01-01

    The parietal yolk sac (PYS) of the rat fetus at the 14th day of gestation contains glucocorticoid as well as progesterone receptors; both are present in the trophoblast cell layer. Following heat activation the receptors are capable of binding to deoxyribonucleic acid- (DNA-)cellulose. Glucocorticoid receptors, but not progesterone receptors, are also present in the visceral yolk sac (VYS) at the 14th day of gestation. Greater amounts (some 250 femtomoles/mg cytosol protein) of a glucocorticoid receptor are present in the VYS on the 17th day of gestation. The Kd is approximately 4 X 10(-9) M; following activation it also binds to DNA-cellulose. The elution pattern of the activated VYS receptor from diethylaminoethyl-(DEAE-)Sephadex, however, is similar to that found with kidney and colon rather than that of liver (i.e., it resembles corticosteroid binder IB rather than binder II) indicating a possible role in transport. Although the receptors are separate entities, progesterone competes as effectively as corticosterone for binding to the glucocorticoid receptors in both the PYS and and VYS, thus raising the question of the possible effect of changes in progesterone concentrations on the functioning of glucocorticoids during development.

  20. Molecular profiles of progesterone receptor loss in human breast tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Creighton; C. Kent Osborne; M.J. van de Vijver; J.A. Foekens; J.G. Klijn; H.M. Horlings; D. Nuyten; Y. Wang; Y. Zhang; G.C. Chamness; S.G. Hilsenbeck; A.V. Lee; R. Schiff

    2009-01-01

    Background Patient prognosis and response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer correlate with protein expression of both estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), with poorer outcome in patients with ER+/PR- compared to ER+/PR+ tumors. Methods To better understand the underlying biolog

  1. Characterization of progesterone loaded biodegradable blend polymeric nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vitória Leimann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The encapsulation of progesterone in poly (hydroxybutirate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV, poly (ε-caprolactone (PCL, poly (L-lactic acid (PLLA nanoparticles and PHBV/PCL and PHBV/PLLA blend nanoparticles was investigated in this research. Nanoparticles were produced by miniemulsion/solvent evaporation technique with lecithin as surfactant and were characterized regarding to z-average diameter (Dz and polydispersity (PDI, progesterone recovery yield and encapsulation efficiency. Possible interactions between progesterone and the polymer matrices were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. High recoveries (up to 102.43±1.80% for the PHBV/PLLA blend and encapsulation efficiencies (up to 99.53±0.04% for PCL were achieved and the nanoparticles presented narrow size distribution (0.12±0.03 for PLLA. PCL nanoparticles (217.5±2.12nm presented significant difference with the Dz from all the other formulations (P<0.05. The most evident interaction between progesterone and the nanoparticles polymeric matrix was found to PHBV/PCL due to the increase in the intensity of the band located in 1631 cm-1.

  2. Progesterone (PR), oestrogen (ER-α and ER-β) and oxytocin (OTR) gene expression in the oviduct and uterus of pregnant and non-pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derussi, A A P; de Souza, R W A; Volpato, R; Guaitolini, C R F; Ackermann, C L; Taffarel, M O; Cardoso, G S; Dal-Pai-Silva, M; Lopes, M D

    2012-12-01

    The aim was to assess hormone receptor gene expression in the oviduct and uterus during canine pregnancy. Nineteen pregnant bitches divided into four groups were ovariohysterectomized (OVH) at either day 8, 12, 21 or 60 of pregnancy, and five non-pregnant females underwent OVH 12 days after the pre-ovulatory Luteinizant Hormone (LH) surge and served as controls. RT-qPCR for progesterone (PR), oestrogen (ER-α and ER-β) and oxytocin (OTR) receptors was performed on the oviduct and uterine tissue. The mRNA PR expression in the uterus during early stages of pregnancy and the luteal phase was higher than at other times. The mRNA ER-β expression in the oviduct during early pregnancy was less than in non-pregnant bitches. In the uterus, the mRNA ER-β expression was higher in the initial stages of pregnancy. The ER-α expression was higher in the oviduct and uterus in advanced stages of pregnancy. The mRNA OTR expression in the oviduct was lower than in the uterus in control group. The expression of this receptor in oviduct and the uterus was higher in the final stages of pregnancy, when compared with other phases. These data suggested that the serum progesterone concentrations probably exert a direct control on the PR and ER (α and β) expression and indirectly on OTR expression in the bitch oviduct and uterus.

  3. Inhibition of peripubertal sheep mammary gland development by cysteamine through reducing progesterone and growth factor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Feng, Yanni; Zhang, Hongfu; Kou, Xin; Li, Lan; Liu, Xinqi; Zhang, Pengfei; Cui, Liantao; Chu, Meiqiang; Shen, Wei; Min, Lingjiang

    2017-02-01

    Cysteamine has been used for treating cystinosis for many years, and furthermore it has also been used as a therapeutic agent for different diseases including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, malaria, cancer, and others. Although cysteamine has many potential applications, its use may also be problematic. The effects of low doses of cysteamine on the reproductive system, especially the mammary glands are currently unknown. In the current investigation, low dose (10 mg/kg BW/day) of cysteamine did not affect sheep body weight gain or organ index of the liver, spleen, or heart; it did, however, increase the levels of blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets. Most interestingly, it inhibited mammary gland development after 2 or 5 months of treatment by reducing the organ index and the number of mammary gland ducts. Plasma growth hormone and estradiol remained unchanged; however, plasma progesterone levels and the protein level of HSD3β1 in sheep ovaries were decreased by cysteamine. In addition to steroid hormones, growth factors produced in the mammary glands also play crucial roles in mammary gland development. Results showed that protein levels of HGF, GHR, and IGF1R were decreased after 5 months of cysteamine treatment. These findings together suggest that progesterone and local growth factors in mammary glands might be involved in cysteamine initiated inhibition of pubertal ovine mammary gland development. Furthermore, it may lead to a reduction in fertility. Therefore, cysteamine should be used with great caution until its actions have been further investigated and its limitations overcome.

  4. Concentrations of progesterone, a metabolite of PGF2α, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone during development of idiopathic persistent corpus luteum in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, O J; Baldrighi, J M; Castro, T; Wolf, C A; Santos, V G

    2016-04-01

    In experiment 1, daily blood samples were available from Days 0 to 20 (Day 0 = ovulation) in mares with an interovulatory interval (IOI, n = 5) and in mares that developed idiopathic persistent corpus luteum (PCL, n = 5). The PCL was confirmed by maintenance of progesterone (P4) concentration until end of the experiment (Day 20). Significant interactions of group and day revealed the novel findings that luteinizing hormone (LH) was lower (P prolactin was lower (P prolactin concentrations on Days 12 to 20 from 2 reported experiments were combined to increase the number of mares with an IOI (n = 11) or a PCL (n = 11). An abrupt and complete decrease in P4 (luteolysis) began on Day 13 in the IOI group compared with a gradual and partial P4 decline after Day 12 in the PCL group. Concentrations of PGFM and prolactin were lower (P prolactin, but on a tentative basis (P prolactin were lower, (2) treatment to reduce postovulatory LH did not increase the incidence, and (3) both PGFM and prolactin were lower on the day of the most pronounced decrease in P4.

  5. Daily low-dose hCG stimulation during the luteal phase combined with GnRHa triggered IVF cycles without exogenous progesterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Can the luteal phase support be improved in terms of efficacy, hormonal profiles and convenience as compared with today's standard care? SUMMARY ANSWER: Daily low-dose rhCG supplementation in GnRHa triggered IVF cycles can replace the traditional used luteal phase support with exo......STUDY QUESTION: Can the luteal phase support be improved in terms of efficacy, hormonal profiles and convenience as compared with today's standard care? SUMMARY ANSWER: Daily low-dose rhCG supplementation in GnRHa triggered IVF cycles can replace the traditional used luteal phase support...... on either stimulation day 2 or day 6. Blood samples were obtained on the day of ovulation induction, on the day of oocyte pickup (OPU) and day OPU + 7. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The mean serum levels of hCG did not exceeded the normal physiological range of LH activity in any samples. Mid...... were seen between groups. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The number of patients included is limited and conclusions need to be verified in a larger RCT. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Endogenous production of progesterone may become more attractive as the luteal phase support with levels of LH...

  6. Breast Cancer Lymphatic Dissemination-Influence of Estrogen and Progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    red channels or (b) green/red channels . Arrows, translocated chromosome. Cancer Research Cancer Res 2006; 66: (16). August 15, 2006 8276...Administration of nRHa drugs, such as leuprorelin acetate (LA) and triptore- in (TR), results in an initial increase in serum luteinizing ormone (LH) and

  7. Protective actions of progesterone in the cardiovascular system: potential role of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) in mediating rapid effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei

    2013-06-01

    The protective functions of progesterone in the cardiovascular system have received little attention even though evidence has accumulated that progesterone lowers blood pressure, inhibits coronary hyperactivity and has powerful vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. One possible reason why potential beneficial actions of progesterone on cardiovascular functions have not been extensively studied is that divergent effects to those of progesterone have been observed in many clinical trials with synthetic progestins such as medroxyprogesterone acetate which are associated with increased risk of coronary disease. Evidence that progesterone exerts protective effects on cardiovascular functions is briefly reviewed. The finding that progesterone administration decreases blood vessel vasoconstriction in several animal models within a few minutes suggests that rapid, nongenomic progesterone mechanisms are of physiological importance in regulating vascular tone. Rapid activation of second messenger pathways by progesterone has been observed in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, resulting in alterations in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and calcium influx, respectively. Both nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) and novel membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are candidates for the intermediaries in these rapid, cell-surface initiated progesterone actions in endothelial and smooth muscle vascular cells. PRs have been detected in both cell types. New data are presented showing mPRα, mPRβ and mPRγ are also present in human endothelial and smooth muscle vascular cells. Preliminary evidence suggests mPRs mediate rapid progestin signaling in these endothelial cells, resulting in down-regulation of cAMP production and increased nitric oxide synthesis. The role of mPRs in progesterone regulation of cardiovascular functions warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Veränderungen kognitiver Funktionen unter LH-RH-Therapie bzw. unter Bicalutamid-Monotherapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brössner C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Androgendeprivationstherapie mit LH-RH-Agonisten bzw. Androgenrezeptorblockade mit Bicalutamid wurde zur Standardtherapie beim fortgeschrittenen Prostatakarzinom. Der Großteil der existierenden Literatur beschreibt unter LH-RH-Gabe und damit verbundener Senkung des Testosteronspiegels eine Verschlechterung bestimmter kognitiver Gedächtnisleistungen. Ziel unserer prospektiven, konsekutiven Studie ist es, kognitive und emotionale Funktionen sowie die Lebensqualität bei Männern unter LH-RH bzw. unter Bicalutamid-Monotherapie zu untersuchen. Methoden: In Gruppe A wurden 15 Männer (mean 70,5 a; 57–81 inkludiert, die ein LH-RHAnalogon für 1 Jahr erhielten. In Gruppe B wurden 12 Männer (mean 69,3 a; 56–80 unter Bicalutamid-Monotherapie (150 mg/d für 1 Jahr inkludiert. Zum Zeitpunkt der kognitiven Testung waren alle Patienten frei von klinischer Metastasierung und die PSA-Werte waren 0,5 ng/ml. Für die Untersuchung der kognitiven Leistungen wurde eine umfangreiche neuropsychologische alters-, geschlechts- und bildungskorrigierte Testbatterie eingesetzt: Tests für Aufmerksamkeit (ZVT, Stroop-Test, Gedächtnis (NAI, WMS-R, Demenz (MMSE, Lebensqualität (WHOQOL-BREF, Wahrnehmung (Mosaik-Test, Sprache (LPS 50 Depression (BDI sowie für Angst (STAI wurden durchgeführt. Ergebnisse: In Gruppe A (unter LH-RH fanden wir signifikante Defizite im topografischen (T = 39,3 und visuellen Langzeitgedächtnis (T = 35,6. Das visuelle und verbale Arbeitsgedächtnis zeigte in dieser Gruppe grenzwertige Defizite (T = 40,67 und T = 41,67. In Gruppe B (Bicalutamid konnten wir dagegen bei keinem der Patienten ein kognitives Defizit feststellen. Schlussfolgerung: Unsere Daten suggerieren einen signifikanten negativen Einfluss der LH-RHLangzeittherapie auf bestimmte kognitive Funktionen. Im Gegensatz dazu fanden wir keine Veränderungen unter Bicalutamid-Monotherapie.

  9. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Et, Tayfun; Topal, Ahmet; Erol, Atilla; Tavlan, Aybars; Kılıçaslan, Alper; Uzun, Sema Tuncer

    2015-04-01

    Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Animal experiment. This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26) were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7(th) day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6) received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05). No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

  10. Role of hypothalamus nociceptin/orphanin FQ in pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge of estrogen and progesterone-primed, ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fei AN; Jiang-yi YU; Yi FENG; Bo-ying CHEN; Su-lin ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of hypothalamus nociceptin/orphanin FQ (OFQ) and its endogenous receptor, the opioid receptor-likel receptor (ORL1 receptor) in the estrus cycle of female rats. Method: Radioimmunoassay was used to detect the effect of the intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of OFQ and/or the ORL1 receptor antagonist [Nphel]Nociceptin(1-13)NH2 that is, NC13 on luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of estrogen- and progesterone (EBP)-primed, ovariectomized (OVX) rats (EBP-primed OVX rats). RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohis- tochemistry techniques were adopted to observe the changes of OFQ and the ORL1 receptor in the pre-optic area (POA) and the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) of the estrus cycle of female rat. Results: Pre-ovulatory LH surges in EBP-primed, OVX rats were significantly reduced by icv administration of 20 and 200 nmol OFQ (P<0.05), and the effect of 20 nmol OFQ could be abolished by pretreat-ment with 20 nmol NC13. The OFQ mRNA level in the POA on pro-estrus was lowered markedly compared to diestrus and estrus (P<0.05), while the mRNA and protein levels of the ORL1 receptor showed no significant changes in the POA and MBH across the estrus cycle. Meanwhile, the number of OFQ-immunoreac-tive neurons in the medial POA, ventromedial hypothalamus, and the arcuate nucleus on pro-estrus was significantly decreased compared to diestrus and es-trus (P<0.05). Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of OFQ on the LH surge of EBP-primed, OVX rats and its downregulation in POA and MBH on pro-estrus sug-gests that it might play a negative modulatory role in the estrus cycle.

  11. Lipopolysaccharide-induced murine embryonic resorption involves changes in endocannabinoid profiling and alters progesterone secretion and inflammatory response by a CB1-mediated fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Manuel L; Correa, Fernando; Leishman, Emma; Vercelli, Claudia; Cymeryng, Cora; Blanco, Julieta; Bradshaw, Heather B; Franchi, Ana María

    2015-08-15

    Genital tract infections are a common complication of human pregnancy that can result in miscarriage. We have previously shown that a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces embryonic resorption in a murine model of inflammatory miscarriage. This is accompanied by a dramatic decrease in systemic progesterone levels associated with a robust pro-inflammatory response that results in embryo resorption. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the endogenous cannabinoid system (eCS), through cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), plays a role in regulating progesterone levels and, therefore, the pro-inflammatory response. We show that LPS treatment in pregnant mice causes significant changes in the eCS ligands, which are reversed by progesterone treatment. We further show the CB1-KO mice maintain higher plasma progesterone levels after LPS treatment, which is associated with a feebler uterine inflammatory response and a significant drop in embryo resorption. These data suggest that manipulation of CB1 receptors and/or ligands is a potential therapeutic avenue to decrease infection-induced miscarriage.

  12. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  13. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs): progesterone receptor action, mode of action on the endometrium and treatment options in gynecological therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenfeld, Andrea; Saunders, Philippa T.K.; Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O.D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The progesterone receptor plays an essential role in uterine physiology and reproduction. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) have emerged as a valuable treatment option for hormone dependent conditions like uterine fibroids, which have a major impact on women’s quality of life. SPRMs offer potential for longer term medical treatment and thereby patients may avoid surgical intervention. Areas covered: The authors have reviewed the functional role of the progesterone receptor and its isoforms and their molecular mechanisms of action via genomic and non-genomic pathways. The current knowledge of the interaction of the PR and different SPRMs tested in clinical trials has been reviewed. The authors focused on pharmacological effects of selected SPRMs on the endometrium, their anti-proliferative action, and their suppression of bleeding. Potential underlying molecular mechanisms and the specific histological changes in the endometrium induced by SPRMs (PAEC; Progesterone receptor modulator Associated Endometrial Changes) have been discussed. The clinical potential of this compound class including its impact on quality of life has been covered. Expert Opinion: Clinical studies indicate SPRMs hold promise for treatment of benign gynecological complaints (fibroids, heavy menstrual bleeding; HMB). There however remains a knowledge gap concerning mechanism of action. PMID:27138351

  14. Quality of Progesterone Suppositories Prepared by FIRST-Progesterone Vaginal Suppository 50 Kit or Traditional Compounding Method: In Vitro Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Harsh; Atef, Eman

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of progesterone suppositories prepared by using the FIRST-Progesterone Vaginal Suppository Kit to that of progesterone suppositories compounded extemporaneously by using the traditional method. The comparison parameters were weight variation, content uniformity, pH, yield, and compounding time. Each of five compounders prepared two batches, one batch using each method. The results indicate that the quality of the suppositories prepared by both methods including weight variation and content uniformity, fell within the United States Pharmacopeial accepted limits (+/- 10% of the label concentration). However, preparation time and yield were significantly different. The time spent compounding the suppositories with the FIRST-Progesterone Vaginal Suppository 50 kit was significantly shorter (five times shorter) than spent compounding the suppositories by the traditional method (P-less than 0.05). Although all compounders were advised to use an extra 10% during traditional compounding, three of the compounders failed to fill the prescribed number and ended with fewer suppositories than required. The reasons for this deficiency were either conventional mold leakage or spilling during mold filling.

  15. Evaluation on performance of Beckman Coulter LH-750 hematocyte analyzer%Beckman Coulter LH-750血细胞分析仪性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 木合布力·艾沙

    2011-01-01

    目的 系统评价LH-750全自动血细胞分析仪的性能.方法 选用定值质控全血连续重复测定,选取白细胞、红细胞、血小板计数、血小板压积和血红蛋白5个主要参数以评价仪器的精密度、准确度和不确定度;高、低值样品连续重复3次评价仪器的携带污染率;将全血按比例稀释并进行检测,作线性范围的评价;以两种不同的进样模式测定标本,计算偏倚率;同一份标本分别用LH-750和Sysmex1000i同时检测,观察两者之间的相关性.结果 质控物测定结果CV≤2.96%,携带污染率小于或等于0.56%,LH-750线性较好,与Sysmex1000i测定的结果比较,相关性良好(r≥0.996 6).结论 LH-750型血细胞分析仪的准确性、精密度均良好,携带污染率低且线性较好,与sysmex1000i具有良好的一致性,能满足血液分析的一般要求.%Objective To evaluate the performance of Beckman Coulter LH 750 automated hematology analyzer. Methods Rating quality control whole blood was successively and repetitively to evaluate the accuracy, precision and uncertainty which obey to the standard of ICSH and NCCLS; high and low value serum specimens were determined for successive 3 times to investigate the carry over rate. Dilute the blood by the same proportion to measure line range; Detect the samples with two different sampling modes and compared. Detect the sample with LH 750 and sysmexl000i hematology analyzer respectively and compared. Results The result of quality control specimen showed CV was below 2.96 % , and the carry over rate was below 0.6 %. The result correlated well with those obtained on Sysmexl000i(r>0. 996 ). Conclusion Beckman Coulter LH 750 hematocyte analyzer possess high precision and accuracy,low carry over rate, excellent line range,and closely correlative to sysmexl000i and achieves the clinical demand for hematological analysis.

  16. Regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) subunit biosynthesis in cultured male anterior pituitary cells: effects of GnRH and testosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummen, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct effects of testosterone (T) on LH subunit apoprotein synthesis, glycosylation and release by the male pituitary. Cells from 1 wk castrate rats were cultured for 48 h in steroid-free medium followed by 48h in media /+-/10nM T. The cells were then incubated for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12h in media containing (/sup 35/S)-methionine (/sup 35/S-Met) or (/sup 3/H)-glucosamine (/sup 3/H-Gln), /+-/1nM GnRH (exp 1) or in media containing precursors /+-/ 10nM T and/or 1nM GnRH (exp 2). Radiolabeled precursor incorporation into LH subunits was determined by immunoprecipitation followed by SDS-PAGE. In experiment 1, precursor incorporation into total protein (TP) and LH subunits increased linearly with time for at least 8h. GnRH did not effect precursor incorporation in to TP or /sup 35/S-Met labeling of LH subunits, but stimulated a linear, time-dependent accumulation of /sup 3/H-Gln into total LH subunits and the release of RIA-LH and radiolabeled subunits into media. Based on these results, the effects of T on LH subunit biosynthesis were studied during an 8h incubation. In experiment 2, GnRH enhanced the total /sup 3/H-Gln incorporation (but not /sup 35/S-Met incorporation) into both LH subunits. GnRH stimulated the release of /sup 35/S-Met LH..cap alpha.. and /sup 3/H-Gln LH subunits into media and increased the relative glycosylation of secreted LH subunits without altering the relative glycosylation of intracellular LH subunits. T inhibited RIA-LH release and incorporation of both precursors into total and secreted LH subunits (/+-/GnRH). However, only the relative glycosylation of secreted LH..cap alpha.. was reduced by T (/+-/GnRh).

  17. Progesterone stimulates adipocyte determination and differentiation 1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c gene expression. potential mechanism for the lipogenic effect of progesterone in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, D; Le Liepvre, X; Ferre, P; Dugail, I

    2001-04-13

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS), a nutritionally regulated lipogenic enzyme, is transcriptionally controlled by ADD1/SREBP1c (adipocyte determination and differentiation 1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c), through insulin-mediated stimulation of ADD1/SREBP1c expression. Progesterone exerts lipogenic effects on adipocytes, and FAS is highly induced in breast tumor cell lines upon progesterone treatment. We show here that progesterone up-regulates ADD1/SREBP1c expression in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and the primary cultured preadipocyte from rat parametrial adipose tissue. In MCF7, progesterone induced ADD1/SREBP1c and Metallothionein II (a well known progesterone-regulated gene) mRNAs, with comparable potency. In preadipocytes, progesterone increased ADD1/SREBP1c mRNA dose-dependently, but not SREBP1a or SREBP2. Run-on experiments demonstrated that progesterone action on ADD1/SREBP1c was primarily at the transcriptional level. The membrane-bound and mature nuclear forms of ADD1/SREBP1 protein accumulated in preadipocytes cultured with progesterone, and FAS induction could be abolished by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a dominant negative form of ADD1/SREBP1 in these cells. Finally, in the presence of insulin, progesterone was unable to up-regulate ADD1/SREBP1c mRNA in preadipocytes, whereas its effect was restored after 24 h of insulin deprivation. Together these results demonstrate that ADD1/SREBP1c is controlled by progesterone, which, like insulin, acts by increasing ADD1/SREBP1c gene transcription. This provides a potential mechanism for the lipogenic actions of progesterone on adipose tissue.

  18. Sequencing and generation of an infectious clone of the pathogenic goose parvovirus strain LH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Duan, Jinkun; Zhu, Liqian; Jiang, Zhiwei; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the complete genome of the virulent strain LH of goose parvovirus (GPV) was sequenced and cloned into the pBluescript II (SK) plasmid vector. Sequence alignments of the inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of GPV strains revealed a common 14-nt-pair deletion in the stem of the palindromic structure in the LH strain and three other strains isolated after 1982 when compared to three GPV strains isolated earlier than that time. Transfection of 11-day-old embryonated goose eggs with the plasmid pLH, which contains the entire genome of strain LH, resulted in successful rescue of the infectious virus. Death of embryos after transfection via the chorioallantoic membrane infiltration route occurred earlier than when transfection was done via the allantoic cavity inoculation route. The rescued virus exhibited virulence similar to that of its parental virus, as evaluated by the mortality rate in goslings. Generation of the pathogenic infectious clone provides us with a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of GPV in the future.

  19. Possible applications of RIA of LH and FSH in diagnosis of Stein-Leventhal syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenisek, L.; Talas, M.; Stehlikova, J.; Fingerova, H.; Duskova, M.

    1981-01-01

    LH determination in the serum significantly assists in diagnosing polycystic ovaries. Values exceeding 22 mIU/ml serum are indicative of a typical picture of polycystic ovaries similar to those found in the Stein-Leventhal syndrome. Lower levels indicate an atypical picture of polycystic ovaries or low-cyst ovary degeneration. FSH level cannot be used for this diagnosis.

  20. Ovulation Prediction by using Urine LH Rapid Determination Combinedwith Cervical Mucus Score

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宇芬; 狄文; 桂彪; 张惠英; 金忆; 肖宇红; 丁青; 王寒正; 孙志达; 沈维雄

    1993-01-01

    Infertility may be induced by many causes. It is partly due to the inappropriate time of intercourse from ignorance of the date of ovulation by the infertile couples.Basal body temperature, cervical mucus, B-ultrasonography, blood LH ( luteinizing hormone ) and sex-steroid hormone assay are the common methods used for monitoring ovulation.

  1. A General Approach to L(h, k)-Label Interconnection Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiziana Calamoneri; Saverio Caminiti; Rossella Petreschi

    2008-01-01

    Given two non-negative integers h and k, an L(h, k)-labelin9 of a graph G = (V, E) is a function from the set V to a set of colors, such that adjacent nodes take colors at distance at least h, and nodes at distance 2 take colors at distanceat least k. The aim of the L(h, k)-labeling problem is to minimize the greatest used color. Since the decisional version of this problem is NP-complete, it is important to investigate particular classes of graphs for which the problem can be efficiently solved. It is well known that the most common interconnection topologies, such as Butterfly-like, Benes, CCC, Trivalent Cayley networks, are all characterized by a similar structure: they have nodes organized as a matrix and connections are divided into layers. So we naturally introduce a new class of graphs, called (l×n)-multistage graphs, containing the most common interconnection topologies, on which we study the L(h, k)-labeling. A general algorithm for L(h, k)-labeling these graphs is presented, and from this method an efficient L(2, 1)-labeling for Butterfly and CCC networks is derived. Finally we describe a possible generalization of our approach.

  2. LH receptor gene expression is essentially absent in breast tumor tissue: Implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Kuijper (Martijn); K. Ruigrok-Ritstier (Kirsten); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); D. Piersma (Djura); M.W.P. Bruysters (Martijn); P.M.J.J. Berns (Els); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently occurring malignancy in women. Early age at full term pregnancy has a protective effect against breast cancer. Evidence coming from a rat breast cancer model suggests a possible role for the pregnancy hormone hCG, a ligand of the LH recepto

  3. Single-molecule spectroscopy reveals photosynthetic LH2 complexes switch between emissive states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S; Wang, Quan; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Moerner, W E

    2013-07-01

    Photosynthetic organisms flourish under low light intensities by converting photoenergy to chemical energy with near unity quantum efficiency and under high light intensities by safely dissipating excess photoenergy and deleterious photoproducts. The molecular mechanisms balancing these two functions remain incompletely described. One critical barrier to characterizing the mechanisms responsible for these processes is that they occur within proteins whose excited-state properties vary drastically among individual proteins and even within a single protein over time. In ensemble measurements, these excited-state properties appear only as the average value. To overcome this averaging, we investigate the purple bacterial antenna protein light harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila at the single-protein level. We use a room-temperature, single-molecule technique, the anti-Brownian electrokinetic trap, to study LH2 in a solution-phase (nonperturbative) environment. By performing simultaneous measurements of fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and spectra of single LH2 complexes, we identify three distinct states and observe transitions occurring among them on a timescale of seconds. Our results reveal that LH2 complexes undergo photoactivated switching to a quenched state, likely by a conformational change, and thermally revert to the ground state. This is a previously unobserved, reversible quenching pathway, and is one mechanism through which photosynthetic organisms can adapt to changes in light intensities.

  4. Carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in LH2 complexes studied with 10-fs time resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polli, Dario; Cerullo, Giulio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; De Silvestri, Sandro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Cogdell, Richard J

    2006-04-01

    In this report, we present a study of carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer processes in two peripheral light-harvesting complexes (known as LH2) from purple bacteria. We use transient absorption spectroscopy with approximately 10 fs temporal resolution, which is necessary to observe the very fast energy relaxation processes. By comparing excited-state dynamics of the carotenoids in organic solvents and inside the LH2 complexes, it has been possible to directly evaluate their energy transfer efficiency to the bacteriochlorophylls. In the case of okenone in the LH2 complex from Chromatium purpuratum, we obtained an energy transfer efficiency of etaET2=63+/-2.5% from the optically active excited state (S2) and etaET1=61+/-2% from the optically dark state (S1); for rhodopin glucoside contained in the LH2 complex from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila these values become etaET2=49.5+/-3.5% and etaET1=5.1+/-1%. The measurements also enabled us to observe vibrational energy relaxation in the carotenoids' S1 state and real-time collective vibrational coherence initiated by the ultrashort pump pulses. Our results are important for understanding the dynamics of early events of photosynthesis and relating it to the structural arrangement of the chromophores.

  5. DIBROMOACETIC ACID ATTENUATES A DIMETHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF THE RAT LH SURGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    DIBROMOACETIC ACID ATTENUATES A DITHIOCARBAMATE-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF THE LH SURGE IN THE RAT. Jerome M. Goldman, Ashley S. Murr, Angela R. Buckelew, W. Keith McElroy and Janet M. Ferrell. Repro. Toxicol. Div., NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NCAt elevated concentrations, the ...

  6. De testosteron produktietest. Een specifieke in vitro biologische bepaling van luteiniserend hormoon (LH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel LA; Loeber JG

    1983-01-01

    Een in vitro biologische bepaling voor luteiniserend hormoon (LH), de testosteron produktietest (TPA) in muize Leydig cellen, werd opgezet. De meting van het geproduceerde testosteron vindt plaats met behulp van een radioimmunochemische methode. De dosis-werkingscurve geeft, indien de testosteron

  7. Increased basal and pulsatile secretion of FSH and LH in young men with 47,XXY or 46,XX karyotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Carlsen, E.;

    2008-01-01

    basal, pulsatile, and total LH and FSH secretion were associated with significantly more LH peaks per 24 h in comparison with healthy controls. Thus, our data indicate that in patients with Klinefelter syndrome and XX male karyotypes the entire hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis has undergone...

  8. Effect of Photo-Oxidation on Energy Transfer in Light Harvesting Complex (LH2) from Rhodobacter Sphaeroides 601

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kang-Jun; LIU Wei-Min; YAN Yong-Li; DONG Zhi-Wei; LIU Yuan; XU Chun-He; QIAN Shi-Xiong

    2006-01-01

    @@ We study the photo-oxidation of bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) in peripheral light harvesting complexes (LH2) from rhodobacter sphaeroides by using the steady absorption and the femtosecond pump-probe measurement, to realize the detailed dynamics of LH2 in the presence of photo-oxidation.

  9. A SELF-PRIMING EFFECT OF LHRH ON LH SECRETION IN DISPERSED ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS OF ADULT MALE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUZhi-Chao; GUOJing; GUOJian

    1989-01-01

    LHRH self-priming effect is simply defmed as an enhancement of LH response to LHRH, i. e., a second challenge with LHRH elicits more LH secretion as compared to the first challenge. The present study is to observe whether this phenomenon exists in perfused anterior pituitary (AP) cells of adult male rat. Dispersed AP cells of adult SD

  10. A STUDY ON SERUM FSH, LH AND PROLACTIN LEVELS AMONG INFERTILE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Bheem, Parmar Dinesh, Sharma Nc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Study of hormonal imbalance and its implications in female infertility are an interesting area that requires to be explored in recent time. Hormonal imbalance can associated with irregular menstrual cycle, Amenorrhea, obesity and infertility in women. Other medical conditions such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, Endometriosis, stress, sexually transmitted diseases and chromosomal anomalies may be responsible for infertility in females. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum levels of Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH, Luteinizing hormone (LH and Prolactin hormone in infertile women that were referred from different infertility clinics and centres. Materials and Methods: This study comprises total 176 female subjects with age ranging from 20 to 40 years and divided in two groups. The total number of 88 infertile women along with 88 fertile women as controls was included for the present study. Serum FSH, LH and Prolactin levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods. Results: The results showed maximum infertile women were found between the age group of 30-40 years. The Serum FSH, LH and Prolactin levels among infertile women was 8.77±4.65, 7.64±5.16 and 18.59±7.50 respectively. Whereas, levels of FSH, LH and Prolactin in fertile women showed that 6.71±4.12, 5.66±3.17 and 13.44±5.82 respectively. Conclusion: In this study, we found that the hormone levels have statistically significant with female infertility. The elevated levels of FSH, LH and Prolactin may be one of the important causes for infertility in women.

  11. The unexpected, long-lasting, UV rebrightening of the superluminous supernova ASASSN-15lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Rivera, D.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Chen, Ping; Dong, Subo; Prieto, J. L.; Shappee, B. J.; Jha, S. W.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Thompson, Todd. A.; Grupe, D.; Beacom, J. F.

    2017-04-01

    Given its peak luminosity and early-time spectra, ASASSN-15lh was classified as the most luminous supernova ever discovered. Here, we report a UV rebrightening of ASASSN-15lh observed with Swift during our follow-up campaign. The rebrightening began at t ≃ 90 d (observer frame) after the primary peak and was followed by a ∼120-d long plateau in the bolometric luminosity, before starting to fade again at t ≃ 210 d. ASASSN-15lh rebrightened in the Swift UV bands by ΔmUVW2 ≃ -1.75 mag, ΔmUVM2 ≃ -1.25 mag and ΔmUVW1 ≃ -0.8 mag, but did not rebrighten in the optical bands. Throughout its initial decline, subsequent rebrightening and renewed decline, the spectra did not show evidence of interactions between the ejecta and circumstellar medium such as narrow emission lines. There are hints of weak Hα emission at late-times, but Margutti et al. have shown that it is narrow line emission consistent with star formation in the host nucleus. By fitting a blackbody, we find that during the rebrightening, the effective photospheric temperature increased from TBB ≃ 11 000 K to TBB ≃ 18 000 K. Over the ∼ 550 d since its detection, ASASSN-15lh has radiated ∼1.7 -1.9 × 1052 erg. Although its physical nature remains uncertain, the evolution of ASASSN-15lh's photospheric radius, its radiated energy and the implied event rate, are all more similar to those of H-poor superluminous supernovae than to tidal disruption events.

  12. Superovulation of goats with purified pFSH supplemented with defined amounts of pLH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowshari, M A; Backers, J F; Holtz, W

    1995-03-01

    The superovulatory response of goats treated with purified pFSH supplemented with 30, 40 or 50% pLH was compared. Sixty-four Boer goat does were synchronized by progestagen-containing ear implant, randomly allotted to 3 groups and, beginning 2 d before implant removal, treated with purified pFSH supplemented with 30, 40 or 50% pLH. Each animal received 16 Armour Units of pFSH administered in 6 descending doses at 12-h intervals. Along with the last 2 injections, the does received 5 mg PGF(2alpha). Embryos were flushed either surgically or after slaughter on Day 5 or 6 after the last day of standing estrus. The percentage of animals responding to treatment was not different among groups treated with pFSH supplemented with 30, 40 or 50% pLH (76, 71 and 63%, respectively). The corresponding data for number of ovulations was 11.3 +/- 1.6, 16.3 +/- 1.8 and 16.4 +/- 2.6, for number of ova and embryos recovered 8.1 +/- 1.9, 12.0 +/- 1.5 and 13.5 +/- 2.9 and for number of transferable embryos 6.6 +/- 1.9, 9.1 +/- 1.5 and 7.1 +/- 2.1 (x +/- SEM). Results confirm the earlier finding of a good response of goats to pFSH preparations with a high FSH:LH ratio, and, although group differences were statistically nonsignificant (P > 0.05), they suggest that supplementation with approximately 40% pLH may be close to the optimum.

  13. The Unexpected, Long-Lasting, UV Rebrightening of the Super-Luminous Supernova ASASSN-15lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Rivera, D.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Chen, Ping; Dong, Subo; Prieto, J. L.; Shappee, B. J.; Jha, S. W.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Thompson, Todd. A.; Grupe, D.; Beacom, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Given its peak luminosity and early-time spectra, ASASSN-15lh was classified as the most luminous supernova (SN) ever discovered (Dong et al. 2016).. Here we report a UV rebrightening of ASASSN-15lh observed with Swift during our follow-up campaign. The rebrightening began at t ≃ 90 days (observer frame) after the primary peak and was followed by a ˜120-day long plateau in the bolometric luminosity, before starting to fade again at t ≃ 210 days. ASASSN-15lh rebrightened in the Swift UV bands by ΔmUVW2 ≃ -1.75 mag, ΔmUVM2 ≃ -1.25 mag, and ΔmUVW1 ≃ -0.8 mag, but did not rebrighten in the optical bands. Throughout its initial decline, subsequent rebrightening, and renewed decline, the spectra did not show evidence of interactions between the ejecta and circumstellar medium (CSM) such as narrow emission lines. There are hints of weak Hα emission at late-times, but Margutti et al. (2016) have shown that it is narrow line emission consistent with star formation in the host nucleus. By fitting a blackbody we find that during the rebrightening the effective photospheric temperature increased from TBB ≃ 11000 K to TBB ≃ 18000 K. Over the ˜ 550 days since its detection, ASASSN-15lh has radiated ˜1.7 - -1.9 × 1052 ergs. Although its physical nature remains uncertain, the evolution of ASASSN-15lh's photospheric radius, its radiated energy, and the implied event rate, are all more similar to those of H-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) than to tidal disruption events (TDEs).

  14. Breeding period-associated changes in semen quality, concentrations of LH, PRL, gonadal steroid and thyroid hormones in domestic goose ganders (Anser anser f. domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumułka, Małgorzata; Rozenboim, Israel

    2015-03-01

    In flocks of geese fertility decreases in the second half of the breeding season. The reasons for this reduction in reproduction ability are still unclear. This study measured changes in semen quality variables throughout the period of intensive breeding in relation to hormonal concentrations associated with the sexual activity of ganders. Semen was collected (2×/week) from 2-year-old ganders in the period February-June. Standard ejaculation parameters and spermatozoa (spz) membrane integrity after E/N and SYBR-14/PI staining were evaluated. The DNA Fragmentation Index was measured by flow cytometry and sperm quality factors (SQF). The plasma levels of T, E2, P4, LH, PRL, THs in relation to semen parameters were evaluated. In ejaculate collected at the onset of the second half of breeding (April - spring period), a reduction in sperm concentration and % of liveE/N and liveSYBR-14+/PI- spz was shown. At this time, decrease in concentrations of LH and T and increase in PRL were found as well as moderate changes in THs were observed. However, in May a second peak in T and sperm production occurred. The DFI-% was higher in the middle part of breeding. Gonadal steroids concentration were not good prognostic marker of the reproductive potential of ganders. We suggest that a marked decline in LH and T in the spring period indicated the onset of endocrine changes mediated by PRL and THs resulting in progressive regression of testis functions. The lowest SQF in the spring/summer period coincided with the highest PRL suggesting an anti-spermatogenic action of PRL in ganders.

  15. RIME proteomics of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive D’Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors play an important role in transcriptional regulation of diverse cellular processes and is also relevant in diseases such as cancer. In breast cancer, the nuclear receptors – estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR are classical markers of the disease and are used to classify breast cancer subtypes. Using a recently developed affinity purification MS technique (RIME [1], we investigate the protein interactors of ER and PR in breast cancer cell lines upon stimulation by the ligands – estrogen and progesterone. The data is deposited at proteomeXchange (PXD002104 and is part of a publication [2] that explains the link between the two nuclear receptors and potential consequences of this in breast cancer. In this manuscript, we describe the methodology used and provide details on experimental procedures, analysis methods and analysis of raw data. The purpose of this article is to enable reproducibility of the data and provide technical recommendations on performing RIME in hormonal contexts.

  16. Effect of exogenous LH pulses on the fate of the first dominant follicle in postpartum beef cows nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P; Crowe, M A; Boland, M P; Roche, J F

    2000-01-01

    Prolonged postpartum anoestrus in beef cows is due to failure of early dominant follicles to ovulate. It is hypothesized that this failure to ovulate is due to inadequate LH pulse frequency. The objective of this study was to determine whether administration of hourly LH pulses would cause the first dominant follicle to ovulate. In Expt 1, 16 cows received either saline (n = 8) or porcine LH (pLH; 50 micrograms h-1; n = 8) as hourly pulses for 3-5 days from the second day of dominance of the first dominant follicle (day 0). In Expt 2, 21 cows received either saline (n = 7), or 50 micrograms pLH (n = 7) or 100 micrograms pLH (n = 7) as hourly pulses for 3 days. Appropriate ovarian scanning and assays of blood samples were carried out. In Expt 1, the number of dominant follicles that underwent atresia was not affected by increasing the number of LH pulses, but the duration of dominance (days) of the first and second dominant follicles and maximum size (mm) of the second dominant follicle were increased (P pLH pulses (3.1 +/- 1.2 pg ml-1) compared with controls (1.2 +/- 0.2 pg ml-1). Four of eight treated cows had an anovulatory LH surge. The number of follicle waves to first ovulation was not different (P pLH treated cows (3.9 +/- 0.5). In Expt 2, four of seven cows given pulses of 100 micrograms pLH h-1 ovulated the first dominant follicle, and the interval from calving to first ovulation was decreased (P pLH h-1 or control treatments. In conclusion, hourly pulses of pLH from day 1 after dominance of the first dominant follicle in postpartum beef cows can either prolong dominance or induce it to ovulate. This finding supports the hypothesis that LH pulse frequency is a key determinant of the fate of the dominant follicle in the early postpartum period.

  17. Progesterone inhibits glucocorticoid-dependent aromatase induction in human adipose fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Renner, C; Löffler, G

    1998-09-01

    In fibroblasts derived from human adipose tissue, aromatase induction is observed after exposure to 1 microM cortisol in the presence of serum or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Progesterone suppresses this induction in a dose-dependent manner, 10 microM resulting in complete inhibition. A reduced cortisol concentration (0.1 microM) concomitantly reduces the progesterone concentration required for effective inhibition (10-100 nM). This effect of progesterone is specific, as neither the release of cellular enzymes nor aromatase induction by dibutyryl-cAMP, which acts independently from cortisol, are affected. However, the inhibitory effect of progesterone requires its presence throughout the induction period. Kinetic studies in intact cells reveal a reduced number of aromatase active sites upon progesterone treatment, whereas progesterone at near-physiological concentration (100 nM) does not inhibit aromatase activity in isolated microsomes. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis shows reduced amounts of aromatase mRNA in progesterone-treated cells, indicating specific inhibition of the glucocorticoid-dependent pathway of aromatase induction. The inhibitory effect of progesterone is not blocked by the anti-progestin ZK114043, excluding action via progesterone receptors and indicating competition for the glucocorticoid receptor. Progesterone must be considered a potential physiological inhibitor of glucocorticoid-dependent aromatase induction in adipose tissue. It is proposed that it is a suppressor of aromatase induction in adipose tissue in premenopausal women.

  18. Combined use of Ovsynch and progesterone supplementation after artificial insemination in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forro, A; Tsousis, G; Beindorff, N; Sharifi, R; Jäkel, L; Bollwein, H

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different Ovsynch protocols combined with progesterone (P4) supplementation after artificial insemination (AI) of Holstein-Friesian cows. Cows were randomly synchronized at 52 to 63 d after parturition with either the classical Ovsynch protocol (GnRH on d 0, PGF(2α) on d 7, GnRH 48 h after PGF(2α)) or with a modified Ovsynch protocol (second GnRH 60 h after PGF(2α)). On d 4 after timed AI (TAI), the cows were blocked by parity and randomly divided into 2 groups. Half of the cows were supplemented with P4 (P4+) by applying a P4-releasing intravaginal device intravaginally for 14 d, whereas the other half remained untreated (P4-). In 50% of randomly chosen cows, plasma P4 was measured on d 4, 5, and 18 after TAI. Sonographic pregnancy diagnosis was performed on d 33 after TAI in a total of 398 cows. Health status and body condition score (BCS) of all cows were examined at several stages of the study. Cows in the modified Ovsynch protocol tended to have higher P4 values on d 4 after TAI than cows in the classical Ovsynch protocol (2.1 ± 0.2 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL), but no difference in pregnancy per AI (P/AI) was observed between the 2 Ovsynch protocols (38.4% vs. 44.1%). Independent of the Ovsynch protocols, P4+ cows tended to have higher P/AI compared with P4- cows (44.4% vs. 38.1%). The retention of fetal membranes and BCS at the time of insemination affected P/AI. Moreover, an interaction between BCS at the time of insemination and P4 supplementation was apparent; that is, the difference in P/AI between P4+ and P4- cows was significant in cows with BCS ≥3.25. Progesterone-supplemented cows showed higher P4 values on d 5 (4.9 ± 0.2 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2) and d 18 (7.8 ± 0.2 vs. 6.3 ± 0.2) after TAI, respectively. In conclusion, the elongation of the time interval between the injections of PGF(2α) and the second GnRH from 48 to 60 h had no effect on P/AI. Progesterone supplementation after insemination

  19. Improving the developability profile of pyrrolidine progesterone receptor partial agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallander, Lara S.; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Frazee, James S.; Stoy, Patrick; Johnson, Latisha; Lu, Qing; Hammond, Marlys; Barton, Linda S.; Patterson, Jaclyn R.; Azzarano, Leonard M.; Nagilla, Rakesh; Madauss, Kevin P.; Williams, Shawn P.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Xu, Xiaoping; Laping, Nicholas J.; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Scott K. (GSKPA)

    2010-09-17

    The previously reported pyrrolidine class of progesterone receptor partial agonists demonstrated excellent potency but suffered from serious liabilities including hERG blockade and high volume of distribution in the rat. The basic pyrrolidine amine was intentionally converted to a sulfonamide, carbamate, or amide to address these liabilities. The evaluation of the degree of partial agonism for these non-basic pyrrolidine derivatives and demonstration of their efficacy in an in vivo model of endometriosis is disclosed herein.

  20. Tracking Progesterone Receptor-Mediated Actions in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian steroid hormones contribute to breast cancer initiation and progression primarily through the actions of their nuclear transcription factors, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and progesterone receptors (PRs). These receptors are important drivers of the luminal A and B subtypes of breast cancer, where estrogen-blocking drugs have been effective endocrine therapies for patients with these tumors. However, many patients do not respond, or become resistant to treatment. When endocrine t...

  1. Breast Cancer Lymphatic Dissemination-Influence of Estrogen and Progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    progesterone is diminished. Though progestin treatment led to a decrease in the percent of tumors that generated LN metastases, it is obvious that in... progestin dose and duration of treatment effect metastases is warranted. These studies complete task 2. Task 3. The third task in my approved...Results found that there are differences in estrogen responsiveness in breast tumors compared to the matched LN metastases, suggesting that aromatase

  2. The role of estrogen and progesterone in depression after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, Claudia M; Muzik, Maria; Dervic, Kanita; Mossaheb, Nilufar; Benesch, Thomas; Ulm, Barbara; Zeller, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Previous reports suggest that massive hormonal changes that accompany the peripartum period may trigger perinatal depression. We investigated the relationship between magnitude of change and total level of estrogen and progesterone and grade of peripartal depression and depressive symptoms. One hundred and ninety two women were assessed in the 38th week of pregnancy (SDS scores), peripartum period (DSM-III-R diagnosis (n=105); SDS scores) and 6 months postpartum (EPDS; n=89) regarding diagnosis of depression, self-ratings of depressive symptoms and levels of estrogen and progesterone. The comparison of three diagnostic groups (lifetime major depressive disorder MDD (N=7), MDD at birth (N=12), healthy controls (N=70) showed that there were no differences in the magnitude of decline of estrogen and progesterone from day 1 to day 3 after birth . With respect to total levels of estrogen and progesterone, estrogen on day 3 was significantly higher [F(2,92)=6.6, p<0.05] in women with current MDD than in those with lifetime MDD or normal controls. Depression scores were significantly higher at the end of pregnancy (12.6% self-identified as depressed) than in postpartum period (5.8% day 3 p<.0004; 9.2% day 5 p<.008), whereas 13.3% of women received a DSM-III -R diagnosis for MDD 5 days postpartum. The results were in contrast to the current hypotheses of estrogen withdrawal or hypogonadal levels as an etiological factor for peripartum depression. But a limitation of the actual study is the low number of subjects with depression; therefore the current non-significant findings should be interpreted with great caution.

  3. Progesterone and the Latency Period: Threatened Preterm Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Borna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm labor is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality and results in increased obstetric and pediatric care costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of vaginal progesterone for maintenance therapy following treatment of threatened preterm labor for preventing preterm birth.Methods: The study included 70 singleton pregnant women with preterm labor with intact membranes. Patients were randomized to receive either maintenance vaginal progesterone therapy (n=37 administered (400 mg daily or no treatment (controls, n=33 after discontinuation of acute intravenous tocolysis.Results: The two groups were similar with at respect to maternal age, race, parity, gestational age at admission, bishop score, and preterm delivery risk factors .Compared to the control group, the mean ±SD time gained from initiation of maintenance therapy to delivery (36/1117/9 versus 24/5227/2 (meanSD days, p=0.037 and the gestational age at delivery (36.071.56 vs. 34.51.3 weeks, p=0.041 were higher in the vaginal progesterone maintenance therapy group. No significant differences were found with recurrent preterm labor 13 (35.1% versus 19 (57.6%, p=0.092. Respiratory distress syndrome 4 (10.8% versus 12 (36.4% p=0.021, Low birth weight10 (27% versus, 17 (51.5% p=0.04, birth weight (3101.54±587.9gr versus r 2609.39±662.9gr, p=0.002 were significantly different between the two groups.Conclusion: The gestational age and time gained from initiation of maintenance therapy to delivery were longer in women receiving vaginal maintenance tocolysis with progesterone and improve perinatal outcomes. However, maintenance therapy did not decrease the recurrence of preterm labor episodes.

  4. TReP-132 Is a Novel Progesterone Receptor Coactivator Required for the Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cell Growth and Enhancement of Differentiation by Progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizard, Florence; Robillard, Romain; Gross, Barbara; Barbier, Olivier; Révillion, Françoise; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Torpier, Gérard; Hum, Dean W.; Staels, Bart

    2006-01-01

    The sex steroid progesterone is essential for the proliferation and differentiation of the mammary gland epithelium during pregnancy. In relation to this, in vitro studies using breast carcinoma T47D cells have demonstrated a biphasic progesterone response, consisting of an initial proliferative burst followed by a sustained growth arrest. However, the transcriptional factors acting with the progesterone receptor (PR) to mediate the progesterone effects on mammary cell growth and differentiation remain to be determined. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the transcriptional regulating protein of 132 kDa (TReP-132), initially identified as a regulator of steroidogenesis, is also a cell growth suppressor. Similar to progesterone-bound PR, TReP-132 acts by inducing the gene expression of the G1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21WAF1/Cip1 (p21) and p27Kip1 (p27). The putative interaction between TReP-132 and progesterone pathways in mammary cells was therefore analyzed in the present study. Our results show that TReP-132 interacts in vitro and in T47D cells with progesterone-activated PR. TReP-132 synergizes with progesterone-bound PR to trans activate the p21 and p27 gene promoters at proximal Sp1-binding sites. Moreover, TReP-132 overexpression and knockdown, respectively, increased or prevented the induction of p21 and p27 gene expression by progesterone. As a consequence, TReP-132 knockdown also resulted in the loss of the inhibitory effects of progesterone on pRB phosphorylation, G1/S cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Furthermore, the knockdown of TReP-132 expression also prevented the induction of both early and terminal markers of breast cell differentiation which had been previously identified as progesterone target genes. As well, the progesterone-induced accumulation of lipid vacuoles was inhibited in the TReP-132-depleted cells. Finally, TReP-132 gene expression levels increased following progesterone treatment, indicating the

  5. Modulation of autoimmune rheumatic diseases by oestrogen and progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Grant C; Choubey, Divaker

    2014-12-01

    Sexual dimorphism is evident in the risk and expression of several human autoimmune diseases. Differences in disease manifestations observed between sexes are likely to involve immunomodulation by sex steroids, nonhormonal factors encoded by genes on the X and Y chromosomes, and immunological phenomena unique to pregnancy. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and perhaps other autoantibody-mediated diseases, oestrogen seems to increase the risk of disease in genetically predisposed women by targeting key immune pathways, including the type 1 interferon (IFN) response, differentiation of CD4(+) T helper cells and survival of autoreactive B cells. By contrast, progesterone seems to reduce the risk of SLE by counteracting the effects of oestrogen on some of these same pathways, which suggests that the balance between oestrogen and progesterone can determine disease expression. In this Review we focus on the roles of the sex steroid hormones oestrogen and progesterone in modulating the risk and expression of SLE and rheumatoid arthritis. Intensive research in this area promises to identify novel therapeutic strategies and improve understanding of the immunological requirements and complications of pregnancy, and is expected to define the mechanisms behind sexual dimorphism in autoimmunity, immunity and other aspects of human health--a newly announced directive of the NIH.

  6. Regulation of progesterone synthesis and action in bovine corpus luteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekawiecki, R; Kowalik, M K; Slonina, D; Kotwica, J

    2008-12-01

    The main function of the corpus luteum (CL) is to synthesize and secrete progesterone (P4), which regulates the duration of the estrous cycle and maintains of pregnancy in many species. Both synthesis and action of this hormone is regulated by many luteotropic and luteolytic factors. Progesterone also affects its own synthesis by regulation of the activity and genes expression of crucial enzymes which control steroidogenesis. The physiological effect of P4 on luteal cells is mediated through the nuclear receptor which occurs in two specific A and B receptor isoforms and also by non-genomic pathways. The nature of non-genomic action of P4 has not been fully understood. It is possible that P4 can temporarily impair binding of oxytocin to its receptor or it can bind one of the three potential membrane receptors. It is assumed that one of these proteins, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 may be involved in regulation of CL function and it can participate in protecting bovine CL against luteolysis. This review summarize the data involving the molecular regulation of P4 synthesis, its intracellular and membrane receptor and the genomic and non-genomic action in the bovine CL.

  7. Bioequivalence of Progesterone Sustained Release Suppository in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Lihong; HUANG Qun; WU Minghui; HOU Shuxian; DAI Zongshun

    2005-01-01

    To study the bioequivalence of a kind of progesterone sustained release suppository, a randomized cross-over study was conducted in 12 rabbits. A single rectal dose of 2.75 mg/kg progesterone sustained released suppository (tested formulation, T) and progesterone suppository(reference formulation, R) was administered; a multiple dose of 2.75 mg/kg was given up to seven times with an interval of 8 h. Concentrations in serum were determined by a competitive enzyme immunoassay. The main parameters of T were: for single and multiple doses, Cmax was 48.8±11.8ng/mL and 43.5±9.4 ng/mL, Tmax was 0.5±0.3 h and 0.4±0.3 h, AUC(0-24h) was 362.4±143 ng·h·mL-1 and 310.6±70.3ng ·h·mL-1,respectively.The relative bioavailability of T to R were ( 104.2 ±13.4) % and ( 111.4 ± 19. 1 ) %, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the two formulations were bioequivalent and T had sustained released feature.

  8. Medroxyprogesterone acetate or long-acting progesterone in the biostimulation of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C.O. Magalhães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of prepubertal ewe lambs to exogenous administration of either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP or long-acting progesterone (LAP together with biostimulation. Two Pool Dorset adult males and 75 mixed-breed prepubertal ewe lambs (average of 179 days-old and 30.0kg were used. The females were randomly assigned to three different groups. In the first group the females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for 12 days and were then biostimulated for eight weeks. In the second group the females were submitted to a single injection of LAP (225 mg and then to biostimulation for eight weeks. In the last group, the females were only submitted to biostimulation for eight weeks. Animals were considered cyclic when plasma progesterone (P4 concentration exceeded 1.0 ng/mL in at least one of two consecutive blood samples taken within a 7-day interval in three distinct experimental moments. After treatments 93.3% of the females disregarding their group started their cyclicity and most of them (92.0%, continued to be cyclic after 63 days of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation under both male and female effect. We conclude that prepubertal ewe lambs when submitted to protocols of either MAP or LAP followed by biostimulation result in puberty at the 7 month of age. It can be deducted that some ewe lambs submitted to the administration of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation promoted a multiplier effect upon the other young females that were then stimulated to start cyclicity.

  9. Progesterone and gravidity differentially regulate expression of extracellular matrix components in the pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynlova, Oksana; Mitchell, Jennifer A; Tsampalieros, Anne; Langille, B Lowell; Lye, Stephen J

    2004-04-01

    Myometrial growth and remodeling during pregnancy depends on increased synthesis of interstitial matrix proteins. We hypothesize that the presence of mechanical tension in a specific hormonal environment regulates the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in the uterus. Myometrial tissue was collected from pregnant rats on Gestational Days 0, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22, 23 (labor), and 1 day postpartum and ECM expression was analyzed by Northern blotting. Expression of fibronectin, laminin beta2, and collagen IV mRNA was low during early gestation but increased dramatically on Day 23 during labor. Expression of fibrillar collagens (type I and III) peaked Day 19 and decreased near term. In contrast, elastin mRNA remained elevated from midgestation onward. Injection of progesterone (P4) on Days 20-23 (to maintain elevated plasma P4 levels) delayed the onset of labor, caused dramatic reductions in the levels of fibronectin and laminin mRNA, and prevented the fall of collagen III mRNA levels on Day 23. Treatment of pregnant rats with the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 on Day 19 induced preterm labor on Day 20 and a premature increase in mRNA levels of collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin. Analysis of the uterine tissue from unilaterally pregnant rats revealed that most of the changes in ECM gene expression occurred specifically in the gravid horn. Our results show a decrease in expression of fibrillar collagens and a coordinated temporal increase in expression of components of the basement membrane near term associated with decreased P4 and increased mechanical tension. These ECM changes contribute to myometrial growth and remodeling during late pregnancy and the preparation for the synchronized contractions of labor.

  10. In vitro effect of leptin on anterior pituitary cells LH secretory activity during early pregnancy in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siawrys, G; Gajewska, A

    2017-03-28

    Leptin modulates reproductive activity but its potential influence on LH secretion from anterior pituitary (AP) cells during implantation period in pigs (days 14-16 of pregnancy) remained unexplored. This study focused on determination whether leptin affects basal and GnRH-induced LH secretion and intracellular accumulation and whether leptin receptor (OB-Rb) mRNA is expressed in the AP gland during implantation in pigs. Four individual AP glands were developed into separate primary cultures. 2×105 cells/ml were preincubated (72 h) and next, for 3.5 h, experimentally treated with GnRH (100 ng/ml), leptin (10-11, 10-9, 10-7, 10-6 M) alone, or given in respective combinations with GnRH. In the AP gland, OB-Rb mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR method. Leptin activated LH secretion and its concentration-dependent effect was observed as stimulation shown in a full range tested (culture 1) and exhibited only at 10-6 M (culture 2). A pooled data analysis revealed that basal LH secretion increased at 10-9, 10-7 and 10-6 M, but GnRH-induced LH release decreased at 10-6 M. Leptin down-regulated GnRH-induced LH secretion in all cultures, but only culture 3 exhibited sensitivity for all concentrations tested. Basal LH accumulation was activated in culture 1 (at 10-11 M) and inhibited in culture 4 (at 10-9 M). In the presence of GnRH leptin up-regulated LH accumulation with individual culture leptin-sensitivity (culture 1-3), while down-regulated LH accumulation in culture 4. Obtained data indicate that OB-Rb mRNA is expressed in the AP gland and leptin alone and in combination with GnRH specifically modulates LH activity during early pregnancy in pigs.

  11. Progesterone-induced changes in the phosphoryl potential during the meiotic divisions in amphibian oocytes: Role of Na/K-ATPase

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    Morrill Gene A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progesterone triggers resumption of the first meiotic division in the Rana pipiens oocyte by binding to the N-terminal external loop of the catalytic subunit of Na/K-ATPase, releasing a cascade of lipid second messengers. This is followed by internalization of specific membrane proteins, plasma membrane depolarization and nuclear membrane breakdown, culminating in arrest at second metaphase. Results Progesterone initiates an increase in phosphoryl potential during the first meiotic division, resulting in the accumulation of high energy protein phosphate by second metaphase arrest. 31P-NMR, with saturation transfer, demonstrates that the phosphocreatine level rises ~2 fold and that the "pseudo" first order rate constant for the creatine kinase reaction falls to ~20% of the control by the onset of nuclear membrane breakdown. 32PO4 pulse-labeling reveals a net increase in phosphorylation of yolk protein phosvitin during this period. The increased yolk protein phosphorylation coincides with internalization of membrane Na/K-ATPase and membrane depolarizatio Conclusions These results indicate that progesterone binding to the catalytic subunit of the Na-pump diverts ATP from cation regulation at the plasma membrane to storage of high energy phosphate in yolk protein. Phosvitin serves as a major energy source during fertilization and early cleavage stages and is also a storage site for cations (e.g. Na+, K+, Ca2+, Fe2+/3+ essential for embryonic development.

  12. Impact of resonant magnetic perturbations on zonal modes, drift-wave turbulence and the L-H transition threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, M.; Diamond, P. H.; Xu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on turbulence, flows and confinement in the framework of resistive drift-wave turbulence. This work was motivated, in parts, by experiments reported at the IAEA 2010 conference (Xu et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 062030) which showed a decrease of long-range correlations during the application of RMPs. We derive and apply a zero-dimensional predator-prey model coupling the drift-wave-zonal-mode system (Leconte and Diamond 2012 Phys. Plasmas 19 055903) to the evolution of mean quantities. This model has both density-gradient drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. This model allows a description of the full L-H transition evolution with RMPs, including the mean sheared flow evolution. The key results are the following: (i) the L-I and I-H power thresholds both increase with RMP amplitude |\\tilde b_x| , the relative increase of the L-I threshold scales as \\Delta P_LI \\propto |\\tilde b_x|^2 \

  13. Impact of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations on Zonal Modes, Drift-Wave Turbulence and the L-H Transition Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Leconte, M; Xu, Y

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) on turbulence, flows and confinement in the framework of resistive drift-wave turbulence. This work was motivated, in parts, by experiments reported at the IAEA 2010 conference [Y. Xu {\\it et al}, Nucl. Fusion \\textbf{51}, 062030] which showed a decrease of long-range correlations during the application of RMPs. We derive and apply a zero-dimensional predator-prey model coupling the Drift-Wave Zonal Mode system [M. Leconte and P.H. Diamond, Phys. Plasmas \\textbf{19}, 055903] to the evolution of mean quantities. This model has both density gradient drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. This model allows a description of the full L-H transition evolution with RMPs, including the mean sheared flow evolution. The key results are: i) The L-I and I-H power thresholds \\emph{both} increase with RMP amplitude $|\\bx|$, the relative increase of the L-I threshold scales as $\\D...

  14. Progesterone is essential for protecting against LPS-induced pregnancy loss. LIF as a potential mediator of the anti-inflammatory effect of progesterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Aisemberg

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration to mice on day 7 of gestation led to 100% embryonic resorption after 24 h. In this model, nitric oxide is fundamental for the resorption process. Progesterone may be responsible, at least in part, for a Th2 switch in the feto-maternal interface, inducing active immune tolerance against fetal antigens. Th2 cells promote the development of T cells, producing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, which seems to be important due to its immunomodulatory action during early pregnancy. Our aim was to evaluate the involvement of progesterone in the mechanism of LPS-induced embryonic resorption, and whether LIF can mediate hormonal action. Using in vivo and in vitro models, we provide evidence that circulating progesterone is an important component of the process by which infection causes embryonic resorption in mice. Also, LIF seems to be a mediator of the progesterone effect under inflammatory conditions. We found that serum progesterone fell to very low levels after 24 h of LPS exposure. Moreover, progesterone supplementation prevented embryonic resorption and LPS-induced increase of uterine nitric oxide levels in vivo. Results show that LPS diminished the expression of the nuclear progesterone receptor in the uterus after 6 and 12 h of treatment. We investigated the expression of LIF in uterine tissue from pregnant mice and found that progesterone up-regulates LIF mRNA expression in vitro. We observed that LIF was able to modulate the levels of nitric oxide induced by LPS in vitro, suggesting that it could be a potential mediator of the inflammatory action of progesterone. Our observations support the view that progesterone plays a critical role in a successful pregnancy as an anti-inflammatory agent, and that it could have possible therapeutic applications in the prevention of early reproductive failure associated with inflammatory disorders.

  15. The celiac ganglion modulates LH-induced inhibition of androstenedione release in late pregnant rat ovaries

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    Rastrilla Ana M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the control of ovarian production of steroid hormones is mainly of endocrine nature, there is increasing evidence that the nervous system also influences ovarian steroidogenic output. The purpose of this work was to study whether the celiac ganglion modulates, via the superior ovarian nerve, the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the rat ovary. Using mid- and late-pregnant rats, we set up to study: 1 the influence of the noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion on the ovarian production of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione; 2 the modulatory effect of noradrenaline at the celiac ganglion on the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the ovary; and 3 the involvement of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters released in the ovary upon the combination of noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion and LH treatment of the ovary. Methods The ex vivo celiac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve-ovary integrated system was used. This model allows studying in vitro how direct neural connections from the celiac ganglion regulate ovarian steroidogenic output. The system was incubated in buffer solution with the ganglion and the ovary located in different compartments and linked by the superior ovarian nerve. Three experiments were designed with the addition of: 1 noradrenaline in the ganglion compartment; 2 LH in the ovarian compartment; and 3 noradrenaline and LH in the ganglion and ovarian compartments, respectively. Rats of 15, 19, 20 and 21 days of pregnancy were used, and, as an end point, the concentration of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione was measured in the ovarian compartment by RIA at various times of incubation. For some of the experimental paradigms the concentration of various catecholamines (dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline was also measured in the ovarian compartment by HPLC. Results The most relevant result concerning the action of noradrenaline in the celiac ganglion

  16. Effect of Monochromatic Light on Expression of Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) in Ovarian Follicles of Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingbin; Li, Diyan; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Xiao, Qihai; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Zhu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Artificial illumination is widely used in modern poultry houses and different wavelengths of light affect poultry production and behaviour. In this study, we measure mRNA and protein abundance of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) in order to investigate the effect of monochromatic light on egg production traits and gonadal hormone function in chicken ovarian follicles. Five hundred and fifty-two 19-wk-old laying hens were exposed to three monochromatic lights: red (RL; 660 nm), green (GL; 560 nm), blue (BL; 480 nm) and control cool white (400-760 nm) light with an LED (light-emitting diode). There were 4 identical light-controlled rooms (n = 138) each containing 3 replicate pens (46 birds per pen). Water was supplied ad libitum and daily rations were determined according to the nutrient suggestions for poultry. Results showed that under BL conditions there was an increase in the total number of eggs at 300 days of age and egg-laying rate during the peak laying period. The BL and GL extended the duration of the peak laying period. Plasma melatonin was lowest in birds reared under BL. Plasma estradiol was elevated in the GL-exposed laying hens, and GL and BL increased progesterone at 28 wk of age. In the granulosa layers of the fifth largest preovulatory follicle (F5), the third largest preovulatory follicle (F3) and the largest preovulatory follicle (F1), ERα mRNA was increased by BL and GL. Treatment with BL increased ERβ mRNA in granulosa layers of F5, F3 and F1, while GL increased ERβ mRNA in F5 and F3. There was a corresponding increase in abundance of the proteins in the granulosa layers of F5, with an increase in PR-B, generated via an alternative splice site, relative to PR-A. Treatment with BL also increased expression of PR mRNA in all of the granulosa layers of follicles, while treatment with GL increased expression of PR mRNA in granulosa layers of SYF(small yellow follicle), F5 and F1. These results indicate that blue and green

  17. Effect of Monochromatic Light on Expression of Estrogen Receptor (ER and Progesterone Receptor (PR in Ovarian Follicles of Chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingbin Liu

    Full Text Available Artificial illumination is widely used in modern poultry houses and different wavelengths of light affect poultry production and behaviour. In this study, we measure mRNA and protein abundance of estrogen receptors (ERs and progesterone receptors (PRs in order to investigate the effect of monochromatic light on egg production traits and gonadal hormone function in chicken ovarian follicles. Five hundred and fifty-two 19-wk-old laying hens were exposed to three monochromatic lights: red (RL; 660 nm, green (GL; 560 nm, blue (BL; 480 nm and control cool white (400-760 nm light with an LED (light-emitting diode. There were 4 identical light-controlled rooms (n = 138 each containing 3 replicate pens (46 birds per pen. Water was supplied ad libitum and daily rations were determined according to the nutrient suggestions for poultry. Results showed that under BL conditions there was an increase in the total number of eggs at 300 days of age and egg-laying rate during the peak laying period. The BL and GL extended the duration of the peak laying period. Plasma melatonin was lowest in birds reared under BL. Plasma estradiol was elevated in the GL-exposed laying hens, and GL and BL increased progesterone at 28 wk of age. In the granulosa layers of the fifth largest preovulatory follicle (F5, the third largest preovulatory follicle (F3 and the largest preovulatory follicle (F1, ERα mRNA was increased by BL and GL. Treatment with BL increased ERβ mRNA in granulosa layers of F5, F3 and F1, while GL increased ERβ mRNA in F5 and F3. There was a corresponding increase in abundance of the proteins in the granulosa layers of F5, with an increase in PR-B, generated via an alternative splice site, relative to PR-A. Treatment with BL also increased expression of PR mRNA in all of the granulosa layers of follicles, while treatment with GL increased expression of PR mRNA in granulosa layers of SYF(small yellow follicle, F5 and F1. These results indicate that blue

  18. Membrane-initiated actions of estradiol (E2 in the regulation of LH secretion in ovariectomized (OVX ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakley Amy E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We demonstrated that E2 conjugated to BSA (E2BSA induces a rapid membrane-initiated inhibition of LH secretion followed hours later by a slight increase in LH secretion. Whether these actions of E2BSA are restricted to the pituitary gland and whether the membrane-initiated pathway of E2BSA contributes to the up-regulation of the number of GnRH receptors during the positive feedback effect of E2 were evaluated here. We have shown that the suppression of LH secretion induced by E2 and E2BSA is the result of a decreased responsiveness of the pituitary gland to GnRH. In this study we further tested the ability of E2BSA to decrease the responsiveness of the pituitary gland to GnRH under the paradigm of the preovulatory surge of LH induced by E2. Methods For the first experiment GnRH and LH secretions were determined in samples of pituitary portal and jugular blood, respectively, in ewes treated with 12 mg E2BSA. In the second experiment, the number of GnRH receptors was quantified in ewes 12 h after administration of 25 micrograms E2 (the expected time for the increase in the number of GnRH receptors and the positive feedback effect of E2 in LH secretion or 12 mg E2BSA. In the third experiment, the preovulatory-like surge of LH was characterized in ewes injected with 25 micrograms E2 alone or followed 8 h later (before the beginning of the LH surge with 60 mg E2BSA. Results a the decrease in LH secretion induced by E2BSA was not accompanied by changes in the pulsatile pattern of GnRH, b E2BSA increased the number of GnRH receptors, and c the presence of E2BSA in E2-treated ewes delayed the onset, reduced the length, and decreased the amount of LH released during the preovulatory surge of LH. Conclusions a the rapid suppression of LH secretion induced by E2BSA is mediated only via a direct action on the pituitary gland, b E2 acting via a membrane-initiated pathway contributes to increase the number of GnRH receptors and, c

  19. Progesterone and estrogen influence postexercise leukocyte infiltration in overiectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sobia; Thomas, Amy; Bunyan, Kareem; Tiidus, Peter M

    2008-12-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the effects of progesterone alone, or in combination with estrogen, on leukocyte infiltration in skeletal muscle following exercise. To investigate the effects of these female sex hormones, ovariectomized female rats were divided into 4 exercise and 4 control groups: sham, estrogen, progesterone, and a combination of estrogen plus progesterone. Following 8 days of hormone replacement and 24 h postexercise, soleus (red) and superficial (white) vastus muscles were removed and immunostained for His48 (neutrophil)- and ED1 (macrophage)-positive cells. The postexercise increase in leukocyte infiltration was completely (p estrogen supplementation alone in both muscle types, relative to sham. Progesterone treatment alone also resulted in a smaller (20%-30%) but significant (p estrogen and progesterone treatment did not significantly alter the attenuation seen with estrogen supplementation alone. Hence, progesterone can independently attenuate postexercise muscle leukocyte infiltration, albeit to a lesser degree than estrogen, and it will not negate or accentuate the effect of estrogen.

  20. Progesterone Induces Scolex Evagination of the Human Parasite Taenia solium: Evolutionary Implications to the Host-Parasite Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Hernández-Hernández, Olivia Tania; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; García-Varela, Martín; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a health problem in underdeveloped and developed countries. Sex hormones are involved in cysticercosis prevalence in female and male pigs. Here, we evaluated the effects of progesterone and its antagonist RU486 on scolex evagination, which is the initial step in the development of the adult worm. Interestingly, progesterone increased T. solium scolex evagination and worm growth, in a concentration-independent pattern. Progesterone effects could be mediated by a novel T. solium progesterone receptor (TsPR), since RU486 inhibits both scolex evagination and worm development induced by progesterone. Using RT-PCR and western blot, sequences related to progesterone receptor were detected in the parasite. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that TsPR is highly related to fish and amphibian progesterone receptors, whereas it has a distant relation with birds and mammals. Conclusively, progesterone directly acts upon T. solium cysticerci, possibly through its binding to a progesterone receptor synthesized by the parasite. PMID:20037735

  1. Progesterone Induces Scolex Evagination of the Human Parasite Taenia solium: Evolutionary Implications to the Host-Parasite Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Escobedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a health problem in underdeveloped and developed countries. Sex hormones are involved in cysticercosis prevalence in female and male pigs. Here, we evaluated the effects of progesterone and its antagonist RU486 on scolex evagination, which is the initial step in the development of the adult worm. Interestingly, progesterone increased T. solium scolex evagination and worm growth, in a concentration-independent pattern. Progesterone effects could be mediated by a novel T. solium progesterone receptor (TsPR, since RU486 inhibits both scolex evagination and worm development induced by progesterone. Using RT-PCR and western blot, sequences related to progesterone receptor were detected in the parasite. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that TsPR is highly related to fish and amphibian progesterone receptors, whereas it has a distant relation with birds and mammals. Conclusively, progesterone directly acts upon T. solium cysticerci, possibly through its binding to a progesterone receptor synthesized by the parasite.

  2. Effect of progesterone supplementation in the first week post conception on embryo survival in beef heifers

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Progesterone is essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of elevating progesterone during the different physiological stages of early embryo development on embryo survival. Estrus was synchronized in cross-bred beef heifers (n = 197, ∼2-years old) and they were inseminated 12–18 h after estrus onset (=Day 0). Inseminated heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) Control, n = 69; (2) progesterone s...

  3. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT (MSG PADA TIKUS JANTAN (Rattus Norvegicus TERHADAP FSH DAN LH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Edward

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKemajuan teknologi informasi membawa dampak terhadap perubahan gaya hidup masyarakat, termasuk perubahan pola konsumsi makanan yang lebih banyak mengkonsumsi jenis makanan cepat saji, makanan kemasan dan makanan awetan yang belakangan ini semakin banyak dijual dipasar tradisional dan swalayan. Penggunaan bahan tambahan makanan sering dijumpai, salah satunya adalah bahan penyedap yang banyak sekali digunakan seperti senyawa L-asam glutamat yang digunakan dalam bentuk garam yaitu monosodium glutamat (MSG. Berbagai merk dagang MSG telah dikenal dimasyarakat secara luas seperti ajinomoto, vetsin, micin, sasa, miwon dan sebagainya.MSG adalah garam monosodium dengan asam glutamat yang sering digunakan sebagai bahan penyedap masakan untuk merangsang selera makan. Pemberian MSG mengakibatkan gangguan hormonal pada hewan coba, ion glutamat dalam sirkulasi portal akan mempengaruhi hipotalamus dalam memproduksi GnRH yang selanjutnya akan mengganggu hipofise anterior dalam memproduksi FSH dan LH. Fungsi FSH adalah untuk bekerja pada tubulus seminiferus terutama pada sel sertoli untuk meningkatkan spermatogenesis, sedangkan LH berfungsi pada sel Leydig untuk mengatur sekresi testosteron.Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimen dengan rancangan post only group design. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Biologi dan laboratorium Biokimia Fakultas Kedokteran Unand Padang dari tanggal 20 Desember 2009 sampai 30 Februari 2010. Populasi adalah tikus putih jantan strain Jepang (Rattus norvegicus yang berasal dari laboratorium Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Unand. Sampel berjumlah 20 ekor dibagi atas 4 kelompok dengan satu kelompok kontrol dan tiga kelompok perlakuan. Dosis MSG yang digunakan yaitu P1= 4800 mg/kgbb/hari, P2=7200 mg/kgbb/hari dan P3= 9600 mg/kgbb/hari diberikan peroral sebanyak dua siklus epitel seminiferus. Analisa dengan uji Anova dengan derajat kepercayaan 95% dan jika bermakna dilanjutkan dengan uji Multiple Comparissons jenis

  4. Discontinuation of rLH two days before hCG may increase the number of oocytes retrieved in IVF

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    Session Donna R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administration of recombinant luteinizing hormone (rLH in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation may benefit a subpopulation of patients. However, late follicular phase administration of high doses of rLH may also reduce the size of the follicular cohort and promote monofollicular development. Methods To determine if rLH in late follicular development had a negative impact on follicular growth and oocyte yield, IVF patients in our practice who received rFSH and rLH for the entire stimulation were retrospectively compared with those that had the rLH discontinued at least two days prior to hCG trigger. Results The two groups had similar baseline characteristics before stimulation with respect to age, FSH level and antral follicle count. However, the group which had the rLH discontinued at least two days prior to their hCG shot, had a significantly higher number of oocytes retrieved, including a higher number of MII oocytes and number of 2PN embryos. Conclusions When using rLH for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, administering it from the start of stimulation and stopping it in the late follicular phase, at least two days prior to hCG trigger, may increase oocyte and embryo yield.

  5. Ca(2+)-binding reduces conformational flexibility of RC-LH1 core complex from thermophile Thermochromatium tepidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob-Grun, Selma; Radeck, Jara; Braun, Paula

    2012-03-01

    The light-harvesting complex, LH1, of thermophile purple bacteria Thermochromatium tepidum consists of an array of α- and β-polypeptides which assemble the photoactive bacteriochlorophyll and closely interact with the membrane-lipids. In this study, we investigated the effect of calcium and manganese ions on the protein structure and thermostability of the reaction centre (RC)-LH1/lipid complex. The binding of Ca(2+), but not Mn(2+) is shown to shift the LH1 Q ( y ) absorption maximum from ~889 to 915 nm and to significantly raise the thermostability of the RC-LH1 complex. The ATR-FTIR spectra indicate that interaction of Ca(2+) as monitored by the carboxylates' vibration of aspartate residues, but not Mn(2+) induces changes in the α-helix packing arrangement. The reduced rate of (1)H/(2)H exchange of proteins' amide protons shows that the accessibility to (2)H(2)O is significantly lowered in Ca(2+)-substituted RC-LH1/lipid complexes. In particular, exchange with the associated lipid molecules, is significantly retarded. These results suggest that the thermostability of the RC-LH1 complex is raised by the distinct interaction with calcium cations which reduces the RC-LH1/lipid dynamics, particularly, at the membrane-water interface.

  6. Luteal versus placental progesterone: the situation in the cow, pig and bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H H

    1994-01-01

    Placenta and corpus luteum (CL) have acquired different functions for progesterone synthesis and maintenance of pregnancy in the course of placentalia evolution. In the cow and pig, progesterone is produced by the same CL during the entire gestation period with minor or no contribution from the placenta. In the case of an infertile cycle, CL survival is terminated by PGF2 alpha produced by the endometrium. PGF2 alpha secretion is inhibited by the trophoblast in order to guarantee continuous progesterone production. Also in the dog, only the CL synthesizes progesterone and the secretion pattern is similar in pseudopregnant and pregnant animals. The dog CL seems to have an internally programmed life span.

  7. Neuroactive Steroids in First-Episode Psychosis: A Role for Progesterone?

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    Martino Belvederi Murri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroactive steroids may play a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders, but few studies examined this issue. We compared serum levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and progesterone between a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP patients and age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Furthermore, we analyzed the associations between neuroactive steroids levels and the severity of psychotic symptom dimensions. Male patients had lower levels of progesterone than controls (p=0.03. Progesterone levels were inversely associated with the severity of positive symptoms (p=0.007. Consistent with preclinical findings, results suggest that progesterone might have a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders.

  8. Absence of progesterone effects on chlamydial genital infection in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of progesterone alone and in combination with estradiol was investigated in ovariectomized and gonadally intact female guinea pigs infected with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). The course of the infection, as determined by the percentage of cells with GPIC (chlamydia) inclusions in Giemsa-stained vaginal scrapings, was not affected in animals receiving 5.0 mg of progesterone daily. Progesterone had no influence on the enhancement of infection by estradiol. In comparison with sesame oil-treated controls, infection was prolonged by four to six days (P less than .05) in animals receiving a combination of 5.0 mg of progesterone plus 1.0 microgram of estradiol or 1.0 microgram of estradiol alone each day. In ovariectomized animals, estradiol delayed the appearance of IgA antibody in genital secretions, whereas progesterone alone had no effect. Guinea pigs treated with estradiol or progesterone plus estradiol manifested an acute endometritis not observed in animals treated with progesterone alone or in controls receiving sesame oil. Although cervical ectopy, analogous to that seen in women with high levels of progesterone, was identified by histopathology in animals treated with progesterone, no enhancement of the chlamydial infection was observed.

  9. Neuroactive Steroids in First-Episode Psychosis: A Role for Progesterone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, Uberto; Bonora, Elena; Triolo, Federico; Chiri, Luigi; Menchetti, Marco; Mondelli, Valeria; Pariante, Carmine; Berardi, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Neuroactive steroids may play a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders, but few studies examined this issue. We compared serum levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and progesterone between a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Furthermore, we analyzed the associations between neuroactive steroids levels and the severity of psychotic symptom dimensions. Male patients had lower levels of progesterone than controls (p = 0.03). Progesterone levels were inversely associated with the severity of positive symptoms (p = 0.007). Consistent with preclinical findings, results suggest that progesterone might have a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. PMID:27747103

  10. The relation between serum sex steroid levels and plasma cell infiltrates in endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnonen, R; Lehtinen, M; Teisala, K; Aine, R; Rantala, I; Heinonen, P K; Miettinen, A; Laine, S; Paavonen, J

    1989-01-01

    We measured serum levels of progesterone and estradiol among 35 patients with endometritis confirmed by endometrial biopsy. The onset of symptoms took place predominantly in the proliferative phase of the cycle. A negative correlation was found between the serum progesterone levels and the histopathologic severity of plasma cell endometritis. Our results suggest that the hormonal status contributes to the immune response and susceptibility to endometrial infection.

  11. The 21st LH Gray Conference (June 4-6, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C. M. L. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, C. J. [Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sutton, D. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Wright, E. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-12

    The 21st LH Gray Conference, organised by the LH Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics which included: non-targeted effects of radiation, exposure to high natural background radiation, non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, lessons learnt from Chernobyl, radiation in the workplace, biokinetic modelling, uncertainties in risk estimation, issues in diagnostic medical exposures, lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and how the radiobiology-radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today.

  12. THE MOST LUMINOUS SUPERNOVA ASASSN-15LH: SIGNATURE OF A NEWBORN RAPIDLY ROTATING STRANGE QUARK STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Z. G.; Wang, S. Q.; Wang, J. S. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, L. J. [Key Laboratory of Space Astronomy and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yu, Y. W., E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we show that the most luminous supernova discovered very recently, ASASSN-15lh, could have been powered by a newborn ultra-strongly magnetized pulsar, which initially rotates near the Kepler limit. We find that if this pulsar is a neutron star, its rotational energy could be quickly lost as a result of gravitational-radiation-driven r-mode instability; if it is a strange quark star (SQS), however, this instability is highly suppressed due to a large bulk viscosity associated with the nonleptonic weak interaction among quarks and thus most of its rotational energy could be extracted to drive ASASSN-15lh. Therefore, we conclude that such an ultra-energetic supernova provides a possible signature for the birth of an SQS.

  13. Regulation of post-Golgi LH3 trafficking is essential for collagen homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banushi, Blerida; Forneris, Federico; Straatman-Iwanowska, Anna; Strange, Adam; Lyne, Anne-Marie; Rogerson, Clare; Burden, Jemima J.; Heywood, Wendy E.; Hanley, Joanna; Doykov, Ivan; Straatman, Kornelis R.; Smith, Holly; Bem, Danai; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Ariceta, Gema; Risteli, Maija; Wang, Chunguang; Ardill, Rosalyn E.; Zaniew, Marcin; Latka-Grot, Julita; Waddington, Simon N.; Howe, S. J.; Ferraro, Francesco; Gjinovci, Asllan; Lawrence, Scott; Marsh, Mark; Girolami, Mark; Bozec, Laurent; Mills, Kevin; Gissen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational modifications are necessary for collagen precursor molecules (procollagens) to acquire final shape and function. However, the mechanism and contribution of collagen modifications that occur outside the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi are not understood. We discovered that VIPAR, with its partner proteins, regulate sorting of lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3, also known as PLOD3) into newly identified post-Golgi collagen IV carriers and that VIPAR-dependent sorting is essential for modification of lysines in multiple collagen types. Identification of structural and functional collagen abnormalities in cells and tissues from patients and murine models of the autosomal recessive multisystem disorder Arthrogryposis, Renal dysfunction and Cholestasis syndrome caused by VIPAR and VPS33B deficiencies confirmed our findings. Thus, regulation of post-Golgi LH3 trafficking is essential for collagen homeostasis and for the development and function of multiple organs and tissues. PMID:27435297

  14. Successful treatment of unilateral cryptorchid boys risking infertility with LH-RH analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hadziselimovic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Infertility is the primary concern for boys with uni- or bilateral undescended testes. An early and seemingly successful orchiopexy does not improve fertility in a substantial number of cryptorchid males. We confirmed that LH-RH analogue (LH-RHa treatment induces an increase in and maturation of the germ cells; however, it was uncertain if treatment would improve the chance of fertility later in life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty unilateral cryptorchid boys, with an average age of 3 years at the time of surgery, were included in the study. Testicular biopsy showed that they had impaired testicular maturation and were therefore at high risk for infertility. Fifteen of the 30 unilateral cryptorchid boys were treated with 10 µg LH-RHa (Buserelin nasal spray, administered on alternate days for a period of 6 months, following orchiopexy. The control group consisted of 15 cryptorchid boys who had been treated by Schoemakers type of orchiopexy, alone. After puberty, the ejaculates of both groups were analyzed. RESULTS: All males in the untreated group were severely oligospermic, with 20% being azoospermic. In contrast, 86% of the treated ex-cryptorchid males had a sperm concentration within the normal range; this was significantly different from the sperm concentration found in the untreated group (p = 0.000008. CONCLUSION: For the first time, we demonstrate that infertility in cryptorchidism can be successfully corrected when suitably treated with a LH-RHa. Sperm parameters normalized following therapy in the majority of cryptorchid males who, untreated, would have remained infertile. This innovative hormonal treatment will have a profound effect on the current recommended surgical treatment of boys with undescended testes.

  15. Space-based LH 2 propellant storage system: subscale ground testing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, M. W.

    An orbital cryogenic liquid storage facility will be one of the essential elements of the US Space Program to realize the benefits of space-based cryogenic propulsion vehicles such as NASA's space transfer vehicle (STV) for transporting personnel and scientific packages from a space station in low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the moon and beyond. Long-term thermal control of LH 2 and LO 2 storage cryotanks is a key technical objective for many NASA and SDI programmes. Improved retention using refrigeration, boil-off vapour-cooled shields (VCSs), multilayer superinsulation (MLI) and para-ortho (P-O) hydrogen conversion are the required state-of-the-art techniques. The cryotank system level development testing (CSLDT) programme has supported the development of these technologies. Under the programme, trade studies and analyses were followed by the design and construction of a subscale LH 2 storage facility test article for steady-state and transient thermal tests. A two-stage gaseous helium (GHe) refrigerator was integrated with the test article and used to reduce boil-off and/or decrease the time required between passive test configuration steady-state conditions. The LH 2 tank, mounted in a vacuum chamber, was thermally shielded from the chamber wall by MLI blankets and two VCSs. The VCSs were cooled with either LH 2 boil-off gas (through an optional P-O converter) or refrigerated GHe. The CSLDT test article design, assembly and results from 400 hours of thermal tests are presented along with important conclusions. A comparison of predicted and measured steady-state boil-off rates is provided for 10 test configurations, and the system time constant is addressed. Also presented are some of the unique issues and challenges encountered during these tests that are related to instrumentation and control.

  16. Extreme Supernova Models for the Super-luminous Transient ASASSN-15lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulos, E.; Wheeler, J. C.; Vinko, J.; Nagy, A. P.; Wiggins, B. K.; Even, W. P.

    2016-09-01

    The recent discovery of the unprecedentedly super-luminous transient ASASSN-15lh (or SN 2015L) with its UV-bright secondary peak challenges all the power-input models that have been proposed for super-luminous supernovae. Here we examine some of the few viable interpretations of ASASSN-15lh in the context of a stellar explosion, involving combinations of one or more power inputs. We model the light curve of ASASSN-15lh with a hybrid model that includes contributions from magnetar spin-down energy and hydrogen-poor circumstellar interaction. We also investigate models of pure circumstellar interaction with a massive hydrogen-deficient shell and discuss the lack of interaction features in the observed spectra. We find that, as a supernova, ASASSN-15lh can be best modeled by the energetic core-collapse of an ˜40 M ⊙ star interacting with a hydrogen-poor shell of ˜20 M ⊙. The circumstellar shell and progenitor mass are consistent with a rapidly rotating pulsational pair-instability supernova progenitor as required for strong interaction following the final supernova explosion. Additional energy injection by a magnetar with an initial period of 1-2 ms and magnetic field of 0.1-1 × 1014 G may supply the excess luminosity required to overcome the deficit in single-component models, but this requires more fine-tuning and extreme parameters for the magnetar, as well as the assumption of efficient conversion of magnetar energy into radiation. We thus favor a single-input model where the reverse shock formed in a strong SN ejecta-circumstellar matter interaction following a very powerful core-collapse SN explosion can supply the luminosity needed to reproduce the late-time UV-bright plateau.

  17. [Cytological changes in hypophysis of immatur rats after administration of anti-LH antibodies (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R L; Bardia-Deu, R; Monastirsky, R A; Lawzewitsch, I V

    1975-01-01

    In the present work, cytological changes produced in rats' pars distalis were studied by administration of anti-LH antibodies. The anti-LH sera was obtained by active immunization of adult rabbits using bovine LH hormone with Freund's complete adjuvant. Newborn albino Wistar male and female rats were daily and subcutaneously inoculated with 0.1 ml. to 0.8 ml of anti-LH sera from the first 24 hr. on during 5 weeks. For controls, a similar schedule of inoculations with normal rabbit serum was used. At weekly intervals during the treatment, 5 lots of rats were sacrificed and the rest after a recovery period of 95 days. At the end of the 2nd week of immunization, both male and female animals showed degranulated gonadotroph cells in the central part of the pars distalis; at the 3rd week these cells were hypertrophied and presented developed Golgi complex. At the 4th week, the first large vacuoles of "castration" were seen in the gonadotroph cells of male pars distalis, besides in the females the degranulation of gonadotrophs continued. During the last week of treatment, the gonadotrophs of the male animals presented a highly dilated Golgi complex, more "castration-like cells" and numerous mitosis figures. The gonadotrophs of females pars distalis presented degranulation, but not vacuoles. After the recovery period the gonadotrophs of male rats were similar to those of the control hypophisis and did not show castration vacuoles in their cytoplasm. In female rats, the gonadotrophic cells showed "castration-like vacuoles" and a raised number of mitosis cells compared to control pituitaries. The significance of these findings will be discussed.

  18. Development of advanced materials composites for use as insulations for LH2 tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, C. R.; Salmassy, O. K.

    1973-01-01

    A study of thread-reinforced polyurethane foam and glass fabric liner, serving as internally bonded insulation for space shuttle LH2 tanks, is reported. Emphasis was placed on an insulation system capable of reentry and multiple reuse in the shuttle environment. The optimized manufacturing parameters associated with each element of the composite are established and the results, showing successful completion of subscale system evaluation tests using the shuttle flight environmental requirements, are given.

  19. Solvation effect of bacteriochlorophyll excitons in light-harvesting complex LH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urboniene, V; Vrublevskaja, O; Trinkunas, G; Gall, A; Robert, B; Valkunas, L

    2007-09-15

    We have characterized the influence of the protein environment on the spectral properties of the bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) molecules of the peripheral light-harvesting (or LH2) complex from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The spectral density functions of the pigments responsible for the 800 and 850 nm electronic transitions were determined from the temperature dependence of the Bchl absorption spectra in different environments (detergent micelles and native membranes). The spectral density function is virtually independent of the hydrophobic support that the protein experiences. The reorganization energy for the B850 Bchls is 220 cm(-1), which is almost twice that of the B800 Bchls, and its Huang-Rhys factor reaches 8.4. Around the transition point temperature, and at higher temperatures, both the static spectral inhomogeneity and the resonance interactions become temperature-dependent. The inhomogeneous distribution function of the transitions exhibits less temperature dependence when LH2 is embedded in membranes, suggesting that the lipid phase protects the protein. However, the temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectra of LH2 cannot be fitted using the same parameters determined from the analysis of the absorption spectra. Correct fitting requires the lowest exciton states to be additionally shifted to the red, suggesting the reorganization of the exciton spectrum.

  20. Testosterone and LH Seric Level Dynamics in Male Rats after Potassium Dichromate Intake (Two Generation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Rankov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of potassium dichromate impact on biochemical biomarkers for testicular function (serum testosterone and LH level (two generations experiment. Males and females from F0 generation were exposed to potassium dichromate three months before mating. F1 generation was represented by male pups, resulted from F0 generation, exposed to potassium dichromate in utero, in suckling period (via milk and water and until sexual maturity. All the animals were divided in four groups: three experimental and one control, exposed to Cr VI trough drinking water, as follows E1: 25 ppm (LOAEL; E2: 50 ppm: E3: 75 ppm; control group received tap water without chromium content. The study was performed in compliance with national and international law regarding animal welfare and ethics in animal experiments. In male rats, from F0 and F1 generation, exposure to Cr VI determined: significant decrease of testosterone and significant increase of LH seric level in all experimental groups comparative to control one, indirectly, respectively, directly correlated to exposure level. Comparative to F0 generation, in F1 generation seric testosterone level was lower, significantly only in E1 and E3 groups, and LH seric level was significantly higher.

  1. ASASSN-15lh: A Superluminous Ultraviolet Rebrightening Observed by Swift and Hubble

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter J; Cooke, Jeff; Olaes, Melanie; Quimby, Robert M; Baade, Dietrich; Gehrels, Neil; Hoeflich, Peter; Maund, Justyn; Mould, Jeremy; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, J Craig

    2016-01-01

    We present and discuss ultraviolet (UV) and optical photometry from the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and X-ray limits from the X-Ray Telescope on Swift and imaging polarimetry and UV/optical spectroscopy with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of ASASSN-15lh. It has been classified as a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN I) more luminous than any other supernova observed. From the polarimetry we determine that the explosion was only mildly asymmetric. We find the flux of ASASSN-15lh to increase strongly into the UV, with a UV luminosity a hundred times greater than the hydrogen-rich, UV-bright SLSN II SN~2008es. A late rebrightening -- most prominent at shorter wavelengths -- is seen about two months after the peak brightness, which by itself is as bright as a superluminous supernova. ASASSN-15lh is not detected in the X-rays in individual observations or when the data are summed into two separate bins for the early phase and the rebrightening. The HST UV spectrum during the rebrightening is do...

  2. The Unexpected, Long-Lasting, UV Rebrightening of the Super-Luminous Supernova ASASSN-15lh

    CERN Document Server

    Godoy-Rivera, D; Kochanek, C S; Chen, Ping; Dong, Subo; Prieto, J L; Shappee, B J; Jha, S W; Foley, R J; Pan, Y -C; Holoien, T W -S; Thompson, Todd A; Grupe, D; Beacom, J F

    2016-01-01

    ASASSN-15lh is the most luminous supernova (SN) ever discovered (Dong et al. 2016), based on its peak bolometric luminosity. Here we report a UV rebrightening of ASASSN-15lh observed with {\\it Swift} during our follow-up photometric campaign. The rebrightening began at $t \\simeq 90$ days (observer frame) after the primary peak and was followed by a $\\sim 120$-day long plateau in the bolometric luminosity, before starting to fade again at $t\\simeq 210$ days. The SN rebrightened in the {\\it Swift} UV bands by $\\Delta m_{UVW2} \\simeq -1.75$ mag, $\\Delta m_{UVM2} \\simeq -1.25$ mag, and $\\Delta m_{UVW1} \\simeq -0.8$ mag, but did not rebrighten in the optical bands. Throughout its initial decline, subsequent rebrightening, and renewed decline, the spectra of ASASSN-15lh did not show evidence of interactions between the ejecta and circumstellar medium (CSM) such as narrow emission lines. There are hints of weak, broad, transient H$\\alpha$ emission at late times, but the feature could also be an artifact. By fitting ...

  3. Efficiency of superstimulatory protocol P-36 associated with the administration of eCG and LH in Nelore cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A C S; Mattos, M C C; Bastos, M R; Trinca, L A; Razza, E M; Satrapa, R A; Sartori, R; Barros, Ciro M

    2014-09-15

    Recent work with P-36 demonstrates that the replacement of the last two doses of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) increases embryo yields. However, it is unclear if the positive effect of eCG is related to its FSH-like activity, LH-like activity, or both. This study aimed to verify the replacement of eCG with pLH on the last day of superstimulatory treatment. Twenty-five Nelore cows were allocated to four groups: P-36 (control), P-36/eCG, P-36/LH2, and P-36/LH4. All animals underwent four treatments in a crossover design. The control group cows were superstimulated with decreasing doses of porcine Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (pFSH, 133 mg, im). In the P-36/eCG, P-36/LH2, and P-36/LH4 groups, the last two doses of pFSH were replaced in the former group by two doses of eCG (200 IU each dose, im) and in the latter two groups by two doses of pLH (1 and 2 mg each dose, im), respectively. Donors received fixed-time artificial insemination 12 and 24 hours after pLH. Embryo flushing was performed on D16. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (Proc Mixed, SAS). There was a trend of decreasing ovulation rate when comparing groups LH2 and eCG (P = 0.06). However, there was no significant difference in the mean number of viable embryos among groups P-36 (3.3 ± 0.7), P-36/eCG (4.5 ± 0.5), P-36/LH2 (3.7 ± 0.8), and P-36/LH4 (4.2 ± 1.0). It is concluded that the replacement of eCG by pLH on the last day of superstimulatory treatment can be performed with no significant variation in the production of viable embryos.

  4. Combined beta FSH and beta LH response to TRH in patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somjen, D; Tordjman, K; Kohen, F; Baz, M; Razon, N; Ouaknine, G; Stern, N

    1997-05-01

    'Paradoxical' responses of LH, FSH, alpha-subunits and beta LH to TRH have previously been reported in individuals with clinically non-functioning pituitary tumours (NFT). The present study was designed to assess the in vivo and in vitro responses of beta FSH to TRH in NFT. We further examined the possibility that a TRH challenge with combined measurement of beta FSH and beta LH will identify a common anomalous secretory pattern in patients with NFT. Forty patients with NFT underwent a standard TRH test (400 micrograms intravenously). Blood samples for the determination of beta FSH, beta LH, FSH and LH were collected prior to TRH as well as 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes following injection. Additionally, cultured adenomatous cells from eight to these patients were exposed to TRH in the absence and presence of octreotide and gonadotropin subunits were determined. TRH elicited a marked rise in circulating beta FSH in 29 of 40 individuals and in beta LH in 28 of 36 patients with NFT. In a subgroup of eight individuals whose tumours were harvested during surgery and cultured for 7-21 days, TRH increased beta FSH or beta LH and alpha-subunit release in cultured adenomatous cells in all cases, including tumours from subjects not responding to TRH in vivo. In this subgroup of patients octreotide inhibited basal beta FSH secretion but not basal beta LH secretion both in vivo and in primary cultures of NFT cells. Both the in vivo and in vitro beta FSH, beta LH and alpha-subunit responses to TRH were entirely inhibited by octreotide. In all, 38 of the 40 subjects could be identified by either elevated basal beta FSH or beta LH levels and/or an abnormal rise in either beta FSH or beta LH in response to TRH. The measurement of basal and TRH-stimulated beta-FSH and beta-LH levels identifies an abnormal hormonal secretory pattern in the vast majority (> 90%) of patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumours.

  5. The Association Between LH Serum Levels at the time of hCG Injection and Clinical Pregnancy during IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Wiweko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some studies showed that recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (r-FSH administration without LH supplementation has a good success rate on in vitro fertilization (IVF. However, LH role in IVF has been controversial. This study was conducted to evaluate the association between serum LH levels at the time of hCG injection and clinical pregnancy during IVF. This retrospective study included 136 patients underwent long protocol IVF from January 2005 to December 2009 in Yasmin Clinic, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. The controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation protocol used in this study was gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist and r-FSH.  Serum LH level was measured on the day of hCG administration and the outcome evaluated was the clinical pregnancy following IVF cycles. There were 32 IVF cycles resulted in pregnancy out of 136 cycles (23.5%. There was significant difference between serum LH levels on the day of hCG administration and clinical pregnancy outcome (p=0.036. LH serum level cut-off value of ≥1.050 IU/l was the best value to predict pregnancy outcome with 62.5% sensitivity, 59.4% specificity, 83.3% positive predictive value, and 32.76% negative predictive value. It was concluded that there was an association between serum LH levels at the time of hCG injection and clinical pregnancy during IVF. Keywords: IVF cycles, LH levels serum, hCG administration   Hubungan Kadar LH saat Penyuntikan hCG dengan Kejadian Kehamilan pada Fertilisasi In vitro Abstrak Pemberian follicles stimulating hormone rekombinan (r-FSH tanpa suplementasi LH memiliki tingkat keberhasilan fertilisasi in vitro (FIV yang baik namun, peran LH pada FIV masih kontroversial. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi hubungan antara kadar serum LH pada hari penyuntikan hCG dengan kehamilan klinis selama FIV. Penelitian retrospektif ini melibatkan 136 perempuan yang menjalani FIV siklus pertama dengan protokol panjang mulai bulan Januari 2005 sampai

  6. Germ cell apoptosis induced by progesterone in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yu-gui; Liao Ting-ting; Liu Jia-yin; Jia Yue; Cai Rui-fen; Gao Li; Wang Xing-hai; Tong Jian-sun; Ma Ding-zhi; Zhang Cai-ting; Wang Xue-song

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To document the effect of progesterone exposure with large dose and long term on spermatogenesis,especially on the germ cell apoptosis in rats.This study was also to evaluate the toxicity of progesterone in the reproductive system when administered with large doses and long term in men.Methods: Groups of adult male SD rats were administered with 37.5, 75 and 150 mg/kg depotmedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) per two-weeks for 12 or 18 weeks.At the end of treatment, each male rat was paired with one adult female SD rat to estimate the reproductive function.Serum testosterone concentration was analyzed in duplicate by radioimmunoassay (RIA).The pathological changes of testes, epididymis, and prostate were checked under light microscopic, epididymis was also used for sperm count, and fresh testis tissue was used for apoptosis assessment by flow cytometry.Results.After treatment with DMPA, weights of gonad, the ratio of testes/body, the ratio of epididymides/body,and the ratio of prostate/body decreased significantly (P<0.01).The level of serum testosterone, sperm count, sperm activity decreased significantly(P<0.01) while abnormality of sperm increased significantly (P<0.01).The embryonic number in uterus of pairing female rat decreased significantly after DMPA treatment.Compared with control, the number and the ratio of apoptotic germ cell increased dramatically (P<0.01) along with dose increase or treating prolongation of DMPA, which analyzed by flow cytometry.Conclusion: In summary, in addition to inhibition of pituitary gonadotrophin and subsequently deprivation of androgen, progesterone (DMPA)inhibits spermatogenesis by the induced germ cell apoptosis.The reproductive toxicity of DMPA administrated with large doses and long term is confirmed.

  7. Modulation of Progesterone Receptor Isoform Expression in Pregnant Human Myometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ilicic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regulation of myometrial progesterone receptor (PR expression is an unresolved issue central to understanding the mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal and initiation of labor in women. Objectives. To determine whether pregnant human myometrium undergoes culture-induced changes in PR isoform expression ex situ and, further, to determine if conditions approaching the in vivo environment stabilise PR isoform expression in culture. Methods. Term nonlaboring human myometrial tissues were cultured under specific conditions: serum supplementation, steroids, stretch, cAMP, PMA, PGF2α, NF-κB inhibitors, or TSA. Following 48 h culture, PR-T, PR-A, and PR-B mRNA levels were determined using qRT-PCR. PR-A/PR-B ratios were calculated. Results. PR-T and PR-A expression and the PR-A/PR-B ratio significantly increased in culture. Steroids prevented the culture-induced increase in PR-T and PR-A expression. Stretch blocked the effects of steroids on PR-T and PR-A expression. PMA further increased the PR-A/PR-B ratio, while TSA blocked culture-induced increases of PR-A expression and the PR-A/PR-B ratio. Conclusion. Human myometrial tissue in culture undergoes changes in PR gene expression consistent with transition toward a laboring phenotype. TSA maintained the nonlaboring PR isoform expression pattern. This suggests that preserving histone and/or nonhistone protein acetylation is critical for maintaining the progesterone dependent quiescent phenotype of human myometrium in culture.

  8. Modulation of Progesterone Receptor Isoform Expression in Pregnant Human Myometrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background. Regulation of myometrial progesterone receptor (PR) expression is an unresolved issue central to understanding the mechanism of functional progesterone withdrawal and initiation of labor in women. Objectives. To determine whether pregnant human myometrium undergoes culture-induced changes in PR isoform expression ex situ and, further, to determine if conditions approaching the in vivo environment stabilise PR isoform expression in culture. Methods. Term nonlaboring human myometrial tissues were cultured under specific conditions: serum supplementation, steroids, stretch, cAMP, PMA, PGF2α, NF-κB inhibitors, or TSA. Following 48 h culture, PR-T, PR-A, and PR-B mRNA levels were determined using qRT-PCR. PR-A/PR-B ratios were calculated. Results. PR-T and PR-A expression and the PR-A/PR-B ratio significantly increased in culture. Steroids prevented the culture-induced increase in PR-T and PR-A expression. Stretch blocked the effects of steroids on PR-T and PR-A expression. PMA further increased the PR-A/PR-B ratio, while TSA blocked culture-induced increases of PR-A expression and the PR-A/PR-B ratio. Conclusion. Human myometrial tissue in culture undergoes changes in PR gene expression consistent with transition toward a laboring phenotype. TSA maintained the nonlaboring PR isoform expression pattern. This suggests that preserving histone and/or nonhistone protein acetylation is critical for maintaining the progesterone dependent quiescent phenotype of human myometrium in culture. PMID:28540297

  9. Combined anterior pituitary function test using CRH, GRH, LH-RH, TRH and vasopressin in patients with non-functioning pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, K; Makino, S; Hirasawa, R; Takao, T; Kageyama, J; Ogasa, T; Ota, Z

    1990-06-01

    We examined 8 normal subjects and 16 patients with non-functioning pituitary tumors with a combined anterior pituitary test to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the test. Diagnoses included 9 of chromophobe adenoma, 3 of craniopharyngioma, 2 of Rathke's cleft cyst, and 1 each of intrasellar cyst and tuberculum sella meningioma. All subjects received hypothalamic releasing hormones: 1 micrograms/kg corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), 1 micrograms/kg growth hormone releasing hormone (GRH), 500 micrograms thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 100 micrograms luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH), and a relatively small dose (5 mU/kg) of lysine vasopressin (LVP). In the normal subjects, the addition of LVP potentiated the secretion of adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induced by CRH, but had no significant effect on the secretion of other anterior pituitary hormones. In the combined test with 5 releasing hormones, the plasma ACTH and cortisol responses were not impaired in the majority of the patients before pituitary surgery. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) responses were not impaired in 82%, 70% and 67% of the patients, respectively, while the serum LH and GH responses were impaired in 67% and 73% of the patients, respectively. Following pituitary surgery, responses of these hormones to combined testing were similarly impaired in more than 75% of the patients. These results indicate that plasma ACTH, cortisol and serum TSH responses are fairly good before pituitary surgery but are impaired significantly after surgery. No subjects experienced any serious adverse effects related to the testing. These results suggest that combined testing with hypothalamic hormones is a convenient and useful method for evaluating pituitary function.

  10. Combined anterior pituitary function test using CRH, GRH, LH-RH, TRH and vasopressin in patients with non-functioning pituitary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto,Kozo

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined 8 normal subjects and 16 patients with non-functioning pituitary tumors with a combined anterior pituitary test to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the test. Diagnoses included 9 of chromophobe adenoma, 3 of craniopharyngioma, 2 of Rathke's cleft cyst, and 1 each of intrasellar cyst and tuberculum sella meningioma. All subjects received hypothalamic releasing hormones: 1 micrograms/kg corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH, 1 micrograms/kg growth hormone releasing hormone (GRH, 500 micrograms thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, 100 micrograms luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH, and a relatively small dose (5 mU/kg of lysine vasopressin (LVP. In the normal subjects, the addition of LVP potentiated the secretion of adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH induced by CRH, but had no significant effect on the secretion of other anterior pituitary hormones. In the combined test with 5 releasing hormones, the plasma ACTH and cortisol responses were not impaired in the majority of the patients before pituitary surgery. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, prolactin (PRL and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH responses were not impaired in 82%, 70% and 67% of the patients, respectively, while the serum LH and GH responses were impaired in 67% and 73% of the patients, respectively. Following pituitary surgery, responses of these hormones to combined testing were similarly impaired in more than 75% of the patients. These results indicate that plasma ACTH, cortisol and serum TSH responses are fairly good before pituitary surgery but are impaired significantly after surgery. No subjects experienced any serious adverse effects related to the testing. These results suggest that combined testing with hypothalamic hormones is a convenient and useful method for evaluating pituitary function.

  11. 基于LH-OAT的SWMM模型参数敏感性分析%An Analysis of Parameter Sensitivity of SWMM Model Based on LH-OAT Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱嘉祺; 徐向阳; 何爽

    2014-01-01

    为了消除SWMM模型计算过程中的不确定性,明确参数对径流模拟的影响,进行了参数敏感性分析.通过LH-OAT敏感性分析方法,辨析出不同参数在昭通市应用时对径流模拟结果的影响程度,确定对其影响较大的若干敏感参数,为参数的率定提供参考.研究结果表明对径流系数影响最大的参数是入渗衰减系数,对洪峰流量影响最大的参数是不渗透性.提高了SWMM模型在金沙江流域应用的可靠性.

  12. Pfirsch-Schlüter current-driven edge electric fields and their effect on the L-H transition power threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, A. Y.

    2012-06-01

    An important contribution to the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium at the tokamak edge comes from the Pfirsch-Schlüter current. The parallel electric field that can be associated with these currents is necessarily poloidally asymmetric and makes a similarly nonuniform contribution to the radial electric field on a flux surface. Here the role of the poloidal variation of this radial electric field in the L-H transition power threshold is investigated. Dependence of the resulting electric fields on magnetic topology, geometric factors such as the upper/lower triangularity and elongation, and the relative position of the X-point(s) in the poloidal plane are examined in detail. Starting with the assumption that an initially more negative radial electric field at the edge helps lower the transition power threshold, we find that our results are in agreement with a variety of experimental observations. In particular, for a ‘normal’ configuration of the plasma current and toroidal field we show the following. (i) The net radial electric field contribution by the Pfirsch-Schlüter currents at the plasma edge is negative for a lower single null and positive for a corresponding upper single null geometry. (ii) It becomes more negative as the X-point height is reduced. (iii) It also becomes more negative as the X-point radius is increased. These observations are consistent with the observed changes in the L-H transition power threshold PLH under similar changes in the experimental conditions. In addition we find that (iv) in USN with an unfavourable ion ∇B drift direction, the net radial electric field contribution is positive but decreases as the X-point radius decreases. This is consistent with the C-Mod observation that an L-I mode transition can be triggered by increasing the upper triangularity in this configuration. (v) Locally the radial electric field is positive above the outer mid-plane and reverses sign with reversal of the toroidal field, consistent with DIII

  13. Effects of dose and duration of continuous GnRH-agonist treatment on induction of estrus in beagle dogs: competing and concurrent up-regulation and down-regulation of LH release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, P W; Temple, M; Montanez, A; Newton, L

    2006-10-01

    Dose-response estrus-induction trials were conducted during anestrus in 93 treated and 6 control bitches, a continuous administration of the GnRH-agonist lutrelin with a potency 150 x GnRH, and at six different doses from 0.2 to 4.8 microg/kg/d for 7-14 days in 15 groups of six to eight dogs each in defined stages of natural or pharmacologically determined anestrus. Agonist treatment induced clinically and cytologically normal proestrus (in 89% of cases) within 4.8 +/- 0.2 x days, and resulted in behavioral estrus (71%), spontaneous late-proestrus LH (and FSH) surges, ovulation (59%) and pregnancy (44%) in a dose dependent manner. Outcomes of ovulation and pregnancy in most cases required that the dose be sufficiently large enough to routinely stimulate a large initial increase in LH and FSH (i.e., > or = 0.6 microg/kg/d), and of sufficient duration (i.e., > 7 days) to ensure that supra-basal gonadotropin levels persistedntil no longer needed for spontaneous continuation of an induced proestrus. Success additionally required that the GnRH dose be modest enough (i.e., induction results, including pregnancy rates of 100% in six bitches treated in natural-anestrus bitches, six bitches in which anestrus had been advanced by a luteolytic prostaglandin treatment and in six bitches in which anestrus had been extended by progesterone implants administered for 3 months. Although lutrelin is not commercially available, these results provide guidelines for the development of estrus-inducing protocols with other GnRH-agonists of known biopotencies.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the peripheral light-harvesting complex LH2 from Marichromatium purpuratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Laura J; Roszak, Aleksander W; Cogdell, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    LH2 from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Marichromatium (formerly known as Chromatium) purpuratum is an integral membrane pigment-protein complex that is involved in harvesting light energy and transferring it to the LH1-RC `core' complex. The purified LH2 complex was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 294 K. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 6 Å using synchrotron radiation and belonged to the tetragonal space group I4, with unit-cell parameters a=b=109.36, c=80.45 Å. The data appeared to be twinned, producing apparent diffraction symmetry I422. The tetragonal symmetry of the unit cell and diffraction for the crystals of the LH2 complex from this species reveal that this complex is an octamer.

  15. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in normal mammary gland development insights from progesterone receptor null mutant mice and in situ localization of receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamala, G

    1997-01-01

    In contrast to most other organs, the development of normal mammary glands occurs mostly in the postnatal state and in a discontinuous fashion. In all species, the glands are composed of various cell types, and it is the epithelium, embedded in the fatty stroma (commonly known as the "fat pad"), that is targeted for proliferation and differentiation. Hormones, in particular the female sex steroids estrogen and progesterone, are absolutely essential for the proliferation of mammary epithelial cell. However, despite intensive efforts by many laboratories spanning nearly 4 decades, at present, the precise role of these steroids and their relative importance in mammary development remains unclear. This article reviews the general features and the effects of estrogen and progesterone on normal mammary gland development, followed by a discussion of our recent studies, which emphasize the primary importance of progesterone and progesterone receptor for the normal mammary epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:34-39).

  16. A novel carboxyl-terminal heptapeptide initiates the regulated secretion of LH from unique sub-domains of the ER.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Jablonka-Shariff

    Full Text Available The coordinated secretion of LH and FSH are critical for reproductive functions. After translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, their biosynthetic routes diverge at a determinative step prior to sorting in the regulated (LH and constitutive (FSH secretion pathways. Recently, we identified a C-terminal heptapeptide sequence, present only in the LHβ subunit, as a critical signal for entry of the LH dimer into the regulated pathway. We showed that an LHβ mutant lacking the heptapeptide (LHβΔT assembled more efficiently with the α subunit than wild-type LHβ subunit, and this LHΔT dimer was secreted constitutively. Thus, an association exists between the presence of the C-terminal heptapeptide and sorting of the LH heterodimer to the regulated pathway. To study how this delayed LHβ subunit assembly is related to the trafficking of LH, we exploited the single subunit transfection model in rat somatotrope-derived GH3 cells with the use of immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The LHβ subunit showed a distinct immunofluorescent localization as compared to the FSHβ subunit and LHβ mutants. The wild-type LHβ subunit exhibited a perinuclear staining corresponding to the ER/nuclear envelope region. In contrast, the wild-type FSHβ subunit and the mutants LHβΔT and LHβL119A displayed no detectable perinuclear staining; only peripheral ER puncta were observed. Also, no perinuclear fluorescence was detected in cells expressing the LH heterodimer. We propose that the C-terminal heptapeptide is responsible for delayed heterodimer assembly within an ER sub-domain of the nuclear envelope, as an early partitioning event necessary for the entrance of LH into the regulated secretory pathway, whereas FSHβ does not traverse the nuclear envelope region. These data suggest that, at least for LH, the molecular decision to enter the regulated secretory pathway is a pre-Golgi event controlled by the novel C-terminal heptapeptide.

  17. Progesterone profiles around the time of insemination do not show clear differences between of pregnant and not pregnant dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorzecka, Justyna; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Friggens, Nicolas C;

    2011-01-01

    profile features associated with successful insemination. The features used were (1) from the estrous cycle preceding the artificial insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone, luteal phase peak, pre-estrus maximum rate of decline in progesterone......In this study, features of progesterone profiles were examined in relation to the outcome of insemination. Three groups of estrous cycles were analyzed: resulting in pregnancy, not resulting in pregnancy and resulting in lost pregnancy. The aim of the study was to identify a complex of progesterone...... and the length of follicular and luteal phase and (2) from the estrous cycle following insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone and days from estrus to post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone. A discriminant analysis did not reveal clear...

  18. Oral progesterone decreases saccadic eye velocity and increases sedation in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, F. van; Backstrom, T.; Verkes, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of a single dose of progesterone in women. Allopregnanolone is a metabolite of progesterone and a potent positive modulator of the GABA(A) receptor and produces sedative and anxiolytic effects. This study was des

  19. Persistent Genital Hyperinnervation Following Progesterone Administration to Adolescent Female Rats1

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia, a female pelvic pain syndrome affecting substantial numbers of women, is characterized by genital hypersensitivity and sensory hyperinnervation. Previous studies have shown that the risk of developing provoked vestibulodynia is markedly elevated following adolescent use of oral contraceptives with high progesterone content. We hypothesized that progesterone, a steroid hormone with known neurotropic properties, may alter genital innervation through direct or indirect a...

  20. Immune Aspects and Myometrial Actions of Progesterone and CRH in Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Vrachnis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH have a critical role in pregnancy and labor, as changes related to these hormones are crucial for the transition from myometrial quiescence to contractility. The mechanisms related to their effect differ between humans and other species, thus, despite extensive research, many questions remain to be answered regarding their mediation in human labor. Immune responses to progesterone and CRH are important for labor. Progesterone acts as an immunomodulator which controls many immune actions during pregnancy, and its withdrawal releases the inhibitory action on inflammatory pathways. In humans, a “functional” progesterone withdrawal occurs with onset of labor through changes in progesterone metabolism, progesterone receptors, and other molecules that either facilitate or antagonize progesterone function. Placental CRH acts on the fetal pituitary-adrenal axis to stimulate adrenal production of androgens and cortisol and also acts directly on myometrial cells via its receptors. CRH also affects inflammatory signals and vice versa. Interactions between progesterone and CRH additionally occur during labor. We describe the role of these two hormones in human myometrium and their interactions with the immune system during labor.

  1. Progesterone and nestorone promote myelin regeneration in chronic demyelinating lesions of corpus callosum and cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Etr, Martine; Rame, Marion; Boucher, Celine; Ghoumari, Abdel M; Kumar, Narender; Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Schumacher, Michael; Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis affects mainly women and consists in intermittent or chronic damages to the myelin sheaths, focal inflammation, and axonal degeneration. Current therapies are limited to immunomodulators and antiinflammatory drugs, but there is no efficient treatment for stimulating the endogenous capacity of myelin repair. Progesterone and synthetic progestins have been shown in animal models of demyelination to attenuate myelin loss, reduce clinical symptoms severity, modulate inflammatory responses and partially reverse the age-dependent decline in remyelination. Moreover, progesterone has been demonstrated to promote myelin formation in organotypic cultures of cerebellar slices. In the present study, we show that progesterone and the synthetic 19-nor-progesterone derivative Nestorone® promote the repair of severe chronic demyelinating lesions induced by feeding cuprizone to female mice for up to 12 weeks. Progesterone and Nestorone increase the density of NG2(+) oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and CA II(+) mature oligodendrocytes and enhance the formation of myelin basic protein (MBP)- and proteolipid protein (PLP)-immunoreactive myelin. However, while demyelination in response to cuprizone was less marked in corpus callosum than in cerebral cortex, remyelination appeared earlier in the former. The remyelinating effect of progesterone was progesterone receptor (PR)-dependent, as it was absent in PR-knockout mice. Progesterone and Nestorone also decreased (but did not suppress) neuroinflammatory responses, specifically astrocyte and microglial cell activation. Therefore, some progestogens are promising therapeutic candidates for promoting the regeneration of myelin.

  2. Construction and Characterization of B850-Only LH2 Energy Transfer System in Purple Bacteria%紫细菌B800缺失LH2能量传递模型的构建及性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯; 赵春贵; 岳慧英; 杨素萍; 曲音波; 焦念志

    2015-01-01

    To seek microscopic molecular mechanism of energy transfer and complex reconstitution in the photosynthesis ,the conditions for construction of B850‐only peripheral light‐harvesting complex (LH2) and their properties were investigated using absorption ,fluorescence spectroscopy ,molecular sieve chromatography ,ultrafiltration and sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS‐PAGE) from the purple bacteria .The results indicated that bacteriochlorophylls (BChl) of B800 incu‐bated in 10 mmo · L -1 Tris‐HCl (pH 8.0) buffer are selectively released from their binding sites of LH2 of Rhodobacter azoto‐formans(A‐LH2)by0.08% (W/V)SDS.B850‐onlyA‐LH2wasconstructedafterremovingfreeBChlmixingwith10% meth‐yl alcohol by ultrafiltration .B850 BChl was released after A‐LH2 was incubated for 240 min in dark at room temperature (RT) . While BChl of B800 incubated in pH 1.9 buffer were selectively released from their binding sites of LH 2 of Rhodopseudomonas palustris (P‐LH2) .The authors acquired two components using molecular sieve chromatography .Free BChl of one component was not removed and self‐assembled to P‐LH2 .The other removed free BChl and B850‐only P‐LH2 was constructed .B850 un‐changed after P‐LH2 was incubated .P‐LH2 αandβsubunits have different molecular weights ,but those of A‐LH2 are in the contrary .It is concluded that B850‐only P‐LH2 is more stable than A‐LH2 .The enigmatic split of the B800 absorption band was not observed in these LH2 ,but we acquired two kinds of B800‐released LH2 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris .The authors’ results may provide a new light to separate homogeneous Apoprotein LH 2 .%构建B800缺失L H2对于阐明光合作用中光能传递的分子机制与捕光复合体组装机制具有重要意义。采用吸收光谱、荧光光谱、分子筛层析、超滤和SDS‐PAGE等方法研究了紫细菌两个典型种外周捕光复合体(LH2)约800 nm特征光谱(B800

  3. Progesterone receptor modulates ERα action in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hisham; Russell, I Alasdair; Stark, Rory; Rueda, Oscar M; Hickey, Theresa E; Tarulli, Gerard A; Serandour, Aurelien A; Serandour, Aurelien A A; Birrell, Stephen N; Bruna, Alejandra; Saadi, Amel; Menon, Suraj; Hadfield, James; Pugh, Michelle; Raj, Ganesh V; Brown, Gordon D; D'Santos, Clive; Robinson, Jessica L L; Silva, Grace; Launchbury, Rosalind; Perou, Charles M; Stingl, John; Caldas, Carlos; Tilley, Wayne D; Carroll, Jason S

    2015-07-16

    Progesterone receptor (PR) expression is used as a biomarker of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) function and breast cancer prognosis. Here we show that PR is not merely an ERα-induced gene target, but is also an ERα-associated protein that modulates its behaviour. In the presence of agonist ligands, PR associates with ERα to direct ERα chromatin binding events within breast cancer cells, resulting in a unique gene expression programme that is associated with good clinical outcome. Progesterone inhibited oestrogen-mediated growth of ERα(+) cell line xenografts and primary ERα(+) breast tumour explants, and had increased anti-proliferative effects when coupled with an ERα antagonist. Copy number loss of PGR, the gene coding for PR, is a common feature in ERα(+) breast cancers, explaining lower PR levels in a subset of cases. Our findings indicate that PR functions as a molecular rheostat to control ERα chromatin binding and transcriptional activity, which has important implications for prognosis and therapeutic interventions.

  4. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  5. Seminal androgens, oestradiol and progesterone in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalata, A; El-Mogy, M; Abdel-Khabir, A; El-Bayoumy, Y; El-Baz, M; Mostafa, T

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to assess seminal androgens, oestradiol, progesterone levels in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men with varicocele (Vx). In all, 154 men with matched age and body mass index were investigated that were divided into healthy fertile controls (n = 35), OAT men with Vx (n = 55), OAT men without Vx (n = 64). They were subjected to assessment of semen parameters, seminal levels of testosterone (T), androstenedione (A), 5α-androstane-3 α,17 β-diol (3 α-diol), oestradiol (E2 ), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and progesterone (P). Seminal levels of T and A were significantly decreased where seminal levels of 3 α-diol, E2 , 17-OHP, P were significantly higher in OAT men with/without Vx compared with fertile controls. Sperm count, sperm motility and sperm normal forms percentage demonstrated significant positive correlation with seminal T and A and significant negative correlation with seminal 3 α-diol, E2 , P. It is concluded that in fertile men, seminal T and A are significantly increased and seminal 3 α-diol, E2 , 17-OHP, P are significantly decreased compared with infertile OAT men with/without Vx. Association of Vx demonstrated a nonsignificant influence on these hormonal levels in OAT cases. Sperm count, sperm motility and sperm normal forms demonstrated significant positive correlation with seminal T, A and significant negative correlation with seminal 3 α-diol, E2 , P.

  6. Progesterone Inhibits Human Myometrial Contractions by Action on Membrane Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzi Gokdeniz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms for myometrial inhibition are still being investigated Aim: To examine mechanisms of progesterone (P4 inhibition of uterine contractility. Methods: Prospective study Tertiary care center at St. Joseph’s Hospital and at Maricopa Hospital, Phoenix, AZ and research center in Arizona, USA. During 2010-2011, 24 women given birth by cesarean section. Uterine tissues from women (n=24 at term were suspended in organ chambers and exposed to various agents. Contractility was registered and compared before and after addition of agents. Tissues were treated with P4 alone, a progestin (R5020 with low affinity to the progesterone membrane receptor (mPR, or a non-sex steroid (cholesterol. Other tissues were pretreated with inhibitors of adenylate cyclase (SQ 22536, phosphodiesterase (rolipram, nitric oxide (NO synthases (L-NAME or a nuclear P4 receptor antagonist (mifepristone, MIF, followed by P4. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Results: P4 (P0.05 inhibitory effects. P4 inhibition is not blocked by MIF, SQ, ODQ, rolipram or L-NAME (P>0.05. Conclusions: P4 rapidly inhibits myometrial contractility by nongenomic mechanisms through action on mPR but not via cAMP, cGMP, or NO [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 92-102

  7. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  8. Progesterone inhibits proliferation and modulates expression of proliferation-Related genes in classical progesterone receptor-negative human BxPC3 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Alexey I; Maslakova, Aitsana A; Polikarpova, Anna V; Bulanova, Elena A; Guseva, Alexandra A; Morozov, Ivan A; Rubtsov, Petr M; Smirnova, Olga V; Shchelkunova, Tatiana A

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that progesterone may possess anti-tumorigenic properties. However, a growth-modulatory role of progestins in human cancer cells remains obscure. With the discovery of a new class of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) belonging to the progestin and adipoQ receptor gene family, it becomes important to study the effect of this hormone on proliferation of tumor cells that do not express classical nuclear progesterone receptors (nPRs). To identify a cell line expressing high levels of mPRs and lacking nPRs, we examined mRNA levels of nPRs and three forms of mPRs in sixteen human tumor cell lines of different origin. High expression of mPR mRNA has been found in pancreatic adenocarcinoma BxPC3 cells, while nPR mRNA has not been detected in these cells. Western blot analysis confirmed these findings at the protein level. We revealed specific binding of labeled progesterone in these cells with affinity constant similar to that of human mPR expressed in yeast cells. Progesterone at high concentration of 20 μM significantly reduced the mRNA levels of proliferation markers Ki67 and PCNA, as well as of cyclin D1, and increased the mRNA levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Progesterone (1 μM and 20 μM) significantly inhibited proliferative activity of BxPC3 cells. These results point to anti-proliferative effects of the progesterone high concentrations on BxPC3 cells and suggest that activation of mPRs may mediate this action. Our data are a starting point for further investigations regarding the application of progesterone in pancreatic cancer.

  9. Cloning and structural and expressional characterization of BcpLH gene preferentially expressed in folding leaf of Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Vegetative growth of Chinese cabbage undergoes the four successive stages which are characterized with the definite types of juvenile,rosette,folding and head leaves.From shoot tips of Chinese cabbage at early folding stage,we constructed a cDNA library and screened the differentially expressed cDNA clones using the cDNAs derived from developing folding leaves and rosette leaves as probes.One complete length of cDNA clone is designated as BcpLH.Computer alignment matched BcpLH to the domains of double-stranded RNA binding (DBRM) and the homologous regions were recognized between BcpLH and human and mouse double-stranded RNA-binding protein TRBP.PCR expression analysis shows that during vegetative growth BcpLH gene was expressed preferentially in folding leaves at folding stage.Transcripts of BcpLH gene were increased when plants were sprayed with IAA.It is deduced that BcpLH gene may be related to initiation of folding leaf and leafy head and induced by auxin in the aspect of transcriptional expression.

  10. LH/hCG-Receptor Expression May Have a Negative Prognostic Value in Low-Risk Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noci, Ivo; Sorbi, Flavia; Mannini, Luca; Projetto, Elisabetta; Pillozzi, Serena; Ghizzoni, Viola; Lottini, Tiziano; Moncini, Daniela; Baroni, Gianna; Mungai, Francesco; Arcangeli, Annarosa; Fambrini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    A 51 year-old woman was diagnosed with endometrial cancer (EC) and underwent surgical staging. Pathological evaluation showed a 2 cm × 1 cm G2 endometrioid EC with a 30% myometrial deep invasion (FIGO Stage 1A). The patient was classified as low risk of recurrence, and no adjuvant treatment was offered. Six months after surgery, the patient developed an early vescico-vaginal recurrence, and chemotherapy treatment was started. Few months later, a subsequent involvement of vaginal wall, ileum, and omentum was detected, and the patient underwent second surgery. LH/hCG-receptor (LH/hCG-R) expression has been previously reported to be associated with an invasive phenotype in EC cells. Moreover, in a preclinical mouse model of EC behaves as a prometastatic molecular device. We analyzed the expression level of LH/hCG-R in cancer specimens collected during surgeries. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses showed a strong expression of both mRNA and protein for LH/hCG-R in all specimens. LH/hCG-R expression may be assessed together with other clinicopathological parameters in order to better predict the risk of recurrence in low-risk EC patients. Further clinical trials are warranted in order to validate LH/hCG-R as biomarker in EC.

  11. Disturbances in production of progesterone and their implications in plant studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Anna; Oklestkova, Jana; Novak, Ondrej; Śniegowska-Świerk, Katarzyna; Snaczke, Zuzanna; Pociecha, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    Progesterone is a mammalian hormone that has also been discovered in plants but its physiological function in plants is not explained. Experiments using inhibitors of progesterone synthesis and binding would be useful in studies on the significance of this compound in plants. Until now, trilostane and mifepristone have been used in medical sciences as progesterone biosynthesis and binding inhibitors, respectively. We tested these synthetic steroids for the first time in plants and found that they reduced the content of progesterone in wheat. The aim of further experiments was to answer whether the potential disturbances in the production/binding of progesterone, influence resistance to environmental stress (drought) and the development of wheat. Inhibitors and progesterone were applied to plants via roots in a concentration of 0.25-0.5mg/l water. Both inhibitors lowered the activity of CO2 binding enzyme (Rubisco) in wheat exposed to drought stress and trilostane additionally lowered the chlorophyll content. However, trilostane-treated plants were rescued by treatment with exogenous progesterone. The inhibitors also modulated the development of winter wheat, which indicated the significance of steroid regulators and their receptors in this process. In this study, in addition to progesterone and its inhibitors, brassinosteroid (24-epibrassinolide) and an inhibitor of biosynthesis of brassinosteroids were also applied. Mifepristone inhibited the generative development of wheat (like 24-epibrassinolide), while trilostane (like progesterone and an inhibitor of biosynthesis of brassinosteroids) stimulated the development. We propose a model of steroid-induced regulation of the development of winter wheat, where brassinosteroids act as inhibitors of generative development, while progesterone or other pregnane derivatives act as stimulators.

  12. Sex-Specific Effects of Progesterone on Early Outcome of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Justin T; Lei, Beilei; Sheng, Huaxin; Venkatraman, Talagnair; Lascola, Christopher D; Warner, David S; James, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical evidence suggests that progesterone improves recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); however, gonadal hormones have sex-specific effects. Therefore, an experimental model of ICH was used to assess recovery after progesterone administration in male and female rats. ICH was induced in male and female Wistar rats via stereotactic intrastriatal injection of clostridial collagenase (0.5 U). Animals were randomized to receive vehicle or 8 mg/kg progesterone intraperitoneally at 2 h, then subcutaneously at 5, 24, 48, and 72 h after injury. Outcomes included relevant physiology during the first 3 h, hemorrhage and edema evolution over the first 24 h, proinflammatory transcription factor and cytokine regulation at 24 h, rotarod latency and neuroseverity score over the first 7 days, and microglial activation/macrophage recruitment at 7 days after injury. Rotarod latency (p = 0.001) and neuroseverity score (p = 0.01) were improved in progesterone-treated males, but worsened in progesterone-treated females (p = 0.028 and p = 0.008, respectively). Progesterone decreased cerebral edema (p = 0.04), microglial activation/macrophage recruitment (p < 0.001), and proinflammatory transcription factor phosphorylated nuclear factor-x03BA;B p65 expression (p = 0.0038) in males but not females, independent of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and toll-like receptor-4 expression. Cerebral perfusion was increased in progesterone-treated males at 4 h (p = 0.043) but not 24 h after injury. Hemorrhage volume, arterial blood gases, glucose, and systolic blood pressure were not affected. Progesterone administration improved early neurobehavioral recovery and decreased secondary neuroinflammation after ICH in male rats. Paradoxically, progesterone worsened neurobehavioral recovery and did not modify neuroinflammation in female rats. Future work should isolate mechanisms of sex-specific progesterone effects after ICH. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 Mediates Progesterone-Induced Suppression of Oocyte Meiotic Prophase I and Primordial Folliculogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Yan; Feng, Lizhao; Wang, Zhengpin; Niu, Wanbo; Du, Xiaoyan; Tang, Wang; Li, Yuna; Wang, Chao; Chen, Zhenwen

    2016-11-16

    Well-timed progression of primordial folliculogenesis is essential for mammalian female fertility. Progesterone (P4) inhibits primordial follicle formation under physiological conditions; however, P4 receptor that mediates this effect and its underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we used an in vitro organ culture system to show that progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) mediated P4-induced inhibition of oocyte meiotic prophase I and primordial follicle formation. We found that membrane-impermeable BSA-conjugated P4 inhibited primordial follicle formation similar to that by P4. Interestingly, PGRMC1 and its partner serpine1 mRNA-binding protein 1 were highly expressed in oocytes in perinatal ovaries. Inhibition or RNA interference of PGRMC1 abolished the suppressive effect of P4 on follicle formation. Furthermore, P4-PGRMC1 interaction blocked oocyte meiotic progression and decreased intra-oocyte cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in perinatal ovaries. cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP reversed P4-PGRMC1 interaction-induced inhibition of meiotic progression and follicle formation. Thus, our results indicated that PGRMC1 mediated P4-induced suppression of oocyte meiotic progression and primordial folliculogenesis by decreasing intra-oocyte cAMP levels.

  14. Fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolite levels in the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlbauer M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of measuring fecal steroid hormone metabolites as a noninvasive technique for monitoring reproductive function in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Levels of the estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay in fecal samples collected over 12 weeks from 4 captive female B. variegatus sloths. The validation of the radioimmunoassay for evaluation of fecal steroid metabolites was carried out by collecting 10 blood samples on the same day as defecation. There was a significant direct correlation between the plasma and fecal E2 and P4 levels (P < 0.05, Pearson's test, thereby validating this noninvasive technique for the study of the estrous cycle in these animals. Ovulation was detected in two sloths (SL03 and SL04 whose E2 levels reached 2237.43 and 6713.26 pg/g wet feces weight, respectively, for over four weeks, followed by an increase in P4 metabolites reaching 33.54 and 3242.68 ng/g wet feces weight, respectively. Interestingly, SL04, which presented higher levels of E2 and P4 metabolites, later gave birth to a healthy baby sloth. The results obtained indicate that this is a reliable technique for recording gonadal steroid secretion and thereby reproduction in sloths.

  15. Fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolite levels in the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbauer, M; Duarte, D P F; Gilmore, D P; Costa, C P da

    2006-02-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of measuring fecal steroid hormone metabolites as a noninvasive technique for monitoring reproductive function in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Levels of the estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay in fecal samples collected over 12 weeks from 4 captive female B. variegatus sloths. The validation of the radioimmunoassay for evaluation of fecal steroid metabolites was carried out by collecting 10 blood samples on the same day as defecation. There was a significant direct correlation between the plasma and fecal E2 and P4 levels (P sloths (SL03 and SL04) whose E2 levels reached 2237.43 and 6713.26 pg/g wet feces weight, respectively, for over four weeks, followed by an increase in P4 metabolites reaching 33.54 and 3242.68 ng/g wet feces weight, respectively. Interestingly, SL04, which presented higher levels of E2 and P4 metabolites, later gave birth to a healthy baby sloth. The results obtained indicate that this is a reliable technique for recording gonadal steroid secretion and thereby reproduction in sloths.

  16. CFD investigation of thermal and pressurization performance in LH2 tank during discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Yanzhong; Li, Cui; Zhao, Zhixiang

    2013-10-01

    Predictions of thermal and pressurization performance in a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank during liquid discharge is of significance to the design and optimization of a rocket pressurization system. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model is introduced to simulate the pressurized discharge event of LH2 tank. The wall region together with the fluid region is simultaneously considered as the computational domain, and low-Re k-ε model is applied to account for the fluid-wall heat exchange effect. Liquid-vapor phase change effect is also involved in the model. Comparison of the numerical results with existing experimental data suggests that the CFD model has a good adaptability in pressurization computation. Detailed characteristics, such as pressurant gas requirement, pressure altering history, and temperature distribution inside the tank, can be obtained by the model. The difference of pressurant gas, selecting helium or vapor H2, may result in the variations in pressure and temperature histories. Pressurization by vapor H2 supplies a higher pressure and also a temperature rise, which is significant to consider the selection of pressurant gas. The influences of phase change effect and injector structure on pressurization behaviors are also analyzed. The computational results show that liquid-vapor phase change has a slight influence on the pressurization behaviors. Significant pressure decay at the beginning stage of process may occur in the case of no-diffuser injector application since the incoming gas is excessively cooled by cold LH2. The results show that the present CFD model has a good adaptability in the prediction of pressurization behaviors and is a useful tool for the design and optimization of a pressurization system.

  17. LOX/LH2 propulsion system for launch vehicle upper stage, test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, T.; Imachi, U.; Yuzawa, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Higashino, K.

    1984-01-01

    The test results of small LOX/LH2 engines for two propulsion systems, a pump fed system and a pressure fed system are reported. The pump fed system has the advantages of higher performances and higher mass fraction. The pressure fed system has the advantages of higher reliability and relative simplicity. Adoption of these cryogenic propulsion systems for upper stage of launch vehicle increases the payload capability with low cost. The 1,000 kg thrust class engine was selected for this cryogenic stage. A thrust chamber assembly for the pressure fed propulsion system was tested. It is indicated that it has good performance to meet system requirements.

  18. Early postnatal treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with recombinant human FSH and LH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Schmidt, Ida M; Toppari, Jorma

    2002-01-01

    postnatally, to mimic the physiological development, would improve testicular growth and fertility potential later in life. DESIGN: Our patient presented with micropenis. Serum hormone concentrations were measured monthly after delivery: LH and testosterone were undetectable, and FSH and inhibin B were below...... to values within normal limits (0.7-1.88 IU/l, 0.17-3.24 IU/l, 121-268 pg/ml and 40-55 pmol/l respectively), whereas serum testosterone remained undetectable. Penile length increased from 1.6 to 2.4 cm and testicular volume, assessed by ultrasound, increased by 170%. No significant adverse events were...

  19. Effect of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine and 3,5-diiodothyronine on progesterone production, cAMP synthesis, and mRNA expression of STAR, CYP11A1, and HSD3B genes in granulosa layer of chicken preovulatory follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechman, A; Pawlowska, K; Hrabia, A

    2011-10-01

    In vitro studies were performed to assess whether stimulatory effects of triiodothyronine (T3) on progesterone (P4) production in a granulosa layer (GL) of chicken preovulatory follicles are associated with 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and mRNA expression of STAR protein, CYP11A1, and HSD3B. Effects of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) on steroidogenic function in these follicles were also investigated. The GL of F3 to F1 follicles was incubated in medium supplemented with T3 or 3,5-T2, LH, or forskolin (F), and a combination of each iodothyronine with LH or F. Levels of P4 and cAMP in culture media were determined by RIA. Expression of genes involved in P4 synthesis (ie, STAR protein, CYP11A1, and HSD3B) in the GL of F3 to F1 follicles incubated in medium with T3 or 3,5-T2 and their combination with LH was performed by real-time PCR. Triiodothyronine increased basal and LH- and F-stimulated P4 secretion by preovulatory follicles. The 3,5-T2 elevated P4 synthesis by F3, had no effect on F2 follicles, and diminished P4 production by the GL of F1 follicles. It had no effect on LH-stimulated P4 production; however, it augmented F-stimulated P4 production by F2 and F1 follicles. Although T3 did not affect basal and F-stimulated cAMP synthesis by the GL of preovulatory follicles, it increased LH-stimulated synthesis of this nucleotide. However, 3,5-T2 elevated F-stimulated cAMP synthesis in F3 and F2 follicles; it did not change basal and LH-stimulated cAMP production. Triiodothyronine decreased basal STAR and CYP11A1 mRNAs in F3 follicles, increased them in F1 follicles, and elevated HSD3B mRNA levels in F1 follicles. Triiodothyronine augmented LH-stimulated STAR, CYP11A1, and HSD3B mRNA levels in F2 and CYP11A1 in F1 follicles. However, T3 decreased LH-stimulated STAR and HSD3B mRNA levels in F1 follicles. The 3,5-T2 did not affect basal STAR and CYP11A1 mRNA expression in all investigated follicles; however, it decreased LH-stimulated STAR

  20. Comparison of the administration of progesterone versus progesterone and vitamin D in improvement of outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury: A randomized clinical trial with placebo group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Aminmansour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI, many of single treatments have not been successful in prevention and cure of these kinds of injuries. The neuroprotective effect of progesterone drug on severe brain injuries has been identified, and recently, the neuroprotective effect of vitamin D has also been studied as the combination of these two drugs has shown better effects on animal samples in some studies. This study was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin D and progesterone on brain injury treatment after brain trauma. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on patients with severe brain trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS ≤ 8 from April to September, 2011. The patients were divided to 3 groups (placebo, progesterone, progesterone-vitamin D, each with 20 people. Upon the patients′ admission, their GCS and demographic information were recorded. After 3 months, they were reassessed, and their GCS and GOS (Glasgow outcome scale were recorded. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA. Results: Before intervention, GCS mean of the placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D groups were 6.3 ± 0.88, 6.31 ± 0.87, and 6 ± 0.88, respectively. They increased to 9.16 ± 1.11, 10.25 ± 1.34, and 11.27 ± 2.27, respectively 3 months after intervention. There was a significant difference among GCS means of the 3 groups (P-value = 0.001. GOS was classified to 2 main categories of favorable and unfavorable recovery, of which, favorable recovery in placebo, progesterone, and progesterone-vitamin D was 25%, 45%, and 60%, respectively which showed a statistical significant difference among the groups (P-value = 0.03. Conclusion: The results showed that recovery rate in patients with severe brain trauma in the group receiving progesterone and vitamin D together was significantly higher than that of progesterone group, which was in turn higher than that of placebo group.

  1. Novel anticonvulsive effects of progesterone in a mouse model of hippocampal electrical kindling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, M; Lang, M; Gane, J; Chow, E; Wu, C; Zhang, L

    2014-01-17

    Progesterone is a known anticonvulsant, with its inhibitory effects generally attributed to its secondary metabolite, 5α,3α-tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), and THP's enhancement of GABAA receptor activity. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests that progesterone may have non-genomic actions independent of the GABAA receptor. In this study, we explored THP/GABAA-independent anticonvulsive actions of progesterone in a mouse model of hippocampal kindling and in mouse entorhinal slices in vitro. Specifically, we examined the effects of progesterone in kindled mice with or without pretreatments with finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor known to block the metabolism of progesterone to THP. In addition, we examined the effects of progesterone on entorhinal epileptiform potentials in the presence of a GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin and finasteride. Adult male mice were kindled via a daily stimulation protocol. Electroencephalographic (EEG) discharges were recorded from the hippocampus or cortex to assess "focal" or "generalized" seizure activity. Kindled mice were treated with intra-peritoneal injections of progesterone (10, 35, 100 and 160mg/kg) with or without finasteride pretreatment (50 or 100mg/kg), THP (1, 3.5, 10 and 30mg/kg), midazolam (2mg/kg) and carbamazepine (50mg/kg). Entorhinal cortical slices were prepared from naïve young mice, and repetitive epileptiform potentials were induced by 4-aminopyridine (100μM), picrotoxin (100μM) and finasteride (1μM). Pretreatment with finasteride did not abolish the anticonvulsant effects of progesterone. In finasteride-pretreated mice, progesterone at 100 and 160mg/kg decreased cortical but not hippocampal afterdischarges (ADs). Carbamazepine mimicked the effects of progesterone with finasteride pretreatments in decreasing cortical discharges and motor seizures, whereas midazolam produced effects similar to progesterone alone or THP in decreasing hippocampal ADs and motor seizures. In brain slices, progesterone

  2. Endogenous progesterone and its cellular binding sites in wheat exposed to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Anna; Oklešťková, Jana; Siwek, Agata; Dziurka, Michał; Pociecha, Ewa; Kocurek, Maciej; Novák, Ondřej

    2013-11-01

    Progesterone is a basic hormone that regulates the metabolism in mammals. The presence of this compound has also been found in certain plants. It is believed that progesterone can regulate growth processes and resistance to stress, however, its precise role in plants remains unknown. The research conducted in this study was aimed at analyzing the content of endogenous progesterone and its cellular binding sites in the leaves of spring wheat exposed to drought. Changes were studied in two cultivars of wheat - a cultivar sensitive to drought (Katoda) and tolerant cultivar (Monsun). Plants had undergone periodic droughts during the seedling stage or in the phase of heading. The occurrence of free progesterone as well as its conjugated forms was observed in wheat studied. The amount of progesterone ranged from 0.2 to 5.8pmolgFW(-1) and was dependent on the cultivar, age of the plants, stage of development and fluctuated as a result of the exposure to drought. Cv. Katoda responded to a water deficit by lowering the amount of progesterone and cv. Monsun by increasing its level. Progesterone in plants grown in limited water conditions occurred primarily in a free form. While in the optimal watering conditions, some of its pool was found in the form of conjugates. In the spring wheat the occurrence of binding sites for progesterone was detected in cell membranes, cytoplasm and nuclei in the range of 10-36fmol/mg of protein. The wheat cultivars tested, Monsun and Katoda, differ in their concentration of cellular binding sites for progesterone. This number varied in the individual fractions during different stages of plant development and due to the effect of drought stress. The number of binding sites for progesterone located in the membrane fraction of seedlings and flag leaves increased significantly under drought in the cv. Katoda (35-46%), but did not change in the cv. Monsun. Whereas the number of cytoplasmic progesterone binding sites increased during the drought in

  3. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74±24.331, 365.9±16.55, and 367.5±21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325±0.243, 0.341±0.022, and 0.357  ±  0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6  ±  26.75, 315.6  ±  13.08, and 332.08  ±  24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P=.001. This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47% of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46% without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0% fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P=.017. ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P<.05. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele and fertile (P<.05. Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with

  4. Partially Deglycosylated Equine LH Preferentially Activates β-Arrestin-Dependent Signaling at the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbi, Vanessa; Tranchant, Thibaud; Durand, Guillaume; Musnier, Astrid; Decourtye, Jérémy; Piketty, Vincent; Butnev, Vladimir Y.; Bousfield, George R.; Crépieux, Pascale; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Reiter, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Deglycosylated FSH is known to trigger poor Gαs coupling while efficiently binding its receptor. In the present study, we tested the possibility that a deglycosylated equine LH (eLHdg) might be able to selectively activate β-arrestin-dependent signaling. We compared native eLH to an eLH derivative [i.e. truncated eLHβ (Δ121-149) combined with asparagine56-deglycosylated eLHα (eLHdg)] previously reported as an antagonist of cAMP accumulation at the FSH receptor (FSH-R). We confirmed that, when used in conjunction with FSH, eLHdg acted as an antagonist for cAMP accumulation in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the FSH-R. Furthermore, when used alone at concentrations up to 1 nm, eLHdg had no detectable agonistic activity on cAMP accumulation, protein kinase A activity or cAMP-responsive element-dependent transcriptional activity. At higher concentrations, however, a weak agonistic action was observed with eLHdg, whereas eLH led to robust responses whatever the concentration. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered receptor internalization and led to β-arrestin recruitment. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered ERK and ribosomal protein (rp) S6 phosphorylation at 1 nm. The depletion of endogenous β-arrestins had only a partial effect on eLH-induced ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation was completely abolished at all time points in β-arrestin-depleted cells. Together, these results show that eLHdg has the ability to preferentially activate β-arrestin-dependent signaling at the FSH-R. This finding provides a new conceptual and experimental framework to revisit the physiological meaning of gonadotropin structural heterogeneity. Importantly, it also opens a field of possibilities for the development of selective modulators of gonadotropin receptors. PMID:20107152

  5. Partially deglycosylated equine LH preferentially activates beta-arrestin-dependent signaling at the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbi, Vanessa; Tranchant, Thibaud; Durand, Guillaume; Musnier, Astrid; Decourtye, Jérémy; Piketty, Vincent; Butnev, Vladimir Y; Bousfield, George R; Crépieux, Pascale; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Reiter, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Deglycosylated FSH is known to trigger poor Galphas coupling while efficiently binding its receptor. In the present study, we tested the possibility that a deglycosylated equine LH (eLHdg) might be able to selectively activate beta-arrestin-dependent signaling. We compared native eLH to an eLH derivative [i.e. truncated eLHbeta (Delta121-149) combined with asparagine56-deglycosylated eLHalpha (eLHdg)] previously reported as an antagonist of cAMP accumulation at the FSH receptor (FSH-R). We confirmed that, when used in conjunction with FSH, eLHdg acted as an antagonist for cAMP accumulation in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the FSH-R. Furthermore, when used alone at concentrations up to 1 nM, eLHdg had no detectable agonistic activity on cAMP accumulation, protein kinase A activity or cAMP-responsive element-dependent transcriptional activity. At higher concentrations, however, a weak agonistic action was observed with eLHdg, whereas eLH led to robust responses whatever the concentration. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered receptor internalization and led to beta-arrestin recruitment. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered ERK and ribosomal protein (rp) S6 phosphorylation at 1 nM. The depletion of endogenous beta-arrestins had only a partial effect on eLH-induced ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation was completely abolished at all time points in beta-arrestin-depleted cells. Together, these results show that eLHdg has the ability to preferentially activate beta-arrestin-dependent signaling at the FSH-R. This finding provides a new conceptual and experimental framework to revisit the physiological meaning of gonadotropin structural heterogeneity. Importantly, it also opens a field of possibilities for the development of selective modulators of gonadotropin receptors.

  6. Downregulation of LH and FSH receptors after hCG and eCG treatments in the porcine oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małysz-Cymborska, I; Andronowska, A

    2016-10-01

    The influence of induction of ovulation and superovulation with eCG and hCG on LH and FSH receptor levels in porcine oviducts on day 3 postcoitum was studied. In experiment I, gilts were assigned into cyclic (control; n = 5) and inseminated (n = 5) groups. In experiment II, there were 3 groups of animals: inseminated (n = 5), induced ovulation/inseminated (750 IU eCG, 500 IU hCG; n = 5) and superovulated/inseminated (1500 IU eCG, 1000 IU hCG; n = 5) gilts. Oviduct tissues were collected 3 d after insemination or PBS infusion. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of FSH receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LH/CGR) was measured by real-time reverse transcription PCR and protein levels using Western blots. Localization of LH/CGR and FSHR-positive cells was studied by immunohistochemical staining. Insemination by itself did not influence mRNA and protein levels of LH/CGR. However, FSHR mRNA expression in the isthmus and ampulla of the oviduct was affected by insemination (P hCG and eCG did not affect LH/CGR and FSHR mRNA expression, either in the isthmus or in the ampulla. Nevertheless, superovulation decreased LH/CGR protein level in the oviductal ampulla (P hCG, especially in high doses, can change LH/CGR and FSHR levels in porcine oviducts. This may in turn alter many signaling pathways, eg, PGs or vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis, and consequently disturb the oviductal environment, with possible detrimental effects on fertilization and/or embryonic development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of kisspeptin-10, LH and hCG on serum testosterone concentrations in stallions, donkeys and mules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Rana Waseem; Shah, Syed Aftab Hussain; Qureshi, Irfan Zia

    2017-07-21

    This study was conducted to determine the response of serum testosterone (T) in male equines (stallions, donkeys and mules) after administering intravenous doses of kisspeptin-10 (KP-10), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and saline as a control. The animals were divided into four groups of three each: Group I, 3 ml of 0.95% saline; Group II, 50 μg KP-10; Group III, 2500 IU hCG and group IV, 400 μg LH. The administration of KP-10 and hCG to stallions resulted in a significant increase in serum T concentration at 240 min; whereas it was significantly higher at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min with LH treatment as compared to pre-dose concentrations. Both KP-10 and hCG significantly elevated the T concentrations in donkeys at 120 and 240 min, respectively; whereas it was significantly higher at 60, 120, and 240 min with LH treatment as compared to pre-dose concentration. Both KP-10 and LH elevated T in donkeys at 240 min as compared to the control and hCG concentrations. After 120 and 240 min, T concentrations in mules were higher (p hCG and LH as compared to the control. In conclusion, the administration of KP-10, hCG and LH elevate the serum T concentration in normal male equines. It is suggested that KP-10 may be useful in situations where an increase in T is desired. Further work is required to determine the effect of KP-10 on T in male equids with reproductive abnormalities before it can be used in clinical situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [The response of free alpha-subunit of glycoprotein hormones to LH-RH administration (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, T; Nishimura, R; Ashitaka, Y; Tojo, S

    1982-05-20

    The responses of immunoreactive free alpha-subunit of glycoprotein hormones to LH-RH administration were studied in normal men and women, and in patients with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, trophoblastic disease and isolated ectopic alpha-subunit producing tumor. In patients with hypergonadotropic hypergonadism, basal levels of serum alpha-subunit were elevated and the responses to LH-RH were also excessive compared to those of normal men and women. Conversely, in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, basal levels of alpha-subunit were significantly low and its response to LH-RH was barely detectable. The response of alpha-subunit to constant intravenous infusion of LH-RH (1 microgram/kg/h) was studied in 4 normal men. Both LH and alpha-subunit revealed biphasic patterns of elevation. Its releasing pattern suggests the possibility that two pools of gonadotropin are involved in the production and secretion of alpha-subunit. In patients with trophoblastic disease secreting low levels of hCG (18 mIU/ml), the responses of alpha-subunit as well as pituitary gonadotropin to LH-RH were normal. However, in cases of high concentrations of hCG (1000 mIU/ml), the responses of alpha-subunit and gonadotropin were suppressed. After the administration of LH-RH to a patient with an isolated ectopic alpha-subunit producing tumor, the serum concentration of pituitary gonadotropin increased within the normal range, although that of alpha-subunit did not show a significant change. These results suggest that the production of alpha-subunit by tumors may be autonomous in contrast with a regulatory production in the pituitary.

  9. The effect of cholecystokinin on intracellular Ca2+, membrane-associated protein kinase-C activity, and progesterone production in chicken granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, P; Wang, J; Vanderhyden, B C; Chakravarthy, B; Durkin, J; Whitefield, J F

    1993-11-01

    Nerve fibers immunoreactive for cholecystokinin (CCK) have been observed in the rat ovary, but the function of this gut peptide in the ovary is not known. These studies were designed to investigate the effects of the CCK C-terminal octapeptide (CCK-8) on the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i), protein kinase-C (PKC) activity, and progesterone secretion in granulosa cells obtained from the two largest preovulatory follicles (F1 and F2) of hens. [Ca2+]i was measured in cells loaded with the Ca(2+)-responsive fluorescent dye fura-2. The resting [Ca2+]i in these cells was 96 +/- 5 nM. There was a rapid (i.e. within 5-10 sec) 2- to 4-fold increase in [Ca2+]i in 70% of the cells examined after the addition of 10(-7) M CCK-8. The CCK-8-triggered [Ca2+]i transient was not affected by incubating the cells in Ca(2+)-free medium containing 2 mM EGTA or by pretreating the cells with a Ca2+ channel blocker, such as La3+ (1 mM) or D600 (100 microM). The CCK-8-triggered [Ca2+]i surge was abolished by pretreating the cells with the inhibitor of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, neomycin (1.5 mM), the CCK antagonists proglumide (1 mM) and benzotript (1 mM), or pertussis toxin (50 ng/ml for 12 h). Incubating granulosa cells with CCK-8 (2 x 10(-7) M) for 10 min stimulated a 1.60 +/- 0.04-fold increase in membrane-associated PKC activity over control levels. In 3-h incubations, CCK-8 (10(-6)-10(-8) M) did not affect basal or LH (20 or 100 ng/ml-stimulated progesterone production. These studies demonstrate that CCK-8 causes a transient increase in chicken granulosa cell [Ca2+]i through the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and activates membrane-associated PKC activity, but does not affect progesterone production. These results suggest the presence of G-protein-coupled phospholipase-C-activating CCK receptors on the surface of these cells.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of the Podoviridae phage LH-01 in mice infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae%肺炎克雷伯菌短尾噬菌体LH-01药代动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松建; 张改; 靳静; 李振江; 王书伟; 李亚辉; 王小亭; 王进; 王中全

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨噬菌体LH-01在小鼠体内的药代动力学及其影响因素. 方法 观察LH-01在小鼠体内的代谢过程和LH-01中和抗体产生规律.建立小鼠败血症感染模型,使用高剂量和低剂量LH-01进行治疗,观察小鼠健康评分(0~5),同时检测小鼠外周血和主要脏器内活菌数和噬菌体滴度变化规律. 结果 噬菌体LH 01在小鼠体内具有较低的清除率,活性噬菌体可在小鼠体内持续存在数天,10d后完全消失.2周时外周血LH-01中和抗体效价为1∶8,5周时最高为1∶1 024.用高剂量组(1010 PFU/ml)和低价量(104 PFU/ml)的噬菌体LH-01尾静脉注射治疗小鼠败血症,两组组小鼠健康评分最终差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),最终生存率均为100%,而对照组为0%.治疗组小鼠外周血和脏器(肝脏、脾脏和肺脏)中的菌落数显著少于对照组菌落数(P<0.01),尤以脾脏中菌落数减少最显著.LH-01治疗中具有自我放大效应,高剂量和低剂量治疗组小鼠外周血、肝脏和肺脏中的噬菌体滴度与噬菌体对照组相比均显著升高(P<0.01),尤以外周血增加最为明显. 结论 LH-01具有杀菌效率高、自我增殖能力强、活性维持时间长、中和抗体产生晚等良好的药代动力学特性,可试用于多重耐药肺炎克雷伯菌感染的治疗.%Objective To investigate the pharmacokinetics of the phage LH-01 and factors influencing its pharmacokinetics in mice.Methods Changes in the pharmacokinetics of the phage LH-01 were observed in different tissues of mice,and the titer of phage-neutralizing antibodies in serum was also determined.After mice with pneumoniae-induced septicemia were treated with different doses of LH-01 (high and low),the health of those mice was assessed on a scale of 0 to 5 points.The number of phage particles and/or surviving bacterial cells in the organs (PFU/g or CFU/g) and blood (PFU/ml or CFU/ml) were measured.Results Phage LH-01 was still viable in vivo

  11. Progesterone release from magnetic alginate/chitosan microcapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Melina Vasconcelos; Castro, Mayara de Freitas e; Sanchez Rodriguez, Ruben J., E-mail: sanchez@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Rojas-Ayala, Chachi; Baggio-Saitovitch, Elisa Maria [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisa Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeir, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were prepared using the hydrothermal method (160°C) in a closed system and characterized with the aid of the techniques of X-ray Diffraction patterns (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase showed high crystallinity and medium crystallite size of 19nm with superparamagnetic properties, reversible behavior and saturation magnetization of 43 emu g{sup -1}. The nanoparticles coated with alginate / chitosan were characterized morphologically by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope. The microcapsules have a regular spherical shape with the main contribution of the size distribution in the range of 34-53μm. The progesterone released was 14% higher when external magnetic field was applied. (author)

  12. Dependence of the L-H power threshold on magnetic balance and heating method in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingi, R.; Biewer, T.; Meyer, H.; Bell, R.; Leblanc, B.; Chang, C. S.

    2007-11-01

    H-mode access is a critical issue for next step devices, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is projected to have a modest heating power margin over the projected L-H power threshold (PLH). The importance of a second X-point in setting the value of PLH has been clarified in recent experiments on several tokamaks. Specifically a reduction of PLH was observed when the magnetic configuration was changed from single null (SN) to double null (DN) in the MAST, NSTX, and ASDEX-Upgrade devices [1]. Motivated by these results, detailed PLH studies on NSTX have compared discharges with neutral beam and rf heating, as a function of drsep. Similar PLH values and edge parameters are observed with the two heating methods in the same magnetic configuration, with PLH ˜ 0.6 MW lowest in DN and increasing to ˜ 1.1 MW and 2-4 MW in lower-SN and upper-SN configurations respectively (ion grad-B-drift towards lower X-point). The evolution of the experimental profiles of parameters in L-mode before the L/H transition will be compared with simulations using the XGC code (C.S. Chang). [1] MEYER, H. et al., Nucl. Fusion 46 (2006) 64.

  13. X-rays from the location of the Bactrian Transient ASASSN-15lh

    CERN Document Server

    Margutti, R; Chornock, R; Milisavljevic, D; Berger, E; Blanchard, P K; Guidorzi, C; Migliori, G; Kamble, A; Lunnan, R; Nicholl, M; Coppejans, D L; Dall'Osso, S; Drout, M R; Perna, R; Sbarufatti, B

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of persistent soft X-ray radiation with L_x ~ 10^41-10^42 erg/s at the location of the extremely luminous, double-humped transient ASASSN-15lh as revealed by Chandra and Swift. We interpret this finding in the context of observations from our multiwavelength campaign, which revealed the presence of weak narrow nebular emission features from the host-galaxy nucleus and clear differences with respect to superluminous supernova optical spectra. Significant UV flux variability on short time-scales detected at the time of the re-brightening disfavors the shock interaction scenario as the source of energy powering the long-lived UV emission, while deep radio limits exclude the presence of relativistic jets propagating into a low-density environment. We propose a model where the extreme luminosity and double-peaked temporal structure of ASASSN-15lh is powered by a central source of ionizing radiation that produces a sudden change of the ejecta opacity at later times. As a result, UV radiatio...

  14. The Unusual Super-luminous Supernovae SN 2011kl and ASASSN-15lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersten, Melina C.; Benvenuto, Omar G.; Orellana, Mariana; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Two recently discovered very luminous supernovae (SNe) present stimulating cases to explore the extents of the available theoretical models. SN 2011kl represents the first detection of a supernova explosion associated with an ultra-long duration gamma-ray burst. ASASSN-15lh was even claimed as the most luminous SN ever discovered, challenging the scenarios so far proposed for stellar explosions. Here we use our radiation hydrodynamics code in order to simulate magnetar-powered SNe. To avoid explicitly assuming neutron star properties, we adopt the magnetar luminosity and spin-down timescale as free parameters of the model. We find that the light curve (LC) of SN 2011kl is consistent with a magnetar power source, as previously proposed, but we note that some amount of 56Ni (≳ 0.08{M}⊙ ) is necessary to explain the low contrast between the LC peak and tail. For the case of ASASSN-15lh, we find physically plausible magnetar parameters that reproduce the overall shape of the LC provided the progenitor mass is relatively large (an ejecta mass of ≈ 6{M}⊙ ). The ejecta hydrodynamics of this event is dominated by the magnetar input, while the effect is more moderate for SN 2011kl. We conclude that a magnetar model may be used for the interpretation of these events and that the hydrodynamical modeling is necessary to derive the properties of powerful magnetars and their progenitors.

  15. The Unusual Super-Luminous Supernovae SN 2011kl and ASASSN-15lh

    CERN Document Server

    Bersten, Melina C; Orellana, Mariana; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Two recently discovered very luminous supernovae (SNe) present stimulating cases to explore the extents of the available theoretical models. SN 2011kl represents the first detection of a supernova explosion associated with an ultra-long duration gamma ray burst. ASASSN-15lh was even claimed as the most luminous SN ever discovered, challenging the scenarios so far proposed for stellar explosions. Here we use our radiation hydrodynamics code in order to simulate magnetar powered SNe. To avoid explicitly assuming neutron star properties we adopt the magnetar luminosity and spin-down timescale as free parameters of the model. We find that the light curve (LC) of SN 2011kl is consistent with a magnetar power source, as previously proposed, but we note that some amount of 56^Ni (> 0.08 M_sun) is necessary to explain the low contrast between the LC peak and tail. For the case of ASASSN-15lh we find physically plausible magnetar parameters that reproduce the overall shape of the LC provided the progenitor mass is rel...

  16. Impact of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations on the L-H Transition on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Scannell, R; Carr, M; Hawke, J; Henderson, S S; O'Gorman, T; Patel, A; Shaw, A; Thornton, A

    2014-01-01

    The impact of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on the power required to access H-mode is examined experimentally on MAST. Applying RMP in n=2,3,4 and 6 configurations causes significant delays to the timing of the L-H transition at low applied fields and prevents the transition at high fields. The experiment was primarily performed at RMP fields sufficient to cause moderate increases in ELM frequency, f mitigated/f natural~3. To obtain H-mode with RMPs at this field, an increase of injected beam power is required of at least 50% for n=3 and n=4 RMP and 100% for n=6 RMP. In terms of power threshold, this corresponds to increases of at least 20% for n=3 and n=4 RMPs and 60% for n=6 RMPs. This 'RMP affected' power threshold is found to increase with RMP magnitude above a certain minimum perturbed field, below which there is no impact on the power threshold. Extrapolations from these results indicate large increases in the L-H power threshold will be required for discharges requiring large mitigated ELM fre...

  17. Leptin regulation of inward membrane currents, electrical activity and LH release in isolated bovine gonadotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Mancera, Belisario; Barrientos-Morales, Manuel; Cervantes-Acosta, Patricia; Hernández-Beltrán, Antonio; Rodríguez-Andrade, Araceli; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Monjaraz, Eduardo; Felix, Ricardo

    2017-09-09

    Leptin, a peptide hormone produced by adipocytes, is recognized as one of the signals involved in the onset of reproductive activity. The leptin receptor has been found in hypothalamic neurons and pituitary gonadotropes, suggesting that the hormone may act at both sites to stimulate the secretion of GnRH and consequently, FSH and LH. In response to a stimulus such as a hypothalamic secretagogue, gonadotropes respond with changes in electrical activity, intracellular Ca(2+) and hormone release. The main aim of this report was to investigate whether leptin promotes a change in the electrical and secretory activities of bovine gonadotropes. After 48 h of treatment with leptin (10 nM) significant changes in the action potential properties were observed in gonadotropes, which included an increase in amplitude, time-to-pike and post-hyperpolarization, as well as a decrease in firing threshold. Likewise, leptin induced a significant (∼1.3-fold) up-regulation of voltage-gated Na(+) channel current density, and a selective increase (∼2.1-fold) in Ca(2+) current density through high voltage-activated channels. Consistent with this, leptin enhanced GnRH-induced secretion of LH measured by ELISA. We suggest that leptin enhances membrane expression of voltage-gated Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, which results in a modulation of the action potential properties and an increase in hormone release from gonadotropes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intestinal tumorigenesis is not affected by progesterone signaling in rodent models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarom Heijmans

    Full Text Available Clinical data suggest that progestins have chemopreventive properties in the development of colorectal cancer. We set out to examine a potential protective effect of progestins and progesterone signaling on colon cancer development. In normal and neoplastic intestinal tissue, we found that the progesterone receptor (PR is not expressed. Expression was confined to sporadic mesenchymal cells. To analyze the influence of systemic progesterone receptor signaling, we crossed mice that lacked the progesterone receptor (PRKO to the Apc(Min/+ mouse, a model for spontaneous intestinal polyposis. PRKO-Apc(Min/+ mice exhibited no change in polyp number, size or localization compared to Apc(Min/+. To examine effects of progestins on the intestinal epithelium that are independent of the PR, we treated mice with MPA. We found no effects of either progesterone or MPA on gross intestinal morphology or epithelial proliferation. Also, in rats treated with MPA, injection with the carcinogen azoxymethane did not result in a difference in the number or size of aberrant crypt foci, a surrogate end-point for adenoma development. We conclude that expression of the progesterone receptor is limited to cells in the intestinal mesenchyme. We did not observe any effect of progesterone receptor signaling or of progestin treatment in rodent models of intestinal tumorigenesis.

  19. Development of a TIRF-based biosensor for sensitive detection of progesterone in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käppel, Nina D; Pröll, Florian; Gauglitz, Guenter

    2007-04-15

    A total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF)-based biosensor for progesterone in bovine milk was developed and tested by measuring the progesterone level in daily milk samples for 25 days, covering a whole estrus cycle. The detection is based on total internal reflectance fluorescence. The assay has been designed as a binding-inhibition test with a progesterone derivative covalently immobilized on the sensor surface and a monoclonal anti-progesterone antibody as biological recognition element. First an existing progesterone assay was optimized by reducing the assay time per measurement, resulting in an assay time of about 5 min and reaching a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.04 ng mL(-1) and a quantification limit (LOQ) of 0.34 ng mL(-1). After calibration the assay was tested by measuring the progesterone level in daily milk samples over several weeks. An estrus cycle of a cow could be measured. As results become available within minutes without any preparation or pre-concentration of the milk samples the fully automated TIRF-based biosensor for progesterone can be used in-line in the milking parlor and thus could be an important tool for reproductive management of dairy cattle detecting heat and predicting pregnancy, which are critical parameters in milk production.

  20. Progesterone Treatment Shows Benefit in Female Rats in a Pediatric Model of Controlled Cortical Impact Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available We recently showed that progesterone treatment can reduce lesion size and behavioral deficits after moderate-to-severe bilateral injury to the medial prefrontal cortex in immature male rats. Whether there are important sex differences in response to injury and progesterone treatment in very young subjects has not been given sufficient attention. Here we investigated progesterone's effects in the same model of brain injury but with pre-pubescent females.Twenty-eight-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats received sham (n = 14 or controlled cortical impact (CCI (n = 21 injury, were given progesterone (8 mg/kg body weight or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID 1-7, and underwent behavioral testing from PID 9-27. Brains were evaluated for lesion size at PID 28.Lesion size in vehicle-treated female rats with CCI injury was smaller than that previously reported for similarly treated age-matched male rats. Treatment with progesterone reduced the effect of CCI on extent of damage and behavioral deficits.Pre-pubescent female rats with midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex have reduced morphological and functional deficits following progesterone treatment. While gender differences in susceptibility to this injury were observed, progesterone treatment produced beneficial effects in young rats of both sexes following CCI.

  1. [Sustained-release progesterone vaginal suppositories 3-development and clinical feasibility testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ayako; Yamaguchi, Naho; Ohno, Yukiko; Miyata, Chihiro; Kondo, Haruomi; Sunada, Hisakazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

      Although progesterone vaginal suppositories (hospital-formulated) are used for the treatment of infertility, their half-life is so short that multiple doses are required. In this study, we aimed to develop sustained-release vaginal suppositories suitable for clinical use which maintain an effective blood concentration by once-a-day treatment, and prepared 7 types of suppository containing the sustained-release progesterone tablets to characterize their sustained-release performance. We selected one candidate suppository among them, taking recovery rate, reproducibility, and hardness, as well as the sustained-release performance into consideration. The shell of the selected suppository is composed of VOSCO S-55 and progesterone for rapid release. The molded progesterone tablets for sustained release were embedded inside. The distribution of the weight and content of the suppository was limited, and the release rate of progesterone was significantly slower than that of a conventional progesterone suppository prepared in our hospital. The single-dose administration of the selected suppository to five healthy volunteers led to significant extension of the blood concentration. We also confirmed the rise of the basic value by multiple administration. The simulation comparison suggested that the blood progesterone concentration is controlled by once-a-day administration of the selected suppository better than twice-a-day administration of the conventional suppository. In conclusion, the sustained-release vaginal suppository prepared in this study was considered to be useful for clinical treatment.

  2. Inverse Relationship between Progesterone Receptor and Myc in Endometrial Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Kavlashvili

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer, the most common gynecologic malignancy, is a hormonally-regulated disease. Response to progestin therapy positively correlates with hormone receptor expression, in particular progesterone receptor (PR. However, many advanced tumors lose PR expression. We recently reported that the efficacy of progestin therapy can be significantly enhanced by combining progestin with epigenetic modulators, which we term "molecularly enhanced progestin therapy." What remained unclear was the mechanism of action and if estrogen receptor α (ERα, the principle inducer of PR, is necessary to restore functional expression of PR via molecularly enhanced progestin therapy. Therefore, we modeled advanced endometrial tumors that have lost both ERα and PR expression by generating ERα-null endometrial cancer cell lines. CRISPR-Cas9 technology was used to delete ERα at the genomic level. Our data demonstrate that treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi was sufficient to restore functional PR expression, even in cells devoid of ERα. Our studies also revealed that HDACi treatment results in marked downregulation of the oncogene Myc. We established that PR is a negative transcriptional regulator of Myc in endometrial cancer in the presence or absence of ERα, which is in contrast to studies in breast cancer cells. First, estrogen stimulation augmented PR expression and decreased Myc in endometrial cancer cell lines. Second, progesterone increased PR activity yet blunted Myc mRNA and protein expression. Finally, overexpression of PR by adenoviral transduction in ERα-null endometrial cancer cells significantly decreased expression of Myc and Myc-regulated genes. Analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA database of endometrial tumors identified an inverse correlation between PR and Myc mRNA levels, with a corresponding inverse correlation between PR and Myc downstream transcriptional targets SRD5A1, CDK2 and CCNB1. Together, these data

  3. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammad-Reza; Amirtouri, Reza; Davati, Ali; Askari, Samaneh; Siadati, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), occurs mostly in women and sex hormones may play a role in the pathogenesis and clinical course. The objective of this study was to determine the status and prevalence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in PTC with regard to age, gender, tumor size and lymph node involvement. Methods: Immunohistochemical stains were performed on 92 tissue blocks of PTC for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in tumor cells. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to determine statistical difference using statistical software SPSS. Results: The mean age of patients was 39.32±1.7 years (range 13-80) with 79(85.9%) women and 13 (14.1%) men. Lymph node involvement was seen in 76.1% of patients. The average tumor size was 3.6±2.21 cm. The rate of ER and PR expression were 46.75% and 5.6%, respectively. ER expression for females was higher than males (P=0.014), but no relation was found between males and females in PR expression (P=0.7). Also there was no statistical difference between ER and PR expression with respect to age, lymph node involvement and tumor size. Conclusion: Our study showed higher ER expression in females than males with PTC. No relation was found between the expression of these receptors and age of presentation, lymph node involvement and tumor size. Further investigation is required to determine the prognostic importance of ER and PR in PTC.

  4. Progesterone binding nano-carriers based on hydrophobically modified hyperbranched polyglycerols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Noghani, M.; Brooks, D. E.

    2016-02-01

    results provide evidence to justify more detailed studies of interactions with biological systems, both single cells and in animal models. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S-1: chemical structure of progesterone (Pro). Fig. S-2: 1H NMR spectrum of HPG-C8-MPEG. Fig. S-3: GPC chromatogram of HPG-C8-MPEG. Fig. S-4: 1H NMR spectrum of HPG-C12-MPEG. Fig. S-5: GPC chromatogram of HPG-C8-MPEG. Fig. S-6: FTIR spectrum of HPG-C8-MPEG. Fig. S-7: inverse-gated 13C NMR spectrum of HPG-C8-MPEG in methanol-d4. Fig. S-8: semi-log plot to determine initial rapid release kinetics for HPG-C8-MPEG/Pro in PBS. Fig. S-9: semi-log plot to determine secondary slow release kinetics for HPG-C8-MPEG/Pro in PBS. Fig. S-10: semi-log plot illustrating the kinetics of Pro release from HPG-C8-MPEG/Pro in plasma. Fig. S-11: dependence of k1 and Vp - Va. Fig. S-12: correlation between the maximum binding capacity of HPG-Cn-MPEG polymeric systems for binding Pro and their total mass of alkyl carbon external to the oxygen (R2 = 0.77 and p right). The minor population of larger particles was reduced in diameter by Pro binding, illustrated above, consistent with an earlier report.11 See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08175k

  5. Vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase) Mediates Progesterone-Induced Uterine Fluid Acidification in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Kamarulzaman; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that progesterone-induced decrease in uterine fluid pH involves V-ATPase. In this study, expression and functional activity of V-ATPase in uterus were investigated under progesterone influence. Ovariectomized adult female rats received subcutaneous injection of estradiol-17β (1 µg/kg/day) or progesterone (20 mg/kg/day) for 3 days or 3 days estradiol-17β followed by 3 days vehicle, progesterone, or estradiol-17β plus progesterone. Mifepristone, a progesterone receptor blocker, was concomitantly given to the rats which received progesterone. A day after last injection, rate of uterine fluid secretion, its HCO3 (-) concentration, and pH were determined via in vivo uterine perfusion in rats under anesthesia. V-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin, was introduced into the perfusion buffer, and changes in these parameters were observed. Expression of V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 proteins and mRNAs in uterus were quantified by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. Distribution of these proteins was observed by immunohistochemistry. Our findings showed that under progesterone influence, uterine fluid secretion rate, HCO3 (-) concentration, and pH were significantly reduced. Administration of bafilomycin did not cause significant changes in fluid secretion rate; however, HCO3 (-) concentration and pH were significantly elevated. In parallel with these changes, expression of V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 proteins and mRNAs were significantly increased with these proteins highly distributed in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia. In conclusion, increased expression and functional activity of V-ATPase were most likely responsible for the decreased in uterine fluid pH observed under progesterone influence.

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Progesterone on Inflammatory Factors After Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young people. Inflammatory cytokines play an important part in the pathophysiology of TBI. Recent studies demonstrate that progesterone significantly reduces cerebral edema and enhances functional recovery from TBI and stroke in several animal models. This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of progesterone on inflammatory response after traumatic brain injury. Methods Progesterone was injected intraperitoneally using rats as a model of traumatic brain injury,and Western blot technique was applied to detect the expression of three inflammation-related factors:nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NFk B p65),glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP),and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The water content of injured brain was also examined. A neurological severity score was recorded to evaluate the effect of progesterone on neurodeficit recovery. Results NFk B p65,GFAP,and TNF-α were increased in all injured animals. In rats treated with progesterone,the expression level of NFkB p65 and TNF-α were reduced significantly in comparison with vehicle-treated rats. However,progesterone did not alter the expression of GFAP in the injured rats. Progesterone also reduced the water content of injured brain and the lesion volume. In addition,progesterone-treated injured rats showed significant improvements in the Neurological Severity Score test,compared with vehicle-treated ones.Conclusions Progesterone inhibits the inflammatory response after experimental traumatic brain injury and mitigates the severity of brain damage.

  7. The biology of progesterone receptor in the normal mammary gland and in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obr, Alison E; Edwards, Dean P

    2012-06-24

    This paper reviews work on progesterone and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the mouse mammary gland that has been used extensively as an experimental model. Studies have led to the concept that progesterone controls proliferation and morphogenesis of the luminal epithelium in a tightly orchestrated manner at distinct stages of development by paracrine signaling pathways, including receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) as a major paracrine factor. Progesterone also drives expansion of stem cells by paracrine signals to generate progenitors required for alveologenesis. During mid-to-late pregnancy, progesterone has another role to suppress secretory activation until parturition mediated in part by crosstalk between PR and prolactin/Stat5 signaling to inhibit induction of milk protein gene expression, and by inhibiting tight junction closure. In models of hormone-dependent mouse mammary tumors, the progesterone/PR signaling axis enhances pre-neoplastic progression by a switch from a paracrine to an autocrine mode of proliferation and dysregulation of the RANKL signaling pathway. Limited experiments with normal human breast show that progesterone/PR signaling also stimulates epithelial cell proliferation by a paracrine mechanism; however, the signaling pathways and whether RANKL is a major mediator remains unknown. Work with human breast cancer cell lines, patient tumor samples and clinical studies indicates that progesterone is a risk factor for breast cancer and that alteration in progesterone/PR signaling pathways contributes to early stage human breast cancer progression. However, loss of PR expression in primary tumors is associated with a less differentiated more invasive phenotype and worse prognosis, suggesting that PR may limit later stages of tumor progression.

  8. Elevated Progesterone Levels on the Day of Oocyte Maturation May Affect Top Quality Embryo IVF Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Ren, Xinling; Wu, Li; Zhu, Lixia; Xu, Bei; Li, Yufeng; Ai, Jihui; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the impact of elevated progesterone on endometrial receptivity, the data on whether increased progesterone levels affects the quality of embryos is still limited. This study retrospectively enrolled 4,236 fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and sought to determine whether increased progesterone is associated with adverse outcomes with regard to top quality embryos (TQE). The results showed that the TQE rate significantly correlated with progesterone levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger (P = 0.009). Multivariate linear regression analysis of factors related to the TQE rate, in conventional IVF cycles, showed that the TQE rate was negatively associated with progesterone concentration on the day of hCG (OR was -1.658, 95% CI: -2.806 to -0.510, P = 0.005). When the serum progesterone level was within the interval 2.0–2.5 ng/ml, the TQE rate was significantly lower (P 2.5 ng/ml. Then, we choose a progesterone level at 1.5ng/ml, 2.0 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml as cut-off points to verify this result. We found that the TQE rate was significantly different (P 2.0 ng/ml. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrated a negative effect of elevated progesterone levels on the day of hCG trigger, on TQE rate, regardless of the basal FSH, the total gonadotropin, the age of the woman, or the time of ovarian stimulation. These data demonstrate that elevated progesterone levels (>2.0 ng/ml) before oocyte maturation were consistently detrimental to the oocyte. PMID:26745711

  9. Evaluation of outcome of pregnancy in threatened abortion by serum progesterone levels

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    Rizwana Habib Kant

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early pregnancy maintenance depends on the progesterone production by the developing trophoblasts of the placenta and the corpus luteum of ovary. Threatened abortion has a psychological impact on patients so we need to have a tool that could predict the outcome of threatened abortion in advance. Serum progesterone level has shown to be a reliable marker of pregnancy outcome. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between maternal serum progesterone level and pregnancy outcome in threatened abortion and to assess the role of maternal serum progesterone levels in the immediate diagnosis of pregnancy failure. Methods: This observational study was conducted in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Lalla Ded Hospital, Government Medical College, Srinagar over a period of 1 year in 100 women presenting with threatened abortion of less than 12 weeks of gestation, having spotting but without cervical dilatation. Results: Mean maternal serum progesterone level in patients of threatened abortion who aborted was 21.5 +/- 10.4 nanograms per millilitre and patients of threatened abortion who progressed normally to the period of viability had mean maternal serum progesterone level of 41.6 +/- 10.8 nanograms per millilitre. Considering 24 nanograms per millilitre as cut off limit, 19% of patients of threatened abortion were having serum progesterone level of lesser than or equal to 24 nanograms per millilitre and 81% of patients of threatened abortion were having serum progesterone level of greater than 24 nanograms per millilitre. Conclusions: Serum progesterone level is easy and reliable assay for determination of pregnancy outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1313-1318

  10. Progesterone Enhanced Remyelination in the Mouse Corpus Callosum After Cuprizone Induced Demyelination

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    Iraj Ragerdi Kashani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progesterone as a sex steroid hormone is thought to affect and prevent demyelination, but its role in promoting myelin repair is far less investigated. In this study, remyelinating potential of progesterone in corpus callosum was evaluated on an experimental model of MS. Methods: In this experimental study, adult male C57BL/6 mice were fed with 0.2% (w/w cuprizone in ground breeder chow ad libitum for 6 weeks. At day zero, after cuprizone removal, mice were divided randomly into two groups: (a placebo group, which received saline pellet implant, (b progesterone group, which received progesterone pellet implant. Some mice of the same age were fed with their normal diet to serve as the healthy control group. Two weeks after progesterone administration, Myelin content was assessed by Luxol-fast blue staining. The myelin basic protein (MBP and proteolipid protein (PLP expression were assessed using Western blot analysis and the changes in the number of oligodendrocytes and oligodendroglial progenitor cells were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC and flow cytometry. Results: Luxol-fast blue staining revealed enhanced remyelination in the progesterone group when compared with the placebo group. Densitometry measurements of immunoblots demonstrated that MBP and PLP proteins contents were significantly increased in the progesterone group compared with the placebo group. Flow cytometry and IHC analysis showed increases in Olig2 and O4 cells in the progesterone group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion: Overall, our results indicate that progesterone treatment can stimulate myelin production and that it may provide a feasible and practical way for remyelination in diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  11. [Current role of progesterone therapy in the prevention of spontaneous abortion and in the treatment of threatened abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzetti, L; Boni, T; Fazzio, M; Giobbe, M

    2000-12-01

    Progesterone therapy is often used to prevent spontaneous abortion. In this paper the most significant studies on the benefits and risks of this treatment over the last 30 years are analyzed. None of these studies about the effects of progesterone as non-specific therapy in abortion risk and recurrent miscarriage, proved a reduced pregnancy wastage in treated patients compared with patients who received no treatment. The results concerning the use of progesterone in recurrent miscarriage for luteal phase inadequacy are more controversial, but they are still inadequate to encourage progesterone supplementation. To obtain a definitive conclusion about progesterone therapy real effectiveness, it is necessary to carry out randomized double-blind prospected trials. As regards the risks of using progesterone therapy during pregnancy, even if a possible teratologic role has certainly been reduced, it cannot be excluded completely yet. Moreover a high incidence of respiratory problems has been noticed in newborns from patients treated with progesterone, compared with control groups.

  12. 孕酮调节子宫内膜的容受性%Regulation of endometrial receptivity by progesterone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱桂金; 徐蓓; 李舟

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone plays a vital role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy through the up-regulation or down-regulation of multiple genes. The morphology and function of endometrium undergo developmental changes in response to progesterone, which leads to the opening of implantation window and embryonic implantation. Progesterone is essential for the endometrium transformation to the secretory phase, in preparation for embryonic implantation. Progesterone promotes pinopode formation,changing mucin structure for embryos adhesion,and loosing the link between uterine epithelium cells in favor of embryonic invasion. In addition, progesterone triggers stromal cell decidualization, which prevents embryos from maternal rejection and excess invasion of trophocytes. Progesterone can also stimulate the production of progesterone induced blocking factor(PIBF), which plays a role in immuno-regulation both in vitro and in vivo for establishing immunologic tolerance between mother and infant.

  13. Effect of ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH) charge isoforms on VEGF and cAMP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Pardo, Arnulfo; Diaz, Daniel; Olivares, Aleida; González-Padilla, Everardo; Murcia, Clara; Gómez-Chavarín, Margarita; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Perera-Marín, Gerardo

    2015-12-01

    Although an increase in VEGF expression and synthesis in association with LH has been established; it is unknown if all LH isoforms act similarly. This study evaluated the production of cAMP and VEGF among LH isoforms in two in vitro bioassays. The LH was obtained from hypophyses and the group of isoforms was isolated by chromatofocusing. cAMP production was assessed using the in vitro bioassay of HEK-293 cells and VEGF production was evaluated in granulosa cells. Immunological activity was measured with a homologous RIA. Immunoactivity and bioactivity for each isoform were compared against a standard, by estimating the IC50 and the EC50. The basic isoforms were more immunoactive than the standard. The neutral and the moderately acidic had an immunological activity similar to the standard. The acidic isoform was the least immunoreactive. cAMP production at the EC50 dose was similar among the basic isoforms, the moderately acidic and the standard; for the neutral and the acidic, the EC50 dose was higher. It was observed that compared with the control, VEGF production at the lowest LH dose was no different in the standard and each isoform. In the intermediate dose, a positive response was caused in the standard and the neutral and basic isoforms. Although the acidic isoform showed a dose-dependent response, it was not significant relative to the control. In conclusion, the basic isoform generated the greatest cAMP and VEGF production, similar to the reference standard, and the acidic the smallest.

  14. Spectral heterogeneity and carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in LH2 light-harvesting complexes from Allochromatium vinosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaong, Nikki M; LaFountain, Amy M; Hacking, Kirsty; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Gibson, George N; Cogdell, Richard J; Frank, Harry A

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthetic organisms produce a vast array of spectral forms of antenna pigment-protein complexes to harvest solar energy and also to adapt to growth under the variable environmental conditions of light intensity, temperature, and nutrient availability. This behavior is exemplified by Allochromatium (Alc.) vinosum, a photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium that produces different types of LH2 light-harvesting complexes in response to variations in growth conditions. In the present work, three different spectral forms of LH2 from Alc. vinosum, B800-820, B800-840, and B800-850, were isolated, purified, and examined using steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, and ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. The pigment composition of the LH2 complexes was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and all were found to contain five carotenoids: lycopene, anhydrorhodovibrin, spirilloxanthin, rhodopin, and rhodovibrin. Spectral reconstructions of the absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra based on the pigment composition revealed significantly more spectral heterogeneity in these systems compared to LH2 complexes isolated from other species of purple bacteria. The data also revealed the individual carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer efficiencies which were correlated with the kinetic data from the ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopic experiments. This series of LH2 complexes allows a systematic exploration of the factors that determine the spectral properties of the bound pigments and control the rate and efficiency of carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer.

  15. Effect of epinephrine, norepinephrine and(or) GnRH on serum LH in prepuberal beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, D R; Randel, R D

    1983-09-01

    Forty prepuberal Simmental X Brahman-Hereford heifers were utilized to determine the effects of epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) or combinations of GnRH + E and GnRH + NE on serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations. Animals were assigned randomly to one of five treatments with four replicates/treatment. Treatments consisted of I) 100 micrograms GnRH at time 0 (n = 8); II) 50 mg NE at time -15 and 0 (n = 8); III) 50 mg E at time -15 and 0 (n = 8); IV) 100 micrograms GnRH at time 0, plus 50 mg NE at time -15 and 0 (n = 8) and V) 100 micrograms GnRH at time 0, plus 50 mg E at time -15 and 0 (n = 8). All treatment compounds were administered im in 2 ml physiological saline and blood samples were collected via tail vessel puncture at -30, -15, 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min from GnRH injection. Treatment with NE or E alone had no effect (P greater than .10) on serum LH during the sampling period. The initial LH release to GnRH was altered (P less than .05) by concomitant treatment with NE (treatment IV) or E (treatment V). Magnitude of the LH release was reduced (P less than .01) by treatment V. Area under the LH surge was reduced (P less than .05) by treatment IV (NE) and V (E).

  16. Effect of progesterone supplementation in the first week post conception on embryo survival in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Lonergan, P; Diskin, M G; Roche, J F; Crowe, M A

    2009-04-15

    Progesterone is essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of elevating progesterone during the different physiological stages of early embryo development on embryo survival. Estrus was synchronized in cross-bred beef heifers (n=197, approximately 2-years old) and they were inseminated 12-18h after estrus onset (=Day 0). Inseminated heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) Control, n=69; (2) progesterone supplementation using a Controlled Internal Drug Release Device (CIDR) from Day 3 to 6.5, n=64; or (3) progesterone supplementation using a CIDR from Day 4.5 to 8, n=64. Body condition (BCS) and locomotion scores (scale of 1-5) were recorded for all animals. Animals with a locomotion score >/=4 (very lame) were excluded. Embryo survival rate was determined at slaughter on Day 25. Conceptus length and weight were recorded and the corpus luteum (CL) of all pregnant animals was dissected and weighed. Supplementation with exogenous progesterone increased (P<0.05) peripheral progesterone concentrations, but did not affect embryo survival rate compared with controls. Mean CL weight, conceptus length and conceptus weight were not different between treatments. There was a positive relationship (P<0.04) between the increase in progesterone concentrations from Days 3 to 6.5 and embryo survival rate in treated heifers and a similar trend existed between the increase from Days 4.5 to 8 (P<0.06). There was also a positive relationship (P<0.05) between the progesterone concentration on Day 6.5 and the embryo survival rate in treated heifers. A direct correlation was seen between locomotion score and embryo survival rate, with higher (P<0.05) early embryo survival rates in heifers with a lower locomotion score. In conclusion, supplementation with progesterone at different stages of early embryo development increased peripheral progesterone concentration and resulted in a positive

  17. The Relationship Among HOXA10, Estrogen Receptor α, Progesterone Receptor, and Progesterone Receptor B Proteins in Rectos