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Sample records for plasma progesterone concentration

  1. Plasma prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations around parturition in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverne, M.; Willemse, A.H.; Dieleman, S.J.; Bevers, M.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples taken from 2–15 days before until 1–4 days after spontaneous parturition in four sows and in one sow around prostaglandin F2α-induced parturition. Between Days −15 and −2 (Day 0 = partur

  2. Plasma prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations around parturition in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverne, M.; Willemse, A.H.; Dieleman, S.J.; Bevers, M.

    Plasma concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples taken from 2–15 days before until 1–4 days after spontaneous parturition in four sows and in one sow around prostaglandin F2α-induced parturition. Between Days −15 and −2 (Day 0 =

  3. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

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    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  4. Plasma PGFM and progesterone concentrations, luteolysis moment and estrous cycle length in Nelore cows submitted to uterine biopsies

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    I. Martin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn this study, endometrial samples were collected in 14 Nelore cows on days zero (ovulation, five, nine, thirteen and nineteen of the estrous cycle (biopsy group, and in 15 females these collections weren't performed (control group. Biopsies were done on the uterine horn endometrium contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum. Blood samples were taken at -24, -16, -8, 0 +8, +16 and +24 hours in relation to progesterone drop (<1ng/mL, zero moment and evaluated for 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGFM by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Plasma progesterone concentration was determined by RIA every 24 hours. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the PROC GLM and MIXED of the SAS. The mean value for PGFM during the entire period evaluated was greater in the biopsy group. The mean concentration of PGFM at moment zero was not different between the groups; the mean concentration of PGFM was higher in the biopsy group before and after the drop in progesterone level. The maximum mean concentration observed was not different between the groups; however, the mean minimum concentration was different with high values in the biopsy group. Although the PGFM concentrations were higher in the biopsy group, the biopsy and control groups had similar length of estrous cycle showing that repeated endometrial biopsy on the side contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum does not affect luteolysis and the length of the estrous cycle.

  5. Plasma concentration of progesterone and 17ß-estradiol of black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha during the estrous cycle

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    Diva Anelie Guimarães

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasma concentration of progesterone and 17β-estradiol of black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha during the estrous cycle. The agouti is a game animal that have been raised in captivity for conservation and sustainability purposes. However, the management of wild animals in an intensive breeding system requires an assertive knowledge of its reproductive parameters, one of the most important features for production improvement. Besides, little information is available regarding changes in reproductive hormone profiles in agouti. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hormonal profile of progesterone and 17β-estradiol during the estrous cycle of the agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha. The hormones were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Blood samples were collected without sedation twice a week. The concentrations of progesterone were as follows: proestrus 0.78+0.39ng/ml, estrus 2.83+2.34ng/ml, metestrus 1.49+1.24ng/ml, diestrus 3.71+1.48ng/ml. In the estrous phase, an increase in the progesterone level was observed during a period of 24h. The average 17 β-estradiol levels were as follows: proestrus 2 030.98+961.00pg/ml, estrus 1 910.56+650.54pg/ml, metestrus 1 724.83+767.28pg/ml, diestrus 1 939.94+725.29pg/ml. The current results suggest that the progesterone plasma concentration during the estrous cycle in the agouti has a similar increasing, stabilizing and decreasing pattern, as in domestic mammals. Agoutis have two phases of follicular development, as two periods of 17β-estradiol peaks were observed, the first one in the metestrus and the second during the proestrus. Spontaneous ovulation seems to occur after the progesterone peak, possibly indicating that this hormone is associated with the ovulatory process. A more detailed investigation is needed for better understanding of how progesterone influences ovulation. Studies on the involvement of progesterone in follicular rupture can be carried out, using steroid biosynthesis

  6. The association among cytochrome P450 3A, progesterone receptor polymorphisms, plasma 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate concentrations, and spontaneous preterm birth.

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    Bustos, Martha L; Caritis, Steve N; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Reddy, Uma M; Sorokin, Yoram; Manuck, Tracy; Varner, Michael W; Wapner, Ronald J; Iams, Jay D; Carpenter, Marshall W; Peaceman, Alan M; Mercer, Brian M; Sciscione, Anthony; Rouse, Dwight J; Ramin, Susan M

    2017-09-01

    Infants born preterm birth are the leading cause of mortality in children preterm birth by 33% in women with history of spontaneous preterm birth. We demonstrated previously that plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate vary widely among pregnant women and that women with 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate plasma concentrations in the lowest quartile had spontaneous preterm birth rates of 40% vs rates of 25% in those women with higher concentrations. Thus, plasma concentrations are an important factor in determining drug efficacy but the reason 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate plasma concentrations vary so much is unclear. Predominantly, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate is metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 enzymes. We sought to: (1) determine the relation between 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate plasma concentrations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5; (2) test the association between progesterone receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms and spontaneous preterm birth; and (3) test whether the association between plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate and spontaneous preterm birth varied by progesterone receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated genetic polymorphism in 268 pregnant women treated with 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate, who participated in a placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the benefit of omega-3 supplementation in women with history of spontaneous preterm birth. Trough plasma concentrations of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate were measured between 25-28 weeks of gestation after a minimum of 5 injections of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate. We extracted DNA from maternal blood samples and genotyped the samples using TaqMan (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays for the following single nucleotide polymorphisms: CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A4*22, and CYP3A5*3; and rs

  7. [Sex hormones in young pigs. I. Concentrations of plasma progesterone and estrogens of sows and urinary estrogens after synchronization of estrus and ovulation].

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    Schneider, F; Bergfeld, J; Brauer, M; Brüssow, K P

    1980-01-01

    Treatment for synchronised heat and ovulation, using Suisynchron-Prämix, Bernburg, pregnant-mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG), and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), was followed with twelve gilts by daily measurement over 31 days of urine oestrogens, plasma progesterone as well as of plasma oestrogens during the oestric phases. Hormonal developments recorded during the oestrus and luteum phases were in agreement with the concepts and data so far known for the subject. An intermediate peak of oestrogen concentration was clearly recordable in the di-oestrus, that is between the tenth and 15th days of cycle. Its physiological importance will have to be further investigated.

  8. GnRH treatment at artificial insemination in beef cattle fails to increase plasma progesterone concentrations or pregnancy rates.

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    Perry, G A; Perry, B L

    2009-03-15

    Treatment with GnRH at the onset of standing estrus increased pregnancy percentages and circulating concentrations of progesterone in repeat breeder dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of treatment with GnRH at AI on concentrations of progesterone and conception rates in beef cattle that exhibited estrus. Two hundred ninety-three heifers at four locations were synchronized with the Select Synch plus CIDR protocol (given GnRH and a CIDR was placed into the vagina, and 7 d later, given PGF(2alpha) and CIDR removed; n=253) or the 14-19 melengestrol acetate (MGA) protocol (MGA fed at 0.5mg/head/d for 14 d, with PGF(2alpha) 19 d after MGA withdrawal n=40) and AI was done after detection of estrus. At Location 1, blood samples were collected on Day 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 after AI (Day 0=AI). Two hundred and fifty postpartum cows at two locations were synchronized with the Select Synch plus CIDR protocol, and AI was performed after detection of estrus. At AI, cattle were alternately assigned to one of two treatments: (1) treatment with GnRH (100microg) at AI (n=127 heifers and n=108 cows); or (2) non-treated control (n=120 heifers and n=119 cows). Concentrations of progesterone tended to be greater in control heifers compared to GnRH-treated heifers on Days 6 (P=0.08), 10 (P=0.07), and 15 (P=0.11). Overall conception rates were 68% and 66% for GnRH treated and control, respectively, and were not different between treatments (P=0.72). In summary, treatment with GnRH at time of AI had no influence on conception rates in cattle that had exhibited estrus.

  9. Neither plasma progesterone concentrations nor exogenous eCG affects rates of ovulation or pregnancy in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols for puberal Nellore heifers.

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    Pegorer, M Figueira; Ereno, R L; Satrapa, R A; Pinheiro, V G; Trinca, L A; Barros, C M

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations and exogenous eCG on ovulation and pregnancy rates of pubertal Nellore heifers in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols. In Experiment 1 (Exp. 1), on Day 0 (7 d after ovulation), heifers (n = 15) were given 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) im and randomly allocated to receive: an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device containing 0.558 g of P4 (group 0.5G, n = 4); an intravaginal device containing 1 g of P4 (group 1G, n = 4); 0.558 g of P4 and PGF(2α) (PGF; 150 μg d-cloprostenol, group 0.5G/PGF, n = 4); or 1 g of P4 and PGF (group 1G/PGF, n = 3). On Day 8, PGF was given to all heifers and intravaginal devices removed; 24 h later (Day 9), all heifers were given 1 mg EB im. In Exp. 2, pubertal Nellore heifers (n = 292) were treated as in Exp. 1, with FTAI on Day 10 (30 to 36 h after EB). In Exp. 3, pubertal heifers (n = 459) received the treatments described for groups 0.5G/PGF and 1G/PGF and were also given 300 IU of eCG im (groups 0.5G/PGF/eCG and 1G/PGF/eCG) at device removal (Day 8). In Exp. 1, plasma P4 concentrations were significantly higher in heifers that received 1.0 vs 0.588 g P4, and were significantly lower in heifers that received PGF on Day 0. In Exp. 2 and 3, there were no significant differences among groups in rates of ovulation (65-77%) or pregnancy (Exp. 2: 26-33%; Exp. 3: 39-43%). In Exp. 3, diameter of the dominant ovarian follicle on Day 9 was larger in heifers given 0.558 g vs 1.0 g P4 (10.3 ± 0.2 vs 9.3 ± 0.2 mm; P decreased plasma P4 from Days 1 to 8 and increased diameter of the dominant follicle on Day 9. However, neither of these nor 300 IU of eCG on Day 8 significantly increased rates of ovulation or pregnancy.

  10. Effects of luteectomy in early pregnancy on the maintenance of gestation and plasma progesterone concentrations in the viviparous temperate lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata

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    Moreno-Fierros Leticia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that the corpus luteum is the principal source of progesterone during the gravidity period in reptiles; however, its participation in the maintenance of gestation in the viviparous squamata is in dispute. The effects of ovariectomy or luteectomy vary according to the species and the time at which the procedure is performed. In this paper, we describe the effects of luteectomy during early pregnancy on the maintenance of gestation and progesterone concentrations in the temperate Mexican viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata. Methods Twenty-four lizards were subjected to three different treatments: luteectomy, sham luteectomy or non-surgical treatment, and blood samples were obtained before and after surgical treatment at different stages of gestation to determine the effects of luteectomy on the maintenance of gestation and progesterone concentrations. Results Spontaneous abortion was not observed in any of the females. However, luteectomy provoked abnormal parturition and a significant reduction in the number of young born alive. Parturition was normal in untreated females as well as those submitted to sham luteectomy. The surgical treatment also caused a significant reduction in progesterone concentrations in luteectomised females during early and middle gestation. However, no significant differences in hormone concentrations were observed among the three groups during late gestation or immediately post-parturition. Conclusions Our observations indicate that the presence of the corpus luteum is not necesary for the maintenance of gestation, but that it does participate in parturition control. Moreover, the corpus luteum of the viviparous lizard B. i. imbricata produces progesterone, at least during the first half of pregnancy, and that an extra-ovarian source of progesterone must maintain gestation in the absence of luteal tissue.

  11. [Plasma concentrations of folic acid, vitamin B12 and progesterone of cyclic bitches, bitches during pregnancy and induced abortion and bitches with pyometra].

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    Kalender, H; Beceriklisoy, H B; Kanca, H; Findik, M; Erünal-Maral, N; Handler, J; Aslan, S

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma concentrations of folic acid, vitamin B12 and progesterone at different stages of the sexual cycle and pregnancy, during induced abortion and in bitches with pyometra. Bitches (n = 97) were assigned to groups as follows: a) oestrous cycle (n = 42) b) pregnancy (n = 25) c) induction of abortion (n = 10 and d) pyometra (n = 20). Oestrous cycle stages were determined by vaginal inspection and cytology. Pregnancies were estimated by ultrasound (5.0 Mhz; linear transducer; Schimadzu) at days 15-25, 35-45 and 46-63 of pregnancy. Treatments for the induction of abortion were started between days 25 and 35 after mating (5 microg/kg cabergoline daily, Galastop; 5-10 microg/kg Alfaprostol every other day, Gabbrostim). Diagnosis of pyometra was confirmed by ultrasound and vaginoscopy. Folic acid and vitamin B12 concentrations did not differ among different stages of the oestrous cycle. The mean concentration of folic acid during early pregnancy (days 15-25) exceeded levels of later stages (days 46-63): 9.4 +/- 3.7 microg/ml and 4.7 +/- 1.8 microg/ml, respectively (p dogs ( r = 0.925; p pyometra significantly differed from that of bitches at different stages of the oestrous cycle (p pyometra (p < 0.05). The decrease of serum concentrations of folic acid during pregnancy and induced abortion show that fetal growth and abortion caused higher consumption of folic acid. Concerning bitches did not show any deficiency symptoms, which is why it can be concluded that this decrease is physiological.

  12. Setting-up and validation of two radioimmunoassay methods for determination of plasma progesterone concentration in mares, cows and rats; Padronizacao e validacao de dois metodos de radioimunoensaio (RIE) para dosagem da progesterona (P{sub 4}) no plasma de equinos, bovinos e ratos

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    Rosa e Silva, A.A.M.; Caldas, M.C.S.; Campos, L.M.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Fisiologia; Gradela, A. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    1993-06-01

    Two reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods which permits the measurement of progesterone (P{sub 4}) in plasma of equine, bovine and rats are described. After extraction of plasma with diethylic ether the RIA methods were performed. The first one utilizes {sup 125} I progesterone (double antibody method) and the other 1,2,6,7,16, 17 {sup 3} H progesterone (adsorption in charcoal/dextran). Both two methods were suitable in the valuation of plasma P{sub 4} concentration in different physiological reproductive conditions. The method of the double antibody showed higher sensibility beyond to be less expensive than the other method. Despite it, the two RIA methods were much less expensive than available commercial Kits in the market. (author) 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Response of plasma cortisol and progesterone after ACTH challenge in ovariectomized lactating dairy cows.

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    Yoshida, Chikako; Nakao, Toshihiko

    2005-02-01

    Shortened and weakened estrous expressions could be one of the causes of poor heat detection rate. Non-specific acute stresses are assumed to depress expression of estrus by an increase of plasma progesterone which may originate from the adrenal cortex. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the adrenal cortex can secrete significant amounts of progesterone in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in lactating cows. Four cows had estrus synchronized and were ovariectomized in the luteal phase. The cows were given 25 IU ACTH through an indwelling catheter 5 h after catheterization. Blood samples were collected at an interval of 30 min. In 3 of the 4 cows, plasma progesterone concentrations increased significantly 0.5-1.5 h after the first ACTH challenge with a mean peak value of 4.2 +/- 0.4 (S.D.) ng/ml. A similar response was also observed after the second ACTH challenge. Peak plasma progesterone concentrations in the 3 cows after first ACTH challenge were comparable with the progesterone values in the luteal phase of each cow. The results suggest that lactating cows have the capability to secrete a significant amount of progesterone from the adrenal cortex.

  14. Concentration of progesterone during the development of the ovulatory follicle: II. Ovarian and uterine responses.

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    Cerri, R L A; Chebel, R C; Rivera, F; Narciso, C D; Oliveira, R A; Amstalden, M; Baez-Sandoval, G M; Oliveira, L J; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2011-07-01

    Two experiments evaluated the influence of altering the concentrations of progesterone during the development of the ovulatory follicle on the composition of the follicular fluid, circulating LH and PGF(2α) metabolite (PGFM), and expression of endometrial progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor-α. In both experiments, the estrous cycles were presynchronized (GnRH and progesterone insert followed by insert removal and PGF(2α) 7 d later, and GnRH after 48 h) and cows were then enrolled in 1 of 2 treatments 7 d later (study d -16): high progesterone (HP) or low progesterone (LP). In experiment 1 (n=19), cows had their estrous cycle synchronized starting on study d -9 (GnRH and progesterone insert on d -9, and insert removal and PGF(2α) on d -2). In experiment 2 (n=25), cows were submitted to the same synchronization protocol as in experiment 1, but had ovulation induced with GnRH on study d 0. In experiment 1, plasma was sampled on d -4 and analyzed for concentrations of LH; the dominant follicle was aspirated on d 0 and the fluid analyzed for concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, and free and total IGF-1. In experiment 2, follicular development and concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in plasma were evaluated until study d 16. Uterine biopsies were collected on d 12 and 16 for progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor-α protein abundance. An estradiol/oxytocin challenge for PGFM measurements in plasma was performed on d 16. In experiments 1 and 2, LP cows had lower plasma concentrations of progesterone and greater concentrations of estradiol, and had larger ovulatory follicle diameter (20.4 vs. 17.2mm) at the end of the synchronization protocol than HP cows. Concentration of LH tended to be greater for LP than HP cows (0.98 vs. 0.84 ng/mL). The dominant follicle of LP cows had greater concentration of estradiol (387.5 vs. 330.9 ng/mL) and a lower concentration of total IGF-1 (40.9 vs. 51.7 ng/mL) than that of HP cows. In experiment 2

  15. Superovulation of cows with PMSG: Variation in plasma concentrations of progesterone, oestradiol, LH, cortisol, prolactin and PMSG and in number of preovulatory follicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, M.M.; Dieleman, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-two heifers, exhibiting normal oestrous cycles, were treated with 2500 I.U. PMSG and 2 ml prostaglandin (PG) at day 10 and 12 of the oestrous cycle, respectively. In ten heifers progesterone, oestradiol, LH, prolactin, cortisol and PMSG levels were estimated until 10 days after the initiation

  16. Superovulation of cows with PMSG: Variation in plasma concentrations of progesterone, oestradiol, LH, cortisol, prolactin and PMSG and in number of preovulatory follicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, M.M.; Dieleman, S.J.

    Forty-two heifers, exhibiting normal oestrous cycles, were treated with 2500 I.U. PMSG and 2 ml prostaglandin (PG) at day 10 and 12 of the oestrous cycle, respectively. In ten heifers progesterone, oestradiol, LH, prolactin, cortisol and PMSG levels were estimated until 10 days after the initiation

  17. The influence of nutrition on the insulin-like growth factor system and the concentrations of growth hormone, glucose, insulin, gonadotropins and progesterone in ovarian follicular fluid and plasma from adult female horses (Equus caballus).

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    Salazar-Ortiz, Juan; Monget, Philippe; Guillaume, Daniel

    2014-07-31

    Feed intake affects the GH-IGF system and may be a key factor in determining the ovarian follicular growth rate. In fat mares, the plasma IGF-1 concentration is high with low GH and a quick follicular growth rate, in contrast to values observed in thin mares. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of differential feed intake on the IGF system. The objective of this experiment was to quantify IGFs, IGFBPs, GH, glucose, insulin, gonadotropin and progesterone (P4) in blood and in preovulatory follicular fluid (FF) in relation to feeding levels in mares. Three years prior to the experiment, Welsh Pony mares were assigned to a restricted diet group (R, n = 10) or a well-fed group (WF, n = 9). All mares were in good health and exhibited differences in body weight and subcutaneous fat thickness. Follicular development was scanned daily and plasma was also collected daily. Preovulatory FF was collected by ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration. Hormone levels were assayed in FF and plasma with a validated RIA. According to scans, the total number of follicles in group R was 53% lower than group WF. Insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were higher in WF than in R mares. GH and IGF-2 concentrations were lower in plasma from WF mares than from R mares, but the difference was not significant in FF. The IGFBP-2/IGFBP-3 ratio in FF was not affected by feeding but was dramatically increased in R mare plasma. No difference in gonadotropin concentration was found with the exception of FSH, which was higher in the plasma of R mares. On the day of puncture, P4 concentrations were not affected by feeding but were higher in preovulatory FF than in plasma. The bioavailability of IGF-1 or IGF-2, represented by the IGFBP2/IGFBP3 ratio, is modified by feed intake in plasma but not in FF. These differences partially explain the variability in follicular growth observed between well-fed mares and mares on restricted diets.

  18. [Cyclic concentration of estradiol and progesterone in hysterectomized women (author's transl)].

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    Reynoso Ron, L; Aznar Ramos, R; Bedolla Tovar, N; Cortés-Gallegos, V

    1975-01-01

    The cyclic concentration of estradiol and progesterone was studied in 6 women, 30 years of age or less, who underwent hysterectomy, 7 to 14 months earlier, because of obstetrical complications. The basal body temperature curve, as well as the daily concentrations of plasma estradiol and progesterone during one cycle, showed a pattern similar to that of the control group, except for 2 women with a luteal phase of 16 days, who had progesterone levels of 5 ng/ml or more. Although these values are indicative of ovulation, they fell in the lower limit of the range considered as ovulatory in the laboratory that conducted the test. It is concluded that hysterectomy, with the interruption of the circulation of the ovaric branch of the uterine artery, does not affect the normal esteroidogenic function of the ovary.

  19. Effects of ergocryptine on plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone, and progesterone in the periparturient sow.

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    Whitacre, M D; Threlfall, W R

    1981-09-01

    Effects of ergocryptine (ERG) on the periparturient sow were assessed by measuring changes in prolactin, luteinizing hormone, and progesterone in plasma. Hormones in plasma were determined on samples collected daily from 21 days before parturition until postpartum day (PPD) 21. Administration of ERG completely blocked the initiation of lactation and prevented the surge in prolactin that occurred just before parturition, as compared with effects in control sows. The gestation period was shorter (P less than 0.01) in ERG-treated sows compared with the gestation period in controls. Although the number of pigs farrowed was not different between treated and control sows, the ERG-treated sows did not raise any pigs to PPD 21. Luteinizing hormone concentrations were higher (P less than 0.01) from 10 days before parturition until PPD 21, but plasma progesterone concentrations were not different in treated sows when compared with concentrations in control sows.

  20. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with pregnancy outcome. Progesterone concentration was measured on stimulation day 1 and on the day of HCG administration in 475 patients who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment following ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and recombinant FSH...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late...

  1. [Simultaneous study of plasma gonadotropins, estrogens, progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone during the ovulatory cycle].

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    Roger, M; Veinante, A; Soldat, M C; Tardy, J; Tribondeau, E; Scholler, R

    1975-09-20

    Plasma levels of gonadotrophins, estrone, estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone were studied throughout an ovulatory cycle in 11 normal women. For each of these hormones, the initiation of a secretory cycle occured at a different time: on the 10th day after mid-cycle surge for gonadotrophins, on the 3 rd day of menses for estradiol and somewhat later for estrone, on the 8th day of cycle for 17-hydroxyprogesterone and on the day of the LH surge for progesterone. Mean plasma levels and range were reported for every studied hormone. The mid-cycle surges of LH and FSH were found always coincident, after which their concentration decreased simultaneously; during the late follicular phase the increasing LH curve intersected the decreasing FSH curve. A peak of estradiol occured in every subject except one on the day before the mid-cycle surge of LH; a peak of plasma estrone occured either on the day of the LH peak or on the day before. For these two hormones the luteal phase range is always below the peak level. A peak of 17-hydroxyprogesterone occured in every subject on the same day than the mid-cycle LH peak, but the plasma level increased during the luteal phase up to higher levels. Progesterone concentration increased on the day of the LH surge, indicating the initiation of luteinization prior to ovulation.

  2. Effect of Efavirenz on Endogenous Progesterone Concentrations and Contraceptive Outcomes among Ugandan HIV Infected Women Coadministering Ethinylestradiol/Levonorgestrel.

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    Munkwase, Grant; Bisaso, Kuteesa R; Kakaire, Othman; Nanzigu, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of efavirenz mid-dose plasma concentrations on mid-luteal endogenous progesterone concentrations and contraceptive outcomes among 49 HIV infected women coadministering ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel, including 34 HIV positive women on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and 15 HAART naïve HIV infected women, purposively selected from Mulago Hospital, Uganda. A blood sample was collected once between days 20 and 22 of each woman's menstrual cycle for measuring endogenous progesterone and efavirenz concentrations by electrochemiluminescence technology and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Descriptive statistical analysis and correlation and logistic regression analysis were done using SPSS v.21 and R3.1. Efavirenz showed a weak positive linear relationship with endogenous progesterone at efavirenz concentrations below 12 μg/ml. Based on serum endogenous progesterone, the observed hormonal contraceptives failure rate (24.5%) was higher than expected (maximum 8%). A higher proportion of HIV positive women on efavirenz based HAART (26.5%) was at risk of contraceptive failure than their HIV infected HAART naïve counterparts (20%) though it was not statistically significant (p = 0.63). Efavirenz mid-dose plasma concentrations seem to have no significant effect on mid-luteal endogenous progesterone concentrations and contraceptive outcomes among HIV infected Ugandan women coadministering ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel oral pills.

  3. Effect of Efavirenz on Endogenous Progesterone Concentrations and Contraceptive Outcomes among Ugandan HIV Infected Women Coadministering Ethinylestradiol/Levonorgestrel

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    Grant Munkwase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of efavirenz mid-dose plasma concentrations on mid-luteal endogenous progesterone concentrations and contraceptive outcomes among 49 HIV infected women coadministering ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel, including 34 HIV positive women on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART and 15 HAART naïve HIV infected women, purposively selected from Mulago Hospital, Uganda. A blood sample was collected once between days 20 and 22 of each woman’s menstrual cycle for measuring endogenous progesterone and efavirenz concentrations by electrochemiluminescence technology and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, respectively. Descriptive statistical analysis and correlation and logistic regression analysis were done using SPSS v.21 and R3.1. Efavirenz showed a weak positive linear relationship with endogenous progesterone at efavirenz concentrations below 12 μg/ml. Based on serum endogenous progesterone, the observed hormonal contraceptives failure rate (24.5% was higher than expected (maximum 8%. A higher proportion of HIV positive women on efavirenz based HAART (26.5% was at risk of contraceptive failure than their HIV infected HAART naïve counterparts (20% though it was not statistically significant (p=0.63. Efavirenz mid-dose plasma concentrations seem to have no significant effect on mid-luteal endogenous progesterone concentrations and contraceptive outcomes among HIV infected Ugandan women coadministering ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel oral pills.

  4. Effect of progesterone concentration and duration of proestrus on fertility in beef cattle after fixed-time artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadarwal, D; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P; Pfeifer, L F M; Creelman, C; Singh, J

    2013-03-15

    The objective was to determine the effect of plasma progesterone concentration and the duration of proestrus during growth of the ovulatory follicle on fertility in beef cattle. Heifers (N = 61) and postpartum cows (N = 79) were assigned randomly to four groups in a two-by-two design involving luteal-phase versus subluteal-phase plasma progesterone concentrations and normal versus short proestrus. To synchronize follicular wave emergence, estradiol-17β was given im during the midluteal phase (Day 0) and concurrently, a once-used controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was placed intravaginally. In the subluteal-phase progesterone groups, a luteolytic dose of PGF(2α) was given on Day 0 and again 12 hours later. In the luteal-phase progesterone groups, PGF(2α) was not given (so as to retain a functional CL). The controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was removed and PGF(2α) was given on Days 7 or 8 in the normal- and short-proestrus groups, respectively. Cattle were given lutropin im 12 or 36 hours later in the short- and normal-proestrus groups, respectively, with AI at 12 hours after lutropin treatment. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian response during treatments and to diagnose pregnancy 60 days after AI. Cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups had a larger follicle at the time of AI, and a larger CL that secreted more progesterone 9 days after AI than cattle with luteal-phase progesterone concentrations or those with short proestrus (P < 0.03). There was a higher incidence of ovulation (P < 0.01) the day after AI in heifers (55/61; 90%) than in cows (44/79; 56%). Pregnancy rates ranged from 11% to 54%, and were higher in cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups than in the luteal-phase progesterone or short proestrus groups, respectively, (P < 0.02). In conclusion, a short

  5. A comparative study of clomiphene and epimestrol on plasma progesterone, CBG, TBG and SHBG, and salivary progesterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicovic, P M; Luisi, M; Cortés-Prieto, J; Franchi, F

    1982-01-01

    The plasma levels of CBG, TBG, SHBG and progesterone, and salivary progesterone levels were measured in eight young ovulatory volunteers. After the control cycle four subjects received 50 mg/day of Clomiphene from days 5 to 9 of the first treatment cycle, and 10 mg/day of Epimestrol from days 5 to 15 of the second treatment cycle. The other four subjects received the treatments in reverse order. Between the two treatments there was one cycle without medication as a "wash-out" period. Plasma and saliva samples were obtained on days +6, +8 and +10 (day of LH peak was denoted by 0), always between 08.00 and 09.00 h. Statistical evaluation was done by means of an analysis of variance (ANOVA), and correlation coefficients were also calculated. Evaluation of data on effects of Clomiphene and Epimestrol on the plasma levels of CBG and salivary progesterone showed that Clomiphene induced a highly significant rise (p less than 0.001) in the CBG levels and decrease (p less than 0.001) in salivary progesterone levels, while no changes were seen following administration of Epimestrol. Both Clomiphene and Epimestrol treatments led towards higher plasma progesterone levels, those following Clomiphene administration being higher. Neither treatment induced significant changes in TBG or SHBG levels. It is concluded that Clomiphene induces significant elevations of CBG and decrease in salivary progesterone, which is thought to reflect the free progesterone fraction and may have significance in relation to a discrepancy between the ovulation and pregnancy rates following Clomiphene therapy.

  6. CORRELATION OF PROGESTERONE AND CORTISOL PLASMA LEVELS BETWEEN OVULATED AND NON-OVULATED ETTAWA CROSSBREDS DOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Astuti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the correlation of progesterone and cortisol levels in plasma between ovulated and non-ovulated Crossbreds Ettawa does. Eight does were used in this experiment and they were divided equally into 2 groups, i.e. group I consisting of 4 normal ovulated does with the average body weight of 37.5 ± 3.109 kg and group II consisting of 4 non-ovulated does with the average body weight of 28 ± 2.160 kg as group II. The estrus cycles of all does were synchronized using intravaginal device of controlled internal drug release (CIDR accompanied by intra-muscular injection of prostaglandin F2 (PGF2 alpha. Immediately after the onset of estrus, blood samples were collected from jugular every 3 and 6 hours for 72 hours after onset of estrus. The concentration of cortisol and progesterone in plasma was assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results showed that the average concentrations of cortisol in ovulated does (90.89±26.22 ng/mL was higher than in non-ovulated does (42.70±37.18 ng/mL. Similarly, the concentrations of progesterone in ovulated does (0.098±0.0423 ng/mL was higher than in non-ovulated does (0.093±0.056 ng/mL. It was evident that the change in progesterone level was closely associated with the change in cortisol level in plasma.

  7. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with pregnancy outcome. Progesterone concentration was measured on stimulation day 1 and on the day of HCG administration in 475 patients who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment following ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and recombinant FSH...

  8. 国产天然孕酮阴道环的抗生育作用药效学和动物体内血药浓度变化研究%Study on Pharmacodynamics and Plasma Concentration of Progesterone Vaginal Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂幼伦; 郭湘洁; 谢淑武; 邵海浩; 曹霖; 朱焰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study on long-term contraceptive effectiveness and plasma concentration and release duration of natural progesterone vaginal ring. Methods: 1) Twenty-four fertility New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: high-dose progesterone vaginal ring (840 mg/ring), mid-dose progesterone vaginal ring (420 mg / ring), tings low-dose progesterone vaginal ring (210 mg/ring), blank vaginal ting. After recovering to be mating, the long-term contraceptive effects of progesterone vaginal ring on rabbit were observed. 2) Twelve castred goats were randomly divided into 2 groups and given the domestic ring and Chile ting, respectively. Blood samples were taken before and after inserting tings at different time points via jugular vein. Magnetic enzymelinked immunosorbent system was applied to assay the concentration of progesterone. Results: 1) There was no significant effect on the general condition of the animals, the contraceptive effect in high-dose group and mid-dose group was good, long performance could maintain 3 months, while the low-dose contraceptive was less effective. 2) Plasma concentration of domestic and Chilean progesterone vaginal ring except 20 d, 27 d, 90 d was not significantly different outside (P>0.05). Conclusion: Natural progesterone vaginal rings and high-dose and mid-dose groups had long-term contraceptive effect. The domestic vaginal ring of progesterone can be as a substitute of imported vaginal ring of progesterone.%目的:研究和观察天然孕酮阴道环的长效避孕效果,及其在山羊体内的血药浓度和持续释放时间.方法:①将24只具有生育能力的新西兰雌兔随机分为4组,分别阴道置入空白环、天然孕酮阴道环低剂量(210 mg/环)、中剂量(420 mg/环)和高剂量((840 mg/环).手术15 d后进行交配,观察天然孕酮阴道环对家兔的长效避孕效果.②将12只去卵巢山羊随机分为2组,分别给予国产和智利产天然孕酮阴道环,并于置入阴道环

  9. Effects of metformin treatment on luteal phase progesterone concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Meenakumari K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of luteal phase progesterone deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are not known. To determine the possible involvement of hyperinsulinemia in luteal phase progesterone deficiency in women with PCOS, we examined the relationship between progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and insulin during the luteal phase and studied the effect of metformin on luteal progesterone levels in PCOS. Patients with PCOS (19 women aged 18-35 years were treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily for 4 weeks prior to the test cycle and throughout the study period, and submitted to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 5, same age range as PCOS women and PCOS women during the late follicular (one sample and luteal (3 samples phases and LH, insulin and progesterone concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Duncan's test and Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r. The endocrine study showed low progesterone level (4.9 ng/ml during luteal phase in the PCOS women as compared with control (21.6 ng/ml. A significant negative correlation was observed between insulin and progesterone (r = -0.60; P < 0.01 and between progesterone and LH (r = -0.56; P < 0.05 concentrations, and a positive correlation (r = 0.83; P < 0.001 was observed between LH and insulin. The study further demonstrated a significant enhancement in luteal progesterone concentration (16.97 ng/ml in PCOS women treated with metformin. The results suggest that hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance may be responsible for low progesterone levels during the luteal phase in PCOS. The luteal progesterone level may be enhanced in PCOS by decreasing insulin secretion with metformin.

  10. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and progesterone plasma levels association with the onset and progression of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelou, F; Deligeoroglou, E; Vrachnis, N; Iliodromiti, S; Iliodromiti, Z; Sifakis, S; Farmakides, G; Creatsas, G

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF LNVESTIGATION: To examine the relationship between maternal plasma progesterone along with corticotropin- releasing hormone (CRH) plasma levels and the progression of labor. Maternal serum CRH and progesterone were measured during the latent phase of labor, active labor, and 24 hours postpartum in women who went into spontaneous labor and delivered vaginally at term. Progesterone (P) levels in women delivered by an elective cesarean section at term were also measured as baseline. Mean maternal plasma P was 18% higher in the active phase than in the latent phase of labor (p labor (p labor progresses, P and CRH increase and subsequently decrease precipitously in the immediate postpartal period. P levels tend to drop in women who are in early labor compared with non-laboring full-term women.

  11. Detection and identification of plasma progesterone metabolites in the female Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) using GC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, K M; Dubois, M; Delahaut, P; Verstegen, J P

    2009-08-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) have relatively low peripheral concentrations of progesterone (P4). The objective of this study was to determine if these relatively low P4 concentrations are associated with a high ratio of progestin metabolites and to document metabolite concentrations from individual blood samples obtained from manatees during diestrus or pregnancy. Metabolites known to exist in elephants-terrestrial manatee relatives-were targeted. These included 5alpha-reduced progestins (5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione [5alpha-DHP] and 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one [5alpha-P3-OH]) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP), which occurs in Asian elephants. An additional, inactive metabolite, 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (20alpha-OHP), indicative of P4 overproduction, was also targeted. Progesterone itself was the predominant progestin detected in pregnant and nonpregnant manatee plasma (n = 10) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with tandem quadrupole detectors (GC/MS/MS). Progesterone concentrations in pregnant females varied from early (moderate to high) through mid and late (low) pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations ranged from low to high in nonpregnant, nonlactating females. The most commonly detected metabolite was 5alpha-P3-OH (n = 7), which occurred in pregnant (lower limit of detection [LLOD] to high) and nonpregnant (trace to high) females. The 5alpha-DHP metabolite was also detected in pregnant (LLOD to moderate) and nonpregnant (low) females. The 17alpha-OHP metabolite was not detected in any tested female. The 20alpha-OHP metabolite was detected in one nonpregnant, nonlactating, captive female (LLOD). Metabolites were most prevalent during early pregnancy, concurrent with maximum P4 concentrations. Based on their concentrations in peripheral circulation, we inferred that these metabolites may have, opposite to elephants, a limited physiologic role during luteal, pregnant, and nonpregnant phases in the manatee.

  12. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  13. Efeitos do estresse térmico nas concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona (P4 e estradiol 17-b (E2 e temperatura retal em cabras da raça Pardo Alpina Effects of heat stress on progesterone (P4 and estradiol-17b plasma concentrations and rectal temperature of Alpine Brown goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras lactantes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em um delineamento experimental em "crossover", em dois grupos: sob condições termoneutras e estresse térmico. Um período de adaptação de 28 dias foi seguido por quatro períodos de 14 dias cada, quando os animais sob estresse térmico foram expostos à temperatura média de 33,84ºC; THI de 86,20; BGT de 36,18 e BT de 32,11ºC das 8 às 17 horas, incluindo radiação solar simulada das 10 às 15 horas. Não houve diferença entre as concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona, mas as fêmeas submetidas ao estresse térmico apresentaram diminuição nas concentrações plasmáticas de estradiol, quando comparados ao grupo termoneutro. A temperatura retal dos animais sob estresse térmico foi mais elevada quando foi comparada à do grupo de animais em condições de termoneutralidade. As cabras mantiveram as concentrações plasmáticas da progesterona, com diminuição na secreção de estradiol, quando expostas a um estresse repetido e intermitente, a despeito de ocorrer hipertermia durante o estresse pelo calor.Six lactating goats were randomly assigned to a crossover experimental design in two groups, under thermoneutral and heat stress conditions. An adaptation period of 28 days were followed by 4-periods of 14 days each, when the animals under heat stress were exposed to an average temperature of 33.34ºC; THI of 86.20; BGT of 36.18 and BT of 32.11ºC from 8 to 17 hours, including simulated solar radiation from 10 to 15 hours. There was no difference for progesterone plasma concentrations but the animals under heat stress showed a reduction of estradiol plasma concentrations as compared to the thermoneutral group. The rectal temperature of the animals under heat stress was higher when compared to the animals under thermoneutral conditions. The goats maintained progesterone plasma concentrations with reduction of estradiol secretion when exposed to repeat stress and intermittent

  14. Mid-luteal progesterone concentrations are associated with live birth rates during ovulation induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce Saez, Jane; Balen, A; Platteau, P

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective study investigated whether mid-luteal serum progesterone concentrations are associated with live birth rates in women with WHO group II anovulatory infertility undergoing ovulation induction. Data were from women (n=335) stimulated with gonadotrophins using a low-dose step...

  15. A State Space Model Exhibiting a Cyclic Structure with an Application to Progesterone Concentration in Cow Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Højsgaard, Søren

    Progesterone is a hormone linked to the reproductive status of dairy cows. Hence, with the increasing availability of on-line records of the concentration of progesterone in cow milk, there is a need for new tools to analyse such data. The aim is to find techniques for better determination......-lactations with the purpose of evaluating the use of progesterone for detection of oestrus....

  16. Investigation of pig sperm plasma membrane reorganization using progesterone-albumin-fluorescein probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfredo Medrano; Paul F Watson; William V Holt

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To relate semen susceptibility in cooling protocols to sperm plasma membrane properties.Methods:A series of experiments was performed using the fluorescent markers, progesterone-BSA-FITC andBSA-FITC.Results:These experiments indicated that both progesterone-BSA-FITC andBSA-FITC bound to specific sperm plasma membrane domains, thus producing four different binding patterns, revealing probable changes in membrane organization during capacitation and during cooling.Those patterns seem to make a sequence progressing from non-capacitated status to capacitated status.The proportion of each pattern was different during incubation than during cooling, showing the latter had a higher proportion of dead sperm than the former.Conclusions:At this stage, the association of sperm plasma membrane alterations was revealed byBSA-FITC probes and cryosensitivity remains unclear.

  17. Effect of progesterone on renal sodium handling in man: relation to aldosterone excretion and plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparil, S; Ehrlich, E N; Lindheimer, M D

    1975-08-01

    1. The effect of progesterone on renal haemodynamics and intrarenal sodium handing was evaluated in thirteen normal men on a constant diet. Clearances were measured during maximal water diuresis and again 4-7 days later, this time 3 h after progesterone was given intramuscularly. Seven additional studies were performed 3 days after progesterone administration. Another four tests were performed on volunteers who had manifested renal 'escape' from the sodium-retaining effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate. 2. In acute progesterone studies glomerular filtration rate was unchanged, whereas effective renal plasma flow increased, so that filtration fraction decreased significantly. A similar in crease in urinary sodium occurred whether subjects received a low or high sodium diet. Indices which related to the distal delivery of filtrate (fractional urine flow and the sum of fractional free water and sodium clearances) increased significantly in both groups. The progesterone-induced increase in sodium excretion was not related to changes in plasma renin activity, renin substrate or urinary aldosterone. After 3 days of progesterone, the increase of sodium excretion was less than in the acute studies and urinary aldosterone increased tow- to four-fold. Progesterone failed to produce an acute increse in urinary sodium in subjects hyperexpanded by administration of exogenous mineralocorticoids. 3. Results suggest that the acute natriuretic action of progesterone is in part independent of aldosterone inhibition and that progesterone may inhibit sodium reabsorption at proximal as well as distal sites in the nephron.

  18. Serum progesterone concentrations associated with superovulation and premature corpus luteum failure in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbings, R B; Bosu, W T; Barker, C A; King, G J

    1986-01-01

    The incidence and cause of premature corpora lutea failure and the response to luteinizing hormone treatment was investigated in superovulated dairy goats. Does were treated with 1000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin intramuscularly, followed by either luteinizing hormone (treated group) or saline (control group). Serum progesterone concentrations were used to monitor corpus luteum function. The dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin used induced superovulation in a majority of the does, but the responses varied depending on the time of year. Premature regression of the corpora lutea occurred in 4 of 18 does after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment, but there was no difference in the incidence of corpora lutea failure between treated and control groups. Decreases in serum progesterone concentrations were evident by day 3 after ovulation in does that experienced corpora lutea failure indicating this to be the critical time for premature regression of the corpora lutea in superovulated does. PMID:3742374

  19. Effect of subluteal concentrations of progesterone on luteinizing hormone and ovulation in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatler, T B; Hayes, S H; Ray, D L; Reames, P S; Silvia, W J

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if administration of progesterone within a low, subluteal range (0.1-1.0 ng/mL) blocks the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (experiments 1 and 2) and ovulation (experiment 2) in lactating dairy cows. In experiment 1, progesterone was administered to cycling, lactating dairy cows during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle using a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device. CIDRs were pre-incubated in other cows for either 0 (CIDR-0), 14 (CIDR-14) or 28 days (CIDR-28). One group of cows received no CIDRs and served as controls. One day after CIDR insertion, luteolysis was induced by two injections of prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) (25 mg) at 12 h intervals. Two days after the first injection, estradiol cypionate (ECP; 3 mg) was injected to induce a LH surge. Concentrations of progesterone after luteolysis were 0.11, 0.45, 0.78 and 1.20 ng/mL for cows treated with no CIDR, CIDR-28, CIDR-14, and CIDR-0, respectively. LH surges were detected in 4/4 controls, 4/5 CIDR-28, 2/5 CIDR-14 and 0/5 CIDR-0 cows following ECP. In experiment 2, progesterone was administered to cycling, lactating, Holstein cows during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle as in experiment 1. Luteolysis was induced as in experiment 1. The occurrence of an endogenous LH surge and ovulation were monitored for 7 days. Concentrations of progesterone after luteolysis were 0.13, 0.30, 0.70 and 1.20 ng/mL for cows treated with no CIDR, CIDR-28, CIDR-14 and CIDR-0, respectively. LH surges and ovulation were detected in 5/5 controls, 3/7 CIDR-28, 0/5 CIDR-14 and 0/5 CIDR-0 cows. It was concluded that low concentrations of progesterone can reduce the ability of either endogenous or exogenous estradiol to induce a preovulatory surge of LH and ovulation.

  20. Effect of incremental levels of crude degummed canola oil on milk progesterone, plasma

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    John R. Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of lactating cows with fat can alter the profiles of key reproductive hormones and boost postpartum energy balance. However, published data under Australian pasture-based dairy production conditions are scanty and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether dietary inclusion of crude degummed canola oil (CDCO at incremental levels for eight-weeks will have significant influence on progesterone (P4, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows grazing pastures. We tested the hypothesis that postpartum supplementation of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows with dietary CDCO in a pasture-based system will alter the concentrations of P4, LH and FSH reproductive hormones. A random allocation of twenty primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows into four treatment groups that consisted of a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with no supplemental CDCO (control, or a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with CDCO added at 25 ml/kg (low, 35 ml/kg (medium and 50 ml/kg (high was employed in an eight-week feeding trial after two weeks of adjustment. Supplementation levels of CDCO and week of data collection were significant sources of variation (P  0.05. It was apparent that cows in the high (0.459 ng/ml, medium (0.367 ng/ml and low (0.251 ng/ml levels of oil treatments had higher mean plasma FSH concentrations compared to the control (0.172 ng/ml cows. It was concluded that the current levels of CDCO can be used in pasture-based dairy systems to increase FSH, but not LH and P4.

  1. Effect of GnRH and hCG on progesterone concentration and ovarian and luteal blood flow in diestrous mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, L F C; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A; Ginther, O J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of reproductive hormones (GnRH, hCG, LH and progesterone) on the regulation of corpus luteum (CL) and ovarian blood flow. Diestrous mares received a single treatment of saline, 100μg gonadorelin (GnRH), or 1500IU hCG 10days after ovulation. Plasma LH and progesterone concentrations, resistance index (RI) for ovarian artery blood-flow, and percentage of corpus luteum (CL) with color-Doppler signals of blood flow were determined immediately before treatment (hour 0) and at hours 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. In the GnRH group, LH increased (Pblood-flow signals was greater at hour 0.5 in the GnRH group than in the saline group and was intermediate in the hCG group. The similarity among groups in progesterone concentration indicated that changes in progesterone were not involved in the GnRH and hCG stimulation of ovarian vascular perfusion. Effects of treatment might have been mediated through LH; however, since hCG biological activity is primarily LH-like, the differences in timing and degree of ovarian and luteal blood flow changes after GnRH or hCG administration in the present study suggest that GnRH might have a direct effect on ovarian blood vessels and vascular control.

  2. Mid-luteal serum progesterone concentrations govern implantation rates for cryopreserved embryo transfers conducted under hormone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovich, John L; Conceicao, Jason L; Stanger, James D; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Keane, Kevin N

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the relevance of mid-luteal serum hormonal concentrations in cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles conducted under hormone replacement therapy (HRT) control and which involved single-embryo transfer (SET) of 529 vitrified blastocysts. Widely ranging mid-luteal oestradiol and progesterone concentrations ensued from the unique HRT regimen. Oestradiol had no influence on clinical pregnancy or live birth rates, but an optimal progesterone range between 70 and 99 nmol/l (P decreased implantation rates. There was no clear interaction between oestradiol and progesterone concentrations but embryo quality grading did show a significant influence on outcomes (P pregnancy and live birth rates, respectively). Multiple comparison analysis showed that the progesterone effect was influential regardless of embryo grading, body mass index or the woman's age, either at vitrification or at cryopreserved embryo transfer. The results support the argument that careful monitoring of serum progesterone concentrations in HRT-cryopreserved embryo transfer is warranted and that further studies should explore pessary adjustments to optimize concentrations for individual women to enhance implantation rates.

  3. Concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona em borregas lanadas e deslanadas no período de abril a novembro, no Estado de São Paulo Plasma concentrations of progesterone in hair and wool ewe lambs from April to November, in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Sasa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho o fornecimento de informações sobre o padrão de secreção da progesterona (P4 e as características de manifestação do ciclo estral em borregas lanadas e deslanadas, durante o período de abril a novembro, no Estado de São Paulo. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular de 12 borregas das raças Santa Inês (SI, Romney Marsh (RM e Suffolk (SU, e as concentrações foram determinadas pelo método de radioimunoensaio utilizando-se kits comerciais. O estro foi detectado por machos vasectomizados (impregnados com tinta pó xadrez + óleo comestível na região peitoral em 31 borregas (10 SI, 11 RM e 10 SU. O estro foi determinado pelo confronto da observação de fêmeas marcadas pelos machos vasectomizados e dos valores de concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona inferiores a 1 ng/mL. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos ciclos estrais foi de duração normal (14 - 19 dias para todas as raças. A duração dos ciclos de duração normal das borregas SU foi inferior aos das borregas SI e RM, as quais não diferiram entre si. Não houve diferença entre as raças na duração dos ciclos curtos (The goal of this experiment was to provide information about the pattern of progesterone secretion (P4 and on the oestrus cycle characteristics in hair and wool ewe lambs, from April to November, in São Paulo State. Blood samples from jugular vein were collected from 12 ewe lambs Santa Inês (SI, Romney Marsh (RM and Suffolk (SU breeds, and the concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay method, using commercial kits. Oestrus was detected by using vasectomized rams (fitted with raddle crayons + comestible oil on pectoral area in 31 ewe lambs (10 SI, 11 RM and 10 SU. The oestrus was determined by confronting the observation of marked females by vasectomized rams and values of plasma progesterone concentrations lower than 1 ng/mL. The results showed that the majority of oestrus cycles were of

  4. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogan, P. T.; Henning, H.; Stout, T. A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships

  5. Physiological responses and gene expression changes in the western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) exposed to progesterone at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liping; Xu, Hongyan; Ying, Guangguo; Yang, Yang; Shu, Hu; Zhao, Jianliang; Cheng, Xuemei

    2017-09-14

    Progesterone (P4) is a natural and synthetic steroid, widely distributed in the aquatic environments. It can lead to adverse effects on the endocrine system in aquatic organisms. This study investigated the toxicological effects of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations (4, 44, and 410ng/L) of progesterone for 42 d on adult female mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. We performed morphological and histological analyses on gonads, anal fins, liver, and gills after the exposure of mosquito fish to P4. The expression levels of genes (vtg, er, and ar isoforms) related to fish reproduction and detoxification (cyp1a) in the liver were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the progesterone exposure induced slight masculinization in female mosquitofish, influenced the oocyte maturation as revealed by histology of the ovaries, and caused severe damages to the liver and gills of adult female mosquitofish. It also suppressed the mRNAs expression of vtg, er, cyp1a, and significantly enhanced the expression of ar mRNA in the liver. This study reveals the molecular and physiological effects of progesterone at environmentally relevant concentrations, which might further be translated to alterations in the reproduction of mosquitofish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relative prolactin-to-progesterone concentrations around farrowing influence colostrum yield in primiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; van Hees, H; Quesnel, H

    2015-10-01

    In swine, colostrum production is induced by the drop of progesterone (P4) concentrations which leads to the prepartum peak of prolactin (PRL). PRL regulates mammary cell turnover and stimulates lacteal nutrient synthesis. P4 inhibits PRL secretion and downregulates the PRL receptor in the mammary gland. The aim of the present study was to determine if the relative prepartum concentrations of P4 and PRL (PRL/P4 ratio) influence sow colostrum production. The performance of 29 Landrace × Large White primiparous sows was analyzed. Colostrum yield was estimated during 24 h starting at the onset of parturition (T0) using litter weight gains. Colostrum was collected at T0 and 24 h later (T24). Repeated jugular blood samples were collected during the peripartum period, that is, from -72 to +24 h related to farrowing and were assayed for P4 and PRL. Sows were retrospectively categorized in 2 groups according to their PRL/P4 ratio 24 h before farrowing being either 3 (high PRL/P4, n = 13). During the peripartum period, the circulating concentrations of P4 were lower (P Colostrum yield was greater in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows (4.11 vs 3.48 kg [root mean square error = 0.69], P Colostrum composition (dry matter, energy, protein, lipid, and lactose contents) and IgG and IgA concentrations did not differ between the 2 groups of sows (P > 0.10). The Na/K ratio in colostrum 24 h after the onset of farrowing was lower in high PRL/P4 compared with low PRL/P4 sows (P colostrum yield in primiparous sows.

  7. Salivary Concentration of Progesterone and Cortisol Significantly Differs Across Individuals After Correcting for Blood Hormone Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O’Connor, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18–34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between-individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025

  8. Effects of body weight loss on serum progesterone concentrations of non-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, R O; Trevisanuto, C; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), cortisol, insulin, and progesterone (P4) of dairy cows maintaining or mobilizing body weight (BW). Eleven non-lactating, non-pregnant, and ovariectomized Gir × Holstein cows were stratified by BW and body condition score (BCS), and randomly assigned to: 1) BW loss (six cows; LOSS) and 2) BW maintenance (five cows; MAINT). Treatments were achieved through a grazing schedule using three pastures. From Days -7 to 1 of the study, all cows were maintained in Pasture A (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). From Days 2 to 30, LOSS cows were maintained in Pasture B (less than 1.0 kg of dry matter/cow daily), whereas MAINT cows were maintained in Pasture C (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). However, from Days 3 to 30 of the study, cows from both treatments were regrouped daily into Pasture A from 0600 to 1200 h to allow LOSS cows to consume, on average, 4.5 kg/d of forage dry matter. On Day -66 of the study, all cows received an intravaginal drug releasing device containing 1.9 g of P4 (replaced every 14 d and removed on Day 3). Cow BW and BCS were assessed on Day 0 and 30 and blood samples were collected daily from Days 0 to 30 at 0600 and 1200 h. Changes in BW and BCS were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in LOSS cows compared to MAINT cows. Within samples collected at 0600 h, serum NEFA concentrations were often greater (P adipose tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Concentração plasmática de progesterona em novilhas receptoras submetidas à administração de rbST, GnRH ou hCG no quinto dia do ciclo estral Plasma progesterone concentration in recipient heifers submitted to administration of rbST, GnRH or hCG on day five of the estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Fonseca

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a habilidade de diferentes hormônios administrados no quinto dia do ciclo estral em induzir a ovulação do folículo dominante da primeira onda folicular (FDPO e formar um corpo lúteo acessório (CLa e seus efeitos sobre a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 em novilhas receptoras. Cinqüenta e duas novilhas mestiças Holandês-Zebu foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: T1-controle, T2-administração subcutânea de 500mg de rbST, T3-administração intramuscular (IM de 100mig de GnRH e T4-administração IM de 2000UI e endovenosa de 1000UI de hCG. Realizou-se palpação transretal nos dias 5, 13 e 60 para detecção de corpo lúteo original (CLo, de CLa e de gestação, respectivamente. A formação de CLa foi de: T1-0/12 (0,0%, T2-0/13 (0,0%, T3-5/12 (41,7% e T4-10/15 (66,7%(P0,05. As taxas de gestação, T1=37,5% (3/8, T2=62,5% (5/8, T3=28,6% (2/7 e T4=33,3% (3/9, não diferiram entre tratamentos (P>0,05. Estes resultados mostraram que o FDPO no quinto dia do ciclo estral foi capaz de responder ao GnRH e à hCG, ovular e formar um CLa, o que elevou a concentração plasmática de P4 de novilhas no 13º dia do ciclo estral, período crítico para o estabelecimento da gestação em bovinos.The ability of different hormones administered on day five of the estrous cycle to induce the ovulation of the first wave dominant follicle (FWDF and to form an accessory corpus luteum (CLa, and the respective effects on plasma progesterone concentrations were studied in recipient heifers. Fifty-two crossbred Holstein-Zebu heifers were randomly assigned to four treatments: T1-control, T2-subcutaneous administration of 500mg of rbST, T3-intramuscular administration of 100mug of GnRH and T4-administration of 3000IU of hCG (1000IU endovenous and 2000IU intramuscular. Transrectal palpation was performed on days 5, 13 and 60 to check original corpus luteum, CLa and pregnancy, respectively. CLa formation was as follow

  10. Efeito de diferentes protocolos de superovulação sobre a concentração plasmática de progesterona e de metabólitos lipídicos de vacas Nelore Effect of different superovulation protocols on plasma progesterone concentration and lypidic metabolites in Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Ramos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as concentrações plasmáticas de triglicérides, colesterol, aspartato transaminase (AST e progesterona (P4 em vacas Nelore não lactantes com elevado escore corporal, superovuladas com diferentes protocolos. Foram utilizados três grupos de animais, G1 (n=11, G2 (n=8 e G3 (n=5, superovulados com 500UI de FSH, 200mg e 180mg de FSH (hormônio folículo estimulante, respectivamente, em doses decrescentes, duas vezes ao dia, durante quatro dias. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes da superovulação (A, no terceiro dia da superovulação (B, no momento da inseminação artificial (C e na coleta dos embriões (D. As concentrações de triglicérides, AST e colesterol foram verificados por espectrofotometria, e a de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio. Não houve alteração (P>0,05 na concentração de triglicérides, AST e colesterol entre as amostras. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 do protocolo de superovulação sobre a concentração de triglicérides, AST e P4 nas diferentes amostras. O G2 apresentou menor concentração de colesterol (PThe purpose of this research was to evaluate the concentration of tryglicerides, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST and progesterone (P4 in embryo donor Nelore cows superovulated with different protocols. Twenty four donors were randomly distributed in three groups: group 1 (n=11, donors superovulated with 500UI of FSH and group 2 (n=8 and group 3 (n=5 respectively with 200mg and 180mg of FSH, in decreasing doses, twice a day, during four consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before superovulation (A, in the third day of superovulation (B, at the artificial insemination time (C and at the embryo collection time (D. The concentrations of tryglicerides, aspartate transaminase (AST and cholesterol were measured by spectrophotometry and progesterone (P4 by radioimmunoassay. There was no alteration (P0.05 of the superovulation protocol on the concentration of tryglicerides, AST and

  11. Plasma progesterone, metabolic hormones and beta-hydroxybutyrate in Holstein-Friesian cows after superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bényei, Balázs; Komlósi, István; Pécsi, Anna; Kulcsár, Margit; Huzsvai, László; Barros, C W C; Huszenicza, Gyula

    2011-12-01

    Metabolic hormones [insulin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)], progesterone (P4) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) serum concentrations were evaluated and their effect on the superovulation results of donor cows was investigated in a semi-arid environment. Body weight, body condition score (BCS) and lactation stage were also included in the analysis. Twenty-three Holstein-Friesian cows were superovulated with 600 IU FSHp following the routine procedure and flushed on day 7 in a Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer Centre in the semi-arid area of Brazil. The corpora lutea (CL) were counted and blood samples were collected for assays. All of the hormones investigated and BHB serum concentrations were within the physiological ranges. There was a positive correlation between hormones, except between BHB and all the others. The leptin level was influenced by feeding status, as indicated by the BCS. Insulin, T4, T3 and BHB levels were affected by milking status. Dry cows had higher levels of all hormones except BHB. An optimum level of leptin resulted in the highest number of CL, while the linear increase of P4, T4 and IGF significantly increased the number of CL.

  12. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  13. Changes in serum progesterone concentrations in Bernese mountain dogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejll Kirchhoff, K; Goericke-Pesch, S

    2016-10-15

    Progesterone (P4) concentrations during canine pregnancy follow a specific pattern. Although the general pattern is similar, it is likely that breed-specific differences exist. Detailed knowledge about the physiological range of P4 concentrations may be helpful in cases of suspected hypoluteoidism. The aim of this study was to investigate P4 changes during pregnancy in a small and a large breed, to obtain reference values for specific intervals during pregnancy and to test for breed- or body weight-specific differences. We studied P4 concentrations in pregnancies from healthy Bernese mountain dogs (BMDs, n = 6) and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs, n = 6) with a normal reproductive history. Blood samples for P4 were taken to determine the day of ovulation and after confirmation of pregnancy in regular intervals from Days 23 to 29 to Days 60 to 64. Bernese mountain dogs delivered 6.2 ± 2.6 puppies (range: 3-9) 63.4 ± 1.5 (range: 61-65) days after ovulation (excluding data from one BMD with elective c-section) and CKCS delivered 3.3 ± 1.9 puppies (range: 1-5) 63.5 ± 1.1 (range: 62-65) days after ovulation. In general, the P4 concentrations of individual dogs continuously decreased from the first to the last sampling during pregnancy. Respective mean concentrations were Days 23 to 29: 19.2 ± 4.3/22.2 ± 3.9 ng/mL (BMD/CKCS), Days 30 to 34: 15.6 ± 2.3/17.7 ± 5.8 ng/mL, Days 35 to 39: 12.5 ± 2.8/14.1 ± 3.4 ng/mL, Days 40 to 44: 8.9 ± 1.4/11.8 ± 3.7 ng/mL, Days 45 to 49: 7.7 ± 1.6/8.9 ± 1.9 ng/mL, Days 50 to 54: 6.0 ± 1.3/8.7 ± 7.1 ng/mL, Days 55 to 59: 4.7 ± 1.2/5.3 ± 2.8 ng/mL, and Days 60 to 64: 3.69 ± 1.86/2.62 ± 0.42 ng/mL. ANOVA indicated significant differences over time within each breed when considered individually (P < 0.0001 each), but not between breeds although mean P4 was slightly lower in BMD until Days 55 to 59. The present data clearly confirm the previously described P4 pattern

  14. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in morbidly obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, A; Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations and liver morphology were investigated in 45 morbidly obese subjects (median overweight 88%) and in 42 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. A significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentration (median 464 mg/l, range 276-862 mg....../l) was found in the obese subjects when compared with concentrations in the controls (median 348 mg/l, range 164-536 mg/l). Plasma fibronectin concentrations of the obese patients correlated significantly to their degree of overweight (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05) as well as to the degree of fatty change found...... in their liver biopsies (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05). Significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated plasma fibronectin concentrations even in obese subjects without hepatic fatty change indicate that liver fat accumulation is no prerequisite of the obesity-related elevation of plasma fibronectin. Raised plasma...

  15. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic.

  16. Bacteria-induced or bacterial product-induced preterm parturition in mice and rabbits is preceded by a significant fall in serum progesterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel, P I; Romero, R; Maymon, E; Hertelendy, F

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial products are thought to induce labor by stimulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins in gestational tissues, leading to the onset of preterm parturition. Progesterone withdrawal is a prerequisite of parturition in many species. Yet a role for progesterone in the mechanisms responsible for preterm parturition, in the setting of infection, is unclear. The current studies were conducted to determine if a fall in serum progesterone concentrations occurs before the onset of bacterial product-induced preterm parturition in animals. Accordingly, pregnant mice at day 15 (70% gestation) were injected i.p. with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 microg/mouse) and timed-pregnant rabbits were inoculated transcervically with a suspension of E. coli to cause an ascending intrauterine infection. Control animals in both groups received equal volumes of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. Blood specimens were collected at regular intervals and serum progesterone levels were determined by RIA. Within 14 h of LPS administration, mice delivered their pups. The median concentrations of serum progesterone were significantly lower at 1 h, 4 h, 10 h, and at the onset of preterm parturition (11-12 h) after LPS injection, compared to that in animals given PBS. Similarly, E. coli-inoculated rabbits delivered 1-2 days posttranscervical inoculation and demonstrated 60% decrease in serum progesterone within 12-24 h of inoculation compared to those given PBS. Parturition in both control groups occurred at term, following typical progesterone withdrawal. It is concluded that LPS administration to pregnant mice and ascending intrauterine infection in pregnant rabbits is associated with a dramatic fall in serum progesterone concentrations prior to the onset of parturition.

  17. Increased plasma fibronectin concentrations in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Dejgaard, A; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    In 23 morbidly obese patients we investigated the influence of a large weight loss (30.6 kg, range 17.5-90.8) on the plasma fibronectin concentrations. Further, changes in plasma fibronectin were related to serum insulin levels and to liver biochemistry. Between the measurements patients had been...

  18. Plasma catecholamine concentrations associated with cerebral vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loach, A B; Benedict, C R

    1980-03-01

    Plasma concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured sequentially over the immediate post-operative period following clipping of an intracranial aneurysm in 11 patients. Those patients who developed local cerebral vasospasm showed a sustained rise in plasma catecholamines, particularly noradrenaline, whilst those patients who developed generalised cerebral vasospasm showed early peaks of very high concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline which preceded radiological evidence of generalized vasospam.

  19. Comparative efficacy of different estrus synchronization protocols on estrus induction response, fertility and plasma progesterone and biochemical profile in crossbred anestrus cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Dhami

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate estrus induction response and fertility including plasma progesterone and biochemical profile following use of three standard hormonal protocols in anestrus crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 40 true anestrus and 10 normal cyclic cows. 10 anestrus cows each were treated with standard intravaginal controlled internal drug release (CIDR device, Ovsynch (GPG protocol, and Norgestomet ear implant with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI. 10 anestrus cows were kept as untreated control while 10 cows exhibiting the first estrus within 90 days postpartum without any treatment served as normal cyclic control. Blood samples were obtained from treated cows on day 0, 7, 9 (AI of treatment and day 21 post-AI, and from control groups on the day of AI and day 21 post-AI for estimation of plasma progesterone, protein, cholesterol, calcium, and inorganic phosphorus profile. Results: The use of CIDR, Ovsynch, and Norgestomet ear implant protocols resulted in 100% estrus induction with conception rates at induced estrus of 60%, 50%, and 50%, and the overall of three cycles as 80%, 80%, and 70%. In untreated anestrus control (n=10, only three cows exhibited spontaneous estrus within 90 days of follow-up and conceived giving the first service and overall conception rates of 66.66% and 30.00%, respectively. In normal cyclic control (n=10, the conception rates at first and overall of three cycles were 50% and 80%. The overall mean plasma progesterone (P4 concentrations in anestrus cows studied on day 0 (initiation, 7 (prostaglandin injection and/or removal of implant, 9 (FTAI of treatment and on day 21 post-AI revealed that the values on day 7 and 21 were significantly (p<0.01 higher than other two periods in all three groups. The concentrations were significantly (p<0.05 higher in conceived than non-conceived group on day 21 post-AI in CIDR (4.36±0.12 vs. 1.65±0.82 ng/ml and Ovsynch (4.85±0.62 vs. 1.59±0

  20. Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure.

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    Gunnel Helling

    Full Text Available Higher than normal plasma glutamine concentration at admission to an intensive care unit is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Very high plasma glutamine levels are sometimes seen in both acute and chronic liver failure. We aimed to systematically explore the relation between different types of liver failure and plasma glutamine concentrations.Four different groups of patients were studies; chronic liver failure (n = 40, acute on chronic liver failure (n = 20, acute fulminant liver failure (n = 20, and post-hepatectomy liver failure (n = 20. Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD scores were assessed as indices of liver function. All groups except the chronic liver failure group were followed longitudinally during hospitalisation. Outcomes were recorded up to 48 months after study inclusion.All groups had individuals with very high plasma glutamine concentrations. In the total group of patients (n = 100, severity of liver failure correlated significantly with plasma glutamine concentration, but the correlation was not strong.Liver failure, regardless of severity and course of illness, may be associated with a high plasma glutamine concentration. Further studies are needed to understand whether high glutamine levels should be regarded as a biomarker or as a contributor to symptomatology in liver failure.

  1. Increased plasma fructosamine concentrations in laminitic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Withers, J M; Mair, T S

    2012-03-01

    The use of plasma fructosamine concentration ([fructosamine]) as a marker of abnormal glucose homeostasis in laminitic horses has not been investigated. Plasma fructosamine concentration may be higher amongst laminitic horses than normal horses; this might relate to underlying insulin resistance. 1) To compare [fructosamine] between laminitic and normal horses. 2) To investigate associations between [fructosamine] at presentation in laminitic horses with a) single sample markers of insulin resistance and b) outcome. Plasma fructosamine concentration, fasting serum insulin concentration (insulin) and fasting plasma glucose concentration (glucose) were measured in 30 horses that presented with laminitis. Clinical details and follow-up data were recorded. Plasma fructosamine concentration was also measured in 19 nonlaminitic control horses. Laminitic horses had significantly higher mean [fructosamine] than normal horses (P<0.001). Thirteen of 30 laminitic horses had fasting hyperinsulinaemia, 2/30 had fasting hyperglycaemia. Statistically significant univariable correlations were identified between [fructosamine] and [glucose], [insulin] and the proxies RISQI and MIRG. Trends for association between [fructosamine] and negative outcome did not reach statistical significance. Increased mean [fructosamine] in laminitic horses may represent abnormal glycaemic control and [fructosamine] may become a clinically useful marker. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Doxepin concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomburg, Robert; Remane, Daniela; Fassbender, Klaus; Maurer, Hans H; Spiegel, Jörg

    2011-04-01

    Doxepin--like other antidepressant drugs (ADs)--shows a variable antidepressant effect in clinical practice. The cause for this variability is as yet unclear; however, pharmacokinetic factors such as the variable permeability of doxepin into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), may contribute to the difference in therapeutic efficacy. We measured and correlated the concentration of doxepin and its active metabolite nordoxepin in both the plasma and CSF. Plasma and CSF samples were taken simultaneously from 21 patients who were treated with doxepin due to different clinical indications. The plasma concentration of both doxepin and nordoxepin correlated significantly with the oral dosage of doxepin (doxepin: r = +0.66, p < 0.001; nordoxepin: r = +0.78, p < 0.0001; Spearman's correlation). Furthermore, we found significant correlations between the plasma and CSF concentrations of both doxepin (r = +0.71; p < 0.001; Pearson's correlation) and nordoxepin (r = +0.74; p < 0.001). These highly significant correlations between the plasma and CSF concentrations indicate a constant CSF permeability of doxepin and its active metabolite nordoxepin.

  3. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kępka, Alina; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Płudowski, Paweł; Konarzewska, Emilia; Szulc, Agata; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2013-05-31

    Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell. The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period. The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men) aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6 ± 8.9) and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men) aged 22-60 years (39.8 ± 9.4). The patients' alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6 ± 7.5). Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9 ± 151.5). Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0), 30th (T30) and 49th (T49) day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC) and total (TC) carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student's t-test was used. At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05) in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01) as well as AC (p < 0.001) were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001)was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05), whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05). Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine after chronic alcohol intoxication is caused by the uptake of blood

  4. Effect of ammonia-generating diet on ovine serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Pal, D T; Gupta, P S P

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ammonia-generating diet on serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell growth and secretion parameters in ewes (Ovis aries). Ewes were fed with 14% CP diet (control) or ammonia-generating diet or ammonia-generating diet plus soluble sugar. The serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea level, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels and granulosa cell (obtained from ovaries of slaughtered ewes) growth parameters and secretory activities were estimated. Ammonia-generating diet (high-protein diet) increased the serum ammonia and urea concentration. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the ammonia concentration in serum with comparable levels as in control group; however, the urea level in the same group was higher than that observed in control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the follicular fluid ammonia concentration; however, the level was significantly higher compared to control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar brought down the follicular fluid urea level comparable to that observed in control group. Oestrogen and progesterone levels remained unchanged in ewes fed with different types of diet. Oestrogen and progesterone secretion were significantly lowered from granulosa cells recovered from ewes fed with high ammonia-generating diet. Low metabolic activity and high incidence of apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of ewes fed with ammonia-generating diet.

  5. High Physiological Concentrations of Progesterone Reverse Estradiol-Mediated Changes in Differentiation and Functions of Bone Marrow Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangming Xiu

    Full Text Available Female sex steroids, estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4, play a key role in regulating immune responses in women, including dendritic cell (DC development, and functions. Although the two hormones co-occur in the body of women throughout the reproductive years, no studies have explored their complex combinatorial effects on DCs, given their ability to regulate each other's actions. We examined murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC differentiation and functions, in the presence of a wide range of physiological concentrations of each hormone, as well as the combination of the two hormones. E2 (10(-12 to 10(-8M enhanced the differentiation of CD11b+CD11c+ DCs from BM precursor cells, and promoted the expression of CD40 and MHC Class-II, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, P4 (10(-9 to 10(-5M inhibited DC differentiation, but only at the highest concentrations. These effects on BMDCs were observed both in the presence or absence of LPS. When both hormones were combined, higher concentrations of P4, at levels seen in pregnancy (10(-6M reversed the E2 effects, regardless of the concentration of E2, especially in the absence of LPS. Functionally, antigen uptake was decreased and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12, IL-1 and IL-6 production by CD11b+CD11c+ DCs, was increased in the presence of E2 and these effects were reversed by high concentrations of P4. Our results demonstrate the distinct effects of E2 and P4 on differentiation and functions of bone marrow myeloid DCs. The dominating effect of higher physiological concentrations of P4 provides insight into how DC functions could be modulated during pregnancy.

  6. Influence of estradiol, progesterone, and nutrition on concentrations of gonadotropins and GnRH receptors, and abundance of mRNA for GnRH receptors and gonadotropin subunits in pituitary glands of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looper, M L; Vizcarra, J A; Wettemann, R P; Malayer, J R; Braden, T D; Geisert, R D; Morgan, G L

    2003-01-01

    Nutritionally induced anovulatory cows (n = 28) were used to determine the effect of steroids on regulation of synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins. Anovulatory cows were ovariectomized and received intravaginal inserts containing estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), E2 and P4 (E2P4), or a sham intravaginal insert (C) for 7 d. Concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were quantified in serum and E2 and P4 were quantified in plasma. Cows were exsanguinated within 1 to 2 h after removal of intravaginal inserts and pituitary glands were collected and stored at -80 degrees C until messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) and gonadotropin subunits, pituitary content of GnRH-R, and LH and FSH were quantified. Pituitary glands from five proestrous cows were harvested to compare gonadotropin characteristics between ovariectomized, anovulatory cows and intact cows. Plasma concentrations of E2 were greater (P nutritionally induced anovulatory cows was increased (P nutritionally induced anovulatory cows with progesterone and estradiol may cause pulsatile secretion of LH.

  7. Effect of nutrition on plasma progesterone levels, metabolic parameters and small follicles development in unstimulated goats reared under constant photoperiod regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondina, D; Freitas, V J F; Spinaci, M; Galeati, G

    2005-12-01

    Sixteen local adult goats were submitted for 9 weeks to 2.09 (high group) and 0.54 (low group) x dietary maintenance respectively. During the experimental period, goats were weighed, oestrus was detected and plasma insulin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids and progesterone concentrations were assessed. At the end of the experiment, ovarian small follicles population was studied by histological analysis. Final weight loss in low group was 18.37 +/- 2.02%, whereas weight gain of high group was 13.84 +/- 2.70%. Insulin and urea were lower in low group, while non-esterified fatty acids were significantly higher. A lower number of fasted goats was in oestrus or ovulated and an extended length of oestrus (p goats a significant qualitative alteration of follicle classes involved in the initiation process of primordial pool was found. In this phase, granulosa thickness and oocyte size were the most affected (p 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that opposite dietary intakes for a medium period induce a composite reproductive response in goats and can regulate the early onset of follicle growth.

  8. Plasma homocysteine concentrations in novel microminipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Otsuka, Akira; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Ogata, Kenji; Tanimoto, Akihide; Kanouchi, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    A novel microminipig has been recently developed for use in biomedical research. In the present study, age- and sex-related differences, as well as 24-h fluctuations in plasma total homocysteine concentrations (tHcy), were investigated in these microminipigs. tHcy (mean±SD) was 10.2±3.4 μM and significantly correlated with age. By contrast, neither the differences in tHcy between sexes nor the 24-h fluctuations in tHcy after feeding were significant. The kinetics of plasma tHcy after intravenous injection of reduced Hcy showed that its levels peaked within 5 min post-injection, as did the levels of tHcy. These results suggested that reduced Hcy is rapidly oxidized or metabolized. The half-lives of reduced Hcy, tHcy, and reduced cysteine in the blood were 47, 71, and 141 min, respectively. In conclusion, there was a significantly positive correlation between age and plasma tHcy in microminipigs. After intravenous injection of reduced Hcy, plasma tHcy quickly returned to pre-injection levels. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Micro-dose hCG as luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone administration: mathematical modelling of the hCG concentration in circulation and initial clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, C Yding; Fischer, R; Giorgione, V; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2016-10-01

    For the last two decades, exogenous progesterone administration has been used as luteal phase support (LPS) in connection with controlled ovarian stimulation combined with use of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger for the final maturation of follicles. The introduction of the GnRHa trigger to induce ovulation showed that exogenous progesterone administration without hCG supplementation was insufficient to obtain satisfactory pregnancy rates. This has prompted development of alternative strategies for LPS. Augmenting the local endogenous production of progesterone by the multiple corpora lutea has been one focus with emphasis on one hand to avoid development of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and, on the other hand, to provide adequate levels of progesterone to sustain implantation. The present study evaluates the use of micro-dose hCG for LPS support and examines the potential advances and disadvantages. Based on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of hCG, the mathematical modelling of the concentration profiles of hCG during the luteal phase has been evaluated in connection with several different approaches for hCG administration as LPS. It is suggested that the currently employed LPS provided in connection with the GnRHa trigger (i.e. 1.500 IU) is too strong, and that daily micro-dose hCG administration is likely to provide an optimised LPS with the current available drugs. Initial clinical results with the micro-dose hCG approach are presented.

  10. Plasma oxidative stress biomarkers and progesterone profiles in a dairy cow diagnosed with an ovarian follicular cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, S; Ingenhoff, L; Kerrisk, K L; Celi, P

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the oxidative stress biomarkers in a cow diagnosed with a follicular cyst in her left ovary. Progesterone (P4) and plasma oxidative stress status was measured in 13 Holstein cows after synchronization of oestrus with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandinF2α (PGF2α) protocol. The presence and size of ovarian structures were monitored by transrectal ultrasound at 4 hourly intervals. Of the 13 cows, 12 were monitored until ovulation was detected and recorded, whereas one cow failed to ovulate and developed a follicular cyst. Oxidative stress biomarkers; reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), oxidative stress index (OSI), glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were measured in the cystic cow and compared to those of the 12 ovulated cows and are referred to as higher or lower if they are outside the mean ± standard error of mean of those of ovulated cows. The cystic cow had lower ROMs and OSI between 36 and 84 h after PGF2α injection and at 9 h, from 36 to 60 h after PGF2α injection respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant (BAP and GSH) was higher in the cystic cow compared to her ovulated herd mates. The observed imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant might have disrupted the physiological events for ovulation to occur, leading to cystic ovarian disease.

  11. Altered progesterone concentrations by hormonal manipulations before a fixed-time artificial insemination CO-Synch + CIDR program in suckled beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S L; Perry, G A; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; Jaeger, J R; Olson, K C; Stevenson, J S

    2014-07-01

    PG injections and reduced (P < 0.05) serum progesterone; moreover, treatments altered the proportion of cows and pregnancy per TAI of cows in various progesterone categories before the onset of the TAI protocol. In combined data from both experiments, cows classified as anestrous before the study but with elevated progesterone on Day -10 had increased (P < 0.05) pregnancy outcomes compared with anestrous cows with low progesterone concentrations. Progesterone concentration had no effect on pregnancy outcome of cycling cows. In summary, luteal regression and ovulation were enhanced and progesterone concentrations were altered by presynchronization treatments before the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR program, but pregnancy per TAI was not improved.

  12. Endometrial response of beef heifers on day 7 following insemination to supraphysiological concentrations of progesterone associated with superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, N; Carter, F; di Francesco, S; Mehta, J P; Garcia-Herreros, M; Gad, A; Tesfaye, D; Hoelker, M; Schellander, K; Lonergan, P

    2012-11-15

    Ovarian stimulation is a routine procedure in assisted reproduction to stimulate the growth of multiple follicles in naturally single-ovulating species including cattle and humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes induced in the endometrial transcriptome associated with superovulation in cattle and place these observations in the context of our previous data on changes in the endometrial transcriptome associated with elevated progesterone (P4) concentrations within the physiological range and those changes induced in the embryo due to superovulation. Mean serum P4 concentrations were significantly higher from day 4 to day 7 in superovulated compared with unstimulated control heifers (P superovulated heifers (n = 5). This was reflected in the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified between the two groups with 795 up- and 440 downregulated in superovulated endometria. Ten times more genes were altered by superovulation (n = 1,234) compared with the number altered due to elevated P4 within physiological ranges by insertion of a P4-releasing intravaginal device (n = 124) with only 22 DEGs common to both models of P4 manipulation. Fewer genes were affected by superovulation in the embryo compared with the endometrium, (443 vs. 1,234 DEGs, respectively), and the manner in which genes were altered was different with 64.5% of genes up- and 35.5% of genes downregulated in the endometrium, compared with the 98.9% of DEGs upregulated in the embryo. In conclusion, superovulation induces significant changes in the transcriptome of the endometrium which are distinct from those in the embryo.

  13. Effect of the ovulatory follicle diameter and progesterone concentration on the pregnancy rate of fixed-time inseminated lactating beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Machado Pfeifer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the ovulatory follicle diameter on the reproductive performance of lactating beef cows subjected to low progesterone fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols. Ninety-three lactating beef cows (60-80 days postpartum at random stages of estrous cycle were given a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin F2α (500 μg cloprostenol; PGF twice, 11 d apart. Ten days after the second PGF treatment, cows were given 1.5 mg of estradiol benzoate im and a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (Cue-Mate with a single pod containing 0.78 g progesterone (Day 0. Cows received another luteolytic dose of PGF on Day 0. On Day 8, the Cue-Mate was removed. Fifty-four to 56 hours later, cows received 12.5 mg of porcine LH (pLH i.m. and were concurrently artificially inseminated. Ultrasound examinations of the ovaries were performed on Days 10 and 17 to evaluate the diameter of ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum, respectively. Cows which presented ovulatory follicle > 19 mm resulted in larger corpus luteum than cows that had ovulatory follicle <15 mm in diameter. However, cows with ovulatory follicle between 13-15 mm had higher pregnancy rate than other categories of ovulatory follicle. Although larger ovulatory follicles result in larger corpus luteum and consequently higher progesterone production, the optimal size of ovulatory follicles (13-15 mm may result in positive benefits on pregnancy rate for cows subjected to FTAI with low progesterone concentration protocols.

  14. Serum progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more commonly) Determine the risk of miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy early in pregnancy Normal Results Progesterone levels vary ... levels may be due to: Amenorrhea (no periods) Ectopic pregnancy Failure to ovulate Fetal death Possible miscarriage Alternative ...

  15. Effect of the dry matter intake level on the sanguine profile of glucose, insulin, urea, estrogen and progesterone and concentration of IGF-I in the follicular liquid of crossbred heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rigolon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study effect of the dry matter intake level on the concentrations of glucose, insulin, urea, estrogen and progesterone in the blood and the level of IGF-I in the follicular liquid of heifers. Twenty seven crossbred heifers were used, in three treatments: 1.2, 1.6 and 2.6% of the live weight of dry matter intake (DMI daily. The sanguine concentrations of glucose and estrogen were higher in the animals with 1.6% of DMI and the insulin levels were higher in the animals with 2.6% of DMI. There was an increase in the sanguine levels of urea with the increase of the DMI. There was no effect of the DMI on the progesterone levels in the sanguine plasma collected from the jugular. The progesterone levels in caudal vena were higher in the animals with 2.6% of DMI. There was no effect of the DMI on the follicular levels of IGF-I.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do nível de ingestão de matéria seca (IMS/% do PV sobre as concentrações sanguíneas de glicose, insulina, urea, estrógeno e progesterona e o nível de IGF-I no líquido folicular de novilhas. Vinte e sete novilhas cruzadas foram utilizadas, distribuídas em três tratamentos: 1,2%; 1,6% e 2,6% do peso vivo de ingestão de matéria seca por dia. As concentrações no plasma da veia jugular de glicose e estrógeno foram maiores nos animais com 1,6% de IMS e os níveis de insulina foram maiores nos animais com 2,6% de IMS. Houve um aumento dos níveis plasmáticos de uréia com aumento dos níveis de IMS. Não houve efeito da IMS sobre os níveis de progesterona no plasma sangüíneo coletado da jugular. No plasma sangüíneo coletado da veia cada caudal, os níveis de progesterona foram maiores (P<0,05 nos animais com 2,6% de IMS. Não houve efeito da IMS sobre os níveis foliculares de IGF-I.

  16. Patterns of plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone, progesterone, estradiol, and estriol change and the onset of human labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger; Smith, Julia I; Shen, Xiaobin; Engel, Patricia J; Bowman, Maria E; McGrath, Shaun A; Bisits, Andrew M; McElduff, Patrick; Giles, Warwick B; Smith, David W

    2009-06-01

    Clinical prediction of preterm delivery is largely ineffective, and the mechanism mediating progesterone (P) withdrawal and estrogen activation at the onset of human labor is unclear. Our objectives were to determine associations of rates of change of circulating maternal CRH in midpregnancy with preterm delivery, CRH with estriol (E3) concentrations in late pregnancy, and predelivery changes in the ratios of E3, estradiol (E2), and P. A cohort of 500 pregnant women was followed from first antenatal visits to delivery during the period 2000-2004 at John Hunter Hospital, New South Wales, Australia, a tertiary care obstetric hospital. Unselected subjects were recruited (including women with multiple gestations) and serial blood samples obtained. CRH daily percentage change in term and preterm singletons at 26 wk, ratios E3/E2, P/E3, and P/E2 and the association between E3 and CRH concentrations in the last month of pregnancy (with spontaneous labor onset) were assessed. CRH percentage daily change was significantly higher in preterm than term singletons at 26 wk (medians 3.09 and 2.73; P = 0.003). In late pregnancy, CRH and E3 concentrations were significantly positively associated (P = 0.003). E3/E2 increased, P/E3 decreased, and P/E2 was unchanged in the month before delivery (medians: E3/E2, 7.04 and 10.59, P onset of labor. Our evidence provides a rationale for the use of CRH in predicting preterm birth and informs approaches to delaying labor using P supplementation.

  17. Ovarian stimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone under increasing or minimal concentration of progesterone in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherry, T M; Matsui, M; Kida, K; Miyamoto, A; Megahed, G A; Shehata, S H; Miyake, Y-I

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence or absence of Corpus luteum (CL) on the follicular population during superstimulation in dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cattle). Animals were divided into two groups as follows: (1) Growing CL group (G1): Cows (n=7) received a total dose of 28 Armour units (AU) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) through the first 4 d (twice daily) after spontaneous ovulation (Day 0). (2) CL Absence group (G2): Cows (n=10) received prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) at 9 or 10 d after ovulation. After 36h, all the follicles (larger than 5mm) were aspirated (Day 0). The FSH treatment started 24h after aspiration and continued for 4 d. The number of small (3 to or = 8mm) follicles was examined on Days 1, 3, and 5 in all groups. Blood samples were collected daily for 5 d, and progesterone (P(4)), estradiol (E(2)), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH) in plasma were measured by enzyme immunoassays. The results showed that in G1, the P(4) level increased gradually from 0.5 ng/mL at Day 1 to 2 ng/mL at Day 5, whereas in G2, the P(4) level was completely below 0.5 ng/mL. All cows of the G2 group showed an increase of E(2) at Day 3 or Day 4 followed by an increase of IGF-1 within 24h, while GH increased concomitantly with the E(2) increase in 8 of 10 trials. On the other hand, cows of the G1 group showed neither E(2) nor IGF-1 increase. Moreover, at the end of the treatment, the number of follicles in the G2 group was significantly increased compared with that of the G1 group (22.8+/-2.0 vs. 11.6+/-2.0). In conclusion, low P(4) level during FSH treatment enhanced multiple follicular growth and E(2) secretion, which was followed by increase of IGF-1 and GH. Therefore, the absence of the CL may play a critical role in the superovulation response by controlling the number of growing follicles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunohistochemical distribution of oestrogen and progesterone receptors and tissue concentrations of oestrogens in the cervix of non-pregnant cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V.N.A.; Boer-Brouwer, de M.; Mostl, E.; Soede, N.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Dissel-Emiliani, van F.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of the expression of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in different regions along the longitudinal and vertical axes of the cervix of non-pregnant cows was performed. Animals were separated into two groups depending on the presence or absence of a functional

  19. Plasma bupivacaine concentrations following psoas compartment block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoom, J A; Zuurmond, W W; Sih, I L; Bovill, J; Osterlöf, G; Oosting, H V

    1986-02-01

    Fourteen patients undergoing hip replacement surgery under psoas compartment block combined with general anaesthesia were studied. Group 1 (n = 7) received plain and Group 2 (n = 7) received 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline. The mean maximum peak concentrations were 1.93 (SEM 0.46) micrograms/ml and 1.04 (SEM 0.19) micrograms/ml at 10 minutes in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Bupivacaine concentrations were higher at all times in the group which received plain than the group receiving solution containing adrenaline. These differences were statistically significant at 10, 15 (p less than 0.05) and 30 minutes (p less than 0.025). The highest recorded plasma bupivacaine concentration was 4.54 micrograms/ml in one patient receiving plain bupivacaine. No patient developed any signs of toxic symptoms. The duration of analgesia was longer (p less than 0.005) in the group receiving bupivacaine with adrenaline. Bupivacaine 0.25% with adrenaline 1:200 000 is safe for psoas compartment block, and is recommended for hip surgery.

  20. Predictors of plasma zinc concentrations in children with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tor A; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Chandyo, Ram K; Sharma, Pushpa R; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2004-03-01

    Plasma and serum zinc concentrations are the most widely used markers of zinc status in individual persons and populations. The objective was to identify factors that influence plasma zinc concentrations during acute childhood diarrhea. This was a cross-sectional study of 1757 cases of acute diarrhea in 6-35-mo-old Nepalese children. The association between plasma zinc concentration and several clinical, anthropometric, socioeconomic, and biochemical variables was estimated in simple and multiple linear regression analyses. We observed a reduction in the mean plasma zinc concentration of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.74) micro mol/L per degree ( degrees C) increase in axillary temperature. Having dysentery and an elevated plasma C-reactive protein concentration was also independently associated with lower plasma zinc. Children with clinical features of dehydration had higher plasma zinc concentrations than did those who were not dehydrated. Furthermore, a decrease in plasma albumin of 1 g/L was associated with a decrease in plasma zinc of 0.25 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.29) micro mol/L. The plasma albumin concentration confounded the associations between some clinical variables and plasma zinc, but the association between axillary temperature and dehydration on one hand and plasma zinc on the other was not substantially influenced by the albumin concentration. Moreover, the plasma zinc concentration increased with an increase in observed hemolysis. Dehydration, clinical and biochemical indicators of inflammation and hemolysis, and, when possible, plasma albumin concentrations should be taken into account when the plasma zinc concentration is used to estimate zinc status during episodes of diarrhea in childhood.

  1. Serum concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone during the normal oestrous cycle and early pregnancy in the lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A M; Nadal, L A; Schmidt, M J; Beamer, N B

    1979-11-01

    During a 6-month study period weekly serum samples demonstrated 9 oestradiol surges above 14 pg/ml (range 19-108 pg/ml) among 3 lionesses isolated from male lions. Intervals between peaks ranged from 3 to 8 weeks. Progesterone surges of more than 17 ng/ml (range 17-282 ng/ml) and lasting for 2-6 weeks were recorded after 7 of the oestradiol peaks. Sexual behaviour correlated well with the oestradiol peaks. Except for cornification following oestradiol peaks, there was no obvious vaginal cytology pattern at other times of the cycle. Pregnancy occurred after a 12-h contact with a male during behavioural oestrus. During gestation (108 days) oestradiol values remained low, while progesterone was elevated to 49 ng/ml within 12 h after mating, reaching a peak of 143 ng/ml at the 4th week, and remaining elevated during the next 2 months.

  2. Plasma tryptophan concentration in depressive illness and mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, M; Moody, J P; Worrall, E P; Walker, P; Naylor, G J

    1976-03-01

    Total and free plasma trytophan levels were measured in depressive and manic patients before and after recovery. No change was found in total or free plasma trytophan concentration on recovery from depressive illness. Free plasma tryptophan levels were higher in recovered manics than in active manics, and a group of four manic patients tested before and after recovery showed a significant increase in free plasma tryptophan concentration on recovery.

  3. Plasma catecholamine and serum gastrin concentrations during sham feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker, Carsten; Andersen, D; Kronborg, O

    1983-01-01

    Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulcer...... an insulin test resulted in a 25-fold rise in plasma adrenaline. The ulcer patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline than the normal subjects both before and after sham feeding, and this difference was probably not caused only by age difference in the two...

  4. Elevated circulating plasma endothelin-1 concentrations in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Emmeluth, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1993-01-01

    As endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstricting peptide, may play a role in the circulatory derangement and renal impairment in cirrhosis, the aim of the present study was to investigate plasma concentrations of ET-1 in different vascular beds in relation to clinical and biochemical parameters.......70, P plasma concentration between the liver, renal, or femoral...

  5. Longitudinal studies of plasma aldosterone, corticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, and cortisone determined simultaneously in mother and child at birth and during the early neonatal period. I. Spontaneous delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippell, W G; Becker, H; Versmold, H T; Bidlingmaier, F; Knorr, D

    1978-06-01

    In order to obtain the still lacking reference data of individual plasma steroids in the immediate postnatal period needed for the assessment of adrenocortical function in various neonatal maladaptation syndromes, aldosterone (A), corticosterone, deoxycorticosterone (DOC), progesterone (P), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), cortisol, and cortisone were simultaneously followed in the same human newborn in a single 250-500 microliters peripheral plasma sample obtained at constant times during the first week of life using a mechanized Sephadex LH-20 multicolumn chromatography and standardized RIAs. Mean concentrations in 12 spontaneously delivered full term newborns of either sex and in paired umbilical (UV) and peripheral maternal (MV) venous plasma are given in the table. Besides significant maternoumbilical gradients in each steroid, DOC, P, 17-OHP, and cortisone, originating predominantly from the fetoplacental unit, disappear rapidly with steadily increasing half-lives. A, corticosterone, and cortisol, however, remain elevated in comparison with later infancy, with the exception of a marked "glucocorticoid dip" in cortisol and corticosterone levels between 2 and 12 h after birth.

  6. Guanfacine in essential hypertension: Effect on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeppe, W.; Brecht, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    1 The acute and chronic effects of guanfacine on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity were investigated in 23 patients (15 males, 8 females) with essential hypertension (WHO grade I-II).

  7. Increased plasma carnitine concentrations in preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, IGI; Niezen-Koning, KE; van Gennip, AH; Aarnoudse, JG

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism, including fatty acid metabolism. Carnitine plays an indispensable role in the oxidation of fatty acids. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible role of abnormal fatty add oxidation in preeclampsia by comparing plasma car

  8. Vitamin E plasma concentration in osteoporotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajimahmoodi M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of osteoporosis is multifactorial and many dietary factors are important in the prevention of this disease. Antioxidants as free radical scavengers may influence osteoporosis by reducing the effects of oxidative stress that may be associated with bone loss. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in cell membranes from oxidation. There are only two studies regarding vitamin E plasma levels in subjects suffering from osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between plasma vitamin E levels and bone mineral density (BMD in Iranian patients. Methods: Subjects were consecutively recruited between May and September 2005 from among a total of approximately 1000 people referred for instrumental screening for osteoporosis to the Jami Clinic in Tehran. Inclusion criteria for the study group were: a femoral neck T-score of -1 or less, osteopenia, severe osteopenia and osteoporosis. A total of 137 subjects were enrolled. According to their femoral and spinal BMD scores, 54 persons were selected as a control group. The control group consisted of subjects with a femoral neck T-score and spine T-score of -1 or more. In selecting the case group, only the femoral BMD score was used. Plasma vitamin E was measured, after extraction with methanol, by HPLC with UV detection at 280 nm. Methanol, deionized water and butanol (90:4:6 was used as a mobile phase with a C8 column. The flow rate was 1.0 ml. min-1 and the acetate ester of vitamin E was used as an internal standard. Results: The results show no significant difference in plasma vitamin E between the control and case groups, however linear regression analysis does reveal a significant difference between the T-score and plasma vitamin E. Conclusion: Deceleration Femoral bone Density during osteoporosis will be Accelerated with Decrease of Vitamin E Antioxidant level.

  9. Additive effects of low concentrations of estradiol-17β and progesterone on nitric oxide production by human vascular endothelial cells through shared signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yefei; Thomas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Potential cardiovascular benefits of low-dose formulations of estrogens and progesterone (P4) for treating climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women remain unclear because information is lacking on their combined vascular effects. Protective effects of low concentrations (5nM) of P4 and estradiol-17β (E2), alone and in combination (P4+E2), were investigated in a nongenomic model of vascular protection which measured acute increases in nitric oxide (NO) production by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment with 5nM P4+E2 for twenty minutes significantly increased NO production and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation, whereas 5nM treatments with either steroid alone were ineffective. The 5nM P4+E2 treatment also increased phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, mimicking the effects of higher concentrations of P4 and E2 alone. Pre-treatment with inhibitors of PI3K (wortmannin), Akt (ML-9), and MAP kinase (AZD6244 and U0126) completely blocked the NO response to 5nM P4+E2. Combined 5nM treatments with specific estrogen and progesterone receptor agonists showed an involvement of membrane progesterone receptor alpha (mPRα, also known as PAQR7), G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), but not ERβ, in P4+E2 stimulation of NO production. P4+E2 also exerted genomic actions, increasing mPRα, GPER, cyclooxygenase-1, and prostacyclin-synthase mRNA levels. Taken together, the results show that a low concentration of P4+E2 rapidly increases NO production in HUVECs through mPRα, ERα, and GPER and involves common signaling pathways, PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase. These in vitro findings suggest that low doses of E2 and P4 may also have some beneficial cardiovascular effects in vivo when administered as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post-menopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in patients with liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Dejgaard, A; Clemmensen, I

    1983-01-01

    Plasma, obtained just prior to diagnostic liver biopsy in 71 patients with various liver diseases, was examined by electroimmunoassay using immunoglobulin against human fibronectin and purified plasma fibronectin as standard. The plasma fibronectin concentration was not significantly different from...... (n = 7); type non A, non B (n = 1] had significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentrations (median 506 mg/l (range 339-804] compared to controls (median 399 mg/l (range 304-462]. Morbidly obese patients with fatty liver (n = 11) had significantly (P less than 0.001) raised...... plasma fibronectin concentrations (median 610 mg/l (range 429-862] compared to controls (median 361 mg/l (range 303-419]....

  11. Plasma copper, zinc and blood selenium concentrations of sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veek. 1 990, 20(3). Concentrations of plasma mpper, plasma zinc and blood selenium ... these breeds make them suitable for meat production in arid, cxtonsive regions. ..... effect of high levels of dietary molyMenum and sulphate on SA Mutton ...

  12. Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc and blood selenium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Human and Animal Physiology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, ... Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc as well as blood selenium were determined in single and twin lambs ... of zinc within the body; notably.

  13. Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentration in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Cicchella, Antonio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Lätt, Evelin; Haljaste, Kaja; Purge, Pritt; Hamra, Jena; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2007-10-01

    We examined the effect of regular physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration after onset of puberty in girls. In addition, we also examined the association of fasting plasma ghrelin concentration with various plasma biochemical, body composition, and aerobic capacity variables in healthy adolescent girls. Fifty healthy schoolgirls ages 11 to 16 yr were divided either into a physically active (N = 25) or a physically inactive (N = 25) group. The physically active group consisted of swimmers who had trained on an average of 6.2 +/- 2.0 h.wk(-1) for the last 2 yr, whereas the inclusion criterion for the physically inactive group was the participation in physical education classes only. The subjects were matched for age (+/- 1 yr) and body mass index (BMI; +/- 2 kg.m(-2)). Maturation I group (14 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 2 and 3, and maturation II group (11 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 4 and 5. Physically active girls had significantly higher (P ghrelin levels than the physically inactive girls (maturation I: 1152.1 +/- 312.9 vs 877.7 +/- 114.8 pg.mL(-1); maturation II: 1084.0 +/- 252.5 vs 793.4 +/- 164.9 pg.mL(-1)). Plasma ghrelin concentration was negatively related to percent body fat, fat mass, peak oxygen consumption per kilogram of body mass, leptin, estradiol, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (r > -0.298; P ghrelin concentration using the variables that were significantly associated with ghrelin concentration demonstrated that plasma IGF-I was the most important predictor of plasma ghrelin concentration (beta = -0.396; P = 0.008). Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentrations in girls with different pubertal maturation levels. Plasma IGF-I concentration seems to be the main determinant of circulating ghrelin in healthy, normal-weight adolescent girls.

  14. Effect of breed on plasma endothelin-1 concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K.; Lequarré, A.-S.; Ljungvall, I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined...... blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, ECG, blood and urine analysis. RESULTS: Median ET-1 concentration was 1.29 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-1.82) pg/mL, median cortisol concentration 46.0 (IQR, 29.0-80.8) nmol/L, and median renin activity 0.73 (IQR, 0.48-1.10) ng/mL/h in all dogs. Overall...

  15. Plasma radioiron kinetics in man: explanation for the effect of plasma iron concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarberg, K; Eng, M; Huebers, H; Marsaglia, G; Finch, C

    1978-03-01

    The plasma iron turnover was measured in 19 normal subjects. A correlation was found between plasma iron concentration and plasma iron turnover. In addition to the turnover of 55Fe at normal plasma iron concentration (predominantly monoferric transferrin), a second turnover in which the labeled plasma was saturated with iron (to produce predominantly diferric transferrin) was studied with 50Fe. It was demonstrated that diferric transferrin had a greater rate of iron turnover but that the distribution between erythroid and non-erythroid tissues was unchanged. It was concluded that plasma iron turnover is dependent on the monoferric/diferric transferrin ratio in the plasma but that the internal distribution of iron is unaffected.

  16. Plasma renin activities, angiotensin II concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values in dogs with severe heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, H; Kitoh, K; Inoue, H; Ohba, Y; Suzuki, F; Sasaki, Y

    2000-04-01

    Relationships among plasma renin activities (PRA), plasma angiotensin II (ATII) concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values were examined in dogs with ascitic pulmonary heartworm disease and acute- and chronic-vena caval syndrome (CS). PRA, plasma ATII concentration and plasma ANP concentration tended to be higher or were significantly higher in dogs with ascites, acute- and chronic-CS. PRA correlated significantly with plasma ATII concentration, WBC count, ALP activity, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chloride, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ATII concentration correlated significantly with WBC count, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ANP concentration did not correlate with PRA or ATII concentration, but correlated significantly only with pulmonary arterial pressure.

  17. Concentrations of progesterone, a metabolite of PGF2α, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone during development of idiopathic persistent corpus luteum in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, O J; Baldrighi, J M; Castro, T; Wolf, C A; Santos, V G

    2016-04-01

    In experiment 1, daily blood samples were available from Days 0 to 20 (Day 0 = ovulation) in mares with an interovulatory interval (IOI, n = 5) and in mares that developed idiopathic persistent corpus luteum (PCL, n = 5). The PCL was confirmed by maintenance of progesterone (P4) concentration until end of the experiment (Day 20). Significant interactions of group and day revealed the novel findings that luteinizing hormone (LH) was lower (P prolactin was lower (P prolactin concentrations on Days 12 to 20 from 2 reported experiments were combined to increase the number of mares with an IOI (n = 11) or a PCL (n = 11). An abrupt and complete decrease in P4 (luteolysis) began on Day 13 in the IOI group compared with a gradual and partial P4 decline after Day 12 in the PCL group. Concentrations of PGFM and prolactin were lower (P prolactin, but on a tentative basis (P prolactin were lower, (2) treatment to reduce postovulatory LH did not increase the incidence, and (3) both PGFM and prolactin were lower on the day of the most pronounced decrease in P4.

  18. Membrane progesterone receptors: evidence for neuroprotective, neurosteroid signaling and neuroendocrine functions in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei

    2012-01-01

    Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are novel G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the progestin and adipoQ receptor family (PAQR) that mediate a variety of rapid cell surface-initiated progesterone actions in the reproductive system involving activation of intracellular signaling pathways (i.e. nonclassical actions). The mPRs are highly expressed in the brain, but research on their neural functions has only been conducted in a single neuronal cell line, GT1-7 cells, which have negligible nuclear progesterone receptor (PR) expression. GT1-7 cells express mPRα and mPRβ on their plasma membranes which is associated with the presence of high-affinity, specific [(3)H]-progesterone receptor binding. The neurosteroid, allopregnanolone, is an effective ligand for recombinant mPRα with a relative binding affinity of 7.6% that of progesterone. Allopregnanolone acts as a potent mPR agonist on GT1-7 cells, mimicking the progesterone-induced decrease in cAMP accumulation and its antiapoptotic actions at low nanomolar concentrations. The decrease in cAMP levels is associated with rapid progesterone-induced downregulation of GnRH pulsatile secretion from perifused GT1-7 cells. The recent suggestion that mPRs are alkaline ceramidases and mediate sphingolipid signaling is not supported by empirical evidence that TNFα does not bind to mPRs overexpressed in human cells and that exogenous sphingomyelinase is ineffective in mimicking progestin actions through mPRs to induce meiotic maturation of fish oocytes. Taken together, these recent studies indicate that mPRs mediate neuroprotective effects of progesterone and allopregnanolone and are also the likely intermediaries in progesterone-induced inhibition of pulsatile GnRH secretion in GT1-7 cells. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Abnormal regulation for progesterone production in placenta with prenatal cocaine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Yan, J; Qu, S C; Feng, Y Q; Jiang, X L

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine abuse in pregnant women is currently a significant public hygiene problem and is tightly associated with elevated risk for preterm delivery. Placental steroidogenesis especially progesterone production was essential for success and maintenance of pregnancy in humans and rodents. In the present study, we determined the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on pathways of placental progesterone synthesis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated cocaine twice daily (15 mg/kg/day) during the third trimester, and the maternal and fetal plasma progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations were detected. We also examined both the protein and mRNA expression of some key enzymes and regulators for progesterone production in placenta. Results showed that, after maternal cocaine use during pregnancy, progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations in both maternal and fetal rats were significantly decreased. Although prenatal cocaine exposure had no effects on placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) expression, protein and mRNA expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11a) in placenta was significantly inhibited. Moreover, protein and mRNA expressions of MLN64 that regulating cholesterol transport and activating protein 2γ (AP2γ/Tfap2c) that controlling P450scc/CYP11a gene expression in placenta were both decreased following maternal cocaine use in pregnancy. Collectively, this study suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure could insult the placental progesterone production in rats possibly associated with the high risk for preterm delivery.

  20. A viscometric method of measuring plasma fibrinogen concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, E.; Resch, K L; Saradeth, T.; A. Maier; Matrai, A

    1992-01-01

    A technique based on deducing the viscosity of serum from that of plasma was compared with the commonly used Clauss method. The two methods correlated closely (r = 0.914). The reproducibility of the viscometric method was slightly poorer than the Clauss technique at low fibrinogen concentrations, equal to that at medium fibrinogen concentrations, and marginally better at high concentrations. Fibrinogen can therefore be measured reasonably accurately with the viscometric method, and can be rec...

  1. Modeling of progesterone-induced intracellular calcium signaling in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long-Fei; Xiang, Cheng; Zhu, Ya-Bing; Qin, Kai-Rong

    2014-06-21

    Calcium ion is a secondary messenger of mammalian spermatozoa. The dynamic change of its concentration plays a vital role in the process of sperm motility, capacitation, acrosome and fertilization. Progesterone released by the cumulus cells, as a potent stimulator of fertilization, can activate the calcium channels on the plasma membrane, which in turn triggers the dynamic change of intracellular calcium concentration. In this paper, a mathematical model of calcium dynamic response in mammalian spermatozoa induced by progesterone is proposed and numerical simulation of the dynamic model is conducted. The results show that the dynamic response of calcium concentration predicted by the model is in accordance with experimental evidence. The proposed dynamic model can be used to explain the phenomena observed in the experiments and predict new phenomena to be revealed by experimental investigations, which will provide the basis to quantitatively investigate the fluid mechanics and biochemistry for the sperm motility induced by progesterone.

  2. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine after epidural administration in conscious cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Clark, Christopher R; Ambros, Barbara; Gilbert, Peter; Steagall, Paulo V M

    2011-06-01

    Buprenorphine plasma concentrations were measured after administering buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) into the lumbosacral epidural space of conscious cats chronically instrumented with an epidural catheter. Blood was collected from a jugular vein before injection and 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were measured using ELISA. Background concentration (before injection) was 1.27 ± 0.27 ng/mL (mean ± SD). Including background concentration, the mean peak plasma concentration was obtained 15 min after injection (5.82 ± 3.75 ng/mL), and ranged from 3.79 to 2.20 ng/mL (30 min-3 h), remaining between 1.93 and 1.77 ng/mL (4-12 h), and declined to 1.40 ± 0.62 ng/mL at 24h. Elimination half-life was 58.8 ± 40.2 min and clearance 56.7 ± 21.5 mL/min. Results indicate early rapid systemic uptake of buprenorphine from epidural administration with plasma concentrations similar to using buccal or IM routes by 15 min postinjection.

  3. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  4. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  5. Toward a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida Afina

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at the development of a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in cow's milk. Progesterone is a steroid hormone and regulates ovulation in female mammals. The concentration of progesterone in blood and in milk is in accordance with the reproductive cycle of the individual femal

  6. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6± 8.9 and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men aged 22-60 years (39.8± 9.4. The patients’ alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6± 7.5. Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9± 151.5. Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0, 30th (T30 and 49th (T49 day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC and total (TC carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student’s t-test was used.Results: At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05 in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01 as well as AC (p < 0.001 were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05, whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05.Conclusions: Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine

  7. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Kępka; Napoleon Waszkiewicz; Beata Zalewska-Szajda; Sylwia Chojnowska; Paweł Płudowski; Emilia Konarzewska; Agata Szulc; Jerzy Robert Ładny; Krzysztof Zwierz; Sławomir Dariusz Szajda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men) aged from 26 to 60 years (44...

  8. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.; Boers, G.H.; Blom, H.J.; Broekhuizen, R.; Jong, de R.; Rijt, van L.; Katan, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Background: An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Objective: We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma

  9. Sensor and instrumentation for progesterone detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2012-05-01

    The reported research work uses a real time and noninvasive method to detect progesterone hormone concentration in purified water using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (E.I.S.) technique. Planar capacitive sensor, consisting of inter-digitated microelectrodes, is designed and fabricated on silicon substrate using thin-film Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based semiconductor device fabrication technology. The sensor in conjunction with EIS is used to evaluate conductivity, permeability and dielectric properties of reproductive hormone progesterone and its concentration quantification in purified water. Impedance spectrums are obtained with various concentrations of the hormone in purified water by using an electric circuit in order to extract sample conductance. Relationship of sample conductance with progesterone concentration level is studied in this research work. The ability of E.I.S. to detect progesterone concentration is aimed to be used in dairy farming industry in order to obtain better reproductive performance of the dairy cattle. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Impact of gender and menstrual cycle phase on plasma cytokine concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is twice as high in females as in males. Depression is known to increase at periods where there are changes in gonadal hormones. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels during the normal menstrual cycle of healthy females compared to similar time points in healthy males. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in healthy females during the normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and also in males at similar time points. RESULTS: The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha compared to the early follicular phase. No change was observed in IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 concentration throughout the menstrual cycle. We found IL-4 positively correlated with oestrogen while TNF-alpha positively correlated with progesterone. Females were found to have significantly higher concentrations of TNF-alpha and sIL-6R across all phases of the menstrual cycle, compared to males across similar time points. CONCLUSION: The normal menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase. Females have significantly higher concentrations of sIL-6R and TNF-alpha at all time points across the menstrual cycle than males.

  11. Plasma mepivacaine concentrations in patients undergoing third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarparo, H C; Maia, R N; Filho, Ea Dos Santos; Soares, Ecs; Costa, Fwg; Fonteles, Csr; Bezerra, T P; Ribeiro, T R; Romero, N R

    2016-12-01

    Local anaesthetic-related systemic toxicity mainly results from elevated plasma concentrations of these drugs. We hypothesized that intraoral injection of submaximal doses of mepivacaine does not lead to toxic levels of this drug in blood. This study evaluated the plasma levels of mepivacaine in third molars surgeries. Twenty-one patients were randomly assigned into two groups: group I (two unilateral third molars; submaximal dose of mepivacaine 108 mg with epinephrine 54 μg) and group II (four third molars; submaximal dose of mepivacaine 216 mg with epinephrine 108 μg). Blood samples were collected before anaesthesia, and 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 90 and 120 min after anaesthesia. Individual peak plasma concentrations ranged 0.77-8.31 μg/mL (group I) and from 2.36-7.72 μg/mL (group II). An increase in the average dose of mepivacaine from 1.88 ± 0.12 mg/kg (group I) to 3.35 ± 0.17 mg/kg (group II) increased the mean mepivacaine peak plasma levels from 2.33 ± 0.58 to 4.01 ± 0.69 μg/mL, respectively. Four patients obtained plasma levels of mepivacaine above the threshold for toxicity (5 μg/mL). Toxic levels of mepivacaine are possible, even when a submaximal dose is used. A twofold increase in the dose of mepivacaine caused the mean peak plasma concentration to increase proportionally, indicating that they may be predicted based on the relation of dose per bodyweight. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Age-Dependent Variation in Hormonal Concentration and Biochemical Constituents in Blood Plasma of Indian Native Fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Biswas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was to investigate the age-related changes in hormonal concentration and biochemical constituents of blood plasma in Indian native desi fowl. One hundred and sixty two (54 from each breed, i.e., Kadaknath (KN, Aseel peela (AP, and White leghorn (WLH day-old female chicks were randomly divided into nine groups each of 18 chicks (3 groups × 3 replicates. WLH was taken in this study to compare the characteristics of Indian native desi fowl. The highest level of estrogen hormone in WLH and desi fowl in blood plasma was occurred at 18 and 24 wks of age, respectively. Whereas, the peak of progesterone hormone in WLH hens noticed around 24 wks, in case of desi fowls, it was at 30 wks of age. Irrespective of the breed, the hormonal profile of Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroxine (T4 in blood plasma was found highest around 6 to 12 wks of age. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP increased with the reduction of alkaline phosphate (ALP activities at different time intervals. Irrespective of the breed, transaminases (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT activities of blood plasma increased linearly with the advancement of the age. From this study, it may be concluded that sexual maturity of the Indian native desi fowl occurred nearly 6 wk later (24 wk than WLH.

  13. Use of refractometry for determination of psittacine plasma protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated both poor and good correlation of total protein concentrations in various avian species using refractometry and biuret methodologies. The purpose of the current study was to compare these 2 techniques of total protein determination using plasma samples from several psittacine species and to determine the effect of cholesterol and other solutes on refractometry results. Total protein concentration in heparinized plasma samples without visible lipemia was analyzed by refractometry and an automated biuret method on a dry reagent analyzer (Ortho 250). Cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid concentrations were measured using the same analyzer. Results were compared using Deming regression analysis, Bland-Altman bias plots, and Spearman's rank correlation. Correlation coefficients (r) for total protein results by refractometry and biuret methods were 0.49 in African grey parrots (n=28), 0.77 in Amazon parrots (20), 0.57 in cockatiels (20), 0.73 in cockatoos (36), 0.86 in conures (20), and 0.93 in macaws (38) (Prefractometry in Amazon parrots, conures, and macaws (n=25 each, PRefractometry can be used to accurately measure total protein concentration in nonlipemic plasma samples from some psittacine species. Method and species-specific reference intervals should be used in the interpretation of total protein values.

  14. Relationship between concentrations of progesterone, oxytocin, noradrenaline, gene expression and protein level for their receptors in corpus luteum during estrous cycle in the cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekawiecki, R; Nowocin, A; Kotwica, J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate of the relationship between luteal concentrations of oxytocin (OT), noradrenaline (NA), progesterone (P4), oxytocin receptors (OT-R) and beta(2)-adrenoreceptors (beta(2)-R) gene expression and their protein level throughout the estrous cycle in cattle. Corpora lutea (CL) collected during days 1-5, 6-10, 11-16 and 17-21 of the estrous cycle were used in these studies. Concentrations of P4, OT and NA were determined in tissue extracts. Gene expression and protein level for OT-R and beta(2)-R were investigated by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Luteal concentration of P4 was higher (P<0.01) on days 6-10 and 11-16 than during days 1-5 and 17-20 of the estrous cycle. Concentration of OT was the highest on days 1-5 and 6-10 of the estrous cycle. This concentration decreased (P<0.01) during days 11-16 reaching the lowest level (P<0.001) on days 17-20 as opposed to days 1-10 of the estrous cycle. Expression of OT-R mRNA was lower on days 6-16 (P<0.05) followed by its increase on days 17-20 as opposed to the expression observed on days 1-5. Expression of OT-R mRNA was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with the profile of OT-R protein level. This latter parameter was the lowest on days 17-20 and 1-5, and the highest on days 6-10 and 11-16. Oxytocin concentration was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with expression of OT-R mRNA and positively correlated (P<0.001) with OT-R protein level. This protein level was only correlated with P4 (r=0.59; P<0.05). Concentration of OT was positively correlated with level of P4 (P<0.001). Concentration of NA was the highest on days 1-5 of the estrous cycle, whereas it was similar or lower (P<0.05) on days 6-21. Expression of mRNA for beta(2)-R was the lowest on days 1-5 and was highly increased (P<0.05) on days 6-16. The expression was the highest (P<0.001) on days 17-21 compared to all others group of the estrous cycle. Protein level for beta(2)-R was the highest on days 1-5 and decreased (P<0

  15. Effect of pregnancy on plasma phenobarbital concentrations in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama,Masahiro; Domoto, Haruyo; Yamashita, Syoichi; Furuno,Katsushi; Oishi, Ryozo; Kawasaki,Hiromu; Gomita, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital before and during pregnancy in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: (a) control, (b) pregnant, (c) phenobarbital-treated, and (d) phenobarbital-treated pregnant groups. The increase in body weight of nonpregnant or pregnant rats was not influenced by long-term phenobarbital treatment. Plasma phenobarbital concentrations during the period of long-term phenobarbital treatment with a fixed dosage by body weight were not significantly affe...

  16. Elevated circulating plasma endothelin-1 concentrations in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Emmeluth, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1993-01-01

    veins on the one hand and the femoral artery on the other (P > 0.1), indicating no major net elimination or release in the liver, kidney or lower limb. A significant negative correlation was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressures on the one hand and circulating ET-1 on the other (r = -0.......70, P vein catheterization (n = 8), no significant differences were found in ET-1 plasma concentration between the liver, renal, or femoral...

  17. The effect of low doses of zearalenone and its metabolites on progesterone and 17β-estradiol concentrations in peripheral blood and body weights of pre-pubertal female Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajęcka, Magdalena; Zielonka, Łukasz; Dąbrowski, Michał; Mróz, Magdalena; Gajęcki, Maciej

    2013-12-15

    The experiment involved 30 clinically healthy female Beagle dogs aged approximately 70 days with estimated initial body weight (BW) of 8 kg. The animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups (EI and EII) and a control group of 10 animals each. Group EI was intoxicated with 50 μg zearalenone/kg BW per os for 42 days, group EII received 75 μg zearalenone/kg BW per os for 42 days, and the control group was administered placebo per os for 42 days. The animals were weighed, and blood samples for analyses of the concentrations of zearalenone, its metabolites, progesterone and 17β-estradiol were collected seven times at seven-day intervals, one hour after mycotoxin administration. Biotransformation of zearalenone was observed in all groups throughout the experiment, and the highest percentage share of α-zearalenol was reported in group EII on the last five sampling dates (0.637-0.788 ng/ml, i.e. percentage share of 57.96-73.64%). The above had a significant influence on the non-physiological concentrations of progesterone and 17β-estradiol in both experimental (E) groups throughout the experiment. The lowest progesterone levels (0.131 ng/ml) were observed in group EII during the last test, and high concentrations of 17β-estradiol were found in group EII on the last two sampling dates (17.434 and 21.581 ng/ml, respectively) in comparison with control. Inhibited proliferation, manifested by a slower rate of body weight gain, was observed on the last but one day of zearalenone administration in both experimental groups. Our results indicate that NOAEL doses have stimulating/adaptive effects, whereas doses above NOAEL values suggest that even very low zearalenone doses can act as endocrine disruptors with regard to progesterone and 17β-estradiol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Membrane Progesterone Receptors (mPRs): Evidence for Neuroprotective, Neurosteroid Signaling and Neuroendocrine Functions in Neuronal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei

    2012-01-01

    Membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are novel G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the progestin and adipoQ receptor family (PAQR) that mediate a variety of rapid, cell surface-initiated progesterone actions in the reproductive system involving activation of intracellular signaling pathways (i.e. nonclassical actions). The mPRs are highly expressed in the brain but research on their neural functions has only been conducted in a single neuronal cell line, GT1-7 cells, which have negligible nuclear progesterone receptor (PR) expression. GT1-7 cells express mPRα and mPRβ on their plasma membranes which is associated with the presence of high affinity, specific [3H]-progesterone receptor binding. The neurosteroid, allopregnanolone, is an effective ligand for recombinant mPRα with a relative binding affinity of 7.6% that of progesterone. Allopregnanolone acts as a potent mPR agonist on GT1-7 cells, mimicking the progesterone-induced decrease in cAMP accumulation and its antiapoptotic actions at low nanomolar concentrations.. The decrease in cAMP levels is associated with rapid progesterone-induced down-regulation of GnRH pulsatile secretion from perifused GT1-7 cells. The recent suggestion that mPRs are alkaline ceramidases and mediate sphingolipid signaling is not supported by empirical evidence that TNFα does not bind to mPRs over expressed in human cells and that exogenous sphingomyelinase is ineffective in mimicking progestin actions through mPRs to induce meiotic maturation of fish oocytes. Taken together, these recent studies indicate that mPRs mediate neuroprotective effects of progesterone and allopregnanolone and are also the likely intermediaries in progesterone-induced inhibition of pulsatile GnRH secretion in GT1-7 cells. PMID:22687885

  19. Midazolam plasma concentration after anesthesia premedication in clinical routine - an observational study : Midazolam plasma concentration after anesthesia premedication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, C; Steurer, M P; Mueller, D; Zueger, M; Dullenkopf, A

    2016-10-24

    Midazolam is commonly used as a pre-anesthesia anxiolytic. It`s elimination may not be fast enough for short procedures. In orally premedicated patients we obtained midazolam plasma concentrations at the end of surgical procedures and compared those to concentrations at anesthesia induction. The study was conducted prospectively with consent of the local ethics committee (Ethikkomission Kanton Thurgau, Switzerland) and carried out with written informed consent of each patient. Female patients aged 20 to 60 years undergoing elective procedures with general anesthesia were included, and were divided in two groups according to the planned surgical time: group S (Midazolam po as premedication. Blood samples were drawn at anesthesia induction, and at the end of surgery. Data were compared with t-test (independent samples; significance level p midazolam was not detectable in any samples. Time of premedication to the 1st blood sample was not statistically different between groups, neither were Midazolam plasma levels at this time point (p = 0.94). None of the patients from group L (n = 24), but five patients in group S (n = 22) did have a higher plasma level of Midazolam at the end of the case compared to the beginning. The elimination half-life of oral Midazolam can lead to higher plasma levels at the end of a short procedure compared to those at induction of anesthesia. German Clinical Trials Register (Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien), DRKS00005429 ; date of registration 3(rd) January 2014.

  20. Seasonal variation in plasma and corpus luteum oestradiol.17[3and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following ovulation in November, plasma progesterone concentrations were high ... gradually increased as pregnancy proceeded, reaching a peak two months before birth, but declined ..... triggering of ovulation iLlelf (Licht 1982; McPherson,.

  1. Plasma D-dimer concentration in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagnana Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue characterized by widespread vascular lesions and fibrosis. Little is known so far on the activation of the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems in SSc, and most preliminary evidences are discordant. Methods To verify whether SSc patients might display a prothrombotic condition, plasma D-dimer was assessed in 28 consecutive SSc patients and in 33 control subjects, matched for age, sex and environmental habit. Results and discussion When compared to healthy controls, geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (IC95% of plasma D-dimer were significantly increased in SSc patients (362 ng/mL, IC 95%: 361–363 ng/mL vs 229 ng/mL, IC95%: 228–231 ng/mL, p = 0.005. After stratifying SSc patients according to disease subset, no significant differences were observed between those with limited cutaneous pattern and controls, whereas patients with diffuse cutaneous pattern displayed substantially increased values. No correlation was found between plasma D-dimer concentration and age, sex, autoantibody pattern, serum creatinine, erythrosedimentation rate, nailfold videocapillaroscopic pattern and pulmonary involvement. Conclusion We demonstrated that SSc patients with diffuse subset are characterized by increased plasma D-dimer values, reflecting a potential activation of both the hemostatic and fibrinolytic cascades, which might finally predispose these patients to thrombotic complications.

  2. Plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations in patients with Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshito Nishi; Hajime Isomoto; Hiroaki Ueno; Ken Ohnita; Chun Yang Wen; Fuminao Takeshima; Ryosuke Mishima; Masamitsu Nakazato; Shigeru Kohno

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the concentrations of leptin and ghrelin, which have opposite effects on appetite,energy expenditure, and weight control, in the plasma of patients with Crohn's disease (CD), which is often associated with weight loss and malnutrition.METHODS: Plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations were determined in 28 outpatients with CD by radioimmunoassay. Age- and sex-matched controls with and without Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) infection (28for each) were enrolled in the study. Circulating levels of these hormones were assessed with respect to CD activity, disease localization and medical treatment.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in ghrelin levels between CD patients and H pylorinegative controls. However, circulating ghrelin levels were significantly lower in H pylori-infected subjects than in CD patients and uninfected controls. Plasma leptin levels were comparable among the groups. Localization and medication profile had no significant impact on circulating ghrelin and leptin levels.CONCLUSION: Apart from H pyloriinfection, CD itself has no significant influence on circulating ghrelin and leptin levels in the outpatients who were mostly in inactive state.

  3. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  4. Plasma concentrations of coffee polyphenols and plasma biomarkers of diabetes risk in healthy Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A H; Tan, L 'b; Hiramatsu, N; Ishisaka, A; Alfonso, H; Tanaka, A; Uemura, N; Fujiwara, Y; Takechi, R

    2016-06-06

    Coffee consumption has been reported to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. This anti-diabetic effect of coffee may be attributed to its high content in polyphenols especially caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. However, the association between plasma coffee polyphenols and diabetic risks has never been investigated in the literature. In this study, fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38-73 (mean 52, s.d. 8) years recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma coffee polyphenols were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Diabetes biomarkers in the plasma/serum samples were analysed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The results showed that plasma chlorogenic acid exhibited negative associations with fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and C-reactive protein, whereas plasma total coffee polyphenol and plasma caffeic acid were weakly associated with these biomarkers. Our preliminary data support previous findings that coffee polyphenols have anti-diabetic effects but further replications with large samples of both genders are recommended.

  5. Use of antibiotics is associated with lower enterolactone plasma concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Kyrø, Cecilie; Nørskov, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    the association between antibiotic use and enterolactone concentration. Methods and results Using LC–MS/MS, enterolactone concentrations were quantified in plasma samples from 2237 participants from the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. The participants were healthy at enrollment, but were later diagnosed...... with cancer. At enrollment, participants had blood drawn and completed a food frequency questionnaire and lifestyle questionnaire. Antibiotic use was assessed as reimbursed antibiotic prescriptions up to 12 months before enrollment. Antibiotic use ≤3 months before enrollment was associated with a 41% (Δcrude......: –41; 95% CI: –52, –28) lower enterolactone concentration in women and 12% in men (Δcrude: –12; 95% CI: –31, 11), while antibiotic use >3–12 months before enrollment was associated with 26% lower enterolactone in women (Δcrude: –26; 95% CI: –37, –14) and 14% in men (Δcrude: –14; 95% CI: –28, 1...

  6. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, R.A. (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, St Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

  7. Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, S; Mol, JA; Boer, P; Boer, WH; Runberk, A

    2003-01-01

    The mean (se) basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower in 31 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) (75 [9] pmol/litre) than in 12 healthy dogs (118 [14] pmol/litre), whereas in five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumour they were si

  8. Plasma oxytocin concentrations following MDMA or intranasal oxytocin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Francis, Sunday M; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet; Jacob, Suma

    2014-08-01

    MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 'ecstasy') is reportedly used recreationally because it increases feelings of sociability and interpersonal closeness. Prior work suggests that the pro-social effects of MDMA may be mediated by release of oxytocin. A direct examination of plasma levels of oxytocin after acute doses of oxytocin and MDMA, in the same individuals, would provide further evidence for the idea that MDMA produces its pro-social effects by increasing oxytocin. Fourteen healthy MDMA users participated in a 4-session, double-blind study in which they received oral MDMA (0.75 and 1.5mg/kg), intranasal oxytocin (20IU or 40IU), and placebo. Plasma oxytocin concentrations, as well as cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed before and at several time points after drug administration. MDMA (1.5mg/kg only) increased plasma oxytocin levels to a mean peak of 83.7pg/ml at approximately 90-120min, compared to 18.6pg/ml after placebo. Intranasal oxytocin (40IU, but not 20IU) increased plasma oxytocin levels to 48.0pg/ml, 30-60min after nasal spray administration. MDMA dose-dependently increased heart rate, blood pressure, feelings of euphoria (e.g., 'High' and 'Like Drug'), and feelings of sociability, whereas oxytocin had no cardiovascular or subjective effects. The subjective and cardiovascular responses to MDMA were not related to plasma oxytocin levels, although the N was small for this analysis. Future studies examining the effects of oxytocin antagonists on responses to MDMA will help to determine the mechanism by which MDMA produces pro-social effects.

  9. Plasma concentrations of four pregnancy proteins in complications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T M; Halbert, S P; Spellacy, W N; Berne, B H

    1977-08-01

    Toxemia of pregnancy was associated with an elevation of the pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A concentration, as compared to the level in normal pregnancy in the last month of gestation. The other pregnancy proteins measured were not altered in toxemia. In twin pregnancies, the PAPP-A, PAPP-C, and human placental lactogen levels were all increased, particularly PAPP-A. On the other hand, pregnancy zone protein was not affected by twinning. Pregnancy with diabetes showed normal levels of these proteins.

  10. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  11. Relationship between Plasma Albumin Concentration and Plasma Volume in 5 Inbred Rat Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Rajiv; Klemcke, Harold G

    2015-09-01

    Using the Evans Blue procedure, we previously found strain-related differences in plasma volumes in 5 inbred rat strains. Because albumin binds strongly with Evans blue, this protein is important in the Evans blue method of plasma volume determination. Therefore, we speculated that interstrain differences in plasma albumin concentration (PAC) could distort calculated plasma volumes. To address this concern, we used ELISA techniques to measure PAC in these inbred rat strains. In study A, the blood volume was measured by using Evans blue dye, and albumin was measured at the start of hemorrhage. In study B, blood volume was not measured, and albumin was measured twice, near the start and end of hemorrhage (approximately 14 min apart). Neither study revealed any interstrain differences in PAC, which decreased after hemorrhage in all 5 strains. No correlation was found between PAC and plasma volume, survival time, blood lactate, or blood base excess. Percentage changes in PAC during hemorrhage were greater in salt-sensitive compared with Lewis rats. Moreover, these percentage changes were associated with survival time in Fawn hooded hypertensive rats. Our data show that the plasma volumes we measured previously were not misrepresented due to variations in PAC.

  12. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, van de N.C.A.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, van B.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, de A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was dire

  13. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, N.C.A. van de; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was

  14. Approaches to modeling of plasmas containing impurity at arbitrary concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Mikhail Z.

    2016-02-01

    A new approximate method to modeling of two-ion-species plasmas with arbitrary concentration of impurity is developed. It based on the usage of equations for the electron density and the ratio of the ion species densities as new dependent variables. In contrast to motion equations for the ion mass velocities used normally, those for the new variables have a singularity at the Debye sheath only, as in the case of a one species plasma. Computations for the most critical situations of weak and intermediate friction between species due to Coulomb collisions reproduce nearly perfectly the results got by solving the original equations, however within a calculation time reduced by a factor of 102-103. In the case of strong friction, where ions’ velocities are very close each other, the normal procedure does not converge at all, but the new one, being precise in this limit, operates very reliably. Calculations are done for conditions typical in the linear device PSI-2, with deuterium plasmas seeded by neon impurity. For fixed electron and ion temperatures a critical density of impurity atoms is found, at which the electron density grows without limits. Such a catastrophic behavior does not occur if the electron and ion heat balances are taken into account to calculate the temperature profiles self-consistently.

  15. Plasma Concentrations of Hepcidin in Anemic Zimbabwean Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatenda G Mupfudze

    Full Text Available Anemia in infancy is a global public health problem. We evaluated the relative contributions of iron deficiency and inflammation to infant anemia.We measured plasma hepcidin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein (CRP by ELISA on archived plasma from 289 HIV-unexposed anemic or non-anemic Zimbabwean infants at ages 3 mo, 6 mo and 12 mo. Among anemic infants, we determined the proportion with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA and anemia of inflammation (AI. We undertook regression analyses of plasma hepcidin and anemia status, adjusting for sex, age and birthweight.Anemic infants at 3 mo were more stunted and had higher CRP (median 0.45 vs 0.21 mg/L; P = 0.037 and hepcidin (median 14.7 vs 9.7 ng/mL; P = 0.022 than non-anemic infants, but similar levels of ferritin and sTfR; 11% infants had IDA and 15% had AI. Anemic infants at 6 mo had higher hepcidin (median 7.9 vs 4.5 ng/mL; P = 0.016 and CRP (median 2.33 vs 0.32 mg/L; P<0.001, but lower ferritin (median 13.2 vs 25.1 μg/L; P<0.001 than non-anemic infants; 56% infants had IDA and 12% had AI. Anemic infants at 12 mo had lower ferritin (median 3.2 vs 22.2 μg/L; P<0.001 and hepcidin (median 0.9 vs 1.9 ng/mL; P = 0.019, but similar CRP levels; 48% infants had IDA and 8% had AI. Comparing anemic with non-anemic infants, plasma hepcidin was 568% higher, 405% higher and 64% lower at 3 mo, 6 mo and 12 mo, respectively, after adjusting for sex and birthweight (all p<0.01. Plasma hepcidin declined significantly with age among anemic but not non-anemic infants. Girls had 61% higher hepcidin than boys, after adjusting for age, anemia and birthweight (p<0.001.Anemia is driven partly by inflammation early in infancy, and by iron deficiency later in infancy, with plasma hepcidin concentrations reflecting the relative contribution of each. However, there is need to better characterize the drivers of hepcidin during infancy in developing countries.

  16. Effect of circulating progesterone concentration during synchronization for fixed-time artificial insemination on ovulation and fertility in Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, J N S; Carvalho, J B P; Crepaldi, G A; Soares, J G; Girotto, R W; Maio, J R G; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-04-01

    Four experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of different circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations during a synchronization of ovulation protocol for the timed artificial insemination (TAI) of Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cattle. In the first trial, 13 ovariectomized Nelore heifers were randomly allocated into one of three groups using new P4 devices (New; 1.0 g P4), previously used P4 devices for 8 days (Used1x), and previously used P4 devices for 16 days (Used2x), in a crossover experimental design. The circulating P4 concentrations during the P4 device treatment were lower for Used1x (2.3 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and Used2x (2.0 ± 0.1 ng/mL) than those for New (3.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In the second trial, the ovarian follicular dynamics of 60 anestrous cows were evaluated after the cows received the treatments described previously (New [n = 20], Used1x [n = 20], and Used2x [n = 20]). During the insertion of the P4 device, the cows were administered 2.0-mg estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the P4 device was removed, and the cows were administered 0.53-mg sodium cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, and 1-mg estradiol cypionate. There were no differences among the groups during the interval from P4 device removal to ovulation (73.7 ± 2.9 vs. 69.8 ± 2.4 vs. 68.4 ± 2.3 hours) or regarding the ovulation rate (70.0% vs. 80.0% vs. 85.0%). However, the maximum diameter of the largest follicle was greater (P = 0.06) in the Used2x (15.3 ± 0.4 mm) than that of New (13.5 ± 0.8 mm) and Used1x (14.9 ± 0.5 mm). In experiment 3, 443 anestrous cows were randomly assigned into one of the three treatments (New [n = 144] vs. Used1x [n = 167] vs. Used2x [n = 132]) and received a TAI 48 hours after the P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle during the device removal (10.7 ± 0.3 vs. 11.2 ± 0.2 vs. 11.3 ± 0.3 mm) and the 30-day pregnancy rates (51.4% vs. 53.9% vs. 43.2%) did not differ among the experimental

  17. Diagnostic evaluation of plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity ratio in primary aldosteronism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huilan ZHANG; Daowen WANG

    2008-01-01

    Using the plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity ratio (PAC/PRA ratio) as the screening test of choice for primary aldosteronism in hypertensive patients, we studied the clinical character-istics and the diagnostic value of PAC/PRA ratio in primary aldosteronism. The plasma aldosterone concen-tration (PAC) and plasma renin activity (PRA) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 902 hypertensive patients from out-patient clinics or hospitals. One hundred and twenty-six suspected primary aldosteronism patients whose PAC/PRA ratio was > 25 ng/dL/ng/mL/ hr had a lamellar computed tomography (CT) scan in the adrenal gland and follow-up visits. The proportion of primary aldosteronism in hypertensive patients was 14% (126/902). There were 54 patients with unilateral or bilateral hyperplasia and 25 patients with adenoma according to the CT scan. 39% (49/126) of the patients with primary aldosteronism had hypokalemia. Twenty-five patients received surgical treatment. The efficacy and cure rates were 100% (25/25) and 48% (12/25), respect-ively. The effective rate of aldactone and the single-drug cure rate were 89% (48/54) and 24% (13/54), respectively. Primary aldosteronism affects over 10% of hypertensive patients in China. The PAC/PRA ratio can be considered as a routine screening test in hypertensives, especially resistant hypertensive patients and a high PAC/PRA ratio is an invaluable index in primary aldosteronism diagnosis.

  18. Effect of progesterone concentrations, follicle diameter, timing of artificial insemination, and ovulatory stimulus on pregnancy rate to synchronized artificial insemination in postpubertal Nellore heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, T; Peres, R F G; Rodrigues, A D P; Pohler, K G; Pereira, M H C; Day, M L; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of treatments with low versus high serum progesterone (P4) concentrations on factors associated with pregnancy success in postpubertal Nellore heifers submitted to either conventional or fixed timed artificial insemination (FTAI). Heifers were synchronized with a new controlled internal drug release device (CIDR; 1.9 g of P4 [CIDR1]) or a CIDR previously used for 18 days (CIDR3) plus 2 mg of estradiol (E2) benzoate on Day 0 and 12.5 mg of prostaglandin F2α on Day 7. In experiment 1 (n = 723), CIDR were removed on Day 7 or 9 and heifers were inseminated after estrus detection. In experiment 2 (n = 1083), CIDR were all removed on Day 9 and FTAI was performed either 48 hours later in heifers that received E2 cypionate (ECP) on Day 9 (0.5 mg; E48) or 54 or 72 hours later in conjunction with administration of GnRH (100 μg; G54 or G72). Synchronization with CIDR1 resulted in greater serum P4 concentrations and smaller follicle diameters on Days 7 and 9 in both experiments. In experiment 1, treatment with CIDR for 9 days decreased the interval from CIDR removal to estrus (Day 7, 3.76 ± 0.08 days vs. Day 9, 2.90 ± 0.07; P < 0.01) and improved conception (Day 7, 57.1% vs. Day 9, 65.8%; P = 0.05) and pregnancy rates (Day 7, 37.6% vs. Day 9, 45.3%; P = 0.04). In experiment 2, treatment with ECP improved (P < 0.01) the proportion of heifers in estrus (E48, 40.9%(a); G54, 17.1%(c); and G72, 32.0%(b)), but the pregnancy rate was not affected (P = 0.64) by treatments (E48, 38.8%; G54, 35.5%; G72, 37.5%). Synchronization with CIDR3 increased follicle diameter at FTAI (CIDR1, 11.07 ± 0.10 vs. CIDR3, 11.61 ± 0.10 mm; P < 0.01), ovulation rate (CIDR1, 82.8% vs. CIDR3, 88.0%; P < 0.01) and did not affect conception (CIDR1, 42.2 vs. CIDR3, 45.1%; P = 0.38) or pregnancy rates (CIDR1, 34.7 vs. CIDR3, 39.4%; P = 0.11). In conclusion, length of treatment with P4 affected the fertility of heifers bred based on estrus detection

  19. [Estrogen dependance of the progesterone "receptor" in human tissues (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitmann, B; Moure, C; Bayard, F

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of specific progesterone receptor (RP) has been measured in the endometrium of 31 normal menstruating women during the two phases of their menstrual cycle, and compared with the plasma oestradiol-17 beta (E2) concentrations. There was no relationship between RP and plasma E2 when the two phases of the cycle were considered, however a correlation was observed when the follicular phase was only considered. The relationship between oestrogen and RP was then more directly studied in a breast cancer cell line in tissue culture (MCF-7). RP induction by E2 as well as oestriol was demonstrated, but oestrone was ineffective.

  20. Autoimmune Progesterone Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Bemanian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone induced dermatitis is a rare disorder. It typically occurs in females due to anautoimmune phenomenon to endogenous progesterone production, but can also be caused byexogenous intake of a synthetic progestin. Here in, we present a case of autoimmune progesterone anaphylaxis (AIPA observed in an adolescent female.The patient is an 18-year-old Caucasian female with no significant past medical history and noprior exogenous hormone use, who presented to her primary care physician complaining of cyclic skin eruptions with dyspnea, cough and respiratory distress. She noted that her symptoms occurred monthly, just prior to her menses. An intradermal skin test using 0.1 cml of progesterone was performed. The patient developed a 15mm wheal after 15 minutes, confirming the diagnosis of AIPA.The patient was started on a continuous regimen of an oral conjugated estrogen (0.625mg. The skin eruptions and respiratory symptoms have not returned since the initiation of this therapy.Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis manifests via the occurrence of cyclic skin eruptions.Women with the disorder commonly present with dermatologic lesions in the luteal phase of themenstrual cycle, if there are any other organ involvement in addition to skin (e.g. lung, GI thereaction should be called as autoimmune progesterone anaphylaxis. Diagnosis of AIPA is confirmed by performing a skin allergen test using progesterone.

  1. Give progesterone a chance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Florencia Labombarda; Daniel Garcia-Ovejero

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no standard pharmacological treatment for spinal cord injury. Here, we suggest that progesterone, a steroid hormone, may be a promising therapeutical candidate as it is already for traumatic brain injury, where it has reached phase II clinical trials. We rely on previous works showing anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and promyelinating roles for progesterone after spinal cord injury and in our recent paper, in which we demonstrate that progesterone dimin-ishes lesion, preserves white matter integrity and improves locomotor recovery in a clinically relevant model of spinal cord lesion.

  2. [Plasma hormone concentrations in induced abortion with local prostaglandin administration in the 1st trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, W; König, A; Ulbrich, R; Hilgers, R; Kuske, R; Kuhn, W

    1983-01-01

    Abortion was performed by curettage on 71 women with pregnancies between the 7th and the 13th week of gestation seven to eight hours after intracervical application of a tylose gel containing 3mg prostaglandin F2 alpha. Prior to the application of the prostaglandin and immediately before the surgical intervention a sonographic examination for determining the vitality of the pregnancy was carried out.--Plasma progesteron, estradiol and HPL levels were determined radioimmunologically prior to the application of prostaglandin, at four-hour intervals on the day of intervention, and 24, 48 and 72 hours after the intervention. In 22 women a complete or an incomplete abortion occurred; in two cases a blighted ovum was observed; 47 pregnancies, according to sonographic examination, remained intact until curettage. After seven to eight hours duration of the effect of the prostaglandin gel, progesterone levels were found to be reduced to 60.5 per cent and 17-beta-estradiol to 31.4 per cent of the initial values, whereas the HPL values fell below the specificity of the testing procedure (12.5 ng/ml). Comparative investigations of the pregnancies which, according to sonographic findings, remained intact until curettage and those which were aborted after the application of prostaglandin did not, in spite of low plasma progesterone and estradiol levels in the abortive group, reveal any statistically significant differences. The abortive effect--even with local application--of the prostaglandins was confirmed. Conclusions regarding the effective mechanism of the prostaglandins upon the fetoplacental unit and the function of the corpus luteum remain subject to speculation.

  3. Decrease in pyridoxal-5'-phosphate concentration and increase in pyridoxal concentration in rat plasma by 4'-O-methylpyridoxine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Teruki; Johno, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Mika; Sasaki, Keiko; Wada, Keiji

    2015-07-01

    Food poisoning from Ginkgo biloba seeds can cause epilepsy because of a decrease in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in the brain. We previously demonstrated that 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (MPN) is responsible for this observed toxicity of G biloba seeds; however, the mechanism for the decrease in GABA and plasma concentration profile of MPN has not been clarified. Our hypothesis is that MPN induces a decrease in vitamin B6 concentrations, resulting in a decrease in GABA concentration. This study aimed to characterize the plasma concentration profile of MPN and intrinsic vitamin B6 concentrations (pyridoxal [PL], PL-5'-phosphate [PLP], and 4-pyridoxic acid) using a rat model. Plasma concentrations of B6 vitamers after intravenous MPN administration (5 mg/kg) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The half-life of MPN (0.91 ± 0.05 hours) was shorter in rats than the previously reported value in humans. We found a significant decrease in the plasma concentration of PLP, an active form of vitamin B6, after MPN administration. We also observed an increase in plasma PL and 4-pyridoxic acid concentrations; the increase in PL concentration may be caused by either metabolism of MPN to PL or by MPN-mediated inhibition of PL kinase. The present study is the first in vivo study showing relatively rapid elimination of MPN in rats and a decrease in plasma PLP concentration caused by MPN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perfil hormonal de Progesterona durante o ciclo Estral em novilhas Nelore confinadas com Diferentes Ondas de Crescimento Folicular Plasma Progesterone Level during the Estrous Cycle in Nelore Heifers Confined with Two, Three and Four Waves of Follicular Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Lomas Santiago

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Efetuaram-se coletas diárias de sangue, de 16 novilhas Nelore confinadas, para análise de progesterona plasmática pelo método de radioimunoensaio (RIA. Os dias analisados para progesterona foram o dia zero (estro e a cada três dias até o dia -1 e o dia zero. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: 1 com ciclo estral de 21 dias aproximadamente (novilhas que apresentaram duas e três ondas de crescimento folicular e 2 com ciclo estral superior a 25 dias (novilhas com quatro ondas de crescimento folicular. As concentrações médias de progesterona plasmática dos animais durante o ciclo estral diferiram entre os dois grupos, sendo superiores (4,27 ng/mL para os ciclos de maior duração. A concentração média de progesterona no ciclo de aproximadamente 21 dias foi de 2,54 ng/mL. Os resultados sugerem que as novilhas que apresentam maior duração do ciclo estral necessitam de tempo adicional para que seus folículos cheguem ao estádio pré-ovulatório, havendo, dessa maneira, prolongamento e aumento da secreção de progesterona.Blood were collected daily from 16 Nelore heifers confined, for radioimmunoassay (RIA.analyses of progesterone The plasma progesterone assay were at day zero (estrus and at each three days until the -1 and the day zero.again The animals were divided in two groups: 1 with regular estrous cycle of 21 days (heifers with two and three follicular growth waves and 2 with prolonged estrous cycle, greater than 25 days (heifers with four follicular growth waves. The mean plasma progesterone level from the animals during the estrous cycle differed between the two groups, being greater (4,27 ng/mL for the extended cycles.(above 25 days; 4,27 ng/mL than for the regular estrous cycle (21 days; 2,54 ng/mL. Results suggest that those heifers which showed an extended estrous cycles, needs an additional time for the follicles to each the pre-ovulatory stadium, resulting in prolonged and increased progesterone secretion.

  5. Progesterone, BDNF and Neuroprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Meharvan; Su,Chang

    2012-01-01

    While the effects of progesterone in the central nervous system (CNS), like those of estrogen, have generally been considered within the context of reproductive function, growing evidence supports its importance in regulating non-reproductive functions including cognition and affect. In addition, progesterone has well-described protective effects against numerous insults in a variety of cell models, animal models and in humans. While ongoing research in several laboratories continues to shed ...

  6. The effect of concurrent aspirin upon plasma concentrations of tenoxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R O; Paull, P D; Lam, S; Swanson, B R; Williams, K M; Wade, D N

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of chronic, high-dose aspirin therapy upon the disposition of a single dose and multiple doses of tenoxicam was examined in normal volunteers. 2. Aspirin caused a 24% drop in the t1/2 (P less than 0.005), a 49% rise in the volume of distribution (P less than 0.0003) and a 98% increase in the clearance (P less than 0.0001) of tenoxicam after a single dose of the tenoxicam. 3. Steady-state concentrations of tenoxicam decreased significantly from 10.4 +/- 1.5 to 4.5 +/- 1.6 micrograms ml-1 in the presence of chronic, high-dose aspirin treatment. 4. Tenoxicam percentage free measured in plasma from a normal volunteer was 0.56 +/- 0.05% over the tenoxicam concentration range 1-20 micrograms ml-1 and rose to 1.24 +/- 0.07% in the presence of aspirin 150 micrograms ml-1. 5. The effect of aspirin upon the disposition of tenoxicam was consistent with a competitive protein binding interaction. PMID:3190995

  7. The influence of insulin on the raised plasma fibronectin concentration in human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgård, A; Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1986-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of fibronectin, free insulin, C-peptide and plasma glucose were determined in 40 morbidly obese subjects and in 51 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. All plasma concentrations were significantly elevated (p less than 0.01) among the obese subjects. A significant...

  8. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Murat; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring. Thirty-two rats and their forty newborn offspring were divided into the following four groups according to the type of EMR exposure they were subjected to: the control, 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz groups. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during the pregnancy and growth periods. The pregnant rats were allowed to stand for four generations (total 52 weeks) before, plasma and uterine samples were obtained. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, plasma and uterine samples were also obtained from the developing rats. Although uterine lipid peroxidation increased in the EMR groups, uterine glutathione peroxidase activity (4th and 5th weeks) and plasma prolactin levels (6th week) in developing rats decreased in these groups. In the maternal rats, the plasma prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels decreased in the EMR groups, while the plasma total oxidant status, and body temperatures increased. There were no changes in the levels of reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, or vitamins A, C, and E in the uterine and plasma samples of maternal rats. In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and

  9. Elevated progesterone during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azemi, M; Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, E M

    2012-01-01

    of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of the follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials should document the cause and origin...... phase in ovarian stimulation. The databases of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials...

  10. Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljevic Dragan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the concentration of serum homocysteine (Hcy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA compared with the control group and the connection between homocysteine and parameters of inflammation and disease activity. Sixty RA patients and 20 healthy controls were included in the study, and clinical examination and investigation were performed during which disease activity was assessed. Peripheral blood samples were used for all of the assays. Levels of Hcy were 33% higher in the RA patients than in the control subjects (mean +/− SD 11.79±3.72 μmol/L versus 8.90±1.38 μmol/L; p< 0.01. A significant correlation was found between parameters of inflammation (C-reactive protein and homocysteine in patients (r=0.322, p=0.012. Patients with high disease activity had a significantly greater increase in homocysteine (p<0.05. An increase in plasma homocysteine in RA patients is related to the parameters of inflammation and disease activity. Elevated Hcy levels occur commonly in patients with RA and may explain some of the increased cardiovascular mortality seen in RA patients.

  11. Relationship between the size of the dominant follicle, vaginal electrical resistance, serum concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone and sexual receptivity during the follicular phase of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, I M; Waheed, M M; Adam, Mohammed I; Al-Eknah, M M

    2015-03-01

    Thirteen dromedaries were used to study the relationship between the size of the dominant follicle, vaginal electrical resistance (VER), sexual receptivity, and serum concentrations of oestradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) throughout the follicular phase. On a daily basis, the animals experienced teasing with a vasectomised camel, trans-rectal ultrasound examination of the ovaries, and measurement of VER and blood collection for serum E2 and P4. Results revealed no significant differences between the mean VER in the animals that had a follicle of 5-10mm (group I, n=11), 11-15mm (group II, n=12) and 16-20mm (group III, n=13). The VER did not correlate with the follicular size. The E2 concentrations in the animals in groups II (60.14pg/ml) and III (66.52pg/ml) were significantly (Pdromedary camels.

  12. Role of oxytocin in the initiation of term and preterm labor in rats: changes in oxytocin receptor density and plasma oxytocin concentration and the effect of an oxytocin antagonist, L-366,509.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Akahane, M; Minami, K; Moro, M; Ajisawa, Y; Inoue, Y; Kawarabayashi, T

    1999-03-01

    Our purpose was to compare the functional roles of oxytocin in term and preterm labor in rats by both biochemical and pharmacologic means. We determined the myometrial oxytocin receptor density and the maternal plasma concentrations of oxytocin and progesterone on gestational days 18, 20, and 22 (morning) and at the onset of delivery (day 22 afternoon) in rats with labor at term and at the onset of delivery (day 20 afternoon) in rats in preterm labor induced by the combined use of bilateral ovariectomy and estradiol injection. We also evaluated the effects of an oxytocin antagonist, L-366,509, on the initiation of both term and preterm labor. The number of tritiated oxytocin binding sites in myometrial membranes rapidly increased on gestational day 22 (morning) in rats with term labor. Plasma progesterone level decreased in an inverse fashion. A rapid increase in circulating oxytocin concentration was observed at the onset of delivery in rats in labor at term. Both the plasma oxytocin concentration and the receptor density had the same values in rats with preterm labor as in rats with term labor. L-366,509 delayed the initiation of labor in rats with term and preterm labor in a dose-dependent manner. It is confirmed biochemically and pharmacologically that oxytocin plays an important role in the initiation of both term and preterm labor in rats. The oxytocin antagonist examined was able to delay term and preterm labor, so it might prove useful in clinical practice for the treatment of preterm labor.

  13. Dynamics of Progesterone, TNF-α, and a Metabolite of PGF2α in Blood Plasma of Beef Cows following Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Mason

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactating beef cows previously synchronized for estrus (d 0 were assigned to four treatments to assess their effectiveness in increasing blood progesterone (P4 and its effects on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α after the transfer of embryos. At the time of transfer (d 7, cows received no treatment (control; n=16, a controlled internal drug releasing device (CIDR; n=16, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; n=15, or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; n=15. Blood samples were taken on d 7, 14, and 21 for analysis of P4 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Blood was collected (every 15 min for 2 h in half the animals in each treatment group on d 14 and the remaining half on d 21 for analysis of prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGFM. Retention rates were 56.2, 62.5, 46.7, and 13.3% for cows in the control, CIDR, hCG, and GnRH groups, respectively. Progesterone was greater (P≤0.05 in cows receiving hCG compared to others on d 14. Progesterone in all treatment groups increased from d 7 to d 14 and declined (P≤0.05 from d 14 to d 21. Contrary to pregnant cows, P4 and TNF-α declined from d 7 to d 21 in nonpregnant cows (P≤0.05. Although PGFM increased by d 21, there was no difference between pregnant and nonpregnant cows.

  14. Is plasma urotensin II concentration an indicator of myocardial damage in patients with acute coronary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Babińska, Magdalena; Holecki, Michał; Prochaczek, Fryderyk; OWCZAREK, ALEKSANDER; Kokocińska, Danuta; Chudek,Jerzy; Więcek, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urotensin II (UII) is a vasoactive peptide secreted by endothelial cells. Increased plasma UII concentration was observed in patients with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, diabetic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. In patients with myocardial infarction both increased and decreased plasma UII concentrations were demonstrated. The aim of this study was to analyze whether plasma UII concentration reflects the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Material and methods One hun...

  15. The influence of a cooked meat meal on creatinine plasma concentration and creatinine clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayersohn, M; Conrad, K A; Achari, R

    1983-01-01

    1 The influence of a meal containing cooked meat (225 g) on creatinine plasma concentration, creatinine urinary excretion and creatinine clearance was determined in six healthy male subjects. 2 The meat meal produced an average 52% increase in creatinine plasma concentration within 1.5 to 3.5 h after ingestion. The 24 h area under the creatinine plasma concentration-time curve increased by about 19%. Urinary creatinine excretion during 24 h increased by an average of 13%. Creatinine clearance...

  16. Periconceptional undernutrition affects in utero methyltransferase expression and steroid hormone concentrations in uterine flushings and blood plasma during the peri-implantation period in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczak, A; Zglejc, K; Waszkiewicz, E; Wojciechowicz, B; Martyniak, M; Sobotka, W; Okrasa, S; Kotwica, G

    2016-08-18

    Female undernutrition during early pregnancy may affect the physiological pattern of genomic DNA methylation. We hypothesised that in utero DNA methylation may be impaired in females fed a restrictive diet in early pregnancy. In this study we evaluated whether poor maternal nutritional status, induced by applying a restricted diet during the peri-conceptional period, may influence: (1) the potential for in utero DNA methylation, expressed as changes in the mRNA expression and protein abundance of methyltransferases: DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3a in the endometrium and the myometrium, (2) the intrauterine microenvironment, measured as oestradiol 17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations in uterine flushings and (3) plasma concentration of E2 and P4 during the peri-implantation period. Our results indicate that maternal peri-conceptional undernutrition affects maintenance and de novo DNA methylation in the endometrium, de novo methylation in the myometrium and a results in a decrease in intrauterine E2 concentration during the peri-implantation period. The intrauterine concentration of P4 and plasma concentrations of E2 and P4 did not change. These findings suggest that undernutrition during the earliest period of pregnancy, and perhaps the pre-pregnancy period, may create changes in epigenetic mechanisms in the uterus and intrauterine milieu of E2 during the peri-implantation period.

  17. Atazanavir increases the plasma concentrations of 1200 mg raltegravir dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Rajesh; East, Lilly; Larson, Patrick; Valiathan, Chandni; Deschamps, Kathleen; Luk, Julie Ann; Bethel-Brown, Crystal; Manthos, Helen; Brejda, John; Gartner, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Raltegravir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor currently marketed at a dose of 400 mg twice-daily (b.i.d.). Raltegravir 1200 mg once-daily (q.d.) (investigational q.d. formulation of 2 × 600 mg tablets; q.d. RAL) was found to be generally well tolerated and non-inferior to the marketed 400 mg b.i.d. dose at 48 weeks in a phase 3 trial. Since raltegravir is eliminated mainly by metabolism via a uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1-mediated glucuronidation pathway, co-administration of UGT1A1 inhibitors may increase the plasma levels of q.d. RAL. To assess this potential, the drug interaction of 1200 mg raltegravir using atazanavir, a known UGT1A1 inhibitor, was studied. An open-label, randomized, 2-period, fixed-sequence phase 1 study was performed in adult healthy male and female (non-childbearing potential) subjects ≥ 19 and ≤ 55 years of age, with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 18.5 and ≤ 32.0 kg/m(2) . Subjects (n = 14) received a single oral dose of 1200 mg raltegravir in period 1. After a washout period of at least 7 days, the subjects received oral doses of 400 mg atazanavir q.d. for 9 consecutive days, with a single oral dose of 1200 mg raltegravir co-administered on day 7 of period 2. Serial blood samples were collected for 72 h following raltegravir dosing and analysed using a validated bioanalytical method to quantify raltegravir plasma concentrations. Co-administration with atazanavir yielded GMRs (90% CIs) for raltegravir AUC0-∞ , Cmax and C24 of 1.67 (1.34, 2.10), 1.16 (1.01, 1.33) and 1.26 (1.08, 1.46), respectively. There was no effect of raltegravir on serum total bilirubin. In contrast, atazanavir increased the mean bilirubin by up to 200%, an effect that was preserved in the atazanavir/raltegravir treatment group. Administration of single q.d. RAL alone and co-administered with multiple oral doses of atazanavir were generally well tolerated in healthy subjects. The results show that

  18. Plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with skeletal muscle insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and low plasma concentration precedes a decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Norbert; Vozarova, Barbora; Funahashi, Tohru;

    2002-01-01

    -induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and also increase whole-body insulin sensitivity. To further characterize the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and insulin sensitivity in humans, we examined 1) the cross-sectional association between plasma adiponectin......Adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, has been found to be negatively associated with degree of adiposity and positively associated with insulin sensitivity in Pima Indians and other populations. Moreover, adiponectin administration to rodents has been shown to increase insulin...... concentration and skeletal muscle IR tyrosine phosphorylation and 2) the prospective effect of plasma adiponectin concentration at baseline on change in insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma adiponectin concentration, body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity...

  19. Seasonal patterns of circulating progesterone and prolactin and response to bromocriptine in the female tammar Macropus eugenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndale-Biscoe, C H; Hinds, L A

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of prolactin and progesterone in the plasma of female tammars (Macropus eugenii) were measured during lactational quiescence and seasonal quiescence and during the period of natural resumption of reproduction after the summer solstice in December. Prolactin concentrations were consistently low (less than 40 ng/ml) during the period of declining day length and consistently elevated (greater than 40 ng/ml) during the period of increasing day length. Basal levels of progesterone were lowest (118.9 +/- 9.1 pg/ml) at the winter solstice and highest (244.1 +/- 21.0 pg/ml) at the summer solstice. Treatment with bromocriptine (CB154) did not depress prolactin levels at either time of the year but during February to June a single injection of 5 mg/kg body wt induced development of the quiescent corpus luteum (CL) and the diapausing embryo was reactivated. In February and March the level of progesterone increased in association with the developing CL, but after treatment at the winter solstice in June plasma progesterone did not increase although pregnancy was successfully completed. From September through November only 1 of 50 females responded to bromocriptine. None responded to bromocriptine given at the summer solstice in December, but all these animals spontaneously reactivated 2 weeks later. The difference in response of female tammars to bromocriptine treatment in the two halves of the year suggests that different endocrine controls operate in lactational and seasonal quiescence and that the latter is more complex.

  20. Ovine maternal nutrient restriction from mid to late gestation decreases heptic progesterone inactivating enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we have shown increased concentrations of progesterone and decreased liver weight in mid to late pregnant ewes provided a nutrient restricted vs. adequate diet. This alteration in peripheral progesterone could be due to increased synthesis and/or decreased clearance of progesterone. There...

  1. Progesterone and oestrogen in pregnancy and parturition: comparative aspects and hierarchical control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, R B; Galil, A K; Harrison, F A; Jenkin, G; Perry, J S

    1977-01-01

    The different ways in which the progesterone requirements of pregnancy are met in various species are reviewed here. Progesterone production expressed in terms of metabolic body weight lies within about one order of magnitude in several species (but not in the rat), whether the hormone is predominantly ovarian or placental in origin. Parturition is usually preceded by a decrease in the plasma concentration of progesterone and the evidence which suggests that a decrease in secretion involves enzyme induction is summarized. In the sheep a sequence of well-marked hormonal changes can be discerned--an increase in fetal cortisol secretion followed by a fall in placental progesterone and a rise in oestrogen and prostaglandin F2alpha secretion. This sequence has been interpreted in terms of hierarchical control theory which envisages a series of levels placed in a descending order of importance and in which there is a downward transmission of a signal from a higher level that modifies activity at a lower level. A dominant level in the hierarchy in the sheep and pig seems to be the fetal hypothalamus and pituitary, but in the rabbit the maternal hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary play a more dominant role.

  2. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Graceli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of extracellular Na+ and Cl- concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na+ and Cl- reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg-1·day-1, sc and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg-1·day-1, sc. We assessed Na+ and Cl- fractional excretion (FENa+ and FECl- , respectively and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FENa+ , FECl- , water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FENa+ , FECl- , water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g. Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4 decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen, and progesterone in the modulation of renal function.

  3. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations during military training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Suzuki

    Full Text Available Decreased concentrations of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and serum BDNF have been proposed to be a state marker of depression and a biological indicator of loaded psychosocial stress. Stress evaluations of participants in military mission are critically important and appropriate objective biological parameters that evaluate stress are needed. In military circumstances, there are several problems to adopt plasma BDNF concentration as a stress biomarker. First, in addition to psychosocial stress, military missions inevitably involve physical exercise that increases plasma BDNF concentrations. Second, most participants in the mission do not have adequate quality or quantity of sleep, and sleep deprivation has also been reported to increase plasma BDNF concentration. We evaluated plasma BDNF concentrations in 52 participants on a 9-week military mission. The present study revealed that plasma BDNF concentration significantly decreased despite elevated serum enzymes that escaped from muscle and decreased quantity and quality of sleep, as detected by a wearable watch-type sensor. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF during the mission. VEGF is also neurotrophic and its expression in the brain has been reported to be up-regulated by antidepressive treatments and down-regulated by stress. This is the first report of decreased plasma VEGF concentrations by stress. We conclude that decreased plasma concentrations of neurotrophins can be candidates for mental stress indicators in actual stressful environments that include physical exercise and limited sleep.

  4. Does the conceptus of the viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata participates in the regulation of progesterone production and the control of luteolysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, Martín; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Carmen; Cárdenas-León, Mario; Luis, Juana; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2014-08-01

    It is generally accepted that progesterone is necessary to maintain gestation; however, the mechanisms that control the production of this steroid remain unknown. The corpus luteum has been assigned a central role in the maintenance of gestation based on its capacity to produce progesterone. A pseudopregnancy model was performed in a viviparous lizard, Barisia imbricata imbricata, to determine whether the absence of embryos would affect the pattern of progesterone production or the corpus luteum histology. Blood samples were obtained prior to ovulation and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant and pregnant lizards), as well as one day after parturition (pregnant lizards) or 32 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant lizards). The corpus luteum was surgically removed one day after blood samples were obtained. Blood aliquots from nongravid females were obtained at similar timepoints. We found a significant reduction in plasma progesterone concentrations at 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation in pseudopregnant lizards compared with those observed at similar times in intact pregnant lizards, whereas the progesterone levels in non-gestant lizards remained significantly lower than in either pseudopregnant or pregnant lizards. Moreover, we observed that the histological appearance of the corpus luteum from pseudogestational females (obtained 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation) differed from the corpora lutea from lizards in late gestation and intact parturient lizards. These observations suggest that the conceptus participates in the regulation of progesterone production in late gestation and also in luteolysis control.

  5. Prediction of ovulation in women using a rapid progesterone radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.; Coults, J.R.T. (Glasgow Univ. (UK))

    1982-02-01

    A rapid (3-h) radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone has been developed and used successfully to predict the time of ovulation in women undergoing artificial insemination. The results obtained using progesterone levels to date the stage of the cycle were analysed retrospectively by (1) estimation of the length of the ensuing luteal phases and comparison of these with luteal phase lengths of a control group (2) comparison of the dating using progesterone levels with retrospective determination of LH values and (3) by analysis of the dating in cycles in which conception occurred.

  6. Intracellular CD3+ T Lymphocyte Teriflunomide Concentration Is Poorly Correlated with and Has Greater Variability Than Unbound Plasma Teriflunomide Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Ashley M; Moghaddami, Mahin; Foster, David J R; Proudman, Susanna M; Upton, Richard N; Wiese, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Leflunomide's active metabolite teriflunomide inhibits dihydro-oroate dehydrogenase, an enzyme essential to proliferation of T lymphocytes. As teriflunomide must reach the target site to have this effect, this study assessed the distribution of teriflunomide into T lymphocytes, as intracellular concentrations may be a superior response biomarker to plasma concentrations. CD3 MicroBeads (Miltenyi Biotec, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany) were used to extract CD3(+) T cells from the peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were taking a stable dose of leflunomide. Unbound plasma and intra-CD3(+) T cell teriflunomide concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentration (log transformed) and partition differences were assessed through paired Student t tests. Sixteen patients provided plasma steady-state teriflunomide samples, and eight provided a sample 6-12 weeks later. At time-point one, the geometric mean teriflunomide concentration (range) in CD3(+) T cells was 18.12 μg/L (6.15-42.26 μg/L) compared with 69.75 μg/L (32.89-263.1 μg/L) unbound in plasma (P < 0.001). The mean partition coefficient (range) for unbound plasma teriflunomide into CD3(+) T cells was 0.295 (0.092-0.632), which was significantly different from unity (P < 0.001). The median (range) change in teriflunomide concentration between the two time points was 14% (-10% to 40%) in unbound plasma and -29% (-69 to 138%) for CD3(+) T cells. Because teriflunomide concentrations in CD3(+) T cells were lower and displayed a higher intraindividual variability than the unbound plasma concentrations, its applicability as a therapeutic drug-monitoring marker may be limited. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Association of lopinavir concentrations with plasma lipid or glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinxadi Phumla Z

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslipidaemia and dysglycaemia have been associated with exposure to ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors. Lopinavir/ritonavir, the most commonly used protease inhibitor in resource-limited settings, often causes dyslipidaemia. There are contradictory data regarding the association between lopinavir concentrations and changes in lipids. Aim To investigate associations between plasma lopinavir concentrations and lipid and glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South African adults. Methods Participants stable on lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. After an overnight fast, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lopinavir concentrations were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Regression analyses were used to determine associations between plasma lopinavir concentrations and fasting and 2 hour plasma glucose, fasting cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations. Results There were 84 participants (72 women with a median age of 36 years. The median blood pressure, body mass index and waist: hip ratio were 108/72 mmHg, 26 kg/m2 and 0.89 respectively. The median CD4 count was 478 cells/mm3. Median duration on lopinavir was 18.5 months. The median (interquartile range lopinavir concentration was 8.0 (5.2 to 12.8 μg/mL. Regression analyses showed no significant association between lopinavir pre-dose concentrations and fasting cholesterol (β-coefficient −0.04 (95% CI −0.07 to 0.00, triglycerides (β-coefficient −0.01 (95% CI −0.04 to 0.02, fasting glucose (β-coefficient −0.01 (95% CI −0.04 to 0.02, or 2-hour glucose concentrations (β-coefficient −0.02 (95% CI −0.09 to 0.06. Lopinavir concentrations above the median were not associated with presence of dyslipidaemia or dysglycaemia. Conclusions There was no association between lopinavir plasma concentrations and plasma lipid and glucose concentrations.

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, John C; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Van der Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Coin, Lachlan J; Deng, Guohong; Gieger, Christian; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kühnel, Brigitte; Kumar, Vinod; Lagou, Vasiliki; Liang, Liming; Luan, Jian'an; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Mateo Leach, Irene; O'Reilly, Paul F; Peden, John F; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Soininen, Pasi; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Yuan, Xin; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Atwood, Larry D; Borecki, Ingrid B; Brown, Morris J; Charoen, Pimphen; Cucca, Francesco; Das, Debashish; de Geus, Eco J C; Dixon, Anna L; Döring, Angela; Ehret, Georg; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I; Farrall, Martin; Forouhi, Nita G; Friedrich, Nele; Goessling, Wolfram; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Harris, Tamara B; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heath, Simon; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hyppönen, Elina; Janssen, Harry L A; Johnson, Toby; Kangas, Antti J; Kema, Ido P; Kühn, Jens P; Lai, Sandra; Lathrop, Mark; Lerch, Markus M; Li, Yun; Liang, T Jake; Lin, Jing-Ping; Loos, Ruth J F; Martin, Nicholas G; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Munroe, Patricia B; Musunuru, Kiran; Nakamura, Yusuke; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Olafsson, Isleifur; Penninx, Brenda W; Pouta, Anneli; Prins, Bram P; Prokopenko, Inga; Puls, Ralf; Ruokonen, Aimo; Savolainen, Markku J; Schlessinger, David; Schouten, Jeoffrey N L; Seedorf, Udo; Sen-Chowdhry, Srijita; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Smit, Johannes H; Spector, Timothy D; Tan, Wenting; Teslovich, Tanya M; Tukiainen, Taru; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wallace, Chris; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wichmann, H-Erich; Willemsen, Gonneke; Würtz, Peter; Xu, Chun; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark; Cookson, William O; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Froguel, Philippe; Matsuda, Koichi; McCarthy, Mark I; Meisinger, Christa; Mooser, Vincent; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Schumann, Gunter; Snieder, Harold; Sternberg, Michael J E; Stolk, Ronald P; Thomas, Howard C; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Uda, Manuela; Waeber, Gérard; Wareham, Nicholas J; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Hugh; Whitfield, John B; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Fox, Caroline S; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Stefansson, Kari; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, James; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Elliott, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190))

  9. Pedophilia is accompanied by increased plasma concentrations of catecholamines, in particular epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; De Vos, N; Van Hunsel, F; Van West, D; Westenberg, H; Cosyns, P; Neels, H

    2001-08-05

    Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were measured in pedophiles and normal men both in placebo conditions and after administration of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), a post-synaptic 5-HT2 receptor agonist. The plasma concentrations of catecholamines, in particular epinephrine, were significantly increased in pedophiles. It is concluded that pedophiles may have an increased activity of the sympathoadrenal system.

  10. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, J.C.; Zhang, W.; Sehmi, J.; Li, X.; Wass, M.N.; Harst, P. van der; Holm, H.; Sanna, S.; Kavousi, M.; Baumeister, S.E.; Coin, L.J.; Deng, G.; Gieger, C.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Hottenga, J.J.; Kuhnel, B.; Kumar, V.; Lagou, V.; Liang, L.; Luan, J.; Vidal, P.M.; Mateo Leach, I.; O'Reilly, P.F.; Peden, J.F.; Rahmioglu, N.; Soininen, P.; Speliotes, E.K.; Yuan, X.; Thorleifsson, G.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Atwood, L.D.; Borecki, I.B.; Brown, M.J.; Charoen, P.; Cucca, F.; Das, D.; Geus, E.J. de; Dixon, A.L.; Doring, A.; Ehret, G.; Eyjolfsson, G.I.; Farrall, M.; Forouhi, N.G.; Friedrich, N.; Goessling, W.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Harris, T.B.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Heath, S.; Hirschfield, G.M.; Hofman, A.; Homuth, G.; Hypponen, E.; Janssen, H.L.; Johnson, T.; Kangas, A.J.; Kema, I.P.; Kuhn, J.P.; Lai, S.; Lathrop, M.; Lerch, M.M.; Li, Y.; Liang, T.J.; Lin, J.P.; Loos, R.J.; Martin, N.G.; Moffatt, M.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Munroe, P.B.; Musunuru, K.; Nakamura, Y.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Olafsson, I.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Pouta, A.; Prins, B.P.; Prokopenko, I.; Puls, R.; Ruokonen, A.; Savolainen, M.J.; Schlessinger, D.; Schouten, J.N.; Seedorf, U.; Sen-Chowdhry, S.; Siminovitch, K.A.; Smit, J.H.; Spector, T.D.; Tan, W.; Teslovich, T.M.; Tukiainen, T.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Klauw, M.M. Van der; Vasan, R.S.; Wallace, C.; Wallaschofski, H.; Wichmann, H.E.; Willemsen, G.; Wurtz, P.; Xu, C.; Yerges-Armstrong, L.M.; Abecasis, G.R.; Ahmadi, K.R.; Boomsma, D.I.; Caulfield, M.; Cookson, W.O.; Duijn, C.M. van; Froguel, P.; Matsuda, K.; McCarthy, M.I.; Meisinger, C.; Mooser, V.; Pietilainen, K.H.; Schumann, G.; Snieder, H.; Sternberg, M.J.; Stolk, R.P.; Thomas, H.C.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Uda, M.; Waeber, G.; Wareham, N.J.; Waterworth, D.M.; Watkins, H.; Whitfield, J.B.; Witteman, J.C.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Fox, C.S.; Ala-Korpela, M.; Stefansson, K.; Vollenweider, P.; Volzke, H.; Schadt, E.E.; Scott, J.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Elliott, P.; Kooner, J.S.; Heijer, M. den; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P =

  11. Higher plasma prorenin concentration plays a role in the development of coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Gakuro; Kawasaki, Masanori; MURATA, Ichijiro; Hayakawa, Yuka; AOYAMA, Takuma; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Yamada, Yoshihisa; NISHIGAKI, Kazuhiko; Arai, Yoshie; Suzuki, Fumiaki; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Background Prorenin and renin are both involved in atherosclerosis. However, the role of plasma prorenin and renin in the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) is still not clear. Thus, we aimed to examine the relationships among plasma prorenin concentration, CAD and clinical parameters. Methods We measured plasma prorenin and renin concentrations and other parameters in 85 patients who underwent coronary angiography. Patients were divided into a CAD group (≥75 % steno...

  12. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  13. Elevated plasma and urinary concentrations of green tea catechins associated with improved plasma lipid profile in healthy Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated green tea catechins in plasma and urine and chronic disease biomarkers. We hypothesized that plasma and urinary concentration of green tea catechins are associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers. First void urine and fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38 to 73 years (mean, 52 ± 8 years) recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma and urinary green tea catechins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and C-reactive protein in plasma/serum samples were analyzed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed weak associations between plasma total catechin and triglyceride (r = -0.30) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.28), whereas plasma (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin exhibited weak to moderate associations with triglyceride or LDL cholesterol, but little associations with HDL cholesterol, body fat, and body mass index were evident. Urinary total catechin was weakly associated with triglyceride (r = -0.19) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.15), whereas urinary (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33), (-)-epigallocatechin (r = -0.23), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33) had weak to moderate correlations with triglyceride and similarly with body fat and body mass index. Both plasma (r = -0.24) and urinary (r = -0.24) total catechin, as well as individual catechins, were weakly associated with glycated hemoglobin. Plasma total and individual catechins were weakly to moderately associated with C-reactive protein, but not the case for urinary catechins. In conclusion, we found weak to moderate associations between plasma and urinary green tea

  14. Anemia as a factor that elevates plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in apparently healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mika; Tsujino, Takeshi; Naito, Yoshiro; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Ezumi, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru

    2008-09-01

    Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is widely used as a biomarker of heart failure (HF); however, its concentration is often found to be high even in apparently healthy subjects and little is known about which factors contribute to physiological change in plasma BNP concentration in subjects without HF. We examined the effects of gender, age, and anemia on plasma BNP concentration in apparently healthy subjects. The study population consisted of 1036 healthy subjects who underwent an annual health examination at their company in 2005. There were 874 women, ranging in age from 30 to 63 years (mean, 41 years). Plasma BNP concentration was abnormal (> 18.4 pg/mL) in 292 subjects. The incidence was significantly higher in women than in men (31% versus 14%, P < 0.01). Mean plasma BNP concentration was higher in women than in men. The difference in plasma BNP concentration was associated with the difference in blood hemoglobin and age. Logarithmically transformed BNP concentration correlated inversely with blood hemoglobin (r = -0.30, P < 0.01 for all; r = -0.21, P < 0.01 for women; r = -0.20, P < 0.01 for men). By multiple regression analysis, logarithmically transformed BNP concentration correlated with hemoglobin, age, and gender. In conclusion, anemia is likely a critical determinant that elevates plasma BNP concentration in apparently healthy subjects.

  15. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    2017-08-22

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Fabrication of Progesterone-Loaded Nanofibers for the Drug Delivery Applications in Bovine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppannan, Chitra; Sivaraj, Mehnath; Kumar, J. Ganesh; Seerangan, Rangasamy; Balasubramanian, S.; Gopal, Dhinakar Raj

    2017-02-01

    Progesterone is a potent drug for synchronization of the estrus and ovulation cycles in bovine. At present, the estrus cycle of bovine is controlled by the insertion of progesterone-embedded silicone bands. The disadvantage of nondegradable polymer inserts is to require for disposal of these bands after their use. The study currently focuses on preparation of biodegradable progesterone-incorporated nanofiber for estrus synchronization. Three different concentrations (1.2, 1.9, and 2.5 g) of progesterone-impregnated nanofibers were fabricated using electrospinning. The spun membrane were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Uniform surface morphology, narrow size distribution, and interaction between progesterone and zein were confirmed by SEM. FTIR spectroscopy indicated miscibility and interaction between zein and progesterone. X-ray analysis indicated that the size of zein crystallites increased with progesterone content in nanofibers. Significant differences in thermal behavior of progesterone-impregnated nanofiber were observed by DSC. Cell viability studies of progesterone-loaded nanofiber were examined using MTT assay. In vitro release experiment is to identify the suitable progesterone concentration for estrus synchronization. This study confirms that progesterone-impregnated nanofibers are an ideal vehicle for progesterone delivery for estrus synchronization of bovines.

  17. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2012-01-01

    , a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were......Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover...... design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P

  18. Measurement of plasma cell-free DNA concentrations in dogs with sepsis, trauma, and neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Jo-Annie; Goggs, Robert

    2017-05-01

    To determine if cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was identifiable in canine plasma, to evaluate 3 techniques for the measurement of plasma cfDNA concentrations in dogs presented to an emergency service, and to compare the plasma cfDNA concentrations of healthy dogs to those with sepsis, trauma, and neoplasia. Retrospective study of banked canine plasma samples collected between May 2014 and December 2014. Dogs presented to the emergency service of a university veterinary teaching hospital. Plasma cfDNA was measured on residual plasma samples obtained from 15 dogs with sepsis, 15 dogs with moderate-severe trauma, 15 dogs diagnosed with a sarcoma. Plasma cfDNA was also measured in 15 healthy dogs. None. Assay linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility were evaluated. Quantification of cfDNA was performed in duplicate on diluted citrated plasma and following DNA purification using 2 fluorescence assays (SYBR-Gold; Quant-iT) and by ultraviolet absorbance spectroscopy. Fluorescence intensities (FIs) were converted to cfDNA concentrations using standard curves. Median FI values and cfDNA concentrations were compared to healthy controls using the Kruskal-Wallis test, with adjustment for multiple comparisons. Alpha was set at 0.05. Both assays had excellent linearity, and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility. Compared to controls, plasma cfDNA concentrations were significantly increased in dogs with sepsis or moderate-severe trauma with both assays (P ≤ 0.003). Dogs with neoplasia had significantly increased cfDNA concentrations with the Quant-iT assay only (P = 0.003). When measurements were performed on purified DNA, only dogs with moderate-severe trauma had significantly increased cfDNA concentrations (P plasma using 2 fluorescence assays. DNA extraction offers no advantage over direct measurement. Compared to healthy controls, dogs with sepsis or moderate-severe trauma have significantly increased plasma cfDNA concentrations. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care

  19. Comparative changes in plasma protein concentration, hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise, bedrest and + Gz acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of experiments which indicate that under conditions of a constant red cell volume the proportional changes in hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise are never equal. On the basis of direct measurements and calculated changes of plasma volume it is concluded that during maximal exercise there is a small loss of protein from the plasma. It is clear that changes in content of blood constituents can only be evaluated correctly after determination of changes in plasma volume.

  20. Implications of Plasma Renin Activity and Plasma Aldosterone Concentration in Critically Ill Patients with Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Soo Chung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is closely associated with volume status and vascular tone in septic shock. The present study aimed to assess whether plasma renin activity (PRA and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC measurements compared with conventional severity indicators are associated with mortality in patients with septic shock. Methods We evaluated 105 patients who were admitted for septic shock. Plasma levels of the biomarkers PRA and PAC, the PAC/PRA ratio, C-reactive protein (CRP level, and cortisol level on days 1, 3, and 7 were serially measured. During the intensive care unit stay, relevant clinical information and laboratory results were recorded. Results Patients were divided into two groups according to 28-day mortality: survivors (n = 59 and non-survivors (n = 46. The survivor group showed lower PRA, PAC, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score than did the non-survivor group (all P < 0.05. The SOFA score was positively correlated with PRA (r = 0.373, P < 0.001 and PAC (r = 0.316, P = 0.001. According to receiver operating characteristic analysis, the areas under the curve of PRA and PAC to predict 28-day mortality were 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.79; P = 0.001 and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.77; P = 0.003, respectively, similar to the APACHE II scores and SOFA scores. In particular, the group with PRA value ≥3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 on day 1 showed significantly greater mortality than did the group with PRA value <3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 (log-rank test, P < 0.001. According to multivariate analysis, SOFA score (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.22, PRA value ≥3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 (hazard ratio, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.60 to 6.60, previous history of cancer (hazard ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.72 to 6.90, and coronary arterial occlusive disease (hazard ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.26 to 7.08 were predictors of 28-day mortality. Conclusions Elevated

  1. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD.

  2. Low plasma concentrations achieved with conventional schedules of administration of ganciclovir in patients with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, C; Bardin, C; Gilquin, J; Mahe, V; Kazatchkine, M D; Chast, F

    1996-07-01

    Plasma concentration of ganciclovir was studied prospectively in 15 AIDS patients treated for acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. Ganciclovir was administered at a mean dose of 10.3 +/- 0.6 mg/kg/day. The mean trough plasma concentration was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/L (n = 24), and the mean peak concentration was 7.2 +/- 2.4 mg/L (n = 6). In 12 patients, trough concentrations were below the range that has been associated with effective treatment. Low trough concentrations were associated with treatment failure in 6 patients. Following an increase in the daily dose, improvement was observed in 4 of the 6 patients. These results suggest that low plasma ganciclovir levels are associated with the failure of therapy. Monitoring the plasma concentration of ganciclovir may thus be useful before considering the virus to be resistant to the drug or before switching from ganciclovir to foscarnet.

  3. Plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with skeletal muscle insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and low plasma concentration precedes a decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Norbert; Vozarova, Barbora; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Weyer, Christian; Lindsay, Robert S; Youngren, Jack F; Havel, Peter J; Pratley, Richard E; Bogardus, Clifton; Tataranni, P Antonio

    2002-06-01

    Adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, has been found to be negatively associated with degree of adiposity and positively associated with insulin sensitivity in Pima Indians and other populations. Moreover, adiponectin administration to rodents has been shown to increase insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and also increase whole-body insulin sensitivity. To further characterize the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and insulin sensitivity in humans, we examined 1) the cross-sectional association between plasma adiponectin concentration and skeletal muscle IR tyrosine phosphorylation and 2) the prospective effect of plasma adiponectin concentration at baseline on change in insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma adiponectin concentration, body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, hyperinsulinemic clamp), and glucose tolerance (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) were measured in 55 Pima Indians (47 men and 8 women, aged 31 +/- 8 years, body fat 29 +/- 8% [mean +/- SD]; 50 with normal glucose tolerance, 3 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 2 with diabetes). Group 1 (19 subjects) underwent skeletal muscle biopsies for the measurement of basal and insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR (stimulated by 100 nmol/l insulin). The fold increase after insulin stimulation was calculated as the ratio between maximal and basal phosphorylation. Group 2 (38 subjects) had follow-up measurements of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Cross-sectionally, plasma adiponectin concentration was positively associated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (r = 0.58, P < 0.0001) and negatively associated with percent body fat (r = -0.62, P < 0.0001) in the whole group. In group 1 plasma adiponectin was negatively associated with the basal (r = -0.65, P = 0.003) and positively associated with the fold increase in IR

  4. Plane of nutrition affects plasma ghrelin concentrations in neonatal calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigating different planes of nutrition on appetite-related hormones could provide knowledge into the role of these hormones on growth performance in neonatal calves. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feeding rates on ghrelin in plasma from preruminant calves....

  5. Plasma vitamin C concentration in pregnant women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oxidative stress plays a role in the aetiology of pre-eclampsia and ... plasma vitamin C and pre-eclampsia in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. ... Health workers need to advise women at risk in the antenatal period about diet, ...

  6. Influence and Analysis of Concentrate Degree of Plasma Arc for Heat Process of Hardening Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuo-gui; YAN Hong-ri

    2004-01-01

    According to the practicable model of the plasma arc surface quench, the influence law of the heat process、cooling course、 temperature field about surface quench treatment by plasma arc due to the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source are discussed in this paper. It shows that the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source can change the width of the hardening zone and can not change the maximum harden depth. With the increase of the concentrate degree, the area of the heat influence zone is decreased and its shape is narrowed after the heat source. Relative to cooling rate, the influence of the heat source concentrate degree for heat absorption is bigger. The correctness of the practical model are proved with experimental results for quench hardening of 45# steel by plasma arc.

  7. Influence and Analysis of Concentrate Degree of Plasma Arc for Heat Process of Hardening Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShuo-gui; YANHong-ri

    2004-01-01

    According to the practicable model of the plasma arc surtace quench, the influence law ot me heat process, cooling course, temperature field about surface quench treatment by plasma arc due to the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source are discussed in this paper. It shows that the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source can change the width of the hardening zone and can not change the maximum harden depth. With the increase of the concentrate degree, the area of the heat influence zone is decreased and its shape is narrowed after the heat source. Relative to cooling rate, the influence of the heat source concentrate degree for heat absorption is bigger. The correctness of the practical model are proved with experimental results for quench hardening of 45# steel by plasma arc.

  8. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration cou...

  9. Plasma soluble (pro)renin receptor is independent of plasma renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations but is affected by ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Geneviève; Blanchard, Anne; Curis, Emmanuel; Bergerot, Damien; Chambon, Yann; Hirose, Takuo; Caumont-Prim, Aurore; Tabard, Sylvie Brailly; Baron, Stéphanie; Frank, Michael; Totsune, Kazuhito; Azizi, Michel

    2014-02-01

    A soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR) circulates in plasma and is able to bind renin and prorenin. It is not known whether plasma sPRR concentrations vary with the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. We measured plasma sPRR, renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations in 121 white and 9 black healthy subjects, 40 patients with diabetes mellitus, 41 hypertensive patients with or without renin-angiotensin system blockers, 9 patients with primary aldosteronism, and 10 patients with Gitelman syndrome. Median physiological plasma sPRR concentration was 23.5 ng/mL (interquartile range, 20.9-26.5) under usual uncontrolled sodium diet. sPRR concentration in healthy subjects, unlike renin and prorenin, did not display circadian variation or dependence on age, sex, posture, or hormonal status. sPRR concentrations were ≈25% lower in black than in white subjects, whereas renin concentrations were ≈40% lower. Patients with diabetes mellitus (average renin-high prorenin levels) and with hypertension only (average renin-average prorenin levels) had sPRR concentrations similar to healthy subjects. Renin-angiotensin system blockade was associated with increase of sPRR concentration by ≈12%. sPRR in patients with primary aldosteronism (low renin-low prorenin) and Gitelman syndrome (high renin-high prorenin) were similar and ≈10% higher than in healthy subjects. There was no correlation between sPRR and renin or prorenin. In conclusion, our results show that plasma sPRR concentrations are dependent on ethnicity and independent of renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations in healthy subjects and in patients with contrasted degrees of renin-angiotensin system activity.

  10. Variable aromatase inhibitor plasma concentrations do not correlate with circulating estrogen concentrations in post-menopausal breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Daniel L; Speth, Kelly A; Kidwell, Kelley M; Gersch, Christina L; Desta, Zeruesenay; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Stearns, Vered; Skaar, Todd C; Hayes, Daniel F; Henry, N Lynn; Rae, James M

    2017-06-22

    The aromatase inhibitors (AI) exemestane (EXE), letrozole (LET), and anastrozole suppress estrogen biosynthesis, and are effective treatments for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Prior work suggests that anastrozole blood concentrations are associated with the magnitude of estrogen suppression. The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of estrogen suppression, as determined by plasma estradiol (E2) concentrations, in EXE or LET treated patients is associated with plasma AI concentrations. Five hundred post-menopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the prospective Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetic (ELPh) Study conducted by the COnsortium on BReast cancer phArmacogomics (COBRA) and randomly assigned to either drug. Estrogen concentrations were measured at baseline and after 3 months of AI treatment and drug concentrations were measured after 1 or 3 months. EXE or LET concentrations were compared with 3-month E2 concentration or the change from baseline to 3 months using several complementary statistical procedures. Four-hundred patients with on-treatment E2 and AI concentrations were evaluable (EXE n = 200, LET n = 200). Thirty (7.6%) patients (EXE n = 13, LET n = 17) had 3-month E2 concentrations above the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) (median: 4.75; range: 1.42-63.8 pg/mL). EXE and LET concentrations were not associated with on-treatment E2 concentrations or changes in E2 concentrations from baseline (all p > 0.05). Steady-state plasma AI concentrations do not explain variability in E2 suppression in post-menopausal women receiving EXE or LET therapy, in contrast with prior evidence in anastrozole treated patients.

  11. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and outcomes after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quan; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Yang, Ding-Bo; Shen, Yong-Feng; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Li; Du, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Qun-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Higher plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations have been associated with poor outcome of severe traumatic brain injury. We further investigated the relationships between plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations of 128 consecutive patients and 128 sex- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We assessed their relationships with disease severity and clinical outcomes including 1-week mortality, 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score>2). Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were positively associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and hematoma volume using a multivariate linear regression. It emerged as an independent predictor for clinical outcomes of patients using a forward stepwise logistic regression. ROC curves identified the predictive values of plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations, and found its predictive value was similar to NIHSS scores and hematoma volumes. However, it just numerically added the predictive values of NIHSS score and hematoma volume. Increased plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Fan; Haichao Li; Yuwei Wang; Yanglin Zheng; Lianjun Jia; Zhihui Wang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of progesterone on peripheral nerve regeneration.DATA SOURCES: An online search of Medline and OVID databases was under taken to identify articles about progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration published in English between January 1990 and June 2004 by using the keywords of "peripheral nerve, injury, progesterone, regeneration".STUDY SELECTION: The data were primarily screened, those correlated with progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration were involved, and their original articles were further searched, the repetitive studies or reviews were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 59 articles about progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration were collected, and 26 of them were involved, the other 33 excluded ones were the repetitive studies or reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS: Recent researches found that certain amount of progesterone could be synthetized in peripheral nervous system, and the expression of progesterone receptor could be found in sensory neurons and Schwann cells. After combined with the receptor, endogenous and exogenous progesterone can accelerate the formation of peripheral nerve myelin sheath, also promote the axonal regeneration.CONCLUSION: Progesterone plays a role in protecting neurons, increasing the sensitivity of nerve tissue to nerve growth factor, and accelerating regeneration of nerve in peripheral nerve regeneration, which provides theoretical references for the treatment of demyelinated disease and nerve injury, as well as the prevention of neuroma, especially that the in vivo level of progesterone should be considered for the elderly people accompanied by neuropathy and patients with congenital luteal phase defect, which is of positive significance in guiding the treatment.

  13. Intrauterine devices containing progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, F

    1977-05-01

    Characteristics of progesterone-releasing IUDs are reported. At present, the only progesterone-containing IUD on the market is Progestasert, a T-shaped ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer device containing 38 mg progesterone in silicone. The device releases approximately 65 mcg/day into the uterine cavity over the course of 1-year. The device does not alter pituitary function or ovulation, nor does it depend on a local mechanical effect. Rather, it may exert its effect by inhibiting sperm capacitation or survival, or it may prevent nidation by alterning the endometrium. The reported pregnancy rate for Progestasert is 1.9% in parous women and 2.5% in nulliparous women. This efficacy rate is similar to that for other IUDs and low-dose progestin-only oral contraceptives. Breakthrough bleeding is the most common side effect, and perhaps 10-15% of the acceptors will have the device removed for either bleeding, pain, or infection. The rate of spontaneous expulsion of the device is about 3-8%. It is recommended that the device be inserted during or shortly after the menstrual period.

  14. Plasma IL-6 concentration correlates with clinical disease activity and serum C-reactive protein concentration in chronic urticaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, A; Sztylc, J; Machura, E; Jop, G

    2011-10-01

    Our previous study was the first to demonstrate enhanced plasma IL-6 concentrations in chronic urticaria (CU). It is known that C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of an underlying systemic inflammation, triggered mainly as a response to IL-6. To evaluate plasma IL-6 concentration in CU patients relating to the clinical disease activity and serum CRP concentration. Serum CRP and plasma IL-6 concentrations were measured in 58 CU patients and 30 healthy subjects. Ten CU patients were evaluated twice, during the active period as well as upon the spontaneous clinical remission of the disease. CU activity was assessed with the use of the symptom scores recommended by EAACI/GALEN/EDF guidelines. IL-6 and CRP concentrations were significantly increased in CU patients as compared with the healthy subjects, whereas they decreased remarkably upon the spontaneous remission. IL-6 concentration was associated with weekly urticaria activity scores and also significant differences were found between patients showing different degrees of urticarial activity. Significant correlation was observed between IL-6 and CRP concentrations. This study reinforces evidence that, apart from a local cutaneous inflammation, CU is associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Such acute-phase response is manifested by increased circulating IL-6, which varies along with CRP changes and may be related to the urticarial activity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Progesterone Induces Scolex Evagination of the Human Parasite Taenia solium: Evolutionary Implications to the Host-Parasite Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Hernández-Hernández, Olivia Tania; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; García-Varela, Martín; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a health problem in underdeveloped and developed countries. Sex hormones are involved in cysticercosis prevalence in female and male pigs. Here, we evaluated the effects of progesterone and its antagonist RU486 on scolex evagination, which is the initial step in the development of the adult worm. Interestingly, progesterone increased T. solium scolex evagination and worm growth, in a concentration-independent pattern. Progesterone effects could be mediated by a novel T. solium progesterone receptor (TsPR), since RU486 inhibits both scolex evagination and worm development induced by progesterone. Using RT-PCR and western blot, sequences related to progesterone receptor were detected in the parasite. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that TsPR is highly related to fish and amphibian progesterone receptors, whereas it has a distant relation with birds and mammals. Conclusively, progesterone directly acts upon T. solium cysticerci, possibly through its binding to a progesterone receptor synthesized by the parasite. PMID:20037735

  16. Progesterone Induces Scolex Evagination of the Human Parasite Taenia solium: Evolutionary Implications to the Host-Parasite Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Escobedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a health problem in underdeveloped and developed countries. Sex hormones are involved in cysticercosis prevalence in female and male pigs. Here, we evaluated the effects of progesterone and its antagonist RU486 on scolex evagination, which is the initial step in the development of the adult worm. Interestingly, progesterone increased T. solium scolex evagination and worm growth, in a concentration-independent pattern. Progesterone effects could be mediated by a novel T. solium progesterone receptor (TsPR, since RU486 inhibits both scolex evagination and worm development induced by progesterone. Using RT-PCR and western blot, sequences related to progesterone receptor were detected in the parasite. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that TsPR is highly related to fish and amphibian progesterone receptors, whereas it has a distant relation with birds and mammals. Conclusively, progesterone directly acts upon T. solium cysticerci, possibly through its binding to a progesterone receptor synthesized by the parasite.

  17. Altrenogest and progesterone therapy during pregnancy in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with progesterone insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, Todd R; Gill, Claudia; Doescher, Bethany M; Sweeney, Jay; De Laender, Piet; Van Elk, Cornelis E; O'Brien, Justine K

    2012-06-01

    Progesterone production is essential for growth and development of the conceptus during pregnancy. Abnormal development of the corpus luteum (CL) after conception can result in early embryonic loss or fetal abortion. Routine monitoring of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) pregnancy after artificial insemination or natural conception with ultrasonography and serum progesterone determination has allowed for the establishment of expected fetal growth rates and hormone concentrations. Using these monitoring techniques, we revealed four pregnant dolphins (12-24 yr old) with abnormally low progesterone production indicative of luteal insufficiency. Once diagnosed, animals were placed on altrenogest (0.044-0.088 mg/kg once daily) alone or with oral progesterone (50-200 mg twice daily). Doses of hormone were increased or decreased in each animal based on how fetal skull biparietal and thoracic growth rates compared with published normal values. Hormones were withdrawn starting from day 358 of gestation in animals 1 and 2, with labor occurring 6 and 7 days after withdrawal and at 376 and 373 days of gestation, respectively. Both deliveries were dystocic, with each calf requiring manual extraction and fetotomy for calf 1. The fetuses in animals 3 and 4 died at 348 and 390 days of gestation, respectively. Induction of labor was attempted in both animals, after fetal death, by using a combination of rapid progesterone withdrawal and steroid and prostaglandin F2alpha administration. The calf of animal 4 had to be removed with manual cervical dilation and fetotomy All adult females survived the procedures. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that the CL is the primary source of progesterone throughout pregnancy in the bottlenose dolphin. Until further characterization of hormones required during pregnancy and at parturition has been accomplished, the exogenous progestagen supplementation protocol described here cannot be recommended for treatment of progesterone

  18. PLASMA ADIPONECTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN NON PREGNANT, NORMAL PREGNANCY AND OVERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. This hormone has been implicated in both the physiological adaptation to normal pregnancy and obstetrical complications. The aims of this study were to determine normal maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin throughout gestation and to explore the relationships between plasma adiponectin concentration, pregnancy, and maternal overweight. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include normal pregnant women (normal weight and overweight; 11–42 weeks of gestation), and non-pregnant women. Plasma adiponectin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Adiponectin was detectable in the plasma of all patients; (2) there was no significant difference in the median adiponectin concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant women; (3) plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age only among normal weight pregnant women; and (4) overweight patients had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than normal weight women. Conclusion Consistent with the increased insulin resistance and weight gain that occur in pregnancy, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age. The results of this study and the nomogram herein presented can serve as the basis to explore the relationship between adiponectin and pregnancy complications and facilitate the clinical use of this important adipokine. Condensation Plasma adiponectin concentrations decrease with advancing gestational age only in nonobese women. PMID:17919116

  19. Plasma carnitine concentration and lipid metabolism in infants receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M L; Helms, R A; Mauer, E C; Storm, M C

    1989-11-01

    The relationships among plasma total carnitine concentration, postnatal age, and fatty acid metabolism were evaluated in 57 infants receiving parenteral nutrition. Concentrations of plasma carnitine, triglycerides, free fatty acids, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate were determined before and at 2 and 4 hours from the beginning of a standardized 2-hour lipid infusion. Plasma carnitine concentrations declined with increasing postnatal age. There were no significant differences in gestational age or triglyceride concentrations between infants less than or equal to 4 weeks of age and those greater than 4 weeks of age, whereas free fatty acid concentrations were lower and acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were higher in the younger infants. Infants less than or equal to 4 weeks of age were further grouped according to plasma carnitine concentration greater than 13 nmol/ml (group 1) and less than or equal to 13 nmol/ml (group 2) and were then compared with infants greater than 4 weeks of age (group 3). There were no significant differences in triglyceride concentrations among the three groups; free fatty acids, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations for group 2 patients were similar to those of group 1 patients or fell between values for group 1 and group 3 patients. These results demonstrate decreasing plasma carnitine concentrations and possibly for more than 4 weeks.

  20. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p

  1. Influence of Plasma Temperature on the Concentration of NO Produced by Pulsed Arc Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡辉; 陈卫鹏; 张锦丽; 陆僖; 何俊佳

    2012-01-01

    This study conducted experiments on producing inhaled medical nitric oxide (iNO) by pulsed arc discharge in dry and clean air under different discharge current. The concentration of NO and NO2 produced by air discharge, as well as the change of the ratio of NO2/NO under different discharge current were investigated. Through the analysis of plasma emission spectrum, the relationship between discharge current and arc plasma temperature was studied. The results indicate that, as discharge current increases, the arc plasma temperature increases, which then leads to the increase of NO concentration, the decrease of NO2 concentration, and the rapid decrease of the ratio of NO2/NO. When the plasma temperature is 9000 K, the ratio of NO2/NO is approximately 60%, while when the plasma temperature varies between 10550 K and 11300 K, the NO2/NO ratio is within the range of 4.2% to 4.6%.

  2. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Three Forms of Vaginal Progesterone Administered in Either Single Or Multiple Dose Regimen in Healthy Post-menopausal Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Shentu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A generic vaginal progesterone gel has recently been developed in China. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties in Chinese subjects. The purpose of our study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of three forms of vaginal progesterone gel (test formulations at 4 and 8% strength vs. a reference formulation: Crinone 8% in Chinese healthy post-menopausal women.Methods: This study consisted of two parts study. The part 1 study was a single-center, open-label, 3-period study. Twelve healthy post-menopausal women were to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of 45 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 4% following single dose and multiple doses administered once every other day (q.o.d. for six times or once daily (q.d. for 6 days. The part 2 study was a randomized, open-label, 3-stage crossover study. Twelve post-menopausal women received 90 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 8% or 90 mg Crinone (Reference 8% following single dose and multiple doses (q.o.d. or q.d.. Plasma concentrations of progesterone were measured up to 72 h by using a validated liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞ were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data.Results: Totally 24 subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. Following single dose, The geometric mean Cmax values for Test 4%, Test 8%, and Crinone 8% were 6.35, 10.34, 10.45 ng/mL, and their geometric mean AUC0-t (AUC0-∞ were 113.73 (118.00, 169.39 (173.98, and 190.07 (201.13 ng⋅h/mL, respectively. The mean T1/2 values of progesterone were 11.00, 10.92, and 11.40 h, respectively. For 8% test formulation vs. reference, the 90% CIs of the least squares mean test/reference ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 78.32–124

  3. CIDR处理对奶牛同期发情后受胎率及原料奶中黄体酮浓度的影响%Effect of CIDR Treatment on Pregnancy Rate and Progesterone Concentration in Raw Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任亮; 刘彩娟; 罗清华; 李威; 张禄

    2015-01-01

    为研究奶牛同期发情处理中使用CIDR对人工输精后受胎率以及原料奶中黄体酮浓度的影响,本试验筛选233头未孕健康牛分成两组,并通过激素类药物诱导其同期发情.CIDR处理组:第0天肌肉注射GnRH的同时将CIDR植入阴道;第7天肌肉注射律胎素并取出CIDR;第9天肌肉注射GnRH;第10天统一进行人工输精.对照组只进行药物肌肉注射,没有使用CIDR处理.在使用CIDR的过程中,对CIDR处理组和对照组牛只、各怀孕阶段牛只以及本公司下辖三个万头牧场的奶仓进行原料奶采集并检测黄体酮浓度.结果显示, CIDR处理组牛只受胎率同对照组比较差异不显著(P>0.05).虽然,CIDR处理组原料奶混合样中黄体酮浓度高于对照组(1.8ng/mL VS 1ng/mL),但是远低于各阶段怀孕牛原料奶混合样中黄体酮浓度(5~12.2ng/mL).可以看出,利用肌肉注射激素同样会取得良好的同期发情受胎效果.在使用CIDR过程中,原料奶中黄体酮浓度处于安全范围内,无需弃奶.%To evaluate the effect of CIDR treatment on pregnancy rate and progesterone concentration in raw milksample. Totally 233 healthy cows were separated to two groups randomly for drug-induced estrus synchronization.CIDR treatment: 0d, CIDR inserted into per vaginum with GnRH injection. 7d, lutalyes were injected with removalof CIDR. 9d, muscle injecting GnRH. Timing artificial insemination at 10d. All the protocols were followed withoutCIDR insertion as control. The samples of raw milk were collected from the CIDR treatment groups, control groupand all phase of gestation period to detect the concentration of progesterone in the raw milk. The pregnancy rate wasnot significant difference between in CIDR treatment group and control(P>0.05). Although the CDIR treatmentgroup with concentration of progesterone in raw milk was higher than the control(1.8ng/mL VS 1ng/mL), it wasmuch lower than the cows during gestation period. In conclusion, hormone

  4. Evaluation of an immunoassay for determination of plasma efavirenz concentrations in resource-limited settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, Alemseged; Wiesner, Lubbe; McIlleron, Helen

    2014-01-01

    to be implemented in resource-limited settings. This study evaluated a commercially available immunoassay for measurement of plasma efavirenz. Methods: The immunoassay-based method was applied to measure efavirenz using a readily available Humastar 80 chemistry analyzer. We compared plasma efavirenz concentrations...

  5. Effects of Betaine Intake on Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations and Consequences for Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  6. Cardiac C-type natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse; Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens P

    2014-01-01

    in plasma and cardiac tissue extracts were quantified by a porcine-specific radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Cardiac CNP mRNA contents (n=24) were low compared to sites of known expression, where porcine seminal vesicle CNP mRNA contents were 200-fold higher. In addition, plasma proCNP concentrations...

  7. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Erick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High plasma uric acid (UA is a precipitating factor for gout and renal calculi as well as a strong risk factor for Metabolic Syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The main causes for higher plasma UA are either lower excretion, higher synthesis or both. Higher waist circumference and the BMI are associated with higher insulin resistance and leptin production, and both reduce uric acid excretion. The synthesis of fatty acids (tryglicerides in the liver is associated with the de novo synthesis of purine, accelerating UA production. The role played by diet on hyperuricemia has not yet been fully clarified, but high intake of fructose-rich industrialized food and high alcohol intake (particularly beer seem to influence uricemia. It is not known whether UA would be a causal factor or an antioxidant protective response. Most authors do not consider the UA as a risk factor, but presenting antioxidant function. UA contributes to > 50% of the antioxidant capacity of the blood. There is still no consensus if UA is a protective or a risk factor, however, it seems that acute elevation is a protective factor, whereas chronic elevation a risk for disease.

  8. Concentration of plasma haptoglobin and symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Yi-mu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation of plasma haptoglobin concentration to symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (SCVS after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH was investigated. The plasma concentration of haptoglobin was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. SCVS was determined by aggravated headache, deteriorated conscious state a few days after ictus or by new neurologic impairment and new ischemic injuries on repeated CT scans. The mean concentration of plasma haptoglobin in 19 patients with SCVS was (0.29 ± 0.14 g/L, whereas it was (0.78 ± 0.48 g/L in 24 patients without SCVS. These findings may suggest that plasma haptoglobin concentration seems to be associated with the development of SCVS after SAH.

  9. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S;

    2002-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...... an etiologic role in development of obesity in Pima Indians. Therefore, the predictive effect of low plasma adiponectin concentrations on the development of type 2 diabetes seems to be mediated by factors other than increased adiposity....

  10. Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imwong, M.; Woodrow, C.; Hendriksen, I.C.E.; Veenemans, J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In endemic areas malaria parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed the performance of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentration measurement in distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in

  11. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    1990-01-01

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  12. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  13. Clinical significance of 2 h plasma concentrations of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, Julie B; Johansen, Isik S; Cohen, Arieh S;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study 2 h plasma concentrations of the first-line tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Denmark and to determine the relationship between the concentrations and the clinical outcome. METHODS: After 6......-207 days of treatment (median 34 days) 2 h blood samples were collected from 32 patients with active tuberculosis and from three patients receiving prophylactic treatment. Plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. Normal ranges were obtained from the literature. Clinical charts were reviewed...... failure occurred more frequently when the concentrations of isoniazid and rifampicin were both below the normal ranges (P = 0.013) and even more frequently when they were below the median 2 h drug concentrations obtained in the study (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: At 2 h, plasma concentrations of isoniazid...

  14. Association Between Preovulatory Concentrations of Estradiol and Expression of Uterine Milk Protein Precursor, Inhibin Beta A, Period 1, Proenkephalin, and Receptors for Oxytocin, Progesterone, and Estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliminating the preovulatory surge of estradiol decreased uterine weight, uterine protein, RNA to DNA ratio, rate of protein synthesis, and embryo survival following embryo transfer in sheep. Furthermore, cows that did not exhibit standing estrus (decreased preovulatory concentrations of estradiol) ...

  15. Evaluation of factors important in modeling plasma concentrations of tetracycline hydrochloride administered in water in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sharon E; Almond, Glen W; Riviere, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E

    2012-10-01

    To model the plasma tetracycline concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domestica) treated with medication administered in water and determine the factors that contribute to the most accurate predictions of measured plasma drug concentrations. Plasma tetracycline concentrations measured in blood samples from 3 populations of swine. Data from previous studies provided plasma tetracycline concentrations that were measured in blood samples collected from 1 swine population at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, 80, 96, and 104 hours and from 2 swine populations at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours hours during administration of tetracycline hydrochloride dissolved in water. A 1-compartment pharmacostatistical model was used to analyze 5 potential covariate schemes and determine factors most important in predicting the plasma concentrations of tetracycline in swine. 2 models most accurately predicted the tetracycline plasma concentrations in the 3 populations of swine. Factors of importance were body weight or age of pig, ambient temperature, concentration of tetracycline in water, and water use per unit of time. The factors found to be of importance, combined with knowledge of the individual pharmacokinetic and chemical properties of medications currently approved for administration in water, may be useful in more prudent administration of approved medications administered to swine. Factors found to be important in pharmacostatistical models may allow prediction of plasma concentrations of tetracycline or other commonly used medications administered in water. The ability to predict in vivo concentrations of medication in a population of food animals can be combined with bacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations to decrease the risk of developing antimicrobial resistance.

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Deng, Guohong; Gieger, Christian; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, includi...

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Deng, Guohong; Gieger, Christian; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10−8 to P = 10−190). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, including g...

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma.

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, includi...

  19. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  20. COLPOCITOLOGY AND SERUM CONCENTRATIONS OF PROGESTERONE IN NULIPAROUS GOATS SUBMMITED TO ARTIFICIAL PHOTOPERIODS COLPOCITOLOGIA E CONCENTRAÇÕES SÉRICAS DE PROGESTERONA EM CABRAS NULÍPARAS SUBMETIDAS AO FOTOPERÍODO ARTIFICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Rocha de Oliveira Lima

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present work was to evaluate the changes of cervico-vaginal epithelial cells and progesterone levels of nuliparous goats submitted to artificial photoperiod, in Middle-West of Brazil. Seventh Alpine and six crossbreed nuliparous goats were used, distributed in two groups: control (GC, maintained at isolated stall and submitted to natural light for the time of the year, and treated (GT, submitted to an alternate regime among natural and artificial light, for 24 hours and 35 uninterrupted days. Cérvico-vaginal content was collected, prepared on glass slides and differential cellular counts were carried out on Papanicolau smears. The progesterone concentration in blood serum was measurement by ELISA. Parabasal were the most frequent cell type present, followed by intermediate cells, mainly in the end of metaestrus and diestrus. Superficial cornified cells were present during proestrus and estrus. The cellular profile and progesterone concentrations oscillated in agreement with estrus cycle phase in control animals, but confuse on the begin of experimental period for treated animals. Cytological evaluation of cervico-vaginal content could be of value for a hormonal bioassay of estrus cycle of goats submitted to artificial photoperiod just after the adaptation period.

     

    KEY WORDS: Artificial photoperiod, caprine, hormone, vaginal cytology.

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as alterações celulares do epitélio cérvico-vaginal e as concentrações de progesterona sérica em cabras nulíparas expostas ao fotoperíodo artificial, na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Dezessete cabras da raça Alpina e seis mestiças, nulíparas, foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em grupo-controle (GC, mantido em galpão isolado e submetido ao regime de luz natural para a época do ano, e grupo tratado (GT, submetido ao regime alternado entre luz natural e

  1. Influence of meal composition on postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of vasoactive peptides in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høst, U; Kelbaek, H

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over study healthy non-obese male human subjects received standardized isocaloric, isovolumetric meals consisting of either carbohydrate, protein or fat and a non-caloric control meal consisting of an equal volume of water. Peripheral venous plasma concentrations of calcitonin...... that the postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of CGRP, VIP and PYY are dependent on the caloric meal composition. The VIP, but not the CGRP and PYY concentrations seem to be influenced by gastric distension. The physiological significance of the postprandial alterations in peripheral concentrations...

  2. Platelet-rich plasma releasate differently stimulates cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage according to concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo JFC do Amaral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma has been used to treat articular cartilage defects, with the expectations of anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on cellular chondrogenic or fibrogenic commitment is still a controversy. Herein, the role of platelet-rich plasma releasate, the product obtained following platelet-rich plasma activation, on cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage was evaluated in vitro. Human nasoseptal chondrogenic cells and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells were used as cell types already committed to the chondrogenic lineage and undifferentiated cells, respectively, as different concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were tested in comparison to commonly used fetal bovine serum. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate (2.5% presented similar effects on cellular growth compared to 10% fetal bovine serum, for both cell types. In a three-dimensional culture system, platelet-rich plasma releasate alone did not induce full nasoseptal chondrogenic cells cartilage-like pellet formation. Nonetheless, platelet-rich plasma releasate played a significant role on cell commitment as high-passage nasoseptal chondrogenic cells only originated cartilage-like pellets when expanded in the presence of platelet-rich plasma releasate rather than fetal bovine serum. Histological analyses and measurements of pellet area demonstrated that even low concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were enough to prevent nasoseptal chondrogenic cells from losing their chondrogenic potential due to in vitro expansion thereby promoting their recommitment. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate supplemented in chondrogenic medium also increased the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells seeded on collagen-hyaluronic acid scaffolds, as observed by an increase in chondrogenic-related gene expression, sulfated glycosaminoglycan production, and compressive modulus following in vitro

  3. Platelet-rich plasma releasate differently stimulates cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage according to concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsiko, Amos; Tomazette, Marcel RP; Rocha, Wanessa KR; Cordeiro-Spinetti, Eric; Levingstone, Tanya J; Farina, Marcos; O’Brien, Fergal J; El-Cheikh, Marcia C; Balduino, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma has been used to treat articular cartilage defects, with the expectations of anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on cellular chondrogenic or fibrogenic commitment is still a controversy. Herein, the role of platelet-rich plasma releasate, the product obtained following platelet-rich plasma activation, on cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage was evaluated in vitro. Human nasoseptal chondrogenic cells and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells were used as cell types already committed to the chondrogenic lineage and undifferentiated cells, respectively, as different concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were tested in comparison to commonly used fetal bovine serum. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate (2.5%) presented similar effects on cellular growth compared to 10% fetal bovine serum, for both cell types. In a three-dimensional culture system, platelet-rich plasma releasate alone did not induce full nasoseptal chondrogenic cells cartilage-like pellet formation. Nonetheless, platelet-rich plasma releasate played a significant role on cell commitment as high-passage nasoseptal chondrogenic cells only originated cartilage-like pellets when expanded in the presence of platelet-rich plasma releasate rather than fetal bovine serum. Histological analyses and measurements of pellet area demonstrated that even low concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were enough to prevent nasoseptal chondrogenic cells from losing their chondrogenic potential due to in vitro expansion thereby promoting their recommitment. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate supplemented in chondrogenic medium also increased the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells seeded on collagen-hyaluronic acid scaffolds, as observed by an increase in chondrogenic-related gene expression, sulfated glycosaminoglycan production, and compressive modulus following in vitro culture. On the

  4. Progesterone profiles around the time of insemination do not show clear differences between of pregnant and not pregnant dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorzecka, Justyna; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Friggens, Nicolas C;

    2011-01-01

    profile features associated with successful insemination. The features used were (1) from the estrous cycle preceding the artificial insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone, luteal phase peak, pre-estrus maximum rate of decline in progesterone......In this study, features of progesterone profiles were examined in relation to the outcome of insemination. Three groups of estrous cycles were analyzed: resulting in pregnancy, not resulting in pregnancy and resulting in lost pregnancy. The aim of the study was to identify a complex of progesterone...... and the length of follicular and luteal phase and (2) from the estrous cycle following insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone and days from estrus to post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone. A discriminant analysis did not reveal clear...

  5. Progesterone and Mental Rotation Task: Is There Any Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Noreika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental rotation task (MRT incorporates elements of spatial abilities, important in many professions, with people of both genders involved. Importantly, these are the areas where spatial tasks might be performed for long time periods; thus adverse effects of mental fatigue are highly unwanted. Substantial variation of MRT performance in relation to estrogen levels has been observed in many studies, whereas the role of progesterone remains elusive. Here we aimed to elucidate the effect of progesterone level on the long-duration (1.5 hours performance of MRT. We included three groups of subjects: a group of males as a control, a group of females in their follicular phase (low progesterone and a group of females in their luteal phase (high progesterone, MRT accuracy and response time, subjective fatigue ratings and cardiovascular measures together with 17β-estradiol and progesterone concentrations were analyzed. We found that subjective ratings of fatigue increased, performance accuracy increased, and mean response times decreased during the task in all groups. Females in luteal phase were significantly slower not only than men, but also than females in their follicular phase. An increase in subjective fatigue ratings was positively related to progesterone level—at higher progesterone levels, females felt more tired.

  6. Plasma and Intracellular Antiretroviral Concentrations in HIV-Infected Patients under Short Cycles of Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zehnacker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of plasma and intracellular concentrations of atazanavir, lopinavir, nevirapine, and efavirenz was conducted on 48 patients under short cycles of antiretroviral therapy. Intracellular concentrations (IC were still measurable for all drugs after 85 h or 110 h drug intake despite the absence of drug in plasma for atazanavir and lopinavir. A linear relationship between plasma and intracellular efavirenz was observed. Further studies to fully understand the impact of IC in the intermittent antiviral treatment are required.

  7. Temporal plasma vitamin concentrations are altered by fat-soluble vitamin administration in suckling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y D; Ma, J Y; Monegue, J S; Monegue, H J; Stuart, R L; Lindemann, M D

    2015-11-01

    Piglets are born with purportedly low plasma vitamin D levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration, primarily vitamin D, by different administration routes on plasma vitamin concentrations in suckling pigs. A total of 45 pigs from 5 litters were allotted at birth to 3 treatments within each litter. Pigs were administered 400 IU of α-tocopherol, 40,000 IU of retinyl palmitate, and 40,000 IU of vitamin D at d 1 of age either orally or by i.m. injection and compared with control pigs with no supplemental vitamin administration. Blood samples were collected at d 0 (initial), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 20 after administration. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), α-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, and retinol concentrations were analyzed. Except for retinol, the effects of treatment, day, and day × treatment interaction ( vitamin concentrations. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD and α-tocopherol increased immediately regardless of administration routes to peak at d 2 and 1 after administration, respectively. Plasma retinyl palmitate concentrations increased only with the injection treatment, with the peak at d 1 after administration. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD in both administration treatments and α-tocopherol in the injection treatment were maintained at greater levels than those in the control treatment until d 20 after administration. With regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma 25OHD concentrations, the injection treatment had greater elimination half-life ( vitamins administered and between administration routes and that the injection route had a greater increase and slower disappearance of plasma vitamin levels than the oral route during the suckling period.

  8. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    plasma, in cold activated plasma and in FVII deficient plasma. There was a positive correlation (r=0.96) between FVII:Ag and FVII:Am with slightly but significantly higher values for FVII:Ag (FVII:Ag= 106 U/ml and FVII:Am=100 U/ml; p ...Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII......:Ag) or estimated with an amidolytic method (FVII:Am). We have investigated whether FVII:Am is a valuable alternative to FVII:Ag. FVII:Ag and FVII:Am were measured in 147 plasma samples from blood donors, patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy, in postprandial...

  9. Plasma and synovial fluid meclofenamic acid concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koup, J R; Thomas, D; Tucker, E; Black, A; Ruderman, M; Dixon, J A; Kinkel, A

    1988-01-01

    We have measured plasma and synovial fluid concentrations of meclofenamic acid at 2, 4, 8, and 12 h during steady-state administration (100 mg three times daily for 4-7 days). Paired plasma and synovial samples were obtained pre-treatment and at one of the above times in twelve patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the extent of protein binding of meclofenamic acid was assessed in vitro in the pre-treatment plasma and synovial fluid specimens. Peak total concentrations of 1.73 and 0.86 micrograms.ml-1 were observed in plasma (at 2 h) and synovial fluid (at 4 h) respectively. The extent of protein binding was 99.7 and 99.6% (not significantly different) in plasma and synovial fluid respectively. The results of this study are compared to those from similar reported studies of other nonsteroidal anti-inflamatory compounds.

  10. Progesterone inhibits glucocorticoid-dependent aromatase induction in human adipose fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Renner, C; Löffler, G

    1998-09-01

    In fibroblasts derived from human adipose tissue, aromatase induction is observed after exposure to 1 microM cortisol in the presence of serum or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Progesterone suppresses this induction in a dose-dependent manner, 10 microM resulting in complete inhibition. A reduced cortisol concentration (0.1 microM) concomitantly reduces the progesterone concentration required for effective inhibition (10-100 nM). This effect of progesterone is specific, as neither the release of cellular enzymes nor aromatase induction by dibutyryl-cAMP, which acts independently from cortisol, are affected. However, the inhibitory effect of progesterone requires its presence throughout the induction period. Kinetic studies in intact cells reveal a reduced number of aromatase active sites upon progesterone treatment, whereas progesterone at near-physiological concentration (100 nM) does not inhibit aromatase activity in isolated microsomes. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis shows reduced amounts of aromatase mRNA in progesterone-treated cells, indicating specific inhibition of the glucocorticoid-dependent pathway of aromatase induction. The inhibitory effect of progesterone is not blocked by the anti-progestin ZK114043, excluding action via progesterone receptors and indicating competition for the glucocorticoid receptor. Progesterone must be considered a potential physiological inhibitor of glucocorticoid-dependent aromatase induction in adipose tissue. It is proposed that it is a suppressor of aromatase induction in adipose tissue in premenopausal women.

  11. Precise timing for peak relaxin and decreased progesterone secretion after hysterectomy in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, K J; Molina, J R; Benoit, A M; Anderson, L L

    1986-10-01

    Relaxin and progesterone secretion by aging corpora lutea (days 90-120) was examined in pregnant and lactating gilts compared with that in hysterectomized animals. The length of pregnancy is about 115 days in pigs. Unmated gilts were hysterectomized on day 6 (estrus = day 0). From days 90-101, relaxin concentrations in peripheral plasma remained consistently low in pregnant gilts (range, 0.7-1.5 ng/ml) and less (P less than 0.05) than those in hysterectomized animals (range, 0.9-3.5 ng/ml). Relaxin increased abruptly (P less than 0.01) to a peak of 66 ng/ml in pregnant gilts and 37 ng/ml in hysterectomized animals. Relaxin peaked in pregnant animals at 113 +/- 0.7 days (+/- SE) and in hysterectomized gilts at 113 +/- 0.7 days; gestation length averaged 114 +/- 0.8 days. In pregnant gilts, relaxin decreased from a peak of 66 to 11 ng/ml within 1 day and remained low (less than 1.0 ng/ml) in these lactating dams until day 120. In hysterectomized gilts, peak relaxin also decreased abruptly from 37 to 4.2 ng/ml, but remained consistently greater (P less than 0.05) than that in lactating dams. Although there were abrupt shifts in relaxin concentrations within 20 min, there was no evidence for consistent episodic relaxin release between days 112-116. Plasma progesterone concentrations were consistently greater (P less than 0.05) in hysterectomized than in pregnant gilts from days 102-110. Progesterone decreased abruptly in prepartum gilts (days 111-114) from 16 to 1.2 ng/ml and remained low during lactation (0.5 ng/ml). In hysterectomized animals, it decreased abruptly on days 110-113, ranging from 20-12 ng/ml, and remained at this lower level until day 120. These results clearly indicate that a precisely timed peak release of relaxin and coincident decrease in progesterone secretion occur in unmated hysterectomized gilts at the same time as those found a few hours preceding parturition during normal pregnancy. These abrupt shifts in relaxin and progesterone secretion on

  12. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K; Kristensen, N B

    2010-12-01

    Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design was a randomized block design with repeated measurements. Cows were assigned to one of 2 treatments: control or infusion of 1,500 g of glucose/d into the abomasum from the day of parturition to 29 d in milk. Cows were sampled 12 ± 6 d prepartum and at 4, 15, and 29 d in milk. Concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide, and oxyntomodulin were measured in pooled samples within cow and sampling day, whereas active ghrelin was measured in samples obtained 30 min before and after feeding at 0800 h. Postpartum, dry matter intake increased at a lower rate with infusion compared with the control. Arterial, portal venous, and hepatic venous plasma concentrations of the measured gut peptides were unaffected by abomasal glucose infusion. The arterial, portal venous, and hepatic venous plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide increased linearly from 12 d prepartum to 29 d postpartum. Plasma concentrations of oxyntomodulin were unaffected by day relative to parturition. Arterial and portal venous plasma concentrations of ghrelin were lower postfeeding compared with prefeeding concentrations. Arterial plasma concentrations of ghrelin were greatest prepartum and lowest at 4 d postpartum, giving a quadratic pattern of change over the transition period. Positive portal venous-arterial and hepatic venous-arterial concentration differences were observed for glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide. A negative portal venous-arterial concentration difference was observed for ghrelin pre-feeding. The remaining portal venous-arterial and hepatic venous-arterial concentration differences of

  13. Tryptophan and its metabolite concentrations in human plasma and breast milk during the perinatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamimura,Shigehito

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of tryptophan (free and protein bound and its metabolites in plasma of maternal vein at delivery, umbilical vein, umbilical artery, neonatal vein and breast milk were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The plasma levels of tryptophan and most of its metabolites in umbilical vein and artery were significantly higher than those in maternal vein. The concentration of total tryptophan in plasma of neonatal vein showed marked decrease at 24 h after birth in comparison with that at birth, but the total kynurenine concentration was not decreased in plasma of neonatal vein. The colostrum contained a high level of total tryptophan. There were high ratios of free to total tryptophan in colostrum, transitional and mature milk. In the blood, ratios of free to total of tryptophan and kynurenine were kept at constant level throughout the perinatal period.

  14. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  15. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil L Spector

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER in human tumors.Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor.In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers.Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor concentrations that maximally

  16. The effect of concurrent aspirin upon plasma concentrations of tenoxicam.

    OpenAIRE

    Day, R O; Paull, P D; Lam, S; Swanson, B R; Williams, K. M.; Wade, D. N.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of chronic, high-dose aspirin therapy upon the disposition of a single dose and multiple doses of tenoxicam was examined in normal volunteers. 2. Aspirin caused a 24% drop in the t1/2 (P less than 0.005), a 49% rise in the volume of distribution (P less than 0.0003) and a 98% increase in the clearance (P less than 0.0001) of tenoxicam after a single dose of the tenoxicam. 3. Steady-state concentrations of tenoxicam decreased significantly from 10.4 +/- 1.5 to 4.5 +/- 1.6 microgr...

  17. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and renal function contribute to variations in plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its molecular precursor (proBNP). Recent studies indicate that anemia may also affect proBNP concentrations in patients with heart failure or stroke. However...... the proBNP plasma concentration. RESULTS: The mean proBNP concentration was increased 1.7-fold in the group with anemia vs the nonanemic group [mean (SD) 42 (45) pmol/L vs 25 (29) pmol/L, P ... was modest. CONCLUSIONS: Because moderate anemia is associated with a 1.7-fold increase in proBNP concentrations, hemoglobin concentrations should be taken into consideration in patients with nonspecific symptoms of heart disease and increased proBNP concentrations....

  18. Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Eliza Facione Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test was done. In 24 ejaculates, it were done thermo-resistance test, and in 21 ejaculates it were determined the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma. The male goats presented difference in the semen physical and morphological aspects, in the hiposmotic test and thermo-resistance test, but they did not presented difference in total soluble proteins concentration in seminal plasma. Results of the slow thermo-resistance test and hiposmotic test were positively correlated (r = 0.60. It was concluded, according to our results, that the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality of Alpine bucks.It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test

  19. Impact of hemolysis during sample collection: how different is drug concentration in hemolyzed plasma from that of normal plasma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aimin; Gagné, Sébastien; Lévesque, Isabelle A; Lachance, Sylvain; Boudreau, Nadine; Lévesque, Ann

    2012-07-15

    Hemolysis is a common phenomenon in clinical studies. Despite the growing interest in hemolysis matrix effect, how hemolysis impacts the representability of hemolyzed plasma samples was rarely evaluated. The purpose of this research is to perform such an evaluation by theoretical consideration and experiment. A formula for estimating the impact is proposed, which includes the degree of hemolysis and the drug's red blood cell (RBC): plasma concentration ratio. The impact of hemolysis on the representability of hemolyzed plasma samples is compound-dependant. Given the same degree of hemolysis, the stronger a drug binds to RBCs, the more significant the impact of hemolysis. For a drug with high affinity to RBCs, the results of hemolyzed plasma samples may not be useful even though they are accurate. There is an overall agreement between theoretical predication and experimental results. Among the ten different drug compounds tested, only methazolamide, which binds strongly to RBCs, showed significant change in plasma concentration due to hemolysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and

  1. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and car

  2. Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Brink, E.J.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high homocysteine concentration is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can be reduced through betaine supplementation. Choline is the precursor for betaine, but the effects of choline supplementation on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in healthy

  3. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Age, sex, and renal function contribute to variations in plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its molecular precursor (proBNP). Recent studies indicate that anemia may also affect proBNP concentrations in patients with heart failure or stroke. However, the impact...

  4. Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Brink, E.J.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high homocysteine concentration is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can be reduced through betaine supplementation. Choline is the precursor for betaine, but the effects of choline supplementation on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in healthy huma

  5. A twin study of the trough plasma steady-state concentration of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore B; Damkier, Per; Pedersen, Rasmus S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS: We included 16 twin pairs (eight monozygotic and eight dizygotic twin pairs) for this study after contacting 524...... twin pairs. They were dosed with metformin to steady state (1 g twice daily) for 6 days and on day 7, the trough concentration of metformin was determined 12 h after the last dose. RESULTS: There was no strong intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in either...... dizygotic or monozygotic twin pairs. CONCLUSION: The trough steady-state plasma concentration of metformin does not appear to be tightly genetically regulated. The interpretation of this finding is limited by the small sample size....

  6. [Influence of Perftoran nanoemulsion on blood plasma concentrations of lipophilic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenkina, N N

    2012-01-01

    The influence of perfluorocarbon blood substitute Perfloran on the plasma concentrations of bendazole, drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil upon intravenous introduction after Perfloran infusion (5 ml/kg) has been investigated on rabbits. It has been found that the plasma concentrations of verapamil, drotaverine and bendazole (highly lipophilic drugs with log(P) = 4.5, 4.9 and 3.5, respectively) increased in the presence of Perfloran. The influence of Perfloran on the concentration of weakly lipophilic ketorolac was less significant. Perfloran effectively bound drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil in vitro, whereas the binding of ketorolac by the emulsion particles was weak. Evidently, the infusion of hydrophobic nanoemulsion Perftoran elevates the sorption capacity of plasma and creates prerequisites for the redistribution drugs and favors increase in their concentrations.

  7. A high plasma concentration of TNF-alpha is associated with dementia in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Andersen-Ranberg, K.; Jeune, B.;

    1999-01-01

    Background Inflammatory mechanisms and immune activation have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of age-associated diseases such as dementia and atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in a large...... cohort of centenarians and to look for its possible associations with cognitive function, atherosclerosis, and general health status. Furthermore, we investigated whether the concentration of TNF-alpha was correlated with the blood concentration of leucocyte subsets or the plasma concentrations...... of interleukin (IL)-6, soluble TNF receptor II (sTNFR-II) (75 kDa) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. Plasma TNF-alpha was measured by ELISA in 126 centenarians, 45 subjects aged 81 years, 23 subjects aged 55-65 years, and 38 subjects aged 18-30 years. Atherosclerosis was evaluated by the ankle...

  8. Effects of Acute Exposure to Increased Plasma Branched-Chain Amino Acid Concentrations on Insulin-Mediated Plasma Glucose Turnover in Healthy Young Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Everman; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Carroll, Chad C.; Katsanos, Christos S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity. Objective To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans. Methods Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to...

  9. Motility of liquid stored ram spermatozoa is altered by dilution rate independent of seminal plasma concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Campuzano, M; Soleilhavoup, C; Tsikis, G; Martinez-Pastor, F; de Graaf, S P; Druart, X

    2015-11-01

    The fertility after use of liquid stored ram semen following cervical AI rapidly decreases if semen is stored beyond 12h. The dilution of seminal plasma is often cited as a key contributor to the diminished motility and fertility of ram spermatozoa subjected to liquid preservation. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of spermatozoa concentration (i.e. dilution rate) and percentage of seminal plasma on the motility and viability of liquid stored ram spermatozoa. In Experiment 1, semen was diluted to one of seven concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1.4×10(9)spermatozoa/ml with milk and assessed for motility after 3 or 24h of storage at 15°C. In Experiment 2, semen was collected and washed to remove seminal plasma before re-dilution to 0.2-1.4×10(9)spermatozoa/ml with milk containing 0%, 20% or 40% (final v/v ratio) seminal plasma and assessed for viability and motility after 3 or 24h of storage at 15°C. Whereas motility was not affected by spermatozoa concentration after 3h of storage, the proportion of progressive spermatozoa decreased after 24h of storage when spermatozoa concentration was greater than 1.0×10(9)spermatozoa/ml. The duration of preservation and the spermatozoa concentration affected spermatozoa motility but had no impact on spermatozoa viability. This negative effect of greater spermatozoa concentrations on motility was independent of the presence and the concentration of seminal plasma. The seminal plasma at both concentrations (20% and 40%) had a protective effect on spermatozoa motility after 24h of storage. These findings have the potential to improve the efficiency of cervical AI with liquid stored ram semen.

  10. Evaluation of the serum fructosamine test to monitor plasma glucose concentration in the transition dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorondo, María L; Cirio, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    The usefulness of the serum fructosamine (Fser) to monitor the retrospective glucose concentrations in transitional dairy cows (n=17) was evaluated. In weekly blood samples (3 weeks before to 5 weeks after calving) concentrations of plasma glucose and serum fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta OHB) and total proteins were determined. The observed Fser concentrations (271+/-55 mean value, range 152-423 mumol/l) were within the range reported in the literature, and showed a progressive and significant decrease after calving. Mean plasma glucose concentration was 60.6+/-5.0 (range 39.9-82.2) mg/dl increasing from week 3 before calving to the week of calving and then decreasing during the next 5 weeks of lactation. This decrease was coincident with inverse relationships between plasma glucose and milk yield (P=0.03) and serum beta OHB (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis performed between serum fructosamine and (a) plasma glucose concentration of the same sampling and (b) plasma glucose concentration of 1, 2 and 3 weeks preceding the sampling, did not show significant and systematizing positive correlations. Persistent hypoproteinaemias that could affect the fructosamine concentrations were not found: mean value and range of serum proteins was 6.3+/-1.0 and 4.8-7.8 g/dl, respectively, and no correlation was found between serum proteins and Fser (P=0.26). Results did not support the possibility of retrospective monitoring of the plasma glucose concentration by serum fructosamine in dairy cows in the transition period.

  11. Plasma clusterin concentration is associated with longitudinal brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambisetty, Madhav; An, Yang; Kinsey, Anna; Koka, Deepthi; Saleem, Muzamil; Güntert, Andreas; Kraut, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Davatzikos, Christos; Lovestone, Simon; Resnick, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Recent genetic and proteomic studies demonstrate that clusterin/apolipoprotein-J is associated with risk, pathology, and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our main aim was to examine associations between plasma clusterin concentration and longitudinal changes in brain volume in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A secondary objective was to examine associations between peripheral concentration of clusterin and its concentration in the brain within regions that undergo neuropathological changes in AD. Non-demented individuals (N=139; mean baseline age 70.5 years) received annual volumetric MRI (912 MRI scans in total) over a mean six-year interval. Sixteen participants (92 MRI scans in total) were diagnosed during the course of the study with amnestic MCI. Clusterin concentration was assayed by ELISA in plasma samples collected within a year of the baseline MRI. Mixed effects regression models investigated whether plasma clusterin concentration was associated with rates of brain atrophy for control and MCI groups and whether these associations differed between groups. In a separate autopsy sample of individuals with AD (N=17) and healthy controls (N=4), we examined the association between antemortem clusterin concentration in plasma and postmortem levels in the superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus and cerebellum. The associations of plasma clusterin concentration with rates of change in brain volume were significantly different between MCI and control groups in several volumes including whole brain, ventricular CSF, temporal gray matter as well as parahippocampal, superior temporal and cingulate gyri. Within the MCI but not control group, higher baseline concentration of plasma clusterin was associated with slower rates of brain atrophy in these regions. In the combined autopsy sample of AD and control cases, representing a range of severity in AD pathology, we observed a significant association between clusterin concentration in the plasma and

  12. Plasma bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein concentrations in critically ill children with the sepsis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H R; Doughty, L A; Wedel, N; White, M; Nelson, B J; Havrilla, N; Carcillo, J A

    1995-12-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is a neutrophil azurophilic granule component that is bactericidal towards Gram-negative bacteria and inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory responses. We conducted a prospective study to measure plasma BPI concentrations in 36 critically ill children with and without the sepsis syndrome. Plasma BPI concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 452 ng/ml. Patients with the sepsis syndrome had higher median plasma BPI concentrations than critically ill controls (5.1 vs. 1.8 ng/ml, P = 0.006). Patients with organ system failure had higher median plasma BPI concentrations than those with no organ system failure (4.5 vs. 1.3 ng/ml, P = 0.001). Plasma BPI concentrations were positively associated with pediatric risk of mortality score (P = 0.03, rs = 0.4). These data provide the first clinical insights regarding the role of endogenous BPI production in critically ill children and suggest that BPI may play an important role in host defenses.

  13. Plasma hemoglobin concentration was related to estimated glomerular filtration rate in elderly patients with ischemic Cardiomyopatny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Li; Zhihua Wang; Canjing Zhang; Yang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objectlves To stuaythe relationship between plasma hemoglobin concentration and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)in elderly patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM).Methods Clinical data of patients with coronary heart disease who weredischarged from The First Affiliated Hospital,Chongqing Medicai University between 2005 and 2007 were analyzed retrospectively.Echocardiography resuIts.plasma hemoglobin and creatinine concentration were abstracted from the medical records.The study included235 Chinese Han patients with age 60 years and older with angiography confwmed coronary heart disease.silent myocardial ischemia orangina pectoris,of whom 154 had ICM defined as left ventricular end-diastolic diameter(LVDd),male≥56mm,female≥51 mm(63.51±7.70 mm)measured by M-mode echocardiography.The differences in plasma hemoglobin concentration were analyzed retrospec-were no significant changes in plasma hemoglobin concentration and eGFR;however,plasma hernoglobin concentration was related toeGFR significantly positively in elderly patients with ICM due to coronary heart disease.

  14. Follicle profile and plasma gonadotropin concentration in pubertal female ponies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve female ponies were examined daily for 30 days and classified as ovulating (OV; N = 6; 197 ± 6 kg or prepubertal (PP; N = 6; 196 ± 9 kg. Follicles were detected by ultrasound and gonadotropins quantified by radioimmunoassay. The mean diameter of the largest follicles was significantly larger in OV (38 ± 1 mm than in PP (26 ± 2 mm but there was no difference between groups in the size of the second largest follicle. There were more small follicles (29 mm than the OV fillies. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH levels did not differ between groups but PP fillies had lower luteinizing hormone (LH peak (8 ± 1 ng/ml and basal (4 ± 0.5 ng/ml levels, lower peak magnitude (2 ± 0.2 ng/ml and period average (5 ± 0.6 ng/ml than OV fillies (32 ± 4.5, 8 ± 1.2, 17.1 ± 6, and 15 ± 2.3 ng/ml, respectively. The PP group, in contrast to the OV group, showed no relationship between FSH surge and follicle wave emergence. We conclude that an LH concentration higher than 8 ng/ml is needed for follicle growth to a preovulatory size. Wave emergence and FSH secretion seem to be independent events, probably due to an inhibitory neural system in these PP animals. PP fillies may provide a physiological model for the study of follicle wave emergence which apparently does not depend on gonadotropin levels.

  15. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay Monique; Loucif Yacine; Methot Julie; Brisson Diane; Gaudet Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Met...

  16. Fever and changes in plasma zinc and iron concentrations in the goat: The role of leukocytic pyrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, J.H.M.; Miert, A. S. J. P. A. M. Van; Duin, C.T.M. van; Schotman, A.J.H.; Nieuwenhuis, J.

    1984-01-01

    In goats with trypanosomiasis (T. vivax or T. congolense) no marked fall in plasma zinc concentration was seen despite high temperature peaks, whereas plasma concentrations of iron tended to undergo some decline. In goats infected with Ehrlichia phagocytophila, there was a marked decline in plasma z

  17. Determining Concentrations and Temperatures in Semiconductor Manufacturing Plasmas via Submillimeter Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Yaser H.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Ewing, Paul R.; Agarwal, Ankur; Craver, Barry; Stout, Phillip J.; Armacost, Michael D.

    2016-06-01

    Plasmas used in the manufacturing processes of semiconductors are similar in pressure and temperature to plasmas used in studying the spectroscopy of astrophysical species. Likewise, the developed technology in submillimeter absorption spectroscopy can be used for the study of industrial plasmas and for monitoring manufacturing processes. An advantage of submillimeter absorption spectroscopy is that it can be used to determine absolute concentrations and temperatures of plasma species without the need for intrusive probes. A continuous wave, 500 - 750 GHz absorption spectrometer was developed for the purpose of being used as a remote sensor of gas and plasma species. An important part of this work was the optical design to match the geometry of existing plasma reactors in the manufacturing industry. A software fitting routine was developed to simultaneously fit for the background and absorption signal, solving for concentration, rotational temperature, and translational temperature. Examples of measurements made on inductively coupled plasmas will be demonstrated. We would like to thank the Texas Analog Center of Excellence/Semiconductor Research Corporation (TxACE/SRC) and Applied Materials for their support of this work.

  18. The relationship between embryo quality assessed using routine embryology or time-lapse videography and serum progesterone concentration on the day of ovulatory trigger in in vitro fertilization cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhe Liu; Christopher Copeland; Vincent Chapple; Peter Roberts; Katie Feenan; Phillip Matson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between elevated serum progesterone levels (EP) on the day of ovulatory trigger, live birth rates, and the growth of resulting embryos. Methods: A total of 836 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with 4 478 embryos in conventional culture were retrospectively analyzed, together with an additional 90 IVF cycles producing 618 embryos from culture and assessment using the Embryoscope™ time-lapse system. Results: In cycles using conventional culture, serum progesterone per follicle ≥14 mm (median 0.42 nmol/L/follicle, range 0.05-3.50 nmol/L/follicle) was a significant negative predictor of live-birth (ROC AUC = 0.395, 95% CI 0.345-0.445; P=0.000) as were progesterone/estradiol ratio (0.442, 0.391-0.494; P=0.027) and progesterone per oocyte (0.374, 0.326-0.421; P=0.000) but not progesterone alone (0.470, 0.419-0.521; P>0.05). Women with an EP/follicle (>0.42 nmol/L/follicle) had reduced live birth rates if they were ≥35 yrs (14.4% vs. 24.2%, P0.42 nmol/L/follicle) adversely affects embryo implantation in women aged ≥35 years, but not <35 yrs. However, no adverse features were seen in the embryos from these affected cycles in terms of morphological appearance, abnormal patterns of cleavage, or morphokinetic timings.

  19. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed very-low-birth-weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, P J; Adcock, E W; DelPaggio, D; Swift, L L; Greene, H L

    1996-08-01

    Preterm infant formulas (PIFs) for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight, pyridoxine at levels up to five-fold greater than in term infant formula and 18-fold greater than in human milk. We evaluated plasma riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in VLBW infants who received PIF during their first postnatal month. Eighty-eight plasma and 124 urine samples were collected for riboflavin- and pyridoxine-concentration measurements from 57 clinically healthy VLBW infants weekly during their first postnatal month. Concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. At the time of the sample, patients were receiving > or = 80% of their total calories via enteral feedings. Plasma riboflavin concentrations rose from 45.3 +/- 7.3 ng/ml at baseline (mean +/- SEM) to 173.5 +/- 20.3 ng/ml by 1 week of age and remained at 177.3-199.7 ng/ml during the following three weekly measurements; values were up to 14-fold above baseline concentration. Urine riboflavin concentration increased from 534 +/- 137 ng/ml at baseline to 3,521 +/- 423 ng/ml by 1 week of age and remained at 4,451-5,216 ng/ml during the next 3 weeks. In a similar pattern, baseline plasma (69.4 +/- 10.4 ng/ml) and urine (145 +/- 30 ng/ml) pyridoxine concentrations were significantly increased by 1 week postnatal age; they remained at 163-248 ng/ml (plasma) and 1,573-2,394 ng/ml (urine) through the first postnatal month. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed VLBW infants increased from baseline concentrations by 1 week of postnatal age and remained elevated for the first postnatal month. High daily intake and immature renal development are probable contributing causes of the elevated plasma riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations. We suggest that lower daily enteral administration of riboflavin and pyridoxine should maintain adequate blood concentrations and minimize potential toxicity.

  20. Reduction in penis size and plasma testosterone concentrations in juvenile alligators living in a contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, L J; Pickford, D B; Crain, D A; Rooney, A A; Percival, H F

    1996-01-01

    The development of the male reproductive ducts and external genitalia in vertebrates is dependent on elevated androgen concentrations during embryonic development and the period of postnatal growth. We have observed that a population of juvenile alligators living on Lake Apopka exhibit significantly smaller penis size (24% average decrease) and lower plasma concentrations of testosterone (70% lower concentrations) when compared to animals of similar size on Lake Woodruff. In addition to smaller phalli, no relationship exists between plasma testosterone concentrations and penile size in males from Lake Apopka, whereas a positive relationship exists for males from Lake Woodruff. The alligators on Lake Apopka are known to have elevated concentrations of the antiandrogenic DDT breakdown product p.p'-DDE stored in their fat. We suggest a number of hypotheses that could explain the modification in the phenotype of the juvenile male living in Lake Apopka. These modifications in phenotype include a smaller penis size, lower plasma androgen concentrations, and lack of responsiveness of the penis to the plasma androgens present.

  1. Dietary predictors and plasma concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl acids in a Singapore population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Su, Jin; van Dam, Rob M; Prem, Kiesha; Hoong, Joey Y S; Zou, Li; Lu, Yonghai; Ong, Choon Nam

    2017-03-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), a family of man-made organofluorinated compounds, have drawn much attention due to their ubiquitous existence in the environment and their bioaccumulation potential. Here, we examined the plasma concentrations of thirteen PFAAs in a healthy population (N = 270) in Singapore, and investigated the association between major food groups and plasma PFAA concentrations. We detected eight types of PFAAs in more than 75% of all samples (N = 270), and their median concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 8.34 ng mL(-1). Age- and gender-related differences were observed for the three dominant PFAAs, i.e., perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanoate acid (PFOA), with concentrations being higher in men and older adults. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that fish, shellfish, red meat and poultry were associated with increased PFAAs concentrations in plasma, whereas grains and soy products showed inverse associations with PFAAs. Further, significant correlations were observed between various long-chain PFAAs and plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, suggesting seafood was a significant source of these PFAAs, within this population. Future studies on diet exposure to PFAAs are encouraged to focus more on the effects on diet pattern.

  2. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, M. N.; Chaikov, L. L.; Zaritskii, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r-4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids.

  3. Endocannabinoids concentrations in plasma associated with feed efficiency and carcass composition of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, V M; Foote, A P; Lewis, R M; King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Freetly, H C

    2016-12-01

    Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are a class of endogenous lipid mediators that activate cannabinoids receptors and may be involved in the control of feed intake and energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to quantify AEA and 2-AG in plasma and identify possible associations with production traits and carcass composition in finishing beef steers. Individual DMI and BW gain were measured on 140 Angus-sired steers for 105 d on a finishing ration. Blood samples were collected on d 84 of the experiment, which was 40 d before slaughter. Variables were analyzed using Pearson CORR procedure of SAS. Mean endocannabinoid concentrations in plasma were 4.48 ± 1.82 ng/mL and 0.44 ± 0.24 ng/mL for AEA and 2-AG, respectively. The AEA concentration was positively correlated with G:F ratio ( = 0.20; = 0.02), indicating that more efficient animals had greater AEA plasma concentrations. In addition, AEA concentration tended to be negatively correlated with the 12th rib fat thickness ( = -0.17; = 0.07); but no correlation was found with USDA-calculated yield grade ( = -0.14; = 0.11), or marbling score ( = 0.05; = 0.54). The concentration of 2-AG was positively correlated with AEA ( = 0.21; = 0.01); however, 2-AG concentration was not correlated with parameters of feed efficiency or carcass composition. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report plasma concentration of endocannabinoids in steers. These results provide evidence that plasma concentration of a key endocannabinoid, AEA, was favorably correlated with feed efficiency and fat thickness in finishing steers.

  4. Products of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage in relation to vitamin C plasma concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dusinská, M; Valachovicová, M; Blazícek, P; Pauková, V

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic age-related free radical-induced diseases. Improved antioxidant status minimizes oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules. Diet-derived antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and related plant pigments are important in antioxidative defense and maintaining health. The results of long-term epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that protective vitamin C plasma concentration for minimum risk of free radical disease is higher than 50 micromol/l. Products of oxidative damage to DNA (DNA strand breaks with oxidized purines and pyrimidines), proteins (carbonyls) and lipids (conjugated dienes of fatty acids, malondialdehyde) were estimated in a group of apparently healthy adult non-smoking population in dependence on different vitamin C plasma concentrations. Under conditions of protective plasma vitamin C concentrations (>50 micromol/l) significantly lower values of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage were found in comparison with the vitamin C-deficient group (fruit and vegetable consumption (leading to higher vitamin C intake and higher vitamin C plasma concentrations) on oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids is also expressed by an inverse significant correlation between plasma vitamin C and products of oxidative damage. The results suggest an important role of higher and frequent consumption of protective food (fruit, vegetables, vegetable oils, nuts, seeds and cereal grains) in prevention of free radical disease.

  5. Fasting plasma chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid concentrations are inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laville Martine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating data suggest a novel role for bile acids (BAs in modulating metabolic homeostasis. BA treatment has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and to increase energy expenditure in mice. Here, we investigated the relationship between fasting plasma BAs concentrations and metabolic parameters in humans. Findings Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured in 14 healthy volunteers, 20 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, and 22 non-diabetic abdominally obese subjects. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the determination of the glucose infusion rate (GIR during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in a subgroup of patients (9 healthy and 16 T2D subjects. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Plasma cholic acid (CA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA and deoxycholic acid (DCA concentrations were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. In univariable analysis, a positive association was found between HOMA-IR and plasma CDCA (β = 0.09, p = 0.001, CA (β = 0.03, p = 0.09 and DCA concentrations (β = 0.07, p Conclusions Both plasma CDCA, CA and DCA concentrations were negatively associated with insulin sensitivity in a wide range of subjects.

  6. Plasma concentrations of testosterone and nandrolone in racing and nonracing intact male horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, L R; Uboh, C E; You, Y; Guan, F; McDonnell, S

    2012-04-01

    Pennsylvania (PA) State Racing Commissions regulate the endogenous androgenic steroid, testosterone (TES), in racing intact males (RIM) by quantification of TES in post-race samples. Post-race plasma samples (2209) collected between March 2008 and November 2010 were analyzed for TES, nandrolone (NAN), and other anabolic steroids (ABS). Of the 2209 plasma samples, 2098 had quantifiable TES ≥ 25 pg/mL. Plasma (mean ± SD) concentrations of TES and NAN in RIM were 329.2 ± 266.4 and 96.0 ± 67.8 pg/mL, respectively. Only 64.6% of RIM had quantifiable concentration of NAN, and there was no relationship between TES and NAN. Plasma TES concentrations were significantly (P horses. Based on quantile distribution of TES in the RIM and BS populations, 99.5% were at or below 1546.1 and 1778.0 pg/mL, respectively. Based on this population of RIM, the suggested upper threshold plasma concentration of endogenous TES in horses competing in PA should remain at 2000 pg/mL. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Relationship between plasma resistin concentrations, inflammatory chemokines, and components of the metabolic syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilante, Christina L; Kosmiski, Lisa A; Knutsen, Shannon D; Zineh, Issam

    2008-04-01

    Recent data suggest that resistin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, has a putative role in inflammatory processes and metabolic derangements. In vitro data suggest that resistin stimulates the production of inflammatory chemokines, yet the relationship in vivo is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between plasma resistin concentrations, plasma inflammatory chemokine aged concentrations (ie, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1] and epithelial neutrophil activator 78 [ENA-78]), and components of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic subjects without known cardiovascular disease (CVD). Plasma samples were obtained from nondiabetic subjects (N = 123) aged 18 to 55 years without known CVD or CVD risk equivalents. The presence of the metabolic syndrome was assessed using consensus guidelines. Fasting plasma resistin, MCP-1, ENA-78, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations were analyzed. The study population consisted of 67.5% women and 68.3% Caucasians (mean age = 44 +/- 7 years and mean body mass index = 33.3 +/- 6 kg/m(2)). The metabolic syndrome was present in 46.3% of study participants. Resistin concentrations were significantly correlated with white blood cell count (r = 0.326, P metabolic syndrome compared with those without the metabolic syndrome (P = .003). In stepwise regression analysis, white blood cell count (P metabolic syndrome, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Data from our cross-sectional study demonstrate that plasma resistin concentrations are associated with circulating chemokine markers of inflammation, namely, MCP-1, and white blood cell count in nondiabetic adults without CVD. Future studies examining the causal relationship between plasma resistin concentrations, chemokine markers of inflammation, CVD, and diabetes are warranted.

  8. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasmaconcentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  9. Impact of Annexin A 7 Deficiency on FGF23 Plasma Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja T. Umbach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The release of fibroblast growth factor FGF23, a powerful regulator of 1,25(OH2D3 formation and mineral metabolism, is stimulated by store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE, which is accomplished by the pore forming Ca2+ release activated channel protein Orai1. Regulators of Orai1 and thus FGF23 release include serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, a kinase up-regulated by glucocorticosteroids. Some effects of glucocorticoids require the presence of annexin A7, such as suppression of prostaglandin E2 in gastric glands. The present study thus explored whether annexin A7 impacts on FGF23 plasma levels. Methods: Comparisons were made between gene targeted mice lacking functional annexin A7 (Anx7-/- and their wild type littermates (Anx7+/+. Serum C-terminal-FGF23, intact FGF23, 1,25(OH2D3 and PTH concentrations were measured by ELISA or EIA. The serum and urinary phosphate concentrations were measured by colorimetry, the serum Ca2+ concentration and the urinary Ca2+ concentration by flame photometry. Results: Serum C-terminal FGF23 levels and corticosterone levels were significantly higher and serum 1,25(OH2 D3 and PTH levels were significantly lower in Anx7-/- than in Anx7+/+ mice. Water intake was slightly but significantly higher in Anx7-/- mice than in Anx7+/+ mice. No significant difference was observed between Anx7-/- and Anx7+/+ mice in urinary fluid excretion, plasma Ca2+ concentration, plasma phosphate concentration and urinary Ca2+ output. The urinary phosphate output was significantly lower in Anx7-/- mice than in Anx7+/+ mice. Conclusion: Annexin A7 deficiency upregulates FGF23 plasma levels, an effect paralleled by increased corticosterone plasma levels, as well as decreased 1,25(OH2 D3 and PTH plasma levels.

  10. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health.

  11. Effects of supplemental progesterone after artificial insemination on expression of interferon-stimulated genes and fertility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, P L J; Ribeiro, E S; Maciel, R P; Dias, A L G; Solé, E; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Thatcher, W W; Sartori, R; Santos, J E P

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental progesterone after artificial insemination (AI) on expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) in blood leukocytes and fertility in lactating dairy cows. Weekly cohorts of Holstein cows were blocked by parity (575 primiparous and 923 multiparous) and method of insemination (timed AI or AI on estrus) and allocated randomly within each block to untreated controls, a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) containing 1.38g of progesterone from d 4 to 18 after AI (CIDR4), or a CIDR on d 4 and another on d 7 after AI and both removed on d 18 (CIDR4+7). Blood was sampled to quantify progesterone concentrations in plasma and mRNA expression in leukocytes for the ubiquitin-like IFN-stimulated gene 15-kDa protein (ISG15) and receptor transporter protein-4 (RTP4) genes. Pregnancy was diagnosed on d 34±3 and 62±3 after AI. Treatment increased progesterone concentrations between d 5 and 18 after AI in a dose-dependent manner (control=3.42, CIDR4=4.97, and CIDR4+7=5.46ng/mL). Cows supplemented with progesterone tended to have increased luteolysis by d 19 after AI (control=17.2; CIDR4=29.1; CIDR4+7=30.2%), which resulted in a shorter AI interval for those reinseminated after study d 18. Pregnancy upregulated expression of ISG in leukocytes on d 19 of gestation, but supplementing progesterone did not increase mRNA abundance for ISG15 and RTP4 on d 16 after insemination and tended to reduce mRNA expression on d 19 after AI. For RTP4 on d 19, the negative effect of supplemental progesterone was observed only in the nonpregnant cows. No overall effect of treatment was observed on pregnancy per AI on d 62 after insemination and averaged 28.6, 32.7, and 29.5% for control, CIDR4, and CIDR4+7, respectively. Interestingly, an interaction between level of supplemental progesterone and method of AI was observed for pregnancy per AI. For cows receiving exogenous progesterone, the lower supplementation with CIDR4

  12. Pathogen inactivation treatment of plasma and platelet concentrates and their predicted functionality in massive transfusion protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaeen, Ahmad F; Schubert, Peter; Serrano, Katherine; Carter, Cedric J; Culibrk, Brankica; Devine, Dana V

    2017-05-01

    Trauma transfusion packages for hemorrhage control consist of red blood cells, plasma, and platelets at a set ratio. Although pathogen reduction improves the transfusion safety of platelet and plasma units, there is an associated reduction in quality. This study aimed to investigate the impact of riboflavin/ultraviolet light-treated plasma or platelets in transfusion trauma packages composed of red blood cell, plasma, and platelet units in a ratio of 1:1:1 in vitro by modeling transfusion scenarios for trauma patients and assessing function by rotational thromboelastometry. Pathogen-reduced or untreated plasma and buffy coat platelet concentrate units produced in plasma were used in different combinations with red blood cells in trauma transfusion packages. After reconstitution of these packages with hemodiluted blood, the hemostatic functionality was analyzed by rotational thromboelastometry. Hemostatic profiles of pathogen-inactivated buffy coat platelet concentrate and plasma indicated decreased activity compared with their respective controls. Reconstitution of hemodiluted blood (hematocrit = 20%) with packages that contained treated or nontreated components resulted in increased alpha and maximum clot firmness and enhanced clot-formation time. Simulating transfusion scenarios based on 30% blood replacement with a transfusion trauma package resulted in a nonsignificant difference in rotational thromboelastometry parameters between packages containing treated and nontreated blood components (p ≥ 0.05). Effects of pathogen inactivation treatment were evident when the trauma package percentage was 50% or greater and contained both pathogen inactivation-treated plasma and buffy coat platelet concentrate. Rotational thromboelastometry investigations suggest that there is relatively little impact of pathogen inactivation treatment on whole blood clot formation unless large amounts of treated components are used. © 2017 AABB.

  13. Fatigue and plasma cytokine concentrations at rest and during exercise in patients with sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydur, Ahmet; Alavy, Bahram; Nawathe, Amar; Liu, Shanshan; Louie, Stan; Sharma, Om Prakash

    2011-07-01

    Patients with sarcoidosis exhibit exercise intolerance-related fatigue and increased levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines at rest. Exercise may result in increased plasma cytokine levels (PCLs) in healthy adults, but such a relationship has not been studied in sarcoidosis patients. To assess relationship of fatigue in sarcoidosis with PCLs at rest and with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). We assessed lung function, CPET data, multidimensional fatigue inventory, plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations before, immediately after, and 4-6 h following CPET in 22 sarcoidosis patients (13 receiving immunomodulatory drugs) and 22 controls. Patients exhibited greater fatigue, reduced cardiorespiratory function, higher Medical Research Council (MRC) scores and higher plasma TNF-α concentrations than controls at all times. Plasma IL-1β levels did not differ between cohorts. Patients exhibited a 28% increase (statistically not significant) in TNF-α level immediately post exercise. Plasma IL-β concentrations did not change among cohorts. Treated patients exhibited higher MRC and physical fatigue scores and lower breathing reserve, but no differences in cardiorespiratory function or PCLs compared to untreated patients. In treated patients, pre-exercise plasma IL-1β correlated with physical fatigue, reduced motivation and total fatigue; TNF-α levels only correlated with general fatigue score. Treated sarcoidosis patients exhibit a relation between physical fatigue, reduced motivation and total fatigue and pre-exercise plasma IL-1β concentrations. Acute exercise does not increase PCLs. Whether the reduced MRC score and physical fatigue in treated patients is related to the therapy or to the underlying inflammatory process is difficult to determine. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. [Changes in platelet concentrates from dogs due to storage. II. Biochemical changes in concentrate plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A; Adamik, A; Mischke, R

    1999-08-01

    Platelet concentrate (PC) obtained from dogs with an automatic cell separator was stored in C4-cell separation sets with low gasdiffusionable Polyvinylchlorid (PVC) storage containers or in C4L-sets developed for storage with high gasdiffusionable Polyolefin(PO) containers, respectively. PC were stored for 10 days under permanent agitation at 22 degrees C (C4/22 degrees C, n = 10; C4L/22 degrees C, n = 11) or at 4 degrees C (C4L/4 degrees C, n = 6), respectively. Measurements were carried out directly after production of the PC, after 6 hours and then daily during the 10-day storage period. In the second part of this paper the results of pH, the concentration of bicarbonate, glucose, lactate and potassium ions as well as the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are presented. The varying duration and intensity of the energy metabolism of the platelets and different part of glycolysis became obvious by the consumption of glucose and production of lactate, which differed significantly between the different storage conditions. Resulting from this, the mean pH decreased under the limit prescribed for human PC (pH = 6.3) already after a storage period of 3 days due to the slight capacity of gas diffusion in PVC-containers (C4/22 degrees C). In the PO-containers the pH fell below this limit at 22 degrees C (C4L/22 degrees C) after a storage period of 5 days and at 4 degrees C (C4L/4 degrees C) after 10 days. The latter reflects the high gas diffusion capacity of the PO-containers and the decreased metabolism activity at 4 degrees C. The increase of activity of LDH and of the concentration of potassium ions, which are localized in the cytosol of platelets, depended also on the different storage conditions and, thereby, reflected the different rapidity of increasing membrane permeability or the destruction of the cell membrane, respectively. The results of this study nearly are in agreement with the changes of platelet function shown in part I. Biochemical changes occur

  15. Green tea ingestion greatly reduces plasma concentrations of nadolol in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaka, S; Yatabe, J; Müller, F; Takano, K; Kawabe, K; Glaeser, H; Yatabe, M S; Onoue, S; Werba, J P; Watanabe, H; Yamada, S; Fromm, M F; Kimura, J

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the β-blocker nadolol. Ten healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of 30 mg nadolol with green tea or water after repeated consumption of green tea (700 ml/day) or water for 14 days. Catechin concentrations in green tea and plasma were determined. Green tea markedly decreased the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-48)) of nadolol by 85.3% and 85.0%, respectively (P green tea. [(3)H]-Nadolol uptake assays in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing the organic anion-transporting polypeptides OATP1A2 and OATP2B1 revealed that nadolol is a substrate of OATP1A2 (Michaelis constant (K(m)) = 84.3 μmol/l) but not of OATP2B1. Moreover, green tea significantly inhibited OATP1A2-mediated nadolol uptake (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, IC(50) = 1.36%). These results suggest that green tea reduces plasma concentrations of nadolol possibly in part by inhibition of OATP1A2-mediated uptake of nadolol in the intestine.

  16. Perioperative plasma concentrations of stable nitric oxide products are predictive of cognitive dysfunction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    In this study our objectives were to determine the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients aged >40 and <85 yr and to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of i) S-100beta protein and ii) stable nitric oxide (NO) products and POCD in this clinical setting. Neuropsychological tests were performed on 42 ASA physical status I-II patients the day before, and 4 days and 6 wk after surgery. Patient spouses (n = 13) were studied as controls. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as deficit in one or more cognitive domain(s). Serial measurements of serum concentrations of S-100beta protein and plasma concentrations of stable NO products (nitrate\\/nitrite, NOx) were performed perioperatively. Four days after surgery, new cognitive deficit was present in 16 (40%) patients and in 1 (7%) control subject (P = 0.01). Six weeks postoperatively, new cognitive deficit was present in 21 (53%) patients and 3 (23%) control subjects (P = 0.03). Compared with the "no deficit" group, patients who demonstrated a new cognitive deficit 4 days postoperatively had larger plasma NOx at each perioperative time point (P < 0.05 for each time point). Serum S-100beta protein concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative (and postoperative) plasma concentrations of stable NO products (but not S-100beta) are associated with early POCD. The former represents a potential biochemical predictor of POCD.

  17. Variation in absorption and half-life of hydrocortisone influence plasma cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Peter C; Charmandari, Evangelia

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocortisone therapy should be individualized in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients to avoid over and under replacement. We have assessed how differences in absorption and half-life of cortisol influence glucocorticoid exposure. Forty-eight patients (21 M) aged between 6·1 and 20·3 years with CAH due to CYP21A2 deficiency were studied. Each patient underwent a 24-h plasma cortisol profile with the morning dose used to calculate absorption parameters along with an intravenous (IV) hydrocortisone (15 mg/m(2) body surface area) bolus assessment of half-life. Parameters derived were maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), time of maximum plasma concentration (tmax ), time to attaining plasma cortisol concentration cortisol. Mean half-life was 76·5 ± 5·2 (range 40-225·3) min, Cmax 780·7 ± 61·6 nmol/l and tmax 66·7 (range 20-118) min. Time taken to a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l was 289 (range 140-540) min. Those with a fast half-life and slow tmax took longest to reach a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l (380 ± 34·6 min), compared to those with a slow half-life and fast tmax (298 ± 34·8 min) and those with a fast half-life and fast tmax (249·5 ± 14·4 min) (One-way anovaF = 4·52; P = 0·009). Both rate of absorption and half-life of cortisol in the circulation play important roles in determining overall exposure to oral glucocorticoid. Dose regimens need to incorporate estimates of these parameters into determining the optimum dosing schedule for individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; pglycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  19. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting Apo

  20. Evaluation of corpus luteum, uterine contractility and progesterone and estradiol plasmatic concentrations in recipients of bovine embryos AVALIAÇÃO DO CORPO LÚTEO, CONTRATILIDADE UTERINA E CONCENTRAÇÕES PLASMÁTICAS DE PROGESTERONA E ESTRADIOL EM RECEPTORAS DE EMBRIÕES BOVINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antônio de Carvalho Fernandes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to evaluate the size of corpus luteum (CL, uterine contractility and plasma progesterone (P4 and estradiol (17? E2 concentrations in recipients, in the day of embryo transfer. For this, 60 crossbred recipient heifers were used. The pregnancy rate of recipients according to the CL size by rectal palpation was 70.0% (7/10 - small, 38.9% (7/18 - medium and 60.0% (15/25 - large. Ultrasonographic evaluation detected 50.9% (29/57 of the CL with a cystic cavity. The average diameter of the CL was 17.8 ± 6.3 mm (n=57 and of cystic cavity was 6.8 ± 4.2 mm (n= 29. The mean volume of the CL was 4.4 ± 9.1 cm3 (n=57, of cystic cavity was 0.4 ± 1.0 cm3 (n=29 and of luteal mass was 4.2 ± 8.4 cm3 (n=57. In the day of the inovulation, progesterone and estradiol concentrations were respectively 4.9 ± 3.0 ng/mL (n=60 and 4.5 ± 6.0 pg/mL (n=60 in average. There was no statistic difference between progesterone and estradiol concentrations for pregnant and non-pregnant recipients. Forty-nine of the 60 recipients presented flaccid uterus (grade 1 and 11 had uterus in intermediate stage (grade 2. Those presented pregnancy rates of 47.6% (20/42 and 81.8% (9/11 (p<0.05 respectively.

    KEY WORDS: Embryo transfer, estradiol and pregnancy, progesterone, recipients.
    Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram avaliar o corpo lúteo (CL, o tônus uterino e a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 e estradiol (17? E2 nas receptoras, no dia da transferência de embriões. Para isso, utilizaram-se sessenta novilhas mestiças como receptoras. A taxa de prenhez segundo o tamanho do CL à palpação transretal foi 70,0% (7/10 - pequeno, 38,9% (7/18 - médio e 60,0% (15/25 - grande. Ao exame ultrassonográfico, 50,9% (29/57 dos CL detectados continham cavidade cística. O diâmetro médio do CL foi 17,8 ± 6,3 mm (n=57 e da cavidade cística 6,8 ± 4,2 mm (n=29. Os volumes médios foram para CL 4,4 ± 9,1 cm3 (n=57

  1. Effects of circulating progesterone and insulin on early embryo development in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G E; Green, M P; Sinclair, K D; Demmers, K J; Fray, M D; Gutierrez, C G; Garnsworthy, P C; Webb, R

    2003-11-20

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect on early embryo development of feeding a diet formulated to enhance circulating insulin concentrations and secondly to investigate the association between early embryo development and maternal progesterone concentrations in beef heifers. The study was carried out in 32 Simmental x Holstein Friesian heifers 22-25 months of age weighing 506+/-7kg and in condition score 3.1+/-0.1. Animals were fed two diets that were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, but that would encourage either propionate (diet A) or acetate (diet B) production in the rumen. The rationale was that propionate would induce a greater insulin release in response to feeding. Animals were fed a 50:50 mix of the two diets for 14 days at 0.8x maintenance, with straw provided ad libitum. Animals were then fed one of the experimental diets for 3 weeks prior to synchronisation of oestrus and insemination and for a further 16 days following mating. All heifers were blood sampled daily from oestrus synchronisation and eight animals on each diet underwent daily transrectal real-time ultrasonography to determine the day of ovulation. All heifers were slaughtered at Day 16 after mating. While feeding of diet A (propionic) caused a significant (Pbody condition making further increases in insulin difficult to achieve. Diet did not affect size of ovulatory follicle (DIET A: 15.1+/-0.7mm; diet B: 14.6+/-0.7mm), day of ovulation (diet A: 3.5+/-0.2 days; diet B: 3.4+/-0.2 days), mean plasma progesterone concentration (diet A: 4.7+/-0.4ng/ml; diet B: 5.2+/-0.3ng/ml), corpus luteum weight (diet A: 6.0+/-0.2g; diet B: 6.0+/-0.2g) or pregnancy rate (diet A: 81.3%; diet B: 81.3%). However, the proportion of well-elongated (>10cm) embryos on Day 16 was higher in animals fed diet A than in those fed diet B (84.6% versus 38.5%; P10cm) embryos with levels in these animals significantly higher on Days 4 and 5 than in heifers with small (embryos at slaughter. This study

  2. Refractory cachexia is associated with increased plasma concentrations of fentanyl in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suno M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Manabu Suno,1,* Yuriko Endo,1,* Hiroyuki Nishie,2 Makoto Kajizono,3 Toshiaki Sendo,3 Junji Matsuoka4 1Department of Oncology Pharmaceutical Care and Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 3Department of Pharmacy, Okayama University Hospital, 4Faculty of Health Sciences, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: An appropriate plasma concentration of fentanyl is the key to achieving good pain control in cancer patients. Cachexia, a multifactorial syndrome, is known to affect drug-metabolizing enzymes. However, the fentanyl concentrations in the blood of patients with cachexia have not been analyzed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cancer cachexia on dose-adjusted plasma fentanyl concentrations in cancer patients.Methods: Blood was collected from 21 Japanese cancer patients treated with a 24-hour transdermal fentanyl patch during the steady state of fentanyl plasma concentration. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, and the levels were adjusted with the dose of fentanyl. Laboratory data were collected, and the cachexia stage was determined, based on study by Fearon et al. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the factors that affected fentanyl plasma concentrations.Results: Eight patients were classified as precachexia, nine as cachexia, and four as refractory cachexia, and the median dose-adjusted fentanyl concentrations (ng/mL per mg/kg/day were 27.5, 34.4, and 44.5, respectively. The dose-adjusted fentanyl concentration in patients with refractory cachexia was higher than that in patients with precachexia (Kruskal–Wallis test and post hoc Mann–Whitney U-test, P<0.01. The factors that

  3. Relationship between labile plasma iron, liver iron concentration and cardiac response in a deferasirox monotherapy trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John C.; Glynos, Tara; Thompson, Alexis; Giardina, Patricia; Harmatz, Paul; Kang, Barinder P.; Paley, Carole; Coates, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    The US04 trial was a multicenter, open-label, single arm trial of deferasirox monotherapy (30–40 mg/kg/day) for 18 months. Cardiac iron response was bimodal with improvements observed in patients with mild to moderate initial somatic iron stores; relationship of cardiac response to labile plasma iron is now presented. Labile plasma iron was measured at baseline, six months, and 12 months. In patients having a favorable cardiac response at 18 months, initial labile plasma iron was elevated in only 31% of patients at baseline and no patient at six or 12 months. Cardiac non-responders had elevated labile plasma iron in 50% of patients at baseline, 50% patients at six months, and 38% of patients at 12 months. Risk of abnormal labile plasma iron and cardiac response increased with initial liver iron concentration. Persistently increased labile plasma iron predicts cardiac non-response to deferasirox but labile plasma iron suppression does not guarantee favorable cardiac outcome. Study registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00447694). PMID:21393329

  4. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart A; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R (2) > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  5. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Batterman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS. Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models.Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80, and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  6. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graceli, J.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Cicilini, M.A.; Bissoli, N.S.; Abreu, G.R.; Moysés, M.R. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2013-07-02

    The maintenance of extracellular Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1}, sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1}, sc). We assessed Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} fractional excretion (FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}} and FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}}, FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FE{sub Na{sup {sub +}}}, FE{sub Cl{sup {sub -}}}, water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen

  7. Effects of Different Heavy-Resistance Exercise Protocols on Plasma Beta-Endorphin Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    exercise increases in muscular hypertrophy (27). Thus each exer- protocols used previously. Each subject gave informed cise series provides for...ANTE. P. D., AND M. E. HOUSTON. Effects of concentric and DUDLEY. C. M. MARESH, L. MARCHIrELLI, C. CRUTHIRDS, T. eccentric exercise on protein catabolism...DTIC Effects of different heavy-resistance exercise ELECTE protocols on plasma #-endorphin concentrations MAR 3 0 1993 C WILLIAM J. KRAEMER, JOSEPH E

  8. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  9. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  10. The roles of various plasma species in the plasma and plasma-catalytic removal of low-concentration formaldehyde in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Zhu, Tianle; Sun, Yifei; Yan, Xiao

    2011-11-30

    The contributions of various plasma species to the removal of low-concentration formaldehyde (HCHO) in air by DC corona discharge plasma in the presence and absence of downstream MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst were systematically investigated in this study. Experimental results show that HCHO can be removed not only by short-living active species in the discharge zone, but also by long-living species except O(3) downstream the plasma reactor. O(3) on its own is incapable of removing HCHO in the gas phase but when combined with the MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, considerable HCHO conversion is seen, well explaining the greatly enhanced HCHO removal by combining plasma with catalysis. The plasma-catalysis hybrid process where HCHO is introduced through the discharge zone and then the catalyst bed exhibits the highest energy efficiency concerning HCHO conversion, due to the best use of plasma-generated active species in a two-stage HCHO destruction process. Moreover, the presence of downstream MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst significantly reduced the emission of discharge byproducts (O(3)) and organic intermediates (HCOOH).

  11. Concentrations of Nicotinamide in Plasma by RP-HPLC With Fluorescence Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish a new method for detecting nicotinamide concentration in plasma. In the experiment, the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used, with a fluorescence detector. The nicotinamide in the plasma was first converted to N1- methylnicotinamide, then reacted with acetophenone under certain conditions to produce fluorescent derivatives for testing. The method is a kind of highly sensitive detection, of which the lower limit is 10 ng/mL, the recovery rate is between 92.75% and 105.13%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD is between 3.76% and 4.43%. The results showed that this measurement method is accurate, sensitive and rapid. It meets the requirements of the experiment, and applies to the detection of nicotinamide concentration in plasma.

  12. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    proteins from wheat, peas, field beans, sunflower and soybean. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein of 7 fish in each dietary treatment group prior to feeding, as well as: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding (sampling 7 new fish at each time point), and plasma amino acid......Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... concentrations were subsequently measured by HPLC. Nutrient digestibility and ammonia excretion of the two experimental diets were measured in a parallel experiment using a modified Guelph setup. Results showed that the appearance of most amino acids (essential and non-essential) in the plasma was delayed...

  13. Species-dependent effective concentration of DTPA in plasma for chelation of 241Am.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Jay, Michael; Di Pasqua, Anthony J

    2013-08-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a chelating agent that is used to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides such as americium from contaminated individuals. Its primary site of action is in the blood, where it competes with various biological ligands, including transferrin and albumin, for the binding of radioactive metals. To evaluate the chelation potential of DTPA under these conditions, the competitive binding of Am between DTPA and plasma proteins was studied in rat, beagle, and human plasma in vitro. Following incubation of DTPA and Am in plasma, the Am-bound ligands were fractionated by ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography, and each fraction was assayed for Am content by gamma scintillation counting. Dose response curves of DTPA for Am binding were established, and these models were used to calculate the 90% maximal effective concentration, or EC90, of DTPA in each plasma system. The EC90 were determined to be 31.4, 15.9, and 10.0 μM in rat, beagle, and human plasma, respectively. These values correspond to plasma concentrations of DTPA that maximize Am chelation while minimizing excess DTPA. Based on the pharmacokinetic profile of DTPA in humans, after a standard 30 μmol kg intravenous bolus injection, the plasma concentration of DTPA remains above EC90 for approximately 5.6 h. Likewise, the effective duration of DTPA in rat and beagle were determined to be 0.67 and 1.7 h, respectively. These results suggest that species differences must be considered when translating DTPA efficacy data from animals to humans and offer further insights into improving the current DTPA treatment regimen.

  14. Plasma concentrations of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate in critically ill children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enno D Wildschut

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO support on pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate (OC in children. METHODOLOGY: Steady state 0-12 hour pharmacokinetic sampling was performed in new influenza A (H1N1 infected children treated with oseltamivir while on ECMO support. Cmax, Cmin and AUC(0-12 h were calculated. The age-specific oseltamivir dosage was doubled to counter expected decreased plasma drug concentrations due to increased volume of distribution on ECMO support. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three patients were enrolled aged 15, 6 and 14 years in this pharmacokinetic case series. For two children the OC plasma concentrations were higher than those found in children and adults not on ECMO. These increased plasma concentrations related to the increased oseltamivir dosage and decreased kidney function. In one patient suboptimal plasma concentrations coincided with a decreased gastric motility. CONCLUSION: Oseltamivir pharmacokinetics do not appear to be significantly influenced by ECMO support. Caution is required in case of nasogastric administration and decreased gastric motility. Due to the limited number of (paediatric patients available further multicenter studies are warranted.

  15. Phenylbutyrate reduces plasma leucine concentrations without affecting the flux of leucine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) has been used as an alternative pathway to excrete nitrogen in urea cycle disorder patients for the last 20 years. PB, after oxidation to phenylacetate, is conjugated with glutamine and excreted in the urine. A reduction in the plasma concentration of branched amino acids (BCAA) ...

  16. Decreased coenzyme Q10 concentration in plasma of children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, J.H.; Lecluse, A.L.Y.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.; Laag, J. van der; Houwen, R.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an effective lipophilic antioxidant and protects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging radicals. Patients with cystic fibrosis generally have fat malabsorption; thus, we hypothesized that overall plasma CoQ10 concentration in pediatric patients with cystic fibr

  17. Plasma concentrations of generic lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV type-1-infected individuals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt, J. van der; Lange, J.; Avihingsanon, A.; Ananworanich, J.; Sealoo, S.; Burger, D.M.; Gorowara, M.; Phanuphak, P.; Ruxrungtham, K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic drugs can contribute to access to treatment for HIV-infected patients. However quality and safety remains an issue of concern. Therefore, we evaluated minimal plasma concentrations and short-term safety of a generic lopinavir/ritonavir 200/50 mg tablet formulation. METHODS: In a

  18. High plasma arginine concentrations in critically ill patients suffering from hepatic failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Nijveldt (Robin); M.P.C. Siroen; B. van der Hoven (Ben); T. Teerlink (Tom); H.A. Prins (Hubert); A.R.J. Girbes (Armand); P.A.M. van Leeuwen

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjective: In physiological conditions, the liver plays an important role in the regulation of plasma arginine concentrations by taking up large amounts of arginine from the hepatic circulation. When hepatic failure is present, arginine metabolism may be disturbed. Therefore, we hypothes

  19. Orlistat treatment increases fecal bilirubin excretion and decreases plasma bilirubin concentrations in hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishioka, T; Hafkamp, AM; Havinga, R; Van Lierop, PPE; Velvis, H; Verkade, HJ

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine whether serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) can be decreased by enhancing fecal fat excretion. Study design Gunn rats were fed a high-fat diet (control) or the same diet mixed with the lipase inhibitor orlistat. At regular intervals, plasma UCB concentrations were det

  20. Coal pyrolysis to acetylene using dc hydrogen plasma torch: effects of system variables on acetylene concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Longwei; Meng Yuedong; Shen Jie; Shu Xingsheng; Fang Shidong [Laboratory of Applied Low-temperature Plasma Physics, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Xiong Xinyang, E-mail: lwchen@ipp.ac.c [Xinjiang Tianye Group, Xinjiang, 832000 (China)

    2009-03-07

    In order to unveil the inner mechanisms that determine acetylene concentration, experimental studies on the effect of several parameters such as plasma torch power, hydrogen flux and coal flux were carried out from coal pyrolysis in a dc plasma torch. Xinjiang long flame coals including volatile constituents at a level of about 42% were used in the experiment. Under the following experimental conditions, namely plasma torch power, hydrogen flow rate and pulverized coal feed speed of 2.12 MW, 32 kg h{sup -1} and 900 kg h{sup -1}, respectively, acetylene volume concentration of about 9.4% was achieved. The experimental results indicate that parameters such as plasma torch power and coal flux play important roles in the formation of acetylene. Acetylene concentration increases inconspicuously with hydrogen flux. A chemical thermodynamic equilibrium model using the free energy method is introduced in this paper to numerically simulate each experimental condition. The numerical results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. Two parameters, i.e. the gas temperature and the ratio of hydrogen/carbon, are considered to be the dominant and independent factors that determine acetylene concentration.

  1. Coal pyrolysis to acetylene using dc hydrogen plasma torch: effects of system variables on acetylene concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longwei; Meng, Yuedong; Shen, Jie; Shu, Xingsheng; Fang, Shidong; Xiong, Xinyang

    2009-03-01

    In order to unveil the inner mechanisms that determine acetylene concentration, experimental studies on the effect of several parameters such as plasma torch power, hydrogen flux and coal flux were carried out from coal pyrolysis in a dc plasma torch. Xinjiang long flame coals including volatile constituents at a level of about 42% were used in the experiment. Under the following experimental conditions, namely plasma torch power, hydrogen flow rate and pulverized coal feed speed of 2.12 MW, 32 kg h-1 and 900 kg h-1, respectively, acetylene volume concentration of about 9.4% was achieved. The experimental results indicate that parameters such as plasma torch power and coal flux play important roles in the formation of acetylene. Acetylene concentration increases inconspicuously with hydrogen flux. A chemical thermodynamic equilibrium model using the free energy method is introduced in this paper to numerically simulate each experimental condition. The numerical results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. Two parameters, i.e. the gas temperature and the ratio of hydrogen/carbon, are considered to be the dominant and independent factors that determine acetylene concentration.

  2. Reduced cooperativeness and reward-dependence in depression with above-normal plasma vasopressin concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goekoop, J. G.; de Winter, R. F. P.; Wolterbeek, R.; Spinhoven, P.; Zitman, F. G.; Wiegant, V. M.

    2009-01-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin is centrally involved in the regulation of social behaviour and response to stress. We previously found support for a subcategory of depression defined by above-normal plasma vasopressin (AVP) concentration. This subcategory is validated by a positive family history of d

  3. Plasma Concentration of the Novel Peptide Apelin is Regularly Changed in Patients With Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yanju; Li Tianchang; Yan Jun; Bian Hong; Yao Daokuo; Xu Shiying; Zheng Jianyong

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Apelin, the novel endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, has been observed in many animals and humans studies. It is concluded that it has inotropic effects,hypotension and diuretic properties. The change of apelin in relation to heart failure is still controversial.Our goal was to observe the change of apelin-12 in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods From 2005 to 2006, 81 consecutive patients (46 male and 35 female, mean age 68.5±12.1 years) with heart failure resulting from variable etiologies and 15 healthy controls were included in this study. Plasma concentration of apelin-12 was measured through ELISA on admission. All patients received conventional therapy and recorded detailed the clinical conditions. Results (1) Plasma concentration of apelin of the controls is lower than the ones of heart failure patients. (2) Plasma concentration of apelin is increased in the early stage and decreased in the advanced period. (3) Apelin is related with variable indexes in the Pearson's association analysis. Apelin is also changed with the atrium and ventricular's diameter. Conclusions Plasma concentration of apelin is increased in early stage and decreased in advanced period. The apelin-APJ system might be important in the pathophysiological process of heart failure. And it might be valuable in diagnosis and therapeutic implications in heart failure.

  4. [Determination of cyclohexanone concentration in the plasma separator by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-Ju; Yan, Lin; He, Yan-Ying; Lin, Wei-Cong

    2009-09-01

    This essay is to determine the cyclohexanone concentration of the plasma separator. The compound was introduced into the GC analytical system by the carrier gas. The determination was performed by the measurement of their peak area and by the external standard method.

  5. Decreased coenzyme Q10 concentration in plasma of children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, J.H.; Lecluse, A.L.Y.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.; Laag, J. van der; Houwen, R.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an effective lipophilic antioxidant and protects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging radicals. Patients with cystic fibrosis generally have fat malabsorption; thus, we hypothesized that overall plasma CoQ10 concentration in pediatric patients with cystic

  6. Perioperative dilutional coagulopathy treated with fresh frozen plasma and fibrinogen concentrate: a prospective randomized intervention trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lance, M.D.; Ninivaggi, M.; Schols, S.E.; Feijge, M.A.; Oehrl, S.K.; Kuiper, G.J.; Nikiforou, M.; Marcus, M.A.; Hamulyak, K.; Pampus, E.C.M. van; Cate, H. ten; Heemskerk, J.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of dilutional coagulopathy by transfusing fresh frozen plasma (FFP) remains sub-optimal. We hypothesized that partial replacement of transfused FFP by fibrinogen concentrate results in improved coagulant activity and haemostasis. This was tested in a controlled c

  7. Plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics following rectal administration in neonates and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; O'Brien, K; Morton, N S

    1999-01-01

    Despite widespread use in children pharmacokinetic data about paracetamol are relatively scarce, not the least in the youngest age groups. This study aimed to describe plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics of a single rectal paracetamol dose in neonates and young infants....

  8. Plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate after various inhalation methods in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y; Muraki, K; Fujitaka, M; Sakura, N; Ueda, K

    1999-01-01

    Aims To compare the plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) following various inhalation procedures in healthy volunteers. Methods Nine healthy subjects inhaled 2 mg of aerosol, 20 mg of nebuliser solution only, 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with isotonic saline, or 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with saline and procaterol, a β2-adenoceptor agonist, on separate occasions 2–3 weeks apart. Plasma concentrations of DSCG were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). Results The peak plasma concentrations of DSCG were 1.5±0.7 (range 0.4–2.4) ng ml−1 in the aerosol group, 8.8±6.2 (range 5.3–19.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution only group, 17.2±16.3 (range 5.0–38.6) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus isotonic saline group, and 24.5±11.9 (range 10.2–44.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus saline and procaterol group. Thus subjects who used the nebuliser had markedly higher plasma concentrations of DSCG than subjects who used the aerosol inhaler. Conclusions These findings may have important implications for the evaluation of inhalation treatment with DSCG for bronchial asthma. PMID:10417491

  9. A physiologically based kinetic model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in mice and man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, van de N.

    2011-01-01

    An increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, individuals vary largely in their response to cholesterol lowering drugs and 40% of them, do not reach their cholesterol-lowering target. Development of novel therapies, for example co

  10. Cardiac C-type natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse H; Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    and cardiac tissue extracts were quantified by a porcine-specific radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Cardiac CNP mRNA contents (n=24) were low compared to sites of known expression, where porcine seminal vesicle CNP mRNA contents were 200-fold higher. In addition, plasma proCNP concentrations in the newborn piglets...

  11. Persistent increase of plasma butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine concentrations as marker of SCAD defect and ethylmalonic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merinero, B; Perez-Cerda, C; Ruiz Sala, P

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine (C(4)-carnitine) in plasma with increase of ethylmalonic acid (EMA) in urine point to different genetic entities, and further investigations are required to differentiate the possible underlying defect. Here we report three unrelated cases, two...

  12. High fetal plasma adenosine concentration: a role for the fetus in preeclampsia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Espinoza, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical observations suggest a role for the fetus in the maternal manifestations of preeclampsia, but the possible signaling mechanisms remain unclear. This study compares the fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine from normal pregnancies with those from preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis included normal pregnancies (n = 27) and patients with preeclampsia (n = 39). Patients with preeclampsia were subclassified into patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 14) abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry (UADV). RESULTS: Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (1.35 +\\/- 0.09 mumol\\/L) than in normal pregnancies (0.52 +\\/- 0.06 mumol\\/L; P < .0001). Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine in patients with preeclampsia with abnormal UADV (1.78 +\\/- 0.15 mumol\\/L), but not with normal UADV (0.58 +\\/- 0.14 mumol\\/L), were significantly higher than in normal pregnancies (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Patients with preeclampsia with sonographic evidence of chronic uteroplacental ischemia have high fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine.

  13. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of plasma Aβ peptides concentrations in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Chouraki (Vincent); R.F.A.G. de Bruijn (Renée); J. Chapuis; J.C. Bis (Joshua); C. Reitz (Christiane); S. Schraen (Susanna); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); B. Grenier-Boley (Benjamin); C. Delay; R. Rogers; F. Demiautte; A. Mounier; A.L. Fitzpatrick (Annette); C. Berr (Claudine); J.-F. Dartigues; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); J.T. Becker; M. Lathrop (Mark); N. Schupf; A. Alperovitch (Annick); R. Mayeux (Richard); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia M.); L. Buee (Luc); P. Amouyel (Philippe); O.L. Lopez (Oscar); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); C. Tzourio (Christophe); J.-C. Lambert (J.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAmyloid beta (Aβ) peptides are the major components of senile plaques, one of the main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, Aβ peptides' functions are not fully understood and seem to be highly pleiotropic. We hypothesized that plasma Aβ peptides concentrations coul

  14. Plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics following rectal administration in neonates and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; O'Brien, K; Morton, N S

    1999-01-01

    Despite widespread use in children pharmacokinetic data about paracetamol are relatively scarce, not the least in the youngest age groups. This study aimed to describe plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics of a single rectal paracetamol dose in neonates and young infants....

  15. Relationship between craving and plasma leptin concentrations in patients with cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Giovanni; Montemitro, Chiara; Baroni, Gaia; Andreoli, Sara; Alimonti, Flaminia; Di Nicola, Marco; Tonioni, Federico; Leggio, Lorenzo; di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2017-08-05

    There is robust evidence indicating an overlap between neurobiological circuitry and pathways that regulate addictions and those that regulate appetite and food intake. Rodent work suggests a role of the appetitive peptide leptin in cocaine-seeking behaviours. The goal of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between plasma leptin concentrations and cocaine craving and use in patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence. Patients (N=43) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of cocaine dependence were studied before starting detoxification (baseline; T0) and then again 14days after (T1; only those patients who abstained from cocaine during the study). Blood samples for plasma leptin concentrations were collected and cocaine craving was assessed using the Brief Cocaine Craving Questionnaire (Brief-CCQ). Food craving was also assessed using a food Visual Analogue Scale (f-VAS). Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) was used to evaluate impulsivity. Plasma leptin concentrations at T0 significantly correlated with baseline Brief-CCQ scores (r=0.34, p0.05). The present study suggests a potential relationship between plasma leptin concentrations and cocaine craving and use. Future mechanistic studies are needed to determine whether manipulations of leptin signalling may lead to novel pharmacological approaches to treat cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Zinc and iron concentration and SOD activity in human semen and seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Kamiński, Piotr; Lakota, Paweł; Szymański, Marek; Wasilow, Karolina; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Kuligowska-Prusińska, Magdalena; Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Grażyna; Stuczyński, Tomasz; Michałkiewicz, Jacek

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentration in human semen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in seminal plasma and correlate the results with sperm quality. Semen samples were obtained from men (N = 168) undergoing routine infertility evaluation. The study design included two groups based on the ejaculate parameters. Group I (n = 39) consisted of males with normal ejaculate (normozoospermia), and group II (n = 129) consisted of males with pathological spermiogram. Seminal Zn and Fe were measured in 162 samples (group I, n = 38; group II, n = 124) and SOD activity in 149 samples (group I, n = 37; group II, n = 112). Correlations were found between SOD activity and Fe and Zn concentration, and between Fe and Zn concentration. SOD activity was negatively associated with volume of semen and positively associated with rapid progressive motility, nonprogressive motility, and concentration. Negative correlation was stated between Fe concentration and normal morphology. Mean SOD activity in seminal plasma of semen from men of group I was higher than in seminal plasma of semen from men of group II. Fe concentration was higher in teratozoospermic males than in males with normal morphology of spermatozoa in group II. Our results suggest that Fe may influence spermatozoa morphology.

  17. Overestimation of canine albumin concentration with the bromcresol green method in heparinized plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokol, Tracy; Tarrant, Jacqueline M.; Scarlett, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    Albumin concentrations are routinely measured in dogs with bromcresol green (BCG)-binding assays on automated chemistry analyzers. Several variables affect this assay, including the length of reaction time, sample type, and lack of specificity of BCG for albumin. We observed that albumin concentrations measured with BCG appeared higher in heparinized plasma samples in sick dogs. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of anticoagulant and assay procedure on BCG albumin concentrations in clinically ill dogs. We hypothesized that albumin concentrations would be overestimated in heparinized plasma compared with serum because of the combination of heparin and fibrinogen. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the overestimation would be influenced by assay parameters. Blood was collected from 32 clinically ill dogs into tubes containing heparin, citrate, or no anticoagulant. Citrate was chosen to assess the effect of fibrinogen in the absence of heparin. Albumin concentration was measured in all 3 sample types from each dog using 2 different BCG procedures on an automated chemistry analyzer. The BCG procedures (standard and modified) differed in the wavelengths used for absorbance readings (standard, 600/700; modified, 570/505) and the time point at which absorbance was measured (standard, 100 seconds; modified, 40 seconds). In addition, the modified method incorporated a sample blank. Globulin fractions, fibrinogen concentration, and indices of lipemia, hemolysis, and icterus were evaluated for their contribution to the overestimation of albumin concentration in heparinized plasma compared with serum samples. Albumin concentrations were significantly higher (P plasma (mean +/- SE, 3.8 +/- 0.1 g/dL) than in serum (3.6 +/- 0.2 g/dL) or citrated plasma (3.2 +/- 0.1 g/dL). Overestimation was evident only with the standard BCG procedure. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that fibrinogen was largely responsible for the higher

  18. Increases in plasma motilin follow each episode of gallbladder emptying during the interdigestive period, and changes in serum bile acid concentration correlate to plasma motilin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Pedersen, S A

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between each single period of gallbladder emptying during the migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle and changes in concentration of plasma motilin and serum bile acids is unknown. METHODS: The variations in the concentration of plasma motilin and serum bile acids in rel...

  19. The relationship between embryo quality assessed using routine embryology or time–lapse videography and serum progesterone concentration on the day of ovulatory trigger in in vitro fertilization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhe Liu

    2015-06-01

    Results: In cycles using conventional culture, serum progesterone per follicle ≥14 mm (median 0.42 nmol/L/follicle, range 0.05-3.50 nmol/L/follicle was a significant negative predictor of live-birth (ROC AUC = 0.395, 95% CI 0.345-0.445; P=0.000 as were progesterone/estradiol ratio (0.442, 0.391-0.494; P=0.027 and progesterone per oocyte (0.374, 0.326-0.421; P=0.000 but not progesterone alone (0.470, 0.419-0.521; P>0.05. Women with an EP/follicle (>0.42 nmol/L/follicle had reduced live birth rates if they were ≥35 yrs (14.4% vs. 24.2%, P0.42 nmol/L/follicle adversely affects embryo implantation in women aged ≥35 years, but not <35 yrs. However, no adverse features were seen in the embryos from these affected cycles in terms of morphological appearance, abnormal patterns of cleavage, or morphokinetic timings.

  20. Clinical relevance of plasma prostaglandin F2α metabolite concentrations in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku Aihara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a devastating lung disease of unknown etiology with few current treatment options. Recently, we determined an important role of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α in pulmonary fibrosis by using a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model and found an abundance of PGF2α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of IPF patients. We investigated the role of PGF2α in human IPF by assessing plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α, a stable metabolite of PGF2α. METHODS: We measured plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α in 91 IPF patients and compared these values with those of controls (n = 25. We further investigated the relationships of plasma 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α concentrations with disease severity and mortality. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α were significantly higher in IPF patients than controls (p<0.001. Plasma concentrations of this metabolite were significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (Rs [correlation coefficient] = -0.34, p = 0.004, forced vital capacity (Rs = -0.33, p = 0.005, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (Rs = -0.36, p = 0.003, the composite physiologic index (Rs = 0.40, p = 0.001, 6-minute walk distance (Rs = -0.24, p = 0.04 and end-exercise oxygen saturation (Rs = -0.25, p = 0.04 when patients with emphysema were excluded. Multivariate analysis using stepwise Cox proportional hazards model showed that a higher composite physiologic index (relative risk = 1.049, p = 0.002 and plasma 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α concentrations (relative risk = 1.005, p = 0.002 were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated significant associations of plasma concentrations of PGF2α metabolites with disease severity and prognosis, which support a potential pathogenic role for PGF2α in human IPF.

  1. Cholesterol concentration in seminal plasma as a predictive tool for quality semen evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer-Ljubić, B; Aladrović, J; Marenjak, T S; Laskaj, R; Majić-Balić, I; Milinković-Tur, S

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lipid composition of bovine serum and seminal plasma, seasonality, and semen quality. The experiment was carried out in two groups of Simmental breeding bulls: Group I (ages 2 to 4 yr) and Group II (ages 5 to 10 yr). Blood samples were collected from jugular vein, and bovine semen was sampled with an artificial vagina once per season. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerols, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and lipoprotein electrophoretic patterns were determined. Seminal plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C were assayed. Serum concentration of triacylglycerols in young bulls was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn, whereas serum NEFA concentration was significantly higher in autumn compared with that in other seasons. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and LDL lipoproteins in older bulls was significantly higher in winter than in spring. Seminal plasma concentration of total cholesterol in young bulls was significantly higher in spring compared with that in summer, whereas in older bulls it was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn samples. Sperm volume of both groups was significantly higher in summer compared with that in autumn and winter. Sperm motility in young bulls was lowest in summer and differed significantly from the values recorded in other seasons. The changes observed in seminal plasma cholesterol concentration were associated with extracellular lipid use and appeared to be applicable as a biochemical marker of sperm quality.

  2. Development of a GnRH-PGF2α-progesterone-based synchronization protocol with eCG for inducing single and double ovulations in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M F; Tutt, D; Quirke, L D; Tattersfield, G; Juengel, J L

    2014-11-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of different doses and timing of an eCG treatment given during GnRH-based synchronization protocols on follicular dynamics and fertility in cattle. In Exp. 1, Angus heifers (n = 50) received a 7-d Ovsynch + progesterone protocol (on d 0, GnRH and progesterone insert were administered; on d 7, progesterone insert was removed and PGF2α was injected; and on d 9.5, GnRH was injected 56 h after progesterone removal) with eCG (0, 300, 500, 700, or 1,000 IU) administered on d 7. In Exp. 2, Angus cows (n = 27) received the same protocol as Exp. 1 and were assigned randomly to receive 0 or 400 IU eCG i.m. on d 2 or 7. In Exp. 3, Angus cows (n = 18) received a 6-d Ovsynch + progesterone protocol and were randomly assigned to receive 0 or 800 IU eCG on d 3 of the protocol (Exp. 3a). A pilot field trial was also performed using the same treatments in suckled Angus-cross cows (n = 72; Exp. 3b). In Exp. 4, beef heifers (n = 200) were assigned randomly to the same treatments as in Exp. 3, but the second GnRH was not given, with Holstein bulls introduced on d 6. In Exp. 5, Angus cows (n = 12) received the same treatment as in Exp. 3, but were not inseminated. Progesterone concentrations were assessed in plasma collected during the estrous cycle following synchronization. Ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian dynamics and to diagnose pregnancy. In Exp. 1, the mean number of ovulations was affected (P reproductive performance through increased pregnancy rates in single ovulating animals as well as the induction of twin ovulations for twinning.

  3. High Variability of Plasma Drug Concentrations in Dual Protease Inhibitor Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiard-Schmid, Jean-Baptiste; Poirier, Jean-Marie; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Bonnard, Philippe; Gbadoe, Ayi Hola; Amiel, Corinne; Calligaris, Frédérique; Abraham, Bruno; Pialoux, Gilles; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Jaillon, Patrice; Rozenbaum, Willy

    2003-01-01

    Ritonavir (RTV) strongly increases the concentrations of protease inhibitors (PIs) in plasma in patients given a combination of RTV and another PI. This pharmacological interaction is complex and poorly characterized and shows marked inter- and intraindividual variations. In addition, RTV interacts differently with saquinavir (SQV), indinavir (IDV), amprenavir (APV), and lopinavir (LPV). In this retrospective study on 542 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, we compared inter- and intraindividual variability of plasma PI concentrations and correlations between the Cmin (minimum concentration of drug in plasma) values for RTV and the coadministered PI Cmin values. Mean RTV Cmins are significantly lower in patients receiving combinations containing APV or LPV than in combinations with SQV or IDV. With the most common PI dose regimens (600 mg of IDV twice a day [BID], 800 mg of SQV BID, and 400 mg of LPV BID), the interindividual Cmin variability of patients treated with a PI and RTV seemed to be lower with APV and LPV than with IDV and SQV. As regards intraindividual variability, APV also differed from the other PIs, exhibiting lower Cmin variability than with the other combinations. Significant positive correlations between RTV Cmin and boosted PI Cmin were observed with IDV, SQV, and LPV, but not with APV. Individual dose adjustments must take into account the specificity the pharmacological interaction of each RTV/PI combination and the large inter- and intraindividual variability of plasma PI levels to avoid suboptimal plasma drug concentrations which may lead to treatment failure and too high concentrations which may induce toxicity and therefore reduce patient compliance. PMID:12604531

  4. Progesterone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics with 3 dosages and 2 regimens of an effervescent micronized progesterone vaginal insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Richard J; Collins, Michael G; Yankov, Vladimir I

    2014-11-01

    Progesterone vaginal insert (PVI), an effervescent delivery system, dissolves rapidly, is absorbed through the vaginal epithelium, and achieves higher endometrial tissue concentrations than those achieved with progesterone in oil (PIO) given im. Our objective was to examine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PVI compared with PIO. Fifty-eight healthy premenopausal women were randomized to 50, 100, or 200 mg PVI once daily; 100 or 200 mg PVI twice daily; or 50 to 100 mg PIO via im injection once daily for 10 days. Serum samples were obtained after the first dose; serum and endometrial tissue were obtained after the last dose. Maximum observed serum concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax, and area under the serum-concentration time curve over the dosing interval were calculated after correcting for baseline progesterone concentrations. ANOVA and paired t test were used to compare results across and within groups. A higher Cmax was observed after PIO than PVI administration. Endometrial tissue progesterone concentrations were higher for PVI regimens. Time to Cmax was 7.3 hours after PIO and 3.3 to 5.9 hours after PVI. Steady state was achieved within 24 and 48 hours for PVI and PIO regimens, respectively. The area under the curve increased with increasing PVI dosage; however, the increase was not proportional to the increase in dosage. Downregulation of estrogen and progesterone receptors was observed in secretory biopsy specimens. The PVI system consistently allowed for rapid progesterone absorption and achieved higher endometrial tissue concentrations and lower systemic exposures than observed after im PIO.

  5. Sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma of patients with late-life depression: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hideyuki Shimizu,1 Minoru Takebayashi,2 Masayuki Tani,1 Hiroaki Tanaka,1 Bun Yamagata,1 Kenzo Kurosawa,1 Hiroki Yamada,1 Mitsugu Hachisu,3 Kazue Hisaoka-Nakashima,2 Mami Okada-Tsuchioka,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Akira Iwanami11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Institute for Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Psychopharmacy, Pharmacy School, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and after antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD and explored whether changes in depressive status are related to sigma-1 receptor concentrations.Methods: The study participants were 12 subjects with late-life MDD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All of the participants were over 60 years old. Immediately prior to and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, sigma-1 receptor concentration and mental status, including depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-D, were measured. Treatment for depression was performed according to a developed algorithm based on the choice of treatments. We examined the association between changes in sigma-1 receptor concentration and HAM-D scores during antidepressant treatment. For the measurement of plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration, blood plasma samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western

  6. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Monique

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  7. HEMOFILTRATION AND COUPLED PLASMA FILTRATION ADSORPTION IMPACT ON TACROLIMUS BLOOD CONCENTRATION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of hemofi ltration and coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption on tacrolimus blood concentration in renal transplant recipients.Methods and results. The study included 8 renal transplant recipients. In these patients immediately after the operation was performed the coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption with hemofiltration using a cartridge Mediasorb to reduce the severity of reperfusion injury. We have found that during this extracorporeal blood correction procedure there was statistically not signifi cant decrease of tacrolimus blood concentration. However, concentration of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range even after the procedure and it was not signifi cantly different from the control point С0.Conclusion. Coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption is safe in renal transplant recipients and has no signifi cant impact on tacrolimus blood concentration. However, the downward trend in the concentration of tacrolimus in the course of these procedures, especially in continuous or semicontinuous mode, as well as in patients with low hematocrit and hypoalbuminemia, requires individual monitoring.

  8. The Relationship between the Plasma Triglyceride Concentration and the Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglycerides (TG may be involved in the pathogenesis of critical impairments. Objective: to study the relationship between the plasma concentration of TG, the outcome of the disease, and the markers of its severity in intensive care unit patients with early-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Subjects and methods. The prospective study included 18 patients with acute lung injury (ALI, who needed respiratory support. For further analysis, all the patients were divided into groups with TG < 1.00 mmol/l (TGlow; n=7 and >1.00 mmol/l (TGhigh; n=11. Results. A negative correlation was found between plasma TG concentration and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2. In the TG^jgh group, extravas-cular lung water index was significantly higher and cardiac index was lower than those in the TGlow group. Among the deceased patients, there was a 1.03 mmol/l reduction in TG concentration by day 4 of the study whereas in the survivors, TG concentration increased by an average of 0.15 mmol/l (p=0.02. Conclusion. In the patients with ALI, the plasma concentration of TG is related to oxygenation impairments and the degree of pulmonary edema, as well as with the outcome of the disease. Key words: triglycerides, acute lung injury, extravascular lung water index, pulmonary edema.

  9. Kinetic and Related Determinants of Plasma Triglyceride Concentration in Abdominal Obesity: Multicenter Tracer Kinetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borén, Jan; Watts, Gerald F; Adiels, Martin; Söderlund, Sanni; Chan, Dick C; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Matikainen, Niina; Kahri, Juhani; Vergès, Bruno; Barrett, P Hugh R; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A major cause is an atherogenic dyslipidemia related primarily to elevated plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to clarify determinants of plasma triglyceride concentration. We focused on factors that predict the kinetics of very-low density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) triglycerides. A multicenter study using dual stable isotopes (deuterated leucine and glycerol) and multicompartmental modeling was performed to elucidate the kinetics of triglycerides and apoB in VLDL1 in 46 subjects with abdominal obesity and additional cardiometabolic risk factors. Results showed that plasma triglyceride concentrations were dependent on both the secretion rate (r=0.44, Ptriglycerides and VLDL1-apoB. Liver fat mass was independently and directly associated with secretion rates of VLDL1-triglycerides (r=0.56, Ptriglycerides (r=0.48, Ptriglyceride concentrations in abdominal obesity are determined by the kinetics of VLDL1 subspecies, catabolism being mainly dependent on apoC-III concentration and secretion on liver fat content. Reduction in liver fat and targeting apoC-III may be an effective approach for correcting triglyceride metabolism atherogenic dyslipidemia in obesity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Increased plasma concentration of serum amyloid P component in centenarians with impaired cognitive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Olsen, H; Jeune, B;

    1998-01-01

    these to the cognitive performance evaluated by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). We observed a significantly (p ... higher SAP concentration (60.2 microg/ml), while the subgroup of cognitive intact centenarians (MMSE score >24) showed a normal SAP concentration (38.4+/-9.3 microg/ml). No dehydration or hepatic dysfunction was demonstrable in the centenarians. We conclude that the centenarians with impaired cognitive...... performance had significantly increased plasma concentrations of SAP, while the values for cognitive intact centenarians were within the normal range....

  11. [The concentration of free lidocaine in arterial, central venous and peripheral vein plasma following intravenous injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, H; al Saydali, B; Weissenberg, W

    1990-03-01

    Ten intensive care patients and five healthy volunteers each received a bolus injection of lidocaine HCl (100 mg, 2%) over an injection period of 5 s. After 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 25 min arterial, central venous and peripheral venous blood samples were collected. In four of the volunteers, arterial and central venous samples were also taken about 10 s after the end of injection. The fluorescence polarization method by means of the Abbott-TDx system was used, and plasma concentrations of lidocaine were determined. The measurements showed that lidocaine levels in central venous plasma 10 s after the end of administration were higher than those in arterial plasma. By 30 s after administration the opposite situation had developed, so that arterial concentrations were higher than those in central venous plasma. This relation did not change throughout the study, though the two levels became closer, as is shown by the ratios (Table 3, Fig. 2). Concentrations in peripheral venous plasma increased more slowly but remained far below those in arterial and central venous plasma, at least for the first 8 min. After 15 min lidocaine levels were almost the same in all three samples. During the entire study there were no ECG changes, and neither heart rate nor blood pressure showed any significant deviation from the values obtained at the beginning. The volunteers had minor toxic manifestations, such as dizziness, tinnitus and a metallic taste in the mouth; one person had a sensation of pressure in his chest, which improved following oxygen administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Plasma concentrations of organohalogenated pollutants in predatory bird nestlings: associations to growth rate and dietary tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bårdsen, Bård J; Herzke, Dorte; Johnsen, Trond V; Eulaers, Igor; Ballesteros, Manuel; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Covaci, Adrian; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Eens, Marcel; Sonne, Christian; Halley, Duncan; Moum, Truls; Nøst, Therese Haugdal; Erikstad, Kjell E; Ims, Rolf Anker

    2013-11-01

    The extent to which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with different physicochemical properties originated from the food (dietary input) was assessed in raptor nestlings. Lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153, 1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and protein-bound perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured repeatedly in blood plasma of individual goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) nestlings, 1 to 3 wk after hatching and near fledging. Maternally derived POPs dilute as nestlings grow (growth dilution), and increasing plasma concentrations would indicate dietary input. First, plasma concentrations given no dietary input were estimated, and concentrations of p,p'-DDE, HCB, and notably PFOS were significantly higher than predicted from a growth-dilution scenario (approximately 1.5-fold to 2.5-fold higher; p growth rate. Both δ(15) N and δ(13) C (measured in body feathers) were significantly associated to the accumulation of most POPs, except PFOS. In conclusion, pollutant data acquired in plasma of nestling raptors should be interpreted and further investigated in the light of individual feeding ecology, and the use of raptor nestlings as sentinels for POP monitoring could be optimized by correcting for different factors such as body condition, brood size, and age.

  13. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  14. Effects of different supplemental soya bean oil levels on the performance of prepubertal Saanen goats: Oestrogen and progesterone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, G F; Merighe, G K F; de Oliveira, S A; Rodrigues, A D; Augusto, L; Teixeira, I A M A; de Resende, K T; Negrao, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soya bean oil in the total diet on the growth rate, metabolic changes, and oestrogen and progesterone release in Saanen goats. After dietary adaptation, 21 prepubertal goats (weight of 29.12 ± 0.91 kg, 230 days old) were randomly distributed among three diets of D2: inclusion of 2% soya bean oil in the total diet; D3: basal diet - inclusion of 3% soya bean oil in the total diet; and D4: inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the total diet. The basal diet (D3) was formulated to promote a daily gain of 0.140 kg. The goats were weighed, and their blood samples were collected weekly. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma were measured. Prepubertal goats that were fed D4 exhibited a significantly lower dry matter intake, urea and cholesterol levels compared with the goats that were fed D2 and D3. Indeed, goats that were fed D4 displayed a significantly lower final weight than goats that were fed D2 and D3. In contrast, the inclusion of soya bean oil in the diet increased the progesterone and oestrogen concentrations, and goats that were fed D4 released a significantly higher concentration of progesterone than those that were fed D2 and D3. Furthermore, the percentage of goats with a progesterone level greater than 1 ng/ml (functional Corpus luteum) was significantly higher among the goats that were fed D3 and D4 than among those that were fed D2. In this study, although the inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the diet decreased dry matter intake and growth rate, it increased progesterone concentration and the percentage of goats with a functional Corpus luteum, suggesting that the inclusion of soya bean oil accelerated puberty in prepubertal goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Plasma concentrations of PGFM and uterine and ovarian responses in early lactation dairy cows fed omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirandeh, E; Towhidi, A; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Hashemi, F Adib; Ganjkhanlou, M; Zeinoaldini, S; Roodbari, A Rezaei; Saberifar, T; Petit, H V

    2013-07-15

    A total of 120 dairy cows were assigned randomly to three diets to determine the effects of omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation on uterine diseases, ovarian responses, and blood concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and PGFM in lactating Holstein dairy cows. Diets contained either protected palm oil (C), extruded linseed (L), or roasted whole soybeans (S), and they were fed from calving to Day 70 postpartum. Estrous cycles were synchronized and ovarian follicular development was monitored daily for an entire cycle. There were no differences among diets in the incidence of lameness, mastitis, or metritis, but the incidence of clinical endometritis was lower (P < 0.05) in cows fed S (0%) compared with cows fed C (28.2%) and L (20.5%). Uterine involution in cows fed S occurred 3.77 and 2.78 days earlier, respectively, than in those fed C and L. The PGFM response 60 minutes after an oxytocin challenge was highest for cows fed S and lowest for cows fed L. Mean plasma progesterone concentration on Day 15 of the synchronized cycle was higher in cows fed S (14.5 ng/mL) and L (15.0 ng/mL) than in those fed C (12.0 ng/mL). The ovulatory follicle on Day 21 of the estrous cycle (estrous = Day 0) was larger in cows fed S (16.1 ± 0.9 mm) and L (15.7 ± 0.7 mm) compared with cows fed C (13.2 ± 0.87 mm; P = 0.02) but there were no significant differences between cows fed diets S and L. The mean number of small and medium follicles and diameter of subordinate follicle were similar among diets. In conclusion, feeding a source of omega-6 FA can be a strategy to improve uterine health after calving, although a source of omega-3 FA such as L should be fed after uterine involution to decrease PGF2α secretion.

  16. Consumption of canned citrus fruit meals increases human plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentration, whereas lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao H; Gertz, Erik R; Cai, Yimeng; Burri, Betty J

    2016-07-01

    Several studies suggest that β-cryptoxanthin has a greater plasma response from its common food sources than other carotenoids such as β-carotene and lycopene. The hypothesis of this study is that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations will be greater than changes in plasma β-carotene or lycopene concentrations even if these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix, such as citrus fruit. We tested this hypothesis by measuring changes in plasma concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β-carotene after feeding measured amounts of canned tangerines and pink grapefruit to healthy nonsmoking adult humans. Volunteers served as their own controls and received both citrus fruit treatments randomly. In the first study, 8 subjects ate single meals of 234-304g of tangerines or 60-540g of pink grapefruit. The second study compared changes in plasma carotenoid concentration caused by feeding 234g of tangerines or 540g of pink grapefruit to 11 subjects. Blood was collected 5 times within 24hours after each citrus meal. Carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased within 5hours and then stabilized, remaining high throughout the 24hours measured. Plasma concentrations of lycopene and β-carotene did not change. These results show that β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased after a citrus fruit meal, but lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change after a similar citrus fruit meal. These results support our hypothesis that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin are greater than changes in plasma lycopene or β-carotene, even when these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix.

  17. Rapid screening test for primary hyperaldosteronism: ratio of plasma aldosterone to renin concentration determined by fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perschel, F.H.; Schemer, R.; Seiler, L.; Reincke, M.; Deinum, J.; Maser-Gluth, C.; Mechelhoff, D.; Tauber, R.; Diederich, S.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ratio of plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity (PAC/PRA) is the most common screening test for primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA), but it is not standardized among laboratories. We evaluated new automated assays for the simultaneous measurement of PAC and plasma ren

  18. Assessment of postpartum uterine involution and progesterone profile in Nubian goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdi Elnaim Badawi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A total number of 12 postpartum (pp Nubian goats were included in the study to measure the uterine involution by ultrasonography from day 3 to 31 pp. Coinciding with ultrasonography, blood samples were collected at every 3 days to monitor the ovarian activity by measuring plasma progesterone (P4 concentration using progesterone radio-immuno-assay (RIA. Uterine diameter (UD and uterine lumen (UL were maximum on day 3, and minimum on day 31 pp. More than 50% of uterine involution occurred between day 3 and day 14 pp. The end of uterine involution was characterized by small UD and absence of lochia in the UL. The maximum (0.87±0.4 ng/mL and minimum (0.54±0.2 ng/mL plasma P4 levels were reported on day 27 and day 7 pp, respectively. Completion of uterine involution was recorded at 22±3.3 days pp. There was a negative correlation between P4 level and uterine parameters (UD and UL. It can be concluded that ultrasonography is a reliable tool to determine uterine involution in Nubian goats.

  19. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestorino, N. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: nmestorino@yahoo.com; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-04-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg{sup -1}). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 {mu}g h mL{sup -1} and its elimination half life (T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2}) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2} from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal.

  20. Development of a microfluidic device for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Kumar, B S; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2015-12-01

    This work presents design, fabrication and test of a microfluidic device which employs Fahraeus-Lindqvist and Zweifach-Fung effects for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation. The device design comprises a straight main channel with a series of branched channels placed symmetrically on both sides of the main channel. The design implements constrictions before each junction (branching point) in order to direct cells that would have migrated closer to the wall (naturally or after liquid extraction at a junction) towards the centre of the main channel. Theoretical and numerical analysis are performed for design of the microchannel network to ensure that a minimum flow rate ratio (of 2.5:1, main channel-to-side channels) is maintained at each junction and predict flow rate at the plasma outlet. The dimensions and location of the constrictions were determined using numerical simulations. The effect of presence of constrictions before the junctions was demonstrated by comparing the performances of the device with and without constrictions. To demonstrate the performance of the device, initial experiments were performed with polystyrene microbeads (10 and 15 μm size) and droplets. Finally, the device was used for concentration of HL60 cells and separation of plasma and cells in diluted blood samples. The cell concentration and blood-plasma purification efficiency was quantified using Haemocytometer and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). A seven-fold cell concentration was obtained with HL60 cells and a purification efficiency of 70 % and plasma recovery of 80 % was observed for diluted (1:20) blood sample. FACS was used to identify cell lysis and the cell viability was checked using Trypan Blue test which showed that more than 99 % cells are alive indicating the suitability of the device for practical use. The proposed device has potential to be used as a sample preparation module in lab on chip based diagnostic platforms.

  1. Increased plasma soluble CD40 ligand concentration in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsung-chin; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Po-Hui; Lin, Long-Yau; Tee, Yi-Torng; Liao, Wen-Chun; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The role of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains unclear. We sought to determine whether sCD40L was an efficient serum marker as with WBC and CRP in PID patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the plasma levels of sCD40L before and after routine protocol treatments in sixty-four PID patients and seventy healthy controls. The level of plasma sCD40L (pg/ml) was significantly elevated in PID patients (1632.83±270.91) compared to that in normal controls (700.33±58.77; p=0.001) and decreased significantly as compared to that in the same patients (928.77±177.25; p=0.0001) after they received treatment. The concentration of sCD40L was significantly correlated with the level of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood (r=0.202, p=0.01, n=134). When the cutoff level of plasma sCD40L levels was determined to be 1612.26pg/ml based on ROC, the sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve of plasma sCD40L level for predicting PID were 0.26, 0.97, and 0.58 (95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.68), respectively, while the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with their 95% CI of plasma sCD40L for PID risk was 7.09 (95% CI=1.14-43.87, p=0.03). The expression of plasma sCD40L was increased in patients with PID and detection of plasma sCD40L could be useful for the diagnosis of PID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-07-04

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration could modify PRP efficacy in routine applications. The aim of this study was to test the influence of environmental, individual and agonistic variables on the PLT concentration of PRP in horses. Six healthy Standardbred mares were exposed to six different variables with a one-week washout period between variables, and PRP was subsequently obtained from each horse. The variables were time of withdrawal during the day (morning/evening), hydration status (overhydration/dehydration) treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and training periods on a treadmill. The platelet concentration was significantly higher in horses treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (P = 0.03). The leukocyte concentration increased 2-9 fold with respect to whole blood in the PRP which was obtained after exposure to all the variable considered. Environmental variation in platelet concentration should be taken into consideration during PRP preparation.

  3. Evaluation of an immunoassay for determination of plasma efavirenz concentrations in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemseged Abdissa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM may improve antiretroviral efficacy through adjustment of individual drug administration. This could result in reduced toxicity, prevent drug resistance, and aid management of drug–drug interactions. However, most measurement methods are too costly to be implemented in resource-limited settings. This study evaluated a commercially available immunoassay for measurement of plasma efavirenz. Methods: The immunoassay-based method was applied to measure efavirenz using a readily available Humastar 80 chemistry analyzer. We compared plasma efavirenz concentrations measured by the immunoassay with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (reference method in 315 plasma samples collected from HIV patients on treatment. Concentrations were categorized as suboptimal4 µg/ml. Agreement between results of the methods was assessed via Bland-Altman plot and κ statistic values. Results: The median Interquartile range (IQR efavirenz concentration was 2.8 (1.9; 4.5 µg/ml measured by the LC–MS/MS method and 2.5 (1.8; 3.9 µg/ml by the immunoassay and the results were well correlated (ρ=0.94. The limits of agreement assessed by Bland–Altman plots were −2.54; 1.70 µg/ml. Although immunoassay underestimated high concentrations, it had good agreement for classification into low, normal or high concentrations (K=0.74. Conclusions: The immunoassay is a feasible alternative to determine efavirenz in areas with limited resources. The assay provides a reasonable approximation of efavirenz concentration in the majority of samples with a tendency to underestimate high concentrations. Agreement between tests evaluated in this study was clinically satisfactory for identification of low, normal and high efavirenz concentrations.

  4. Patient age does not affect mefloquine concentrations in erythrocytes and plasma during the acute phase of falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Fernandes Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate whether patient age has a significant impact on mefloquine concentrations in the plasma and erythrocytes over the course of treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Methods A total of 20 children aged between 8 and 11 years and 20 adult males aged between 22 and 41 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled in the study. Mefloquine was administered to patients in both age groups at a dose of 20 mg kg−1. The steady-state drug concentrations were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results All patients had an undetectable mefloquine concentration on day 0. In adults, the plasma mefloquine concentrations ranged from 770 to 2930 ng mL−1 and the erythrocyte concentrations ranged from 2000 to 6030 ng mL−1. In children, plasma mefloquine concentrations ranged from 881 to 3300 ng mL−1 and erythrocyte concentrations ranged from 3000 to 4920 ng mL−1. There was no significant correlation between mefloquine concentrations in the plasma and erythrocytes in either adults or children. Conclusion In the present study, we observed no effect of patient age on the steady-state concentrations of mefloquine in the plasma and erythrocytes. We found that the mefloquine concentration in the erythrocytes was approximately 2.8-times higher than in the plasma. There were no significant correlations between mefloquine concentrations in the erythrocytes and plasma for either age group.

  5. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations.Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC.Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry.Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale.Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  6. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1–2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions. PMID

  7. Relationship between physical activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in adults without chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Gomez-Marcos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR, and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women. Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs/hour/week and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute for 7 days. RESULTS: Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week. Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = -0.100; p<0.001 and METs/hour/week (r = -0.162; p<0.001. In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile, maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = -0.03; p = 0.046 and β = -0.06; p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of methimazole in children and adolescents with Graves' disease. Studies on plasma and intrathyroidal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, A; Yano, K; Inyaku, F; Suzuki, Y; Sanae, N; Kumai, M; Naitoh, Y

    1987-05-01

    Methimazole concentrations in plasma and in the thyroid glands were measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetics of methimazole were studied after a single oral dose (175 mumol/m2) in nine children and adolescent who were in the thyrotoxic state. Plasma levels of methimazole showed peak concentrations of 4.4 to 12.6 (median 9.2) mumol/l at 0.5 to 4 h after drug administration. Plasma half-life, area under the curve, and distribution volume ranged from 2.73 to 6.04 h, 32.8 to 77.9 mumol X l-1 X h-1, and 0.516 to 0.913 l/kg, respectively. These pharmacokinetic parameters showed a wide variation among the patients, but were quite reproducible in the same subject. Intrathyroidal concentrations of methimazole were measured in another nine subjects including four adolescents and five adults who underwent thyroidectomy. The drug concentrations in the thyroid glands ranged between 3.5 and 23.8 mumol/kg tissue and were far higher than those in the plasma obtained at the time of surgery. In this series of experiments, the dose of the drug varied from 76 to 319 mumol/m2, time after the last dose to surgery from 5 to 24 h, and the mode of drug administration from a single to three divided doses. Among these variable factors, only the daily dose of methimazole corrected by body surface area showed significant correlation with the intrathyroidal concentration, whereas the time after the last dose of the drug and the mode of drug administration did not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Influence of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Beynen, A C

    1993-05-01

    The effects of amount and type of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations were evaluated in female rats. The isonitrogenous diets used contained 10 g cholesterol/kg and were carefully balanced for residual fat, cholesterol, Ca, Mg and P in the protein preparations. Cod meal, soya-bean protein or casein was incorporated into the diets as the only source of dietary protein at three levels: either 24, 48 or 72 g N/kg diet. Extra protein was added to the diet at the expense of the glucose component. In a second experiment soya-bean protein, casein, cod meal, whiting meal or plaice meal was added to the diet at a level of 24 g N/kg. When compared with casein, cod meal and soya-bean protein decreased plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. A further cholesterol-lowering effect was achieved by increasing the proportion of either soya-bean protein or cod meal in the diet. Substitution of casein for glucose did not influence plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. Plaice meal in the diet produced lower group mean plasma cholesterol concentrations than did whiting meal. In rats fed on the diet containing plaice meal, liver cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower than those in their counterparts fed on either cod meal or whiting meal. The present study demonstrates that different fish proteins in the diet have different effects on cholesterol metabolism and that the cholesterol-influencing properties of cod meal can be enhanced by the incorporation of higher proportions of this protein in the diet.

  10. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Lamb, G C

    2016-07-01

    The role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy is well known in the bovine. Subtle differences exist between dairy and beef cows because of differing concentrations of progesterone during recrudescence of postpartum estrous cycles, rate of follicular growth and maturation, proportions of 2- and 3-follicular wave cycles, and other effects on pregnancy outcomes per artificial insemination (P/AI). Because proportions of anovulatory cows before the onset of the artificial insemination (AI) period are greater and more variable in beef (usually ranging from 30 to 70%) than dairy (25%) cows, AI programs were developed to accommodate anovulatory and cycling beef cows enrolled therein. Incorporating a progestin as part of an AI program in beef cows improved P/AI by reducing the proportion of cows having premature luteal regression and short post-AI luteal phases. In both genotypes, prolonged dominant follicle growth in a reduced progesterone milieu resulted in increased (1) LH pulses, (2) preovulatory follicle diameter, and (3) concentrations of estradiol and a subsequently larger corpora lutea (CL). In contrast, the progesterone milieu during growth of the ovulatory follicle in an ovulation control program does not seem to affect subsequent P/AI in beef cows, whereas in dairy cows follicle development in an elevated compared with a low progesterone environment increases P/AI. Progesterone status in beef cows at the onset of ovulation synchronization is not related to P/AI in multiparous cows, whereas P/AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began a timed AI program in a low-progesterone environment. In timed AI programs, elevated concentrations of progesterone just before PGF2α and reduced concentrations at AI are critical to maximizing subsequent P/AI in dairy cows, but seemingly much less important in beef cows. By inducing ancillary CL and increasing concentrations of progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin may increase P/AI when administered to beef cows 7d

  11. Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL. For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  12. Plasma protein concentrations in hypertriglyceridaemic subjects. Effect of clofibrate and comparison with normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, F C; Morrison, B A; Ballantyne, D; Dryburgh, F J; Epenetos, A A

    1978-07-01

    Clofibrate, a widely used hypolipidaemic agent was given for twelve weeks to ten subjects with hypertriglyceridaemia. Its effect on lipoprotein-lipids and caeruloplasmin, IgA, IgM, alpha2-microglobulin and transferrin was assessed by comparing analyses at 4, 8 and 12 weeks on therapy with the means of values at two weeks before and at the start of treatment. The normal variation in plasma proteins was assessed in six healthy volunteers during the same period of time. On clofibrate, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations fell, but the concentrations of cholesterol in low density (LDL) and high density (HDL) lipoproteins showed no consistent change. Caeruloplasmin and IgM concentrations decreased significantly, IgA showed a limited falls (significant only at 8 weeks) and alpha2-macroglobulin did not change. The concentration of transferrin increased on therapy. No relationships were found between the falls in VLDL-lipid concentrations and the alterations in other plasma proteins. No significant variation occurred in the concentrations of lipids or proteins in the normal subjects during the period of study. The results indicate that clofibrate exerts general effects on protein metabolism.

  13. Enhanced food intake by progesterone-treated female rats is related to changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmańska, Ewa; Sucajtys-Szulc, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone-treated females eat more food, but the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of progesterone on neuropeptide genes expression in rat hypothalamus. Experiments were carried out on female and male Wistar rats. Animals were treated with progesterone (100 mg per rat) for 28 days. NPY and CART mRNA levels in hypothalamus were quantified by real-time PCR. The serum progesterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Progesterone administration to females caused an increase in food intake, body mass, and white adipose tissue mass. Elevated circulating progesterone concentration up-regulated NPY and down-regulated CART genes expression in hypothalamus of females. In males, elevated blood progesterone concentration had no effect on food intake, body and fat mass and on the neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus. Moreover, administration of progesterone in females resulted in decrease of PR mRNA level in hypothalamus. No effect of progesterone administration on PR mRNA level in hypothalamus of males was found. The changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus may lead to stimulation of appetite and might explain the observed increase in food intake, body and adipose tissue mass in progesterone-treated females.

  14. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rinder, Christiane; Beige, Joachim;

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure.......Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure....

  15. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group...

  16. Plasma alcohol, smoking, hormone concentrations and self-reported aggression. A study in a social-drinking situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, L E; Robertson, L S; Tuchfeld, B

    1975-05-01

    Plasma alcohol concentrations and the number of cigarettes smoked by men during social-drinking situations were significantly related to change in testosterone levels. Age, height, plasma alcohol and smoking were related to self-reports of prior assault and verbal aggression. Agression was not related to testosterone concentration.

  17. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda;

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group...

  18. ADAMTS13 content in plasma-derived factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, Flora; Mannucci, Pier M; Valsecchi, Carla; Pontiggia, Silvia; Farina, Claudio; Retzios, Anastassios D

    2013-10-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a microangiopathy syndrome caused by a congenital or acquired deficiency of ADAMTS13, a plasma metalloprotease that cleaves von Willebrand factor (VWF) and thus prevents the formation of platelet-rich thrombi in the microcirculation. TTP can be fatal if not appropriately and timely treated with the infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or exchange plasmapheresis, that reverse the process of microangiopathy by removing anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies and replacing functional ADAMTS13. The treatment of TTP with FFP is not free from risks and must be administered in hospitals or clinics, owing to the substantial amount of plasma volume infused or exchanged and the frequent need of catheter application. Moreover, most FFPs are not subjected to treatments to remove or inactivate blood-borne infectious agents. A number of recent reports indicate that certain plasma-derived VWF-factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates are clinically effective in the treatment of congenital TTP. In this study, we measured ADAMTS13 levels in various plasma-derived VWF-FVIII concentrates, showing that Koate(®) -DVI (Grifols), contained relatively high amounts of ADAMTS13 and that Alphanate(®) (Grifols) was the closest other product in terms of protease content. Koate(®) -DVI contains, on average (five lots tested), 0.091 ± 0.007 Units of ADAMTS13 activity per IU of FVIII. On the basis of this analysis and other reports of VWF-FVIII concentrate utilization in congenital TTP, potential dosing, and future clinical developments are discussed.

  19. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  20. An Advanced Model to Precisely Estimate the Cell-Free Fetal DNA Concentration in Maternal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huixin; Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Weiwei; Chen, Fang; Zeng, Peng; Li, Xuchao; Xie, Yifan; Liu, Hongtai; Huang, Guodong; Chen, Dayang; Liu, Ping; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Xiuqing

    2016-01-01

    Background With the speedy development of sequencing technologies, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been widely applied in clinical practice for testing for fetal aneuploidy. The cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) concentration in maternal plasma is the most critical parameter for this technology because it affects the accuracy of NIPT-based sequencing for fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13. Several approaches have been developed to calculate the cffDNA fraction of the total cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma. However, most approaches depend on specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele information or are restricted to male fetuses. Methods In this study, we present an innovative method to accurately deduce the concentration of the cffDNA fraction using only maternal plasma DNA. SNPs were classified into four maternal-fetal genotype combinations and three boundaries were added to capture effective SNP loci in which the mother was homozygous and the fetus was heterozygous. The median value of the concentration of the fetal DNA fraction was estimated using the effective SNPs. A depth-bias correction was performed using simulated data and corresponding regression equations for adjustments when the depth of the sequencing data was below 100-fold or the cffDNA fraction is less than 10%. Results Using our approach, the median of the relative bias was 0.4% in 18 maternal plasma samples with a median sequencing depth of 125-fold. There was a significant association (r = 0.935) between our estimations and the estimations inferred from the Y chromosome. Furthermore, this approach could precisely estimate a cffDNA fraction as low as 3%, using only maternal plasma DNA at the targeted region with a sequencing depth of 65-fold. We also used PCR instead of parallel sequencing to calculate the cffDNA fraction. There was a significant association (r = 98.2%) between our estimations and those inferred from the Y chromosome. PMID:27662469

  1. The effects of therapeutic concentrations ofamisulpride andrisperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation – invitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dietrich-Muszalska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antipsychotics may in different ways affect the oxidative stress measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. Probably some of them may intensify the oxidative balance disturbances occurring in schizophrenia. The effects of amisulpride and risperidone on redox processes are not known sufficiently yet. Aim of the study: Establishment of the effects of amisulpride and risperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation measured by determination of the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, in vitro. Material and methods: Blood for the studies was collected from healthy volunteers (aged 24-26 years for ACD solution. Active substances of the examined drugs were dissolved in 0.01% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO to the final concentrations (of amisulpride 578 ng/ml and risperidone 64 ng/ml and incubated with plasma for 1 and 24 hours at 37ºC. For each experiment the control samples of plasma with DMSO (without the drug were performed. The lipid peroxidation level was measured in plasma by determining the TBARS concentration, using the spectrophotometric method (acc. to Rice-Evans, 1991. The results were analysed using the following statistical methods: the paired Student t-test and ANOVA II variance analysis and NIR test (StatSoft Inc., Statistica v. 6.0. Results: The ANOVA II variance analysis indicated significant differences in the effects of both drugs on TBARS level (F=4.26; df=2, p0.05. Conclusion: Amisulpride and risperidone in concentrations corresponding to doses recommended for treatment of acute episode of schizophrenia do not induce oxidative stress measured by lipid peroxidation. Unlike risperidone, amisulpride exhibits antioxidative effects.

  2. Technical note: Effect of determining baseline plasma urea nitrogen concentrations on subsequent posttreatment plasma urea nitrogen concentrations in 20- to 50-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waguespack, A M; Powell, S; Roux, M L; Frugé, E D; Bidner, T D; Payne, R L; Southern, L L

    2011-12-01

    Plasma urea N (PUN) has been used as an indicator of AA requirements and efficiency of AA utilization in swine. However, PUN concentrations vary among a population of pigs, even a population with a close range of BW and fed the same diet. Thus, pretreatment or baseline PUN concentrations are used as a covariate to reduce variation of posttreatment PUN. However, this procedure increases experimental costs and stress to the pigs. Data from 14 experiments (26 to 28 d in duration) conducted using PUN as a response variable were compiled into 1 data set. Each experiment had 4 to 6 treatments. The purpose of this technical report was to summarize the effect of determining pretreatment baseline PUN concentrations on subsequent posttreatment PUN concentrations in 20- to 50-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets and low-CP diets with various AA additions; pigs were assigned to dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with a minimum of 4 replicates of 3 to 5 pigs each. Before the start of each experiment, all pigs were fed a common diet for a minimum of 3 d. Blood samples were collected from each pig before allotment to dietary treatments (d 0) and at the end of each experiment. The baseline (d 0) PUN was analyzed as a covariate for posttreatment PUN. Data from each experiment were analyzed without and with baseline PUN in the statistical model. In all experiments combined, there were 768 possible treatment comparisons. The covariate baseline PUN was statistically significant (P < 0.10) in 9 of 14 experiments. However, only 8 treatment differences changed statistical significance as a result of analyzing the data with baseline PUN as a covariate. These 8 treatment differences were in 3 experiments. These results indicate that it is not always necessary to determine baseline PUN concentrations when feeding diets with large differences in AA content.

  3. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma total antioxidant capacity in cats with IRIS stages I-IV chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofič Žel, M; Tozon, N; Nemec Svete, A

    2014-01-01

    Serum selenium concentrations and the activity of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decrease with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in human patients. Selenium is considered a limiting factor for plasma GPx synthesis. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is decreased in CKD cats in comparison to healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations and plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity in cats with CKD are lower than in healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations, the activity of enzymes, and plasma TAC progressively decrease with the progression of kidney disease according to IRIS (International Renal Interest Society) classification. Twenty-six client-owned cats in IRIS stages I-IV of CKD were compared with 19 client-owned healthy cats. A CBC, serum biochemical profile, urinalysis, plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC were measured in each cat. Cats in IRIS stage IV CKD had a significantly higher (P = .025) activity of plasma GPx (23.44 ± 6.28 U/mL) than cats in the control group (17.51 ± 3.75 U/mL). There were no significant differences in erythrocyte GPx, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC, either among IRIS stages I-IV CKD cats or between CKD cats and healthy cats. Erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC do not change in CKD cats compared with healthy cats. Selenium is not a limiting factor in feline CKD. Increased plasma GPx activity in cats with stage IV CKD suggests induction of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Antioxidant defense systems might not be exhausted in CKD in cats. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. [Plasma lipid concentration in smoking and nonsmoking male adults treated from alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodczyk, Ewa; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Kozar-Konieczna, Aleksandra; Goniewicz, Jerzy; Ptak, Małgorzata; Olszowy, Zofia; Kośmider, Leon; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking affect plasma lipid levels and are both independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol and nicotine addictions are more common among man than women in Poland. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in plasma lipid levels after cessation of heavy drinking in smoking and nonsmoking Polish male adults. Subjects were recruited from individuals who participated in an inpatient addiction program following alcohol detoxification. We recruited 119 male adults: 48 non-smokers in age between 31 and 60 years (mean 48.7 +/- 8.8) and 71 smokers in age between 30 and 60 years (mean 46.1 +/- 7.8). Each subjects provided three blood samples: at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma samples were analyzed for lipids by manual precipitation and automatic enzymatic methods. Changes in plasma lipid concentrations were analyzed using two-way analysis of variances with repeated measures with smoking status as between subjects factor and time post alcohol cessation as within-subject factors. All analyses were adjusted for age, and BMI. We found that plasma levels of HDL decreased in smoking and nonsmoking subjects by 30% and 24%, respectively (p smoking subjects, plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL increased significantly after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking cessation by 17% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.001). We also found that total cholesterol levels remained high in smoking subjects, but decreased significantly by 7% (p = 0.022) in nonsmoking subjects after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased LDL and inhibited the decline in plasma cholesterol among subjects addicted to alcohol following cessation of heavy drinking. Alcohol addiction therapy should be complemented with smoking cessation to prevent increase in cardiovascular risk.

  5. Endothelin-1 concentration in plasma is increased after jogging but decreased after cycling in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, P; Söhnchen, N; Kele, H; Reimers, C D; Ehrenreich, H

    2003-02-01

    Endothelin-1 plays an important role as a paracrine factor in the regulation of regional blood flow. Plasma levels may represent the net result of spill-over from local stimulation/release and elimination of endothelin-1. In order to compare changes in the concentration of endothelin-1 in the plasma of subjects performing different types of sports exercises we measured immunoreactive endothelin-1 in healthy volunteers ( n=20) performing in random order jogging on a treadmill and cycling on a bicycle ergometer, for 30 min each. Plasma immunoreactive endothelin-1 increased significantly after jogging (2.13+/-0.8 pg/ml versus 2.6+/-0.8 pg/ml, before and after exercise, respectively, Pjogging than during cycling, resulting in a greater increase in plasma endothelin-1, which is too high to be immediately eliminated by the lung despite exercise-induced enhanced pulmonary perfusion. In contrast, similarly enhanced lung perfusion together with a relatively lower stimulation of endothelin-1 compared with jogging, may explain the net decrease in plasma after cycling.

  6. Plasma concentrations of corticosterone and buprenorphine in rats subjected to jugular vein catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the postoperative plasma concentrations of corticosterone and buprenorphine in male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats, treated with buprenorphine administered either through subcutaneous (SC) injection or through voluntary ingestion (VI). The animals were treated...... with buprenorphine for pre-emptive analgesia prior to surgical placement of a jugular catheter, followed by automated blood sampling during 96 h. Buprenorphine was administered on a regular basis throughout the experiment, and blood was collected on selected time points. Body weight was measured before and 96 h...... after surgery. It was found that the two rat stocks responded in a similar manner to both buprenorphine treatments, with the exception of body weight change in Wistar rats, in which body weight was reduced after SC treatment. The plasma concentration of corticosterone was significantly higher in the SC...

  7. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U;

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  8. Plasma concentrations and clinical effects after single oral doses of prazepam, clorazepate, and diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shader, R I; Pary, R J; Harmatz, J S; Allison, S; Locniskar, A; Greenblatt, D J

    1984-10-01

    In a double-blind parallel-group pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study, 31 healthy volunteers received single oral doses of prazepam (10 mg), clorazepate (7.5 mg), or diazepam (5 mg). Appearance in plasma of diazepam and of desmethyldiazepam was rapid after administration of diazepam and clorazepate, respectively, with peak plasma concentrations reached within an average of 1 hour. After oral prazepam, however, desmethyldiazepam appeared in blood slowly, with the highest mean concentration at 6 hours postdosage. Clinical self-ratings of fatigue and of "feeling spacey" were significantly different among groups, with changes over baseline being more marked with clorazepate and diazepam than with prazepam. Thus, differences in absorption rate of orally administered benzodiazepines can lead to differences in the intensity of single-dose effects, despite administration of doses that are equivalent in terms of long-term anxiolytic efficacy.

  9. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    was diluted at 3 different levels giving 57 data sets. Calculated and measured plasma albumin concentrations were compared using correlation coefficient (r(2)), regression line, and Bland-Altman bias and limits of agreement. RESULTS: Albumin levels covered the clinically interesting range from 8.8 to 53.3 g....../L. Calculated and measured plasma albumin concentrations compared well with r(2) = 0.9, a regression line of albumin-calculated = 1.05 × albumin-measured - 2.25, a small average bias between measured and calculated values of 0.7 g/L, and Bland-Altman limits of agreement of 10 g/L. CONCLUSIONS: This new method...

  10. Effects of major depression, aging and gender upon calculated diurnal free plasma cortisol concentrations: a re-evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschle, M; Weber, B; Colla, M; Depner, M; Heuser, I

    1998-12-01

    Depression, aging and female gender are associated with increased diurnal concentrations of total plasma cortisol. For the physical effects of hypercortisolemia, however, it is generally assumed that free rather than total plasma cortisol concentrations are of importance. Herein, we report a mathematical approach to determine free plasma cortisol concentrations on the basis of total cortisol, corticosteroid binding-globulin (CBG) and albumin plasma concentrations. This approach was used to re-evaluate two sets of data in order to estimate the effect of depression as well as the effect of aging and gender upon free plasma cortisol concentrations. Comparing male depressed patients with healthy controls, we found 24-hour free cortisol minima (MIN: 4.1 +/- 1.8 vs. 1.6 +/- 1.1 nmol/l, p MAX: 85.3 +/- 23.3 vs. 45.2 +/- 15. 8 nmol/l, p problems triggered and/or maintained by glucocorticoids (e.g. osteoporosis) are frequently seen.

  11. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid concentration in plasma obtained from overnight fasted patients.

  12. Plasma Drug Concentrations of Orally Administered Rosuvastatin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Papich, Mark G; Brandão, João; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic diseases are common in pet psittacine birds, in particular Amazon parrots. While hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia have not definitely been associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis in parrots, these are important and well-known risk factors in humans. Therefore statin drugs such as rosuvastatin constitute the mainstay of human treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. No pharmacologic studies have been performed in psittacine birds despite the high prevalence of atherosclerosis in captivity. Thirteen Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used to test a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin with blood sampling performed according to a balanced incomplete block design over 36 hours. Because low plasma concentrations were produced in the first study, a subsequent pilot study using a dose of 25 mg/kg in 2 Amazon parrots was performed. Most plasma samples for the 10 mg/kg dose and all samples for the 25 mg/kg dose had rosuvastatin concentration below the limits of quantitation. For the 10 mg/kg study, the median peak plasma concentration and time to peak plasma concentration were 0.032 μg/mL and 2 hours, respectively. Our results indicate that rosuvastatin does not appear suitable in Amazon parrots as compounded and used at the dose in this study. Pharmacodynamic studies investigating lipid-lowering effects of statins rather than pharmacokinetic studies may be more practical and cost effective in future studies to screen for a statin with more ideal properties for potential use in psittacine dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic diseases.

  13. Enantiospecific ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral and intramuscular administration in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen Katja; Niemi Anneli; Raekallio Marja; Heinonen Mari; Peltoniemi Olli AT; Palviainen Mari; Siven Mia; Peltoniemi Marikki; Vainio Outi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been widely used for domestic animals. Orally administered racemic ketoprofen has been reported to be absorbed well in pigs, and bioavailability was almost complete. The objectives of this study were to analyze R- and S-ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral (PO) and intra muscular (IM) routes of administration, and to assess the relative bioavailability of racemic ketoprofen for both enantiomers betwee...

  14. Relationship between brain serotonin transporter binding, plasma concentration and behavioural effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterise the relationship between in vivo brain serotonin transporter (SERT) binding, plasma concentration and pharmacological effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in mice. Oral administration of fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline at pharmacologically relevant doses exerted dose- and time-dependent binding activity of brain SERT as revealed by significant increases in KD for specific [3H]paroxetine binding, and the i...

  15. High Variability of Plasma Drug Concentrations in Dual Protease Inhibitor Regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Guiard-Schmid, Jean-Baptiste; Poirier, Jean-Marie; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Bonnard, Philippe; Gbadoe, Ayi Hola; Amiel, Corinne; Calligaris, Frédérique; Abraham, Bruno; Pialoux, Gilles; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Jaillon, Patrice; Rozenbaum, Willy

    2003-01-01

    Ritonavir (RTV) strongly increases the concentrations of protease inhibitors (PIs) in plasma in patients given a combination of RTV and another PI. This pharmacological interaction is complex and poorly characterized and shows marked inter- and intraindividual variations. In addition, RTV interacts differently with saquinavir (SQV), indinavir (IDV), amprenavir (APV), and lopinavir (LPV). In this retrospective study on 542 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, we compared inter- and ...

  16. Comparison of Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) and Plasma Carotenoid Concentrations: A Validation Study in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lee; Williams, Rebecca; Rollo, Megan; Pezdirc, Kristine; Collins, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Diet quality indices can predict nutritional adequacy of usual intake, but validity should be determined. The aim was to assess the validity of total and sub-scale score within the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), in relation to fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations. Diet quality and fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed in 99 overweight and obese adults (49.5% female, aged 44.6 ± 9.9 years) at baseline and after three months (198 paired observations). Associations were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and regression analysis, and agreement using weighted kappa (Kw). Small, significantly positive correlations were found between total ARFS and plasma concentrations of total carotenoids (r = 0.17, p < 0.05), β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.18, p < 0.05), β-carotene (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). Significant agreement between ARFS categories and plasma carotenoid concentrations was found for total carotenoids (Kw 0.12, p = 0.02), β-carotene (Kw 0.14, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (Kw 0.13, p < 0.01). In fully-adjusted regression models the only signification association with ARFS total score was for α-carotene (β = 0.19, p < 0.01), while ARFS meat and fruit sub-scales demonstrated significant relationships with α-carotene, β-carotene, and total carotenoids (p < 0.05). The weak associations highlight the issues with self-reporting dietary intakes in overweight and obese populations. Further research is required to evaluate the use of the ARFS in more diverse populations. PMID:28817083

  17. Evidence that plasma concentration rather than dose per kilogram body weight predicts ribavirin-induced anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, K; Schvarcz, R; Bruchfeld, A; Ståhle, L

    2004-01-01

    Ribavirin in combination with interferon alpha-2 or pegylated interferon is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. The current dosage recommendations for ribavirin are based on body weight (bw). Ribavirin is mainly eliminated by the kidneys and we have recently shown that ribavirin plasma concentrations are determined primarily by renal function. It is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that side-effects of ribavirin, i.e. anaemia, should be more closely related to plasma concentrations of ribavirin than to the dose per kg bw. A total of 108 consecutive patients eligible for treatment of chronic hepatitis C were studied. Ribavirin concentrations in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV after solid-phase extraction in trough samples taken 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the treatment commenced. A total of 213 samples were obtained and the change in the haemoglobin level and the creatinine concentration was measured in addition to ribavirin. The dose of ribavirin per kg bw did not correlate with the drop in haemoglobin level induced by ribavirin. The concentration of ribavirin was non-linearly related to the drop in the haemoglobin level as revealed by fitting a standard Hill equation type dose-response curve. The half maximal drop in haemoglobin was obtained at 4.4 microm. The results from this study suggest that the anaemia induced by ribavirin depends primarily on the concentration of ribavirin, and not on the dose per kg bw. This lends further support to the idea that ribavirin should be dosed according to renal function.

  18. The relation between plasma tyrosine concentration and fatigue in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrolijk Jan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC fatigue is a major clinical problem. Abnormal amino acid (AA patterns have been implicated in the development of fatigue in several non-hepatological conditions but for PBC and PSC no data are available. This study aimed to identify abnormalities in AA patterns and to define their relation with fatigue. Methods Plasma concentrations of tyrosine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, valine, leucine and isoleucine were determined in plasma of patients with PBC (n = 45, PSC (n = 27, chronic hepatitis C (n = 22 and healthy controls (n = 73. Fatigue and quality of life were quantified using the Fisk fatigue severity scale, a visual analogue scale and the SF-36. Results Valine, isoleucine, leucine were significantly decreased in PBC and PSC. Tyrosine and phenylalanine were increased (p Conclusion In patients with PBC and PSC, marked abnormalities in plasma AA patterns occur. Normal tyrosine concentrations, compared to increased concentrations, may be associated with fatigue and diminished quality of life.

  19. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da [Unidade de Aterosclerose, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-10

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats.

  20. Posaconazole plasma concentrations in pediatric patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Michaela; Cabanillas Stanchi, Karin Melanie; Klinker, Hartwig; Eikemeier, Melinda; Feucht, Judith; Blaeschke, Franziska; Schwarze, Carl-Philipp; Ebinger, Martin; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Handgretinger, Rupert; Heinz, Werner J

    2016-10-04

    Invasive fungal infections are one of the major complications in pediatric patients during prolonged neutropenia after chemotherapy. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of the triazole posaconazole in these patients is missing. This multicenter survey analyzed trough concentrations of 33 pediatric patients with a median age of 8 years during 108 neutropenic episodes who received prophylactic posaconazole oral suspension. A total of 172 posaconazole trough levels were determined to median 438 ng/ml (range 111-2011 ng/ml; mean 468 ± 244 ng/ml). Age and gender had no influence on posaconazole plasma levels. Posaconazole was not discontinued due to adverse events in any of the patients. Only hepatic parameters significantly increased beyond the upper normal limit to median values of ALT of 87 U/l (P posaconazole trough concentration of 306 ng/ml experienced an invasive fungal infection. In conclusion, posaconazole was effective, safe and feasible in 33 pediatric patients with neutropenia ≥5 days after chemotherapy. Median posaconazole plasma concentrations were approximately 1.6-fold lower than the recommended plasma level of 700 ng/ml. Larger patient cohorts are needed to evaluate these findings.

  1. Decreased dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations in plasma of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Sarah; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    DHEA is secreted by the adrenal cortex and is also a neurosteroid. Its sulfate (DHEAS) is the most abundant steroid in circulation. The levels of both are seen to decline in concentration with age. Evidence is available for altered levels of DHEA and DHEAS in AD but is limited to relatively few studies assessing small cohorts. This study assessed plasma DHEA and DHEAS levels in AD sufferers (n=72) and compared them to age-matched controls (n=72). Plasma DHEA concentrations were significantly lower in AD patients compared to control (4.24+/-0.4 ng/ml for AD; 3.38+/-0.3 ng/ml for control, p=0.027, Mann-Whitney 1-tailed) and DHEA levels were significantly correlated to DHEAS levels in both control and AD conditions (Spearman's rho correlation coefficient=0.635 in controls and 0.467 in AD, pDHEA and DHEAS concentrations in plasma from a large cohort of patients suffering from AD when compared to age-matched controls. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in the forearm during dynamic handgrip exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askew Christopher D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that adenosine triphosphate (ATP released from red blood cells (RBCs may contribute to the tight coupling between blood flow and oxygen demand in contracting skeletal muscle. To determine whether ATP may contribute to the vasodilatory response to exercise in the forearm, we measured arterialised and venous plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in 10 healthy young males at rest, and at 30 and 180 seconds during dynamic handgrip exercise at 45% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Results Venous plasma ATP concentration was elevated above rest after 30 seconds of exercise (P Conclusions Collectively these results indicate that ATP in the plasma originated from the muscle microcirculation, and are consistent with the notion that deoxygenation of the blood perfusing the muscle acts as a stimulus for ATP release. That ATP concentration was elevated just 30 seconds after the onset of exercise also suggests that ATP may be a contributing factor to the blood flow response in the transition from rest to steady state exercise.

  3. Oral vitamin B12 supplementation reduces plasma total homocysteine concentration in women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Lubree, Himangi G; Thuse, Nileema V; Ramdas, Lalita V; Deshpande, Swapna S; Deshpande, Vaishali U; Deshpande, Jyoti A; Uradey, Bhagyashree S; Ganpule, Anjali A; Naik, Sadanand S; Joshi, Niranjan P; Farrant, Hannah; Refsum, Helga

    2007-01-01

    People in India have a high prevalence of low vitamin B12 status and high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. In a proof of principle trial, we studied the effect of oral vitamin B12 (500 microg) and/or 100 g cooked green leafy vegetables (GLV) every alternate day in a 2x2 factorial design over a 6-week period. Forty-two non-pregnant vegetarian women (age 20-50 years) were randomly allocated to four study groups. Clinical measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of the study, and blood samples were collected before, and 2 and 6 weeks after commencement of intervention. Forty women completed the trial. Twenty-six women had low vitamin B12 status (15 micromol/L). GLV supplementation did not alter plasma folate or tHcy. Vitamin B12 supplementation increased plasma vitamin B12 concentration (125 to 215 pmol/L, p homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations.

  4. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawasumi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years and aged (11-18 years. They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 μg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 μg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses.

  5. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...

  6. Increased fasting plasma acylation-stimulating protein concentrations in nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozata, Metin; Oktenli, Cagatay; Gulec, Mustafa; Ozgurtas, Taner; Bulucu, Fatih; Caglar, Kayser; Bingol, Necati; Vural, Abdulgaffar; Ozdemir, I Caglayan

    2002-02-01

    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipocyte-derived protein that has recently been suggested to play an important role in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and triglyceride (TG) storage. ASP also appears to have a role in the regulation of energy balance. In addition to its role as a hormonal regulator of body weight and energy expenditure, leptin is now implicated as a regulatory molecule in lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the alterations in fasting plasma ASP and leptin concentrations in the nephrotic syndrome. As hyperlipidemia is one of the most striking manifestations of the nephrotic syndrome, we have investigated fasting plasma ASP and leptin levels and their relation to lipid levels in this syndrome. Twenty-five patients with untreated nephrotic syndrome and 25 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Fasting plasma lipoproteins, TG, total cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apoB, urinary protein, plasma albumin, third component of complement (C3), ASP, and leptin levels were measured in both groups. Total cholesterol, TG, low and very low density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), apoB, and urinary protein levels were increased in the patient group, whereas plasma albumin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoAI levels were decreased compared with those in the control group (P Fasting ASP concentrations showed no correlation with body mass index, proteinuria, plasma albumin, leptin, or any lipid parameter in either group, but C3 levels (in patient group: r(s) = 0.92; P < 0.001; in control group: r(s) = 0.68; P < 0.001). Our findings showed that plasma ASP levels were significantly elevated, whereas leptin levels were normal in the nephrotic syndrome. Increased ASP levels in the setting of dyslipidemia in the nephrotic syndrome raise the possibility of an ASP receptor defect in adipocytes, which also suggests the existence of so-called ASP resistance. Moreover

  7. Estimation of electron concentration in plasma and plasma frequency in the vicinity of a hypersonic aircraft that moves in atmosphere and analysis of propagation frequencies of electromagnetic waves in such plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    Electron concentration in plasma and plasma frequency are estimated for the plasma that is formed in the vicinity of a hypersonic aircraft that moves in atmosphere. The frequencies of electromagnetic waves that may propagate in plasma emerging in the vicinity of the aircraft are determined. Formulas that make it possible to analytically (rather than graphically) calculate electron concentration in plasma at altitudes of 30, 60, and 90 km are derived for two speeds. Several specific features of variations in the electron concentration in plasma depending on the above altitudes and speeds are presented. Quasi-periodic variations in the plasma concentration can be obtained using an increase and decrease in the speed of aircraft.

  8. Progesterone Regulation of Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Rodent Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Michael R.; Akopian, Garnik; Thompson, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian hormones influence memory formation by eliciting changes in neural activity. The effects of various concentrations of progesterone (P4) on synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were studied using in vitro hippocampal slices. Extracellular studies show that the…

  9. Evaluation of cobalt, chromium, and nickel concentrations in plasma and blood of patients with removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denizoğlu, Saip; Duymuş, Zeynep Yeşil

    2006-06-01

    This study assessed the plasma and blood concentrations of Cr, Co, and Ni among subjects using removable partial dentures. A comparison was made between subjects with and without RPD treatment history. Control group consisted of 10 healthy individuals without dentures. Concentrations of Cr, Co, and Ni in subjects' plasma and blood were measured with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA, and multiple comparison test (alpha = 0.05) was used to identify significant differences between groups. RPD use had a significant effect on the concentrations of Cr (P partial dentures with metal frameworks led to an increase in the concentrations of Cr and Ni in both blood and plasma.

  10. The relationship between the daily dose, the plasma concentration of blonanserin, and its plasma anti-dopamine D2 and anti-serotonin 5-HT2A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Gen, Keishi

    2010-01-01

    Blonanserin (BNS) possesses anti-serotonin 5-HT(2A) activity in addition to anti-dopamine D(2) activity, which is characteristic of second-generation antipsychotics, little information is available on its pharmacologic profile in vivo. We investigated the BNS daily dose, plasma concentration, plasma anti-D(2) activity, and plasma anti-5-HT(2A) activity in schizophrenia in a total of 14 subjects. Blood samples were taken 14 days after the BNS dose was fixed, and the plasma concentration was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. In addition, the plasma anti-D(2) activity and anti-5-HT(2A) activity were measured by means of radioreceptor assays in which [(3)H]-spiperone and [(3)H]-ketanserin were used. The results revealed a statistically significant correlation between the daily dose and the plasma concentration (p = 0.04). Statistically significant correlations were also observed between the plasma concentration and the anti-D(2) activity and between the plasma concentration and the anti-5-HT(2A) activity (p = 0.003 and 0.04). It is therefore believed that both the anti-D(2) activity in plasma and the anti-5-HT(2A) activity in plasma are regulated almost solely by the unchanged principal. Moreover, the mean plasma serotonin/dopamine (S/D) ratio was 0.9 and BNS exhibited both anti-D(2) activity and also anti-5-HT(2A) activity in vivo, as well, so it was clear that the in vitro pharmacological profile was retained in vivo.

  11. Effect of Addition of Concentrated Proteins and Seminal Plasma Low Molecular Weight Proteins in Freezing and Thawing of Equine Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fagundes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in obtaining equine frozen semen with potential fertility are recognized. This study was designed to investigate the effect of seminal plasma on frozen/thawing of eight stallion semen from different breed using the following treatments: Seminal plasma with ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender; Part of seminal plasma with proteins under 10 kDa on frozen extender; Conventional freezing, using whole seminal plasma on frozen extender. Using the parameter of 30% of seminal motility post-thawing as index of good freezability, it was verified an increased percentage of stallions that presented good freezability when semen was frozen with seminal plasma containing ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender. These results, suggested the use of seminal plasma concentrated proteins from own stallion to freezing/thawing semen.

  12. Effect of seminal plasma and egg yolk concentration on freezability of goat semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg yolk and seminal plasma on the viability of cryopreserved goat semen. To this end, four fertile Saanen bucks, aged between 10 months and 1 year, and weighing 18 to 25 kg, were used. Semen was collected from each buck by the artificial vagina method at the end of breeding season (June-July. The extender used was the yolk citrate, which was split into two equal aliquots: 5% egg yolk (2.5 mL egg yolk: 47.5 mL citrate solution were added to one of the samples and 10% egg yolk (5.0 mL egg yolk: 45.0 mL citrate solution were added to another. The sperm motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT were evaluated and the data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test at 5.0% probability. The observed values for motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT, fast and slow, according to the presence of seminal plasma and egg yolk percentage were: 5% egg yolk with plasma (25.0% and 3.3; 1.60% and 0.7; 12.36% and 1.6, respectively; 5% egg yolk without plasma (23.61% and 3.1; 1.25% and 0.2; 9.93% and 1.3, respectively; 10% egg yolk with plasma (30.8% and 3.3; 4.4% and 1.9; 19.5% and 2.7, respectively; and 10% egg yolk without plasma (13.4% and 2.5; 4.1% and 0.5; 17.0% and 1.0, respectively. There were significant differences between the analyzed data in relation to semen with or without plasma at different percentages of egg yolk, and the group that presented the best results was 10% egg yolk citrate in extender with plasma. The presence of seminal plasma and higher concentration of egg yolk in extender provide a higher viability of cryopreserved goat semen.

  13. Plasma concentrations resulting from florfenicol preparations given to pigs in their drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, L; Vargas, D; Ocampo, L; Sumano, H; Martinez, R; Tapia, G

    2011-09-01

    Florfenicol administered through the drinking water has been recommended as a metaphylactic antibacterial drug to control outbreaks of respiratory diseases in pigs caused by strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida, yet it is difficult to pinpoint in practice when the drug is given metaphylactically or therapeutically. Further, pigs are likely to reject florfenicol-medicated water, and plasma concentrations of the drug are likely to be marginal for diseases caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The reported minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for these organisms show a breakpoint of 2 to 3 μg/mL. An experiment was conducted during September and October 2009. One hundred twenty healthy crossbred pigs (Landrace-Yorkshire), weighing 23 ± 6.2 kg, were used in this trial. They were randomly assigned to 5 groups, with 3 replicates of 8 animals/group. Two commercial preparations of florfenicol were administered through the drinking water at 2 concentrations (0.01 and 0.015%). Water intake was measured before and after medication, and plasma concentrations of florfenicol were determined by HPLC. Considerable rejection of florfenicol-medicated water was observed. However, plasma florfenicol concentrations were of a range sufficient for a methaphylaxis approach to preventing disease by bacteria, with MIC breakpoints of ≤ 0.25 μg/mL. Decreased efficacy as a metaphylactic medication should be expected for bacteria with MIC >0.25 μg/mL, considering the reported existence of bacteria resistant to florfenicol and the natural resistance of Streptococcus suis or E. coli to this drug.

  14. Arginines Plasma Concentration and Oxidative Stress in Mild to Moderate COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinellu, Angelo; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Sotgia, Salvatore; Sotgiu, Elisabetta; Zinellu, Elisabetta; Bifulco, Fabiana; Mangoni, Arduino A; Pirina, Pietro; Carru, Ciriaco

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated plasma concentrations of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) have been observed in respiratory conditions such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Since oxidative stress has been shown to increase the activity of arginine methylating enzymes, hence increased ADMA synthesis, and to reduce ADMA degrading enzymes, hence increased ADMA concentrations, we assessed methylated arginines concentrations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterized by increased oxidative stress. Methods Plasma arginine, ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, and plasma proteins SH, PSH) and antioxidants (taurine and paraoxonase 1, PON1, activity) were measured in 43 COPD patients with mild (n = 29) or moderate (n = 14) disease and 43 age- and sex-matched controls. Results TBARS significantly increased with COPD presence and severity (median 2.93 vs 3.18 vs 3.64 μmol/L, respectively in controls, mild and moderate group, p<0.0001 by ANOVA) whereas PSH decreased (6.69±1.15 vs 6.04±0.85 vs 5.33±0.96 μmol/gr prot, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). Increased ADMA/arginine ratio, primarily due to reduced arginine concentrations, was also observed with COPD presence and severity (median 0.0067 vs 0.0075 vs 0.0100, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). In multiple logistic regression analysis, only TBARS (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25–0.77; p = 0.0045) and ADMA/Arginine ratio (OR 1.72, 95% CI 2.27–13.05; p = 0.02) were independently associated with COPD severity. Conclusion COPD presence and severity are associated with increased oxidative stress and alterations in arginine metabolism. The reduced arginine concentrations in COPD may offer a new target for therapeutic interventions increasing arginine availability. PMID:27479314

  15. Plasma uric acid concentrations and risk of ischaemic stroke in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M C; Curhan, G C; Choi, H K; Forman, J P; Rexrode, K M

    2016-07-01

    Elevated plasma uric acid has been inconsistently associated with an increased risk of total stroke; however, data are sparse amongst women. The association between plasma uric acid concentrations and ischaemic stroke amongst women was examined and the effect modification by key cardiovascular risk factors was evaluated. A nested case-control design with matching by age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, menopausal status, postmenopausal hormone therapy use, date of blood draw and fasting status was utilized amongst female participants of the Nurses' Health Study who provided blood samples between 1989 and 1990. Plasma uric acid was measured on stored blood samples. The National Survey of Stroke criteria were utilized to confirm 460 incident cases of ischaemic stroke by medical records from 1990 to 2006. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were estimated. In matched analysis, risk of ischaemic stroke increased by 15% for each 1 mg/dl increase in plasma uric acid [95% confidence interval (CI) 3%-28%], but was no longer significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, particularly history of hypertension. The highest quartile of uric acid was significantly associated with greater risk of ischaemic stroke (relative risk 1.56; 95% CI 1.06-2.29, extreme quartiles) in matched analysis, but estimates were no longer significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (relative risk 1.43; 95% CI 0.93-2.18). Significant effect modification by key cardiovascular risk factors was not observed. Plasma uric acid levels were not independently associated with increased risk of ischaemic stroke in this cohort of women. Whilst plasma uric acid was associated with stroke risk factors, it was not independently associated with stroke risk. © 2016 EAN.

  16. Cytokine Concentrations in Plasma from Children with Severe and Non-Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Haugen

    Full Text Available Children in low and middle-income countries have a high burden of pneumonia. Measuring the cytokine responses may be useful to identify novel markers for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating pneumonia.To describe and compare a wide range of inflammatory mediators in plasma from children with WHO-defined severe and non-severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP, and explore to what extent certain mediators are associated with severity and viral detection.We collected blood samples from 430 children with severe (n = 43 and non-severe (n = 387 CAP. Plasma from these children were analysed for 27 different cytokines, and we measured the association with age, disease severity and viral detection.There were generally higher plasma concentrations of several cytokines with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects among children with severe CAP than in children with non-severe CAP. We found significantly higher concentrations of interleukin (IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-15, eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in the group of severe CAP. Most of these associations persisted when adjusting for age in linear regression analyses. The cytokine response was strongly associated with age but to a lesser extent with viral etiology.The plasma concentrations of several cytokines, both with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects, were higher among children with severe illness. In particular G-CSF and IL-6 reflected severity and might provide complementary information on the severity of the infection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00148733.

  17. The effect of exercise intensity on plasma and tissue acyl ghrelin concentrations in fasted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Rozita; Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Kraemer, Robert R; Talebi-Garakani, Elahe; Saghebjoo, Marziyeh

    2010-12-10

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of exercise training and feeding status on plasma and tissue acyl ghrelin concentrations. Thirty-two, eight-week-old male Wistar rats (185±5g) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: high intensity (HI: 34 m/min ~80-85% VO(2)max), moderate intensity (MI: 28 m/min ~70-75% VO(2)max), low intensity (LI: 20 m/min ~50-55% VO(2)max), and sedentary control (SED) groups. All experimental groups performed a 12-week exercise program consisting of treadmill running on a 0° slope for 1 h/day, 5 days/week at their respective training intensity. Twenty four hours following the last training session the animals completed a 12h fast. Rats were then killed, blood was collected and plasma separated; the fundus and soleus muscle were excised and frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis. Fasting levels of circulating acyl ghrelin and acyl ghrelin content in the soleus muscle and fundus, as well as glycogen in the soleus muscle were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results demonstrated that 12 weeks of exercise training combined with a 12h fast significantly increased plasma as well as soleus muscle concentrations of acyl ghrelin in the HI and MI groups (pghrelin concentrations in the fundus (pexercise training enhances fasting plasma acyl ghrelin in an intensity-dependent manner which is accompanied by a significant increase in soleus muscle and reduction in fundus acyl ghrelin levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of epidural analgesia on platelet function and correlation with plasma bupivacaine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoom, J A; Dokter, P W; Sturk, A; Ten Cate, J W; Sih, I L; Bovill, J G

    1988-09-01

    The effect of epidural anaesthesia with bupivacaine 0.5% on platelet aggregation was studied in seven patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate. Peak plasma concentrations of bupivacaine 470 +/- 270 ng ml-1 occurred at 30 min after administration. At that time there were no significant changes in platelet aggregation. However, the maximum rate of the primary- and secondary-aggregation velocities induced by 1.0 microM ADP were significantly decreased at 1 h and 3 h after bupivacaine administration. The maximum percentage ADP-induced platelet aggregation was also decreased significantly at 1 h and 3 h. The minimum concentration of ADP required to induce secondary-phase platelet aggregation was significantly increased at 1 h but not at 3 h. There was a significant correlation between bupivacaine concentrations and all platelet aggregation parameters except the maximum ADP-induced aggregation. Platelet inhibition occurred at plasma bupivacaine concentrations that were considerably lower than those needed to produce similar inhibition in vitro.

  19. Plasma lactate concentration increases as a parabola with delay during ramp exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péronnet, F; Morton, R H

    1994-01-01

    This study presents an elementary model of a system which relates plasma lactate concentration ([La-]) during ramp exercise to its rate of accumulation (Rc) within its extramuscular distribution space (S). Under the parsimonious assumptions that Rc increases linearly with time (t) with a kinetic delay (delta), and that the volume of S is constant, it is shown that plasma [La-] increases as a parabola with the kinetic delay delta when t increases. This elementary system model describes changes in plasma [La-] observed in five healthy young subjects during ramp exercise on the cycle ergometer (1 W every 2 s) with great accuracy (r > 0.99) with very small residuals (average value less than 0.01 mmol.l-1), randomly distributed around the fitting curves. The delay between the beginning of exercise and the onset of increase in Rc could be due to the fact that at the corresponding work rates: (1) rate of lactate appearance (Ra), which is equal to the rate of lactate disappearance (Rd), is not modified from rest, since the exercising muscles work in fully aerobic conditions (hypothesis of the anaerobic threshold); or (2) the increase in Ra is associated with a similar increase in Rd. An alternate or complementary hypothesis is that, during ramp exercise, plasma [La-] could reflect metabolic events within the muscles, with a significant delay.

  20. Impurity identifications, concentrations and particle fluxes from spectral measurements of the EXTRAP T2R plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menmuir, S.; Kuldkepp, M.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-10-01

    An absolute intensity calibrated 0.5 m spectrometer with optical multi-channel analyser detector was used to observe the visible-UV radiation from the plasma in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Spectral lines were identified indicating the presence of oxygen, chromium, iron and molybdenum impurities in the hydrogen plasma. Certain regions of interest were examined in more detail and at different times in the plasma discharge. Impurity concentration calculations were made using the absolute intensities of lines of OIV and OV measured at 1-2 ms into the discharge generating estimates of the order of 0.2% of ne in the central region rising to 0.7% of ne at greater radii for OIV and 0.3% rising to 0.6% for OV. Edge electron temperatures of 0.5-5 eV at electron densities of 5-10×1011 cm-3 were calculated from the measured relative intensities of hydrogen Balmer lines. The absolute intensities of hydrogen lines and of multiplets of neutral chromium and molybdenum were used to determine particle fluxes (at 4-5 ms into the plasma) of the order 1×1016, 7×1013 and 3×1013 particles cm-2 s-1, respectively.

  1. The concentrations of adipokines in goat milk: relation to plasma levels, inflammatory status, milk quality and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUZEL, Saime; YIBAR, Artun; BELENLI, Deniz; CETIN, Ismail; TANRIVERDI, Meltem

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of our study were to measure the major adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin in goat milk, to assess their interrelationships and to assess their relationships with the plasma and serum concentrations of total protein, cholesterol, total lipids, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk total aerobic colony and lactobacillus count, and milk components in lactating Saanen goats. The study was performed on eighteen lactating Saanen goats. Milk and blood samples were collected on days 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 of lactation postpartum. The milk and plasma adiponectin levels on days 50, 65 and 80 postpartum were significantly higher than those on day 20. The milk and plasma leptin levels were lower on day 20 than on days 35, 50, 65 and 80. The milk concentrations of these major adipokines were positively intercorrelated. The milk and plasma concentrations of these three adipokines were also positively correlated. The plasma CRP concentrations correlated positively with milk leptin and resistin concentrations and inversely with milk adiponectin concentration. Milk adiponectin concentration was inversely related with its SCC. These data confirm that adiponectin, leptin and resistin are present in goat milk. The milk concentrations of these three adipokines were interrelated and interacted with the general inflammatory marker, CRP. The inverse relationship between milk adiponectin concentrations and its SCC suggests that variations in milk adiponectin might be involved in the udder health of lactating goats, but clinical trials are needed to support this hypothesis. PMID:28111374

  2. [Congenital cardiopathies screening associated with diabetes mellitus using maternal fructosamine plasma concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Zilma Silveira Nogueira; Miranda, Ana Paula Brum; de Alencar Lima Rezende, Cezar; Detofol, Renan Bragança; Costa, Carolina Ribeiro; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2010-02-01

    to evaluate the importance of maternal plasma concentration of fructosamine as an indicator of fetal congenital cardiopathies in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. this was a retrospective study conducted on 91 pregnant women with diabetes mellitus who underwent routine fetal echocardiography at a university reference center in fetal medicine. Sixty-five patientes who presented pre-gestational diabetes mellitus and plasma fructosamine level were registered in the medical records prior to the ultrasound exam. The first measurement recorded was compared with the result of routine fetal echocardiography, carried out by a specialist physician of the service. The presence or absence of echocardiographic findings of congenital cardiopathies (EFCC) was related to plasma levels of fructosamine by the mean t-test and its accuracy for EFCC was verified by the ROC curve. Plsama fructosamine concentrations of 2.68, 2.9 and 2.23 mmol/L, which are, respectively, the local reference laboratory values, the value of the kit employed for measurement and the one of highest overall accuracy, were discussed as the cut-off values. EFCC was found in 52.3% of the fetuses. The first measurement of fructosamine, during the prenatal care period, was performed, on average, at 20.4+/-8.0 weeks of pregnancy. The maternal concentration ability of the fructosamine to identify fetuses with EFCC was significant (p<0.0001) and had an area under the ROC curve of 0.78 (95%CI=0.66-0.89). The 2.9 mmol/L plasma concentration of fructosamine revealed EFCC with better specificity, but with a higher percentage of false-negative results (96.8 and 55.9%). Values above 2.68 mmol/L were associated with a probability of 4.6 to identify fetuses with EFCC compared with lower values, with 58.8% of sensitivity and 87.1%, specificity. The value of 2.23 mmol/L proved to be the most overall accurate of the three values suggested, with a sensitivity of 88.2% in the identification of fetuses with

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection influences the S-methadone metabolite plasma concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiow-Ling Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heroin-dependent patients typically contract hepatitis C virus (HCV at a disproportionately high level due to needle exchange. The liver is the primary target organ of HCV infection and also the main organ responsible for drug metabolism. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is a major treatment regimen for opioid dependence. HCV infection may affect methadone metabolism but this has rarely been studied. In our current study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that HCV may influence the methadone dosage and its plasma metabolite concentrations in a MMT cohort from Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 366 MMT patients were recruited. The levels of plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV, HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies (Ab, liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, as well as methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP were measured along with the urine morphine concentration and amphetamine screening. RESULTS: Of the 352 subjects in our cohort with HCV test records, 95% were found to be positive for plasma anti-HCV antibody. The liver functional parameters of AST (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.02 and ALT (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.04, the plasma methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.043 and the R-enantiomer of methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.032 were significantly higher in the HCV antibody-positive subjects than in the HCV antibody-negative patients, but not the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio. The HCV levels correlated with the methadone dose (β= 14.65 and 14.13; P = 0.029 and 0.03 and the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio (β= -0.41 and -0.40; P = 0.00084 and 0.002 in both univariate and multivariate regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that HCV may influence the methadone dose and plasma S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio in MMT patients in this preliminary study.

  4. Effects of plant stanol ester consumption on fasting plasma oxy(phyto)sterol concentrations as related to fecal microbiota characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Mensink, Ronald P; Smet, Els De; Konings, Maurice; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M; Plat, Jogchum

    2016-03-03

    Information regarding dietary effects on plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations as well as on the origin of oxyphytosterols is scarce. We hypothesized that plant sterols are oxidized in the intestinal lumen, mediated by microbial activity, followed by uptake into the circulation. To address this hypothesis, we carried out, a randomized, double blind, crossover study in 13 healthy subjects, who consumed for 3 weeks control and plant stanol ester enriched margarines (3.0g/d plant stanols) separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Plasma oxy(phyto)sterols were determined via GC-MS/MS, while microbiota analyses were performed on fecal DNA using a phylogenetic microarray to assess microbial composition and diversity. Plasma plant sterol concentrations did not correlate with plasma oxyphytosterols concentrations at baseline. Plant stanol consumption reduced serum sitosterol and campesterol concentrations (-37% and -38%), respectively (pmicrobiota composition and diversity of the faecal contents were not different between the two periods, we observed significant correlations between several specific bacterial groups and plasma plant sterol, but not with plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations. In conclusion, plant stanol ester consumption reduced serum plant sterol and plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations, while intestinal microbiota composition and diversity were not changed. To definitely answer the effects of microbiota on oxyphytosterol formation, future studies could examine oxyphytosterol concentrations after changing intestinal microbial composition or by measuring intestinal oxyphytosterol formation after providing labelled non-oxidized plant sterols.

  5. Plasma cytokine concentration changes induced by the antitumor agents dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP) and related calcium pterins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheno, Phillip; Pfleiderer, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of plasma cytokine concentration changes determined that oral dosing with the antitumor agent (1:4 mol:mol) calcium pterin (CaPterin) increased plasma IL-10, decreased plasma IL-6, and decreased plasma IFN-gamma concentrations in nude mice with MDA-MB-231 xenograph tumors [Moheno, P., Pfleiderer, W., Dipasquale, A.G., Rheingold, A.L., Fuchs, D., 2008. Cytokine and IDO metabolite changes effected by calcium pterin during inhibition of MDA-MB-231 xenograph tumors in nude mice. Int. J. Pharm. 355, 238-248]. A further analysis, reported here, of plasma cytokine concentration changes in nude mice with the same tumor xenographs treated with dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP), (1:2 mol:mol) calcium pterin, and CaCl(2).2H(2)O has been carried out. The measured cytokines included: IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. The major preliminary findings from the analyses of these data are that (1) the overall relative tumor volumes for the treatments correlated significantly with a full study antitumor plasma cytokine pattern (fsAPCP), a composite measure consisting of decreased plasma IL-6 and increased IL-4 concentrations, and (2) DCP induces a significant threshold antitumor response strongly correlated to a derived DCP antitumor plasma cytokine pattern (DCP/APCP) consisting of plasma IL-12, IL-6, and IL-4 concentration changes. This DCP/APCP composite measure identifies plasma IL-12 concentration increases, plasma IL-6 concentration decreases, and plasma IL-4 concentration increases correlated to relative tumor volume decreases caused by DCP dosing. The finding that the novel calcium pterins and CaCl(2).2H(2)O treatments decrease plasma IL-6 concentrations corroborates the previous finding that CaPterin dosing decreases plasma IL-6 concentrations in this mouse/tumor system [Moheno, P., Pfleiderer, W., Dipasquale, A.G., Rheingold, A.L., Fuchs, D., 2008. Cytokine and IDO metabolite changes effected by calcium pterin during inhibition

  6. Tramadol Induced QTc-Interval Prolongation: Prevalence, Clinical Factors and Correlation to Plasma Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Guillermo A; Etchegoyen, María C V; Fernandez, Nicolás; Olivera, Nancy M; Quiroga, Patricia N; Belloso, Waldo H; Diez, Roberto A; Di Girolamo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several cases of torsade de pointes have been associated with many opioids. However, to present no cases have been reported with tramadol. To evaluate the effect of tramadol on QT-interval in the clinical setting. Medical history and comorbidities predisposing to QT interval prolongation were registered for patients requiring medical assistance that involved tramadol administration. Ionograms and ECGs were performed at baseline and intratreatment; QT interval was analyzed after correction with Bazzet, Fridericia, Framinghan and Hogdes formula. 115 patients were studied (50.4% males) All patients had received tramadol 150-400 mg/day during 3.0-5.0 days at the moment of intratreatment control. Plasma concentrations of tramadol were 201-1613 ng/mL. Intratreatment electrocardiographic control, as mean ± SD (range), showed QTcB 372±32 (305 to 433), QTcFri 356±37 (281 to 429), QTcFra 363±33 (299 to 429), QTcH 362±30 (304 to 427), ΔQTcB 26±40 (-73 to 110), ΔQTcFri 24±48 (-97 to 121), ΔQTcFra 22±42 (-81 to 109) and .QTcH 22±38 (-68 to 110) ms. QTc interval presents high correlation with plasma tramadol concentrations (for .QTc, R>0.77). Renal failure was associated with a relative risk for ΔQTc > 30 ms of 1.90 (IC95% 1.31-2.74) and for ΔQTc > 60 ms of 4.74 (IC95% 2.57-8.74). No patient had evidence of arrhythmia during the present study. Tramadol produces QTc interval prolongation in good correlation with plasma drug concentrations; renal failure is a risk factor for higher concentration and QT prolongation by tramadol.

  7. Effect of ozone exposure on lung functions and plasma prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.D.; Ainsworth, D.; Lam, H.F.; Amdur, M.O.

    1987-03-30

    Male Hartley guinea pigs were exposed either to filtered air or to 1 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/) for 1 hr. At 2, 8, 24, or 48 hr after exposure we measured ventilation, respiratory mechanics, lung volumes, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and alveolar volume (VA) in anesthetized, tracheotomized animals. Respiratory frequency and tidal volume were unchanged in all groups. Pulmonary resistance was increased 2 hr after O/sub 3/ but returned to control at 8 hr and thereafter. Prolonged reductions in lung volumes (total lung capacity, vital capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume) as well as in DLCO and VA occurred after O/sub 3/, with maximum decreases at 8 and 24 hr postexposure. Increased ratios of wet lung weight to body weight were seen at 2, 8, and 24 hr. In separate groups of animals, also exposed either to filtered air or to 1 ppm O/sub 3/, plasma eicosanoid (EC) concentrations were measured at 2, 8, 24, 48, or 72 hr after exposure. Significant increases in thromboxane B2 concentrations were seen at 2, 24, and 48 hr after exposure. Plasma concentrations of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha) and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) were increased at 24 hr and at 24, 48, and 72 hr, respectively. The nature of this long-term pulmonary response to a short-term exposure to O/sub 3/ suggests alveolar involvement, including probable alveolar duct constriction and localized pulmonary edema. Although changes in plasma EC concentrations were observed concurrent with impaired lung functions, no simple causal relationship was apparent from these studies.

  8. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K

    2010-01-01

    -dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide, and oxyntomodulin were measured in pooled samples within cow and sampling day, whereas active ghrelin was measured in samples obtained 30 min before and after feeding at 0800 h. Postpartum, dry matter intake increased at a lower rate with infusion...... portal venous-arterial concentration difference was observed for ghrelin pre-feeding. The remaining portal venous-arterial and hepatic venous-arterial concentration differences of gut peptides did not differ from zero. In conclusion, increased postruminal glucose supply to postpartum transition dairy......Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design...

  9. Postprandial Plasma Concentrations of Individual Bile Acids and FGF-19 in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; van Nierop, F Samuel; Kulik, Willem

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may be implic......CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may...... be implicated in postprandial glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To describe postprandial plasma concentrations of 12 individual bile acids and FGF-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study, performed at the Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital...... and FGF-19 concentrations. RESULTS: Postprandial total bile acid concentrations increased with increasing meal fat content (P

  10. Normal values for plasma creatinine concentration related to maturity in normal term and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompeter, R S; Al-Dahhan, J; Haycock, G B; Chik, G; Chantler, C

    1983-09-01

    Creatinine concentration was measured by a kinetic method in 475 plasma samples obtained from 260 term and preterm infants during the first 2 months post-natal age. In term infants plasma creatinine fell from 88 +/- 4.4 mumol/L (mean + SEM) at birth, to 60 +/- 1.9 mumol/L by the fourth day remaining stable thereafter; in preterm infants creatinine fell to 86 +/- 7 mumol/L by the fourth day. Analysis of pooled data from all infants of more than 4 days post natal age revealed a progressive fall in creatinine with increasing post conceptual age. The normal range of values varies with post conceptual age and was not influenced by gestational age at the time of birth.

  11. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  12. The effect of severe starvation and captivity stress on plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations in an antarctic bird (emperor penguin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groscolas, R; Leloup, J

    1989-01-01

    The effect of confinement and severe starvation on the plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations was determined in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri). During their annual cycle, emperor penguins fast freely for periods of up to 4 months and may thus represent a unique subject to study endocrine adaptations to fasting. Plasma T4 concentrations progressively decreased following capture and confinement of naturally fasting penguins, and within 15-20 days stabilized at levels three times lower than in free-living penguins. A transient fourfold increase in plasma T3 concentration developed within the day following confinement in parallel with a rise in daily body mass loss. Both plasma T3 concentration and mass loss subsided to normal levels within 15 days. The decrease in plasma T4 concentration is in accordance with the well-known inhibitory effect of stress on thyroid function in birds and mammals, whereas the transient increase in plasma T3 concentration seems related to enhancement of energy expenditure as a consequence of restlessness. Starvation severe enough to exhaust fat stores and to activate protein catabolism induced a 6- and 5 to 10-fold fall in plasma T4 and T3, respectively. This is in marked contrast with maintenance of plasma thyroid levels during long-term natural fasting associated with protein sparing (R. Groscolas and J. Leloup (1986) Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 63, 264-274). Surprisingly, there was a final reincrease in plasma T4 concentration in very lean penguins. These results suggest that the effect of starvation on plasma thyroid hormones seems to depend on how much protein catabolism is activated and demonstrate the acute sensitivity of thyroid hormone balance to stress in penguins.

  13. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B;

    1983-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... formulation, whereas this was not the case for the other (r = 0.27 and 0.49). The daily dose necessary to keep the plasma concentration within the therapeutic range of 55-110 mumole/liter varied from 7.9 to 22.9 mg/kg. Only mild side effects were recorded, but they were not correlated to the plasma...... theophylline concentration....

  14. Body weight, concentration of plasma leptin and serum testosterone of ratsin response to feeding of chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Hao Sun; Zhi Fang Liu; Shu Ran Wang; Chao Xu Wang; Kun Wu

    2000-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of chitosan on rat body weight, concetration of plasma leptin and serumtestosterone.METHODS Five groups of rats were respectively given access to basic diet, high fat diet and high fat dietwith different doses of chitosan (1.5%,3.0% and 6.0% of chitosan in high fat diet respectively) for 7 wk.All rats were weighed once a week. By the end of wk 7, the animals were sacrificed and their blood sampleswere taken, the concentration of plasma leptin and serum testosterone were determined by RIA Kit method.RESULTS At the end of wk7, the average body weight of rats treated with high-fat diet was 67.3 gheavier than that with the basic diet, however, the average body weight of rats treated with high doses of chitosan in high-fat diet was 56.3 g lighter than that with high-fat diet (P < 0.01). In addition, plasma leptinconcentration in rats treated with high fat diet was significantly different from those with basic diet(P<0.01); plasma leptin concentration in rats treated with high dose of chitosan in high-fat diet wassignificantly lower than those with high-fat diet (P<0.01), but was significantly higher than those withbasic diet (P<0.05). Serum testosterone level in rats treated with high-fat diet was significantly lower thanthose with basic diet (P<0.01). Serum testosterone levels in rats administrated high dose of chitosan inhigh-fat diet were sighificantly lower than those with high-fat diet (P<0.01).CONCLUSION Chitosan prevents the increase of rat body weight induced by high-fat diet, and lowersplasma leptin and serum testosterone in rats.

  15. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC

  16. Plasma insulin-like peptide 3 and testosterone concentrations in male dogs: changes with age and effects of cryptorchidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, I N; Yamasaki, H; Kawate, N; Tsuji, M; Büllesbach, E E; Takahashi, M; Hatoya, S; Inaba, T; Tamada, H

    2012-02-01

    The objectives were to: (1) develop a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) to measure insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) in canine plasma; (2) investigate changes of plasma concentrations of INSL3 and testosterone with age in normal male dogs; and (3) compare hormonal concentrations among cryptorchid, normal, and castrated dogs to evaluate endocrine function of the Leydig cell component in retained testes. Blood samples were taken from normal male dogs from prepubertal age to advanced age (4 mo to 14 y, n = 89), and from unilateral cryptorchid (n = 31), bilateral cryptorchid (n = 7), and castrated dogs (n = 3). Canine plasma INSL3 was measured with a newly developed TRFIA. The minimum detection limit of the INSL3 assay was 0.02 ng/ml and the detection range was 0.02 to 20 ng/ml. Plasma INSL3 concentrations increased (P castrated dogs (INSL3 < 0.02 ng/ml; testosterone < 0.04 ng/ml). In conclusion, plasma INSL3 concentrations in male dogs measured by a newly developed TRFIA had a transient surge at a pubertal age, whereas testosterone did not. Lower plasma concentrations of INSL3 and testosterone in bilateral cryptorchid dogs suggest impaired endocrine functions of Leydig cell component in paired retained testes. Therefore, peripheral plasma INSL3 and testosterone concentrations have potential diagnostic value in predicting the presence of bilaterally retained testes in male dogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors for a low linezolid trough plasma concentration in acute infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Laura; Cuesta, Marta; Rojas, Jhon F; Rodriguez, Sebastian; Brunet, Merce; Casals, Gregori; Cobos, Nazareth; Hernandez, Cristina; Martínez, José A; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Linezolid is an antibiotic with time-dependent activity, and both the percentage of time that plasma concentrations exceed the MIC and the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC24/MIC ratio) are associated with clinical response. The aim of this study was to analyze the linezolid trough plasma concentration (C(min)) and to determine factors associated with a C(min) 80 ml/min, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and in patients with an infection due to Staphylococcus aureus. The independent predictors of C(min) 80 ml/min (odds ratio [OR], 10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.732 to 37.037; P = 0.001) and infection due to S. aureus (OR, 5.906; 95% CI, 1.651 to 21.126; P = 0.006). A linezolid C(min) of 80 ml/min and in infections due to S. aureus. In patients with severe sepsis, a loading dose or continuous infusion and drug monitoring could improve the pharmacodynamic parameters associated with linezolid efficacy.

  18. Plasma-derived versus recombinant factor concentrates in PUPs: a never ending debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntorp, Erik

    2017-01-31

    Inhibitor development in haemophilia is a serious complication to treatment with factor concentrates. Since the advent of more pure products, especially developed using recombinant DNA technology, some studies have shown an increased incidence of inhibitors in previously untreated patients (PUPs) receiving recombinant products whereas plasma-derived concentrates sometimes have been claimed to have a protective role, probably due to the content of von Willebrand factor (VWF). In fact, experiments indicate that the VWF may block uptake of factor VIII into macrophages for further processing to the immune system. Also, a competition between VWF and inhibitor binding to the C2 domain of factor VIII has been suggested. Recently, large cohort and surveillance studies have created a vigorous debate about the role of product class for inhibitor development as results have been conflicting. The only randomised prospective study, the SIPPET study, was published in 2016, and substantiated previous reports claiming that plasma derived concentrates give less inhibitors in patients with severe haemophilia A, previously not exposed to factor VIII. The debate will continue.

  19. The ratios of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (ARR) versus aldosterone / direct renin concentration (ADRR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinicki, Piotr; Jeske, Wojciech; Bednarek-Papierska, Lucyna; Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata; Rosłonowska, Elżbieta; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is estimated to occur in 5-12% of patients with hypertension. Assessment of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) has been used as a screening test in patients suspected of PA. Direct determination of renin (DRC) and calculation of aldosterone / direct renin concentration ratio (ADRR) could be similarly useful for screening patients suspected of PA. The study included 62 patients with indication for evaluation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and 35 healthy volunteers. In all participants we measured concentrations of serum aldosterone, plasma direct renin, and PRA after a night's rest and again after walking for two hours. The concentrations of aldosterone, direct renin, and PRA were measured by isotopic methods (radioimmunoassay (RIA) / immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)). Correlations of ARR with ADRR in the supine position were r = 0.9162, r(2) = 0.8165 (p 80% and 100%, respectively) appeared for the ratios ≥ 30. We suggest that for practical and economic reasons ARR can be replaced by ADRR.

  20. Effect of Dietary Inulin Source on Piglet Performance, Immunoglobulin Concentration, and Plasma Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grela Eugeniusz R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an inulin source (aqueous or aqueous-alcoholic extract, dried chicory root, or dried Jerusalem artichoke tubers on piglet performance, plasma lipid profile, and immunoglobulin concentration. The study was conducted on 534 piglets (44 litters allocated to five nutritional groups: group I (control - fed basal diet, groups II and III receiving basal diet supplemented with 2% of inulin (aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic extract respectively, and groups IV and V -4% additive of dried artichoke or dried chicory respectively. During the trial, piglets’ body weight, feed intake, diarrhoea incidence, and mortality were controlled. Blood samples were collected twice from six animals of each group. In blood plasma, indices of lipid profile and concentrations of IgA, IgG and IgM were measured. The addition of inulin, regardless of its form (extracts or dried plants, significantly improved the rearing indices. In piglets of groups III, IV and V a significant improvement of daily weight gains and feed efficiency was noted. Inulin showed hypolipidemic activity (lowered total cholesterol level and stimulated piglet immune system manifested by elevated IgA and IgG concentrations. Irrespective of the inulin source, a lower mortality rate resulting from the improvement of animal health was noted in all experimental groups.

  1. Genetic variation in hyaluronan metabolism loci is associated with plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanktree, Matthew B; Johansen, Christopher T; Anand, Sonia S; Davis, A Darlene; Miller, Ruby; Yusuf, Salim; Hegele, Robert A

    2010-09-23

    Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration is associated with cardiovascular disease risk. PAI-1 is the primary inhibitor of fibrinolysis within both the circulation and the arterial wall, playing roles in both atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To define the heritable component, subjects within the population-based SHARE (Study of Health Assessment and Risk in Ethnic groups) and SHARE-AP (Study of Health Assessment and Risk Evaluation in Aboriginal Peoples) studies, composed of Canadians of South Asian (n = 298), Chinese (n = 284), European (n = 227), and Aboriginal (n = 284) descent, were genotyped using the gene-centric Illumina HumanCVD BeadChip. After imputation, more than 150,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in more than 2000 loci were tested for association with plasma PAI-1 concentration. Marginal association was observed with the PAI-1 locus itself (SERPINE1; P HABP2, HSPA1A, HYAL1, MBTPS1, TARP) were associated with PAI-1 concentration at a P HABP2) and hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL1), play key roles in hyaluronan metabolism, providing genetic evidence to link these pathways.

  2. Risk Factors for a Low Linezolid Trough Plasma Concentration in Acute Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Laura; Cuesta, Marta; Rojas, Jhon F.; Rodriguez, Sebastian; Brunet, Merce; Casals, Gregori; Cobos, Nazareth; Hernandez, Cristina; Martínez, José A.; Mensa, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Linezolid is an antibiotic with time-dependent activity, and both the percentage of time that plasma concentrations exceed the MIC and the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC24/MIC ratio) are associated with clinical response. The aim of this study was to analyze the linezolid trough plasma concentration (Cmin) and to determine factors associated with a Cmin 80 ml/min, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and in patients with an infection due to Staphylococcus aureus. The independent predictors of Cmin 80 ml/min (odds ratio [OR], 10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.732 to 37.037; P = 0.001) and infection due to S. aureus (OR, 5.906; 95% CI, 1.651 to 21.126; P = 0.006). A linezolid Cmin of 80 ml/min and in infections due to S. aureus. In patients with severe sepsis, a loading dose or continuous infusion and drug monitoring could improve the pharmacodynamic parameters associated with linezolid efficacy. PMID:23403416

  3. Effect of estradiol cypionate and GnRH treatment on plasma estradiol-17β concentrations, synchronization of ovulation and on pregnancy rates in suckled beef cows treated with FTAI-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslenghi, G; Vater, A; Rodríguez Aguilar, S; Cabodevila, J; Callejas, S

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different ovulation inducers on E-17β plasma concentrations, synchronized ovulations and pregnancy rates. In Experiment 1, cows received a progesterone intravaginal device (PID) with 1 g of progesterone (P4) plus 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) (day 0). At PID removal (day 8), cows received 0.150 mg of D-cloprostenol and were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (n = 10/treatment): Group ECP: 1 mg of estradiol cypionate at PID removal, Group EB: 1 mg of EB 24 hr after PID removal, Group GnRH: 10 μg of GnRH 48 hr after PID removal, Group ECP-GnRH: 1 mg of ECP at PID removal plus 10 μg of GnRH 48 hr later. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed to detect the dominant follicle and ovulation. GnRH-treated cows ovulated later (p decreased later compared to treatments without ECP. In Experiment 2, cows received (i) ECP: n = 126; (ii) EB: n = 126; (iii) GnRH: n = 136; (iv) ECP+GnRH: n = 139; FTAI was performed 48-50 hr after PID removal. Pregnancy rates did not differ among ovulation inducers (p > .05; ECP: 54.0%, 68/126; EB: 49.2%, 62/126; GnRH: 40.4%, 55/136; ECP+GnRH: 43.9%, 61/139). In conclusion, ECP administration (ECP and ECP+GnRH treatments) affected E-17β concentrations, determining its earlier increase and later decrease compared to treatments without ECP (EB and GnRH treatments). ECP+GnRH-treated cows achieved the best distribution of ovulations without affecting pregnancy rates.

  4. [Sustained-release progesterone vaginal suppositories 3-development and clinical feasibility testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ayako; Yamaguchi, Naho; Ohno, Yukiko; Miyata, Chihiro; Kondo, Haruomi; Sunada, Hisakazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

      Although progesterone vaginal suppositories (hospital-formulated) are used for the treatment of infertility, their half-life is so short that multiple doses are required. In this study, we aimed to develop sustained-release vaginal suppositories suitable for clinical use which maintain an effective blood concentration by once-a-day treatment, and prepared 7 types of suppository containing the sustained-release progesterone tablets to characterize their sustained-release performance. We selected one candidate suppository among them, taking recovery rate, reproducibility, and hardness, as well as the sustained-release performance into consideration. The shell of the selected suppository is composed of VOSCO S-55 and progesterone for rapid release. The molded progesterone tablets for sustained release were embedded inside. The distribution of the weight and content of the suppository was limited, and the release rate of progesterone was significantly slower than that of a conventional progesterone suppository prepared in our hospital. The single-dose administration of the selected suppository to five healthy volunteers led to significant extension of the blood concentration. We also confirmed the rise of the basic value by multiple administration. The simulation comparison suggested that the blood progesterone concentration is controlled by once-a-day administration of the selected suppository better than twice-a-day administration of the conventional suppository. In conclusion, the sustained-release vaginal suppository prepared in this study was considered to be useful for clinical treatment.

  5. Plasma glutathione and oxidized glutathione level, glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, and albumin concentration in complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loeki Enggar Fitri; Agustin Iskandar; Teguh Wahju Sardjono; Ummu Ditya Erliana; Widya Rahmawati; Didi Candradikusuma; Utama Budi Saputra; Eko Suhartono; Bambang Setiawan; Erma Sulistyaningsih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the level of glutathione(GSH) and oxidized glutathione(GSSG),the ratio of GSH/GSSG and the concentration of albumin in plasma of patients with complicated and un-complicated falciparum malaria.Methods: This research was a cross sectional study using comparison analysis with the plasma GSH and GSSG, the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG and the concentration of plasma albumin as variables. The complicated malaria patients were obtained from Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang, whereas uncomplicated malaria patients were obtained from the Regency of Pleihari South Kalimantan. Plasma GSH and GSSG levels were determined by the spectrophotometer at the wave length of 412 nm, whereas the concentration of albumin was determined by bromocresol green method in the p H of 4.1.Results: There were no significant differences between the level of plasma GSH and GSSG in complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients, as well as the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG in the two groups(P = 0.373; P = 0.538; and P = 0.615, respectively, independent ttest). In contrast, the plasma albumin concentration in complicated malaria patients were significantly higher than uncomplicated malaria patients(P = 0.000, Mann Whitney U test).Conclusions: It can be concluded that the average of plasma GSH and GSSG level, also plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in complicated malaria are not different from uncomplicated malaria. Although plasma concentration of albumin in both groups is below the normal range,there is an increase in complicated malaria that might be as compensation of oxidative stress.

  6. Plasma glutathione and oxidized glutathione level, glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, and albumin concentration in complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loeki Enggar Fitri; Erma Sulistyaningsih; Agustin Iskandar; Teguh Wahju Sardjono; Ummu Ditya Erliana; Widya Rahmawati; Didi Candradikusuma; Utama Budi Saputra; Eko Suhartono; Bambang Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the level of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the ratio of GSH/GSSG and the concentration of albumin in plasma of patients with complicated and un-complicated falciparum malaria. Methods: This research was a cross sectional study using comparison analysis with the plasma GSH and GSSG, the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG and the concentration of plasma albumin as variables. The complicated malaria patients were obtained from Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang, whereas uncomplicated malaria patients were obtained from the Regency of Pleihari South Kalimantan. Plasma GSH and GSSG levels were determined by the spectrophotometer at the wave length of 412 nm, whereas the concentration of albumin was determined by bromocresol green method in the pH of 4.1. Results: There were no significant differences between the level of plasma GSH and GSSG in complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients, as well as the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG in the two groups (P=0.373;P=0.538;and P=0.615, respectively, independent t-test). In contrast, the plasma albumin concentration in complicated malaria patients were significantly higher than uncomplicated malaria patients (P=0.000, Mann Whitney U test). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the average of plasma GSH and GSSG level, also plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in complicated malaria are not different from uncomplicated ma-laria. Although plasma concentration of albumin in both groups is below the normal range, there is an increase in complicated malaria that might be as compensation of oxidative stress.

  7. [Isolation, extractive concentration, and determination of caffeine in the studies of blood plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Ia I; Shormanov, V K; Mokshina, N Ia; Krivosheeva, O A; Golubitskiĭ, G B

    2012-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the isolation of caffeine from human blood by means of acetone extraction are described with special reference to the peculiarities of extraction from aqueous solutions. The possibility of concentration and purification of caffeine from blood plasma using acetone and aceton-chlorophorm mixture (2:8) as the solvents is illustrated. In addition, purification by silica-gel thin layer chromatography is discussed. Thin layer chromatography, UV-spectrophotometry, and high performance liquid chromatography are considered as potential methods for the identification and quantitative determination of caffeine.

  8. Associations between plasma tenofovir concentration and renal function markers in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwila Mulubwa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF has been associated with kidney tubulardys function and reduced renal function. Limited studies were performed in Europe and Asia that related plasma tenofovir (TFV concentration with renal function; no such studies to date have been performed on Africans.Objective: To investigate the correlation between plasma tenofovir (TFV concentration and certain renal function markers in HIV-infected women on TDF antiretroviral therapy (ART.These markers were also compared to a HIV-uninfected control group.Methods: HIV-infected women (n = 30 on TDF-based ART were matched with 30 controls forage and body mass index. Renal markers analysed were estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, creatinine clearance (CrCl, serum creatinine, albuminuria, glucosuria, serum urea, serum uric acid, urine sodium and maximum tubular reabsorption of phosphate. Baseline eGFR and CrCl data were obtained retrospectively for the HIV-infected women. Plasma TFV was assayed using a validated HPLC-MS/MS method. Step wise regression, Mann–Whitney test, unpaired and paired t-tests were applied in the statistical analyses.Results: TFV concentration was independently associated with albuminuria (adjusted r2 = 0.339; p = 0.001 in HIV-infected women. In the adjusted (weight analysis, eGFR (p = 0.038,CrCl (p = 0.032 and albuminuria (p = 0.048 were significantly higher in HIV-infected compared to the uninfected women, but eGFR was abnormally high in HIV-infected women. Both eGFR (p < 0.001 and CrCl (p = 0.008 increased from baseline to follow-up in HIV-infected women.Conclusion: Plasma TFV concentration was associated with increased albuminuria in HIV infected women in this sub-study. Both eGFR and CrCl were increased in HIV-infected women from baseline. These findings should be confirmed in larger studies, and hyperfiltration in HIV-infected women warrants further investigation.

  9. Enantiospecific ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral and intramuscular administration in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustonen Katja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been widely used for domestic animals. Orally administered racemic ketoprofen has been reported to be absorbed well in pigs, and bioavailability was almost complete. The objectives of this study were to analyze R- and S-ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral (PO and intra muscular (IM routes of administration, and to assess the relative bioavailability of racemic ketoprofen for both enantiomers between those routes of administration in growing pigs. Methods Eleven pigs received racemic ketoprofen at dose rates of 4 mg/kg PO and 3 mg/kg IM in a randomized, crossover design with a 6-day washout period. Enantiomers were separated on a chiral column and their concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and relative bioavailability (Frel was determined for S and R –ketoprofen. Results S-ketoprofen was the predominant enantiomer in pig plasma after administration of the racemic mixture via both routes. The mean (± SD maximum S-ketoprofen concentration in plasma (7.42 mg/L ± 2.35 in PO and 7.32 mg/L ± 0.75 in IM was more than twice as high as that of R-ketoprofen (2.55 mg/L ± 0.99 in PO and 3.23 mg/L ± 0.70 in IM, and the terminal half-life was three times longer for S-ketoprofen (3.40 h ± 0.91 in PO and 2.89 h ± 0.85 in IM than R-ketoprofen (1.1 h ± 0.90 in PO and 0.75 h ± 0.48 in IM. The mean (± SD relative bioavailability (PO compared to IM was 83 ± 20% and 63 ± 23% for S-ketoprofen and R-ketoprofen, respectively. Conclusions Although some minor differences were detected in the ketoprofen enantiomer concentrations in plasma after PO and IM administration, they are probably not relevant in clinical use. Thus, the pharmacological effects of racemic ketoprofen should be comparable after intramuscular and oral routes of

  10. Plasma estrogen concentrations after oral and vaginal estrogen administration in women with atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Mary Beth; Nelson, Anita L; Mayer, Philip R; Ranganath, Radhika P; Norris, Paul M; Helzner, Eileen C; Preston, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    In this open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, two-treatment crossover study, 24 postmenopausal women with moderate to severe atrophic vaginitis received 0.3 mg conjugated estrogens daily for 14 days: 7 days orally (0.3 mg tablet) and 7 days vaginally (0.5 g cream). Steady-state plasma concentrations of E2 and estrone were one-third lower after vaginal versus oral administration of conjugated estrogens. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling of the Flow, Temperature and Concentration Fields in an Arc Plasma Reactor with Argon-Nitrogen Atmosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fudolig, Agustin M; Nogami, Hiroshi; Yagi, Jun-ichiro

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical formulation was developed for describing the flow behavior, temperature profile and concentration fields in pure or mixed argon and nitrogen arc plasmas impinging on a metal target inside a reactor...

  12. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  13. Cardiac natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations during the first 72 hours of life in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Christoffersen, Christina; Nørgaard, Linn Maiken

    2013-01-01

    Plasma measurement of cardiac natriuretic peptides constitutes promising markers of congenital heart disease. However, concentrations change rapidly and dramatically during the first days after delivery even in healthy neonates, which complicates clinical interpretation. It is unknown whether...

  14. Age- and therapy-related effects on morphine requirements and plasma concentrations of morphine and its metabolites in postoperative infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bouwmeester (Nancy); J.N. van den Anker (John); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); K.J.S. Anand (Kanwaljeet); D. Tibboel (Dick)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: To investigate clinical variables such as gestational age, sex, weight, the therapeutic regimens used and mechanical ventilation that might affect morphine requirements and plasma concentrations of morphine and its metabolites. METHODS: In a double-blind stu

  15. Effect of chronic elevation of plasma calcium concentration by PTH or vitamin D3on blood pressure and hypotensive activity of nifedipine in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, F.A.M.; Thoolen, M.J.M.C.; Wilffert, B.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a chronically elevated total plasma calcium concentration on blood pressure and heart rate was investigated in conscious normotensive rats. The plasma calcium concentration was elevated by continuous subcutaneous infusion with parathormone (PTH) after parathyreoidectomy, and by oral

  16. Platelet Concentration in Platelet-Rich Plasma Affects Tenocyte Behavior In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Giusti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since tendon injuries and tendinopathy are a growing problem, sometimes requiring surgery, new strategies that improve conservative therapies are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP seems to be a good candidate by virtue of its high content of growth factors, most of which are involved in tendon healing. This study aimed to evaluate if different concentrations of platelets in PRP have different effects on the biological features of normal human tenocytes that are usually required during tendon healing. The different platelet concentrations tested (up to 5 × 106 plt/µL stimulated differently tenocytes behavior; intermediate concentrations (0.5 × 106, 1 × 106 plt/µL strongly induced all tested processes (proliferation, migration, collagen, and MMPs production if compared to untreated cells; on the contrary, the highest concentration had inhibitory effects on proliferation and strongly reduced migration abilities and overall collagen production but, at the same time, induced increasing MMP production, which could be counterproductive because excessive proteolysis could impair tendon mechanical stability. Thus, these in vitro data strongly suggest the need for a compromise between extremely high and low platelet concentrations to obtain an optimal global effect when inducing in vivo tendon healing.

  17. Effects of humidity on the plasma-catalytic removal of low-concentration BTX in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Zhu, Tianle; Wan, Yajuan; Yan, Xiao

    2010-08-15

    Effects of relative humidity (30%, 50% and 80% RH) on the removal of low-concentration benzene, toluene and p-xylene (BTX mixture) in air by non-thermal plasma (NTP) and the combination of NTP and MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst (CPC) were systematically investigated in a link tooth wheel-cylinder plasma reactor. A long-term (150 h) CPC experiment under 30% RH was also conducted to investigate the stability of the catalyst. Results show that increasing humidity inhibits the O(3) production in plasma and its decomposition over the catalyst. As for BTX conversion, increasing humidity suppresses the benzene conversion by both NTP and CPC; although higher humidity slightly promotes the toluene conversion by NTP, it negatively influences that by CPC; while the conversion of p-xylene by both NTP and CPC is insensitive to the humidity levels. Irrespective of the RH, the introduction of MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst significantly promotes BTX conversion and improves the energy efficiency. On the other hand, CPC under 30% RH shows the best performance towards CO(x) formation during BTX oxidation processes. However, for a specific input energy of 10 J L(-1) in this study, organic intermediates generated and accumulated over the catalyst surface, resulting in a slight deactivation of the MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst after 150-h reactions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma mitomycin C concentrations determined by HPLC coupled to solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroni, R; Arcelloni, C; De Vecchi, E; Fermo, I; Mauri, D; Colombo, R

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study was to set up a method for quantification of plasma mitomycin C (MMC) concentrations during intravesical chemotherapy delivered in the presence of local bladder hyperthermia (HT). In comparison with existing methods, this assay, characterized by relative simplicity and efficiency, resulted in the facilitation of performance with nondedicated instrumentation or nonspecialized staff. Purification from plasma matrix was carried out by solid-phase extraction under vaccuum. The purified drug was then collected directly into the vials of the HPLC autosampler. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with water:acetonitrile (85:15 by vol) as the mobile phase and the UV detector set at 365 nm. The use of porfiromycin as internal standard provided a method with good within-day precision (CV 6.0% at 5 micrograms/L, n = 6), linearity (0.5-50 micrograms/L), and specificity. The lower limit of detection (< or = 0.5 microgram/L) proved to be suitable for plasma pharmacokinetics monitoring in two tested patients treated with MMC + HT for superficial bladder cancer.

  19. Up-regulation of the alligator CYP3A77 gene by toxaphene and dexamethasone and its short term effect on plasma testosterone concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, M.P. [Department of Zoology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118525, Gainesville, FL 32611-8525 (United States) and University of Victoria, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Petch 249/251, P.O. Box 3055 STN CSC, Victoria B.C., V8W 3P6 (Canada)]. E-mail: mgunders@uvic.ca; Kohno, S. [Center for Integrative Bioscience, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki National Research Institutes, 5-1 Higashiyama Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Blumberg, B. [Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, 2113E McGaugh Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-2300 (United States); Iguchi, T. [Center for Integrative Bioscience, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki National Research Institutes, 5-1 Higashiyama Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Guillette, L.J. [Department of Zoology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118525, Gainesville, FL 32611-8525 (United States)]. E-mail: ljg@zoo.ufl.edu

    2006-06-30

    In this study we describe an alligator hepatic CYP3A gene, CYP3A77, which is inducible by dexamethasone and toxaphene. CYP3A plays a broad role in biotransforming both exogenous compounds and endogenous hormones such as testosterone and estradiol. Alligators collected from sites in Florida that are contaminated with organochlorine compounds exhibit differences in sex steroid concentrations. Many organochlorine compounds induce CYP3A expression in other vertebrates; hence, CYP3A induction by organochlorine contaminants could increase biotransformation and clearance of sex steroids by CYP3A and provide a plausible mechanism for the lowering of endogenous sex steroid concentrations in alligator plasma. We used real time PCR to examine whether known and suspected CYP3A inducers (dexamethasone, metyrapone, rifampicin, and toxaphene) up-regulate steady state levels of hepatic CYP3A77 transcript to determine if induction patterns in female juvenile alligators are similar to those reported in other vertebrates and whether toxaphene, an organochlorine compound found in high concentrations in Lake Apopka alligators, induces this gene. Estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}), estrogen receptor {beta} (ER{beta}), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor (PR), and steroid-xenobiotic receptor (SXR) transcripts were also measured to determine whether any of these nuclear receptors are also regulated by these compounds in alligators. Dexamethasone (4.2-fold) and toxaphene (3.5-fold) significantly induced CYP3A77 gene transcript, whereas rifampicin (2.8-fold) and metyrapone (2.1-fold) up-regulated ER{beta} after 24 h. None of the compounds significantly up-regulated AR, ER{alpha}, GR, PR, or SXR over this time period. Plasma testosterone (T) did not change significantly after 24 h in alligators from any of the treatment groups. Dexamethasone treated animals exhibited a strong relationship between the 24 h plasma T concentrations and CYP3A77 (R {sup

  20. Ion mobility spectrometry as a simple and rapid method to measure the plasma propofol concentrations for intravenous anaesthesia monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qinghua; Jiang, Dandan; Gong, Yulei; Li, Enyou; Li, Haiyang

    2016-11-01

    The plasma propofol concentration is important information for anaesthetists to monitor and adjust the anaesthesia depth for patients during a surgery operation. In this paper, a stand-alone ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) was constructed for the rapid measurement of the plasma propofol concentrations. Without any sample pre-treatment, the plasma samples were dropped on a piece of glass microfiber paper and then introduced into the IMS cell by the thermal desorption directly. Each individual measurement could be accomplished within 1 min. For the plasma propofol concentrations from 1 to 12 μg mL-1, the IMS response was linear with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.998, while the limit of detection was evaluated to be 0.1 μg mL-1. These measurement results did meet the clinical application requirements. Furthermore, other clinically-often-used drugs, including remifentanil, flurbiprofen and atracurium, were found no significant interference with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the plasma propofol. The plasma propofol concentrations measured by IMS were correlated well with those measured by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results confirmed an excellent agreement between these two methods. Finally, this method was applied to monitor the plasma propofol concentrations for a patient undergoing surgery, demonstrating its capability of anaesthesia monitoring in real clinical environments.

  1. Estimating time of last oral ingestion of cannabis from plasma THC and THCCOOH concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Elsohly, Mahmoud; Nebro, Wesenyalsh; Barnes, Allan; Gustafson, Richard A; Smith, Michael L

    2006-08-01

    Estimating the time of last cannabis use is important in assessing possible impairment of drivers involved in accidents, in verifying accuracy of court testimony and in the future, helpful in therapeutic monitoring of cannabis agonists. In 1992, Huestis et al developed model 1, based on plasma Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations, and model 2, on plasma 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannbinol/THC ratios, that predicted 95% confidence intervals for time of last cannabis use. These models seemed to be valuable when applied to the small amount of data from published studies of oral ingestion, a route of administration more popular with the advent of cannabis therapies. A study was designed to further validate the models after oral ingestion of THC, and to determine whether they could predict last usage after multiple oral doses. Eighteen subjects in IRB-approved studies participated after providing informed consent. Each of 12 subjects in one group received a single 10 mg oral dose of dronabinol (synthetic THC). In another protocol, 6 subjects received 4 different oral daily doses, divided into thirds and administered with meals for 5 consecutive days. There was a 10-day washout period between each dosing regimen. Daily doses were 0.39, 0.47, and 14.8 mg THC in hemp oil and 7.5 mg dronabinol. Blood specimens were collected throughout the study and analyzed for plasma THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannbinol by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL, respectively. Actual times between ingestion of THC and blood collection spanned 0.5 to 16 hours. All plasma specimens with analyte concentrations >LOQ (n=90) were evaluated. Models 1 and 2 correctly predicted time of last THC ingestion for 74.4% and 90.0% of plasma specimens, respectively. 96.7% of predicted times were correct with one overestimate and 2 underestimates using the time interval defined by the lowest and highest 95

  2. Increased plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α concentration in severe human traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo-Feng; Jie, Yuan-Qing; Wu, An; Huang, Qiang; Dai, Wei-Min; Fan, Xiao-Feng

    2013-06-05

    8-Iso-Prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) is considered as a gold standard for measuring oxidative stress in vivo. The present study was undertaken to investigate plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in severe human traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to analyze its correlation with disease outcome. One hundred six healthy subjects and 106 severe TBI patients were recruited. The correlations of plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentration with 1-year mortality and unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) were analyzed. Thirty-one patients (29.2%) died and 48 patients (45.3%) had an unfavorable outcome at 1 year after TBI. Patients had significantly higher plasma 8-iso-PGF2α levels compared to healthy controls (572.1±157.5 pg/ml vs. 84.3±18.9 pg/ml, Piso-PGF2α level as an independent predictor for 1-year unfavorable outcome [odds ratio (OR) 1.401, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.107-2.371, P=0.005] and mortality (OR 1.609, 95% CI 1.113-3.142, P=0.003). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed plasma 8-iso-PGF2α level predicted 1-year unfavorable outcome [area under curve (AUC), 0.871; 95% CI, 0.792-0.928] and mortality (AUC, 0.881; 95% CI, 0.804-0.936) as statistically significantly. The prognostic value of 8-iso-PGF2α was similar to that of Glasgow Coma Scale score for 1-year clinical outcomes (both P>0.05). However, 8-iso-PGF2α did not improve the prognostic value of Glasgow Coma Scale score for 1-year clinical outcomes (both P>0.05). Plasma 8-iso-PGF2α level is highly associated with 1-year clinical outcomes of TBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  4. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis. However, studies that prospectively examined circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-[OH] D in relation to diabetes risk are limited. Our objective is to determine the association between maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations in early pregnancy and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted among a prospective cohort of 953 pregnant women. Among them, 57 incident GDM cases were ascertained and 114 women who were not diagnosed with GDM were selected as controls. Controls were frequency matched to cases for the estimated season of conception of the index pregnancy. RESULTS: Among women who developed GDM, maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations at an average of 16 weeks of gestation were significantly lower than controls (24.2 vs. 30.1 ng/ml, P<0.001. This difference remained significant (3.62 ng/ml lower on average in GDM cases than controls (P value = 0.018 after the adjustment for maternal age, race, family history of diabetes, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Approximately 33% of GDM cases, compared with 14% of controls (P<0.001, had maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations consistent with a pre-specified diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml. After adjustment for the aforementioned covariates including BMI, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a 2.66-fold (OR (95% CI: 2.66 (1.01-7.02 increased GDM risk. Moreover, each 5 ng/ml decrease in 25-[OH] D concentrations was related to a 1.29-fold increase in GDM risk (OR (95% CI: 1.29 (1.05-1.60. Additional adjustment for season and physical activity did not change findings substantially. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the present study suggest that maternal vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy is significantly associated with an elevated risk for GDM.

  5. Effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in female patients with shoulder pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Min-Sung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Baek, Yeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in female patients with shoulder pain. [Subjects] Subjects comprised 20 female patients with shoulder pain. [Methods] Subjects were divided into 2 groups: a Hatha yoga exercise group (n = 10) and a control group that performed no exercise (n = 10). The subjects’ body composition, plasma malondialdehyde concentrations, and s...

  6. Effects of exercise intensity on plasma concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones: Potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Tom J; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K; Schmale, Matt S; Copeland, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Research to date suggests short-term appetite regulation following a single exercise session is likely affected by decreases in acylated ghrelin and increases in PYY, GLP-1, and PP. Further, this exercise-induced response may be intensity-dependent. In an effort to guide future research, it is important to consider how exercise alters the circulating concentrations of these appetite-regulating hormones. Potential mechanisms include blood redistribution, sympathetic nervous system activity, gastrointestinal motility, cytokine release, free fatty acid concentrations, lactate production, and changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. This review of relevant research suggests blood redistribution during exercise may be important for suppressing ghrelin, while other mechanisms involving cytokine release, changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, SNS activity, and muscle metabolism likely mediate changes in the anorexigenic signals PYY and GLP-1. Overall, changes in appetite-regulating hormones following acute exercise appear to be intensity-dependent, with increasing intensity leading to a greater suppression of orexigenic signals and greater stimulation of anorexigenic signals. However, there is less research on how exercise-induced responses in appetite-regulating hormones differ between sexes or different age groups. A better understanding of how exercise intensity and workload affect appetite across the sexes and life

  7. Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Motor Prognosis in Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years. Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900.Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021 for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030 for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900. The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61 and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.

  8. Seasonal effects on plasma cortisol concentrations in the Bedouin buck: circadian studies and response to ACTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chergui, N; Mormede, P; Foury, A; Khammar, F; Amirat, Z

    2017-03-01

    Our work aims at the exploration of cortisol secretion in the Bedouin goat, native to the Algerian Sahara desert, to understand the mechanisms of adaptation to extreme hot climates. In the present study, diurnal and seasonal variations of cortisol concentrations were measured in basal conditions, as well as the response to ACTH stimulation tests across seasons in bucks. The plasma concentrations of cortisol showed no diurnal cycle but a large variation across seasons. The highest levels occurred in summer and winter when the environmental conditions are at their extreme levels. The rectal temperature showed nychthemeral and seasonal variations, and BW was also different across seasons with highest values in summer and lowest in winter. The results obtained after administration of two doses (2 or 10 μg/kg BW) of synthetic ACTH to three different age groups (kids, adults and elderly animals) showed a strong increase in plasma cortisol concentrations under all conditions with maximum levels achieved between 15 and 120 min. The analysis of the area under the cortisol curve showed no significant difference between the responses to the two doses of ACTH and between age groups, but showed seasonal variations with the lowest response in autumn than in other seasons. We conclude that season significantly affects secretion of cortisol in both basal state and under ACTH stimulation. However, the variation of adrenal reactivity to ACTH is not sufficient to explain seasonal differences, and in particular the summer peak in basal circulating cortisol concentrations. Further research should focus on the respective contribution of environmental factors (such as day length, temperature, humidity) and the mechanisms involved in cortisol regulation.

  9. Effect of progesterone supplementation in the first week post conception on embryo survival in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Lonergan, P; Diskin, M G; Roche, J F; Crowe, M A

    2009-04-15

    Progesterone is essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of elevating progesterone during the different physiological stages of early embryo development on embryo survival. Estrus was synchronized in cross-bred beef heifers (n=197, approximately 2-years old) and they were inseminated 12-18h after estrus onset (=Day 0). Inseminated heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) Control, n=69; (2) progesterone supplementation using a Controlled Internal Drug Release Device (CIDR) from Day 3 to 6.5, n=64; or (3) progesterone supplementation using a CIDR from Day 4.5 to 8, n=64. Body condition (BCS) and locomotion scores (scale of 1-5) were recorded for all animals. Animals with a locomotion score >/=4 (very lame) were excluded. Embryo survival rate was determined at slaughter on Day 25. Conceptus length and weight were recorded and the corpus luteum (CL) of all pregnant animals was dissected and weighed. Supplementation with exogenous progesterone increased (P<0.05) peripheral progesterone concentrations, but did not affect embryo survival rate compared with controls. Mean CL weight, conceptus length and conceptus weight were not different between treatments. There was a positive relationship (P<0.04) between the increase in progesterone concentrations from Days 3 to 6.5 and embryo survival rate in treated heifers and a similar trend existed between the increase from Days 4.5 to 8 (P<0.06). There was also a positive relationship (P<0.05) between the progesterone concentration on Day 6.5 and the embryo survival rate in treated heifers. A direct correlation was seen between locomotion score and embryo survival rate, with higher (P<0.05) early embryo survival rates in heifers with a lower locomotion score. In conclusion, supplementation with progesterone at different stages of early embryo development increased peripheral progesterone concentration and resulted in a positive

  10. High-intensity endurance training improves adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadasi, Mehrzad; Mohebbi, Hamid; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Hassan-Nia, Sadegh; Noroozi, Hamid; Pirooznia, Nazanin

    2012-04-01

    Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory protein that reduced in obesity. Exercise training may reduce the adipose tissue (AT), although it is not well known whether exercise-induced change in AT, increases the adiponectin mRNA expression and plasma concentrations or not; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations in middle-aged men after 12 weeks high-intensity exercise training and after a week detraining. Sixteen sedentary overweight and obese middle-aged men (age 41.18 ± 6.1 years; ± SD) volunteered to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to training group (n = 8) or control group (n = 8). The training group performed endurance training 4 days a week for 12 weeks at an intensity corresponding to 75-80% individual maximum oxygen consumption for 45 min. After 12 weeks of training, subjects underwent a week of detraining. The results showed that the BMI as well as central and peripheral AT volume were decreased in the training group compared to the control group (P training group resulted in a significant increase (P training compared to the control group (P training group. In conclusion, high-intensity endurance training caused an increase adiponectin mRNA in obese middle-aged men.

  11. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M; Chen, Chung Y; Malloy, Mary J; Browne, Amanda; Chiu, Elisa Y; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Milbury, Paul; Paul, Steven M; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

  12. Plasma retinoids concentration in Leptodactylus chaquensis (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) from rice agroecosystems, Santa Fe province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglia, Carla M; Attademo, Andrés M; Peltzer, Paola M; Goicoechea, Héctor C; Lajmanovich, Rafael C

    2015-09-01

    Retinoids are known to regulate important processes such as differentiation, development, and embryogenesis of vertebrates: Alteration in endogenous retinoids concentration is linked with teratogenic effects. Retinol (ROH), retinoid acid (RA), and isoform 13-Cis-retinoic acid (13-Cis-RA), in plasma of a native adults frog, Leptodactylus chaquensis from a rice field (RF) and a forest (reference site; RS) were measured. ROH did not vary between treatment sites. RA and 13-Cis-RA activities were higher (93.7±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 131.7±11.4 μg mL(-1), respectively) in individuals collected from RF than in those from RS (65.5±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 92.2±10.2 μg mL(-1), respectively). The ratios retinoic acid-retinol (RA/ROH) and 13-Cis-RA/ROH revealed significantly higher values in RF than in RS. RA and 13-Cis-RA concentrations in plasma on wild amphibian's species such as L. chaquensis would be suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure in field monitoring. Finally, the mechanism of alteration in retinoid metabolites alteration should be further explored both in larvae and adult, considering that the potential exposition and uptake contaminants vary between the double lives of these vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transplacental pharmacokinetics and maternal/fetal plasma concentrations of cocaine in pregnant macaques near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binienda, Z; Bailey, J R; Duhart, H M; Slikker, W; Paule, M G

    1993-01-01

    The transplacental pharmacokinetics of cocaine were studied in three pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at 150-154 days of pregnancy (term approximately 165 days). Animals were dosed intramuscularly with cocaine hydrochloride at 1 mg/kg, supplemented with a tritiated cocaine tracer. Plasma cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine levels were determined after separation by HPLC and subsequent quantification by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Cocaine levels peaked in maternal blood within 10-20 min after dosing, and cocaine was detected in fetal blood within 5 min, reaching peak concentrations within 30-120 min. Mean maternal elimination half-lives (t1/2) for cocaine and benzoylecgonine were 1.2 +/- 0.5 hr and 12.4 +/- 6.6 hr (+/- SEM), respectively; fetal half-lives were 0.5 +/- 0.2 and 7.7 +/- 3.0 hr. Mean maternal residence times were 1.9 +/- 0.5 and 17.0 +/- 9.1 hr for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, respectively; fetal values were 2.1 +/- 0.2 and 11.6 +/- 3.5 hr. Total areas under the concentration versus time curves (AUCs) for cocaine and benzoylecgonine in maternal plasma were 360 +/- 38 and 585 +/- 260 (ng/ml) hr, respectively; fetal values were 104 +/- 29 and 262 +/- 61 (ng/ml) hr. Based on AUC comparisons for cocaine, fetal exposures are thus approximately one-third of maternal exposures, demonstrating that substantial exposure to cocaine does occur in utero.

  14. Effect of Resistance Training on Plasma Nitric Oxide and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Concentrations in Type I Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Parivash Shekarchizadeh; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Karimian, Jahangir; Khazaei, Majid; Feizi, Awat; Safarzade, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has a predominant role in progression of some cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes. It interferes with L-arginine in production of nitric oxide (NO) by inhibition of NO synthase. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of resistance training on plasma NO and ADMA concentrations in type 1 diabetic male rats. Methods: Thirty-six male wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control; (2) diabetic; (3) diabetic trained, and (4) control trained (n = 9 each). In the trained groups, the animals undertook one training session per day, 3 days/week, for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, blood samples were taken and the concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile, NO and ADMA concentrations were determined. Results: plasma ADMA concentration showed a significant increase in diabetic rats compare to control group (0.73 ± 0.07 vs. 0.62 ± 0.04 μmol/l; P < 0.05). The plasma ADMA level in the trained diabetic and control were lower than the sedentary groups, although it was not statistically significant. Plasma NO concentration in diabetic group was lower than control (P < 0.05). Resistance training significantly increased plasma NO concentration in diabetic animals (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Elevated ADMA level in diabetic animals can normalize during resistance exercise. Reduced ADMA level and increased NO level following resistance training might improve cardiovascular risk in diabetic subjects. PMID:23717776

  15. Study on Plasma Concentration and Bioavailability of Wogonin in Beagle's Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-chun; CHEN Fei-hu; DONG Hai-jun; GAO Shu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop an LC-MS/MS method for determining the concentration of wogonin in dog plasma and investigate the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability by different administrations of wogonin in Beagle's dogs. Methods LC-MS/MS was employed in determining the concentration of wogonin with the selected ion monitoring model after liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate of dog plasma samples. The lower limit of quantification was 0.105 μg/L. Target ions were at m/z 285.0→270.0 for wogonin and 373.3→305.3 for finasteride. In a randomized, self-control, and cross-over study, six male Beagle's dogs were treated with different administration methods in three test periods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS software (Ver. 2.0). Results The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.105-107.36 μg/L for wogonin in dog plasma samples. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of ig administration (native drug of 15 mg/kg and solution preparation of 5 mg/kg) and iv route were as follows: Cmax (2.5 ± 1.1), (7.9 ± 3.3), and (6838.7 ± 1322.1) μg/L, tmax (0.7 ± 0.3) and (0.3 ± 0.2) h for the both former, AUC0-1 (7.1 ± 2.0), (21.0 ± 3.2), and (629.7 ±111.8) μg·h/L. The absolute bioavailability of native and solution of wogonin were (0.59 ± 0.35)% and (3.65 ± 2.00)%, respectively. Conclusion The validated method is convenient, sensitive, and specific, and the improvement of wogonin solubility could remarkably increase the absolute bioavailability.

  16. Determination of plasma lactic acid concentration and specific activity using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiberg, B; Steinberg, J J; Katz, S D; Wexler, J; LeJemtel, T

    1991-08-23

    Assessment of lactate metabolism is of particular interest during exercise and in disease states such as diabetes, shock, and absorptive abnormalities of short-chain fatty acids by the colon. We describe an analytical method that introduces radio-active tracers and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to simultaneously analyze concentrations and specific activities (SAs) of plasma lactate. The HPLC conditions included separation on a reversed-phase column (octadecylsilane) and an isocratic buffer (30% acetonitrile in water). [3H]Acetate served as an internal standard. Lactate and acetate were extracted from plasma samples with diethyl ether following a pH adjustment to less than 1.0 and back-extracted into a hydrophilic phase with sodium carbonate (2 mM, pH greater than 10.0). Lactate is detected in the ultraviolet range (242 and 320 nm) by derivatization with alpha-bromoacetophenone. Control plasma samples were studied after an overnight fast for precision and analytical recovery. Calibration curves were linear in the range 0.18-6.0 mM (r = 0.92). The precision was 3% and the analytical recovery was 87%. The detection limit of the method was 36 pmol. Determination of lactate metabolism was performed in a patient with chronic congestive heart failure who was administered primed-continuous L-[U-14C]lactate (10 microCi bolus and 0.3 microCi/min continuously) during a 60-min rest period. Mean arterial lactate concentration and SA were 1.69 +/- 0.2 mM and 253.8 +/- 22 dpm/mumol, respectively. Systemic lactate turnover was 25.65 mumol/kg per min. Lactic acid systemic turnover, organ uptake and release rates can be accurately determined by isocratic HPLC.

  17. Vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase) Mediates Progesterone-Induced Uterine Fluid Acidification in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Kamarulzaman; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that progesterone-induced decrease in uterine fluid pH involves V-ATPase. In this study, expression and functional activity of V-ATPase in uterus were investigated under progesterone influence. Ovariectomized adult female rats received subcutaneous injection of estradiol-17β (1 µg/kg/day) or progesterone (20 mg/kg/day) for 3 days or 3 days estradiol-17β followed by 3 days vehicle, progesterone, or estradiol-17β plus progesterone. Mifepristone, a progesterone receptor blocker, was concomitantly given to the rats which received progesterone. A day after last injection, rate of uterine fluid secretion, its HCO3 (-) concentration, and pH were determined via in vivo uterine perfusion in rats under anesthesia. V-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin, was introduced into the perfusion buffer, and changes in these parameters were observed. Expression of V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 proteins and mRNAs in uterus were quantified by Western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. Distribution of these proteins was observed by immunohistochemistry. Our findings showed that under progesterone influence, uterine fluid secretion rate, HCO3 (-) concentration, and pH were significantly reduced. Administration of bafilomycin did not cause significant changes in fluid secretion rate; however, HCO3 (-) concentration and pH were significantly elevated. In parallel with these changes, expression of V-ATPase A1 and B1/2 proteins and mRNAs were significantly increased with these proteins highly distributed in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia. In conclusion, increased expression and functional activity of V-ATPase were most likely responsible for the decreased in uterine fluid pH observed under progesterone influence.

  18. Disturbances in production of progesterone and their implications in plant studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Anna; Oklestkova, Jana; Novak, Ondrej; Śniegowska-Świerk, Katarzyna; Snaczke, Zuzanna; Pociecha, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    Progesterone is a mammalian hormone that has also been discovered in plants but its physiological function in plants is not explained. Experiments using inhibitors of progesterone synthesis and binding would be useful in studies on the significance of this compound in plants. Until now, trilostane and mifepristone have been used in medical sciences as progesterone biosynthesis and binding inhibitors, respectively. We tested these synthetic steroids for the first time in plants and found that they reduced the content of progesterone in wheat. The aim of further experiments was to answer whether the potential disturbances in the production/binding of progesterone, influence resistance to environmental stress (drought) and the development of wheat. Inhibitors and progesterone were applied to plants via roots in a concentration of 0.25-0.5mg/l water. Both inhibitors lowered the activity of CO2 binding enzyme (Rubisco) in wheat exposed to drought stress and trilostane additionally lowered the chlorophyll content. However, trilostane-treated plants were rescued by treatment with exogenous progesterone. The inhibitors also modulated the development of winter wheat, which indicated the significance of steroid regulators and their receptors in this process. In this study, in addition to progesterone and its inhibitors, brassinosteroid (24-epibrassinolide) and an inhibitor of biosynthesis of brassinosteroids were also applied. Mifepristone inhibited the generative development of wheat (like 24-epibrassinolide), while trilostane (like progesterone and an inhibitor of biosynthesis of brassinosteroids) stimulated the development. We propose a model of steroid-induced regulation of the development of winter wheat, where brassinosteroids act as inhibitors of generative development, while progesterone or other pregnane derivatives act as stimulators.

  19. Taxa de gestação em cabras Alpinas e Saanen tratadas com hCG no terceiro dia após o estro Pregnancy rate and progesterone concentration of Alpine and Saanen goats treated with hCG the third day after estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Prosperi

    2006-04-01

    ultrasound technology 35 days after mating did not differ significantly between treatments (P>0.05. They equaled 80.4 and 70.3% for Alpine goats and 72.7 and 81.5% for Saanen goats in T1 and T2, respectively. Overall pregnancy rates were 77.2% and 75.0% for the controls and treated animals, respectively. Gestation length was not affected by the hCG treatment. Blood samples were collected from 5 Alpine does from each treatment the day of estrus (day 0 and on days 3, 8, 15, 21, 42 and 60 after estrus, for determination of progesterone concentration in plasma. Means were 5.84 and 5.76ng/ml for the control and treated does, respectively, and were not affected by treatment (P>0.05, although concentrations did differ among collection days (P<0.05. The administration of hCG the third day after estrus did not affect pregnancy rate or P4 concentration and had no beneficial effect on reproduction in the does.

  20. Efecto de la suplementación de grasas sobre las concentraciones séricas de progesterona, insulina, somatotropina y algunos metabolitos de los lípidos en ovejas Pelibuey Effect of fat supplementation on serum concentrations of progesterone, insulin, growth hormone and some lipid metabolites in Pelibuey ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Espinoza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron ovejas Pelibuey multíparas para determinar la influencia de los jabones de calcio de ácidos grasos (JCAG y de la grasa bovina en la dieta sobre la concentración sérica de insulina, somatotropina, progesterona y metabolitos de los lípidos (colesterol total, lipoproteínas de alta densidad, lipoproteínas de baja densidad y triglicéridos. Las ovejas (n = 6 por grupo se asignaron aleatoriamente a una dieta que contenía 1,5% de JCAG (JC, 1,2% de grasa bovina (S o a una dieta testigo (T sin grasa adicional. Las dietas se proporcionaron durante 75 días. La ganancia de peso fue similar entre tratamientos (P > 0,05. La concentración de metabolitos de lípidos y de progesterona no estuvieron afectadas por la dieta (P > 0,05. La concentración de insulina fue mayor (P 0,05. Se concluye que la grasa bovina y los jabones de calcio de ácidos grasos incorporados en las dietas de ovejas Pelibuey en los tipos y las proporciones señaladas no afectan la ganancia de peso, la concentración de progesterona ni de los metabolitos de los lípidos, pero la grasa de bovino incrementó el nivel sérico de insulina y redujo la somatotropina.In this study, multiparous Pelibuey ewes were used to determine the influence of calcium soap of fatty acids (CSFA and bovine fat in the diet on serum concentrations of insulin, somatotropin, progesterone and lipid metabolites (total cholesterol, high and low density lipoproteins and triglycerides. Ewes (n = 6 per group were assigned randomly to a diet that contained 1.5% CSFA (CS or 1.2% bovine fat (S, or to a control diet (T with no additional fat. The diets were provided during 75 days. Weight gain among treatments was similar (P > 0.05. The concentrations of lipid metabolites and progesterone were not affected by the diet (P > 0.05. Insulin concentration was higher (P 0.05. In conclusion, bovine fat and calcium soap of fatty acids incorporated in the diet of Pelibuey ewes, in the indicated proportions, did