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Sample records for plasma progesterone concentration

  1. Radioimmunological determination of apparent free progesterone concentration in plasma samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Strigini, F.; Melis, G.B.; Paoletti, A.M.; Mariani, G.; Fioretti, P.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of free steroids would be preferable with respect to total hormone plasma content, since it yields more reliable information about the most biologically active form of circulating steroids. The authors report a method for the determination of apparent free progesterone concentration (AFPC) in plasma, by means of direct radioimmunoassay of dialyzed progesterone after equilibrium dialysis. (Auth.)

  2. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  3. Progesterone and estradiol-17β concentrations in blood plasma of buffaloes during different reproductive disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Harjit; Arora, S.P.; Sawhney, Ajay

    1982-01-01

    Six Murrah buffaloes in group I were fed as per NRC requirements and the same number in group II were kept at low level of nutrition. Blood samples were collected from all the buffaloes during estrus, anoestrus or even pregnancy, for estimation of progesterone and estradiol-17β. Progesterone levels were consistently low during anoestrus period (<1.0 ng/ml), but, peak occurred on day minus 10 of the next following estrus indicating that luteal activity preceded the first estrus after a prolonged anoestrum. The estradiol-17β levels did not show any distinct trend during anoestrus and subsequent estrous cycles. Underfed buffaloes required more services per conception. The mean progesterone concentrations during early pregnancy were 6.12 +- 0.21 and 5.31 +- 0.29 ng/ml in groups I and II, respectively, which were persistent. Plasma progesterone drop was recorded in buffaloes which aborted or showed foetal resorption, abrupt in the former case and at a slow rate in the latter case. (author)

  4. Radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, L; Veleminsky, J [Institute of Clinical Endocrinology, Lubochna (Czechoslovakia); Hampl, R; Starka, L [Vyzkumny Ustav Endokrinologicky, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Holan, J [Comenius Univ., School of Medicine, Martin (Czechoslovakia). Dept. of Physics and Nuclear Medicine

    1978-06-30

    A simple modification of plasma progesterone radioimmunoassay is described. 11..cap alpha..-Hydroxyprogesterone hemisuccinate - BSA conjugate was used as an immunogen. (1,2,6,7-H-3) Progesterone specific radioactivity 82 Ci.mmol/sup -1/ was purchased from Radiochemical Centre Amersham (England). The method has been applied for the analysis of more than 2000 plasma samples. The typical fluctuation of progesterone in plasma during the menstrual cycle, using data obtained with this method is illustrated. The reliability criteria of the method are given.

  5. Setting-up and validation of two radioimmunoassay methods for determination of plasma progesterone concentration in mares, cows and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa e Silva, A.A.M.; Caldas, M.C.S.; Campos, L.M.A.; Gradela, A.

    1993-01-01

    Two reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods which permits the measurement of progesterone (P 4 ) in plasma of equine, bovine and rats are described. After extraction of plasma with diethylic ether the RIA methods were performed. The first one utilizes 125 I progesterone (double antibody method) and the other 1,2,6,7,16, 17 3 H progesterone (adsorption in charcoal/dextran). Both two methods were suitable in the valuation of plasma P 4 concentration in different physiological reproductive conditions. The method of the double antibody showed higher sensibility beyond to be less expensive than the other method. Despite it, the two RIA methods were much less expensive than available commercial Kits in the market. (author)

  6. Plasma progesterone levels in progesterone treated cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosskopf, J.F.W.; Van Niekerk, C.H.; Morgenthal, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for the radioimmunoassay of progesterone in plasma is described. In one trial the oestrous cycles of four cycling cows and in another trial of one non-cycling cow and two cycling heifers were synchronized by the administration of progesterone. Each female received either 50 mg or 0,1 mg/kg of progesterone intramuscularly on alternate days in two courses of four and six injections respectively. Blood samples of the animals were collected either daily or two-daily before, over the entire period of treatment and for eight days after the last progesterone injection. The results of the progesterone assays are represented graphically for each individual cow or heifer. The plasma progesterone levels during treatment were maintained reasonably well at levels corresponding to those normally encountered during the luteal phase of the cycle. The progesterone levels, however, did not drop as rapidly as desired after the last injection but might have been influenced by a residual corpus luteum from a previous ovulation

  7. Plasma concentration of progesterone and 17β-estradiol of black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) during the estrous cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Diva Anelie; Ramos, Rosemar Luz; Ohashi, Otavio Mitio; Garcia, Gary Wayne; Gomes Vale, William

    2011-01-01

    The hormonal profile of progesterone and 17 β-estradiol has been evaluated during the estrous cycle of the agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha). The hormones were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Blood samples were collected without sedation twice a week. The concentrations of progesterone were as follows: proestrus 0.78±0.39 ng/ml, estrus 2.83±2.34 ng/ml, metestrus 1.49±1.24 ng/ml, diestrus 3.71±1.48 ng/ml. An increase in the progesterone level was observed during a period of 24 h in the estrous phase. The average 17 β-estradiol levels were as follows: proestrus 2 030.98±961.00 pg/ml, estrus 1 910.56±650.54 pg/ml, metestrus 1 724.83±767.28 pg/ml, diestrus 1 939.94±725.29 pg/ml. The current results have suggested that the progesterone plasma concentration during the estrous cycle in the agouti has a similar increasing, stabilizing and decreasing pattern, as in domestic mammals. Agoutis have two phases of follicular development, as two periods of 17β-estradiol peaks were observed, the first one in the metestrus and the second during the proestrus. Spontaneous ovulation seems to occur after the progesterone peak, indicating that this hormone has been associated with the ovulatory process. A more detailed investigation is needed for better understanding of how progesterone influenced ovulation. Studies on the involvement of progesterone in follicular rupture can be carried out, using steroid biosynthesis inhibitors and observing the effect of this hormone on ovarian activity of proteolytic enzymes in the follicular wall. (author)

  8. PLASMA PROGESTERONE LEVELS TN LACTATING EWES AFTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oestrus, ovulation and perrpheral plasma progesterone concentrations were recorded in ... progestagen and PMS were srmilar to those reported for spontaneous oesttous cycles in ..... involved could perhaps cast some light on the problem.

  9. Accuracy of Ultrasonography and Rectal Palpation in the Diagnosis of Silent Heat in Cows Compared to Plasma Progesterone Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdunczyk, S.; Janowski, T.; Ras, A.; Baranski, W.

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out on five dairy herds in the North-East Poland. The cows, which showed no visible oestrus signs until day 60 postpartum, were examined by ultrasonography and rectal palpation twice, at a 10-d interval. A real-time, B-mode scanner with a 5 MHz probe was used. The plasma progesterone concentration was determined using RIA. A high progesterone level on the first examination, but low on the second, or low on the first and high on the second examination were interpreted as a silent heat. Based on the progesterone values, silent heat was diagnosed in 145 anoestrous cows, whereas ultrasonographically, 106 cows were found to have silent heat. The accuracy of the ultrasonography and rectal palpation in the diagnosis of silent heat in cows was 89.0 % and 69.7 %, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). For the diagnosis of the corpus luteum, the sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasonography was 94.7 % and 84.0 %, and for rectal palpation 86.2 % and 70.3 %, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Our results showed that ultrasonography is a useful tool in the diagnosis of silent heat in cows. (authors)

  10. Effects of varying doses of β-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2015-11-01

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL(-1). To measure the effects of varying doses of β-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg β-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg β-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg β-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg β-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg β-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ≤0.1mg, β-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation.

  11. Plasma progesterone levels following breeding in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, G.C.; Arora, R.C.; Pahwa, G.S.; Batra, S.K.; Pandey, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Progesterone concentration in the peripheral blood plasma of ten lactating goats of mixed breeds following breeding were determined by radioimmunoassay to diagnose early pregnancy. The mean concentration was very low (0.25 +- 0.15 ng/ml) on the day of oestrus and reached at peak level on day 13 (1.30 +- 0.07 ng/ml) and on day 19 (2.77 +- 1.18 ng/ml) in non-pregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The level sharply declined on day 19 (0.40 +- 0.07 ng/ml) of oestrous cycle in non-pregnant goats. However, the level remained below 1.5 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15 and 17 and 3 ng/ml on day 9, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 and 23 in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, respectively. The progesterone concentration continued to increase to 2.94 +- 0.70, 4.42 +- 0.92 and 6.2 +- 0.61 ng/ml on day 45, 60 and 75 of gestation, respectively. (auth.)

  12. Plasma concentrations of progesterone and estradiol and the relation to reproduction in Galápagos land iguanas, Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus (Squamata, Iguanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Michela; Sancesario, Giulia; Pastore, Donatella; Bernardini, Sergio; Carrión, Jorge E; Carosi, Monica; Vignoli, Leonardo; Lauro, Davide; Gentile, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    In a combined approach, endocrine and ultrasonic analyses were performed to assess reproduction of two syntopic populations of terrestrial Galápagos iguanas the Conolophus marthae (the Galápagos Pink Land Iguana) and C. subcristatus on the Volcán Wolf (Isabela Island). The ELISA methods (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were used to measure plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and 17β-estradiol (E2) from samples collected over the course of three different seasons: July 2010, June 2012-2014. As for C. subcristatus, the large number of females with eggs in 2012 and 2014 were associated with increased plasma P4 concentrations and the corresponding absence of females with eggs in July 2010 when concentrations of both hormones levels were basal indicating reproduction was still ongoing in June and had ended in July. In C. marthae, even though there was a positive relationship between egg-development stages and hormone concentrations, P4 concentrations were basal through the three years that samples were collected, with some females having a lesser number of eggs compared with C. subcristatus. In C. marthae P4 and E2 patterns did not allow for defining a specific breeding season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma levels of progesterone in cycling and pregnant ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.P.; Rao, P.N.; Reddy, B.B.; Murthy, A.S.N.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma progesterone profile of six cycling and three pregnant Nellore ewes was estimated by radioimmunoassay. The progesterone level of cycling ewes started rising from undetectable level on the day of oestrus to a mean peak value of 0.41 ± 0.09ng/ml during post oestrus day 10 to 14 and then declined to undetectable levels 1 to 2 days before subsequent oestrus. But the progesterone levels of pregnant ewes exhibited further raise from the post oestrus day 14 to the day 40. However, no correlation between oestrous cycle length and the total progesterone produced during the oestrous cycle was observed. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs

  14. Setting-up and validation of two radioimmunoassay methods for determination of plasma progesterone concentration in mares, cows and rats; Padronizacao e validacao de dois metodos de radioimunoensaio (RIE) para dosagem da progesterona (P{sub 4}) no plasma de equinos, bovinos e ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa e Silva, A A.M.; Caldas, M C.S.; Campos, L M.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Fisiologia; Gradela, A [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    1993-06-01

    Two reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods which permits the measurement of progesterone (P{sub 4}) in plasma of equine, bovine and rats are described. After extraction of plasma with diethylic ether the RIA methods were performed. The first one utilizes {sup 125} I progesterone (double antibody method) and the other 1,2,6,7,16, 17 {sup 3} H progesterone (adsorption in charcoal/dextran). Both two methods were suitable in the valuation of plasma P{sub 4} concentration in different physiological reproductive conditions. The method of the double antibody showed higher sensibility beyond to be less expensive than the other method. Despite it, the two RIA methods were much less expensive than available commercial Kits in the market. (author) 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. COMPARISON OF TWO 4.7-MILLIGRAM TO ONE 9.4-MILLIGRAM DESLORELIN ACETATE IMPLANTS ON EGG PRODUCTION AND PLASMA PROGESTERONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritz, Olivia A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Hawkins, Michelle G; Kass, Philip H; Conley, Alan J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive disease in captive avian species is common, and medical management is often chosen over surgical removal of the reproductive tract. In a previous study with Japanese quail, a single 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implant reversibly decreased egg production in 6 out 10 birds for 70 days. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of two 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implants versus one 9.4-mg implant on egg production and plasma progesterone concentrations in Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica). Following a 10-day period of consistent egg laying, 30 adult female Japanese quail were anesthetized and received two 4.7-mg deslorelin implants (n = 10), one 9.4-mg deslorelin implant (n = 10), or a single, identical placebo implant (n = 10) s.c. between the scapulae. Egg production was monitored daily, and plasma progesterone concentrations were measured on days 0, 14, 29, 120, 148, and 182 via enzyme-linked immunoassay. All birds were weighed periodically and euthanized at day 182, after which their reproductive tracts were evaluated at gross necropsy. Seven out of 10 birds treated with two 4.7-mg implants ceased egg laying 1 wk after implantation and remained nonovulatory for approximately 100 days. Cessation of egg laying for the 9.4-mg treatment group occurred in 7 out of 10 birds; onset was variable (weeks 5-12) and continued for the remainder of the study period. Plasma progesterone concentrations for deslorelin treatment groups were not significantly different compared to the placebo group at any time point. In conclusion, the two 4.7-mg and the one 9.4-mg implant treatments ceased egg laying in a similar number of birds, but the 9.4-mg implant had a slower onset of action and the effects on egg laying were inconsistent throughout the study period. Further studies evaluating use of deslorelin acetate in other avian species are needed.

  16. Differential effects of exogenous progesterone administration at different stages of the luteal phase on endogenous oestradiol concentration in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, G R; Mann, G E

    2010-04-01

    We have investigated the effects administering exogenous progesterone, via insertion of a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) for 4 days, from either day 5 or day 12 of the oestrous cycle on plasma oestradiol concentrations. In study 1, in which progesterone was administered from day 5, measurement of plasma oestradiol in daily samples revealed a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in peripheral oestradiol concentration. In contrast, in study 2, similar administration of progesterone from day 12 had no effect on plasma oestradiol concentration. In study 3, collection of hourly samples following progesterone treatment on day 5 revealed peak progesterone concentrations within 1 h of CIDR insertion and nadir oestradiol concentrations within 4 h. The results demonstrate that treatment with progesterone early in the luteal phase causes a rapid inhibition of oestradiol secretion, while later treatment does not. While improvements in pregnancy rate following progesterone treatment at this time have traditionally been attributed to increases in progesterone, the potential involvement of decreased oestradiol secretion has often been overlooked.

  17. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late......-follicular-phase LH concentration also showed a significant positive association with progesterone concentration (P = 0.018). Administration of rLH during ovarian stimulation did not affect progesterone concentration. The present study does not support an association between progesterone concentration on the day...

  18. Correlation among foetal number, corpora lutea and plasma progesterone in rockland-swiss mice. [Progesterone determination by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N G; Bridges, R S; Gandelmann, R [Rutgers - the State Univ., New Brunswick. NJ (USA). Dept. of Psychology; Rutgers - the State Univ., Newark, NJ (USA). Inst. of Animal Behavior)

    1978-01-01

    The relationship among plasma progesterone, number of corpora lutea, and foetal number was assessed in Rockland-Swiss albino mice. While number of corpora lutea and foetal number were significantly correlated, neither was related to plasma progesterone level. This finding in the mouse is similar to results reported in the rabbit.

  19. Radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone. Methods - Results - Indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonon-Estrangin, Chantal.

    1978-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone carried out at the hormonology Laboratory of the Grenoble University Hospital Centre (Professor E. Chambaz), to compare our results with those of the literature and to present the main clinical indications of this analysis. The measurement method has proved reproducible, specific (the steroid purification stage is unnecessary) and sensitive (detection: 10 picograms of progesterone per tube). In seven normally menstruating women our results agree with published values: (in nanograms per millilitre: ng/ml) 0.07 ng/ml to 0.9 ng/ml in the follicular phase, from the start of menstruation until ovulation, then rapid increase at ovulation with a maximum in the middle of the luteal phase (our values for this maximum range from 7.9 ng/ml to 21.7 ng/ml) and gradual drop in progesterone secretion until the next menstrual period. In gynecology the radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone is valuable for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes: - to diagnosis the absence of corpus luteum, - to judge the effectiveness of an ovulation induction treatment [fr

  20. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late...

  1. The Effect of Soybean-Derived Phytoestrogens on Concentrations of Plasma Isoflavones, 15-keto-13,14-dihydroprostaglandin F2α and Progesterone in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Watzková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of soybean-derived phytoestrogens and their metabolites on the activity of sex hormones during the oestrous cycle in multiparous lactating dairy cows. The experiment was carried out on 4 multiparous lactating Holstein cows in the form of replicated Latin square in double reversal design. The experiment in the total length of 168 days was divided into 4 periods of 42 days, each consisting of a 21-day preliminary period and a 21-day collecting period. Cows were divided into 2 groups of 2 cows. The control group (C was fed a diet based on extruded rapeseed cake while the experimental group (S was fed a diet containing extruded full-fat soya. The intake of total isoflavones was 3297 mg/d in S and 58.0 mg/d in C (P P P > 0.05. Plasma concentration of prostaglandine PGFM throughout the oestrous cycle in the experimental group (S tended to be higher (P = 0.095 than in the control group (C. No differences in the length of the oestrous cycle between the cows fed different diets were observed.

  2. Effect of progesterone concentration and duration of proestrus on fertility in beef cattle after fixed-time artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadarwal, D; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P; Pfeifer, L F M; Creelman, C; Singh, J

    2013-03-15

    The objective was to determine the effect of plasma progesterone concentration and the duration of proestrus during growth of the ovulatory follicle on fertility in beef cattle. Heifers (N = 61) and postpartum cows (N = 79) were assigned randomly to four groups in a two-by-two design involving luteal-phase versus subluteal-phase plasma progesterone concentrations and normal versus short proestrus. To synchronize follicular wave emergence, estradiol-17β was given im during the midluteal phase (Day 0) and concurrently, a once-used controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was placed intravaginally. In the subluteal-phase progesterone groups, a luteolytic dose of PGF(2α) was given on Day 0 and again 12 hours later. In the luteal-phase progesterone groups, PGF(2α) was not given (so as to retain a functional CL). The controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was removed and PGF(2α) was given on Days 7 or 8 in the normal- and short-proestrus groups, respectively. Cattle were given lutropin im 12 or 36 hours later in the short- and normal-proestrus groups, respectively, with AI at 12 hours after lutropin treatment. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian response during treatments and to diagnose pregnancy 60 days after AI. Cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups had a larger follicle at the time of AI, and a larger CL that secreted more progesterone 9 days after AI than cattle with luteal-phase progesterone concentrations or those with short proestrus (P < 0.03). There was a higher incidence of ovulation (P < 0.01) the day after AI in heifers (55/61; 90%) than in cows (44/79; 56%). Pregnancy rates ranged from 11% to 54%, and were higher in cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups than in the luteal-phase progesterone or short proestrus groups, respectively, (P < 0.02). In conclusion, a short

  3. Effects of metformin treatment on luteal phase progesterone concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakumari K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of luteal phase progesterone deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are not known. To determine the possible involvement of hyperinsulinemia in luteal phase progesterone deficiency in women with PCOS, we examined the relationship between progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and insulin during the luteal phase and studied the effect of metformin on luteal progesterone levels in PCOS. Patients with PCOS (19 women aged 18-35 years were treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily for 4 weeks prior to the test cycle and throughout the study period, and submitted to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 5, same age range as PCOS women and PCOS women during the late follicular (one sample and luteal (3 samples phases and LH, insulin and progesterone concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Duncan's test and Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r. The endocrine study showed low progesterone level (4.9 ng/ml during luteal phase in the PCOS women as compared with control (21.6 ng/ml. A significant negative correlation was observed between insulin and progesterone (r = -0.60; P < 0.01 and between progesterone and LH (r = -0.56; P < 0.05 concentrations, and a positive correlation (r = 0.83; P < 0.001 was observed between LH and insulin. The study further demonstrated a significant enhancement in luteal progesterone concentration (16.97 ng/ml in PCOS women treated with metformin. The results suggest that hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance may be responsible for low progesterone levels during the luteal phase in PCOS. The luteal progesterone level may be enhanced in PCOS by decreasing insulin secretion with metformin.

  4. Serum concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol during the ovarian cycle of Syrian Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2005-01-01

    It was possible, for the first time, to characterise hormonally and precisely the oestrous cycle of the Syrian Awassi ewes, and to determine normal progesterone and oestradiol concentrations during the different phases of oestrous cycle. It is concluded that progesterone and oestradiol concentrations showed a cyclic pattern during the oestrous cycle, in addition, a negative and significant correlation between the concentrations of the two hormones was found. (author)

  5. Circulating progesterone concentrations in nonlactating Holstein cows during reuse of intravaginal progesterone implants sanitized by autoclave or chemical disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, L F; Monteiro, P L J; Oliveira, L H; Guardieiro, M M; Drum, J N; Wiltbank, M C; Sartori, R

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations in nonlactating, multiparous Holstein cows (n = 24) treated with 2 types of intravaginal implants containing either 1.0 or 1.9 g of P4 either at the first use or during reuse of the implants after sanitizing the implant by autoclave or chemical disinfection. In a completely randomized design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement and 2 replicates, every cow underwent 2 of 6 treatments. Two sources of P4 [controlled internal drug release (1.9 g of P4) from Zoetis (São Paulo, Brazil), and Sincrogest (1.0 g of P4) from Ourofino (Cravinhos, Brazil)] and 3 types of processing, new (N), reused after autoclave (RA), and reused after chemical disinfection (RC), were used. After inducing luteolysis to avoid endogenous circulating P4, the cows were randomized in 1 of 6 treatments (1.9 g of N, 1.9 g of RA, 1.9 g of RC, 1.0 g of N, 1.0 g of RA, and 1.0 g RC). Cows were treated with the implants for 8 d and during this period blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 h. Statistical analyses were performed using Proc-Mixed and the mean ± standard error of the mean P4 concentrations were calculated using the Proc-Means procedures of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). No interaction between treatments was observed. Comparing types of implant, average P4 concentrations during treatments were greater for 1.9 g than 1.0 g (1.46 vs. 1.14 ± 0.04 ng/mL). When types of processing were compared, average P4 concentrations did not differ between autoclaved and new inserts (1.46 vs. 1.37 ± 0.05 ng/mL; respectively), but both were greater than chemically disinfected implants (1.09 ± 0.04 ng/mL). Within 1.9-g P4 inserts, P4 concentrations from autoclaved implants were greater than new, which were greater than chemically disinfected (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 1.49 ± 0.07 vs. 1.21 ± 0.05 ng/mL; respectively). For 1.0-g P4 implants, P4 concentrations from autoclaved did not differ

  6. Change of progesterone level in the uterine venous plasma of pregnant guinea-pigs and progesterone biosynthesis by the placenta in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawasaki, Toru

    1977-01-01

    Placental tissue slices of guinea-pigs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing NAD and glucose using pregnenolone-4- 14 C as a substrate. The amount of progesterone converted from pregnenolone by the placenta at 50 days after mating was significantly larger than that of 64-65 days after mating (0.205 and 0.159 μg/100 mg/hr., P < 0.05). The 3 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity of the placenta seems to decrease at the last stage of pregnancy. Progesterone levels in the systemic and uterine venous plasma of the pregnant guinea-pigs were measured. There was no significant difference between them at the middle and later stages of pregnancy. This suggested that uterine venous plasma progesterone level was not affected by the placental progesterone. The progesterone levels in both systemic and uterine venous plasma were high in middle stage and low at the end of pregnancy, but rapid decrease of progesterone reflecting initiation of parturition, as seen in many other species, was not observed. In this species, the relationship between progesterone level and initiation of parturition is seemed to be specific, being complicated by the local effect of placental progesterone on the fetus or the uterus. (auth.)

  7. Monitoring the postpartum ovarian activity of Luxi cattle by use of plasma progesterone solid phase RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaorong; Wang Jianchen; Liu Zhixi; Wu Hao; Zhang Dequn

    1992-01-01

    The blood samples were collected from 22 Luxi cattle, aged 2.5-8 years, from calving day (day 0) to 80 days postpartum at 4-day interval. Progesterone (P 4 ) levels in plasma were determined by solid phase RIA. The results are summarized as follows: P 4 levels in plasma of the cows remained at 0.34 +- 0.04-0.55 +- 0.06 ng/ml before 10.6 +- 3.9-13.6 +- 4.4 days postpartum, then they began to rise and the ovarian activity appeared. The plasma P 4 profiles of the cows can be classified into 4 types, characterized by (I) 3 normal cycles; (II) a short cycle followed by 2 normal cycles; (III) a normal cycle followed by a short cycle and a normal cycle; and (IV) some irregular cycles respectively. The lowest and the highest P 4 levels were 0.45 +- 0.15-0.60 +- 0.38 and 2.65 +- 1.95-4.17 +- 2.35 ng/ml respectively in luteal cycles. It is also concluded that determining plasma P 4 concentrations at 4-day interval can precisely identify the oestrus cycles of cows, and that the solid phase P 4 -RIA have practical value for determination of plasma P 4 concentration

  8. Effects of various forms of mastitis, in the progesterone concentrations of cow milk and milk fat, as determined by RIA and EIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedemaker, M.

    1982-01-01

    The progesterone concentration in milk fat was determined in milk samples taken from 39 cows with a corpus luteum and an average blood plasma progesterone concentration of 15.35 ± 6.26 nmole/l. The samples were collected mornings and evenings from each of the four quarters at the end of milking. 29 animals had healthy as well as diseased udder quarters. In 10 animals all four quarters were affected. There was no statistically significant difference in the progesterone concentration in the milk and in the milk fat, between the normal and affected secretion. There was also no correlation between the various forms of mastitis, causative agent, secretion findings or leucocyte content and the clinical finding in the udder quarter. Of a total of 156 samples investigated with the milk progesterone test (normal as well as affected secretion), 9 samples contained less than 5 ng progesterone/ml milk, which was set as the lower limit for evidence of the presence of an active corpus luteum. Using this lower limit, 5.8% were false negative results when compared with the actual status of the ovary. Eight of the nine secretion samples with less than 5 ng progesterone/ml milk from cows with an active corpus luteum, were from udder quarters affected with mastitis. It is probable that there is a causal relationship between the mastitis and the low progesterone content in the milk. The milk fat progesterone determination was carried out by means of the RIA and EIA. A comparison of the progesterone concentration in the milk fat and in the milk from the milk samples taken in the morning and evening demonstrated no statistically significant differences. (orig.) [de

  9. Do high progesterone concentrations decrease pregnancy rates in embryo recipients synchronized with PGF2alpha and eCG?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marcelo F Gouveia; Melo, Danilas S; Carvalho, Luciano M; Fuck, Egon J; Trinca, Luzia A; Barros, Ciro Moraes

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment on the number of induced accessory corpora lutea (CL), plasma progesterone concentrations and pregnancy rate in cross-bred heifers after transfer of frozen-thawed (1.5M ethylene glycol) embryos. All recipients received 500 microg PGF2alpha (dl-cloprostenol, i.m.) at random stages of the estrous cycle (Day 0) and were observed for estrus for 7 days. On Day 14, heifers detected in estrus between 2 and 7 days after PGF2alpha treatment were randomly allocated to four groups ( n=83 per group) and given 0 (control), 200, 400, or 600 IU of eCG. Two days later (Day 16), these recipients were given PGF2alpha and observed for estrus. Six to eight days after detection of estrus, plasma samples were collected to determine progesterone concentration and ultrasonography was performed to observe ovarian structures. Heifers with multiple CL or a single CL >15 mm in diameter received an embryo by direct transfer. Embryos of excellent and good quality were thawed and transferred to the recipients by the same veterinarian. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and confirmed by transrectal palpation 21 and 83 days after embryo transfer (ET), respectively. Plasma progesterone concentrations on the day of transfer (Day 7 of the estrous cycle) were 3.9+/-0.7, 4.2+/-0.4,6.0+/-0.4 and 7.8+/-0.6 ng/ml for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (Control versus treated groups P=0.009; 200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0001; and 400 versus 600 P=0.012 ). Conception rates 83 days after ET were 41.9, 50.0, 25.0, and 20.9% for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0036 ). In conclusion, an increase in progesterone concentration, induced by eCG treatment, did not improve pregnancy rates in ET recipients. Conversely, there was a decline in conception rates in the animals with the highest plasma progesterone concentrations.

  10. Plasma concentrations of misonidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notter, G; Rylander, U; Turesson, I

    1980-10-01

    The plasma concentrations of misonidazole doses between 0.6 and 2.0 g/m/sup 2/ were analyzed in respect to the variation within the same patient and between different patients. Peak plasma levels were observed after 2 hours. The mean plasma levels of misonidazole only at 3 hours were 23.8, 47.0 and 76.5 ..mu..g/ml after misonidazole doses of 0.6, 1.2 g/m/sup 2/, respectively. The half-life of misonidazole only was found to be 8.2 hours for women and 10.5 for men. Good linearity between plasma levels and drug doses was observed after administration of different single doses to the same patient within the dose range 0.6 to 2.0 g/m/sup 2/.

  11. Plasma progesterone levels and corpus luteum morphology in the female prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, D; Garris, D

    1984-08-01

    Plasma progesterone levels in female prairie dogs were determined by a radioimmunoassay specific for progesterone. Plasma progesterone levels were determined in samples taken before estrus, at estrus, during the luteal phase, and during anestrus from females maintained all year in the laboratory. Progesterone levels were also determined in plasma samples taken in the laboratory from two pregnant and three postparturient females captured in the field. Progesterone levels were low before estrus and continued low during estrus. They rose on the first week after estrus to 0.8 ng/ml or above and continued at or above this level for 9-14 weeks following estrus. Gestation in prairie dogs is 35 days in this species. Progesterone levels of three postparturient females were above 1.0 ng/ml for 7 weeks after their arrival in the laboratory. These females all had uterine scars showing that they had delivered their litters before they were captured. Two females were determined to be pregnant at the time of their capture. These females later reabsorbed their fetuses (determined by laparotomy). Progesterone values of samples from these females were all above 1.0 ng/ml except for one low value in one female which occurred 3 weeks after her capture and after reabsorption of her fetuses was in progress. The cells of the corpus lutea (CL) of nonpregnant, pregnant, and postparturient females had well-developed rings of cytoplasmic basophilia but as the CL regressed this pattern became disorganized and disappeared. The function of this basophilia is not known. The long luteal phase found in female prairie dogs is compared to those found in other species of mammals. This is the first annually breeding rodent reported to have a longer luteal phase that the period of gestation.

  12. Use of a radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone for predicting litter size and subsequent adaptation of feeding level in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiel, D.F.M. van de; Visscher, A.H.; Dekker, T.P.

    1976-01-01

    Litter sizes in ewes were predicted using the plasma progesterone concentration at 80-110 days after mating, with or without multiplication by bodyweight, as well as a priori probabilities and expected economic losses caused by incorrect classifications. Progesterone was assayed using a fluorimetric method and radioimmunoassay, and the results of both methods were compared in the Texel breed. Ewes were allotted to three feeding classes, according to the predicted litter sizes of 0-1, 2-3 and >=4 lambs. Using these classes the fluorimetric method gave 82.9% correct classifications, and the radioimmunoassay 80.0% correct. When calculated on the total of 194 ewes of the Finnish Landrace, Ile de France and Texel breeds, the fluorimetric method showed an accuracy of 65.0% correct classifications. (author)

  13. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  14. Efeitos do estresse térmico nas concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona (P4 e estradiol 17-b (E2 e temperatura retal em cabras da raça Pardo Alpina Effects of heat stress on progesterone (P4 and estradiol-17b plasma concentrations and rectal temperature of Alpine Brown goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras lactantes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em um delineamento experimental em "crossover", em dois grupos: sob condições termoneutras e estresse térmico. Um período de adaptação de 28 dias foi seguido por quatro períodos de 14 dias cada, quando os animais sob estresse térmico foram expostos à temperatura média de 33,84ºC; THI de 86,20; BGT de 36,18 e BT de 32,11ºC das 8 às 17 horas, incluindo radiação solar simulada das 10 às 15 horas. Não houve diferença entre as concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona, mas as fêmeas submetidas ao estresse térmico apresentaram diminuição nas concentrações plasmáticas de estradiol, quando comparados ao grupo termoneutro. A temperatura retal dos animais sob estresse térmico foi mais elevada quando foi comparada à do grupo de animais em condições de termoneutralidade. As cabras mantiveram as concentrações plasmáticas da progesterona, com diminuição na secreção de estradiol, quando expostas a um estresse repetido e intermitente, a despeito de ocorrer hipertermia durante o estresse pelo calor.Six lactating goats were randomly assigned to a crossover experimental design in two groups, under thermoneutral and heat stress conditions. An adaptation period of 28 days were followed by 4-periods of 14 days each, when the animals under heat stress were exposed to an average temperature of 33.34ºC; THI of 86.20; BGT of 36.18 and BT of 32.11ºC from 8 to 17 hours, including simulated solar radiation from 10 to 15 hours. There was no difference for progesterone plasma concentrations but the animals under heat stress showed a reduction of estradiol plasma concentrations as compared to the thermoneutral group. The rectal temperature of the animals under heat stress was higher when compared to the animals under thermoneutral conditions. The goats maintained progesterone plasma concentrations with reduction of estradiol secretion when exposed to repeat stress and intermittent

  15. Thyroxin and progesterone concentrations in pregnant, nonpregnant bitches, and bitches during abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuróczy, Julianna; Müller, Linda; Kollár, Eszter; Balogh, Lajos

    2016-04-01

    Serum progesterone and thyroxin concentrations were measured weekly until 61 to 62 days after ovulation in 24 pregnant bitches and in the control group of nine nonpregnant bitches in the luteal phase. Fourteen of the 24 dogs had a normal pregnancy and parturition. Ten of the 24 dogs showed mucinous or colored vaginal discharge, decreased appetite, or lethargy. These initial signs of abortion or fetal resorption were noted during the fourth week of pregnancy, and the process occurred over the next 2 weeks. Progesterone and thyroxin concentrations were measured by quantitative ELISAs validated to dog serum. The serum progesterone concentrations of the group going through abortions differed significantly from the third week until the end of the eighth week. The mean serum thyroxin concentrations of healthy pregnant and nonpregnant groups significantly exceeded the reference range (20-45 nmol/L). The serum thyroxin concentrations in the abortion group were between 16.15 ± 3.17 and 40.78 ± 8.97 nmol/L. The values in this group were significantly different from the other two groups at the third week of the luteal phase. Clinical signs of abortion or fetus resorption manifested in midpregnancy. The clinical signs of abortion coincided in each case with a low serum progesterone concentration (<10 ng/mL). This phenomenon indicated, in contrast with other studies, that the decrease of serum progesterone below 10 ng/mL at the fourth week of pregnancy may signal impending abortion. In the second half of pregnancy, the thyroid gland was not able to respond adequately to the elevated requirement in thyroid hormone, although in other periods of the ovarian cycle, there were no clinical signs of hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.M.; Redshaw, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claims a radioimmunoassay for progesterone, which comprises contacting, in an acidic medium a sample of liquid with a predetermined amount of antibodies raised against a progesterone-protein complex, the protein being attached to the 11-position of progesterone by means of a bridging group and with a predetermined amount of a progesterone derivative having an iodinatable group attached to its 3-position by means of a bridging group, the iodinatable group being iodinated with one or more atom(s) of a radioisotope of iodine, separating the steroid bound in the resulting antibody-antigen complex from the free steroid and measuring the radioactivity of the free steroid component or of the antibody-antigen complex. Sufficient sensitivity has been achieved to enable a progesterone assay to be carried out directly on a sample of biological fluid, such as serum, plasma, urine or milk. (U.K.)

  17. Effect of incremental levels of crude degummed canola oil on milk progesterone, plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of lactating cows with fat can alter the profiles of key reproductive hormones and boost postpartum energy balance. However, published data under Australian pasture-based dairy production conditions are scanty and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether dietary inclusion of crude degummed canola oil (CDCO at incremental levels for eight-weeks will have significant influence on progesterone (P4, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows grazing pastures. We tested the hypothesis that postpartum supplementation of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows with dietary CDCO in a pasture-based system will alter the concentrations of P4, LH and FSH reproductive hormones. A random allocation of twenty primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows into four treatment groups that consisted of a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with no supplemental CDCO (control, or a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with CDCO added at 25 ml/kg (low, 35 ml/kg (medium and 50 ml/kg (high was employed in an eight-week feeding trial after two weeks of adjustment. Supplementation levels of CDCO and week of data collection were significant sources of variation (P  0.05. It was apparent that cows in the high (0.459 ng/ml, medium (0.367 ng/ml and low (0.251 ng/ml levels of oil treatments had higher mean plasma FSH concentrations compared to the control (0.172 ng/ml cows. It was concluded that the current levels of CDCO can be used in pasture-based dairy systems to increase FSH, but not LH and P4.

  18. A State Space Model Exhibiting a Cyclic Structure with an Application to Progesterone Concentration in Cow Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Højsgaard, Søren

    Progesterone is a hormone linked to the reproductive status of dairy cows. Hence, with the increasing availability of on-line records of the concentration of progesterone in cow milk, there is a need for new tools to analyse such data. The aim is to find techniques for better determination...... of the time when cows are in oestrus to increase the rate of succesful inseminations. In this paper we propose a state space model for data with a continuous and cyclic trend in the mean. Furthermore a matching Kalman filter is developed. The model is tested on progesterone data from 112 cow...

  19. Clean copy association of production diseases with motor activity-sensing devices and milk progesterone concentrations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J; Ntallaris, T; Routly, J E; Jones, D N; Cameron, J; Holman-Coates, A; Smith, R F; Humblot, P; Dobson, H

    2018-05-31

    We have previously established that the efficiency of identifying oestrus with activity-sensing devices can be compromised by common production diseases; the present study was undertaken to determine how these diseases may affect device readings. A total of 67 Holstein-Friesian cows, >20 days postpartum, were equipped with activity-sensing neck collars and pedometers, and simultaneous milk progesterone profiles were also monitored twice a week. The influences of common production stressors on maximum activity and progesterone values were analysed. Approximately 30% potential oestrus events (low progesterone value between two high values) remained unrecognised by both activity methods, and progesterone values in these animals were higher on the potential day of oestrus when both activity methods did not detect an event (0.043 ± 0.004 versus 0.029 ± 0.004 ng/mL; P = 0.03). Data from a subset of 45 cows (two events each) were subjected to mixed models and multiple regression modelling to investigate associations with production diseases. Cow motor activity was lower in lame cows. Maximum progesterone concentrations prior to oestrus increased as time postpartum and body condition score (BCS) increased. There were also fewer days of low progesterone prior to oestrus associated with increases in BCS and maximum progesterone concentrations prior to oestrus. In conclusion, lameness was associated with lower activity values, but this suppression was insufficient to account for lowered oestrus detection efficiency of either device. However, associations were identified between production diseases and progesterone profiles. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.E.; Rhees, R.W.; Williams, S.R.; Kurth, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development

  1. Effect of Doublesynch and Estradoublesynch protocols on estrus induction, conception rate, plasma progesterone, protein, and cholesterol profile in anestrus Gir heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Chaudhary

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Doublesynch and Estradoublesynch protocols on estrus induction, conception rates, plasma progesterone, protein, and cholesterol profile in anestrus Gir heifers. Materials and Methods: In this study, 50 pubertal anestrus Gir heifers were selected from the field and farm conditions. The heifers were dewormed (injection ivermectin, 100 mg, s/c and supplemented with minerals and vitamins (injection organic phosphorus 800 mg and injection Vitamin AD3E and Biotin 10 ml i/m and multi-mineral bolus at 1 bolus daily for 7 days. The heifers were randomly divided into three groups: Doublesynch (n=20, Estradoublesynch (n=20, and control (n=10. The animals were monitored for estrus response, estrus interval, behavioral signs, and conception rates after induced/first, second, and third cycle post-treatment. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, day 9, day 12, and on day 12 post-artificial insemination (AI for determination of plasma progesterone, protein, and cholesterol profile. Results: The estrus response rate between Doublesynch and Estradoublesynch protocols was similar between treated heifers (85% and 95%. The interval from the second prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α injection to estrus induction did not differ between the groups (63.87±4.19 vs. 58.27±3.83 h. The conception rates following induced estrus (20% vs. 30%, at the second cycle (23.07% vs. 16.66%, at the third cycle (22.22% vs. 30.00%, and the overall conception rate (45% and 55% within 27.89±5.75 and 26.45±5.48 days were the same across the treatment groups. The mean plasma progesterone concentrations were significantly (p<0.01 higher on day 9 (second PGF2α injection and day 12 post-AI compared to day 0 (first PGF2α injection and the day of fixed-timed artificial insemination. The concentrations were also significantly (p<0.05 higher in conceived than non-conceived heifers on day 9 of treatment and day 12 post-AI in both the protocols. The

  2. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogan, P. T.; Henning, H.; Stout, T. A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships

  3. Effects of catecholamines on ovary morphology, blood concentrations of estradiol-17beta, progesterone, zinc, triglycerides and rate of ovulation in domestic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeid, T A; Eid, Y Z; El-Abd, E A; El-Habbak, M M

    2008-04-15

    The present study is an attempt to shed more light on the role of epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NE) in regulating ovarian follicular development, folliculogenesis and ovulation in laying hens. Sixty Egyptian local cross females (Mandarah), 50 weeks old, were individually housed and equally divided into three treatments: control (saline, 0.9% NaCl), EP (0.15 mg epinephrine/hen/day) and NE (0.75 mg norepinephrine/hen/day) (n=20). Animals were injected intramuscularly once a day for 15 successive days. At the end of the experimental period, 10 females from each treatment were randomly chosen, weighed and killed by decapitation. Ovaries and oviducts and ovarian follicles were examined. Plasma concentrations of estradiol-17beta, progesterone, zinc and triglyceride were determined. Results indicated that the ovaries of NE- and EP-treated hens were more developed than those of control hens being heavier and containing more yellow yolk-filled follicles. EP or NE significantly increased the ovulation rate and plasma concentrations of estradiol-17beta, progesterone, zinc and triglyceride compared with control treatment. It could be concluded that catecholamines may have a part in promoting ovarian follicular development and in stimulating ovulation in laying hens at the end of their reproductive lives.

  4. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma levels of ...

  5. Plasma leptin concentration in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, E; López, I; Pérez, C; Pineda, C; Aguilera-Tejero, E

    2012-01-01

    Donkeys appear to be more predisposed than large breed horses to suffer from hyperlipemia. The reason for that predisposition is unknown but anorexia is a consistent feature of the disease. Leptin, a protein synthesized in fat tissue, is one of the major inhibitors of appetite in mammals. We hypothesized that donkeys could have elevated plasma leptin concentrations compared to horses. Blood samples were obtained from 50 donkeys for measurement of leptin, triglycerides (TGs), glucose, and insulin. Glucose/insulin ratio, modified insulin to glucose ratio, and reciprocal of the square root of insulin were calculated. Based on their body condition score (BCS), donkeys were classified as lean (n = 18), normal (n = 16), or overweight (n = 16). The results were compared with reference values from our laboratory and with a group of horses (n = 25) used as an internal control. Values of both leptin and TGs in donkeys were above the horse reference range and also significantly higher than those of the control horses: leptin (11.2 ± 1.7 versus 5.8 ± 0.5 µg/L, p donkeys had leptin (19.3 ± 2.9 µg/L) and TG (1.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L) concentrations that were significantly (p donkeys. A significant positive correlation (p Donkeys have higher plasma leptin concentrations than horses and leptin is correlated with BCS.

  6. A study on plasma estradiol and progesterone profile at days 11, 12 and 13 post ovulation undergone embryo transfer at day 7-post ovulation in local Egyptian mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mohammed Karam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 28 recipient local mares after synchronizing and recovery of embryos of Arabian mares (donor mares and transferring them to recipients on day 7 post ovulation, all mares were raised in the studs of police academy –Cairo Egypt under same circumstances in the breeding season from February till may of 2013. Seventeen recipient mares were pregnant and 9 mares were non pregnant when ultrasound pregnancy check was done on day 21 post ovulation, blood samples were taken on days 11,12 and 13 to detect the steroidal hormonal profile (estrogen and progesterone via Elisa technique of the recipient mares plasma steroid level and its role in early pregnancy and maternal recognition. The results were significantly higher (P≤0.05 between pregnant (n=17 and non-pregnant (n=9 recipient mares in the plasma progesterone concentrations which were 10.99±0.16 vs 9.59±0.11, 12.69±0.16 vs 11.79±0.22 and 14.4±0.15 vs 13.78±0.23 ng/ml on days 11,12 and 13 post ovulation respectively, significant difference(P≤0.05 was observed when comparison between pregnant mare’s plasma progesterone concentrations on days 11,12 and 13 post ovulation. Plasma estrogen concentration were significantly higher (P≤0.05 in non-pregnant and pregnant mares which were15.17±0.18 vs 14.84±0.14, 14.74±0.27 vs13.94±0.12 and 14.14±0.3 vs13.12±0.16 pg/ ml on days 11,12 and respectively, on the other hand when comparison between days11,12 and 13 plasma estrogen levels were significantly different (P≤0.05 in pregnant mares while no significant difference was found in the same days between non pregnant mares, thus might be the main reason for early embryonic death when detected in early pregnancy check via ultrasonography in 21 days post ovulation.

  7. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  8. Plasma concentration of acetylcholine in young women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, K.; Oohata, H.; Fujimoto, K.; Suzuki, T.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was applied to the determination of acetylcholine (ACh) in plasma. The concentration of ACh in plasma sampled from 32 young women was 456.1+-53.1 (mean +-S.E.M.) pg/ml. No significant correlations were observed between plasma concentrations of ACh and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, or gonadal hormones. These data demonstrate that an amount of ACh measurable by radioimmunoassay is present in plasma and plasma ACh is not regulated by AChE activity and the menstrual cycle in young women. The origin and physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of ACh in plasma remain to be clarified. 13 refs. (Author)

  9. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in morbidly obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, A; Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations and liver morphology were investigated in 45 morbidly obese subjects (median overweight 88%) and in 42 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. A significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentration (median 464 mg/l, range 276-862 mg...... in their liver biopsies (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05). Significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated plasma fibronectin concentrations even in obese subjects without hepatic fatty change indicate that liver fat accumulation is no prerequisite of the obesity-related elevation of plasma fibronectin. Raised plasma...

  10. Changes in serum progesterone concentrations in Bernese mountain dogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejll Kirchhoff, K; Goericke-Pesch, S

    2016-10-15

    Progesterone (P4) concentrations during canine pregnancy follow a specific pattern. Although the general pattern is similar, it is likely that breed-specific differences exist. Detailed knowledge about the physiological range of P4 concentrations may be helpful in cases of suspected hypoluteoidism. The aim of this study was to investigate P4 changes during pregnancy in a small and a large breed, to obtain reference values for specific intervals during pregnancy and to test for breed- or body weight-specific differences. We studied P4 concentrations in pregnancies from healthy Bernese mountain dogs (BMDs, n = 6) and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs, n = 6) with a normal reproductive history. Blood samples for P4 were taken to determine the day of ovulation and after confirmation of pregnancy in regular intervals from Days 23 to 29 to Days 60 to 64. Bernese mountain dogs delivered 6.2 ± 2.6 puppies (range: 3-9) 63.4 ± 1.5 (range: 61-65) days after ovulation (excluding data from one BMD with elective c-section) and CKCS delivered 3.3 ± 1.9 puppies (range: 1-5) 63.5 ± 1.1 (range: 62-65) days after ovulation. In general, the P4 concentrations of individual dogs continuously decreased from the first to the last sampling during pregnancy. Respective mean concentrations were Days 23 to 29: 19.2 ± 4.3/22.2 ± 3.9 ng/mL (BMD/CKCS), Days 30 to 34: 15.6 ± 2.3/17.7 ± 5.8 ng/mL, Days 35 to 39: 12.5 ± 2.8/14.1 ± 3.4 ng/mL, Days 40 to 44: 8.9 ± 1.4/11.8 ± 3.7 ng/mL, Days 45 to 49: 7.7 ± 1.6/8.9 ± 1.9 ng/mL, Days 50 to 54: 6.0 ± 1.3/8.7 ± 7.1 ng/mL, Days 55 to 59: 4.7 ± 1.2/5.3 ± 2.8 ng/mL, and Days 60 to 64: 3.69 ± 1.86/2.62 ± 0.42 ng/mL. ANOVA indicated significant differences over time within each breed when considered individually (P parturition). Other than expected, we failed to proof significant differences in P4 between CKCS and BMD. Further studies are required to confirm the results on a larger

  11. Growth hormone concentrations in mammary secretions and plasma of the periparturient bitch and in plasma of the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, I; Kooistra, H S; Okkens, A C; Hazewinkel, H A; Bevers, M M; Mol, J A

    1997-01-01

    The presence of growth hormone (GH) in mammary secretions of bitches was investigated in relation to plasma GH concentrations at about the time of parturition and during the first weeks of lactation. Plasma GH concentrations in neonates were measured during the first weeks of lactation, to determine whether GH in maternal milk contributes to plasma concentrations of GH in the neonate. Gastrointestinal uptake of GH was studied by measurement of plasma bovine GH (bGH) concentrations after intragastric administration of bGH. High concentrations of GH were found in the mammary secretions of the bitches, particularly before parturition and in colostrum, exceeding maternal plasma concentration up to 100-1000 times. GH concentrations in milk were not not significantly correlated with GH concentrations in plasma of bitches or neonates. Bovine GH could not be detected in neonatal plasma for 4 h after intragastric administration of bGH. The presence of high concentrations of canine GH (cGH) in ante-partum and colostral mammary secretions is consistent with the progesterone-induced mammary biosynthesis of GH. GH in milk is probably not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood circulation of the newborn in its intact form.

  12. Progesterone radioimmunoassay with the use of progesterone derivative substituted at 12α position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kula, E.; Stupnicka, R.

    1981-01-01

    A direct (non-extraction) radioimmunoassay method for progesterone determination in blood plasma has been presented. A new progesterone derivative substituted at 12α position was used as antigen for production of antibody. Cheap and easily accessible substrate -deoxycholic acid - was used as starting material for 9 step degradation procedure yielding 12α-hydroxy-progesterone. The latter compound was subsequently esterified with succinic anhydrine and conjugated with bovine serum albumin. The conjugate was then used for the immunization of rabbits to obtain immune antisera. After the detailed characterization, the obtained antibodies have been used for the determination of progesterone in human and cattle blood plasma. Transcortin present in samples used for the determinations was saturated with the excess of cortisol. The sensitivity of the method was found to be 5 pg in a sample, which corresponds to the concentration of about 0.25 ng/ml in blood plasma, in as much as the volume of plasma used for analysis was 20 ml. The within-series error was 7% when progesterone concentration in plasma samples was higher than 2.5 ng/ml. (author)

  13. Progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroufova, A.; Kozlova, J.

    1976-01-01

    RIA methods of determining progestorone using the SORIN kit made in Italy and the NEN kit made in Great Britain were compared. Plasma extraction, the initial sample size for examination and recovery, the range of calibration curves of the two kits, the variation coefficient, the values of the blank sample and the values of progesterone determined in the normal menstrual cycle are discussed in detail. Variation coefficient: Sorin (calibration curve 9 to 11%, biological material 9.2%), NEN (calibration curve 12%, biological material 27.8%); determinations of progesterone levels during a normal menstrual cycle were 10 to 15% higher with the NEN kit; tritiated samples were measured with a 30 to 37% efficiency using the SORIN kit and 15 to 18% efficiency using the NEN kit. The turbidity and later sediment which formed during the determination of steroid hormones in biological materials after the addition of the scintillation solution did not reduce the efficiency of measurement. Priority is given to the SORIN kit. (L.O.)

  14. Ovarian dynamics and milk progesterone concentrations in cycling and non-cycling buffalo-cows (Bubalus bubalis) during Ovsynch program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Fahmy, S

    2007-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate ovarian dynamics and progesterone concentrations in cyclic (CYC, n=10) and non-cyclic (NCY, n=8) buffalo-cows during Ovsynch program. All cows received GnRH on day 0, PGF2alpha on day 7, and GnRH on day 9, and AI 14 h later. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasound and milk samples were collected for progesterone (P4) analysis. The first GnRH resulted in ovulation in CYC (90%) and NCY (62.5%) cows. By day 7, almost all cows had large follicle and lutein tissue. Luteolytic responses to PGF2alpha were 80 and 87.5% for CYC and NCY cows, respectively. Following second GnRH, ovulation occurred in 80% of CYC and 100% of NCY cows. Ovulation began earlier (12 h following second GnRH) and extended for longer (36 h) in NCY cows, when compared to CYC cows (36 and 12 h, respectively). The mean P4 levels increased from days 0 through 7 in CYC and NCY cows and levels were higher in CYC group. Conception rates were 60 and 37.5% in CYC and NYC cows, respectively. Early and asynchronous ovulation and luteal sub-function seemed to be a problem in NCY cows. Inseminating NCY cows twice, at 0 and 24 h of the second GnRH is recommended.

  15. Increased plasma fibronectin concentrations in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Dejgaard, A; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    In 23 morbidly obese patients we investigated the influence of a large weight loss (30.6 kg, range 17.5-90.8) on the plasma fibronectin concentrations. Further, changes in plasma fibronectin were related to serum insulin levels and to liver biochemistry. Between the measurements patients had been...... treated with an intermittent very-low-calorie formula diet sufficient in respect to protein, minerals and vitamins. They were investigated in weight-stable states. Before weight reduction, 14 patients (61%, 95% confidence limits 39-80%) had elevated plasma fibronectin levels. Plasma fibronectin decreased...... (medians 1.22 and 0.59 mumol/l before and after weight loss, p less than 0.01) and was after weight loss within the normal range in 14 patients. The change in plasma fibronectin was unassociated with the magnitude of the weight loss as well as with the reduction of overweight. The resulting plasma...

  16. Estrus, ovulation, and serum progesterone, estradiol, and LH concentrations in mares after an increased photoperiod during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxender, W D; Noden, P A; Hafs, H D

    1977-02-01

    On December 11, 1974, 15 seasonally anestrous mares were assigned at random to 1 of 3 experimental groups: outdoor-control, indoor-control, or indoor light-treated (a 16-hour photo-period). This experiment was terminated on April 21, 1975. The five mares in the indoor light-treated group ovulated 59.0+/-6.9 days later, which was 74 days earlier (P less than 0.01) than 2 of the 5 outdoor-controls (the other 3 ovulated after April 21 during a subsequent experiment) and 50 days earlier (P less than 0.05) than the indoor-controls. Durations of the 1st estrus for the 3 groups of mares were 13.3+/-3.6, 8.4+/-2.0, and 6.0+/-1.0 days for the indoor light-treated, indoor-control, and outdoor-control groups, respectively. The indoor light-treated mares averaged 4.2 estrous cycles before April 21, the indoor-control mares averaged 1.4 estrous cycles, and 2 of 5 outdoor-control mares ovulated 1 time during the experiment. The peripheral blood luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and progesterone concentrations were minimal during winter anestrous. The hormone changes normally associated with estrous cycle activity in mares--maximal estradiol and luteinizing hormone concentrations near ovulation and maximal progesterone concentration during diestrus--were observed in all mares beginning at the 1st estrus. Hair loss was observed earlier in the light-treated mares, than in either of the other groups. In conclusion, a 16-hour photo-period initiated in early December for anestrous brood mares caused endocrinologically normal estrous cycles to begin within 2 months. This may allow breeding and foaling considerably earlier than normally expected.

  17. Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnel Helling

    Full Text Available Higher than normal plasma glutamine concentration at admission to an intensive care unit is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Very high plasma glutamine levels are sometimes seen in both acute and chronic liver failure. We aimed to systematically explore the relation between different types of liver failure and plasma glutamine concentrations.Four different groups of patients were studies; chronic liver failure (n = 40, acute on chronic liver failure (n = 20, acute fulminant liver failure (n = 20, and post-hepatectomy liver failure (n = 20. Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD scores were assessed as indices of liver function. All groups except the chronic liver failure group were followed longitudinally during hospitalisation. Outcomes were recorded up to 48 months after study inclusion.All groups had individuals with very high plasma glutamine concentrations. In the total group of patients (n = 100, severity of liver failure correlated significantly with plasma glutamine concentration, but the correlation was not strong.Liver failure, regardless of severity and course of illness, may be associated with a high plasma glutamine concentration. Further studies are needed to understand whether high glutamine levels should be regarded as a biomarker or as a contributor to symptomatology in liver failure.

  18. Determination of particle concentrations in multitemperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richley, E.; Tuma, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The use of the multitemperature Saha equation (MSE) of Prigogine 1 and Patapov 2 for calculating particle concentrations in plasmas is shown to be an invalid procedure. Errors greater than one order of magnitude in the electron density in high-pressure argon and nitrogen electric arc plasmas can be easily incurred by using the multitemperature Saha equation. The alternative kinetic method for calculating concentrations is shown to be based on firm concepts. Simpliying procedures and computational techniques for calculating concentrations with the kinetic method are illustrated with examples

  19. Pathogen Inactivated Plasma Concentrated: Preparation and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    of decontamination, porcine parvovirus (PPV) was selected as a model virus; B19 is the form that infects humans. PPV is an interesting pathogen...ultrasound to cold plasma. The ultrasound generates pure ice crystals, which are then removed to leave concentrated plasma. Testing: Porcine parvovirus ...energy to “burn” any proteins that they encounter. Furthermore, as they react, they also produce multiple other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are

  20. Use of enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) to measure progesterone and oestrone sulphate in milk and/or plasma for monitoring of fertility in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiel, D.F.M. van de; Vos, E.; Adrichem Boogaert, D.H. van; Nasir Hussain Shah, S.; Vendrig, A.A.A.; Koops, W.

    1991-01-01

    Fertility was monitored in goats during several stages of the reproductive cycle by measurement of progesterone in milk or plasma using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Mean values in milk (strippings) of pregnant and non-pregnant goats at 21 days after mating (p.c.) were approximately 127 and 6 nmol/L, respectively. With a discriminatory level of 32 nmol/L the accuracy of positive pregnancy diagnosis was around 80% and of negative diagnosis was 100%. It was found that the first oestrous cycle after the anoestrous season was preceded by a short period of progesterone elevation with a duration of 3-4 days and with maximum values between 25 and 45 nmol/L. Oestrus induction was studied in limited number of animals. During the anoestrous period ovulatory oestrus was obtained in 60% of the animals (n=10), whereas induction during the breeding season was 100% successful (n=9). Overall lambing rate after induced oestrus was 53%. Discrimination between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy could be done by measurements of oestrone sulphate from day 45 p.c. onwards. The enzymeimmunoassays (EIA) of progesterone in plasma and milk and of oestrone sulphate in plasma were validated. It is concluded that combined measurement of progesterone and oestrone sulphate is a useful method for monitoring of fertility in the goat. Furthermore the technique of EIA can add substantially to the general applicability of these hormone tests. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  1. Progesterone modulation of transmembrane helix-helix interactions between the α-subunit of Na/K-ATPase and phospholipid N-methyltransferase in the oocyte plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askari Amir

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progesterone binding to the surface of the amphibian oocyte initiates the meiotic divisions. Our previous studies with Rana pipiens oocytes indicate that progesterone binds to a plasma membrane site within the external loop between the M1 and M2 helices of the α-subunit of Na/K-ATPase, triggering a cascade of lipid second messengers and the release of the block at meiotic prophase. We have characterized this site, using a low affinity ouabain binding isoform of the α1-subunit. Results Preparations of isolated plasma membranes from Rana oocytes demonstrate that physiological levels of progesterone (or the non-metabolizable progestin R5020 successively activate phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PE-NMT and sphingomyelin synthase within seconds. Inhibition of PE-NMT blocks the progesterone induction of meiosis in intact oocytes, whereas its initial product, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine (PME, can itself initiate meiosis in the presence of the inhibitor. Published X-ray crystallographic data on Na/K-ATPase, computer-generated 3D projections, heptad repeat analysis and hydrophobic cluster analysis of the transmembrane helices predict that hydrophobic residues L, V, V, I, F and Y of helix M2 of the α1-subunit interact with F, L, G, L, L and F, respectively, of helix M3 of PE-NMT. Conclusion We propose that progesterone binding to the first external loop of the α1-subunit facilitates specific helix-helix interactions between integral membrane proteins to up-regulate PE-NMT, and, that successive interactions between two or more integral plasma membrane proteins induce the signaling cascades which result in completion of the meiotic divisions.

  2. Decreased maternal plasma apelin concentrations in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoff, Katherine D; Qiu, Chunfang; Runyon, Scott; Williams, Michelle A; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder that complicates 3-7% of pregnancies. The development of preeclampsia has not been completely elucidated and current therapies are not broadly efficacious. The apelinergic system appears to be involved in hypertensive disorders and experimental studies indicate a role of this system in preeclampsia. Thus, an epidemiological evaluation of apelin protein concentration in plasma was conducted in case-control study of pregnant women. Data and maternal plasma samples were collected from pregnant women with confirmed preeclampsia (n = 76) or normotensive controls (n = 79). Concentrations of apelin peptides were blindly measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Plasma apelin concentrations, measured at delivery, were lower in preeclampsia cases compared with controls (mean ± standard deviation: 0.66 ± 0.29 vs. 0.78 ± 0.31 ng/mL, p = 0.02). After controlling for confounding by maternal age, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index, odds of preeclampsia were 48% lower for women with high versus low plasma apelin (≥0.73 vs. preclampsia and other hypertensive maternal disorders.

  3. [Plasma prolactin concentration and the effect of metergoline in pseudopregnant Afghan hounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkens, A C; Dieleman, S J; Kooistra, H S; Bevers, M M

    2000-02-01

    The effects of metergoline, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotinin) antagonist, on the plasma concentrations of prolactin in overtly pseudopregnant Afghan hounds and on the clinical symptoms of overt pseudopregnancy were studied. Plasma concentrations of prolactin and progesterone were determined in six Afghan hounds with signs of overt pseudopregnancy for 2-3 weeks and in three Afghan hounds that were not pseudopregnant at the time of blood sampling. In the overtly pseudopregnant bitches the plasma concentrations of prolactin before treatment (35.5 +/- 8.5 micrograms l-1) were significantly higher than the plasma concentrations of prolactin of the three bitches that were not pseudopregnant (6.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms l-1); the latter values were similar to those of non-psueodopregnant beagle bitches during the total luteal phase. The six pseudopregnant Afghan hounds were treated for 10 days with the antiserotoninergic drug metergoline. At 2 h after the onset of treatment with metergoline, the mean plasma concentration of prolactin had decreased to 10.8 +/- 2.9 micrograms l-1. The plasma concentrations of prolactin continued to decline to 5.4 +/- 1.0 micrograms l-1 at 4 h and to 1.0 +/- 0.1 microgram l-1 during treatment days 3-10. Signs of pseudopregnancy, such as swelling of the mammary glands and digging, decreased during the treatment period. The treatment was associated with mild behavioural side effects such as whimpering and aggressiveness. These side effects are probably not related to suppression of prolactin but are due to a direct effect on serotoninergic pathways in the brain. It is concluded that high plasma concentrations of prolactin are associated with the development and maintenance of pseudopregnancy. The serotonin antagonist metergoline strongly suppresses plasma concentration of prolactine in pseudopregnant dogs and decreases the clinical signs of pseudopregnancy.

  4. Plasma concentrations of prolactin in overtly pseudopregnant Afghan hounds and the effect of metergoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkens, A C; Dieleman, S J; Kooistra, H S; Bevers, M M

    1997-01-01

    The effect of metergoline, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) antagonist, on the plasma concentrations of prolactin in overtly pseudopregnant Afghan hounds and on the clinical symptoms of overt pseudopregnancy were studied. Plasma concentrations of prolactin and progesterone were determined in six Afghan hounds with signs of overt pseudopregnancy for 2-3 weeks and in three Afghan hounds that were not pseudopregnant at the time of blood sampling. In the overtly pseudopregnant bitches the plasma concentrations of prolactin before treatment (35.5 +/- 8.5 micrograms l-1) were significantly higher than the plasma concentrations of prolactin of the three bitches that were not pseudopregnant (6.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms l-1); the latter values were similar to those of non-pseudopregnant beagle bitches during the total luteal phase. The six pseudopregnant Afghan hounds were treated for 10 days with the antiserotoninergic drug metergoline. At 2 h after the onset of treatment with metergoline, the mean plasma concentration of prolactin had decreased to 10.8 +/- 2.9 micrograms l-1. The plasma concentrations of prolactin continued to decline to 5.4 +/- 1.0 micrograms l-1 at 4 h and to 1.0 +/- 0.1 microgram l-1 during treatment days 3-10. Signs of pseudopregnancy, such as swelling of the mammary glands and digging, decreased during the treatment period. The treatment was associated with mild behavioural side effects such as whimpering and aggressiveness. These side effects are probably not related to suppression of prolactin but are due to a direct effect on serotoninergic pathways in the brain. It is concluded that high plasma concentrations of prolactin are associated with the development and maintenance of pseudopregnancy. The serotonin antagonist metergoline strongly suppresses plasma concentrations of prolactin in pseudopregnant dogs and decreases the clinical signs of pseudopregnancy.

  5. Plasma oxidative stress biomarkers and progesterone profiles in a dairy cow diagnosed with an ovarian follicular cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, S; Ingenhoff, L; Kerrisk, K L; Celi, P

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the oxidative stress biomarkers in a cow diagnosed with a follicular cyst in her left ovary. Progesterone (P4) and plasma oxidative stress status was measured in 13 Holstein cows after synchronization of oestrus with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandinF2α (PGF2α) protocol. The presence and size of ovarian structures were monitored by transrectal ultrasound at 4 hourly intervals. Of the 13 cows, 12 were monitored until ovulation was detected and recorded, whereas one cow failed to ovulate and developed a follicular cyst. Oxidative stress biomarkers; reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), oxidative stress index (OSI), glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were measured in the cystic cow and compared to those of the 12 ovulated cows and are referred to as higher or lower if they are outside the mean ± standard error of mean of those of ovulated cows. The cystic cow had lower ROMs and OSI between 36 and 84 h after PGF2α injection and at 9 h, from 36 to 60 h after PGF2α injection respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant (BAP and GSH) was higher in the cystic cow compared to her ovulated herd mates. The observed imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant might have disrupted the physiological events for ovulation to occur, leading to cystic ovarian disease.

  6. Concentrations of progesterone and insulin in serum of nonlactating dairy cows in response to carbohydrate source and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Scatena, T S; Sá Filho, O G; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2008-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of carbohydrate source and processing on serum progesterone (P4) and insulin concentrations of nonlactating dairy cows. In experiment 1, 12 ovariectomized grazing Gir x Holstein cows were stratified by body weight and body condition score, and randomly assigned to receive a supplement containing either finely ground corn or citrus pulp in a Latin square crossover design. Diets were fed individually, twice daily at a rate of 10.9 kg of dry matter per cow. Cows received a controlled intravaginal P4-releasing insert before the beginning of the study, and inserts were replaced every 7 d. During the first experimental period, cows were adapted to treatments from d 0 to 13 and blood was collected on d 14, whereas during the second experimental period cows were adapted to treatments from d 0 to 6 and blood samples were collected on d 7. In both periods, blood samples were collected immediately before and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first supplement feeding of the collection day. In experiment 2, the cows utilized in experiment 1 were randomly assigned to receive a supplement based on finely ground corn, coarsely ground corn, or high-moisture corn in a Latin square crossover design. Cows were fed and received the controlled intravaginal P4-releasing insert as in experiment 1. Within each of the 3 experimental periods, cows were adapted to diets from d 0 to 6, and blood samples were collected on d 7 as in experiment 1. Time effects were detected in experiments 1 and 2 because insulin concentrations increased by 1 h (4.6 +/- 0.90 vs. 7.4 +/- 0.91 microIU/mL for 0 and 1 h, respectively) and P4 concentrations decreased by 3 h (1.8 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.11 ng/mL for 0 and 3 h, respectively) after supplements were offered. In experiment 2, insulin concentrations were greater in cows fed high-moisture corn compared with those fed coarsely or finely ground corn (8.8 +/- 1.05, 5.7 +/- 1.05, and 6.1 +/- 1.05 micro

  7. Progesterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement therapy, or help diagnose the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding When To Get Tested? At specific times during ... receiving progesterone replacement therapy; when a woman has abnormal uterine bleeding Sample Required? A blood sample drawn from a ...

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma concentration in patients diagnosed with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyzyk, Adam; Filipowicz, Dorota; Podfigurna, Agnieszka; Ptas, Paula; Piestrzynska, Malgorzata; Smolarczyk, Roman; Genazzani, Andrea R; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2017-05-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as a cessation of function of ovaries in women younger than 40 years old. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein critically involved in neuronal growth and metabolism. BDNF also has been shown to be important regulator of oocyte maturation. Recent data show that BDNF can be potentially involved in POI pathology. The aim of the study was to assess the BDNF plasma concentrations in patients diagnosed with idiopathic POI. 23 women diagnosed with POI (age 31 ± 7 years) and 18 (age 31 ± 3) controls were included to the study, matched according to age and body mass index. The BDNF concentrations were measured using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hormonal and metabolic parameters were measured in all individuals, in controls in late follicular phase. The POI group demonstrated lower mean plasma concentrations of BDNF (429.25 ± 65.52 pg/ml) in comparison to healthy controls (479.75 ± 34.75 pg/ml, p = 0.0345). The BDNF plasma concentration correlated negatively (R = -0.79, p BDNF and progesterone in controls. In conclusion, POI patients show significantly lower BDNF plasma concentration and it correlates with the duration of amenorrhea. This observation brings important potential insights to the pathology of POI.

  9. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda.

  10. Ovarian stimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone under increasing or minimal concentration of progesterone in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherry, T M; Matsui, M; Kida, K; Miyamoto, A; Megahed, G A; Shehata, S H; Miyake, Y-I

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence or absence of Corpus luteum (CL) on the follicular population during superstimulation in dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cattle). Animals were divided into two groups as follows: (1) Growing CL group (G1): Cows (n=7) received a total dose of 28 Armour units (AU) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) through the first 4 d (twice daily) after spontaneous ovulation (Day 0). (2) CL Absence group (G2): Cows (n=10) received prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) at 9 or 10 d after ovulation. After 36h, all the follicles (larger than 5mm) were aspirated (Day 0). The FSH treatment started 24h after aspiration and continued for 4 d. The number of small (3 to or = 8mm) follicles was examined on Days 1, 3, and 5 in all groups. Blood samples were collected daily for 5 d, and progesterone (P(4)), estradiol (E(2)), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH) in plasma were measured by enzyme immunoassays. The results showed that in G1, the P(4) level increased gradually from 0.5 ng/mL at Day 1 to 2 ng/mL at Day 5, whereas in G2, the P(4) level was completely below 0.5 ng/mL. All cows of the G2 group showed an increase of E(2) at Day 3 or Day 4 followed by an increase of IGF-1 within 24h, while GH increased concomitantly with the E(2) increase in 8 of 10 trials. On the other hand, cows of the G1 group showed neither E(2) nor IGF-1 increase. Moreover, at the end of the treatment, the number of follicles in the G2 group was significantly increased compared with that of the G1 group (22.8+/-2.0 vs. 11.6+/-2.0). In conclusion, low P(4) level during FSH treatment enhanced multiple follicular growth and E(2) secretion, which was followed by increase of IGF-1 and GH. Therefore, the absence of the CL may play a critical role in the superovulation response by controlling the number of growing follicles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Elective caesarean operation in the bitch using aglepristone before the pre-partum decline in peripheral progesterone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, X; Fontaine, E; Segalini, V; Fontbonne, A

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate caesarean operation (CO) undertaken before the pre-partum decrease of progesterone but following administration of a progesterone receptor antagonist and to evaluate the innocuity of this procedure for the dam and pups. Thirty seven bitches of 15 different breeds, received an injection of 15 mg/kg aglepristone 59 or 60 days after the estimated day of ovulation, determined by progesterone quantitative assays, and caesarean section (CS) was performed between 20 and 24 h after administration. Progesterone remained above 6 nmol/l at the time of CS (mean = 15.75, SD = 3.84). No post-operative clinical complications were reported in any of the bitches. All bitches were able to nurse and feed their puppies in the first 24 h following surgery. No pups showed any signs of prematurity and 5 out of 188 pups (2.6) died in the first 2 weeks after delivery. This small study demonstrates that a CS may be safely and successfully performed an average of 2 days before the expected date of parturition following the administration of aglepristone, without any harmful consequence for the dam and her neonates.

  12. Effect of hemodialysis on leflunomide plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, Jasmine M; Hackett, L Peter; Luxton, Grant; Illett, Kenneth F

    2002-01-01

    To report on the influence of hemodialysis on the disposition of leflunomide in a woman with end-stage renal disease. A 65-year-old white woman with a history of diabetes, end-stage renal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and leg ulcers was admitted to the hospital with a flare in the symptoms of joint pain and vasculitis. Prior to admission, she had been treated for rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate 7.5 mg once a week. Due to adverse effects from methotrexate and continuing painful joints, leflunomide was considered as a therapeutic alternative. A loading dose of 100 mg was followed two days later by a daily dose of 10 mg. The active metabolite of leflunomide (A771726) was measured before and after hemodialysis and between hemodialysis sessions over a period of 80 days. Pre- and post-hemodialysis concentrations were compared for 17 sessions during this time. Based on the initial measured concentrations, the leflunomide dose was increased to 20 mg/d for several weeks before being reduced to 15 mg due to elevated liver enzymes. Although renal pathways are responsible in part for excretion of A771726, the concentrations achieved in this patient at doses of 10-20 mg/d were at the low end of the range reported in the literature. It was shown that pre- and post-hemodialysis concentrations of A771726 did not differ significantly. Thus, the low concentrations of A771726 were not a result of the hemodialysis. Steady-state concentrations of A771726 in plasma were not affected by hemodialysis or renal impairment. Reduction of the dose of leflunomide in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis does not appear to be required.

  13. Role of sex steroids in progesterone and corticosterone response to acute restraint stress in rats: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, B; Leite, C M; Carvalho-Lima, M; Anselmo-Franci, J A

    2013-07-01

    Adrenal progesterone secretion increases along with corticosterone in response to stress in male and female rats to modulate some stress responses. Here we investigated the role of sex steroids in sex differences in the progesterone response to 60 min of restraint stress in adult male and female rats. Comparisons between males and females in the progesterone response were evaluated in parallel with corticosterone responses. From day 5 to 7 after gonadectomy, female and male rats were treated with estradiol or testosterone, respectively (OVX-E and ORCH-T groups), or oil (OVX and ORCH groups). Female rats in proestrus, intact and 7 d adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats were also studied. At 10:00 h, blood samples were withdrawn via an implanted jugular cannula before (-5 min), during (15, 30, 45, 60 min) and after (90 and 120 min) restraint stress to measure plasma progesterone and corticosterone concentrations by radioimmunoassay. Intact male and proestrus female rats exhibited similar progesterone responses to stress. Gonadectomy did not alter the amount of progesterone secreted during stress in female rats but decreased secretion in male rats. Unlike corticosterone, the progesterone response to stress in females was not influenced by estradiol. In males, testosterone replacement attenuated the progesterone and corticosterone responses to stress. Basal secretion of progesterone among intact, ORCH and ADX males was similar, but ADX-stressed rats secreted little progesterone. Hence, the gonads differently modulate adrenal progesterone and corticosterone responses to stress in female and male rats. The ovaries enhance corticosterone but not progesterone secretion, while the testes stimulate progesterone but not corticosterone secretion.

  14. Neuroprotection by Progesterone Through Simulation of Mitochondrial Gene Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiskum, Gary

    2002-01-01

    .... The most important experimental results were as follows: I Determined that low, physiological levels of plasma progesterone inhibited seizures produced by kainic acid while high levels of progesterone had no effect. 2...

  15. Altered plasma concentrations of sex hormones in cats infected by feline immunodeficiency virus or feline leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerizo, G; Doménech, A; Illera, J-C; Silván, G; Gómez-Lucía, E

    2012-02-01

    Gender differences may affect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans and may be related to fluctuations in sex hormone concentration. The different percentage of male and female cats observed to be infected by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has been traditionally explained through the transmission mechanisms of both viruses. However, sexual hormones may also play a role in this different distribution. To study this possibility, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations were analyzed using a competitive enzyme immunoassay in the plasma of 258 cats naturally infected by FIV (FIV(+)), FeLV (FeLV(+)), or FeLV and FIV (F(-)F(+)) or negative for both viruses, including both sick and clinically healthy animals. Results indicated that the concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone were significantly higher in animals infected with FIV or FeLV (P < 0.05) than in negative cats. Plasma concentrations of DHEA in cats infected by either retrovirus were lower than in negative animals (P < 0.05), and F(-)F(+) cats had significantly lower plasma values than monoinfected cats (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected in the plasma concentration of progesterone of the four groups. No relevant differences were detected in the hormone concentrations between animal genders, except that FIV(+) females had higher DHEA concentrations than the corresponding males (P < 0.05). In addition, no differences were observed in the hormone concentrations between retrovirus-infected and noninfected animals with and without clinical signs. These results suggest that FIV and FeLV infections are associated with an important deregulation of steroids, possibly from early in the infection process, which might have decisive consequences for disease progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A sensitive progesterone enzyme immunoassay for cow, goat and llama plasma using a monoclonal antibody and Danazol (17-α-2,4-pregnadien-20-yno (2,3-D) isoxazol-17-ol) as a displacing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aba, M.A.; Carlsson, M.A.; Karlsson, A.; Forsberg, M.

    2001-01-01

    A sensitive progesterone enzyme immunoassay was developed for cow, goat and llama plasma using a monoclonal antibody and Danazol (17-α-2,4-pregnadien-20-yno (2,3-d) isoxazol-17-ol) as a displacing agent. The microtitration plates were first coated with progesterone 3 (o-carboxy-methyl) oxine: BSA conjugate. The immune reaction was performed by incubating overnight a mixture of 50 μL of plasma and 100 μL of first antibody. After washing, 100 μL of the second antibody (horse radish peroxidase conjugated anti-mouse IgG) were added. The plates were incubated for 1 hour and washed. Immediately the substrate solution was added and finally the reaction stopped and optical density measured. This assay allows accurate determination of progesterone in plasma from several species with good specificity, precision and accuracy, and is suitable for the rapid assessment of luteal function and reproductive status in both clinical and research situations. (author)

  17. Progesterone concentration and lambing rate of Karakul ewes treated with prostaglandin and GnRH combined with the ram effect during breeding and non-breeding seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, A; Mohebbi-Fani, M; Omidi, A; Boostani, A; Nazifi, S; Mahmoodian-Fard, H R; Chahardahcherik, M

    2017-09-15

    The combination of ram effect with two injections of PGF 2α 10-days apart and the same protocol plus an additional injection of GnRH prior to the first injection of PGF 2α were examined in Karakul ewes during breeding and non-breeding seasons, respectively. Plasma progesterone (P 4 ) concentrations (to detect the presence of active corpus luteum), twin lambing, litter size and synchronization of lambing were evaluated. In each study 70 ewes (2-4 years old) were divided to a treatment (n = 40) and a control (n = 30) group. During the breeding season, on days -10 and 0 before ram release, the treatment group was injected intramuscularly with PGF 2α (D-Cloprostenol; 0.15 mg). During the non-breeding season, on day -15 before ram release the treatment group was injected with GnRH (buserelin; 4.2 μg) intramuscularly followed by two injections of PGF 2α on days -10 and 0. In both studies, the rams were released into the ewe flock after the second prostaglandin injection (day 0). Blood samples of ewes were collected on days -10, 0, 20 and 70 of the study in breeding season and on days -15, -10, 0, 20 and 70 during non-breeding season. The treatment group had higher P 4 concentrations compared to the control ewes on day 0 in the breeding season (5.80 ± 0.61 vs. 5.0 ± 0.93 ng/mL) and day -10 in the non-breeding season (3.50 ± 0.33 vs. 2.70 ± 0.35 ng/mL) though the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Based on plasma P 4 concentrations (>1 ng/mL) on day 70, in the breeding season all control ewes (100%) and 91.9% of the treatment ewes were detected to have active corpus luteum (P = 0.09). An almost inverse result (90% vs. 97.5%; P = 0.2) was detected in the non-breeding season. The lambing rate was higher (P = 0.03) in the treatment group compared to the control ewes during the non-breeding season (90% vs. 70%), but tended to be lower (P = 0.07) in the breeding season (73% vs. 90%). Twin lambing rate was higher in the

  18. Plasma magnesium concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlinska-Hasiec, Edyta; Makara-Studzinska, Marta; Czajkowski, Marek; Rzecki, Ziemowit; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Stadnik, Adam; Pilat, Jacek; Rybojad, Beata; Dabrowski, Wojciech

    2017-05-11

    [b]Introduction[/b]. Magnesium (Mg) plays a crucial role in cell physiology and its deficiency may cause many disorders which often require intensive treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse some factors affecting preoperative plasma Mg concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). [b]Materials and method[/b]. Adult patients scheduled for elective CABG with cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) under general anaesthesia were studied. Plasma Mg concentration was analysed before surgery in accordance with age, domicile, profession, tobacco smoking and preoperative Mg supplementation. Blood samples were obtained from the radial artery just before the administration of anaesthesia. [b]Results. [/b]150 patients were studied. Mean preoperative plasma Mg concentration was 0.93 ± 0.17 mmol/L; mean concentration in patients - 1.02 ± 0.16; preoperative Mg supplementation was significantly higher than in patients without such supplementation. Moreover, intellectual workers supplemented Mg more frequently and had higher plasma Mg concentration than physical workers. Plasma Mg concentration decreases in elderly patients. Patients living in cities, on average, had the highest plasma Mg concentration. Smokers had significantly lower plasma Mg concentration than non-smokers. [b]Conclusions. [/b]1. Preoperative magnesium supplementation increases its plasma concentration. 2. Intellectual workers frequently supplement magnesium. 3. Smoking cigarettes decreases plasma magnesium concentration.

  19. Elevated concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F-2 alpha in maternal plasma during prepartum luteolysis and parturition in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, P W; Isaman, L; Frank, D A; Michel, F J; Currie, W B

    1988-09-01

    Concentrations of progesterone and of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGFM) were measured in plasma collected from 6 bitches every 3 h starting 2.8-4.6 days before parturition (birth of first pup) and continuing until 0.4-0.8 days post partum, and in additional samples collected less frequently. Progesterone concentrations at 48, 24, 12 and 3 h pre partum averaged 2.8 +/- 0.3, 2.2 +/- 0.4, 1.0 +/- 0.3 and 0.7 +/- 0.2 ng/ml. At those times PGFM values averaged 380 +/- 80, 800 +/- 220, 1450 +/- 450 and 1930 +/- 580 pg/ml, respectively. Mean concentrations of PGFM increased about 2.5-fold between 48 and 15 h pre partum in association with the onset of luteolysis, and then increased another 2.5 times before parturition as progesterone fell to nadir values. Peak levels of PGFM ranged from 1060 to 7150 pg/ml (2100 +/- 600 pg/ml) and occurred within 1-9 h after the birth of the first pup and before the birth of the last pup. These results suggest that prepartum luteolysis in dogs is initiated by increases in maternal concentrations of PGF, and that progesterone withdrawal causes a further increase in PGF which completes luteolysis and provides a major portion of the uterotonic activity causing expulsion of pups.

  20. Relationship of oestrus synchronization method, circulating hormones, luteinizing hormone and prostaglandin F-2 alpha receptors and luteal progesterone concentration to premature luteal regression in superovulated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Fitz, T A; Brown, J L; Stuart, L D; Wildt, D E

    1991-09-01

    Ewes were treated with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and oestrus was synchronized using either a dual prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF-2 alpha) injection regimen or pessaries impregnated with medroxy progesterone acetate (MAP). Natural cycling ewes served as controls. After oestrus or AI (Day 0), corpora lutea (CL) were enucleated surgically from the left and right ovaries on Days 3 and 6, respectively. The incidence of premature luteolysis was related (P less than 0.05) to PGF-2 alpha treatment and occurred in 7 of 8 ewes compared with 0 of 4 controls and 1 of 8 MAP-exposed females. Sheep with regressing CL had lower circulating and intraluteal progesterone concentrations and fewer total and small dissociated luteal cells on Day 3 than gonadotrophin-treated counterparts with normal CL. Progesterone concentration in the serum and luteal tissue was higher (P less than 0.05) in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL than in the controls; but luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors/cell were not different on Days 3 and 6. There were no apparent differences in the temporal patterns of circulating oestradiol-17 beta, FSH and LH. High progesterone in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL coincided with an increase in total luteal mass and numbers of cells, which were primarily reflected in more small luteal cells than in control ewes. Gonadotrophin-treated ewes with regressing CL on Day 3 tended (P less than 0.10) to have fewer small luteal cells and fewer (P less than 0.05) low-affinity PGF-2 alpha binding sites than sheep with normal CL. By Day 6, luteal integrity and cell viability was absent in ewes with prematurely regressed CL. These data demonstrate that (i) the incidence of premature luteal regression is highly correlated with the use of PGF-2 alpha; (ii) this abnormal luteal tissue is functionally competent for 2-3 days after ovulation, but deteriorates rapidly thereafter and (iii) luteal-dysfunctioning ewes experience a reduction in numbers of

  1. Follicular population and progesterone (P4) plasma concentrations in sheep under different synchronization protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Uribe- Velásquez, LF; Oba, E; Souza, MIL

    2008-01-01

    Los efectos de la prostaglandina (PGF2α) vs CIDR y eCG (gonadotrofina coriónica equina) en la dinámica de la población folicular y su relación con las concentraciones plasmáticas de P4 fueron investigadas en ovejas cíclicas. Fueron utilizadas 14 hembras ovinas de la raza Bergamascia; el Grupo 1 (Gl) se sometió a dos aplicaciones de PGF2α, y, el Grupo 2 (G2) tratado con CIDR durante 14 días siendo que, en el momento de su retirada, se administraron 500 UI de eCG. La dinámica folicular ovárica ...

  2. Effects of long-term, near-term, and real-time energy balance, and blood progesterone concentrations, on the pregnancy rate of contemporary dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, N A; Conley, A J; Robinson, P H

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to contribute to understanding the interface between reproductive and nutritional energetic physiology in contemporary dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32) between 70 and 180 days in milk were used in a study starting 10 d prior to the artificial insemination (AI) date and were estrous synchronized using a hormonal regimen. Fourteen cows were determined pregnant on day 39 post-AI. Coccygeal blood samples of all cows were collected on d -10 and -3 prior to AI to determine estrous cyclicity, as well as at AI and at 6, 13 and 20 d post-AI. Milk progesterone was measured 20 d post-AI, and body condition was scored (BCS; 1-5 scale) on days -10, 0, 13 and 27 relative to AI. Blood non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, measured on the same days as BCS, and changes of BCS from d -10 to AI were not predictive of pregnancy outcome. The BCS of cows on the day of AI was greater (P = 0.02) for pregnant cows with an approximate minimum BCS for a high probability of conception being 2.50. Serum progesterone concentrations of pregnant cows were greater (P commercial high-producing multiparous dairy cattle may be partly due to breeding cows that have insufficient BCS to support pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The relationship of maternal characteristics and circulating progesterone concentrations with reproductive outcome in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) after artificial insemination, with and without ovulation induction, and natural breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Robeck, T R

    2012-08-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) undergoing natural breeding and artificial insemination (AI) were examined to characterize serum progesterone concentrations and determine relationships among age, parity, and reproductive outcome. Progesterone profiles of five cycle types (n = 119 total cycles from 54 animals) were characterized as follows: (i) conception and production of a live term calf (conceptive-term, n = 73); (ii) conception and abortion after Day 60 (conceptive-abortion, n = 12); (iii) unknown conception status with prolonged, elevated progesterone and absence of a fetus (conceptive-unknown, n = 14); (iv) conception failure with normal luteal phase progesterone concentrations (non-conceptive, n = 14, AI cycles only); and (v) conception failure with progesterone insufficiency occuring after spontaneous ovulation or owing to premature ovulation induction using GnRH (non-conceptive-PI, n = 6, AI cycles only). By Day 21 post-insemination (PI), progesterone concentrations were similar (P > 0.05) among conceptive-term, conceptive-abortion and conceptive-unknown, and higher (P 0.05) progesterone concentrations than conceptive-abortion and unknown conception status cycles. Parity was not associated with reproductive outcome based on cycle type (P > 0.05). Age of females in conceptive-unknown (26.5 ± 10.1 yrs) and conceptive-abortion (22.1 ± 9.4 yrs) groups was higher (P < 0.05) than in conceptive-term (15.7 ± 7.2 yrs). The conceptive-unknown cycle type possibly represents undetected early embryonic loss occurring before Day 60 PI. Length of gestation using known conception dates was 376.1 ± 11.0 days and the range of this parameter (355-395 days) has implications for peri-parturient management procedures for the species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Plasma, Saliva, and Hair Levetiracetam Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaś-Ruszczyk, Katarzyna; Kuczyńska, Julita; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Halina; Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Iwona; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw; Restel, Magdalena; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Mierzejewski, Pawel

    2017-06-01

    Previous findings revealed high correlations between serum/plasma and saliva levetiracetam concentrations, indicating saliva as an alternative matrix for monitoring levetiracetam therapy. Levetiracetam concentration in the hair, which could reflect long-term drug exposure and patients' compliance, has not been systematically tested, as yet. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between plasma, saliva, and hair levetiracetam concentrations in 47 patients with epilepsy. Plasma, saliva, and hair levetiracetam concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive ionization. Levetiracetam saliva and plasma concentrations were highly correlated (r = 0.93). Plasma concentrations were not influenced by sex, age, and other concomitant antiepileptic drugs. Levetiracetam hair concentrations correlated with plasma concentrations (r = 0.36) but not daily dose (mg/kg). Drug hair concentrations were not influenced by hair color or treatment (dyed). The results tend to indicate that saliva may be a reliable alternative to plasma for monitoring levetiracetam concentrations. Levetiracetam can also be detected in human hair.

  5. Risk factors contributing to a low darunavir plasma concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daskapan, Alper; Stienstra, Ymkje; Kosterink, Jos G.W.; Bierman, Wouter F.W.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Touw, Daan J.; Alffenaar, Jan Willem C.

    Darunavir is an efficacious drug; however, pharmacokinetic variability has been reported. The objective of this study was to find predisposing factors for low darunavir plasma concentrations in patients starting the once- or twice-daily dosage. Darunavir plasma concentrations from January 2010 till

  6. Effects of intravenous glucose infusion and nutritional balance on serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and progesterone in nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F V R; Lopes, C N; Cappellozza, B I; Scarpa, A B; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and progesterone in nonlactating dairy cows according to nutritional balance and glucose infusion. Ten nonlactating, ovariectomized Gir x Holstein cows were stratified by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) on d -28 of the study, and randomly assigned to 1) negative nutrient balance (NB) or 2) positive nutrient balance (PB). From d -28 to d 0, cows were allocated according to nutritional treatment (5 cows/treatment) into 2 low-quality pastures with reduced forage availability. However, PB cows individually received, on average, 3 kg/cow per day (as-fed) of a concentrate during the study. All cows had an intravaginal progesterone releasing device inserted on d -14, which remained in cows until the end of the study. Cow BW and BCS were assessed again on d 0. On d 0, cows within nutritional treatment were randomly assigned to receive, in a crossover design containing 2 periods of 24h each, 1) intravenous glucose infusion (GLU; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW, as a 5% glucose solution administered, on average, at 32 mL/min over a 3-h period), or 2) intravenous saline infusion (SAL; 0.9% solution infused on average at 32 mL/min over a 3-h period). Prior to the beginning of each period, all cows were fasted for 12h. Blood samples were collected, relative to the beginning of the infusion, at -12 and -11.5h (beginning of fasting), and at -0.5, 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6h. Following the last blood collection of period 1, cows received (PB) or not (NB) concentrate and were returned to their respective pastures. Changes in BCS and BW were greater in NB cows compared with PB cows (-0.60 and -0.25+/-0.090 for BCS, respectively; -22.4 and 1.2+/-6.58 kg for BW, respectively). Cows receiving GLUC had greater glucose concentrations from 0.5 to 3h relative to infusion compared with SAL cows. Insulin concentrations were greater in PB cows assigned to GLUC compared

  7. [Diagnosis and monitoring of endangered early pregnancies with determination of oestrone, oestradiol 17beta, oestriol, progesterone and HPL in plasma and the pregnancy test in graduated dilutions of urine (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, J R; Negulescu, R; Dahlén, H; Musch, K

    1977-06-01

    Unconjugated oestrone (Oe1), oestradiol-17beta (Oe2), oestriol (Oe3), progesterone (P) and HPL in plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay and the immunological pregnancy-test in urine was carried out in 70 patients with normal pregnancy or imminent abortion from 4th-20th week of gestation. Oe2 and HPL showed the most pronounced rises, Oe3 increased especially after the first trimester. In cases with abortion symptoms and poor prognosis Oe2 and HPL gave the most reliable results concerning the endocrin function of early normal pregnancy. Oe1- and P-values in normal pregnancy did not differ so clearly from concentrations observed during normal menstrual cycles and were thus of less value. The pregnancy-test was positive (greater than 1000 IU/1) even in most cases of dead pregnancy and therefore not reliable. With increasing production of oestrogen precursors in the fetal adrenal cortex after the first trimester determination of Oe3 becomes more important. In cases with abortion symptoms in early pregnancy and subsequent normal development, plasma Oe2- and Oe3- values represented best criteria for a prognosis. -- For the diagnosis and control of the endangered early pregnancy we recommend, as a consequence of this study, determination of Oe2 up to the 13th week of pregnancy and thereafter Oe3 in maternal plasma.

  8. Chronic potassium depletion increases adrenal progesterone production that is necessary for efficient renal retention of potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabida, Boutaïna; Edwards, Aurélie; Salhi, Amel; Azroyan, Anie; Fodstad, Heidi; Meneton, Pierre; Doucet, Alain; Bloch-Faure, May; Crambert, Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Modern dietary habits are characterized by high-sodium and low-potassium intakes, each of which was correlated with a higher risk for hypertension. In this study, we examined whether long-term variations in the intake of sodium and potassium induce lasting changes in the plasma concentration of circulating steroids by developing a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in mice. One finding of this model was that mice increase their plasma progesterone levels specifically in response to potassium depletion. This prediction was confirmed by measurements in both male mice and men. Further investigation showed that progesterone regulates renal potassium handling both in males and females under potassium restriction, independent of its role in reproduction. The increase in progesterone production by male mice was time dependent and correlated with decreased urinary potassium content. The progesterone-dependent ability to efficiently retain potassium was because of an RU486 (a progesterone receptor antagonist)-sensitive stimulation of the colonic hydrogen, potassium-ATPase (known as the non-gastric or hydrogen, potassium-ATPase type 2) in the kidney. Thus, in males, a specific progesterone concentration profile induced by chronic potassium restriction regulates potassium balance.

  9. Effect of exogenous progesterone on oestrus response of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four (24) healthy, parous West African dwarf (WAD) does aged 2 – 3 years were used to study the effects of varying doses of progesterone on oestrus synchronization and plasma progesterone levels. The does were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups consisting of 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 mg progesterone ...

  10. Additive effects of low concentrations of estradiol-17β and progesterone on nitric oxide production by human vascular endothelial cells through shared signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yefei; Thomas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Potential cardiovascular benefits of low-dose formulations of estrogens and progesterone (P4) for treating climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women remain unclear because information is lacking on their combined vascular effects. Protective effects of low concentrations (5nM) of P4 and estradiol-17β (E2), alone and in combination (P4+E2), were investigated in a nongenomic model of vascular protection which measured acute increases in nitric oxide (NO) production by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment with 5nM P4+E2 for twenty minutes significantly increased NO production and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation, whereas 5nM treatments with either steroid alone were ineffective. The 5nM P4+E2 treatment also increased phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, mimicking the effects of higher concentrations of P4 and E2 alone. Pre-treatment with inhibitors of PI3K (wortmannin), Akt (ML-9), and MAP kinase (AZD6244 and U0126) completely blocked the NO response to 5nM P4+E2. Combined 5nM treatments with specific estrogen and progesterone receptor agonists showed an involvement of membrane progesterone receptor alpha (mPRα, also known as PAQR7), G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), but not ERβ, in P4+E2 stimulation of NO production. P4+E2 also exerted genomic actions, increasing mPRα, GPER, cyclooxygenase-1, and prostacyclin-synthase mRNA levels. Taken together, the results show that a low concentration of P4+E2 rapidly increases NO production in HUVECs through mPRα, ERα, and GPER and involves common signaling pathways, PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase. These in vitro findings suggest that low doses of E2 and P4 may also have some beneficial cardiovascular effects in vivo when administered as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post-menopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin E plasma concentration in osteoporotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajimahmoodi M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of osteoporosis is multifactorial and many dietary factors are important in the prevention of this disease. Antioxidants as free radical scavengers may influence osteoporosis by reducing the effects of oxidative stress that may be associated with bone loss. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in cell membranes from oxidation. There are only two studies regarding vitamin E plasma levels in subjects suffering from osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between plasma vitamin E levels and bone mineral density (BMD in Iranian patients. Methods: Subjects were consecutively recruited between May and September 2005 from among a total of approximately 1000 people referred for instrumental screening for osteoporosis to the Jami Clinic in Tehran. Inclusion criteria for the study group were: a femoral neck T-score of -1 or less, osteopenia, severe osteopenia and osteoporosis. A total of 137 subjects were enrolled. According to their femoral and spinal BMD scores, 54 persons were selected as a control group. The control group consisted of subjects with a femoral neck T-score and spine T-score of -1 or more. In selecting the case group, only the femoral BMD score was used. Plasma vitamin E was measured, after extraction with methanol, by HPLC with UV detection at 280 nm. Methanol, deionized water and butanol (90:4:6 was used as a mobile phase with a C8 column. The flow rate was 1.0 ml. min-1 and the acetate ester of vitamin E was used as an internal standard. Results: The results show no significant difference in plasma vitamin E between the control and case groups, however linear regression analysis does reveal a significant difference between the T-score and plasma vitamin E. Conclusion: Deceleration Femoral bone Density during osteoporosis will be Accelerated with Decrease of Vitamin E Antioxidant level.

  12. Decidual tissue growth and regression in the guinea pig: regulation by uterine blood flow and relation to circulating progesterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, D R

    1984-05-01

    The role of uterine blood flow (UBF) in the modulation of experimentally induced decidua formation was assessed in mature guinea pigs. The response to endometrial trauma, as indexed by uterine weight changes, was dependent upon the type of stimulus used, with deciduogenic effectiveness as follows: saline = oil = knife scratch less than scissor cut. Both the knife scratch and scissor cut techniques induced elevations in UBF compared with control values. Neither uterine weight nor UBF increased when trauma was applied to unresponsive uteri, indicating that inflammation was not the cause of uterine hyperemia. Uterine weight increased from basal levels on the day of trauma (i.e. day 5 of the estrous cycle) to a maximal weight between days 10 and 12 posttrauma. Maximal growth of the induced decidua occurred under conditions of elevated UBF. Subsequently, UBF declined between days 10 and 15 posttrauma, preceding the associate resorption of the induced decidua. During the period of decidua growth, serum progesterone levels were elevated compared with those in control animals. These data indicate that experimentally induced decidua formation in the guinea pig is associated with uterine hyperemia and increased corpus luteum activity, both of which are necessary for proper endometrial differentiation. It is hypothesized that these events mimic the uterine hyperemia associated with blastocyst implanplantation and early placentation in this species.

  13. Plasma catecholamine and serum gastrin concentrations during sham feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker, Carsten; Andersen, D; Kronborg, O

    1983-01-01

    Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulce...... groups. It is concluded that sympathetic nervous activity and serum gastrin concentrations are not influenced by sham feeding in contrast to the influence of insulin hypoglycemia....... an insulin test resulted in a 25-fold rise in plasma adrenaline. The ulcer patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline than the normal subjects both before and after sham feeding, and this difference was probably not caused only by age difference in the two...

  14. Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, D O; Dellow, W J; Lever, M; George, P M; Robson, R A; Chambers, S T

    2001-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis that is common in chronic renal failure (CRF), but its cause is unknown. Homocysteine metabolism is linked to betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT), a zinc metalloenzyme that converts glycine betaine (GB) to N,N dimethylglycine (DMG). DMG is a known feedback inhibitor of BHMT. We postulated that DMG might accumulate in CRF and contribute to hyperhomocysteinemia by inhibiting BHMT activity. Plasma and urine concentrations of GB and DMG were measured in 33 dialysis patients (15 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 18 hemodialysis), 33 patients with CRF, and 33 age-matched controls. Concentrations of fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), red cell and serum folate, vitamins B(6) and B(12), serum zinc, and routine biochemistry were also measured. Groups were compared, and determinants of plasma tHcy were identified by correlations and stepwise linear regression. Plasma DMG increased as renal function declined and was twofold to threefold elevated in dialysis patients. Plasma GB did not differ between groups. The fractional excretion of GB (FE(GB)) was increased tenfold, and FED(MG) was doubled in CRF patients compared with controls. Plasma tHcy correlated positively with plasma DMG, the plasma DMG:GB ratio, plasma creatinine, and FE(GB) and negatively with serum folate, zinc, and plasma GB. In the multiple regression model, only plasma creatinine, plasma DMG, or the DMG:GB ratio was independent predictors of tHcy. DMG accumulates in CRF and independently predicts plasma tHcy concentrations. These findings suggest that reduced BHMT activity is important in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia in CRF.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in unextracted serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, S.P.; Corcoran, J.M.; Eastman, C.J.; Doy, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid, precise radioimmunoassay for progesterone in 25 μL of unextracted serum is described. Progesterone is released from its binding protein by adding an optimal amount of cortisol, which binds to the same protein (cortisol binding globulin) as progesterone. The amount of cortisol required does not cross react with the specific progesterone antibody used. This approach considerably shortens assay time and removes a tedious and imprecise stage in the conventional assay of serum progesterone. Results correlated well (r = 0.97) with a method involving organic solvent extraction of progesterone from serum. During the two years we have used this mehod in a busy diagnostic endocrine laboratory, the between-assay precision (CV) for low-, medium-, and high-concentration quality control sera was 12, 7, and 9%, respectively. Data from participation in an independent external quality-control program verified the adequacies of the method

  16. Plasma and skin vitamin E concentrations in canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevnik Kapun, Alja; Salobir, Janez; Levart, Alenka; Tavčar Kalcher, Gabrijela; Nemec Svete, Alenka; Kotnik, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Altered homeostasis of vitamin E has been demonstrated in human atopic dermatitis. Data on plasma and skin vitamin E concentrations in canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) are not available. To determine vitamin E concentrations in plasma and skin of atopic dogs. Vitamin E concentrations in plasma and full-thickness skin biopsies of 15 atopic dogs were related to CAD extent and severity index (CADESI-03) scores and compared to the equivalent concentrations in 17 healthy dogs. Statistically significant differences of measured parameters between the two groups were determined by the nonparametric Mann Whitney U test and correlations between CADESI-03 scores and vitamin E concentrations were evaluated by the Spearman rank test. A value of P vitamin E were significantly lower in atopic dogs than in healthy dogs, with median values of 29.8 and 52.9 μmol/L, respectively. Skin vitamin E values did not differ significantly between patients and healthy controls. The median concentration of skin vitamin E in atopic dogs was higher than that in healthy dogs. No significant correlations were found between CADESI-03 score and plasma vitamin E or skin vitamin E concentrations. Significantly lower plasma vitamin E concentrations in atopic dogs than in healthy controls indicate altered homeostasis of vitamin E in CAD. Further investigation into vitamin E supplementation in CAD is warranted.

  17. The use of the milk progesterone assay in cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg, E.; Choi, H.S.; Moestl, E.

    1981-01-01

    The progesterone concentration in milk-fat was determined in samples from 167 cows in 51 herds taken on day 0, 6 and 20 after artificial insemination. The rectal palpation verified pregnancy in 85% of the cows classified on their milk-progesterone concentration as ''probably pregnant''. According to the milk progesterone concentration it was possible already three weeks after artificial insemination to classify 25% of all examined cows as ''non pregnant''. Seven cows were inseminated at an inappropriate time as revealed by a high progesterone concentration in milk-fat on the day of insemination. The relevance of milk progesterone determinations as an aid for veterinary surgeons is briefly discussed. (author)

  18. The relationship between plasma steroid hormone concentrations and the reproductive cycle in the Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Crotalus oreganus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Husak, Jerry F; Eikenaar, Cas; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2010-05-01

    We describe the reproductive cycle of Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus) by quantifying steroid hormone concentrations and observing reproductive behaviors in free-ranging individuals. Additionally, we examined reproductive tissues from museum specimens. Plasma steroid hormone concentrations were quantified for both male and female snakes throughout the active season (March-October). We measured testosterone (T), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and corticosterone (B) concentrations in both sexes and 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in females only. We observed reproductive behaviors (e.g., consortship, courtship, and copulation) in the field and measured testis and follicle size in male and female snakes from museum collections to relate steroid hormone concentrations to the timing of reproductive events. Our study revealed that C. oreganus in central California exhibits a bimodal pattern of breeding, with most mating behavior occurring in the spring and some incidences of mating behavior observed in late summer/fall. Each breeding period corresponded with elevated androgen (T or DHT) levels in males. Testes were regressed in the spring when the majority of reproductive behavior was observed in this population, and they reached peak volume in August and September during spermatogenesis. Although we did not detect seasonal variation in female hormone concentrations, some females had high E2 in the spring and fall, coincident with mating and with increased follicle size (indicating vitellogenesis) in museum specimens. Females with high E2 concentrations also had high T and DHT concentrations. Corticosterone concentrations in males and females were not related either to time of year or to concentrations of any other hormones quantified. Progesterone concentrations in females also did not vary seasonally, but this likely reflected sampling bias as females tended to be underground, and thus unobtainable, in summer months when P would be

  19. Measurement of plasma adenosine concentration: methodological and physiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewirtz, H.; Brown, P.; Most, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that measurements of plasma adenosine concentration made on samples of blood obtained in dipyridamole and EHNA (i.e., stopping solution) may be falsely elevated as a result of ongoing in vitro production and accumulation of adenosine during sample processing. Studies were performed with samples of anticoagulated blood obtained from anesthesized domestic swine. Adenosine concentration of ultra filtrated plasma was determined by HPLC. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) rate of clearance of [ 3 H]adenosine added to plasma, (ii) endogenous adenosine concentration of matched blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone, stopping solution plus EDTA, and perchloric acid (PCA), (iii) plasma and erythrocyte endogenous adenosine concentration in nonhemolyzed samples, and (iv) plasma adenosine concentration of samples hemolyzed in the presence of stopping solution alone or stopping solution plus EDTA. We observed that (i) greater than or equal to 95% of [ 3 H]adenosine added to plasma is removed from it by formed elements of the blood in less than 20 s, (ii) plasma adenosine concentration of samples obtained in stopping solution alone is generally 10-fold greater than that of matched samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA, (iii) deliberate mechanical hemolysis of blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone resulted in substantial augmentation of plasma adenosine levels in comparison with matched nonhemolyzed specimens--addition of EDTA to stopping solution prevented this, and (iv) adenosine content of blood samples obtained in PCA agreed closely with the sum of plasma and erythrocyte adenosine content of samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA

  20. Low plasma triiodothyronine concentrations and outcome in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, A; Rennie, J; Baker, B A; Morley, R

    1988-01-01

    A major association has been found between low plasma triiodothyronine concentrations in preterm neonates and their later developmental outcome. Plasma triiodothyronine concentration was measured longitudinally in 280 preterm infants below 1850 g birth weight. Babies whose lowest recorded concentration was less than 0.3 nmol/l had, at 18 months' corrected age, 8.3 and 7.4 point disadvantages in Bayley mental and motor scales and a 8.6 point disadvantage on the academic scale of Developmental Profile II, even after adjusting for a range of antenatal and neonatal factors known to influence later development. Low concentrations of triiodothyronine were strongly associated with infant mortality, but not after adjusting for the presence of respiratory illness. There was no association between plasma triiodothyronine concentrations and somatic growth up to 18 months, and no association with necrotising enterocolitis or later cerebral palsy. Data on postnatal changes in plasma triiodothyronine concentrations are presented for reference purposes. While cited reference ranges for plasma triiodothyronine concentration appear suitable for well infants above 1500 g birth weight, smaller or ill babies often have very low values for many weeks. Our data are relevant to the debate on endocrine 'replacement' treatment in premature babies. PMID:2461683

  1. Plasma concentrations of endothelin in patients with abnormal vascular reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predel, H.G.; Meyer-Lehnert, H.; Baecker, A.; Stelkens, H.; Kramer, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    We measured circulating concentrations of endothelin in healthy subjects and in patients with abnormal vascular reactivity. Endothelin concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay after extraction of plasma using Sep-Pak C-18 cartridges in healthy subjects, in patients with diabetes mellitus type I, in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension and in non-dialyzed patients with stable chronic renal failure. Plasma concentrations were similar in healthy controls, in diabetics and in hypertensive patients averaging 5.0±0.6 pg/ml, 4.7±0.2 pg/ml and 6.5±1.0 pg/ml, respectively. In contrast, plasma concentrations of endothelin were markedly elevated in patients with chronic renal failure averaging 16.6±2.9 pg/ml. No correlations were observed between serum creatinine concentrations ranging from 124 to 850 μmol/l or blood pressure and plasma concentrations of endothelin. Bicycle ergometric exercise in six healthy subjects and an acute modest i.v. saline load of 1,000 ml of 0.45% NaCl administered within 60 min in six patients with mild essential hypertension did not affect plasma concentrations of endothelin

  2. Altering plasma sodium concentration rapidly changes blood pressure during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-08-01

    Plasma sodium is increased following each meal containing salt. There is an increasing interest in the effects of plasma sodium concentration, and it has been suggested that it may have direct effects on blood pressure (BP) and possibly influences endothelial function. Experimental increases of plasma sodium concentration rapidly raise BP even when extracellular volume falls. Ten patients with end-stage renal failure established on haemodialysis were studied during the first 2 h of dialysis without fluid removal during this period. They were randomized to receive haemodialysis with (i) dialysate sodium concentration prescribed to 135 mmol/L and (ii) 145 mmol/L in random order in a prospective, single-blinded crossover study. BP measurements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. Pre-dialysis sitting BP was 137/76 ± 7/3 mmHg. Lower dialysate sodium concentration (135 mmol/L) reduced plasma sodium concentration [139.49 ± 0.67 to 135.94 ± 0.52 mmol/L (P area under the curve (AUC) 15823.50 ± 777.15 (mmHg)min] compared with 145 mmol/L [AUC 17018.20 ± 1102.17 (mmHg)min], mean difference 1194.70 ± 488.41 (mmHg)min, P < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between change in plasma sodium concentration and change in systolic BP. This direct relationship suggests that a fall of 1 mmol/L in plasma sodium concentration would be associated with a 1.7 mmHg reduction in systolic BP (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism for the increase in BP seen with salt intake may be through small but significant changes in plasma sodium concentration.

  3. Plasma concentration of ionized calcium in healthy iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, P M; Bennett, R A; Harr, K E; Lock, B A

    2001-08-01

    To measure plasma concentration of ionized calcium in healthy green iguanas. Prospective study. 9 juvenile and 21 (10 male, 11 female) adult iguanas. Blood samples were obtained from each iguana, and plasma calcium, glucose, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, potassium, and ionized calcium concentrations, aspartate transaminase (AST) activity, and pH were measured. Heparinized blood was used for measurement of ionized calcium concentration and blood pH. A CBC was also performed to assess the health of the iguanas. Significant differences were not detected among the 3 groups (juveniles, males, and females) with regard to ionized calcium concentration. Mean ionized calcium concentration measured in blood was 1.47 +/- 0.105 mmol/L. Significant differences were detected between juveniles and adults for values of phosphorus, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, and AST activity. Ionized calcium concentration provides a clinical measurement of the physiologically active calcium in circulation. Evaluation of physiologically active calcium in animals with suspected calcium imbalance that have total plasma calcium concentrations within reference range or in gravid animals with considerably increased total plasma calcium concentrations is vital for determining a therapeutic plan. Accurate evaluation of calcium status will provide assistance in the diagnosis of renal disease and seizures and allow for better evaluation of the health status of gravid female iguanas.

  4. effects of artemether on the plasma and urine concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Komolafe

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... degeneration of the renal tissue of rats, inability of the damaged kidneys to concentrate urine, which manifested as excessive water loss and electrolyte depletion. Key words: Artemether, electrolytes in plasma, urine concentrations, rats. INTRODUCTION. Artemether, one of the derivatives of artemisinin, is.

  5. Control of exogenous factors affecting plasma homovanillic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Giordani, A B; Mohs, R C; Mykytyn, V V; Platt, S; Aryan, Z S; Davis, K L

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations appear to be a valid research strategy in psychiatric disorders in which a central dopamine (DA) abnormality has been implicated. This study provides guidance about the control of some of the exogenous factors affecting pHVA concentrations. Fasting for 14 hours eliminates the dietary effects on pHVA in healthy human subjects. Changing position, walking for 30 minutes, or smoking two cigarettes has no effect on pHVA concentrations.

  6. Radioimmunoassay of plasma myoglobin concentrations in normal persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanov, S.; Milkov, V. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1982-01-01

    Plasma myoglobin concentrations by radioimmunoassay in 53 normal persons (29 women and 24 men) with ages ranging from 19 to 76 years. The average values for myoglobin concentrations in the plasma of 29 women, aged 19 to 76 years, are 4a.09 +- 4.51 ng/ml, while in 24 healthy men, aged 20 to 74 years, they are 54.39 +-4.68 ng/ml. The obtained results for the plasma myoglobin level in men are higher than the ones recorded in women at statistical significance p<0.05. In the group under study the plasma myoglobin values disclose also age-related differences, although lacking statistical significance (p>0.10).

  7. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in patients with liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Dejgaard, A; Clemmensen, I

    1983-01-01

    age- and sex-matched healthy controls in patients with chronic persistent or chronic active hepatitis (n = 7), primary biliary cirrhosis (n = 8), alcoholic fatty liver (n = 9), alcoholic hepatitis (n = 10), and alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 16). Patients with acute viral hepatitis (type A (n = 2); type B...... (n = 7); type non A, non B (n = 1] had significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentrations (median 506 mg/l (range 339-804] compared to controls (median 399 mg/l (range 304-462]. Morbidly obese patients with fatty liver (n = 11) had significantly (P less than 0.001) raised......Plasma, obtained just prior to diagnostic liver biopsy in 71 patients with various liver diseases, was examined by electroimmunoassay using immunoglobulin against human fibronectin and purified plasma fibronectin as standard. The plasma fibronectin concentration was not significantly different from...

  8. Development of concentric equipotential surfaces in bumpy torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, Keiichi; Iguchi, Harukazu; Fujiwara, Masami; Ikegami, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    Radial profiles of the plasma space potential are measured in Nagoya Bumpy Torus (NBT-1) by the use of a heavy ion beam probe. Asymmetric potential profiles owing to toroidal drift are observed in high pressure operation (C-mode). As the pressure is decreased, toroidal plasma is effectively heated (T-mode), poloidal precessional frequency overcomes the electron collision frequency and the equipotential surfaces becomes concentric inside the hot electron ring. (author)

  9. Effect of breed on plasma endothelin-1 concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K.; Lequarré, A.-S.; Ljungvall, I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined...... at 5 centers (2-4 breeds/center). METHODS: Prospective observational study. Circulating concentrations of ET-1 and cortisol, and renin activity, were measured using commercially available assays. Absence of organ-related or systemic disease was ensured by thorough clinical investigations, including...

  10. Fetal plasma erythropoietin concentration in severe growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, R J; Abbas, A; Melby, O; Ireland, R M; Nicolaides, K H

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether hypoxemia induces an increase in plasma erythropoietin concentration in human fetal life and, if so, whether this response stimulates fetal erythropoiesis. The plasma erythropoietin concentration in blood samples from 33 small-for-gestational-age fetuses at 26 to 38 weeks' gestation was measured. Measurements were compared with the reference range for gestation, and associations with PO2, pH, and erythroblast and erythrocyte counts were examined. The mean plasma erythropoietin concentration in the small-for-gestational-age fetuses was significantly increased, and the degree of increase was significantly associated both with fetal acidemia and, more strongly, with fetal erythroblastosis. Erythropoietin production in response to tissue hypoxia occurs from at least 26 weeks' gestation with measurable physiologic effects on erythropoiesis. Furthermore, more accurate assessment of tissue oxygenation may be obtained by measuring the erythroblast count rather than the blood pH.

  11. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  12. Sensor and instrumentation for progesterone detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2012-05-01

    The reported research work uses a real time and noninvasive method to detect progesterone hormone concentration in purified water using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (E.I.S.) technique. Planar capacitive sensor, consisting of inter-digitated microelectrodes, is designed and fabricated on silicon substrate using thin-film Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based semiconductor device fabrication technology. The sensor in conjunction with EIS is used to evaluate conductivity, permeability and dielectric properties of reproductive hormone progesterone and its concentration quantification in purified water. Impedance spectrums are obtained with various concentrations of the hormone in purified water by using an electric circuit in order to extract sample conductance. Relationship of sample conductance with progesterone concentration level is studied in this research work. The ability of E.I.S. to detect progesterone concentration is aimed to be used in dairy farming industry in order to obtain better reproductive performance of the dairy cattle. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Sensor and instrumentation for progesterone detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.; Mohd. Syaifudin, A. R.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Yu, Paklam; Al-Bahadly, Ibrahim H.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2012-01-01

    The reported research work uses a real time and noninvasive method to detect progesterone hormone concentration in purified water using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (E.I.S.) technique. Planar capacitive sensor, consisting of inter-digitated microelectrodes, is designed and fabricated on silicon substrate using thin-film Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based semiconductor device fabrication technology. The sensor in conjunction with EIS is used to evaluate conductivity, permeability and dielectric properties of reproductive hormone progesterone and its concentration quantification in purified water. Impedance spectrums are obtained with various concentrations of the hormone in purified water by using an electric circuit in order to extract sample conductance. Relationship of sample conductance with progesterone concentration level is studied in this research work. The ability of E.I.S. to detect progesterone concentration is aimed to be used in dairy farming industry in order to obtain better reproductive performance of the dairy cattle. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Assessing the usefulness of B-mode and colour Doppler sonography, and measurements of circulating progesterone concentrations for determining ovarian responses in superovulated ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mef; Ribeiro, I F; Rodriguez, Mgk; Maciel, G S; Fonseca, J F; Brandão, F Z; Bartlewski, P M

    2018-06-01

    The main goal of this study was to assess the usefulness of two imaging modalities, namely the B-mode and colour Doppler sonography, and serum progesterone (P 4 ) concentrations for determining the ovarian response in superovulated ewes. Twenty-four sexually mature Santa Inês ewes underwent the superovulatory treatment consisting of eight injections of porcine FSH (total dose of 200 or 133 or 100 mg; n = 8 ewes/total dose) given at 12-hr intervals and initiated 48 hr before CIDR ® (Pfizer Inc., Auckland, New Zealand) removal. Six days after natural mating, the ovaries of all donor ewes were visualized and examined with transrectal ultrasonography and then with videolaparoscopy to identify and enumerate corpora lutea (CL) and luteinized unovulated follicles (LUFs). Jugular blood samples were collected just prior to ovarian examinations. The total number of CL (r = .78 and 0.83, p ewes. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Determination of progesterone for reproduction control in cows using a 3H radioimmunoassay. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubert, H.; Barth, T.; Hempel, G.; Graeser, K.

    1984-01-01

    For verification of cow fertility a 3 H radioimmunoassay of progesterone in milk and blood plasma was developed. It is of high specificity and accuracy as well. Extraction of progesterone from milk was facilitated by application of alcohol. Suggested differences in milk and plasma progesterone levels between pregnant and nonpregnant cows could be revealed

  16. Plasma lipid peroxidation, blood GSH concentration and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in menstruating females with ovulatory and anovulatory cycles compared with males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lutosławska

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate plasma TBARS and blood GSH concentration and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in active, regularly menstruating female physical education students with ovulatory and anovulatory menstrual cycles and in their male counterparts. A total of 27 subjects (12 males and 15 females volunteered to participate in the study. All females were regularly menstruating with cycle length between 26-31 days. Plasma progesterone and 17-β-estradiol concentrations were assayed during the 7th-9th and 22nd-25th day of the menstrual cycle. Women with plasma progesterone concentration exceeding 19 nmol•l-1 during the 22nd-25th day were referred to as ovulatory (Group OV; n=7. Women without a peak plasma progesterone concentration were referred to as anovulatory (Group AN; n=8. Blood from male subjects was withdrawn twice - two weeks apart, at their convenience. It was found that the menstrual cycle phases did not affect plasma TBARS and blood glutathione concentration and erythrocyte GPX, CAT and SOD activity. However, erythrocyte GPX activity either in ovulatory or anovulatory women was by about 30% higher than in male subjects. Erythrocyte SOD activity in ovulatory women both in follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (1557 U/g Hb and 1394.6 U/g Hb, respectively was markedly lower than in men (1951.8 and 1937.7 U/g Hb for blood sampling I and II, respectively. In contrast, erythrocyte SOD activity in anovulatory women (1855.5 U/g Hb and 1745.7 U/g Hb in the follicular and luteal phases, respectively was similar to that found in men. The above data indicated that erythrocyte GPX and SOD activities are sensitive to plasma ovarian hormone concentration. In addition, they suggested that due to higher erythrocyte GPX activity females even with anovulatory menstrual cycles are protected better than males against hydrogen peroxide action. However, lower superoxide

  17. Plasma procalcitonin concentrations are increased in dogs with sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Milloway, Matthew; Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis, the life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is difficult to identify and to prognosticate for. In people with sepsis, procalcitonin (PCT) measurement aids diagnosis, enables therapeutic monitoring and improves prognostic accuracy. This study used a commercial canine PCT assay to measure plasma PCT concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) syndrome and in dogs with sepsis. It was hypothesised that dogs with GDV syndrome and with sepsis have greater plasma PCT concentrations than healthy dogs and that dogs with sepsis have greater PCT concentrations than dogs with GDV syndrome. Before analysing canine plasma samples, the ability of the assay to identify canine PCT, in addition to assay imprecision and the lower limit of detection were established. The assay had low imprecision with coefficients of variation ≤4.5 per cent. The lower limit of detection was 3.4 pg/ml. Plasma PCT concentrations were measured in 20 dogs with sepsis, in 32 dogs with GDV syndrome and in 52 healthy dogs. Median (IQR) PCT concentration in dogs with sepsis 78.7 pg/ml (39.1–164.7) was significantly greater than in healthy dogs 49.8 pg/ml (36.2–63.7) (P=0.019), but there were no significant differences between PCT concentrations in dogs with GDV syndrome and controls (P=0.072) or between dogs with sepsis and GDV syndrome (P=1.000). Dogs with sepsis have significantly increased plasma PCT concentrations compared with healthy dogs, although considerable overlap between these populations was identified. Future investigations should confirm this finding in other populations and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of PCT in dogs with sepsis. PMID:29682292

  18. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6± 8.9 and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men aged 22-60 years (39.8± 9.4. The patients’ alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6± 7.5. Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9± 151.5. Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0, 30th (T30 and 49th (T49 day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC and total (TC carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student’s t-test was used.Results: At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05 in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01 as well as AC (p < 0.001 were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05, whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05.Conclusions: Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine

  19. Choline concentrations are lower in postnatal plasma of preterm infants than in cord plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Raith, Marco; Kunze, Rebecca; Koch, Vera; Heni, Martin; Maas, Christoph; Abele, Harald; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2015-08-01

    Choline is essential to human development, particularly of the brain in the form of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and acetylcholine, for bile and lipoprotein formation, and as a methyl group donator. Choline is actively transported into the fetus, and maternal supply correlates with cognitive outcome. Interruption of placental supply may therefore impair choline homeostasis in preterm infants. Determination of postnatal plasma concentrations of choline and its derivatives betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) in preterm infants compared to cord and maternal blood matched for postmenstrual age (PMA). We collected plasma of very low-birth-weight infants undergoing neonatal intensive care (n = 162), cord plasma of term and preterm infants (n = 176, 24-42-week PMA), serum of parturients (n = 36), and plasma of healthy premenopausal women (n = 40). Target metabolites were analyzed with tandem mass spectrometry and reported as median (25th/75th percentiles). Cord plasma choline concentration was 41.4 (31.8-51.2) µmol/L and inversely correlated with PMA. In term but not in preterm infants, cord plasma choline was lower in girls than in boys. Prenatal glucocorticoid treatment did not affect choline levels in cord plasma, whereas betaine was decreased and DMG increased. In parturients and non-pregnant women, choline concentrations were 14.1 (10.3-16.9) and 8.8 (5.7-11.2) µmol/L, respectively, whereas betaine was lowest in parturients. After delivery, preterm infant plasma choline decreased to 20.8 (16.0-27.6) µmol/L within 48 h. Betaine and DMG correlated with plasma choline in all groups. In preterm infants, plasma choline decreases to 50 % of cord plasma concentrations, reflecting choline undernourishment and postnatal metabolic adaptation, and potentially contributing to impaired outcome.

  20. Measurement of plasma homovanillic acid concentrations in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, R; Powchick, P; Warne, P A; Goldstein, M; McQueeney, R T; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities of central dopaminergic transmission may be involved in the expression of some schizophrenic symptoms. However, elucidation of the role of dopamine (DA) in schizophrenia has eluded investigative efforts partially because no accurate and easily repeatable measure of brain DA activity exists. 2. The development of a technique to measure homovanillic acid in plasma has offered the possibility of performing serial measurements of this major DA metabolite. 3. Assuming that plasma homovanillic acid (PHVA) concentrations is an index of brain DA activity, measurement of PHVA can play a role in elucidating the DA abnormality in schizophrenia. 4. Results to date suggest that plasma homovanillic acid concentrations are lower in chronic schizophrenic patients compared to normal controls, and that PHVA values correlate with schizophrenic symptom severity. 5. In addition, PHVA levels were shown to initially rise and subsequently decline during chronic neuroleptic administration in treatment responsive but not in treatment refractory schizophrenic patients.

  1. Relationship between the concentrations of plasma phospholipid stearic acid and plasma lipoprotein lipids in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between the plasma phospholipid (PL) saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentration (as a surrogate marker of SFA intake) and plasma lipid and lipoprotein lipid concentrations in 139 healthy Australian men aged 20-55 years old with widely varying intakes of saturated fat (vegans, n=18; ovolacto vegetarians, n=43; moderate meat eaters, n=60; high meat eaters, n=18). Both the ovolacto vegetarian and vegan groups demonstrated significant decreases in plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triacylglycerol concentrations compared with both the high-meat-eater and moderate-meat-eater groups. Total SFA and individual SFA [palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0) and arachidic acid (20:0)] in the plasma PL were significantly lower in both the ovolacto vegetarian and vegan groups than in both the high- and moderate-meat-eater groups, while myristic acid (14:0) was significantly lower in the vegans than in the high-meat-eaters. Bivariate analysis of the results showed that the plasma PL stearic acid concentration was strongly positively correlated with plasma TC (P<0.0001), LDL-C (P<0.0001) and triacylglycerol (P<0.0001), with r(2) values of 0.655, 0.518 and 0.43 respectively. In multiple linear regression, after controlling for potential confounding factors (such as exercise, dietary group, age, body mass index, plasma PL myristic acid, palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and dietary total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrate and fibre intake), the plasma PL stearic acid concentration was still strongly positively correlated with plasma TC (P<0.0001) and LDL-C (P=0.006) concentrations. Based on the present data, it would seem appropriate for the population to reduce their dietary total SFA intake rather than to replace other SFA with stearic acid.

  2. Effect of intravenous injection of galanin on plasma concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... The goal of this study was to determine whether intravenously galanin injection effect on plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and milk production in the. Saanen goats. Fifteen Saanen goats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 3 in each group). Each.

  3. Effect of serotonin infusions on the mean plasma concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk samples were assayed for protein, fat and lactose constituents. The daily amounts of milk were determined throughout the experiment. Infusions of 1 ng 5HT did not change the plasma concentrations of the T3, T4 and GH throughout the experiment period. Infusions of 4 and 8 ng 5HT significantly (p<0.01) increased the ...

  4. Effect of ELISA kit manufacturing process and incubation time on progesterone concentration measured in dog serum for ovulation diagnosis - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuróczy, Julianna; Reiczigel, Jenő; Balogh, Lajos

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-two serum samples of healthy bitches were tested with the frozen and lyophilised version of the same ELISA kit (Quanticheck, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Budapest, Hungary). Samples were chosen on the basis of their progesterone (P4) concentrations, which were between 1.00 and 20.00 ng/mL. As it is well known, this range has the highest clinical relevance in ovulation diagnosis. Both types of microplates were read at 15-min intervals from the 15th until the 90th minute (min) of incubation, and the results were compared with those of frozen plates at 60 min of incubation as 100 percent. Lyophilised microplates gave on average 18 percent higher results than the frozen version at equal incubation times. The highest difference between lyophilised and frozen samples was observed at 45 and 60 min of incubation. Ninety-four percent of the reaction in the frozen microplate occurred in the first 15 min, and during the subsequent 30 min the reaction seemingly stopped. After the 45th min of incubation, this 94 percent increased to 108 percent in the subsequent 30 min, which remained the final approximate result at the end of the 90 min of incubation. In contrast to the frozen microplate, the measured concentration increased continuously in the lyophilised version and reached the highest level at the 60th min. The results of the lyophilised microplate reached the same level at 30 min of incubation as those of the frozen version at 60 min. In conclusion, a mechanical increase or decrease of the incubation time does not generate a linear change in the test results. This study demonstrated that the results of a series of samples collected from the same bitch cannot be compared if they are measured with different laboratory methods or different ELISA kits.

  5. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.; Boers, G.H.; Blom, H.J.; Broekhuizen, R.; Jong, de R.; Rijt, van L.; Katan, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Background: An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Objective: We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma

  6. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M. J.; Boers, G. H.; Blom, H. J.; Broekhuizen, R.; de Jong, R.; van Rijt, L.; de Ruijter, E.; Swinkels, D. W.; Nagengast, F. M.; Katan, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma homocysteine in a crossover

  7. Impact of gender and menstrual cycle phase on plasma cytokine concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is twice as high in females as in males. Depression is known to increase at periods where there are changes in gonadal hormones. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels during the normal menstrual cycle of healthy females compared to similar time points in healthy males. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in healthy females during the normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and also in males at similar time points. RESULTS: The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha compared to the early follicular phase. No change was observed in IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 concentration throughout the menstrual cycle. We found IL-4 positively correlated with oestrogen while TNF-alpha positively correlated with progesterone. Females were found to have significantly higher concentrations of TNF-alpha and sIL-6R across all phases of the menstrual cycle, compared to males across similar time points. CONCLUSION: The normal menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase. Females have significantly higher concentrations of sIL-6R and TNF-alpha at all time points across the menstrual cycle than males.

  8. Anticipation and consumption of food each increase the concentration of neuroactive steroids in rat brain and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Floris, Ivan; Maciocco, Elisabetta; Serra, Mariangela; Biggio, Giovanni

    2006-09-01

    Stressful stimuli and anxiogenic drugs increase the plasma and brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids. Moreover, in rats trained to consume their daily meal during a fixed period, the anticipation of food is associated with changes in the function of various neurotransmitter systems. We have now evaluated the effects of anticipation and consumption of food in such trained rats on the plasma and brain concentrations of 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG) and 3alpha,21-dihydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC), two potent endogenous positive modulators of type A receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The abundance of these neuroactive steroids was increased in both the cerebral cortex and plasma of the rats during both food anticipation and consumption. In contrast, the concentration of their precursor, progesterone, was increased in the brain only during food consumption, whereas it was increased in plasma only during food anticipation. Intraperitoneal administration of the selective agonist abecarnil (0.1 mg/kg) 40 min before food presentation prevented the increase in the brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG and 3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC during food anticipation but not that associated with consumption. The change in emotional state associated with food anticipation may thus result in an increase in the plasma and brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG and 3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC in a manner sensitive to the activation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated neurotransmission. A different mechanism, insensitive to activation of such transmission, may underlie the changes in the concentrations of these neuroactive steroids during food consumption.

  9. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  10. Progesterone increases nitric oxide synthesis in human vascular endothelial cells through activation of membrane progesterone receptor-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Progesterone exerts beneficial effects on the human cardiovascular system by inducing rapid increases in nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelial cells, but the receptors mediating these nongenomic progesterone actions remain unclear. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model, we show that progesterone binds to plasma membranes of HUVECs with the characteristics of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs). The selective mPR agonist Org OD 02-0 had high binding affinity for the progesterone receptor on HUVEC membranes, whereas nuclear PR (nPR) agonists R5020 and medroxyprogesterone acetate displayed low binding affinities. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses confirmed that mPRs are expressed in HUVECs and are localized on their plasma membranes. NO levels increased rapidly after treatment with 20 nM progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and a progesterone-BSA conjugate but not with R5020, suggesting that this progesterone action is at the cell surface and initiated through mPRs. Progesterone and Org OD 02-0 (20 nM) also significantly increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and eNOS phosphorylation. Knockdown of mPRα expression by treatment with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked the stimulatory effects of 20 nM progesterone on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of nPR was ineffective. Treatment with PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase inhibitors blocked the stimulatory effects of progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and progesterone-BSA on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and also prevented progesterone- and Org OD 02-0-induced increases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation. The results suggest that progesterone stimulation of NO production in HUVECs is mediated by mPRα and involves signaling through PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Laser system for measuring small changes in plasma tracer concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Galloway, R L; Roselli, R J

    1996-01-01

    The authors developed a laser-diode system that can be used for on-line optical concentration measurements in physiologic systems. Previous optical systems applied to whole blood have been hampered by artifacts introduced by red blood cells (RBCs). The system introduced here uses a commercially available filter cartridge to separate RBCs from plasma before plasma concentration measurements are made at a single wavelength. The filtering characteristics of the Cellco filter cartridge (#4007-10, German-town, MD) were adequate for use in the on-line measurement system. The response time of the filter cartridge was less than 40 seconds, and the sieving characteristics of the filter for macromolecules were excellent, with filtrate-to-plasma albumin ratios of 0.98 +/- 0.11 for studies in sheep and 0.94 +/- 0.15 for studies in dogs. The 635-nm laser diode system developed was shown to be more sensitive than the spectrophotometer used in previous studies (Klaesner et al., Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 1994; 22, 660-73). The new system was used to measure the product of filtration coefficient (Kfc) and reflection coefficient for albumin (delta f) in an isolated canine lung preparation. The delta fKfc values [mL/(cmH2O.min.100 g dry lung weight)] measured with the laser diode system (0.33 +/- 0.22) compared favorably with the delta fKfc obtained using a spectrophotometer (0.27 +/- 0.20) and with the Kfc obtained using the blood-corrected gravimetric method (0.32 +/- 0.23). Thus, this new optical system was shown to accurately measure plasma concentration changes in whole blood for physiologic levels of Kfc. The same system can be used with different optical tracers and different source wavelengths to make optical plasma concentration measurements for other physiologic applications.

  12. Hormone levels in peripheral plasma of the Afrikaner cow: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzer, W.A.; Van Niekerk, C.H.; Morgenthal, J.C.; Van der Westhuizen, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Concentration of progesterone and luteinizing hormone were determined in peripheral blood plasma during the oestrus cycle of three non-lactating Afrikaner cows. Blood samples were drawn daily during the luteal phase (Day 3-16) and every 8 hours from Day 17 to 2 days after oestrus. Progesterone was measured by radioimmunoassay and LH by a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Progesterone levels increased gradually from Day 3, reaching maximum values of 6,3-13,3 ng/ml on Day 16-17. A temporary decrease in the progesterone concentration was found between Day 11 and 14 of the cycle. Progesterone levels dropped from peak values to less than 1 ng/ml within 48 hours and were followed by oestrus 50,7 hours later. Progesterone concentrations were lowest at oestrus ( [af

  13. Use of refractometry for determination of psittacine plasma protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated both poor and good correlation of total protein concentrations in various avian species using refractometry and biuret methodologies. The purpose of the current study was to compare these 2 techniques of total protein determination using plasma samples from several psittacine species and to determine the effect of cholesterol and other solutes on refractometry results. Total protein concentration in heparinized plasma samples without visible lipemia was analyzed by refractometry and an automated biuret method on a dry reagent analyzer (Ortho 250). Cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid concentrations were measured using the same analyzer. Results were compared using Deming regression analysis, Bland-Altman bias plots, and Spearman's rank correlation. Correlation coefficients (r) for total protein results by refractometry and biuret methods were 0.49 in African grey parrots (n=28), 0.77 in Amazon parrots (20), 0.57 in cockatiels (20), 0.73 in cockatoos (36), 0.86 in conures (20), and 0.93 in macaws (38) (Prefractometry in Amazon parrots, conures, and macaws (n=25 each, PRefractometry can be used to accurately measure total protein concentration in nonlipemic plasma samples from some psittacine species. Method and species-specific reference intervals should be used in the interpretation of total protein values.

  14. Follicle vascularity coordinates corpus luteum blood flow and progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tarso, S G S; Gastal, G D A; Bashir, S T; Gastal, M O; Apgar, G A; Gastal, E L

    2017-03-01

    Colour Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare the ability of preovulatory follicle (POF) blood flow and its dimensions to predict the size, blood flow and progesterone production capability of the subsequent corpus luteum (CL). Cows (n=30) were submitted to a synchronisation protocol. Follicles ≥7mm were measured and follicular wall blood flow evaluated every 12h for approximately 3.5 days until ovulation. After ovulation, cows were scanned daily for 8 days and similar parameters were evaluated for the CL. Blood samples were collected and plasma progesterone concentrations quantified. All parameters were positively correlated. Correlation values ranged from 0.26 to 0.74 on data normalised to ovulation and from 0.31 to 0.74 on data normalised to maximum values. Correlations between calculated ratios of both POF and CL in data normalised to ovulation and to maximum values ranged from moderate (0.57) to strong (0.87). Significant (Pprogesterone concentrations of the resultant CL. These findings indicate that follicle vascularity coordinates CL blood flow and progesterone production in synchronised beef cows.

  15. Plasma intermedin concentration in patients with chronic heart faliure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaohua; Du Xingbang; Zhu Yunhe; Luo Lei; Zhao Changjun; Liu Yongfeng; Ren Liangping; Ren Yongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of determination of changes of plasma levels of intermedin (IMD), BNP and CRP in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods: Plasma IMD, BNP (with RIA) and CRP (with immuno-turbidity) levels were determined in 46 patients with chronic heart failure of various grades (grade I-II n=31, grade III-IV, n=15) and 42 normal controls. Results: Compared with the control group,the plasma IMD level in patients with chronic heart failure was decreased 53.2% (P<0.01), the BNP and CRP were increased 1658.5% and 80.5% respectively (each P<0.001). Compared with the grade I-II group, the plasma IMD level in grade III-IV was decreased 34.7% (P<0.05), the BNP and CRP levels in grade III-IV were increased 257.8% and 76% (all P<0.001) individually. Conclusion: Plasma intermedin concentration was significantly decreased in patients with chronic heart failure, which suggests that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure. (authors)

  16. Effect of pregnancy on plasma phenobarbital concentrations in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Masahiro; Domoto, Haruyo; Yamashita, Syoichi; Furuno, Katsushi; Oishi, Ryozo; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Gomita, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital before and during pregnancy in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: (a) control, (b) pregnant, (c) phenobarbital-treated, and (d) phenobarbital-treated pregnant groups. The increase in body weight of nonpregnant or pregnant rats was not influenced by long-term phenobarbital treatment. Plasma phenobarbital concentrations during the period of long-term phenobarbital treatment with a fixed dosage by body weight were not significantly affe...

  17. Elevated circulating plasma endothelin-1 concentrations in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Emmeluth, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1993-01-01

    veins on the one hand and the femoral artery on the other (P > 0.1), indicating no major net elimination or release in the liver, kidney or lower limb. A significant negative correlation was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressures on the one hand and circulating ET-1 on the other (r = -0.......70, P vein catheterization (n = 8), no significant differences were found in ET-1 plasma concentration between the liver, renal, or femoral...

  18. Plasma galanin concentrations in obese, normal weight and anorectic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invitti, C; Brunani, A; Pasqualinotto, L; Dubini, A; Bendinelli, P; Maroni, P; Cavagnini, F

    1995-05-01

    Galanin is believed to play a role in the control of eating behavior. No information is available on its concentrations in the biological fluids in human obesity, and this study aimed to clarify this. We measured plasma galanin and serum insulin levels in 30 obese, 35 normal weight and 11 anorectic women. Mean galanin values were quite similar in obese and control subjects (76.8 +/- 3.20 vs 76.1 +/- 2.33 pg/ml) and only slightly reduced in anorectic patients (67.9 +/- 2.30 pg/ml). Insulin levels were significantly increased and decreased in obese and anorectic patients, respectively, compared to controls. Insulin correlated positively with BMI in the whole group of subjects studied (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001) and in the obese subgroup (r = 0.56, P < 0.02). No correlations could be detected between WH ratio, insulin and galanin concentrations and between galanin and BMI. In conclusion, plasma galanin concentrations appear to be comparable in obese, normal weight and anorectic subjects. This does not exclude a role of galanin in the regulation of eating behavior since variations of the peptide in discrete brain areas may not be detectable in general circulation and peripheral sources of the peptide may contribute to its plasma levels. Also, our data suggest that galanin does not play a major role in the regulation of insulin secretion in humans.

  19. Three-step in vitro maturation culture of bovine oocytes imitating temporal changes of estradiol-17β and progesterone concentrations in preovulatory follicular fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matsuo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to evaluate the effect of three-step in vitro maturation (IVM culture system imitating estradiol-17β (E2 and progesterone (P4 concentrations in preovulatory follicles on in vitro bovine embryo production. The cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs were collected from follicles (2 to 8 mm in diameter of bovine ovaries obtained from a local slaughterhouse. For IVM, the COCs were cultured for 22 h in a three-step system: (1 culture in medium 199, containing 700 ng mL−1 E2 and 50 ng mL−1 P4, for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 E2 and 150 ng mL−1 P4 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 20 ng mL−1 E2 and 300 ng mL−1 P4 for 6 h (EP group; (2 culture in the medium containing 700 ng mL−1 E2 for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 E2 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 20 ng mL−1 E2 for 6 h (E group; or (3 culture in the medium containing 50 ng mL−1 P4 for 5 h, followed by the medium containing 150 ng mL−1 P4 for 11 h, and then the medium containing 300 ng mL−1 P4 for 6 h (P group. The COCs were cultured in the medium containing 1000 ng mL−1 E2 for 22 h (control group. After IVM, the COCs were co-incubated with sperm and further cultured. At 48 h after insemination, the cleavage rate of embryos was not different among the groups. At 192 h after insemination, the blastocyst formation rate of EP group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The total cell number of blastocysts did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the three-step IVM culture system of bovine oocytes imitating temporal changes of E2 and P4 concentrations in preovulatory follicular fluid improves the developmental potential of embryos in vitro.

  20. Use of radioimmunoassay for quantitative determination of progesterone in milk samples from dairy cows in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymark, P.J.; McCabe, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    A maximum 90-day service interval is an important economic factor in dairying. The determination of pregnancy at 21 to 26 days post-insemination can ensure that particular attention is paid to non-pregnant cows at subsequent heats, and thus help reduce this interval. In Zimbabwe a radioimmunoassay for milk progesterone using an iodinated tracer was developed in 1982 from a previously established assay for plasma progesterone. Progesterone antiserum is produced locally and the assay is used as an early pregnancy diagnosis test in dairy cattle. During 1983 two pilot schemes were instituted to investigate breed differences, logistics, and feasibility under the local conditions, and to identify constraints. Milk samples taken 24 days post-insemination were found to differentiate best between pregnant and non-pregnant cows for both major breeds in the country (Friesian/Holstein and Jersey). Pregnant cows had an average of 13.76 ng/mL (+-1.06) progesterone on day 24 while non-pregnant cows averaged 0.34 ng/mL (+-0.13) of progesterone. Apparently 12.2% of cows subsequently lost their embryos after day 24, and these cows averaged 9.98 ng/mL (+-1.52). Milk samples were also taken on the day of insemination; the results showed that 11% of cows were incorrectly inseminated when progesterone concentrations were high (2.59 ng/mL+-0.80). A National Early Pregnancy Diagnosis Scheme using milk progesterone was implemented in December 1984 and results to date are discussed in the paper. (author)

  1. Concentração sérica de progesterona em bezerras da raça nelore e mestiças tratadas com progesterona em veículo de liberação lenta Serum progesterone concentration in Nelore and crossbreed heifers treated with long-acting progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P.C. Lima

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a eliminação da progesterona em veículo de liberação lenta (P4LA em animais zebus e mestiços e sua potencial aplicabilidade em programas de sincronização de estro, utilizando-se 60 bezerras, 30 da raça Nelore e 30 mestiças (Gir x Holandês, entre 120 e 150 dias de idade e peso médio de 150kg. Em cada grupo experimental as bezerras foram divididas em três subgrupos (G de 10 animais, sendo GI = controle (tratado com 5ml de solução fisiológica por via intramuscular; GII = tratado com 450mg P4LA (3ml IM; e GIII = tratado com 750mg P4LA (5ml IM. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas no dia zero, 7 e 13 (D0, D7 e D13 e procedeu-se à análise hormonal por radioimunoensaio de fase sólida. A progesterona de ação prolongada (P4LA, administrada por via intramuscular, manteve-se por 13 dias na corrente sangüínea em concentrações superiores a 1ng/ml. As doses de 450mg e 750mg de P4LA não ocasionaram efeitos adversos sistêmicos clinicamente perceptíveis, e o metabolismo da P4LA foi mais lento nas bezerras Nelore, cuja concentração de progesterona foi maior na corrente sangüínea do que nas bezerras mestiças.The clearance of long-acting progesterone in microspheres (P4LA in zebu animals and its potential for use in estrus synchronization were evaluated using 30 Nelore and 30 crossbreed (Holstein x zebu heifers, with aging between 120 to 150-day-old and weighting 150kg in average. For each breed the animals were divided into three groups of ten animals each, GI= control group treated with saline; GII= treated with 450mg of P4LA; and GIII= treated with 750mg of long-acting progesterone (P4LA. Blood samples were colleted on days 0, 7 and 13 and analysed for progesterone using radioimmunoassay in solid phase. The serum concentration of progesterone was different on days 0, 7 and 13 in relation to the dose of P4LA given. All treated animals presented basal values for progesterone on day 0, increased on day 7 and decreased on

  2. Plasma D-dimer concentration in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagnana Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue characterized by widespread vascular lesions and fibrosis. Little is known so far on the activation of the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems in SSc, and most preliminary evidences are discordant. Methods To verify whether SSc patients might display a prothrombotic condition, plasma D-dimer was assessed in 28 consecutive SSc patients and in 33 control subjects, matched for age, sex and environmental habit. Results and discussion When compared to healthy controls, geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (IC95% of plasma D-dimer were significantly increased in SSc patients (362 ng/mL, IC 95%: 361–363 ng/mL vs 229 ng/mL, IC95%: 228–231 ng/mL, p = 0.005. After stratifying SSc patients according to disease subset, no significant differences were observed between those with limited cutaneous pattern and controls, whereas patients with diffuse cutaneous pattern displayed substantially increased values. No correlation was found between plasma D-dimer concentration and age, sex, autoantibody pattern, serum creatinine, erythrosedimentation rate, nailfold videocapillaroscopic pattern and pulmonary involvement. Conclusion We demonstrated that SSc patients with diffuse subset are characterized by increased plasma D-dimer values, reflecting a potential activation of both the hemostatic and fibrinolytic cascades, which might finally predispose these patients to thrombotic complications.

  3. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  4. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  5. Endostatin concentration in plasma of healthy human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.; Malik, M.O.; Khan, M.J.; Fatima, S.; Habib, S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in many cardiovascular and cancerous diseases, including atherosclerosis and is controlled by a fine balance between angiogenic and angiostatic mediators. Endostatin is one of the main angiostatic mediators, and inhibits angiogenesis and prevents progression of atherosclerosis. The available literature shows a broad range of concentrations in relatively small samples of healthy controls and is calculated by using different techniques. This study was aimed to determine the basal endostatin concentration in plasma of healthy volunteers, to fully understand its physiological role. Methods: Fifty healthy adult volunteers were recruited to the study. Participants were advised not to participate in any physical activity on the day before the blood sampling. The volunteers' physical activity, height, weight, heart rate and blood pressure were recorded. The samples were analysed for plasma endostatin concentration, using ELISA. The participants were divided by gender and ethnic groups to calculate any difference. Results: Endostatin and other variables were normally distributed. Most of the participants had a moderate level of physical activity with no gender related difference (p=0.370). The mean value for plasma endostatin in all samples was 105+-12 ng/ml with range of 81-132 ng/ml. For males, it was 107+-13 ng/ml, while for females; 102+-12 ng/ml. There were no significant gender or ethnicity related differences in endostatin concentration. Moreover, endostatin was not significantly related with any anthropometric and physical variable. Conclusion: This study gives endostatin levels in normal healthy people and show no gender and ethnicity related differences in endostatin levels. Endostatin was not related with any anthropometric and physical variable. (author)

  6. Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, Olive; Lethaby, Anne; Roberts, Helen; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About 5% of women experience severe symptoms called premenstrual syndrome (PMS), only in the two weeks before their menstrual periods. Treatment with progesterone may restore a deficiency, balance menstrual hormone levels or reduce effects of falling progesterone levels on the brain or

  7. Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, Olive; Lethaby, Anne; Roberts, Helen; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2012-01-01

    Background About 5% of women experience severe symptoms called premenstrual syndrome (PMS), only in the two weeks before their menstrual periods. Treatment with progesterone may restore a deficiency, balance menstrual hormone levels or reduce effects of falling progesterone levels on the brain or on

  8. Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, S; Mol, JA; Boer, P; Boer, WH; Runberk, A

    2003-01-01

    The mean (se) basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower in 31 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) (75 [9] pmol/litre) than in 12 healthy dogs (118 [14] pmol/litre), whereas in five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumour they were

  9. Plasma bupivacaine concentrations following orbital injections in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Pypendop, Bruno H; Newbold, Georgina; Pascoe, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    To determine plasma bupivacaine concentrations after retrobulbar or peribulbar injection of bupivacaine in cats. Randomized, crossover, experimental trial with a 2 week washout period. Six adult healthy cats, aged 1-2 years, weighing 4.6 ± 0.7 kg. Cats were sedated by intramuscular injection of dexmedetomidine (36-56 μg kg -1 ) and were administered a retrobulbar injection of bupivacaine (0.75 mL, 0.5%; 3.75 mg) and iopamidol (0.25 mL), or a peribulbar injection of bupivacaine (1.5 mL, 0.5%; 7.5 mg), iopamidol (0.5 mL) and 0.9% saline (1 mL) via a dorsomedial approach. Blood (2 mL) was collected before and at 5, 10, 15, 22, 30, 45, 60, 120, 240 and 480 minutes after bupivacaine injection. Atipamezole was administered approximately 30 minutes after bupivacaine injection. Plasma bupivacaine and 3-hydroxybupivacaine concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bupivacaine maximum plasma concentration (C max ) and time to C max (T max ) were determined from the data. The bupivacaine median (range) C max and T max were 1.4 (0.9-2.5) μg mL -1 and 17 (4-60) minutes, and 1.7 (1.0-2.4) μg mL -1 , and 28 (8-49) minutes, for retrobulbar and peribulbar injections, respectively. In both treatments the 3-hydroxybupivacaine peak concentration was 0.05-0.21 μg mL -1 . In healthy cats, at doses up to 2 mg kg -1 , bupivacaine peak plasma concentrations were approximately half that reported to cause arrhythmias or convulsive electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in cats, and about one-sixth of that required to produce hypotension. Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women...... with endometriosis fail to downregulate genes needed for decidualization, such as those involved in cell cycle regulation, leading to unbridled proliferation. Several causes of progesterone resistance in the endometrium have been postulated, including congenital "preconditioning", whereby the in utero environment...... renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone resistant state...

  11. 1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol inhibits progesterone production through the expression of steroidogenic enzymes and cAMP concentration in Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianxia; Bai, Shun; Bai, Weibin; Zou, Feiyan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Guoqiang; Hu, Yunfeng; Li, Mingwei; Yan, Rian; Su, Zhijian; Huang, Yadong

    2014-07-01

    1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) is a well-known food processing contaminant that has been shown to impede male reproductive function. However, its mechanism of action remains elusive. In this study, the effects of 1,3-DCP on progesterone production were investigated using the R2C Leydig cell model. 1,3-DCP significantly reduced cell viability from 7.48% to 97.4% at doses comprised between 0.5 and 6mM. Single cell gel/comet assays and atomic force microscopy assays showed that 1,3-DCP induced early phase cell apoptosis. In addition, 1,3-DCP significantly reduced progesterone production detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results from quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were significantly down-regulated in R2C cells. Particularly, the change rhythm of Star expression was highly consistent with progesterone production. Furthermore, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the mitochondrial membrane potential mediated by ROS, which are involved in regulating progesterone synthesis were also decreased in response to the 1,3-DCP treatment. Overall, the data presented here suggested that 1,3-DCP interferes with the male steroidogenic capacity mainly by down-regulating the level of cAMP and the key enzymes involved in the androgen synthesis pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma digoxin concentrations and urinary excretion during a 'simpler' regimen of infant digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M O; Hibble, A G; Pickering, D

    1975-01-01

    We have measured the plasma concentrations in sick neonates and infants being administered digoxin by a safer regimen. In the presence of normal renal function the plasma concentrations appear to be satisfactory. PMID:1103751

  13. Comparison of 2 protocols to increase circulating progesterone concentration before timed artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows with or without elevated body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Guida, T G; Lopes, F R; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-10-01

    Two treatments designed to increase circulating progesterone concentration (P4) during preovulatory follicle development were compared. One treatment used 2 intravaginal P4 implants (controlled internal drug-releasing inserts; CIDR) and the other used a GnRH treatment at beginning of the protocol. Lactating Holstein cows that had been diagnosed as nonpregnant were randomly assigned to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) following 1 of 2 treatments (n = 1,638 breedings): (1) GnRH: CIDR+ 2 mg of estradiol (E2) benzoate + 100 µg of GnRH on d -11, PGF 2α on d -4, CIDR withdrawal + 1.0 mg of E2-cypionate + PGF 2α ) on d -2, and TAI on d 0; or (2) 2CIDR: 2 CIDR + 2 mg of E2-benzoate on d -11, 1 CIDR withdrawn + PGF 2α on d -4, second CIDR withdrawn + 1.0 mg of E2-cypionate + PGF 2α on d -2, and TAI on d 0. Milk yield was measured daily between d 0 and d 7. Rectal temperature was measured using a digital thermometer at d 0 and 7, and elevated body temperature was defined as an average rectal temperature ≥39.1°C. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 32 and 60 after TAI. We detected no effect of treatments on pregnancy per AI or pregnancy loss regardless of elevated body temperature, body condition score, parity, milk yield, or presence or absence of a corpus luteum (CL) on d -11 or d -4. Pregnancy per AI at 60 d was reduced [elevated body temperature = 22.8% (162/709), no elevated body temperature 34.1% (279/817)] and pregnancy loss tended to increase [elevated body temperature = 20.2% (41/203), no elevated body temperature 14.4% (47/326)] in cows with elevated body temperature. Various physiological measurements associated with greater fertility were also reduced in cows with elevated body temperature, such as percentage of cows with a CL at PGF 2α (decreased 7.9%), ovulatory follicle diameter (decreased 0.51 mm), expression of estrus (decreased 5.1%), and ovulation near TAI (decreased 2.8%) compared with cows without elevated body temperature. A

  14. Abnormal regulation for progesterone production in placenta with prenatal cocaine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Yan, J; Qu, S C; Feng, Y Q; Jiang, X L

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine abuse in pregnant women is currently a significant public hygiene problem and is tightly associated with elevated risk for preterm delivery. Placental steroidogenesis especially progesterone production was essential for success and maintenance of pregnancy in humans and rodents. In the present study, we determined the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on pathways of placental progesterone synthesis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated cocaine twice daily (15 mg/kg/day) during the third trimester, and the maternal and fetal plasma progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations were detected. We also examined both the protein and mRNA expression of some key enzymes and regulators for progesterone production in placenta. Results showed that, after maternal cocaine use during pregnancy, progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations in both maternal and fetal rats were significantly decreased. Although prenatal cocaine exposure had no effects on placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) expression, protein and mRNA expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11a) in placenta was significantly inhibited. Moreover, protein and mRNA expressions of MLN64 that regulating cholesterol transport and activating protein 2γ (AP2γ/Tfap2c) that controlling P450scc/CYP11a gene expression in placenta were both decreased following maternal cocaine use in pregnancy. Collectively, this study suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure could insult the placental progesterone production in rats possibly associated with the high risk for preterm delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perfil hormonal de Progesterona durante o ciclo Estral em novilhas Nelore confinadas com Diferentes Ondas de Crescimento Folicular Plasma Progesterone Level during the Estrous Cycle in Nelore Heifers Confined with Two, Three and Four Waves of Follicular Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Lomas Santiago

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Efetuaram-se coletas diárias de sangue, de 16 novilhas Nelore confinadas, para análise de progesterona plasmática pelo método de radioimunoensaio (RIA. Os dias analisados para progesterona foram o dia zero (estro e a cada três dias até o dia -1 e o dia zero. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: 1 com ciclo estral de 21 dias aproximadamente (novilhas que apresentaram duas e três ondas de crescimento folicular e 2 com ciclo estral superior a 25 dias (novilhas com quatro ondas de crescimento folicular. As concentrações médias de progesterona plasmática dos animais durante o ciclo estral diferiram entre os dois grupos, sendo superiores (4,27 ng/mL para os ciclos de maior duração. A concentração média de progesterona no ciclo de aproximadamente 21 dias foi de 2,54 ng/mL. Os resultados sugerem que as novilhas que apresentam maior duração do ciclo estral necessitam de tempo adicional para que seus folículos cheguem ao estádio pré-ovulatório, havendo, dessa maneira, prolongamento e aumento da secreção de progesterona.Blood were collected daily from 16 Nelore heifers confined, for radioimmunoassay (RIA.analyses of progesterone The plasma progesterone assay were at day zero (estrus and at each three days until the -1 and the day zero.again The animals were divided in two groups: 1 with regular estrous cycle of 21 days (heifers with two and three follicular growth waves and 2 with prolonged estrous cycle, greater than 25 days (heifers with four follicular growth waves. The mean plasma progesterone level from the animals during the estrous cycle differed between the two groups, being greater (4,27 ng/mL for the extended cycles.(above 25 days; 4,27 ng/mL than for the regular estrous cycle (21 days; 2,54 ng/mL. Results suggest that those heifers which showed an extended estrous cycles, needs an additional time for the follicles to each the pre-ovulatory stadium, resulting in prolonged and increased progesterone secretion.

  16. New RIA kit for determination of progesterone in cow milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byszewska-Szpocinska, E.; Markiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The determination of progesterone concentration in whole and fat-free milk 19-24 days after conception enables to distinguish fertile and non-fertile insemination, which is important in cattle breeding. The aim of this work was to develop a simple and quick radioimmunoassay test for the determination of progesterone in cow milk. Two types of solid-phase tubes coated with specific polyclonal anti-progesterone antibody from ORION Diagnostica and BIOSOURCE International, two different progesterone derivatives viz. progesterone-3- carboxymethyl oxime (CMO) and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate (HS) conjugated to 125 I-histamine and the HPLC system with Lichrospher RP-18 column along with 65% acetonitrile/water as eluent to purify the tracers were used to carry out this work. Progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 13.2 min and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 7.8 min. Two kinds of kits (kit I and kit II) were prepared, first with progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit of ORION Diagnostica and the second with progesterone-11αHS- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit from BIOSOURCE International. Progesterone from Sigma and selected fat-free cow's milk without progesterone as zero progesterone milk matrix were used for standard preparation. The optimal assay procedure was as follows: 50μL standards, controls and fat-free milk samples were pipetted into coated tubes followed by addition of 500μL of diluted tracer. The tubes were incubated for 2h in case of kit I and 3h for kit II at RT. After the incubation, the tubes were decanted and counted. The assay range was 0 to 270 nmol/L for kit I and 0 to 300 nmol/L for kit II. The sensitivity of the kit with ORION coated tubes was better (0.8 nmol/L) than that of BIOSOURCE tubes which was 1.5 nmol/L. Validation of these assays in terms of specificity, accuracy

  17. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in t...

  18. Elevated progesterone during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azemi, M; Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, E M

    2012-01-01

    of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of the follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials should document the cause and origin...... phase in ovarian stimulation. The databases of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials...

  19. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Murat; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring. Thirty-two rats and their forty newborn offspring were divided into the following four groups according to the type of EMR exposure they were subjected to: the control, 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz groups. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during the pregnancy and growth periods. The pregnant rats were allowed to stand for four generations (total 52 weeks) before, plasma and uterine samples were obtained. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, plasma and uterine samples were also obtained from the developing rats. Although uterine lipid peroxidation increased in the EMR groups, uterine glutathione peroxidase activity (4th and 5th weeks) and plasma prolactin levels (6th week) in developing rats decreased in these groups. In the maternal rats, the plasma prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels decreased in the EMR groups, while the plasma total oxidant status, and body temperatures increased. There were no changes in the levels of reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, or vitamins A, C, and E in the uterine and plasma samples of maternal rats. In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and

  20. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in human saliva during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luisi, M.; Franchi, F.; Kicovic, P.M.; Silvestri, D.; Cossu, G.; Catarsi, A.L.; Barletta, D.; Gasperi, M. (Pisa Univ. (Italy))

    1981-10-01

    A sensitive, specific and accurate radioimmunoassay of progesterone in human saliva is described, using /sup 3/H. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.2 and 9.4%, respectively. The mean recovery from 60 samples was 93.2 +- 6.3%. Results obtained from nine healthy, normally menstruating women showed that salivary progesterone rose from the 4th day before ovulation to a mean peak (+- SD) of 1.14 +- 0.17 ng/ml on the 8th day after ovulation, followed by a gradual decline. Correlation of salivary and simultaneously obtained plasma progesterone levels was good (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), although the maximum percent increase in salivary progesterone was more than 10 times greater than that of plasma progesterone. Salivary progesterone is thought to reflect the unbound fraction of plasma progesterone and this non-invasive technique can be used for serial investigations in which frequent samplings are required.

  1. Energy conversion and concentration in a high-current gaseous discharge: Dense plasma spheromak in plasma focus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, A.B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.; Terentiev, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which verify the possibility of the self-generated transformation of the magnetic field in plasma focus discharges to give a closed, spheromak-like magnetic configuration (SLMC). The energy conversion mechanism suggests a possibility of further concentrating the plasma power density by means of natural compressing the SLMC-trapped plasma by the residual magnetic field of the plasma focus discharge

  2. Use of antibiotics is associated with lower enterolactone plasma concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Kyrø, Cecilie; Nørskov, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    Scope High enterolactone levels may have health benefits in relation to risk of noncommunicable diseases. Enterolactone is produced by the colonic microbiota after intake of lignans and treatment with antimicrobials may result in altered enterolactone production. This study investigates the assoc......Scope High enterolactone levels may have health benefits in relation to risk of noncommunicable diseases. Enterolactone is produced by the colonic microbiota after intake of lignans and treatment with antimicrobials may result in altered enterolactone production. This study investigates...... the association between antibiotic use and enterolactone concentration. Methods and results Using LC–MS/MS, enterolactone concentrations were quantified in plasma samples from 2237 participants from the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. The participants were healthy at enrollment, but were later diagnosed...... with cancer. At enrollment, participants had blood drawn and completed a food frequency questionnaire and lifestyle questionnaire. Antibiotic use was assessed as reimbursed antibiotic prescriptions up to 12 months before enrollment. Antibiotic use ≤3 months before enrollment was associated with a 41% (Δcrude...

  3. Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in prevalent patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirover, William D; Liu, Yuguan; Logan, Amanda; Hunter, Krystal; Benz, Robert L; Prasad, Deepali; Avila, Jose; Venkatchalam, Thaliga; Weisberg, Lawrence S; Handelman, Garry J

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of vitamin C (ascorbic acid [AA]) deficiency in patients with end-stage renal disease, the effect of supplemental AA on plasma AA concentrations, and the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect plasma AA concentrations in this patient population. In study 1, we compared the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on plasma AA concentrations between patients with low and high pre-HD AA concentrations. In study 2, we analyzed kinetic and nonkinetic factors for their association with increased plasma AA concentrations in patients on maintenance HD. Study 1 was performed in a single outpatient HD clinic in Cherry Hill, New Jersey. Study 2 was performed in 4 outpatient HD clinics in Southern New Jersey. In study 1, we collected plasma samples from 8 adult patients on maintenance HD at various time points around their HD treatment and assayed them for AA concentration. In study 2, we enrolled 203 adult patients and measured pre-HD plasma AA concentrations. We ascertained supplemental AA use and assessed dietary AA intake. In study 1, plasma AA concentrations were compared during the intradialytic and interdialytic period. In study 2, pre-HD plasma AA concentrations were correlated with supplement use and demographic factors. Study 1 showed that over the course of a single HD treatment, the plasma AA concentration decreased by a mean (±standard deviation) of 60% (±6.6). In study 2, the median pre-HD plasma AA concentration was 15.7 μM (interquartile range, 8.7-66.8) in patients who did not take a supplement and 50.6 μM (interquartile range, 25.1-88.8) in patients who did take a supplement (P HD plasma AA concentration ≥30 μM. HD depletes plasma AA concentrations, and AA supplementation allows patients to achieve higher plasma AA concentrations. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of TPP-crosslinked chitosan microparticles by spray drying for the controlled delivery of progesterone intended for estrus synchronization in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, Ignacio M; Busatto, Carlos A; Fioramonti, Silvana A; Pesoa, Juan I; Santiago, Liliana; Estenoz, Diana A; Luna, Julio A

    2018-02-20

    Planned reproduction in cattle involves regulation of estrous cycle and the use of artificial insemination. Cycle control includes the administration of exogenous progesterone during 5-8 days in a controlled manner allowing females to synchronize their ovulation. Several progesterone delivery systems are commercially available but they have several drawbacks. The aim of the present contribution was to evaluate chitosan microparticles entrapping progesterone as an alternative system. Microparticles were prepared by spray drying. The effect of formulation parameters and experimental conditions on particle features and delivery was studied. A mathematical model to predict progesterone plasma concentration in animals was developed and validated with experimental data. Microparticle size was not affected by formulation parameters but sphericity enhances as Tween 80 content increases and it impairs as TPP content rises. Z potential decreases as phosphate content rises. Particles remain stable in acidic solution but the addition of surfactant is required to stabilize dispersions in neutral medium. Encapsulation efficiencies was 69-75%. In vitro delivery studies showed burst and diffusion-controlled phases, being progesterone released faster at low pH. In addition, delivery extend in cows was affected mainly by particle size and hormone initial content, while the amount injected altered plasma concentration. Theoretical predictions with excellent accuracy were obtained. The mathematical model developed can help to find proper particle features to reach specific delivery rates in the animals. This not only save time, money and effort but also minimized experimentation with animals which is desired from an ethical point of view.

  5. Milk progesterone on day 5 following insemination in the dairy cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the importance of progesterone on the fertility of lactating dairy cows, the factors that affect post ovulatory progesterone concentration are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the post ovulatory progesterone rise following 1st insemination in lactating dairy cows.

  6. Changes in uptake of 3H-progesterone by female rat brain and pituitary from birth to sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presl, J.; Figarova, V.; Herzmann, J.; Roehling, S.

    1975-01-01

    3 H-progesterone uptake by various parts of the brain, pituitary and skeletal muscle was compared in newborn, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25-and 50-day-old female rats at 1 hr after a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 μCi/100 g body weight. High uptake values in newborn animals and in those aged 5 days were found in all tissues investigated. A sharp decrease in accumulation was observed from birth and/or 5th day of life. The uptake by the pituitary was higher than those by other tissues investigated. The ratio of radioactivity concentration between the tissues and the cerebellar cortex increased significantly only in the posterior hypothalamus of adult females (at the age of 50 days). In the pituitary the ratio tissue/cortex was already significantly higher in newborns. The high level of brain radioactivity in the youngest animals probably was a manifestation of high plasma concentrations of the tritiated progesterone. The striking decrease in the uptake of radioactivity by the brain and pituitary during the first two weeks of life most likely reflected a decreased level of plasma radioactivity, as shown indirectly by the concomitant decrease in the labelled progesterone uptake by the skeletal muscle. The increase in the tissue/cortex ratio in the posterior hypothalamus with the attainment of sexual maturity suggested the first appearance of a specific binding capacity for the progesterone which is present in the pituitary since birth. (author) assumed to be

  7. Subjective satiety and plasma PYY concentration after wholemeal pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Giuseppina; Griffo, Ettore; Cipriano, Paola; Vetrani, Claudia; Vitale, Marilena; Mamone, Gianfranco; Rivellese, Angela A; Riccardi, Gabriele; Giacco, Rosalba

    2018-06-01

    Dietary fiber and whole grain foods may contribute to the regulation of appetite; however, evidence has produced inconclusive findings. The objective was to evaluate the effects of an experimental wholemeal pasta on appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones involved in appetite control, and postprandial glucose/insulin responses in healthy adults. Fourteen healthy adults (7M/7F), mean age 30±2 yrs (mean±SEM), participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Participants consumed on two different days, at one week interval, 117g of wholemeal pasta or 100g of refined wheat pasta (control pasta), similar in energy and macronutrient composition except for fiber amount, which was higher in wholemeal pasta (11 vs 3 g). Appetite ratings, glucose/insulin/lipid and gastrointestinal hormone responses were measured at fasting and for 4-h after the ingestion of the pasta tests, after which self-reported energy intake for 8-h was evaluated. After the wholemeal pasta, the desire to eat and the sensation of hunger were lower (-16%, p=0.04 and -23%, p=0.004, respectively) and satiety was higher (+13%; p=0.08) compared with the control pasta; no effect on self-reported energy intake at subsequent meal was observed. After wholemeal pasta, glucose, triglyceride increased and GLP-1 responses were not different compared to control pasta but insulin response at 30 min (ppasta contributed to appetite control but did not seem to influence acute energy balance. Appetite ratings were associated with modifications in PYY hormone concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does the conceptus of the viviparous lizard Barisia imbricata imbricata participates in the regulation of progesterone production and the control of luteolysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, Martín; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Carmen; Cárdenas-León, Mario; Luis, Juana; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2014-08-01

    It is generally accepted that progesterone is necessary to maintain gestation; however, the mechanisms that control the production of this steroid remain unknown. The corpus luteum has been assigned a central role in the maintenance of gestation based on its capacity to produce progesterone. A pseudopregnancy model was performed in a viviparous lizard, Barisia imbricata imbricata, to determine whether the absence of embryos would affect the pattern of progesterone production or the corpus luteum histology. Blood samples were obtained prior to ovulation and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant and pregnant lizards), as well as one day after parturition (pregnant lizards) or 32 weeks after ovulation (pseudopregnant lizards). The corpus luteum was surgically removed one day after blood samples were obtained. Blood aliquots from nongravid females were obtained at similar timepoints. We found a significant reduction in plasma progesterone concentrations at 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation in pseudopregnant lizards compared with those observed at similar times in intact pregnant lizards, whereas the progesterone levels in non-gestant lizards remained significantly lower than in either pseudopregnant or pregnant lizards. Moreover, we observed that the histological appearance of the corpus luteum from pseudogestational females (obtained 24 and 32 weeks post-ovulation) differed from the corpora lutea from lizards in late gestation and intact parturient lizards. These observations suggest that the conceptus participates in the regulation of progesterone production in late gestation and also in luteolysis control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Curcuminoids Lower Plasma Leptin Concentrations: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Stephen L; Katsiki, Niki; Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-12-01

    Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol that has been suggested to improve several metabolic diseases. Leptin is an adipokine involved in metabolic status and appetite, with marked crosstalk with other systems. Available data suggest that curcumin may affect leptin levels; therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to evaluate this. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken on all randomized controlled trials of curcumin studies that included the measurement of leptin. The search included PubMed-Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar databases. Quantitative data synthesis was performed by using a random-effects model, with standardized mean difference and 95% confidence interval as summary statistics. A funnel plot, Begg's rank correlation, and Egger's weighted regression tests assessed the presence of publication bias. Four eligible articles comprising five treatment arms were selected for the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in plasma leptin concentrations following curcumin treatment (standardized mean difference: -0.69, 95% confidence interval: -1.16, -0.23, p = 0.003; I 2  = 76.53%). There was no evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis showed that curcumin supplementation is associated with a decrease in leptin levels that may be regarded as a potential mechanism for the metabolic effects of curcumin. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Astaxanthin increases progesterone production in cultured bovine luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Hachiro; Akagi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shinya

    2017-06-29

    Although astaxanthin (AST) is known to be a strong antioxidant, its effects on reproductive function in domestic animals have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we investigated the effects of AST on luteal cells, which produce progesterone (P4), an important hormone for maintaining pregnancy. Luteal cells were prepared by collagenase dispersion of the corpus luteum (CL). The addition of racemic AST at a low concentration (production than RR-AST. When 1 mg/kg·body weight of SS-AST derived from green algae was fed to cows for 2 weeks, its concentration in blood plasma was 10.9 nM on average, which was sufficient to expect an in vitro effect on the production of P4 in cows. These results suggested the potential of SS-AST supplements for cows to elevate luteal function.

  11. The influence of a cooked meat meal on creatinine plasma concentration and creatinine clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayersohn, M; Conrad, K A; Achari, R

    1983-01-01

    1 The influence of a meal containing cooked meat (225 g) on creatinine plasma concentration, creatinine urinary excretion and creatinine clearance was determined in six healthy male subjects. 2 The meat meal produced an average 52% increase in creatinine plasma concentration within 1.5 to 3.5 h after ingestion. The 24 h area under the creatinine plasma concentration-time curve increased by about 19%. Urinary creatinine excretion during 24 h increased by an average of 13%. Creatinine clearance...

  12. Determination of progesterone for reproduction control in cows using a /sup 3/H radioimmunoassay. 1. Methods and choice of testing samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubert, H; Barth, T; Hempel, G; Graeser, K [VEB Saechsisches Serumwerk Dresden (German Democratic Republic); Bezirksinstitut fuer Veterinaerwesen, Dresden (German Democratic Republic))

    1984-01-01

    For verification of cow fertility a /sup 3/H radioimmunoassay of progesterone in milk and blood plasma was developed. It is of high specificity and accuracy as well. Extraction of progesterone from milk was facilitated by application of alcohol. Suggested differences in milk and plasma progesterone levels between pregnant and nonpregnant cows could be revealed.

  13. Computed exercise plasma lactate concentrations: A conversion formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Bally

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Blood lactate measurements are common as a marker of skeletal muscle metabolism in sport medicine. Due to the close equilibrium between the extracellular and intramyocellular space, plasma lactate is a more accurate estimate of muscle lactate. However, whole blood-based lactate measurements are more convenient in field use. The purpose of this investigation was therefore (1 to establish a plasma-converting lactate formula for field use, and (2 to validate the computed plasma lactate levels by comparison to a laboratory standard method. Design and methods: A total of 91 venous samples were taken from 6 individuals with type 1 diabetes during resting and exercise conditions and assessed for whole blood and plasma lactate using the YSI 2300 analyzer. A linear model was applied to establish a formula for converting whole blood lactate to plasma lactate. The validity of computed plasma lactate values was assessed by comparison to a laboratory standard method. Results: Whole blood YSI lactate could be converted to plasma YSI values (slope 1.66, intercept 0.12 for samples with normal hematocrit. Computed plasma levels compared to values determined by the laboratory standard method using Passing-Bablok regression yielded a slope of 1.03 (95%CI:0.99:1.08 with an intercept of -0.11 (95%CI:-0.18:-0.06. Conclusions: Whole blood YSI lactate values can be reliably converted into plasma values which are in line with laboratory determined plasma measurements. Keywords: Lactate, Plasma vs whole-blood, Hematocrit, Enzyme electrodes, Sample treatment

  14. Plasma concentrations of osteoprotegerin during normo- and hyperglycaemic clamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, S T; Jeppesen, Peter; Poulsen, P L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) are elevated in subjects with diabetes as well as in non-diabetic subjects with cardiovascular disease. In previous studies a positive correlation was found between plasma levels of OPG and markers of glycaemic control in diabetic subjects. The aim...

  15. 125I-labeled radioimmunoassay kits for progesterone evaluated for use in an in vitro fertilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blight, L.F.; White, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated two commercially available 125 I radioimmunoassay kits (Diagnostic Products Corp., DPC; and Radioassay Systems Laboratories, RSL) for measurement of serum or plasma progesterone, to determine their suitability for use in in vitro fertilization programs. Both kits were suitably rapid for program requirements. Results by both were linear with concentration up to 60 nmol/L, and both had acceptable lower detection limits of 0.3 nmol/L. Kit-determined progesterone concentrations (y) for 100 patients' samples correlated well with results by our existing 3H radioimmunoassay method (y . 1.11x + 0.2, r . 0.965 for the DPC kit; y . 1.01x + 1.4, r . 0.974 for the RSL kit). Mean analytical recovery for the RSL kit was 116%, that for the DPC kit, 202%. Within-batch precision, expressed as the mean CV for three concentrations of progesterone, was 6.5% for the RSL kit, and 16.4% for the DPC kit; between-day CV was 8.1% for the RSL kit, 17.7% for the DPC kit. We conclude that the RSL kit provides a rapid, precise, and accurate assay for serum progesterone, suitable for use in a fertilization program, but do not recommend the DPC kit for either this purpose or the more general purpose of tracking menstrual cycles

  16. Relationship between Length of Estrous Cycle and all of Progesterone Level and Milk Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.E.; Farghaly, H.A.M.; Osman, K.T.; Regulaty, H.A.; Eboul-Ela, H.B.

    2010-01-01

    analysis show that both serum P4 and milk P4 profiles depended on each other. Either serum P4 or milk P4 profiles can be accurately used for pregnancy detection in buffaloes. In addition, the close correlation between progesterone concentrations in milk and blood plasma suggests that it may be useful to measure milk progesterone in clinical cases of reproductive abnormalities in buffalo.

  17. Progesterone concentration, pregnancy and calving rate in Simmental dairy cows after oestrus synchronisation and hCG treatment during the early luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuluburić, Adam; Milanović, Svetlana; Vranješ-Đurić, Sanja; Jovanović, Ivan B; Barna, Tomislav; Stojić, Milica; Fratrić, Natalija; Szenci, Ottó; Gvozdić, Dragan

    2017-09-01

    Early embryonic development may be negatively affected by insufficient progesterone (P4) production. Therefore, the aim of our study was to increase P4 by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatments after inducing oestrus by prostaglandin (PG) treatment. Lactating Simmental dairy cows (n = 110), between 1 to 5 lactations, with an average milk production of 6,500 1/305 days, at 40-80 days postpartum were used and grouped as follows: (1) PG + GnRH treatment at AI (GnRH group), (2) PG + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (hCG group), (3) PG + GnRH at AI + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (GnRH/hCG group), and (4) spontaneous oestrus (C: control group). All animals were double inseminated (at the time of oestrus detection and 12 ± 2 h thereafter). Blood serum and milk samples were collected at the day of observed oestrus (day 0), and 14, 21 and 28 days after AI. Serum P4 was determined using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) test (INEP, Zemun), and milk P4 was determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test (NIV Novi Sad). Pregnancy status was confirmed by ultrasonography between days 28 and 35 after AI. Differences of serum or milk P4 medians, pregnancy (and calving) rate were determined using Dunn's Multiple Comparison Tests and Z test, respectively. Serum P4 medians were significantly higher at days 14, 21 and 28 after AI in the hCG-treated animals, indicating increased luteal activity, with a similar tendency in whole milk P4 values. Treatment with hCG during the early luteal phase significantly contributed to the maintenance of gestation at days 28-35 after AI, and also increased the calving rate in Simmental dairy cows.

  18. Stress at birth: plasma noradrenaline concentrations of women in labour and in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messow-Zahn, K; Sarafoff, M; Riegel, K P

    1978-03-15

    Radioenzymatically measured plasma noradrenaline concentrations, present at birth in umbilical veins of 19 healthy, 17 acutely asphyxiated, and 9 chronically distressed newborn infants were found to be elevated above maternal values proportional to the degree of distress and to plasma H ion concentrations.

  19. Limited sampling strategy for determining metformin area under the plasma concentration-time curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Ana Beatriz; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to develop and validate limited sampling strategy (LSS) models to predict the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for metformin. METHODS: Metformin plasma concentrations (n = 627) at 0-24 h after a single 500 mg dose were used for LSS development, based on all su...

  20. Plasma fibrinogen and factor VII concentrations in adults after prenatal exposure to famine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseboom, T. J.; van der Meulen, J. H.; Ravelli, A. C.; Osmond, C.; Barker, D. J.; Bleker, O. P.

    2000-01-01

    To assess the effect of maternal malnutrition during different stages of gestation on plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and factor VII, we investigated 725 people, aged 50 years, born around the time of the Dutch famine 1944-5. After adjustment for sex, plasma fibrinogen concentrations differed by

  1. Plasma carotenoid concentrations in relation to acute respiratory infections in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Schouten, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    A high plasma carotenoid concentration could improve the immune response and result in decreased risk of infectious diseases. However, data on the relationship of plasma carotenoid concentration with acute respiratory infections, which occur frequently in elderly people, are scarce. We investigated,

  2. Plasma androgen concentrations in initial samples from spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-01-31

    Jan 31, 1990 ... initial samples, the immobilization stress response and the response to exogenous GnRH administration, for ... the sex-specific differences in plasma androgens is confounded by other variables such as the reproductive.

  3. Progesterone supplementation postinsemination improves fertility of cooled dairy cows during the summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E; Roth, Z; Voet, H; Lavon, Y; Wolfenson, D

    2012-06-01

    Reduced fertility of dairy cows during periods of elevated temperature, humidity, or both might be associated with low plasma progesterone concentration. Alleviation of thermal stress by efficient cooling is a prerequisite for improving fertility by hormonal treatment. We examined whether insertion of a controlled intravaginal drug-releasing (CIDR) insert containing progesterone following artificial insemination (AI) would improve summer conception rate. Control (n = 195) and treated (CIDR; n=165) cows, yielding on average 42.3 kg milk/d, were inseminated following estrus detection during the summer (July to October) in 2 commercial dairy herds in Israel. Mean maximal air temperature and relative humidity during the study were 30.2°C and 86%, respectively. All experimental cows were efficiently cooled throughout the study, as confirmed by measuring the body temperature of random cows. Treated cows received a CIDR insert on d 5 ± 1 post-AI for 13 d and pregnancy was confirmed by palpation 45 d post-AI. Plasma progesterone concentration in treated cows was elevated by approximately 1.5 ng/mL. Multiple logistic regressions were used to analyze conception rate. Treatment did not alter the overall conception rate; however, probability of conception increased in CIDR-treated cows with low body condition score (BCS) compared with their control counterparts (53 vs. 27%, respectively). A pronounced increase in probability of conception was recorded in CIDR-treated cows exhibiting both low BCS and postpartum reproductive disorders, compared with their control counterparts (58 vs. 14%, respectively). Exogenous progesterone supplementation on d 5 post-AI for 13 d improves summer fertility of subpopulations of cows exhibiting low BCS and postpartum reproductive disorders. Reproductive management based on specific hormonal treatment of designated subgroups of cows known to derive beneficial effects from it might improve treatment efficiency and reduce expenses. Copyright

  4. Plasma progesterone profiles, ovulation rate, donor embryo yield and recipient embryo survival in native Saloia sheep in the fall and spring breeding seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas e Silva, J; Lopes da Costa, L; Cidadão, R; Robalo Silva, J

    2003-08-01

    The response to superovulatory (SOV) and estrus synchronization (ES) treatments and the fertility of donor (n=68) and recipient (n=118) Saloia ewes was evaluated in the fall and spring breeding seasons. The proportion of acyclic ewes at treatment time was significantly higher in the spring than in the fall (42.6% versus 4.0%, P<0.00001). Donors treated with eCG had a significantly higher mean number of follicles over 5mm in diameter in the ovaries at embryo recovery and a significantly lower mean efficiency of recovery than FSH-treated ewes. These negative effects were more pronounced in the fall than in the spring, which resulted in a significantly lower mean number of total and fertilized ova recovered from eCG-treated ewes, compared to FSH donors in the fall, but not in the spring. Season had no significant effect on the ovulation rate and plasma P4 concentrations of recipients treated with a progestagen plus eCG combination. Although the recipient lambing and embryo survival rates were higher in the fall than in the spring the differences were not significant. No significant differences were observed in the ovulation rate or P4 concentrations of recipients that lambed compared to those that did not lamb. These preliminary results show that, in Portugal, response of Saloia ewes to SOV or ES treatments and donor fertility following the SOV treatment were similar in the spring and the fall, which suggests that in the spring acyclic ewes are in moderate anestrus. The effect of season on fertility following embryo transfer should be confirmed in further studies involving a larger number of animals. The semilaparoscopic transfer method reported here allowed lambing and embryo survival rates higher (although not significantly) than a standard surgical approach.

  5. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  6. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Plasma concentrations of midazolam during continuous subcutaneous administration in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleasel, M D; Peterson, G M; Dunne, P F

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the steady-state plasma concentrations of midazolam during continuous subcutaneous administration in palliative care. Using a sensitive gas chromatography with electron capture detector assay, plasma concentrations of midazolam were measured in 11 patients (median age 68 years; range 47-82 years; six females) receiving the drug by continuous subcutaneous infusion (median rate 20 mg/day; range 10-60 mg/day). While not significant, the infusion rate tended to decrease with increasing age of the patient (Spearman's p = -0.51; p = 0.11). The steady-state plasma concentration range was 10-147 ng/ml, with a median of 30 ng/ml. Infusion rates and plasma concentrations of midazolam were correlated (Spearman's p = 0.71; p < 0.05). No other significant relationships were found between plasma concentrations and the variables of age, sex and liver function.

  8. Concentration of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma from Goettingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Pascal; Grassmann, Jan-Peter; Thelen, Simon; Wild, Michael; Sager, Martin; Windolf, Joachim; Hakimi, Mohssen

    2014-01-01

    In minipigs little is known about the concentration of growth factors in plasma, despite their major role in several patho-physiological processes such as healing of fractures. This prompted us to study the concentration of platelets and selected growth factors in plasma and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparation of sixteen Goettingen minipigs. Platelet concentrations increased significantly in PRP in comparison to native blood plasma. Generally, significant increase in the concentration of all growth factors tested was observed in the PRP in comparison to the corresponding plasma or serum. Five of the plasma samples examined contained detectable levels of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) whereas eleven of the plasma or serum samples contained minimal amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb) respectively. On the other hand variable concentrations of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) were measured in all plasma samples. In contrast, all PRP samples contained significantly increased amounts of growth factors. The level of BMP-2, BMP-7, TGF-β1, VEGF and PDGF-bb increased by 17.6, 1.5, 7.1, 7.2 and 103.3 fold, in comparison to the corresponding non-enriched preparations. Moreover significant positive correlations were found between platelet count and the concentrations of BMP-2 (r=0.62, pplatelet-rich plasma of minipigs which might thus serve as a source of autologous growth factors.

  9. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-10-05

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  10. Efficacy and Safety Profile of Diclofenac/Cyclodextrin and Progesterone/Cyclodextrin Formulations: A Review of the Literature Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavone, Cristina; Bonagura, Angela Colomba; Fiorentino, Sonia; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Cenami, Rosina; Torella, Marco; Fossati, Tiziano; Rossi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    According to health technology assessment, patients deserve the best medicine. The development of drugs associated with solubility enhancers, such as cyclodextrins, represents a measure taken in order to improve the management of patients. Different drugs, such as estradiol, testosterone, dexamethasone, opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs; i.e. diclofenac), and progesterone are associated with cyclodextrins. Products containing the association of diclofenac/cyclodextrins are available for subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous administration in doses that range from 25 to 75 mg. Medicinal products containing the association of progesterone/cyclodextrins are indicated for intramuscular and subcutaneous injection at a dose equal to 25 mg. The effects of cyclodextrins have been discussed in the solubility profile and permeability through biological membranes of drug molecules. A literature search was performed in order to give an overview of the pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy and safety profiles of diclofenac/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and progesterone/HPβCD associations. The results of more than 20 clinical studies were reviewed. It was suggested that the new diclofenac/HPβCD formulation gives a rapid and effective response to acute pain and, furthermore, has pharmacokinetic and efficacy/safety profiles comparable to other medicinal products not containing cyclodextrins. One of the principal aspects of these new diclofenac formulations is that in lowering the dose (lower than 50 mg) the drugs could be more tolerable, especially in patients with comorbid conditions. Moreover, results of studies investigating the characteristics of progesterone and cyclodextrins showed that the new formulation (progesterone/HPβCD 25 mg solution) has the same bioavailability as other products containing progesterone. It is more rapidly absorbed and allows the achievement of peak plasma concentrations in a shorter time. Finally, the

  11. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Opioid Concentrations in Oral Fluid and Plasma in Cancer Patients With Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Tarja; Langel, Kaarina; Gunnar, Teemu; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Kalso, Eija A

    2015-10-01

    Measuring opioid concentrations in pain treatment is warranted in situations where optimal opioid analgesia is difficult to reach. To assess the usefulness of oral fluid (OFL) as an alternative to plasma in opioid concentration monitoring in cancer patients on chronic opioid therapy. We collected OFL and plasma samples from 64 cancer patients on controlled-release (CR) oral morphine, CR oral oxycodone, or transdermal (TD) fentanyl for pain. Samples were obtained on up to five separate days. A total of 213 OFL and plasma samples were evaluable. All patients had detectable amounts of the CR or TD opioid in both plasma and OFL samples. The plasma concentrations of oxycodone and fentanyl (determination coefficient R(2) = 0.628 and 0.700, respectively), but not morphine (R(2) = 0.292), were moderately well correlated to the daily opioid doses. In contrast to morphine and fentanyl (mean OFL/plasma ratio 2.0 and 3.0, respectively), the OFL oxycodone concentrations were significantly higher than the respective plasma concentrations (mean OFL/plasma ratio 14.9). An active transporter could explain the much higher OFL vs. plasma concentrations of oxycodone compared with morphine and fentanyl. OFL analysis is well suited for detecting the studied opioids. For morphine and fentanyl, an approximation of the plasma opioid concentrations is obtainable, whereas for oxycodone, the OFL/plasma concentration relationship is too variable for reliable approximation results. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of progesterone antibodies and their use in studying reproductive functions in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seren, E.; Bacci, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of antisera raised in six rabbits by immunization with progesterone-3-0-carboxymethyloxime-BSA are described. The performance of a progesterone RIA involving the use of the best antiserum is described. This progesterone RIA, carried out in sheep and goat plasma samples collected throughout the different stages of the reproductive life cycle turned out to be a reliable method to monitor ovarian activity. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    filtration rate seemed to have a limited influence on the plasma leptin concentration in nondiabetic uremic subjects matched by body fat mass to controls. The plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass, and the leptin level might, therefore, be useful as an indicator of the fat......Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular.......4 (3.1-59.5) ng/ml versus 5.4 (1.6-47.5) ng/ml (median and range in parentheses; p

  15. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD.

  16. Plasma lactate concentration as a prognostic biomarker in dogs with gastric dilation and volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Erin; Raw, Cameron; Hughes, Dez

    2014-09-01

    Initial and serial plasma lactate concentrations can be used to guide decision making in individual dogs with GDV but care is necessary in phrasing conversations with owners. Published data suggests that survival is more likely and the chance of complications less in dogs with an initial plasma lactate of 6 mmol/L makes gastric necrosis and greater expense more likely. However, because of the overlap between groups and the good overall survival rates, exploratory laparotomy should always be recommended irrespective of the plasma lactate concentration. Falls in plasma lactate of greater than ~40% after fluid resuscitation are likely to indicate better survival. If the initial plasma lactate concentration is moderately to severely increased (5->10 mmol/L) and a sustained increase in plasma lactate occurs after fluid resuscitation, the cause should be aggressively pursued. Many dogs with persistent hyperlactatemia over 24-48 hours do not survive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P ...Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover......, a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were...

  18. Altrenogest and progesterone therapy during pregnancy in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with progesterone insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, Todd R; Gill, Claudia; Doescher, Bethany M; Sweeney, Jay; De Laender, Piet; Van Elk, Cornelis E; O'Brien, Justine K

    2012-06-01

    Progesterone production is essential for growth and development of the conceptus during pregnancy. Abnormal development of the corpus luteum (CL) after conception can result in early embryonic loss or fetal abortion. Routine monitoring of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) pregnancy after artificial insemination or natural conception with ultrasonography and serum progesterone determination has allowed for the establishment of expected fetal growth rates and hormone concentrations. Using these monitoring techniques, we revealed four pregnant dolphins (12-24 yr old) with abnormally low progesterone production indicative of luteal insufficiency. Once diagnosed, animals were placed on altrenogest (0.044-0.088 mg/kg once daily) alone or with oral progesterone (50-200 mg twice daily). Doses of hormone were increased or decreased in each animal based on how fetal skull biparietal and thoracic growth rates compared with published normal values. Hormones were withdrawn starting from day 358 of gestation in animals 1 and 2, with labor occurring 6 and 7 days after withdrawal and at 376 and 373 days of gestation, respectively. Both deliveries were dystocic, with each calf requiring manual extraction and fetotomy for calf 1. The fetuses in animals 3 and 4 died at 348 and 390 days of gestation, respectively. Induction of labor was attempted in both animals, after fetal death, by using a combination of rapid progesterone withdrawal and steroid and prostaglandin F2alpha administration. The calf of animal 4 had to be removed with manual cervical dilation and fetotomy All adult females survived the procedures. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that the CL is the primary source of progesterone throughout pregnancy in the bottlenose dolphin. Until further characterization of hormones required during pregnancy and at parturition has been accomplished, the exogenous progestagen supplementation protocol described here cannot be recommended for treatment of progesterone

  19. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Three Forms of Vaginal Progesterone Administered in Either Single Or Multiple Dose Regimen in Healthy Post-menopausal Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Shentu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A generic vaginal progesterone gel has recently been developed in China. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties in Chinese subjects. The purpose of our study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of three forms of vaginal progesterone gel (test formulations at 4 and 8% strength vs. a reference formulation: Crinone 8% in Chinese healthy post-menopausal women.Methods: This study consisted of two parts study. The part 1 study was a single-center, open-label, 3-period study. Twelve healthy post-menopausal women were to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of 45 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 4% following single dose and multiple doses administered once every other day (q.o.d. for six times or once daily (q.d. for 6 days. The part 2 study was a randomized, open-label, 3-stage crossover study. Twelve post-menopausal women received 90 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 8% or 90 mg Crinone (Reference 8% following single dose and multiple doses (q.o.d. or q.d.. Plasma concentrations of progesterone were measured up to 72 h by using a validated liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞ were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data.Results: Totally 24 subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. Following single dose, The geometric mean Cmax values for Test 4%, Test 8%, and Crinone 8% were 6.35, 10.34, 10.45 ng/mL, and their geometric mean AUC0-t (AUC0-∞ were 113.73 (118.00, 169.39 (173.98, and 190.07 (201.13 ng⋅h/mL, respectively. The mean T1/2 values of progesterone were 11.00, 10.92, and 11.40 h, respectively. For 8% test formulation vs. reference, the 90% CIs of the least squares mean test/reference ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 78.32–124

  20. Plasma vitamin C concentration in pregnant women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oxidative stress plays a role in the aetiology of pre-eclampsia and vitamin C may prevent pre-eclampsia. Objective: To determine the association between plasma vitamin C and pre-eclampsia in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Methods: This case-control study was conducted at Mulago Hospital from 1st ...

  1. Variable aromatase inhibitor plasma concentrations do not correlate with circulating estrogen concentrations in post-menopausal breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Daniel L; Speth, Kelly A; Kidwell, Kelley M; Gersch, Christina L; Desta, Zeruesenay; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Stearns, Vered; Skaar, Todd C; Hayes, Daniel F; Henry, N Lynn; Rae, James M

    2017-10-01

    The aromatase inhibitors (AI) exemestane (EXE), letrozole (LET), and anastrozole suppress estrogen biosynthesis, and are effective treatments for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Prior work suggests that anastrozole blood concentrations are associated with the magnitude of estrogen suppression. The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of estrogen suppression, as determined by plasma estradiol (E2) concentrations, in EXE or LET treated patients is associated with plasma AI concentrations. Five hundred post-menopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the prospective Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetic (ELPh) Study conducted by the COnsortium on BReast cancer phArmacogomics (COBRA) and randomly assigned to either drug. Estrogen concentrations were measured at baseline and after 3 months of AI treatment and drug concentrations were measured after 1 or 3 months. EXE or LET concentrations were compared with 3-month E2 concentration or the change from baseline to 3 months using several complementary statistical procedures. Four-hundred patients with on-treatment E2 and AI concentrations were evaluable (EXE n = 200, LET n = 200). Thirty (7.6%) patients (EXE n = 13, LET n = 17) had 3-month E2 concentrations above the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) (median: 4.75; range: 1.42-63.8 pg/mL). EXE and LET concentrations were not associated with on-treatment E2 concentrations or changes in E2 concentrations from baseline (all p > 0.05). Steady-state plasma AI concentrations do not explain variability in E2 suppression in post-menopausal women receiving EXE or LET therapy, in contrast with prior evidence in anastrozole treated patients.

  2. Plasma Apelin Concentrations in Patients With Polyuria-Polydipsia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Timper, Katharina; Fenske, Wiebke; de Mota, Nadia; Blanchard, Anne; Kühn, Felix; Frech, Nica; Arici, Birsen; Rutishauser, Jonas; Kopp, Peter; Stettler, Christoph; Müller, Beat; Katan, Mira; Llorens-Cortes, Catherine; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2016-05-01

    Apelin and arginine vasopressin are antagonists in the regulation of body fluid and osmotic homeostasis. There are no data about apelin levels in patients with polyuria-polydipsia syndrome (PPS). To investigate plasma apelin levels and plasma apelin to copeptin ratios in patients with PPS and healthy volunteers using copeptin as a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin. We included 41 patients with PPS in this post hoc analysis of a prospective study performed in tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland and Germany and 113 healthy volunteers as a control group. Plasma apelin and copeptin levels were measured in 15 patients with complete central diabetes insipidus (DI), seven patients with complete nephrogenic DI, 19 patients with primary polydipsia (PP), and 113 healthy volunteers. Plasma apelin levels were highest in patients with complete nephrogenic DI (413 pmol/L; interquartile range, 332-504 pmol/L; P = .01) and lower in patients with PP (190 [172-215] pmol/L; P .9) was similar to healthy volunteers (57 [37-102] pmol/pmol). In contrast, the apelin to copeptin ratio was higher in patients with complete central DI (89 [73-135] pmol/pmol; P = .02) and lower in patients with complete nephrogenic DI (7 [6-10] pmol/pmol; P < .001) compared to healthy volunteers. In PP, normal plasma apelin to copeptin ratio attests a normal water homeostasis. In contrast, in patients with central or nephrogenic DI, the increased or decreased apelin to copeptin ratio, respectively, reflects a disturbed osmotic and body fluid homeostasis.

  3. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and outcomes after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quan; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Yang, Ding-Bo; Shen, Yong-Feng; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Li; Du, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Qun-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Higher plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations have been associated with poor outcome of severe traumatic brain injury. We further investigated the relationships between plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations of 128 consecutive patients and 128 sex- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We assessed their relationships with disease severity and clinical outcomes including 1-week mortality, 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score>2). Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were positively associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and hematoma volume using a multivariate linear regression. It emerged as an independent predictor for clinical outcomes of patients using a forward stepwise logistic regression. ROC curves identified the predictive values of plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations, and found its predictive value was similar to NIHSS scores and hematoma volumes. However, it just numerically added the predictive values of NIHSS score and hematoma volume. Increased plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in Neuroactive Steroid Concentrations After Preterm Delivery in the Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Jonathan J.; Palliser, Hannah K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. Allopregnanolone, a key metabolite of progesterone, has neuroprotective and developmental effects in the brain. The objectives of this study were to measure the neuroactive steroid concentrations following preterm delivery in a neonatal guinea pig model and assess the potential for postnatal progesterone replacement therapy to affect neuroactive steroid brain and plasma concentrations in preterm neonates. Methods: Preterm (62-63 days) and term (69 days) guinea pig pups were delivered by cesarean section and tissue was collected at 24 hours. Plasma progesterone, cortisol, allopregnanolone, and brain allopregnanolone concentrations were measured by immunoassay. Brain 5α-reductase (5αR) expression was determined by Western blot. Neurodevelopmental maturity of preterm neonates was assessed by immunohistochemistry staining for myelination, glial cells, and neurons. Results: Brain allopregnanolone concentrations were significantly reduced after birth in both preterm and term neonates. Postnatal progesterone treatment in preterm neonates increased brain and plasma allopregnanolone concentrations. Preterm neonates had reduced myelination, low birth weight, and high mortality compared to term neonates. Brain 5αR expression was also significantly reduced in neonates compared to fetal expression. Conclusions: Delivery results in a loss of neuroactive steroid concentrations resulting in a premature reduction in brain allopregnanolone in preterm neonates. Postnatal progesterone therapy reestablished neuroactive steroid levels in preterm brains, a finding that has implications for postnatal growth following preterm birth that occurs at a time of neurodevelopmental immaturity. PMID:23585339

  5. Negative symptoms in nondeficit syndrome respond to neuroleptic treatment with changes in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, E; Kanba, S; Koshikawa, H; Nibuya, M; Yagi, G; Asai, M

    1996-05-01

    Deficit syndrome (DS) in schizophrenia is characterized by serious, chronic, and primary negative symptoms. We investigated differences in response to neuroleptic treatment between 8 DS patients and 6 nondeficit syndrome (NDS) patients who had the selective dopamine-D2 receptor blocker bromperidol added to their neuroleptic regimens. First, 9 mg/d was administered for 4 weeks, followed by 18 mg/d for another 4 weeks. Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and plasma bromperidol concentrations were measured, and psychiatric symptoms were scored. In the NDS patients, both positive and negative symptoms improved. However, only the positive symptom scores changed in the DS patients. On day 4, pHVA concentrations of the NDS patients alone were significantly elevated. Plasma bromperidol concentrations did not differ between the groups. These results suggest that bromperidol exerts different effects on negative symptoms and pHVA concentrations between NDS and DS patients, effects that are unrelated to plasma bromperidol concentrations.

  6. Plasma lactate concentrations in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Henning A; Wenger, Sandra; Hvarnes, Silje; Os, Oystein; Rolandsen, Christer M; Solberg, Erling J

    2009-11-01

    To investigate plasma lactate concentrations of etorphine-immobilized moose in relation to environmental, temporal and physiological parameters. Prospective clinical study. Fourteen female and five male moose (Alces alces), estimated age range 1-7 years. The moose were darted from a helicopter with 7.5 mg etorphine per animal using projectile syringes and a dart gun. Once immobilized, the moose were approached, a venous blood sample was obtained and vital signs including pulse oximetry were recorded. Diprenorphine was administered to reverse the effects of etorphine. Timing of events, ambient temperature and snow depth were recorded. Blood samples were cooled and centrifuged before plasma was harvested and frozen. The plasma was thawed later and lactate analysed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. All animals recovered uneventfully and were alive 12 weeks after immobilization. Mean +/- SD plasma lactate was found to be 9.2 +/- 2.1 mmol L(-1). Plasma lactate concentrations were related positively to snow depth and negatively to time from induction of immobilization to blood sampling. The model that best described the variability in plasma lactate concentrations used induction time (time from firing the dart to the moose being immobilized). The second best model included induction time and snow depth. Plasma lactate concentrations in these etorphine-immobilized moose were in the range reported for other immobilized wild ruminants. Decreasing induction time, which may be related to a more profound etorphine effect, and increasing snow depth possibly may increase plasma lactate concentrations in etorphine-immobilized moose.

  7. Progesterone lipid nanoparticles: Scaling up and in vivo human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Sguizzato, Maddalena; Drechsler, Markus; Mariani, Paolo; Carducci, Federica; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Cortesi, Rita

    2017-10-01

    This investigation describes a scaling up study aimed at producing progesterone containing nanoparticles in a pilot scale. Particularly hot homogenization techniques based on ultrasound homogenization or high pressure homogenization have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles constituted of tristearin or tristearin in association with caprylic-capric triglyceride. It was found that the high pressure homogenization method enabled to obtain nanoparticles without agglomerates and smaller mean diameters with respect to ultrasound homogenization method. X-ray characterization suggested a lamellar structural organization of both type of nanoparticles. Progesterone encapsulation efficiency was almost 100% in the case of high pressure homogenization method. Shelf life study indicated a double fold stability of progesterone when encapsulated in nanoparticles produced by the high pressure homogenization method. Dialysis and Franz cell methods were performed to mimic subcutaneous and skin administration. Nanoparticles constituted of tristearin in mixture with caprylic/capric triglyceride display a slower release of progesterone with respect to nanoparticles constituted of pure tristearin. Franz cell evidenced a higher progesterone skin uptake in the case of pure tristearin nanoparticles. A human in vivo study, based on tape stripping, was conducted to investigate the performance of nanoparticles as progesterone skin delivery systems. Tape stripping results indicated a decrease of progesterone concentration in stratum corneum within six hours, suggesting an interaction between nanoparticle material and skin lipids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. COLPOCITOLOGY AND SERUM CONCENTRATIONS OF PROGESTERONE IN NULIPAROUS GOATS SUBMMITED TO ARTIFICIAL PHOTOPERIODS COLPOCITOLOGIA E CONCENTRAÇÕES SÉRICAS DE PROGESTERONA EM CABRAS NULÍPARAS SUBMETIDAS AO FOTOPERÍODO ARTIFICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Rocha de Oliveira Lima

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present work was to evaluate the changes of cervico-vaginal epithelial cells and progesterone levels of nuliparous goats submitted to artificial photoperiod, in Middle-West of Brazil. Seventh Alpine and six crossbreed nuliparous goats were used, distributed in two groups: control (GC, maintained at isolated stall and submitted to natural light for the time of the year, and treated (GT, submitted to an alternate regime among natural and artificial light, for 24 hours and 35 uninterrupted days. Cérvico-vaginal content was collected, prepared on glass slides and differential cellular counts were carried out on Papanicolau smears. The progesterone concentration in blood serum was measurement by ELISA. Parabasal were the most frequent cell type present, followed by intermediate cells, mainly in the end of metaestrus and diestrus. Superficial cornified cells were present during proestrus and estrus. The cellular profile and progesterone concentrations oscillated in agreement with estrus cycle phase in control animals, but confuse on the begin of experimental period for treated animals. Cytological evaluation of cervico-vaginal content could be of value for a hormonal bioassay of estrus cycle of goats submitted to artificial photoperiod just after the adaptation period.

     

    KEY WORDS: Artificial photoperiod, caprine, hormone, vaginal cytology.

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as alterações celulares do epitélio cérvico-vaginal e as concentrações de progesterona sérica em cabras nulíparas expostas ao fotoperíodo artificial, na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Dezessete cabras da raça Alpina e seis mestiças, nulíparas, foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em grupo-controle (GC, mantido em galpão isolado e submetido ao regime de luz natural para a época do ano, e grupo tratado (GT, submetido ao regime alternado entre luz natural e

  9. Correlation between the Plasma Insulin and Glucose Concentration in Normal Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Kyu; Sung, Ho Kyung; Kim, Jin Eui [Radiological Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The correlation between the plasma insulin, and glucose concentration was studied in healthy Korean adults consisting of 20 males and 22 females of 16 to 38 years of age. The blood samples of above subjects were obtained through cubital vein at arbitrary times during their usual working hours. Plasma insulin was assayed by means of double antibody system of radioimmunoassay technics, and blood glucose was determined by means of Van Slyke-Folch method. Results were as follows : 1. There were no differences in the blood sugar levels in relation to the plasma insulin concentration either by sex or age. 2. In the case, when the plasma insulin concentration was within 50 mmuU/ml, the correlation between the insulin, and glucose concentration existed, the ratio of which was expressed as; Plasma glucose concentration (mg/dl)=91.9 + 0.08 X Insulin concentration r=0.62. 3. Insulinogenic index was 12.4%, which was somewhat higher than other reports. 4. It is suggested that the correlation between plasma insulin and glucose concentration could be determined at arbitrary times instead of fasting times.

  10. Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Verhoef, P.

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  11. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Emergy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  12. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  13. Effects of Betaine Intake on Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations and Consequences for Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  14. PFAS concentrations in plasma samples from Danish school children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S

    2015-01-01

    an association between plasma levels and the age of the mothers and higher levels of plasma PFASs in mothers with low parity. There were no associations between PFAS concentrations and residential area, dietary habits of the participants or with respect to the birth order of the children. The levels...

  15. Clinical significance of 2 h plasma concentrations of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, Julie B; Johansen, Isik S; Cohen, Arieh S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study 2 h plasma concentrations of the first-line tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Denmark and to determine the relationship between the concentrations and the clinical outcome. METHODS: After 6......-207 days of treatment (median 34 days) 2 h blood samples were collected from 32 patients with active tuberculosis and from three patients receiving prophylactic treatment. Plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. Normal ranges were obtained from the literature. Clinical charts were reviewed...... failure occurred more frequently when the concentrations of isoniazid and rifampicin were both below the normal ranges (P = 0.013) and even more frequently when they were below the median 2 h drug concentrations obtained in the study (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: At 2 h, plasma concentrations of isoniazid...

  16. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies specific for Progesterone

    OpenAIRE

    YÜCEL, Fatıma

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone levels in milk and serum are indicators of pregnancy in cattle. The progesterone level reaches a peak on the 21 st and 22 nd days of pregnancy. Monoclonal antibodies specific to progesterone could be used for the immunodetection of milk and serum progesterone levels. We report here the development of hybrid cells prdoducing monoclonal antibodies specific for progesterone using hybridoma technology. Hybridoma cells secreting monoclonal antibodies against progesterone (MAM 2H1...

  17. HPLC for simultaneous quantification of total ceramide, glucosylceramide, and ceramide trihexoside concentrations in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groener, Johanna E. M.; Poorthuis, Ben J. H. M.; Kuiper, Sijmen; Helmond, Mariette T. J.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simple, reproducible assays are needed for the quantification of sphingolipids, ceramide (Cer), and sphingoid bases. We developed an HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of total plasma concentrations of Cer, glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and ceramide trihexoside (CTH). METHODS:

  18. Depolarization Rayleigh scattering as a means of molecular concentration determination in plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, R.F.G.; Schram, D.C.; Jaegers, L.J.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The difference in polarization for Rayleigh scattered radiation on spherically and nonspherically symmetric scattering objects has been used to obtain molecular species concentrations in plasmas of simple composition. Using a Rayleigh scattering diagnostic, the depolarized component of the scattered

  19. Concentration of plasma haptoglobin and symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Yi-mu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation of plasma haptoglobin concentration to symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (SCVS after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH was investigated. The plasma concentration of haptoglobin was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. SCVS was determined by aggravated headache, deteriorated conscious state a few days after ictus or by new neurologic impairment and new ischemic injuries on repeated CT scans. The mean concentration of plasma haptoglobin in 19 patients with SCVS was (0.29 ± 0.14 g/L, whereas it was (0.78 ± 0.48 g/L in 24 patients without SCVS. These findings may suggest that plasma haptoglobin concentration seems to be associated with the development of SCVS after SAH.

  20. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  1. Laser-Based Optical System for Reactive Radical Concentration Measurements in Plasmas and Flames

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fridman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP) funding was used to assemble a multi-purpose optical diagnostic system for in-situ radical concentration measurements in plasma and combustion systems...

  2. Effects of supplementation of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on serum concentrations of progesterone and insulin of pregnant dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipe Moriel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five non-lactating, pregnant Holstein animals (18 heifers and 27 multiparous cows; BW = 561±114 kg; BCS = 2.9±0.3; days pregnant = 110±56 d were stratified by initial BW and BCS, and randomly assigned to receive daily (as-fed basis 0.50 kg of ground corn plus 0.22 kg of kaolin (CON, calcium salts of saturated fatty acids (SFA or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PF for 14 d. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 14, immediately prior to (0 h and 3, 6, 9 and 12 h after feeding, to determine the serum concentrations of P4 and insulin. No treatment effects were detected for serum concentrations of P4 (5.52, 6.13 and 5.63±0.41 ng/mL for CON, SFA and PF, respectively. No treatment effects were detected for serum concentrations of insulin (11.5, 10.5 and 10.1±1.43 µIU/mL for CON, SFA and PF, respectively. Heifers had greater serum concentrations of P4 than multiparous cows (6.35 vs. 5.16±0.42 ng/mL, but lower serum concentrations of insulin (7.0 vs. 14.4±1.49 µIU/mL. Feeding 0.22 kg of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids is not sufficient to increase the serum concentrations of P4 and insulin of non-lactating, pregnant dairy cows.

  3. Association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and extracranial carotid stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Ghasemi, M.; Hoseini, T.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing epidemiologic data support a relationship between elevated plasma total homocysteine levels and an increased risk for vascular disease. Higher plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels have been associated with extracranial carotid atherosclerosis and cerebral infarction in whites. However, data regarding such associations are limited for Asians. This study examined the association between tHcy level and carotid stenosis in Iranian subjects. In this retrospective study, the subjects were 158 patients with ischemic stroke, including 105 with a normal tHcy level and 53 with a high tHcy level. We investigated the extracranial carotid arteries by ultrasonography and measured serum tHcy by ELISA method in these two groups. We found no meaningful association between a high tHcy level and carotid stenosis. The lack of any meaningful difference in carotid stenosis between patients with normal and elevated tHcy levels is probably due to the low frequency of extracranial diseases in the Asian population and to the nature of homocysteine atherosclerosis. (author)

  4. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Erick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High plasma uric acid (UA is a precipitating factor for gout and renal calculi as well as a strong risk factor for Metabolic Syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The main causes for higher plasma UA are either lower excretion, higher synthesis or both. Higher waist circumference and the BMI are associated with higher insulin resistance and leptin production, and both reduce uric acid excretion. The synthesis of fatty acids (tryglicerides in the liver is associated with the de novo synthesis of purine, accelerating UA production. The role played by diet on hyperuricemia has not yet been fully clarified, but high intake of fructose-rich industrialized food and high alcohol intake (particularly beer seem to influence uricemia. It is not known whether UA would be a causal factor or an antioxidant protective response. Most authors do not consider the UA as a risk factor, but presenting antioxidant function. UA contributes to > 50% of the antioxidant capacity of the blood. There is still no consensus if UA is a protective or a risk factor, however, it seems that acute elevation is a protective factor, whereas chronic elevation a risk for disease.

  5. Relationship between length of estrous cycle and progesterone levels and milk production in Egyptian buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ten non-pregnant and ten pregnant buffaloes were used in the present study and were milked twice daily (7 a.m. and 3 p.m.) whereas milk samples (20 ml) were collected at the morning every 4 days throughout the period from May 2010 to July 2010. At the same time blood samples (15 ml) were collected from every buffalo by puncture of the jugular vein into evacuated tubes. Progesterone concentrations in the first 2 samples were used to determine whether buffaloes were cycling or not. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≥1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples were considered cycling, and those with both serum samples containing 1.0 ng/ml were considered as an ovulatory /anestrous. Regression of the corpus luteum was considered if serum progesterone was 1.0 ng/ml. Buffaloes with serum progesterone >1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples considered pregnant. The data were statistically analyzed The data revealed that pregnant buffaloes had higher (P<0.01) mean values of serum P4 and milk P4 than non-pregnant buffaloes. At the same time, milk P4 profile was higher (P<0.01) than serum P4 and the ratio between milk P4 and serum P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes. However, milk P4 was 2.4 times higher than that of serum P4 in pregnant buffaloes; while milk P4 was 2.9 times higher than that of serum P4 in non-pregnant buffaloes. Total daily milk yield had higher (P<0.01) mean values than both morning and after milk yield. Morning milk yield had higher (P<0.01) mean values than after milk yield. Step-wise regression analysis show that both serum P4 and milk P4 profiles depended on each other. Either serum P4 or milk P4 profiles can be accurately used for pregnancy detection in buffaloes. In addition, the close correlation between progesterone concentrations in milk and blood plasma suggests that it may be useful to measure milk progesterone in clinical cases of reproductive abnormalities in buffalo.

  6. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  7. Influence of meal composition on postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of vasoactive peptides in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høst, U; Kelbaek, H

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over study healthy non-obese male human subjects received standardized isocaloric, isovolumetric meals consisting of either carbohydrate, protein or fat and a non-caloric control meal consisting of an equal volume of water. Peripheral venous plasma concentrations of calcitonin...... that the postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of CGRP, VIP and PYY are dependent on the caloric meal composition. The VIP, but not the CGRP and PYY concentrations seem to be influenced by gastric distension. The physiological significance of the postprandial alterations in peripheral concentrations...

  8. Progesterone for preterm birth prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Lucovnik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progesterone is important in maintaining pregnancy. Progesterone supplementation may reduce risk of preterm birth in certain populations of pregnant women. The objective of this review was to develop evidence-based clinical recommendation for progesterone treatment in the prevention of preterm birth.Methods: A search in the Medline database was performed using keywords: progesterone, pregnancy, preterm birth, preterm labour, preterm delivery, randomized trial, and randomized controlled trial. We only included studies of vaginal progesterone treatments for the prevention of preterm birth and excluded studies on 17-α-hydroksiprogesterone caproate.Results: We report findings from twelve randomized trials conducted since 2003. These trials differ regarding inclusion criteria, progesterone dose, vehicle used, and duration of treatment. Inclusion criteria were: short uterine cervix (two trials, history of previous preterm birth (two trials, signs and symptoms of preterm labour (three trials, twin pregnancies (three trials, and multiple risk factors (among these history of previous preterm birth was the most common (two trials. Six of these twelve trials showed a significant reduction in preterm birth in the progesterone groups.Conclusions: Based on current evidence we recommend treatment with 200 mg of micronized progesterone daily, administered vaginally, in pregnant women found to have a short cervix (≤ 25 mm at 19-24 weeks. The treatment should be continued until 37 weeks.

  9. Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc and blood selenium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prior to lambing, when they were transferred to kikuyu pastures. From six weeks prior to lambing, all the ewes received 0,5 kg supplementary feeding daily. This was increased by 0,1 kg per week up to lambing. The diet consisted of 55% oaten hay, 35,6% barley, 4% fish meal, 3% Rumevite stud concentrate,. 1% bentonite,.

  10. Platelet concentration of plateletrich plasma from dogs, obtained through three centrifugation speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Couto de Magalhães Ferraz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The platelets release at least 4 growth factors (Platelet Derived Growth Factor. ²1 and ²2 Transforming Growth Factors and Insulin-like Growth Factor which are responsible for the migration and activation of cells that will start the reparation of soft tissues and bones. The Platelet Rich Plasma is an autogenous source for Growth Factors, obtained by platelet concentration by centrifuging total blood. This study aimed the comparison of platelet concentrations in plasma centrifuged in three different centrifugation speeds (1300, 1600 e 3200rpm, for the production of platelet rich plasma. Blood was drowned from 15 dogs, 40ml of each, and these were divided into four groups and centrifuged at 800rpm. Then the first group was centrifuged at 1300rpm, the second at 1600rpm, the third at 3200rpm and the last was used as control, named plasma. The mean percentage increase in the platelet concentration for each technique was: 1300 - 183%, 1600 - 210% and 3200 - 222%. But in centrifugation at 3200 rpm, platelets presented altered morphology and different sizes in every sample studied, which was understood as severe cell damage. It was concluded that the best technique for the preparation of the platelet rich plasma in dogs consisted of the previous centrifugation of the blood at 800rpm for ten minutes, and then the plasma should be separated. This plasma is then submitted to a second centrifugation of 1600rpm for 10 minutes, and the platelet poor plasma is separated and discharged.

  11. Influence of antihypertensive therapy, sodium intake and the concentration of potassium in plasma on concentration of aldosterone and plasma renin activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary aldosteronism (PA is a group of disorders which are characterized by inadequate and non-suppressible production of aldosterone. The prevalence of PA is increasing in hypertensive population. The golden standard of screening for primary aldosteronism, determination of aldosterone/plasma renin activity (ARR, is influenced by numerous exogenous and endogenous factors. Testing cannot always be conducted under optimal conditions. Objective: To determine influence of antihypertensive drugs and concentrations of potassium and sodium in blood and urine on values of aldosterone and plasma renin activity. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed medical reports of patients admitted to Department of thyroid gland disease in the period from 2009 to 2011, with increased risk for primary aldosteronism. Body weight and height, sodium and potassium in serum and urine, plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity, data on medicines and comorbidity were analyzed in all patients. In processing data, statistical methods descriptive analysis, Student T test and univariate linear regression were applied. Result: Of 137 patients, there were more patients with resistant hypertension (53,28% than with adrenal tumors (46,72%. Most patients used calcium channel blockers. Treatment with alpha blockers and calcium channel blockers does not influence ARR. Beta blockers and ACE inhibitors can influence ARR and diuretics and vasodilatators have definite influence. Diabetes mellitus can have higher risk of false negative results. Urine sodium excretion is significantly correlated with plasma aldosteron and serum potassium. Plasma aldosteron and PRA are significantly correlated with concentrations of electrolites in urine. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of primary aldosteronism necessitates need for accurate and better diagnostics.

  12. Concentration of perfluorinated compounds and cotinine in human foetal organs, placenta, and maternal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.

    2017-01-01

    levels. Foetal exposure has previously been estimated from umbilical cord plasma, but the actual concentration in foetal organs has never been measured. Objectives The concentrations of 5 PFASs and cotinine – the primary metabolite of nicotine – were measured in human foetuses, placentas, and maternal...... plasma to evaluate to what extent these compounds were transferred from mother to foetus and to determine if the PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal cigarette smoking. Methods Thirty-nine Danish women who underwent legal termination of pregnancy before gestational week 12 were included; 24...... ratio for all five PFASs and cotinine. Smokers presented 99 ng/g cotinine in plasma, 108 ng/g in placenta, and 61 ng/g in foetal organs. No correlation between the maternal cotinine concentrations and PFAS concentrations was found. Conclusions PFASs were transferred from mother to foetus, however...

  13. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil L Spector

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER in human tumors.Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor.In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers.Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor concentrations that maximally

  14. Clinical significance of determination of plasma ADM concentrations in hyperthyroid patients complicated with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kaiqin; Zhang Jing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the plasma adrenomedullin (ADM) concentrations in hyperthyroid patients with or without pulmonary hypertension. Methods: Plasma ADM levels were measured with RIA in: (1) 30 hyperthyroid patients without pulmonary hypertension, (2) 27 hyperthyroid patients with pulmonary, hypertension, and (3) 32 controls. Results: (1) In this study, 27 of the 57 hyperthyroid patients were complicated with pulmonary hypertension (47.37%), (2) Plasma ADM concentrations in the patients with pulmonary hypertension were significantly higher than those in patients without pulmonary hypertension and controls (P 3 , T 4 (thyroid hormones) were positively correlated with those of ADM while there were no correlations in controls. Conclusion: Plasma ADM concentrations increased in hyperthyroid patients, especially in those complicated with pulmonary hypertension. The clinicians should look for pulmonary hypertension in hyperthyroid patients with substantially elevated levels of ADM. (authors)

  15. Isoniazid concentrations in hair and plasma area-under-the-curve exposure among children with tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Mave

    Full Text Available We measured hair and plasma concentrations of isoniazid among sixteen children with tuberculosis who underwent personal or video-assisted directly observed therapy and thus had 100% adherence. This study therefore defined typical isoniazid exposure parameters after two months of treatment among fully-adherent patients in both hair and plasma (plasma area under the concentration-time curve, AUC, estimated using pharmacokinetic data collected 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours after drug administration. We found that INH levels in hair among highly-adherent individuals did not correlate well with plasma AUC or trough concentrations, suggesting that each measure may provide incremental and complementary information regarding drug exposure in the context of TB treatment.

  16. Do plasma concentrations of apelin predict prognosis in patients with advanced heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Jonathan R; Jackson, Colette E; Chong, Kwok S; McDonagh, Theresa A; Gardner, Roy S

    2014-01-01

    Apelin is an endogenous vasodilator and inotrope, plasma concentrations of which are reduced in advanced heart failure (HF). We determined the prognostic significance of plasma concentrations of apelin in advanced HF. Plasma concentrations of apelin were measured in 182 patients with advanced HF secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The predictive value of apelin for the primary end point of all-cause mortality was assessed over a median follow-up period of 544 (IQR: 196-923) days. In total, 30 patients (17%) reached the primary end point. Of those patients with a plasma apelin concentration above the median, 14 (16%) reached the primary end point compared with 16 (17%) of those with plasma apelin levels below the median (p = NS). NT-proBNP was the most powerful prognostic marker in this population (log rank statistic: 10.37; p = 0.001). Plasma apelin concentrations do not predict medium to long-term prognosis in patients with advanced HF secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

  17. Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the milk of lactating adolescents and relationships with plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo, Vilma B; Trugo, Nadia M F

    2008-02-01

    We determined the concentrations of retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast milk of adolescents and evaluated their associations with plasma levels and with maternal characteristics (period of lactation, body mass index, age of menarche, and years postmenarche). This was a single cross-sectional survey of retinol, carotenoid, and tocopherol composition of milk and plasma of lactating adolescent mothers (n = 72; 30-120 d postpartum) attending public daycare clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Milk and plasma components were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Nutrient concentrations (micromoles per liter, mean +/- SE) in plasma and milk were, respectively, retinol 2.1 +/- 0.5 and 0.62 +/- 0.44, beta-carotene 0.18 +/- 0.19 and 0.016 +/- 0.017, alpha-carotene 0.05 +/- 0.04 and 0.0035 +/- 0.002, lutein plus zeaxanthin 0.15 +/- 0.11 and 0.025 +/- 0.024, lycopene 0.1 +/- 0.11 and 0.016 +/- 0.025, alpha-tocopherol 10.8 +/- 5.3 and 2.7 +/- 1.8, gamma-tocopherol 2.6 +/- 2.3 and 0.37 +/- 0.15. The milk/plasma molar ratios of retinol and tocopherols were two times higher than those of carotenoids. Significant correlations (P milk and plasma nutrient levels were observed for beta-carotene (r = 0.41), alpha-carotene (r = 0.60), and lutein plus zeaxanthin (r = 0.57), but not for lycopene, retinol, and tocopherols. Nutrient concentrations in plasma and in milk were not associated with the maternal characteristics investigated. Concentrations of the nutrients studied, especially retinol and alpha-tocopherol, in mature milk of lactating adolescents were, in general, lower than in milk of adult lactating women. Milk concentrations were associated with plasma concentrations only for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin.

  18. Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Eliza Facione Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test was done. In 24 ejaculates, it were done thermo-resistance test, and in 21 ejaculates it were determined the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma. The male goats presented difference in the semen physical and morphological aspects, in the hiposmotic test and thermo-resistance test, but they did not presented difference in total soluble proteins concentration in seminal plasma. Results of the slow thermo-resistance test and hiposmotic test were positively correlated (r = 0.60. It was concluded, according to our results, that the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality of Alpine bucks.It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test

  19. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract increases plasma antioxidant status associated with reduced plasma malondialdehyde concentration without hypoglycemia in fasting healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Khannongpho, Teerawat; Siriwatanapaiboon, Marent; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Dahlan, Winai; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2016-12-29

    To investigate the effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) on plasma glucose concentration and antioxidant status in healthy volunteers. A randomized crossover design was used in this study. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mL of warm water (10 cases) or 200 mL of MOLE (500 mg dried extract, 10 cases). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for measuring fasting plasma glucose (FPG), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FPG concentration was not signifificantly different between warm water and MOLE. The consumption of MOLE acutely improved both FRAP and TEAC, with increases after 30 min of 30 μmol/L FeSO 4 equivalents and 0.18 μmol/L Trolox equivalents, respectively. The change in MDA level from baseline was signifificantly lowered after the ingestion of MOLE at 30, 60, and 90 min. In addition, FRAP level was negatively correlated with plasma MDA level after an intake of MOLE. MOLE increased plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in human. The consumption of MOLE may reduce the risk factors associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  20. Plasma heme oxygenase-1 concentration is elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating concentrations of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 have been recently reported to be elevated in several chronic disorders. However, no study has ever examined the association between circulating HO-1 concentrations and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 581 cases with newly-diagnosed T2DM (New-T2DM and 611 comparison controls were recruited in this two-phase case-control study, comprising 420 cases and 429 controls collected in the first phase study and 161 cases and 182 controls in the second phase replication study. Analyses, using both separated data and combined data from the two-phase studies, show that plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly increased in New-T2DM cases compared to controls (P<0.001. Plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly correlated with plasma glucose concentrations, HOMA-beta and HOMA-IR (P<0.001. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI and family history of diabetes, the ORs for New-T2DM in the highest quartile of plasma HO-1 concentrations, compared with the lowest, was 8.23 (95% CI 5.55-12.21; P for trend <0.001. The trend remained significant after additional adjustment for fasting plasma glucose/insulin, HOMA-beta/HOMA-IR, TC/TG, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension, and even in further stratification analysis by age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma HO-1 concentrations are associated with higher ORs for New-T2DM, which add more knowledge regarding the important role of oxidative stress in T2DM. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of plasma HO-1, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of T2DM and its complications.

  1. Plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in dogs with pulmonic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiya; Hori, Yasutomo; Chimura, Syuuichi

    2014-06-01

    The detailed information between plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and dogs with pulmonic stenosis (PS) is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical utility of measuring plasma NT-proBNP concentrations in dogs with PS and to determine whether plasma NT-proBNP concentration could be used to assess disease severity. This retrospective study enrolled 30 client-owned, untreated dogs with PS (asymptomatic [n=23] and symptomatic [n=7]) and 11 healthy laboratory beagles. Results of physical examination, thoracic radiography and echocardiography were recorded. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were measured using commercial laboratories. Compared to the healthy control dogs, cardiothoracic ratio was significantly increased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. Similarly, the ratio of the main pulmonary artery to aorta was significantly decreased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. The pulmonic pressure gradient in the symptomatic PS dogs was significantly higher than that in the asymptomatic PS dogs. Plasma NT-proBNP concentration was significantly elevated in the symptomatic PS dogs compared to the healthy control dogs and the asymptomatic PS dogs. Furthermore, the Doppler-derived pulmonic pressure gradient was significantly correlated with the plasma NT-proBNP concentration (r=0.78, r(2)=0.61, P764 pmol/l to identify severe PS had a sensitivity of 76.2% and specificity of 81.8%. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration increased by spontaneous PS, i.e. right-sided pressure overload and can be used as an additional method to assess the severity of PS in dogs.

  2. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII...

  3. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and

  4. Determination of deuterium concentrations in JET plasmas from fusion reaction rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Balet, B.; Cordey, J.G.; Morgan, P.D.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van; Conroy, S.; Elevant, T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of deuterium in the central regions of JET plasmas, expressed as a fraction of the electron concentration (n d /n e ), has been determined using four different methods involving neutron detection. These measurements are found to be consistent and agree within experimental errors with values deduced from Z eff measurements using visible bremsstrahlung radiation. (author) 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Concentration of vanadium in crude oil and water using inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Y.M.; Hassan, M.A.; Junkin, K.; Mahat, R.H.; Raphie, B.

    1991-01-01

    Vanadium is a trace element that is usually associated to crude oil and its products. In this study the concentration of vanadium in a few samples of local crude oil, sea and river water were determined using inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). It is hoped that the concentration of vanadium in water can be used to indicate the possible extent of oil contamination

  6. Processing-independent proANP measurement for low concentrations in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Hunter, Ingrid; Terzic, Dijana

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decreased concentrations of pro-atrial-derived natriuretic peptides (proABP) in plasma have been associated with obesity and suggested as a predictor of type 2 diabetes. However, assays for measuring proANP are generally aimed to quantitate higher concentrations of proANP associated...

  7. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    1. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.015%, 0.150%, and 1.500% crude oil.2. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0.150% or 1.500% Alaskan Prudhoe Bay crude oil were uniformly depressed when compared to values in untreated control birds.3. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil.4. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment.

  8. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    measurements of acid-base and oxygenation status. This article presents and evaluates a new method for doing so. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mathematical method for estimating plasma albumin concentration is described. To evaluate the method at numerous albumin concentrations, blood from 19 healthy subjects......PURPOSE: Hypoalbuminemia is strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. Albumin is usually measured at the central laboratory rather than point of care, but in principle, information exists in the buffering properties of whole blood to estimate plasma albumin concentration from point of care...

  9. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary

  10. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary.

  11. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... 30 control subjects (15 men and 15 women) of comparable age. There were ... estrogens and progestins makes the brain more vulnerable to acute insults ... estrogen or ratio of progesterone to estrogen is different in ischemia ...

  12. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Kenji; Nakamura, Marie; Adachi, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Akira; Hakamada, Tomomi; Abe, Yasuko; Kaneko, Eiji; Takahashi, Soiciro; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles. A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years) were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids. Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia. The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

  13. Comparison of digoxin concentration in plastic serum tubes with clot activator and heparinized plasma tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Lora; Simundić, Ana-Maria; Malogorski, Davorin

    2014-01-01

    Sample type recommended by the manufacturer for the digoxin Abbott assay is either serum collected in glass tubes or plasma (sodium heparin, lithium heparin, citrate, EDTA or oxalate as anticoagulant) collected in plastic tubes. In our hospital samples are collected in plastic tubes. Our hypothesis was that the serum sample collected in plastic serum tube can be used interchangeably with plasma sample for measurement of digoxin concentration. Our aim was verification of plastic serum tubes for determination of digoxin concentration. Concentration of digoxin was determined simultaneously in 26 venous blood plasma (plastic Vacuette, LH Lithium heparin) and serum (plastic Vacuette, Z Serum Clot activator; both Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) samples, on Abbott AxSYM analyzer using the original Abbott Digoxin III assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany). Tube comparability was assessed using the Passing Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plot. Serum and plasma digoxin concentrations are comparable. Passing Bablok intercept (0.08 [95% CI = -0.10 to 0.20]) and slope (0.99 [95% CI = 0.92 to 1.11]) showed there is no constant or proportional error. Blood samples drawn in plastic serum tubes and plastic plasma tubes can be interchangeably used for determination of digoxin concentration.

  14. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Toyoshima

    Full Text Available Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles.A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids.Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia.The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

  15. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role of hypoadipone......Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...... nondiabetic Pima Indians (112 M/107 F, age 31 +/- 9 years, body weight 96 +/- 20 kg [mean +/- SD]) in whom body weight and height were measured and BMI calculated at baseline and follow-up. Cross-sectionally, plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively associated with body weight (r = -0.28, P = 0...

  16. Risk factors associated with high linezolid trough plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, L; De la Calle, C; Gómez-Cerquera, J M; Manzanedo, L; Casals, G; Brunet, M; Cobos-Trigueros, N; Martínez, J A; Mensa, J; Soriano, A

    2016-06-01

    The major concern of linezolid is the adverse events. High linezolid trough serum concentration (Cmin) has been associated with toxicity. The aim of this study was to analyze factors associated with high Cmin. Main clinical characteristics of 104 patients treated with 600 mg/12 hours of linezolid were retrospectively reviewed. Samples were obtained just before the next dose after at least three doses and within the first 8 days of treatment. High Cmin was considered when it was >8 mg/L. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. 34.6% patients had a Cmin >8 mg/L, and they were older and had more frequently an estimated glomerular filtration by MDRD 8 was the renal function. Patients with an eGF 80 mL/min (OR: 4.273) and there was a trend towards a high Cmin in patients with eGF between 40-80 mL/min (OR: 2.109). High Cmin were frequent, especially in patients with MDRD <40 mL/min. Therapeutic drug monitoring could be useful to avoid toxicity in patients with renal dysfunction.

  17. Plasma oxytocin concentrations are lower in depressed vs. healthy control women and are independent of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kaeli W; Garner, Joseph P; Carson, Dean S; Keller, Jennifer; Lembke, Anna; Hyde, Shellie A; Kenna, Heather A; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Schatzberg, Alan F; Parker, Karen J

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) promotes social behavior and attenuates stress responsivity in mammals. Recent clinical evidence suggests OT concentrations may be dysregulated in major depression. This study extends previous research by testing whether: 1) OT concentrations vary systematically in depressive disorders with and without hypercortisolemia, 2) gender differences in OT concentrations are observed in depressed vs. healthy control participants, and 3) OT concentrations are predictive of clinical phenotypes. Plasma OT concentrations of psychotic major depressive (PMD; n = 14: 10 female, 4 male), non-psychotic major depressive (NPMD; n = 17: 12 female, 5 male), and non-depressed, healthy control (n = 19: 11 female, 8 male) participants were assayed at 2000, 2400, 0400, and 0800 h. Plasma cortisol concentrations were quantified at 2300 h, and clinical phenotypes were determined. As expected, PMD participants, compared to NPMD and healthy control participants, showed higher plasma cortisol concentrations. Although both depressed groups showed similar OT concentrations, a significant interaction effect between group and gender was observed. Specifically, depressed females exhibited lower mean OT concentrations than depressed males. Further, depressed vs. healthy control female participants exhibited lower mean OT concentrations, whereas depressed vs. healthy control male participants showed a trend in the opposite direction. OT concentrations were also predictive of desirability, drug dependence, and compulsivity scores as measured by the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. All findings were independent of cortisol. These data suggest that OT signaling may provide a mechanism by which to better understand female-biased risk to develop depressive disorders and that plasma OT concentrations may be a useful biomarker of certain clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 are elevated in patients with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiping; Wang, Jianye; Wang, Haiyu; Tang, Ning; Li, Yunfei; Zhang, Yan; Hao, Tianyu

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9 is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family, which is critical to normal tissue remodelling during embryogenesis and wound healing. In patients with endometriosis, increased expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 have been observed in ectopic endometrium, but the plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with endometriosis and their relation to disease severity have not been clear. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in plasma and peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. A prospective case-control study was conducted in Jinan Military General Hospital between January 2010 and December 2013. Fifty patients with proven endometriosis and 26 endometriosis-free controls were enrolled in this study. Patients with endometriosis were evaluated and divided into moderate/severe endometriosis group (stage I-II, n = 26) and minimal/mild endometriosis group (stage III-IV, n = 24) according to the revised criteria of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Blood samples and peritoneal fluid were obtained from both patients and controls. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in plasma and peritoneal fluid. The concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-9 between different groups was compared and its correlation to disease severity was analysed. Plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with endometriosis were higher than that in controls. In addition, those patients with moderate/severe endometriosis had significantly higher plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 compared to those with minimal/mild endometriosis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 concentrations in plasma and peritoneal fluid were both positively correlated with severity of endometriosis and plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9

  19. Influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cateno; Privitera, Maria Giovanna; Melilli, Barbara; Incognito, Tiziana; Marano, Maria Rosa; Leggio, Gian Marco; Roxas, Matilde Amico; Drago, Filippo

    2007-09-01

    Bacterial intestinal glucosidases exert an important role in isoflavone absorption. Insoluble dietary fibers such as inulin may stimulate the growth of these bacteria in the colon and, hence, stimulate the absorption of these substances in subjects who may need isoflavone supplementation. The objective was to assess the influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations after intake of soybean isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women. Twelve healthy postmenopausal women participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. They consumed 40 mg of a conjugated form of soybean isoflavones (6 mg daidzein and 18 mg genistein as free form) with or without 3.66 g inulin twice daily in two 21-d experimental phases. Blood samples were collected 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, and 24 h after intake of isoflavones with breakfast and dinner at the end of each 21-d experimental phase. Plasma concentrations of isoflavones were assessed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. Plasma 24-h areas under the curve indicated that the intake of soybean isoflavones with inulin for 21 d was followed by higher plasma concentrations of daidzein and genistein (38% and 91%, respectively) compared with the formulation without inulin. Furthermore, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein appeared to be lower after the 21-d intake of soybean isoflavones, with or without inulin. However, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein after supplementation with the inulin-containing formulation on day 21 was not significantly different from that after supplementation with the formulation without inulin. Inulin may increase the apparent plasma concentrations of the soybean isoflavones daidzein and genistein in postmenopausal women. The higher plasma concentrations of the 2 isoflavones suggests that the absorption of each was facilitated by the presence of inulin.

  20. The plasma carnitine concentration regulates renal OCTN2 expression and carnitine transport in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Schürch, R; Todesco, L; Novakova, K; Mevissen, M; Stieger, B; Krähenbühl, S

    2010-01-01

    Previous findings in rats and in human vegetarians suggest that the plasma carnitine concentration and/or carnitine ingestion may influence the renal reabsorption of carnitine. We tested this hypothesis in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency following treatment with N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP) for 2 weeks and rats treated with excess L-carnitine for 2 weeks. Compared to untreated control rats, treatment with THP was associated with an approximately 70% decrease in plasma car...

  1. Negative symptoms in nondeficit syndrome respond to neuroleptic treatment with changes in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, E; Kanba, S; Koshikawa, H; Nibuya, M; Yagi, G; Asai, M

    1996-01-01

    Deficit syndrome (DS) in schizophrenia is characterized by serious, chronic, and primary negative symptoms. We investigated differences in response to neuroleptic treatment between 8 DS patients and 6 nondeficit syndrome (NDS) patients who had the selective dopamine-D2 receptor blocker bromperidol added to their neuroleptic regimens. First, 9 mg/d was administered for 4 weeks, followed by 18 mg/d for another 4 weeks. Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and plasma bromperidol concentrations were m...

  2. Dietary modulation of plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 concentrations in healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Hammer, Sebastiaan; Snel, Marieke; van der Meer, Rutger W.; Lamb, Hildo J.; Mattijssen, Frits; Mudde, Karin; Jazet, Ingrid M.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Roos, Albert; Romijn, Johannes A.; Kersten, Sander; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2013-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) has been identified as an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase. Preliminary data suggest that plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) raise plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in humans. The objective was to assess plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations after various nutritional

  3. Dietary modulation of plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 concentrations in healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.T.; Smit, J.W.A.; Hammer, S.; Snel, M.; Meer, R.W. van der; Lamb, H.J.; Mattijssen, F.; Mudde, K.; Jazet, I.M.; Dekkers, O.M.; Roos, A. de; Romijn, J.A.; Kersten, S.; Rensen, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) has been identified as an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase. Preliminary data suggest that plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) raise plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in humans. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations

  4. Dietary modulation of plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 concentrations in healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.T.; Smit, J.W.A.; Hammer, S.; Snel, M.; Meer, van der R.; Lamb, H.J.; Mattijssen, F.B.J.; Mudde, C.M.; Jazet, I.M.; Dekkers, O.M.; Roos, de A.; Romijn, J.A.; Kersten, A.H.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) has been identified as an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase. Preliminary data suggest that plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) raise plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in humans. Objective: The objective was to assess plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations

  5. Fever and changes in plasma zinc and iron concentrations in the goat: The role of leukocytic pyrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, J.H.M.; Miert, A. S. J. P. A. M. Van; Duin, C.T.M. van; Schotman, A.J.H.; Nieuwenhuis, J.

    1984-01-01

    In goats with trypanosomiasis (T. vivax or T. congolense) no marked fall in plasma zinc concentration was seen despite high temperature peaks, whereas plasma concentrations of iron tended to undergo some decline. In goats infected with Ehrlichia phagocytophila, there was a marked decline in plasma

  6. Effect of physiological determinants and cardiac disease on plasma adiponectin concentrations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damoiseaux, C; Merveille, A-C; Krafft, E; Da Costa, A M; Gomart, S; Jespers, P; Michaux, C; Clercx, C; Verhoeven, C; Mc Entee, K

    2014-01-01

    In humans, a high concentration of adiponectin is associated with a favorable cardiovascular risk profile whereas, in patients with heart failure (HF), a high concentration of adiponectin is associated with a less favorable prognosis. To evaluate the physiological determinants of plasma adiponectin concentration in dogs and the influence of heart disease, myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD), and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). One hundred and fourteen client-owned dogs and 9 Beagles from the research colony of the Clinical Veterinary Unit of the University of Liège. We prospectively measured circulating adiponectin concentration in healthy control dogs (n = 77), dogs with MMVD (n = 22) and dogs with DCM (n = 15) of various degrees of severity. Diagnosis was confirmed by Doppler echocardiography. Plasma adiponectin concentration was measured by a canine-specific sandwich ELISA kit. An analysis of covariance showed an association between adiponectin concentration and age, neuter status, and heart disease. No association between adiponectin concentration and class of HF, sex, body condition score, body weight, circadian rhythm, or feeding was found. Plasma adiponectin concentration was negatively correlated with age (P = .001). Adiponectin was lower in neutered (P = .008) compared to intact dogs. Circulating adiponectin concentration was increased in dogs with DCM compared to healthy dogs (P = .018) and to dogs with MMVD (P = .014). Age and neutering negatively influence circulating adiponectin concentration. Plasma adiponectin concentration increased in dogs with DCM. Additional research is required to investigate if this hormone is implicated in the pathophysiology of DCM and associated with clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Treatment with cinacalcet increases plasma sclerostin concentration in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Więcek, Andrzej

    2016-11-15

    Sclerostin is a paracrine acting factor, which is expressed in the osteocytes and articular chondrocytes. Sclerostin decreases the osteoblast-related bone formation through the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Osteocytes also express the Calcium sensing receptor which is a target for cinacalcet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of six-month cinacalcet treatment on plasma sclerostin concentration in hemodialysed patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT). In 58 hemodialysed patients with sHPT (PTH > 300 pg/ml) plasma sclerostin and serum PTH, calcium and phosphate concentrations were assessed before the first dose of cinacalcet and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Serum PTH concentration decreased after 3 and 6 month of treatment from 1138 (931-1345) pg/ml to 772 (551-992) pg/ml and to 635 (430-839) pg/ml, respectively. Mean serum calcium and phosphate concentrations remained stable. Plasma sclerostin concentration increased after 3 and 6 months of treatment from 1.66 (1.35-1.96) ng/ml, to 1.77 (1.43-2.12) ng/ml and to 1.87 (1.50-2.25) ng/ml, respectively. In 42 patients with cinacalcet induced serum PTH decrease plasma sclerostin concentration increased after 3 and 6 months of treatment from 1.51 (1.19-1.84) ng/ml to 1.59 (1.29-1.89) ng/ml and to 1.75 (1.42-2.01) ng/ml, respectively. Contrary, in the 16 patients without cinacalcet induced serum PTH decrease plasma sclerostin concentration was stable. Plasma sclerostin concentrations correlated inversely with serum PTH concentrations at the baseline and also after 6 months of treatment. 1. In hemodialysed patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism treatment with cinacalcet increases plasma sclerostin concentration 2. This effect seems to be related to decrease of serum PTH concentration.

  8. [Effects of dietary wheat gluten level on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqun; Han, Feng; Sun, Licui; Lu, Jiaxi; Sugiyama, Kimio; Huang, Zhenwu

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different level of casein and wheat gluten on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats. 48 rats of the Wistar were fed with different level of casein (12.5%, 25% and 50%) and wheat gluten (14.5%, 29% and 58%) diets for 14 days, and they were killed by decapitation to obtain blood and livers was subject to analysis the concentration of homocysteine, cysteine and other amino acids, as well as BHMT and CBS activities. Body weight gain in rats fed wheat gluten dietary was significantly less than casein dietary, but food intake was significantly decreased in wheat gluten group with increasing of the protein content. The plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed wheat gluten was marketly less than casein, however plasma cysteine concentration in wheat gluten was higher than casein group. The effects of wheat gluten on plasma homocysteine concentration are mainly depends on the low contents of methionine and high cysteine content, but the low contents of lyscine and threonine are not ignored. The mainly mechanism is that the increased cysteine concentration promot enzyme activities of homocystein metabolism, and increase the consumption of homocysteine.

  9. Correlation of plasma and peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration with hemodynamic recovery after intralipid infusion in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant; Hoggett, Kerry

    2009-02-01

    Drug sequestration to an expanded plasma lipid phase has been proposed as a potential mechanism of action for lipid emulsions in lipophilic cardiotoxin overdose. The authors set out to document plasma and peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration after resuscitation with lipid emulsion in a rabbit model of clomipramine-induced hypotension. Twenty sedated mechanically ventilated New Zealand White rabbits were allocated to receive either 12 mL/kg 20% Intralipid or 12 mL/kg saline solution, following clomipramine infusion to 50% baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP). Hemodynamic parameters and serum clomipramine concentration were determined to 59 minutes. Peritoneal dialysis with 20% Intralipid or saline solution was evaluated for clomipramine concentration. Mean arterial pressure was greater in lipid-treated animals as assessed by repeated-measures analysis of variance (F[1,14] = 6.84; p = 0.020). Lipid infusion was associated with elevated plasma clomipramine concentration and reduced initial volume of distribution (Vd; 5.7 [+/-1.6] L/kg lipid vs. 15.9 [+/-7.2] L/kg saline; p = 0.0001). Peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration was greater in lipid-treated animals (366.2 [+/-186.2] microg/L lipid vs. 37.7 [+/-13.8] microg/L saline; p = 0.002). Amelioration of clomipramine-induced hypotension with lipid infusion is associated with reduced initial Vd and elevated plasma clomipramine concentration consistent with intravascular drug-lipid sequestration. Concomitant peritoneal dialysis with lipid emulsion enhances clomipramine extraction.

  10. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, M N; Chaikov, L L; Zaritskii, A R

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r -4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids. (paper)

  11. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  12. Protective role of melatonin in progesterone production by human luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Toshiaki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Lee, Lifa; Kizuka, Fumie; Tamura, Isao; Taniguchi, Ken; Maekawa, Ryo; Asada, Hiromi; Shimamura, Katsunori; Reiter, Russel J; Sugino, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated whether melatonin protects luteinized granulosa cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an antioxidant to enhance progesterone production in the follicle during ovulation. Follicular fluid was sampled at the time of oocyte retrieval in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Melatonin concentrations in the follicular fluid were positively correlated with progesterone concentrations (r = 0.342, P progesterone and 8-OHdG concentrations were negatively correlated (r = -0.246, P Progesterone production by luteinized granulosa cells was significantly inhibited by H(2)O(2). Melatonin treatment overcame the inhibitory effect of H(2) O(2) . Twenty-five patients who had luteal phase defect (serum progesterone concentrations progesterone concentrations (>10 ng/mL during the mid-luteal phase) in nine of 14 women (64.3%), whereas only two of 11 women (18.1%) showed normal serum progesterone levels in the control group. In conclusion, melatonin protects granulosa cells undergoing luteinization from ROS in the follicle and contributes to luteinization for progesterone production during ovulation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Fasting plasma chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid concentrations are inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laville Martine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating data suggest a novel role for bile acids (BAs in modulating metabolic homeostasis. BA treatment has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and to increase energy expenditure in mice. Here, we investigated the relationship between fasting plasma BAs concentrations and metabolic parameters in humans. Findings Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured in 14 healthy volunteers, 20 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, and 22 non-diabetic abdominally obese subjects. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the determination of the glucose infusion rate (GIR during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in a subgroup of patients (9 healthy and 16 T2D subjects. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Plasma cholic acid (CA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA and deoxycholic acid (DCA concentrations were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. In univariable analysis, a positive association was found between HOMA-IR and plasma CDCA (β = 0.09, p = 0.001, CA (β = 0.03, p = 0.09 and DCA concentrations (β = 0.07, p Conclusions Both plasma CDCA, CA and DCA concentrations were negatively associated with insulin sensitivity in a wide range of subjects.

  14. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestorino, N.; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J.

    2009-01-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg -1 ). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 μg h mL -1 and its elimination half life (T β 1/2 ) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T β 1/2 from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal

  15. The association of plasma gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration with postoperative delirium in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitaka, Shiho; Egi, Moritoki; Kanazawa, Tomoyuki; Toda, Yuichiro; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Delirium is a common complication in postoperative, critically ill patients. The mechanism of postoperative delirium is not well understood but many studies have shown significant associations between benzodiazepine use, alcohol withdrawal and cirrhosis, and an increased risk of delirium. We aimed to investigate a possible link with alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity. A prospective observational investigation of 40 patients > 20 years old who had undergone elective surgery with general anaesthesia and were expected to need postoperative intensive care for more than 48 hours. We assessed postoperative delirium using the confusion assessment method in the intensive care unit at 1 hour after the operation and on postoperative Day (POD) 1 and POD 2. We collected blood samples for measurement of plasma GABA concentrations before the operation and on POD 1 and 2. Postoperative delirium and perioperative plasma GABA concentrations in patients with and without delirium. Postoperative delirium occurred in 13 of the patients. Patients with delirium had significantly higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores than patients without delirium. The mean plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was significantly lower in patients with delirium than in those without delirium. After adjustment of relevant variables, plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was independently associated with postoperative delirium. Plasma GABA level on POD 2 has a significant independent association with postoperative delirium.

  16. Progesterone in Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Monica C.; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of steroid hormones in breast carcinogenesis is well established. Recent evidence suggests that angiogenesis can be regulated by hormones. Both oestrogen and progesterone have been implicated in the angiogenic process of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a growth factor involved in angiogenesis in breast cancer that is up-regulated by estrogens. In our study we evaluated the role of progesterone in the expression of ...

  17. Forced swimming and imipramine modify plasma and brain amino acid concentrations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tatsuro; Yamane, Haruka; Tomonaga, Shozo; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-05

    The relationships between monoamine metabolism and forced swimming or antidepressants have been well studied, however information is lacking regarding amino acid metabolism under these conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of forced swimming and imipramine on amino acid concentrations in plasma, the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus in mice. Forced swimming caused cerebral cortex concentrations of L-glutamine, L-alanine, and taurine to be increased, while imipramine treatment caused decreased concentrations of L-glutamate, L-alanine, L-tyrosine, L-methionine, and L-ornithine. In the hypothalamus, forced swimming decreased the concentration of L-serine while imipramine treatment caused increased concentration of beta-alanine. Forced swimming caused increased plasma concentration of taurine, while concentrations of L-serine, L-asparagine, L-glutamine and beta-alanine were decreased. Imipramine treatment caused increased plasma concentration of all amino acid, except for L-aspartate and taurine. In conclusion, forced swimming and imipramine treatment modify central and peripheral amino acid metabolism. These results may aid in the identification of amino acids that have antidepressant-like effects, or may help to refine the dosages of antidepressant drugs.

  18. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasmaconcentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  19. Impact of Annexin A 7 Deficiency on FGF23 Plasma Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja T. Umbach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The release of fibroblast growth factor FGF23, a powerful regulator of 1,25(OH2D3 formation and mineral metabolism, is stimulated by store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE, which is accomplished by the pore forming Ca2+ release activated channel protein Orai1. Regulators of Orai1 and thus FGF23 release include serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, a kinase up-regulated by glucocorticosteroids. Some effects of glucocorticoids require the presence of annexin A7, such as suppression of prostaglandin E2 in gastric glands. The present study thus explored whether annexin A7 impacts on FGF23 plasma levels. Methods: Comparisons were made between gene targeted mice lacking functional annexin A7 (Anx7-/- and their wild type littermates (Anx7+/+. Serum C-terminal-FGF23, intact FGF23, 1,25(OH2D3 and PTH concentrations were measured by ELISA or EIA. The serum and urinary phosphate concentrations were measured by colorimetry, the serum Ca2+ concentration and the urinary Ca2+ concentration by flame photometry. Results: Serum C-terminal FGF23 levels and corticosterone levels were significantly higher and serum 1,25(OH2 D3 and PTH levels were significantly lower in Anx7-/- than in Anx7+/+ mice. Water intake was slightly but significantly higher in Anx7-/- mice than in Anx7+/+ mice. No significant difference was observed between Anx7-/- and Anx7+/+ mice in urinary fluid excretion, plasma Ca2+ concentration, plasma phosphate concentration and urinary Ca2+ output. The urinary phosphate output was significantly lower in Anx7-/- mice than in Anx7+/+ mice. Conclusion: Annexin A7 deficiency upregulates FGF23 plasma levels, an effect paralleled by increased corticosterone plasma levels, as well as decreased 1,25(OH2 D3 and PTH plasma levels.

  20. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  1. Decreased plasma concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Casarosa, Elena; Luisi, Michele; Czyzyk, Adam; Meczekalski, Blazej; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2013-09-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a non organic, secondary amenorrhea related to gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulsatile secretion impairment. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family of survival-promoting molecules, plays an important role in the growth, development, maintenance and function of several neuronal systems. The aim of the study was the evaluation of plasma BDNF concentrations in patients with the diagnosis of FHA. We studied 85 subjects diagnosed with FHA who were compared with 10 healthy, eumenorrheic controls with normal body mass index. Plasma BDNF and serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol (E2) concentrations were measured by immunoenzymatic method (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Significantly lower concentration of plasma BDNF was found in FHA patients (196.31 ± 35.26 pg/ml) in comparison to healthy controls (407.20 ± 25.71 pg/ml; p < 0.0001). In the control group, there was a strong positive correlation between plasma BDNF and serum E2 concentrations (r = 0.92, p = 0.0001) but in FHA group it was not found. Role of BDNF in FHA is not yet fully understood. There could be found studies concerning plasma BDNF concentrations in humans and animals in the literature. However, our study is one of the first projects which describes decreased plasma BDNF concentration in patients with diagnosed FHA. Therefore, further studies on BDNF in FHA should clarify the role of this peptide.

  2. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graceli, J.B.; Cicilini, M.A.; Bissoli, N.S.; Abreu, G.R.; Moysés, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of extracellular Na + and Cl - concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na + and Cl - reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 , sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 , sc). We assessed Na + and Cl - fractional excretion (FE Na + and FE Cl - , respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FE Na + , FE Cl - , water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FE Na + , FE Cl - , water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen, and progesterone in the modulation of renal function

  4. Low plasma taurine concentration in Newfoundland dogs is associated with low plasma methionine and cyst(e)ine concentrations and low taurine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Robert C; Ko, Kwang Suk; Fascetti, Andrea J; Kittleson, Mark D; Macdonald, Kristin A; Maggs, David J; Berg, John R; Rogers, Quinton R

    2006-10-01

    Although taurine is not dietarily essential for dogs, taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are sporadically reported in large-breed dogs. Taurine status and husbandry were examined in 216 privately owned Newfoundlands, a giant dog breed with high incidence of idiopathic DCM (1.3-2.5%). Plasma taurine concentration was positively correlated (P ine (r = 0.37) and methionine (r = 0.35) concentrations and was similar across age, sex, neutering status, body weight, and body-condition scores. Plasma taurine concentration was low (ine, tryptophan, and alpha-amino-n-butyric acid concentrations than the other dogs (P ine and blood glutathione, lower (P < 0.01) de novo taurine synthesis (59 +/- 15 vs. 124 +/- 27 mg x kg(-0.75) x d(-1)), and greater (P < 0.05) fecal bile acid excretion (1.7 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.2 micromol/g). Newfoundlands would appear to have a higher dietary sulfur amino acid requirement than Beagles, a model breed used in nutrient requirement determinations.

  5. Use Of Progesterone Radioimmunoassay for The Monitoring Reproductive status of Cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuh, Ratnawati; Tjiptosumirat, Totti; Tuasikal, Boky Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    The artificial insemination (AI) has been widely applied for the rapid improvements of genetic and reproductive efficiency, especially in the developing countries. In Indonesia it was introduced for a long time ago, but the fertility rate of insemination cows, however, is still low. Due to the limitation or relying on visual observation and rectal palpation far determining reproductive status, monitoring milk progesterone can help to improve reproductive efficiency and economic benefits. To analyse progesterone concentration, milk samples were collected in vials containing sodium azide tablets.The milk samples were collected twice a week for about six weeks long, and stored at 4 o C in the refrigerator until analysed. Progesterone concentration in milk samples was determined by using solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit with 125 I labelled progesterone as tracer. The progesterone standards were prepared in skim milk and range from 0 to 40 nmol/I. The results of progesterone assay on samples of milk collected from five cows indicated that two cows with low progesterone, signifies that these cows had inactive ovaries (anoestrus), three other cows with post calving catalytic progesterone interpretation, and after subsequent insemination two cows getting pregnant. The accurate determination of progesterone levels can be used to confirm oestrus and diagnose non-pregnancy as well as to moriitor postpartum ovarian activity, early embryonic death and ovarian disorder

  6. Toxic plasma concentration of ropivacaine after a paravertebral block in a patient suffering from severe hypoalbuminemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenda, Emile; Baste, Jean Marc; Hajjej, Ridha; Danielou, Eric; Peillon, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    A case of systemic ropivacaine toxicity from a continuous thoracic paravertebral block in an adult patient who received a lobectomy is presented. The catheter was placed by the surgeon. Eleven hours after the start of the infusion, the patient experienced an arrhythmia leading to death. The total venous plasma concentration of ropivacaine was high (3.2 μg/mL). Furthermore, the patient had severe hypoalbuminemia (albumin 24 g/L), which resulted in the increase of the unbound ropivacaine plasma concentration that was responsible for the toxic side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl with subcutaneous infusion in palliative care patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R S; Peterson, G M; Abbott, F; Maddocks, I; Parker, D; McLean, S

    1995-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl were measured by g.c. in 20 patients (median age: 75 years and range: 54-86 years; eight females) in palliative care receiving the drug by continuous s.c. infusion (median rate: 1200 micrograms day-1 and range: 100-5000 micrograms day-1). 2. The infusion rate was significantly related to the duration of therapy (Spearman rho = 0.56, P < 0.05). The total steady-state plasma concentrations of fentanyl ranged between 0.1 and 9 ng ml-1, with a median of 1 ng m...

  8. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl with subcutaneous infusion in palliative care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R S; Peterson, G M; Abbott, F; Maddocks, I; Parker, D; McLean, S

    1995-12-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl were measured by g.c. in 20 patients (median age: 75 years and range: 54-86 years; eight females) in palliative care receiving the drug by continuous s.c. infusion (median rate: 1200 micrograms day-1 and range: 100-5000 micrograms day-1). 2. The infusion rate was significantly related to the duration of therapy (Spearman rho = 0.56, P Infusion rates and both total and unbound plasma concentrations of fentanyl were correlated (Spearman rho = 0.92, P infusion in the palliative care setting, which necessitates careful titration of dosage according to individual clinical response.

  9. Performance of the fully automated progesterone assays on the Abbott AxSYM and the Technicon Immuno 1 Analyser compared with the radioimmunoassay progesterone MAIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsberg, J.; Jost, E.; Van der Ven, H.

    1997-01-01

    Test performance of two automated progesterone assays available on the immunoassay analysers Abbott AxSYM and Technicon Immuno 1, respectively, was evaluated in comparison with the radioimmunoassay Progesterone MAIA. For assessment of test performance imprecision, functional sensitivity and linearity of dilution was examined. Correlation with the manual radioimmunoassay was assessed using 122 serum samples over the range 0-110 nmol/L. Imprecision studies revealed for the AxSYM Progesterone within-run CV's of 1.8-6.4% and day-to-day CV's of 3.5-9.7% (concentration range 2.3-75 nmol/L); Immuno 1 Progesterone: within-run CV's 1.0-7.3%, day-to-day CV's 2.3-7.7% (concentration range 1.2-60 nmol/L). The functional sensitivity was <1.7 nmol/L for the AxSYM Progesterone and <1.1 nmol/L for the Immuno 1 Progesterone. With the AxSYM Progesterone the mean recovery after dilution from five samples was 102% (89-107%), from one sample only 69-80% was recovered; with the Immuno 1 Progesterone the mean recovery was 95% (80-105%). Despite of a quite good overall correlation (coefficients 0.972 and 0.981) the relationship of both assays to the Progesterone MAIA significantly deviate from linearity with a considerably higher slope within the lower concentration range. The relationship between the automated assays was linear over the entire concentration range (Immuno = 1.207 * AxSYM + 1; r = 0.986). The time to first result was 20 min for the AxSYM Progesterone, 45 min for the Immuno 1 Progesterone and 90 min for the Progesterone MAIA. The evaluated progesterone assays both exhibit an excellent precision and a high degree of sensitivity. They offer a rapid and flexible method for progesterone determination which may be especially useful for the monitoring of ovarian stimulation during in-vitro fertilization. (author)

  10. Intake of whole grains and vegetables determines the plasma enterolactone concentration of Danish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Nina F; Hausner, Helene; Olsen, Anja; Tetens, Inge; Christensen, Jane; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-10-01

    The mammalian lignan enterolactone (ENL), which is produced from dietary plant-lignan precursors by the intestinal microflora, may protect against breast cancer and other hormone-dependent cancers. This cross-sectional study examined which variables related to diet and lifestyle were associated with high plasma concentrations of ENL in Danish postmenopausal women. Plasma ENL was measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in 857 Danish women aged 50-64 y who participated in a prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed using a semiquantitative FFQ, and background information on lifestyle was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple analyses of covariance were completed in two steps. The median plasma ENL concentration was 27 nmol/L (range 0-455 nmol/L). In covariance analyses, positive associations were found between consumption of cereals, vegetables, and beverages and plasma ENL concentration. When analyzing subgroups of these food groups, the associations were confined to whole-grain products, cabbage, leafy vegetables, and coffee. For fat and the nondietary variables, negative associations between BMI, smoking, and frequency of bowel movements and plasma ENL concentration were observed. These data show that foods high in ENL precursors are associated with high concentrations of ENL. Furthermore, smoking, frequent bowel movements, and consumption of fat seems to have a negative affect on the ENL concentration. In conclusion, whole grains and vegetables are the most important dietary providers of plant lignans for the concentration of ENL in Danish postmenopausal women, and if ENL is found to protect against cancer or heart disease, the intake of whole grains and vegetables should be increased.

  11. Plasma methylphenidate concentrations in youths treated with high-dose osmotic release oral system formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jonathan R; George, Robert A; Fusillo, Steven; Stern, Theodore A; Wilens, Timothy E

    2010-02-01

    Children and adolescents are being treated increasingly for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with a variety of stimulants in higher than Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved doses and in combination with other medications. We sought to determine methylphenidate (MPH) concentrations in children and adolescents treated with high-dose, extended-release osmotic release oral system (OROS) MPH plus concomitant medications, and to examine MPH concentrations with respect to the safety and tolerability of treatment. Plasma MPH concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry 4-5 hours after administration of medication in a sample of youths diagnosed with ADHD. These youths were treated naturalistically with higher than FDA-approved doses of OROS MPH in addition to their concomitant medications. Markers of safety and tolerability (e.g., measures of blood pressure and heart rate) were also examined. Among the 17 patients (with a mean age of 16.2 +/- 2 years and a mean number of concurrent medications of 2.23 +/- 0.94), the mean plasma MPH concentration was 28 +/- 9.1 ng/mL, despite a mean daily dose of OROS MPH of 169 +/- 5 mg (3.0 +/- 0.8 mg/kg per day). No patient had a plasma MPH level >or=50 ng/mL or clinical signs of stimulant toxicity. No correlation was found between plasma MPH concentrations and OROS MPH dose or changes in vital signs. High-dose OROS MPH, used in combination with other medications, was not associated with either unusually elevated plasma MPH concentrations or with clinically meaningful changes in vital signs. Study limitations include a single time-point sampling of MPH concentrations, a small sample size, and a lack of outcome measures to address treatment effectiveness.

  12. Hemostatic variables, plasma lactate concentration, and inflammatory biomarkers in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoof, J; Moritz, A; Kramer, M; Bauer, N

    2015-01-01

    Prospective characterization of hemostastatic variables, plasma lactate concentration, and inflammatory biomarkers in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Coagulation variables (platelets, prothrombin time [PT], activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], fibrinogen, antithrombin [AT], protein C [PC], protein S [PS], D-dimers), plasma lactate concentration and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, white blood cell [WBC] count, lymphocyte and neutrophil numbers) were assessed in 20 dogs with GDV presented between 2011 and 2012. Blood was taken preoperatively and at days 1 and 3 postoperatively. The prognostic value of these variables before and after surgery was evaluated as well as the behavior of variables during the study. Overall, 7/20 (35%) dogs did not survive; two dogs (29%) were euthanized during surgery due to severe gastric necrosis and 5 (71%) dogs after surgery due to sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Prior to surgery, median plasma lactate concentration was significantly (p = 0.01) lower in survivors (6.2 mmol/l, range 1.9-9.7 mmol/l) when compared to non-survivors (11.8 mmol/l, range 7.5-16.2 mmol/l). In dogs dying after surgery, significantly higher plasma lactate concentration, coagulation times and D-dimer concentration were present as well as lower fibrinogen concentration and activity of PC and AT compared to survivors. At discharge, activity of AT, PC and PS were markedly below the reference interval in 6/13 (46%), 11/13 (85%), and 8/13 (62%) dogs, respectively. Only lactate plasma concentration was of preoperative prognostic value. After surgery, severe abnormalities of coagulation variables, especially the endogenous anticoagulants were present in most of the dogs. The severity of the abnormalities was associated with survival.

  13. Correlations between plasma noradrenaline concentrations, antioxidants, and neutrophil counts after submaximal resistance exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, A; Wagner, K; Elmadfa, I

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate noradrenaline concentrations, neutrophil counts, plasma antioxidants, and lipid oxidation products before and after acute resistance exercise. Methods: 17 male participants undertook a submaximal resistance exercise circuit (10 exercises; 75% of the one repetition maximum; mean (SD) exercise time, 18.6 (1.1) minutes). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after exercise and analysed for plasma antioxidants, noradrenaline, neutrophils, and lipid oxidation products. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for calculations. Results: Neutrophils, noradrenaline, fat soluble antioxidants, and lipid oxidation products increased after exercise. Noradrenaline concentrations were associated with higher antioxidant concentrations. Neutrophils were related to higher concentrations of conjugated dienes. Conclusions: Submaximal resistance exercise increases plasma antioxidants. This might reflect enhanced antioxidant defence in response to the oxidative stress of exercise, though this is not efficient for inhibiting lipid oxidation. The correlation between noradrenaline concentrations and plasma antioxidants suggests a modulating role of the stress hormone. Neutrophils are a possible source of oxidative stress after resistance exercise. PMID:15388566

  14. Perioperative plasma concentrations of stable nitric oxide products are predictive of cognitive dysfunction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    In this study our objectives were to determine the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients aged >40 and <85 yr and to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of i) S-100beta protein and ii) stable nitric oxide (NO) products and POCD in this clinical setting. Neuropsychological tests were performed on 42 ASA physical status I-II patients the day before, and 4 days and 6 wk after surgery. Patient spouses (n = 13) were studied as controls. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as deficit in one or more cognitive domain(s). Serial measurements of serum concentrations of S-100beta protein and plasma concentrations of stable NO products (nitrate\\/nitrite, NOx) were performed perioperatively. Four days after surgery, new cognitive deficit was present in 16 (40%) patients and in 1 (7%) control subject (P = 0.01). Six weeks postoperatively, new cognitive deficit was present in 21 (53%) patients and 3 (23%) control subjects (P = 0.03). Compared with the "no deficit" group, patients who demonstrated a new cognitive deficit 4 days postoperatively had larger plasma NOx at each perioperative time point (P < 0.05 for each time point). Serum S-100beta protein concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative (and postoperative) plasma concentrations of stable NO products (but not S-100beta) are associated with early POCD. The former represents a potential biochemical predictor of POCD.

  15. Effect of Postural Change on Plasma Insulin Concentration in Normal Volunteer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ho Kyung; Koh, Joo Whan; Joo, Jong Koo; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Jang Kyu [Korea Atomic Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-03-15

    The concentrations of some blood constituents are known to be influenced by the postural change. The blood glucose and insulin concentrations were measured, first, in the supine, and then (30 minutes later) in the erect positions under the fasting state. The effects of a duretic, furose-mide, were also studied under the same condition for 5 consecutive days. The materials were 5 healthy volunteers aging 20-29 years old with out any diabetic past, or family histories. The blood glucose was measured by the Nelson's method, and plasma insulin by the radioimmunoassay method. Following are the results; 1) The plasma insulin concentration in the erect position is slightly higher than in the supine position, however, the increase is statistically insignificant because of the notable individual variations in the values of the supine position. 2) Four out of 5 cases show the increase of about 80% of plasma insulin in the erect position, which is statistically significant if analyzed on the basis of frequency distribution. 3) The blood glucose concentration showed no postural changes. 4) The increase of the plasma insulin concentration in the erect position seems to the result of limited extra vasation of insulin in the lower extremities.

  16. Conjoint regulation of glucagon concentrations via plasma insulin and glucose in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrin, M; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M

    2015-04-01

    Insulin and glucagon are glucoregulatory hormones that contribute to glucose homeostasis. Plasma insulin is elevated during normoglycemia or hyperglycemia and acts as a suppressor of glucagon secretion. We have investigated if and how insulin and glucose contribute to the regulation of glucagon secretion through long term (48 h) elevated insulin concentrations during simultaneous hypoglycemia or euglycemia in mid-lactating dairy cows. Nineteen Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups: an intravenous insulin infusion (HypoG, n = 5) to decrease plasma glucose concentrations (2.5 mmol/L), a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to study effects of insulin at simultaneously normal glucose concentrations (EuG, n = 6) and a 0.9% saline infusion (NaCl, n = 8). Plasma glucose was measured at 5-min intervals, and insulin and glucose infusion rates were adjusted accordingly. Area under the curve of hourly glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations on day 2 of infusion was evaluated by analysis of variance with treatments as fixed effect. Insulin infusion caused an increase of plasma insulin area under the curve (AUC)/h in HypoG (41.9 ± 8.1 mU/L) and EuG (57.8 ± 7.8 mU/L) compared with NaCl (13.9 ± 1.1 mU/L; P insulin infusion induces elevated glucagon concentrations during hypoglycemia, although the same insulin infusion reduces glucagon concentrations at simultaneously normal glucose concentrations. Thus, insulin does not generally have an inhibitory effect on glucagon concentrations. If simultaneously glucose is low and insulin is high, glucagon is upregulated to increase glucose availability. Therefore, insulin and glucose are conjoint regulatory factors of glucagon concentrations in dairy cows, and the plasma glucose status is the key factor to decide if its concentrations are increased or decreased. This regulatory effect can be important for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis if insulin secretion is upregulated by other factors than high

  17. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment. 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4). Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)) were available in 469 individuals (264 girls). Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations. At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4) and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6). Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (pobesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition and lipid concentrations may improve.

  18. Variation in absorption and half-life of hydrocortisone influence plasma cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Peter C; Charmandari, Evangelia

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocortisone therapy should be individualized in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients to avoid over and under replacement. We have assessed how differences in absorption and half-life of cortisol influence glucocorticoid exposure. Forty-eight patients (21 M) aged between 6·1 and 20·3 years with CAH due to CYP21A2 deficiency were studied. Each patient underwent a 24-h plasma cortisol profile with the morning dose used to calculate absorption parameters along with an intravenous (IV) hydrocortisone (15 mg/m(2) body surface area) bolus assessment of half-life. Parameters derived were maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), time of maximum plasma concentration (tmax ), time to attaining plasma cortisol concentration cortisol. Mean half-life was 76·5 ± 5·2 (range 40-225·3) min, Cmax 780·7 ± 61·6 nmol/l and tmax 66·7 (range 20-118) min. Time taken to a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l was 289 (range 140-540) min. Those with a fast half-life and slow tmax took longest to reach a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l (380 ± 34·6 min), compared to those with a slow half-life and fast tmax (298 ± 34·8 min) and those with a fast half-life and fast tmax (249·5 ± 14·4 min) (One-way anovaF = 4·52; P = 0·009). Both rate of absorption and half-life of cortisol in the circulation play important roles in determining overall exposure to oral glucocorticoid. Dose regimens need to incorporate estimates of these parameters into determining the optimum dosing schedule for individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; pfoods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  20. The relationship between embryo quality assessed using routine embryology or time–lapse videography and serum progesterone concentration on the day of ovulatory trigger in in vitro fertilization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhe Liu

    2015-06-01

    Results: In cycles using conventional culture, serum progesterone per follicle ≥14 mm (median 0.42 nmol/L/follicle, range 0.05-3.50 nmol/L/follicle was a significant negative predictor of live-birth (ROC AUC = 0.395, 95% CI 0.345-0.445; P=0.000 as were progesterone/estradiol ratio (0.442, 0.391-0.494; P=0.027 and progesterone per oocyte (0.374, 0.326-0.421; P=0.000 but not progesterone alone (0.470, 0.419-0.521; P>0.05. Women with an EP/follicle (>0.42 nmol/L/follicle had reduced live birth rates if they were ≥35 yrs (14.4% vs. 24.2%, P0.42 nmol/L/follicle adversely affects embryo implantation in women aged ≥35 years, but not <35 yrs. However, no adverse features were seen in the embryos from these affected cycles in terms of morphological appearance, abnormal patterns of cleavage, or morphokinetic timings.

  1. Effects of GnRH, a progesterone-releasing device, and energy balance on an oestrus synchronisation program in anoestrous dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S K; Cockrem, J F; Parkinson, T J; Laven, R A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this research was to study the roles of the day 0 energy balance and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and progesterone levels on dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) development during the first 7 days of a gonadotrophin-prostaglandin-gonadotrophin (GPG) + progesterone (P4) program in anoestrous dairy cows. Cows (n = 81) were allocated to one of the three treatments: (1) GPG + P4 (days 0 and 9, 100 µg GnRH; day 0-7, intravaginal P4 device; day 7, 500 µg PGF 2α ); (2) GPG (as for treatment 1 but excluding the P4 device) and (3) prostaglandin + GnRH + P4 (as for treatment 1, but excluding day 0 GnRH). DF and CL size, plasma concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were measured on days 0 and 7. The proportion of cows with a CL on day 7 was significantly different between groups (GPG: 78%, GPG+P4: 69%, PGF 2α + GnRH + P4: 42%, P = 0.02). The CL volume on day 7 was significantly associated with treatment, treatment by time postpartum and plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and NEFA. In cows without a CL present on day 0 of an oestrus synchronisation program, removal of the day 0 GnRH treatment led to reduced CL development; however, no effect of adding progesterone was found. In contrast, in cows with a CL present on day 0 inclusion of a progesterone device led to a higher CL volume, but removal of the first GnRH injection had no effect. Response to the treatment was affected by plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I and NEFA. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Relationship between plasma dabigatran concentration and activated partial thromboplastin time in Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Shimomura

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between plasma dabigatran concentrations and aPTT. Additionally, in daily clinical practice in Japan, plasma dabigatran concentrations and aPTT reached a peak in the 4-h post administration range. Considering the pharmacokinetics of dabigatran, aPTT can be used as an index for risk screening for excess dabigatran concentrations in Japanese patients with NVAF.

  3. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in patients with valvular heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ralph A; Lee, Mildred; Gabriel, Ruvin; Van Pelt, Niels; Newby, David E; Kerr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations predict prognosis in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), but it is unclear whether this directly relates to disease severity. We assessed the relationship between BNP and echocardiographic measures of disease severity in patients with VHD. Methods Plasma BNP concentrations were measured in patients with normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function and isolated VHD (mitral regurgitation (MR), n=33; aortic regurgitation (AR), n=39; aortic stenosis (AS), n=34; mitral stenosis (MS), n=30), and age-matched and sex-matched controls (n=39) immediately prior to exercise stress echocardiography. Results Compared with controls, patients with VHD had elevated plasma BNP concentrations (MR median 35 (IQR 23–52), AR 34 (22–45), AS 31 (22–60), MS 58 (34–90); controls 24 (16–33) pg/mL; p<0.01 for all). LV end diastolic volume index varied by valve lesion; (MR (mean 77±14), AR (91±28), AS (50±17), MS (43±11), controls (52±13) mL/m2; p<0.0001). There were no associations between LV volume and BNP. Left atrial (LA) area index varied (MR (18±4 cm2/m2), AR (12±2), AS (11±3), MS (19±6), controls (11±2); p<0.0001), but correlated with plasma BNP concentrations: MR (r=0.42, p=0.02), MS (r=0.86, p<0.0001), AR (r=0.53, p=0.001), AS (r=0.52, p=0.002). Higher plasma BNP concentrations were associated with increased pulmonary artery pressure and reduced exercise capacity. Despite adverse cardiac remodelling, 81 (60%) patients had a BNP concentration within the normal range. Conclusions Despite LV remodelling, plasma BNP concentrations are often normal in patients with VHD. Conversely, mild elevations of BNP occur with LA dilatation in the presence of normal LV. Plasma BNP concentrations should be interpreted with caution when assessing patients with VHD. PMID:27175283

  4. Concentrations of Nicotinamide in Plasma by RP-HPLC With Fluorescence Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish a new method for detecting nicotinamide concentration in plasma. In the experiment, the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used, with a fluorescence detector. The nicotinamide in the plasma was first converted to N1- methylnicotinamide, then reacted with acetophenone under certain conditions to produce fluorescent derivatives for testing. The method is a kind of highly sensitive detection, of which the lower limit is 10 ng/mL, the recovery rate is between 92.75% and 105.13%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD is between 3.76% and 4.43%. The results showed that this measurement method is accurate, sensitive and rapid. It meets the requirements of the experiment, and applies to the detection of nicotinamide concentration in plasma.

  5. Measurement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by air cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu, DONG

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a novel approach to measure the absolute cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) using the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was established. The parameters associated with the probe fluo-3 AM were optimized to accurately determine fluorescence intensity from the Ca2+-bound probe. Using three optimized parameters (final concentration of 6 mM probe, incubation time of 135 min, loading probe before plasma treatment), the maximum fluorescence intensity (F max = 527.8 a.u.) and the minimum fluorescence intensity (F min = 63.8 a.u.) were obtained in a saturated Ca2+ solution or a solution of lacking Ca2+. Correspondingly, the maximum [Ca2+]cyt induced by cold plasma was 1232.5 nM. Therefore, the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was successfully applied to measure the absolute [Ca2+]cyt in Saccharomyces cerevisiae stimulated by cold plasma at atmospheric air pressure.

  6. Dissociation between plasma concentrations of thyroxine and insulin-like growth factor-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauncey, M J; Morovat, A; Rudd, B T; Shakespear, R A

    1990-09-01

    The relation between plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been examined in young, growing pigs under controlled conditions of energy intake. Compared with euthyroid controls, plasma levels of IGF-I were significantly elevated (P less than 0.005) both in hypothyroid animals on the same food intake and in hyperthyroid animals on double the food intake. There was however no increase in IGF-I in a hyperthyroid group on the control level of intake. Contrary to previous reports in which energy intake was not controlled, it is concluded that there is no simple correlation between plasma concentrations of T4 and IGF-I.

  7. Association of plasma PCB levels and HbA1c concentration in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Sahar; Aminian, Omid; Moinfar, Zeinab; Schettgen, Thomas; Kaifie, Andrea; Felten, Michael; Kraus, Thomas; Esser, André

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus over the last decades warrants more attention to the effects of environmental and occupational exposures on glucose metabolism. Our study aimed to assess the association between the plasma levels of various congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the serum concentration of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Our study population consisted of 140 Iranian adults from seven different occupational groups and a group of non-occupationally exposed female participants. The plasma concentration of PCBs were determined at the laboratory of occupational toxicology at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. We considered an HbA1c concentration of 5.7% and more as indicating a disturbed glucose metabolism. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between quartiles of concentrations of PCB congeners and serum HbA1c. Participants with an increased HbA1c value had higher plasma levels of PCB 138, 153, 180 and the PCB sum, although this association was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference between the levels of PCB 138, 153, 180, the sum of these congeners, and PCB 118 in their quartiles when comparing with HbA1c concentrations. For our cohort, we could not demonstrate a significant association between PCB and HbA1c concentrations indicating a disturbance of glucose metabolism.

  8. [Relation between dose, plasma concentration and therapeutic effect of theophylline in children with sleep apnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Palomares, C; Ugartechea, J C; Palma-Aguirre, J A; Juárez-Olguín, H; Calderón-Mandujano, B

    1989-12-01

    The plasma concentration of theophylline was determined in twelve children with infantile sleep apnea (average age 48.5 days). The purpose of the study was to correlate concentrations with the dosages given, the therapeutic response and any adverse effects which could arise. In addition, other pharmacokinetic values were found, half-life (t 1/2) and clearance concentrations (Clss). The oral maintenance dose used was 4 mg/kg/24 h. The serum concentration of theophylline was determined by a homogeneous immunoassay enzyme technique (EMIT). A bad correlation was found (r = 0.45) between the oral dosage given and the plasma concentrations found. This was probably due to variations in the clearance of the drug. Yet, plasma concentrations fell between 3.0 and 12.6 micrograms/mL, enough to satisfactorily control apneic episodes in all the children included in the study without undesirable side-effects. Only one patient had some trouble in falling asleep and showed signs of irritability. The half-life was 13.30 +/- 7.46 hours and Clss was 36.64 +/- 12.98 mL/h/kg. In general, our results correlate with those reported in the literature. The accuracy of the pharmacokinetic parameters with two samples is reliable, therefore avoiding the use of multiple sampling in this group of children.

  9. Low Plasma alpha-Tocopherol Concentrations and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espe, K.M.; Raila, J.; Henze, A.; Blouin, K.; Schneider, A.; Schmiedeke, D.; Krane, V.; Pilz, S.; Schweigert, F.J.; Hocher, B.; Wanner, C.; Drechsler, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Trials with the antioxidant vitamin E have failed to show benefit in the general population. Considering the different causes of death in ESRD, this study investigated the association between plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol and specific clinical outcomes in diabetic

  10. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K

    2010-01-01

    Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design was a randomi...

  11. Phenylbutyrate reduces plasma leucine concentrations without affecting the flux of leucine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) has been used as an alternative pathway to excrete nitrogen in urea cycle disorder patients for the last 20 years. PB, after oxidation to phenylacetate, is conjugated with glutamine and excreted in the urine. A reduction in the plasma concentration of branched amino acids (BCAA) ...

  12. Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration to malnourished hemodialysis patients improves plasma arginine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, E; Hampl, H; Steudle, V; Nündel, M

    1996-01-01

    Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration to 24 malnourished hemodialysis patients for 1 year leads to a significant increase in plasma concentrations of L-arginine from 53.6 +/- 18.3 (compared to a healthy control group: 87.5 +/- 27.3) to 71.1 +/- 15.9 mumol/l (p calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration.

  13. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  14. High fetal plasma adenosine concentration: a role for the fetus in preeclampsia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Espinoza, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical observations suggest a role for the fetus in the maternal manifestations of preeclampsia, but the possible signaling mechanisms remain unclear. This study compares the fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine from normal pregnancies with those from preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis included normal pregnancies (n = 27) and patients with preeclampsia (n = 39). Patients with preeclampsia were subclassified into patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 14) abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry (UADV). RESULTS: Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (1.35 +\\/- 0.09 mumol\\/L) than in normal pregnancies (0.52 +\\/- 0.06 mumol\\/L; P < .0001). Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine in patients with preeclampsia with abnormal UADV (1.78 +\\/- 0.15 mumol\\/L), but not with normal UADV (0.58 +\\/- 0.14 mumol\\/L), were significantly higher than in normal pregnancies (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Patients with preeclampsia with sonographic evidence of chronic uteroplacental ischemia have high fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine.

  15. Decreased coenzyme Q10 concentration in plasma of children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, J.H.; Lecluse, A.L.Y.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.; Laag, J. van der; Houwen, R.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an effective lipophilic antioxidant and protects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging radicals. Patients with cystic fibrosis generally have fat malabsorption; thus, we hypothesized that overall plasma CoQ10 concentration in pediatric patients with cystic

  16. Plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics following rectal administration in neonates and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; O'Brien, K; Morton, N S

    1999-01-01

    Despite widespread use in children pharmacokinetic data about paracetamol are relatively scarce, not the least in the youngest age groups. This study aimed to describe plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics of a single rectal paracetamol dose in neonates and young infants....

  17. Persistent increase of plasma butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine concentrations as marker of SCAD defect and ethylmalonic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merinero, B; Perez-Cerda, C; Ruiz Sala, P

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine (C(4)-carnitine) in plasma with increase of ethylmalonic acid (EMA) in urine point to different genetic entities, and further investigations are required to differentiate the possible underlying defect. Here we report three unrelated cases, two n...

  18. Evaluation of pulsatile plasma concentrations of growth hormone in healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerink, N.J.; Lee, W.M.; Stokhof, A.A.; Voorhout, G.; Mol, J.A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy dogs and large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ANIMALS: 8 dogs with DCM and 8 healthy control dogs of comparable age and body weight. PROCEDURES: Blood

  19. Heterogeneity at the CETP gene locus. Influence on plasma CETP concentrations and HDL cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuivenhoven, J.A.; de Knijff, P.; Boer, J M; Smalheer, H A; Botma, G.J.; Seidell, J C; Kastelein, J.J.; Pritchard, P H

    This study was designed to investigate the association(s) between heterogeneity at the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene locus, CETP plasma concentrations, and HDL cholesterol levels. Healthy men with the lowest, median, and highest deciles of HDL cholesterol were selected from a large

  20. A twin study of the trough plasma steady-state concentration of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore B; Damkier, Per; Pedersen, Rasmus S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS: We included 16 twin pairs (eight monozygotic and eight dizygotic twin pairs) for this study after contacting 524 t...

  1. Plasma oxytocin concentrations during late pregnancy and parturition in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenbeek, M; Okkens, A C; Kooistra, H S; Mol, J A; M M Bevers; Taverne, M A M

    2007-11-01

    While oxytocin is widely used in the treatment of dystocia in dogs, there is little information about its secretion before and during normal unassisted whelping. We therefore measured plasma oxytocin concentrations during late pregnancy and the expulsive stage of parturition. Blood samples were collected from eight dogs at 3-min intervals during a 42-min period between the 2nd and 14th day before whelping and during parturition after the birth of 1-3 pups. The litters consisted of 5-15 pups and the progression of the expulsive stage was linear and nearly parallel in the eight bitches. The overall mean (+/-S.D.) plasma oxytocin concentration during late pregnancy was 3.6+/-2.1pg/ml. Mean values in individual dogs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4 pg/ml, but the intra-animal variation was rather small. During the expulsive stage the overall mean (+/-S.D.) plasma oxytocin concentration was 12.9+/-13.9 pg/ml, with mean values in individual dogs ranging from 3.5 to 46 pg/ml. The mean area under the oxytocin curve for parturient dogs was significantly higher (Pdogs. During the expulsive stage, the peak plasma oxytocin level in individual dogs ranged between 10 and 117 pg/ml. In six of the eight dogs a pup was born during blood collection and in five of these animals the plasma oxytocin concentration increased temporarily during periods of abdominal straining and expulsion. However, straining efforts and expulsion were not consistently associated with a rise in the circulating oxytocin level. It is concluded that in the dog plasma oxytocin levels are higher and more variable during the expulsive stage of parturition than during late pregnancy. Interrelationships between the secretion pattern of oxytocin, the level of uterine contractility, and the progress of fetal expulsion in dogs need further exploration.

  2. Blood periovulatory progesterone quantification using different techniques in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Robbe, Domenico

    2018-05-01

    Blood progesterone concentration is used in several procedures related to the reproduction in the bitch, such as ovulation monitoring, estimating time of parturition, or hypo-luteoidism management. Several techniques are available to evaluate blood progesterone concentration, such as the radioimmunoassay (RIA), the chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The aim of this study was to compare the blood progesterone concentration using these three methods during the periovulatory period of 23 bitches. Vaginal cytology was used to classify cytologic estrus (CE) and cytologic diestrus (CD), and blood samples were collected once during proestrus and every other day between CE and CD. The samples were retrospectively classified in the different phases of the estrus based on CD. Pregnancy rate and gestational length were also recorded. A significant increase of the circulating progesterone during the progression of the estrus was recorded, and there were significant differences in the values when using the different methods, with lesser, intermediate, and greatest values with use of the RIA, CLIA, and ELISA, respectively. There was a high correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.978) and substantial strength-of-agreement (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient = 0.966) between values obtained when using CLIA and RIA, while there was a high correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.955) but poor strength-of-agreement (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient = 0.866) with use of the ELISA and RIA. The data reported in this study provide evidence that the method used for measuring the blood progesterone concentration during the periovulatory phase of the bitch significantly affected the progesterone values. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Low plasma selenium concentrations in critically ill children: the interaction effect between inflammation and selenium deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low plasma selenium concentrations are frequent in critically ill patients. However, whether this is due to systemic inflammation, a deficient nutritional state or both is still not clear. We aimed to determine the factors associated with low plasma selenium in critically ill children while considering the inflammatory response and nutritional status. Method A prospective study was conducted in 173 children (median age 34 months) with systemic inflammatory response who had plasma selenium concentrations assessed 48 hours after admission and on the 5th day of ICU stay. The normal reference range was 0.58 μmol/L to 1.6 μmol/L. The outcome variable was ‘low plasma selenium’, which was defined as plasma selenium values below the distribution median during this period. The main explanatory variables were age, malnutrition, sepsis, C-reactive protein (CRP), and clinical severity scores. The data were analyzed using a Binomial Generalized Estimating Equations model, which includes the correlation between admission and 5th day responses. Results Malnutrition and CRP were associated with low plasma selenium. The interaction effect between these two variables was significant. When CRP values were less than or equal to 40 mg/L, malnutrition was associated with low plasma selenium levels (odds ratio (OR) = 3.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39 to 7.63, P = 0.007; OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.26 to 7.06, P = 0.013; OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.01 to 6.17, P = 0.049, for CRP = 10, 20 and 40 mg/L, respectively). This effect decreased as CRP concentrations increased and there was loose significance when CRP values were >40 mg/L. Similarly, the effect of CRP on low plasma selenium was significant for well-nourished patients (OR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.22, P selenium. This interaction should be considered when interpreting plasma concentrations as an index of selenium status in patients with systemic inflammation as well as in the decision

  4. Sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma of patients with late-life depression: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hideyuki Shimizu,1 Minoru Takebayashi,2 Masayuki Tani,1 Hiroaki Tanaka,1 Bun Yamagata,1 Kenzo Kurosawa,1 Hiroki Yamada,1 Mitsugu Hachisu,3 Kazue Hisaoka-Nakashima,2 Mami Okada-Tsuchioka,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Akira Iwanami11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Institute for Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Psychopharmacy, Pharmacy School, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and after antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD and explored whether changes in depressive status are related to sigma-1 receptor concentrations.Methods: The study participants were 12 subjects with late-life MDD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All of the participants were over 60 years old. Immediately prior to and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, sigma-1 receptor concentration and mental status, including depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-D, were measured. Treatment for depression was performed according to a developed algorithm based on the choice of treatments. We examined the association between changes in sigma-1 receptor concentration and HAM-D scores during antidepressant treatment. For the measurement of plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration, blood plasma samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western

  5. Direct 125I-radioligand assays for serum progesterone compared with assays involving extraction of serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, W.A.; Corrie, J.E.T.; Dalziel, A.H.; Macpherson, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two direct radioimmunoassays for progesterone in 50 μL of unextracted serum or plasma with assays involving extraction of serum were compared. The direct assays include the use of either danazol at pH 7.4 or 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid at pH 4.0 to displace progesterone from serum binding-proteins. Progesterone is then assayed by using an antiserum to a progesterone 11α-hemisuccinyl conjugate and the radioligand 125 I-labeled progesterone 11α-glucuronyl tyramine, with separation by double-antibody techniques. Direct assays with either displacing agent gave good analytical recovery of progesterone added to human serum, and progesterone values for patients' specimens correlated well (r > 0.96) with results of assays involving extraction of serum. Precision was similar with each displacing agent over the working range 2.5-100 nmol/L and superior to that of extraction assays. We conclude that these direct assays of progesterone are analytically valid and more robust, precise, and technically convenient than many conventional methods involving extraction of serum

  6. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Monique; Loucif, Yacine; Methot, Julie; Brisson, Diane; Gaudet, Daniel

    2012-02-03

    Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW) and 98 menopausal women (MW)). Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p salivary pH (R2) was 10.8% (p salivary pH quartiles (p = 0.005). These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  7. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Monique

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  8. Increased concentrations of plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction after hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M; Hirota, M; Nozawa, F; Okabe, A; Kurimoto, M; Ogawa, M

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the dynamic aspects of circulatory IL-18 and other inflammatory cytokines in patients who underwent a hepatectomy. In patients with post-operative hepatic dysfunction, plasma concentrations of these cytokines increased, reflecting severe surgical trauma. IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-gamma increased in the early phase, while IL-18 increased in the later phase after 1 week. Interestingly, the increase in the plasma IL-18 concentration was correlated with that in serum bilirubin levels in hepatectomized patients. Hence, the decrease in the hepatic metabolism of IL-18 may cause the plasma accumulation of IL-18. This mechanism was confirmed using rat experiments. Intravenously administered human IL-18 was excreted into bile. Furthermore, the plasma clearance of human IL-18 was prolonged in bile duct-ligated rats. These results suggest that IL-18 is metabolized in the liver and excreted into bile, and an increase in plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction reflects the decreased metabolism in the liver. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute phase response and plasma carotenoid concentrations in older women: findings from the nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Snowdon, D A; Tully, C L; Gross, M D

    1996-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated whether the acute phase response was associated with suppressed circulating levels of antioxidants in a population of 85 Catholic sisters (nuns) ages 77-99 y. Fasting blood was drawn to determine the presence of an acute phase response, as defined by an elevation in the serum concentration of C-reactive protein. Serum concentrations of albumin, thyroxine-binding prealbumin, zinc, copper, and fibrinogen were determined as were plasma concentrations of carotenoids and alpha tocopherol. Results showed that the presence of an acute phase response was associated with (1) an expected significant decrease in the serum concentrations of albumin (p < 0.001) and thyroxine-binding prealbumin (p < 0.001); (2) an expected significant increase in copper (p < 0.001) and fibrinogen (p = 0.003); and (3) a significant decrease in the plasma concentrations of lycopene (p = 0.03), alpha carotene (p = 0.02), beta carotene (p = 0.02), and total carotenoids (p = 0.01). The acute phase response was associated with decreased plasma levels of the antioxidants lycopene, alpha carotene, and beta carotene. This decrease in circulating antioxidants may further compromise antioxidant status and increase oxidative stress and damage in elders.

  11. HEMOFILTRATION AND COUPLED PLASMA FILTRATION ADSORPTION IMPACT ON TACROLIMUS BLOOD CONCENTRATION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of hemofi ltration and coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption on tacrolimus blood concentration in renal transplant recipients.Methods and results. The study included 8 renal transplant recipients. In these patients immediately after the operation was performed the coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption with hemofiltration using a cartridge Mediasorb to reduce the severity of reperfusion injury. We have found that during this extracorporeal blood correction procedure there was statistically not signifi cant decrease of tacrolimus blood concentration. However, concentration of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range even after the procedure and it was not signifi cantly different from the control point С0.Conclusion. Coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption is safe in renal transplant recipients and has no signifi cant impact on tacrolimus blood concentration. However, the downward trend in the concentration of tacrolimus in the course of these procedures, especially in continuous or semicontinuous mode, as well as in patients with low hematocrit and hypoalbuminemia, requires individual monitoring.

  12. Serial changes in plasma K concentration during storage of irradiation blood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Kazue; Yamada, Keiko; Otake, Sachiko; Saito, Yukiko; Sugimura, Kazuhito; Takahashi, Hoyu

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation of blood products is highly effective in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In order to assess the safe storage period of irradiated blood products, serial changes in plasma K, red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and lactic acid concentrations of whole blood and M·A·P-added red cell concentrate (RC-M·A·P) during storage at 5degC were measured after irradiation with 137 Cs by IBL 437C (CIS bio international). Plasma K concentration did not change immediately after irradiation, but increased more rapidly and in a radiation dose-dependent manner in the irradiated products than nonirradiated products. The changes in red cell 2,3-DPG and lactic acid concentrations were not affected by irradiation but were rather dependent on the storage period after blood collection. Plasma K concentrations of whole blood and RC-M·A·P irradiated with 25 Gy increased at 5 and 3 days, respectively, to the K levels observed after the storage of nonirradiated products for 21 days. It is therefore recommended that whole blood be used within 5 days and RC-M·A·P within 3 days when stored after irradiation with 25 Gy. (author)

  13. The Relationship between the Plasma Triglyceride Concentration and the Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglycerides (TG may be involved in the pathogenesis of critical impairments. Objective: to study the relationship between the plasma concentration of TG, the outcome of the disease, and the markers of its severity in intensive care unit patients with early-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Subjects and methods. The prospective study included 18 patients with acute lung injury (ALI, who needed respiratory support. For further analysis, all the patients were divided into groups with TG < 1.00 mmol/l (TGlow; n=7 and >1.00 mmol/l (TGhigh; n=11. Results. A negative correlation was found between plasma TG concentration and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2. In the TG^jgh group, extravas-cular lung water index was significantly higher and cardiac index was lower than those in the TGlow group. Among the deceased patients, there was a 1.03 mmol/l reduction in TG concentration by day 4 of the study whereas in the survivors, TG concentration increased by an average of 0.15 mmol/l (p=0.02. Conclusion. In the patients with ALI, the plasma concentration of TG is related to oxygenation impairments and the degree of pulmonary edema, as well as with the outcome of the disease. Key words: triglycerides, acute lung injury, extravascular lung water index, pulmonary edema.

  14. Kinetic and Related Determinants of Plasma Triglyceride Concentration in Abdominal Obesity: Multicenter Tracer Kinetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borén, Jan; Watts, Gerald F; Adiels, Martin; Söderlund, Sanni; Chan, Dick C; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Matikainen, Niina; Kahri, Juhani; Vergès, Bruno; Barrett, P Hugh R; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A major cause is an atherogenic dyslipidemia related primarily to elevated plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to clarify determinants of plasma triglyceride concentration. We focused on factors that predict the kinetics of very-low density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) triglycerides. A multicenter study using dual stable isotopes (deuterated leucine and glycerol) and multicompartmental modeling was performed to elucidate the kinetics of triglycerides and apoB in VLDL1 in 46 subjects with abdominal obesity and additional cardiometabolic risk factors. Results showed that plasma triglyceride concentrations were dependent on both the secretion rate (r=0.44, Ptriglycerides and VLDL1-apoB. Liver fat mass was independently and directly associated with secretion rates of VLDL1-triglycerides (r=0.56, Ptriglycerides (r=0.48, Ptriglyceride concentrations in abdominal obesity are determined by the kinetics of VLDL1 subspecies, catabolism being mainly dependent on apoC-III concentration and secretion on liver fat content. Reduction in liver fat and targeting apoC-III may be an effective approach for correcting triglyceride metabolism atherogenic dyslipidemia in obesity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objective The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during......, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations. Conclusion Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition...... childhood obesity treatment. Methods 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6±21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3±5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0...

  16. Milk progesterone to monitor reproductive performance in Holstein Fries ian cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubbadeh, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor reproductive of lactating Holstein Fries ian cows by measuring milk progesterone levels. Sequential post-partum milk samples were collected weekly throughout 20 weeks after pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations were determined by solid phase RIA. Lactating cows required an average of 5.2 weeks to resume luteal activity; 48% of the cows conceived after first insemination and had significantly high progesterone concentrations during the first 5 weeks after insemination than cows which returned to heat 5-8 weeks after insemination> Results also revealed that adequate level of progesterone, which varied between 4.2 and 9.1 nmol/l, is required to maintain early pregnancy and progesterone level remains high in pregnant cows. (Author) 17 refs., 3 Tabs

  17. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  18. Postprandial changes in plasma acylcarnitine concentrations as markers of fatty acid flux in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Sweetman, Lawrence; Valdez, Maressa J; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-fat (50% energy) meal was fed to 16 overweight and obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivities. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry; blood metabolite and hormone concentrations biochemically; and fatty acid flux by using stable isotope tracers. Lean body mass and fasting fat oxidation correlated positively (r > 0.522, P 0.515, P Conditions that impact fatty acid flux contribute to the control of postprandial plasma AC concentrations. These data underscore the need for a better understanding of postprandial fatty acid oxidation and dietary fat delivery in the setting of adipose insulin resistance to determine how postprandial lipemia contributes to chronic disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma dispositions and concentrations of ivermectin in eggs following treatment of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirak, V Y; Aksit, D; Cihan, H; Gokbulut, C

    2018-05-01

    To determine the plasma disposition and concentrations of ivermectin (IVM) in eggs produced by laying hens following S/C, oral and I/V administration. Twenty-four laying hens, aged 37 weeks and weighing 1.73 (SD 0.12) kg were allocated to three groups of eight birds. The injectable formulation of IVM was administered either orally, S/C, or I/V, at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg liveweight, following dilution (1:5, v/v) with propylene glycol. Heparinised blood samples were collected at various times between 0.25 hours and 20 days after drug administration. Eggs produced by hens were also collected daily throughout the study period. Samples of plasma and homogenised egg were analysed using HPLC. Maximum concentrations of IVM in plasma and mean residence time of IVM were lower after oral (10.2 (SD 7.2) ng/mL and 0.38 (SD 0.14) days, respectively) than after S/C (82.9 (SD 12.4) ng/mL and 1.05 (SD 0.24) days, respectively) administration (pV administration, and until 15 days after S/C administration. Peak concentrations of IVM were 15.7, 23.3 and 1.9 µg/kg, observed 2, 5 and 4 days after I/V, S/C and oral administration, respectively. The low plasma bioavailability of IVM observed after oral administration in laying hens could result in lower efficacy or subtherapeutic plasma concentrations, which may promote the development of parasitic drug resistance. Due to high IVM residues in eggs compared to the maximum residue limits for other food-producing animal species, a withdrawal period should be necessary for eggs after IVM treatment in laying hens.

  20. EXTENDED STORAGE OF BUFFY-COAT PLATELET CONCENTRATES IN PLASMA OR A PLATELET ADDITIVE SOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slichter, Sherrill J.; Bolgiano, Doug; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Bailey, S. Lawrence; Pellham, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet concentrates prepared from whole blood in the U.S. are made using the platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) method. The platelet concentrates must be made within 8 hours of blood collection and stored for only 5 days. In Europe and Canada, platelet concentrates are made using the buffy-coat (BC) method from whole blood held overnight at 22°C and storage times may be up to 7 days. Our studies were designed to determine how long BC platelets can be stored in plasma or Plasmalyte while meeting the FDA’s post-storage viability criteria. Study Design, Materials, And Methods Normal subjects donated whole blood that was stored at 22°C for 22 ± 2 hours prior to preparation of BC platelets. Platelets were stored for 5 to 8 days in either plasma or Plasmalyte concentrations of 65% or 80%. Radiolabeled autologous stored versus fresh platelet recoveries and survivals were assessed as well as post-storage in vitro assays. Results BC platelets stored in either plasma or 65% Plasmalyte met FDA post-storage platelet recovery criteria for 7 days but survivals for only 6 days, while storage in 80% Plasmalyte gave very poor results. Both stored platelet recoveries and survivals correlated with the same donor’s fresh results, but the correlation was much stronger between recoveries than survivals. In vitro measures of extent of shape change, morphology score, and pH best predicted post-storage platelet recoveries, while annexin V binding best predicted platelet survivals. Conclusion BC platelets stored in either plasma or 65% Plasmalyte meet FDA’s post-storage viability criteria for 6 days. PMID:24673482

  1. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-07-04

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration could modify PRP efficacy in routine applications. The aim of this study was to test the influence of environmental, individual and agonistic variables on the PLT concentration of PRP in horses. Six healthy Standardbred mares were exposed to six different variables with a one-week washout period between variables, and PRP was subsequently obtained from each horse. The variables were time of withdrawal during the day (morning/evening), hydration status (overhydration/dehydration) treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and training periods on a treadmill. The platelet concentration was significantly higher in horses treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (P = 0.03). The leukocyte concentration increased 2-9 fold with respect to whole blood in the PRP which was obtained after exposure to all the variable considered. Environmental variation in platelet concentration should be taken into consideration during PRP preparation.

  2. Plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women with controlled folate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnette, R E; Caudill, M A; Boddie, A M; Hutson, A D; Kauwell, G P; Bailey, L B

    1998-08-01

    To assess the effects of folate intake and pregnancy on plasma total homocyst(e)ine concentrations in women during the second trimester of pregnancy compared with young, healthy nonpregnant women. The diet provided either 450 or 850 microg of folate per day. These levels are approximately the current (400 microg/day) and previous (800 microg/day) Recommended Dietary Allowances for folate in pregnant women. Folate was provided as both food folate (120 microg/day) and supplemental folic acid (either 330 or 730 microg/day) for a period of 12 weeks. Plasma homocyst(e)ine (sum of free and protein-bound homocysteine), serum folate, and erythrocyte folate concentrations were determined weekly. Homocyst(e)ine concentrations were lower in pregnant women during the second trimester of normal pregnancy than in nonpregnant controls, independent of dietary folate intake. The overall mean (+/- standard deviation) homocyst(e)ine concentration of the pregnant subjects (5.4 +/- 1.4 micromol/L) was significantly lower than that observed in the nonpregnant control group (8.7 +/- 1.7 micromol/L) (P ine concentrations remained constant throughout the 12 weeks of the investigation. The folate intakes in this investigation were adequate to maintain constant homocyst(e)ine concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women. The lower homocyst(e)ine concentrations observed in pregnant subjects compared with nonpregnant controls may be a physiologic response to pregnancy.

  3. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenna Ruest Haarmark Nielsen

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment.876 children and adolescents (498 girls with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7, and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7 were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4. Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG were available in 469 individuals (264 girls. Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations.At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4 and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6. Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (p<2*10-16 and percent truncal body fat (p<2*10-16. Furthermore, reductions in BMI SDS were associated with improvements in concentrations of TC, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio, and TG (all p <0.0001. Changes in body fat percentage seemed to mediate the changes in plasma concentrations of TC, LDL, and non-HDL, but could not alone explain the changes in HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio or TG. Among 81 individuals with available lipid concentrations, who increased their BMI SDS, 61% improved their body composition, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations.Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma

  4. Effect of sampling site, repeated sampling, pH, and PCO2 on plasma lactate concentration in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D; Rozanski, E R; Shofer, F S; Laster, L L; Drobatz, K J

    1999-04-01

    To characterize the variation in plasma lactate concentration among samples from commonly used blood sampling sites in conscious, healthy dogs. 60 healthy dogs. Cross-sectional study using a replicated Latin square design. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 6 groups (n = 10) representing all possible orders for 3 sites (cephalic vein, jugular vein, and femoral artery) used to obtain blood. Samples were analyzed immediately, by use of direct amperometry for pH, PO2, Pco2, glucose, and lactate concentration. Significant differences in plasma lactate concentrations were detected among blood samples from the cephalic vein (highest), femoral artery, and jugular vein (lowest). Mean plasma lactate concentration in the first sample obtained, irrespective of sampling site, was lower than in subsequent samples. Covariation was identified among plasma lactate concentration, pH, and PCO2, but correlation coefficients were low. Plasma lactate concentrations differed among blood samples from various sites. A reference range for plasma lactate concentration was 0.3 to 2.5 mmol/L. Differences in plasma lactate concentrations among samples from various sites and with repeated sampling, in healthy dogs, are small. Use of the reference range may facilitate the clinical use of plasma lactate concentration in dogs.

  5. Plasma concentrations of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone are elevated in patients on chronic haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaghi, L; Garofalo, L; Cutuli, M G; Delgado, R; Carlin, A; Demitri, M T; Badalamenti, S; Graziani, G; Lipton, J M; Catania, A

    2000-08-01

    Clinical and/or laboratory signs of systemic inflammation occur frequently in patients undergoing long-term haemodialysis. It is likely, therefore, that a compensatory release of endogenous anti-inflammatory molecules occurs to limit host reactions. The aim of the present research was to determine if the potent anti-inflammatory peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a pro-opiomelanocortin derivative, is increased in plasma of haemodialysis patients. Because endotoxin and cytokines induce alpha-MSH in vivo and in vitro, we also measured plasma concentrations of endotoxin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and the two circulating products of activated monocytes, nitric oxide (NO) and neopterin. Thirty-five chronic haemodialysis patients, 20 patients with chronic renal failure not yet on dialysis, and 35 normal controls were included in the study. In the haemodialysis group, blood samples were obtained before and at the end of a dialysis session. Plasma alpha-MSH was measured using a double antibody radioimmunoassay, and IL-6, TNF-alpha, and neopterin using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma nitrites were determined by a colorimetric method, and endotoxin with the quantitative chromogenic LAL (limulus amoebocyte lysate) method. Mean plasma alpha-MSH was higher in haemodialysis patients than in control subjects, with the peptide concentrations being particularly elevated in dialysed patients with detectable endotoxin. High alpha-MSH concentrations were observed in the pre-dialysis samples, with no substantial change at the end of the dialysis session. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, TNF-alpha, neopterin, and NO were generally elevated in chronic haemodialysis patients and there was a negative correlation between circulating alpha-MSH and IL-6. In patients with renal failure not yet on dialysis, mean plasma alpha-MSH was similar to that of normal subjects. alpha-MSH is increased in the circulation of

  6. Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in Tunisian cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimane, Naceur; Haffar, M.A.; Chetoui, C.; Bahri, M.

    2005-01-01

    Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in tunisian and pregnancy in tunisian cattle Results saved during field application in four Tunisian farms from 924 dairy cows. A total of 2830 milk samples were collected from these cows at 3 fixed intervals to evaluate the level of Progesterone: at Artificial Insemination (AI) time (1034), 12th day (948) and at 22nd to 24th days after AI (848). Progesterone concentrations in samples done at AI moment (n=1034) revealed that 10.1% of cows was inseminated at improper moment (progesterone level higher or equal to 1nmol/l). In the second category (samples collected 12 days after AI, n=948), allowed distinguishing between two different situations: (1)- Cycling cows: progesterone concentration was higher or equal to 3nmol/l (69.4%). (2)- Non cycling cows: progesterone level was strictly lower than 3nmol/l (30.6%). The aim of progesterone assay of samples collected in the third category (22 to 24 days after AI) is to establish the Early Non Pregnancy Diagnosis (ENPD). Recorded data allow distinguishing: (1)- Non pregnant females: progesterone concentration is strictly less than 2nmol/l. The confirmation of this situation was carried out by rectal palpation. The gathered information indicated that ENPD accuracy is equal to 96.6%. (2)- Pregnant females: progesterone level is to be higher than or equal to 3.5nmol/l. The ENPD accuracy is 73.3% after confirmation using rectal palpation. (3)- Doubtful females: progesterone concentration is to be between (2 and 3.5nmol/l). Fertility and fecundity criteria were determined by using AIDA software, the analysis considered some variation factors such as cow parity, body score condition, number of services, inseminator, and milk production

  7. Detection of estrus in dairy cows by electrical measurements of vaginal mucus and by milk progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, P; Schiavo, J; Hall, C E; Foote, R H; Scott, N R

    1976-05-01

    Electrical resistance (ohms) of mucus were analyzed in 20 postpartum Holstein cows by use of a probe inserted into the anterior vagina every other day for 30 days. Composite milk samples were taken on the same day, and progesterone was determined by radioimmunoassay. Cows were observed twice daily for standing estrus and reproductive organs palpated weekly per rectum (rectal palpation). Fifteen cows which were cycling showed increasing progesterone 6 to 7 days after the onset of estrus with values of 8.1 to 10.0 ng progesterone/ml milk on days 10 to 17. Concentrations had declined rapidly 2 days before onset of the next estrus. Progesterone in milk was affected by cow and by day of the cycle. Electrical resistance followed a similar cyclical pattern, but variability was large and only cows differed. The correlation between milk progesterone and mucus resistance was .22. Progesterone concentrations for four cows with follicular cysts fluctuated randomly with a mean of 2.6 ng/ml. Mean resistance of vaginal mucus was 44 omega for both cycling and cystic cows, indicating that a single measurement of electrical resistance every 2nd day was unreliable in distinguishing physiological states. One cow had high progesterone in milk on days 19 to 25 and was diagnosed pregnant by rectal palpation 3 wk later. Cows were not seen in estrus 28% of the time when milk progesterone and rectal palpation indicated they were in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle and were cycling.

  8. Plasma Aluminum Concentrations in Pediatric Patients Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Kosar, Christina; Campbell, Alison; Avitzur, Yaron; Wales, Paul W; Steinberg, Karen; Harrison, Debra; Chambers, Kathryn

    2015-07-01

    Patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) are at increased risk of aluminium (Al) toxicity because of bypass of the gastrointestinal tract during PN infusion. Complications of Al toxicity include metabolic bone disease (MBD), Al-associated encephalopathy in adults, and impaired neurological development in preterm infants. Unlike the United States, there are no regulations regarding Al content of large- and small-volume parenterals in Canada. We, therefore, aimed to present our data on plasma Al concentration and Al intake from our cohort of pediatric patients receiving long-term PN. Plasma Al concentration was retrospectively gathered from the patient charts of all 27 patients with intestinal failure (IF) receiving long-term PN at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, and compared with age- and sex-matched controls recruited for comparison. In addition, Al concentration was measured in PN samples collected from 10 randomly selected patients with IF and used to determine their Al intake. The plasma Al concentration of patients with IF receiving long-term PN was significantly higher than that of control participants (1195 ± 710 vs 142 ± 63 nmol/L; P Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. Evaluation of reproductive performance using milk progesterone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimers, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Dairy herds (472) in the northeastern United States of America were surveyed to evaluate reproductive performance. Error of oestrus detection (>> 1 ng/mL of milk progesterone) on the day of insemination was 5.1% for 4558 cows. 'Standing' and 'riding other cows' were the most accurate signs of oestrus. Of cows in or near oestrus when inseminated, 28.1% were open three weeks later, 12.9% were probably open, and 59% were probably pregnant according to milk progesterone analysis. Post-partum days to first insemination and conception rates showed positive correlation. Concentrations of progesterone in milk samples collected 21 to 24 days after service allowed prediction with 88.6% accuracy that a cow was pregnant and with 93.9% accuracy that she was not. By rectal palpation, veterinarians predicted with 92.5% accuracy that a cow was pregnant. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Relationship between physical activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in adults without chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Gomez-Marcos

    Full Text Available To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR, and plasma fibrinogen concentrations.A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women. Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs/hour/week and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute for 7 days.Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week. Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = -0.100; p<0.001 and METs/hour/week (r = -0.162; p<0.001. In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile, maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = -0.03; p = 0.046 and β = -0.06; p<0.001, respectively.Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders.

  11. Determination of the Tritium Concentration in Deuterium-Tritium Fusion Plasmas from the Jet TTE Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatu Johnson, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and implementation of methods for tritium concentration determination for JET fusion plasmas. The usefulness of MPR data in this context is investigated. It is shown that results from MPR spectral analysis can simplify the calculations for neutral beam heated plasmas and that it is essential for calculations for radio frequency heated plasmas. The described methods are applied to pulses from the Trace Tritium Experiment (TTE), staged at JET in October 2003. Results from simple, time resolved analysis using MPR and other public JET data are presented and the assumptions made in the calculations are discussed. The results agree with expectations but would be even more interesting if spatial variations were taken into account

  12. Determination of the Tritium Concentration in Deuterium-Tritium Fusion Plasmas from the Jet TTE Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatu Johnson, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and implementation of methods for tritium concentration determination for JET fusion plasmas. The usefulness of MPR data in this context is investigated. It is shown that results from MPR spectral analysis can simplify the calculations for neutral beam heated plasmas and that it is essential for calculations for radio frequency heated plasmas. The described methods are applied to pulses from the Trace Tritium Experiment (TTE), staged at JET in October 2003. Results from simple, time resolved analysis using MPR and other public JET data are presented and the assumptions made in the calculations are discussed. The results agree with expectations but would be even more interesting if spatial variations were taken into account.

  13. Bone marrow concentrate and platelet-rich plasma differ in cell distribution and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Jennifer M; Kennedy, John G; Ross, Keir A; Fraser, Ethan J; Goodale, Margaret B; Fortier, Lisa A

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are used extensively in regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the cellular composition and cytokine concentrations of BMC and PRP and to compare two commercial BMC systems in the same patient cohort. Patients (29) undergoing orthopaedic surgery were enrolled. Bone marrow aspirate (BMA) was processed to generate BMC from two commercial systems (BMC-A and BMC-B). Blood was obtained to make PRP utilizing the same system as BMC-A. Bone marrow-derived samples were cultured to measure colony-forming units, and flow cytometry was performed to assess mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers. Cellular concentrations were assessed for all samples. Catabolic cytokines and growth factors important for cartilage repair were measured using multiplex ELISA. Colony-forming units were increased in both BMCs compared to BMA (p BMC-A and PRP, but there were differences in leucocyte concentrations. TGF-β1 and PDGF were not different between BMC-A and PRP. IL-1ra concentrations were greater (p = 0.0018) in BMC-A samples (13,432 pg/mL) than in PRP (588 pg/mL). The IL-1ra/IL-1β ratio in all BMC samples was above the value reported to inhibit IL-1β. The bioactive factors examined in this study have differing clinical effects on musculoskeletal tissue. Differences in the cellular and cytokine composition between PRP and BMC and between BMC systems should be taken into consideration by the clinician when choosing a biologic for therapeutic application. Clinical, Level II.

  14. Intrahippocampal administration of Vitamin C and progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin C and progesterone alone improved spatial memory in comparison to lesion group. Effective doses of vitamin C + effective dose of progesterone had more improving effect on memory. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurosteroid, Antioxidant, Demylination, Progesterone, Learning and memory impairments, Multiple ...

  15. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group...

  16. Treatment failure of nelfinavir-containing triple therapy can largely be explained by low nelfinavir plasma concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, David M.; Hugen, Patricia W. H.; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; Hoetelmans, Richard M. W.; Jambroes, Marielle; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Schreij, Gerrit; Schneider, Margriet M. E.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; Lange, Joep M. A.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between plasma concentrations of nelfinavir and virologic treatment failure was investigated to determine the minimum effective concentration of nelfinavir. Plasma samples were prospectively collected from treatment-naive patients who began taking nelfinavir, 1,250 mg BID + two

  17. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rinder, Christiane; Beige, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure.......Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure....

  18. Saliva oxytocin measures do not reflect peripheral plasma concentrations after intranasal oxytocin administration in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Andreassen, Ole A; Djupesland, Per G

    2018-05-16

    Oxytocin plays an important role in social behavior. Thus, there has been significant research interest for the role of the oxytocin system in several psychiatric disorders, and the potential of intranasal oxytocin administration to treat social dysfunction. Measurement of oxytocin concentrations in saliva are sometimes used to approximate peripheral levels of oxytocin; however, the validity of this approach is unclear. In this study, saliva and plasma oxytocin was assessed after two doses of Exhalation Delivery System delivered intranasal oxytocin (8 IU and 24 IU), intravenous oxytocin (1 IU) and placebo in a double-dummy, within-subjects design with men. We found that intranasal oxytocin (8 IU and 24 IU) administration increased saliva oxytocin concentrations in comparison to saliva oxytocin concentration levels after intravenous and placebo administration. Additionally, we found that saliva oxytocin concentrations were not significantly associated with plasma oxytocin concentrations after either intranasal or intravenous oxytocin administration. Altogether, we suggest that saliva oxytocin concentrations do not accurately index peripheral oxytocin after intranasal or intravenous oxytocin administration, at least in men. The data indicates that elevated oxytocin saliva levels after nasal delivery primarily reflect exogenous administered oxytocin that is cleared from the nasal cavity to the oropharynx, and is therefore a weak surrogate for peripheral blood measurements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL. For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  20. About the 'enlightenment' of nonideal hydrogen-oxygen plasma at a electron concentration Ne19 cm-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorovich, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    The results of experimental determination of the emissivity of the hydrogen-oxygen plasma pulsed discharge in water and their comparison with calculations. It is shown that when concentrations nonideal plasma N e >3 centre dot 10 18 cm -3 , is observed 'enlightenment' of plasma. The reduction of a emitting ability . can be more order in the N e =3 centre dot 10 19 cm -3 and increases with increasing electron concentration.

  1. Large-scale production and properties of human plasma-derived activated Factor VII concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomokiyo, K; Yano, H; Imamura, M; Nakano, Y; Nakagaki, T; Ogata, Y; Terano, T; Miyamoto, S; Funatsu, A

    2003-01-01

    An activated Factor VII (FVIIa) concentrate, prepared from human plasma on a large scale, has to date not been available for clinical use for haemophiliacs with antibodies against FVIII and FIX. In the present study, we attempted to establish a large-scale manufacturing process to obtain plasma-derived FVIIa concentrate with high recovery and safety, and to characterize its biochemical and biological properties. FVII was purified from human cryoprecipitate-poor plasma, by a combination of anion exchange and immunoaffinity chromatography, using Ca2+-dependent anti-FVII monoclonal antibody. To activate FVII, a FVII preparation that was nanofiltered using a Bemberg Microporous Membrane-15 nm was partially converted to FVIIa by autoactivation on an anion-exchange resin. The residual FVII in the FVII and FVIIa mixture was completely activated by further incubating the mixture in the presence of Ca2+ for 18 h at 10 degrees C, without any additional activators. For preparation of the FVIIa concentrate, after dialysis of FVIIa against 20 mm citrate, pH 6.9, containing 13 mm glycine and 240 mm NaCl, the FVIIa preparation was supplemented with 2.5% human albumin (which was first pasteurized at 60 degrees C for 10 h) and lyophilized in vials. To inactivate viruses contaminating the FVIIa concentrate, the lyophilized product was further heated at 65 degrees C for 96 h in a water bath. Total recovery of FVII from 15 000 l of plasma was approximately 40%, and the FVII preparation was fully converted to FVIIa with trace amounts of degraded products (FVIIabeta and FVIIagamma). The specific activity of the FVIIa was approximately 40 U/ micro g. Furthermore, virus-spiking tests demonstrated that immunoaffinity chromatography, nanofiltration and dry-heating effectively removed and inactivated the spiked viruses in the FVIIa. These results indicated that the FVIIa concentrate had both high specific activity and safety. We established a large-scale manufacturing process of human plasma

  2. Plasma concentrations, behavioural and physiological effects following intravenous and intramuscular detomidine in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, K R; Grimsrud, K; Snell, T; Stanley, S

    2009-11-01

    Detomidine hydrochloride is used to provide sedation, muscle relaxation and analgesia in horses, but a lack of information pertaining to plasma concentration has limited the ability to correlate drug concentration with effect. To build on previous information and assess detomidine for i.v. and i.m. use in horses by simultaneously assessing plasma drug concentrations, physiological parameters and behavioural characteristics. Systemic effects would be seen following i.m. and i.v. detomidine administration and these effects would be positively correlated with plasma drug concentrations. Behavioural (e.g. head position) and physiological (e.g. heart rate) responses were recorded at fixed time points from 4 min to 24 h after i.m. or i.v. detomidine (30 microg/kg bwt) administration to 8 horses. Route of administration was assigned using a balanced crossover design. Blood was sampled at predetermined time points from 0.5 min to 48 h post administration for subsequent detomidine concentration measurements using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were summarised as mean +/- s.d. for subsequent analysis of variance for repeated measures. Plasma detomidine concentration peaked earlier (1.5 min vs. 1.5 h) and was significantly higher (105.4 +/- 71.6 ng/ml vs. 6.9 +/- 1.4 ng/ml) after i.v. vs. i.m. administration. Physiological and behavioural changes were of a greater magnitude and observed at earlier time points for i.v. vs. i.m. groups. For example, head position decreased from an average of 116 cm in both groups to a low value 35 +/- 23 cm from the ground 10 min following i.v. detomidine and to 64 +/- 24 cm 60 min after i.m. detomidine. Changes in heart rate followed a similar pattern; low value of 17 beats/min 10 min after i.v. administration and 29 beats/min 30 min after i.m. administration. Plasma drug concentration and measured effects were correlated positively and varied with route of administration following a single dose of detomidine. Results support a

  3. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  4. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  5. The effects of therapeutic concentrations ofamisulpride andrisperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation – invitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dietrich-Muszalska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antipsychotics may in different ways affect the oxidative stress measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. Probably some of them may intensify the oxidative balance disturbances occurring in schizophrenia. The effects of amisulpride and risperidone on redox processes are not known sufficiently yet. Aim of the study: Establishment of the effects of amisulpride and risperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation measured by determination of the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, in vitro. Material and methods: Blood for the studies was collected from healthy volunteers (aged 24-26 years for ACD solution. Active substances of the examined drugs were dissolved in 0.01% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO to the final concentrations (of amisulpride 578 ng/ml and risperidone 64 ng/ml and incubated with plasma for 1 and 24 hours at 37ºC. For each experiment the control samples of plasma with DMSO (without the drug were performed. The lipid peroxidation level was measured in plasma by determining the TBARS concentration, using the spectrophotometric method (acc. to Rice-Evans, 1991. The results were analysed using the following statistical methods: the paired Student t-test and ANOVA II variance analysis and NIR test (StatSoft Inc., Statistica v. 6.0. Results: The ANOVA II variance analysis indicated significant differences in the effects of both drugs on TBARS level (F=4.26; df=2, p0.05. Conclusion: Amisulpride and risperidone in concentrations corresponding to doses recommended for treatment of acute episode of schizophrenia do not induce oxidative stress measured by lipid peroxidation. Unlike risperidone, amisulpride exhibits antioxidative effects.

  6. Relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters in infertile subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Ahmed, M.; Baig, M.; Ali, M.

    2007-01-01

    To find out relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters between fertile and infertile men. (JPMC), Karachi and Department of Biochemistry. Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi. Fifty eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, were selected from Infertility Clinic Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty five known fertile male selected from general population and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc were estimated by 5Br. PAPS Colorimetric method. This study showed significant difference in serum and seminal zinc levels in normospermic, oligospermic (p<0.05) and azoospermic (p<0.005). Seminal plasma zinc showed a positive correlation with sperm count and negative with sperm motility in normospermic and oligospermic and negative correlation with volume, pH, WBC concentration in all three groups. There was no correlation found with sperm morphology. On the basis of the findings of this study and those of other reports, zinc may contribute to fertility through its significant effects on various semen parameters. It seems that the estimation of seminal plasma zinc may help in investigation and treatment of infertile males. (author)

  7. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide concentration for diagnosis of acute heart failure with renal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Atik Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background : Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP is the diagnostic tool for acute heart failure (AHF.This natriu­retic peptide level depends on renal function, through renal metabolism and excretion. Therefore we examined the effect ofrenal impairment on plasma BNP level during diagnosis of AHF.Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the effect of renal dysfunction on plasma BNP level and to determine appropriate cutoff value of plasma BNP to diagnose the patients of AHF with renal insufficiency.Methods: This cross sectional analytical study was conducted in the Depart­ment of Biochemistry Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU. The study was done among 90 AHF patients selected from cardiology emergency department during the period of July 2012 to June 2013. After enrollment plasma BNP concentration was measured and eGFR was estimated from serum creatinine by the four parameter Modifica­tion of Diet and Renal Disease (MORD equation and then grouped into two groups on the basis of empirical cut off value of eGFR 60 ml/min/1.73 m2Results: In this study a significant negative correlation was found between plasma BNP evel and eGFR (P<0.001 , with higher BNP levels observed as eGFR declined. The optimal BNP cutoff value for diagno­sis of AHF patients with renal insufficiency was 824 pg/ml. At this cutoff level AHF with renal insufficiency could be diagnosed with sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 71 %, respectively.Conclusions: By adjusting the cutoff value, plasma BNP can be used to diagnose AHF with renal insufficiency with an acceptable sensitivity and specificity.

  8. Insulin and adenosine regulate the phosphatidylcholine concentration in isolated rat adipocyte plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechle, F L; Sykes, E; Artiss, J D

    1995-01-01

    Blockade of adenosine receptors by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or degradation of endogenous adenosine with adenosine deaminase increased the phosphatidylcholine concentration in isolated rat adipocyte plasma membranes, an effect which was suppressed by the phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase inhibitor, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, and reversed by the adenosine analogue, N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine. For example, the addition of N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine to adenosine deaminase pretreated plasma membranes rapidly lowered the concentration of phosphatidylcholine by 171 nmol/mg at 30 seconds compared to control. Insulin-induced stimulation of phospholipid methylation in membranes treated with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or adenosine deaminase was achieved only after the addition of N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine. These results suggest that adenosine receptor occupancy inhibits phospholipid methylation, is required for insulin stimulation of phospholipid methylation, and may perhaps activate a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C or phospholipase D.

  9. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    proteins from wheat, peas, field beans, sunflower and soybean. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein of 7 fish in each dietary treatment group prior to feeding, as well as: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding (sampling 7 new fish at each time point), and plasma amino acid......Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... the two dietary treatment groups correlated largely with the amino acid content of the two diets except for methionine, lysine and arginine, where the differences were more extreme than what would be expected from differences in dietary concentrations. The apparent protein digestibility coefficient...

  10. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  11. Effect of temperature on the concentration of plasma gonadotropine and spermatogenesis of the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillet, C.; Billard, R.; Breton, B.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoreactive plasma gonadotropin (c-GtH) were measured for goldfish kept at conditions of temperature held constant or increasing between 10 and 30/sup 0/C, between February and July. At temperatures of 17/sup 0/C or above the levels of plasma c-GtH were significantly (P < 0.005) higher during April and May than at 10/sup 0/C. In April the pituitary concentration of c-GtH was maximum for fish held at 17/sup 0/C or above and the minimum for fish held below 17/sup 0/C, but in June the situation was reversed. A study of the gonads showed that spermatogenesis is faster at 17--24/sup 0/C than at 10/sup 0/C, but at 30/sup 0/C spermatogenic activity was inhibited.

  12. Lack of effect of laboratory-provoked anxiety on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemishlany, Z; Davidson, M

    1996-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate if acute anxiety can affect plasma concentrations of homovanillic acid (pHVA). Since elevated pHVA levels have been associated with severity of schizophrenic symptoms, the results of this study will help determine if the pHVA elevations are directly related to psychosis or if anxiety is also a contributory factor. Anxiety was provoked in 10 young normal subjects by a combined paradigm of mental arithmetic task and threat of electrical shock. A significant increase in self-ratings of anxiety, blood pressure, and plasma levels of norepinephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and growth hormone indicated that the paradigm used was effective in provoking anxiety; however, anxiety did not affect pHVA concentrations. The results may support the notion that increased pHVA levels in severely ill schizophrenic patients are related to the schizophrenic pathophysiology rather than to anxiety.

  13. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigat...

  14. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid concentration in plasma obtained from overnight fasted patients. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  15. Medium-chain triglycerides in infant formulas and their relation to plasma ketone body concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P Y; Edmond, J; Auestad, N; Rambathla, S; Benson, J; Picone, T

    1986-04-01

    A mild ketosis is known to prevail in the mother, fetus, and newborn infant during the 3rd trimester and in the early neonatal period. It has been shown that during an equivalent period in the rat ketone bodies are readily oxidized and serve as key substrates for lipogenesis in brain. Since medium-chain triglycerides are known to be ketogenic, preterm infants may benefit from dietary medium-chain triglycerides beyond the point of enhanced fat absorption. Our objective was to determine the ketogenic response in preterm infants (gestational age: 33 +/- 0.8 wk) fed three different isocaloric formulas by measuring the concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in the plasma of these infants. At the time of entrance to the study the infants were receiving 110 kcal/kg/24 h. Study I (11 infants): the infants were fed sequentially in the order; PM 60/40 (PM), Special Care Formula (SCF), and Similac 20 (SIM). In SCF greater than 50% of the fat consists of medium-chain length fatty acids while PM and SIM contain about 25%. The concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma was significantly higher when infants were fed SCF than PM and SIM [0.14 +/- 0.03, 0.06 +/- 0.01, and 0.05 +/- 0.01 mM, respectively (p less than 0.01)]. Study II (12 infants); the infants were fed SCF, then SIM, or the reverse. The concentration of acetoacetate in plasma was 0.05 +/- 0.01 and 0.03 +/- 0.01 mM when infants were fed SCF and SIM, respectively (0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05). The concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma were similar to those measured in study I for the respective formulas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Plasma Drug Concentrations of Orally Administered Rosuvastatin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Papich, Mark G; Brandão, João; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic diseases are common in pet psittacine birds, in particular Amazon parrots. While hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia have not definitely been associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis in parrots, these are important and well-known risk factors in humans. Therefore statin drugs such as rosuvastatin constitute the mainstay of human treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. No pharmacologic studies have been performed in psittacine birds despite the high prevalence of atherosclerosis in captivity. Thirteen Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used to test a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin with blood sampling performed according to a balanced incomplete block design over 36 hours. Because low plasma concentrations were produced in the first study, a subsequent pilot study using a dose of 25 mg/kg in 2 Amazon parrots was performed. Most plasma samples for the 10 mg/kg dose and all samples for the 25 mg/kg dose had rosuvastatin concentration below the limits of quantitation. For the 10 mg/kg study, the median peak plasma concentration and time to peak plasma concentration were 0.032 μg/mL and 2 hours, respectively. Our results indicate that rosuvastatin does not appear suitable in Amazon parrots as compounded and used at the dose in this study. Pharmacodynamic studies investigating lipid-lowering effects of statins rather than pharmacokinetic studies may be more practical and cost effective in future studies to screen for a statin with more ideal properties for potential use in psittacine dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic diseases.

  17. Homocyst(e)ine-lowering therapy does not affect plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Sophie; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Plank, Christina; Minar, Erich; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger

    2005-04-01

    Elevated plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) is suggested to contribute to hyperhomocyst(e)ine-related vascular dysfunction in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The present trial investigated whether homocyst(e)ine (Hcy)-lowering therapy with vitamin-B (vit-B) and folic acid affects plasma concentrations of ADMA in patients with PAD and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. Forty-nine subjects (15 women, 34 men) with PAD and fasting plasma total Hcy concentrations greater than 15 micromol/liter were randomized to receive either oral vit-B and folic acid therapy (n = 27) or placebo (n = 22) for 6 wk. Fasting venous blood samples were monitored for plasma total Hcy, vit-B12 and folate, ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. After 6 wk, plasma Hcy concentrations were decreased, and concentrations of vit-B12 and folate were elevated in patients with vitamin supplementation (all P < 0.05 vs. baseline) and unchanged in the placebo group. Dimethylarginine plasma concentrations were not affected by treatment. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein correlated with ADMA plasma concentrations (r = 0.29; P < 0.01). The lack of vit-B and folic acid therapy on plasma concentrations of ADMA renders a role of extracellular methylarginines unlikely to be involved in the pathophysiology of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and its complications.

  18. Effects of debrisoquin and haloperidol on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Losonczy, M F; Mohs, R C; Lesser, J C; Powchik, P; Freed, L B; Davis, B M; Mykytyn, V V; Davis, K L

    1987-12-01

    Plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (pHVA) may potentially reflect upon central dopamine activity. This study examines the effects of debrisoquin, haloperidol, and the two drugs combined on pHVA concentrations of schizophrenic patients. Debrisoquin is a drug that suppresses the peripheral formation of homovanillic acid without affecting the central formation. Acute haloperidol administration consistently increased pHVA concentrations in patients pretreated or not pretreated with debrisoquin, suggesting that this increment reflects haloperidol's central and not peripheral effects.

  19. Dietary Zinc Intake and Plasma Zinc Concentrations in Children with Short Stature and Failure to Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Nadine; Hanna-Wakim, Rima; El Rafei, Rym; Barhoumi, Abir; Farra, Chantal; Daher, Rose T; Majdalani, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The burden of zinc deficiency on children includes an increased incidence of diarrhea, failure to thrive (FTT) and short stature. The aim of this study was to assess whether children with FTT and/or short stature have lower dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations compared to controls. A case-control study conducted at the American University of Beirut Medical Center included 161 subjects from 1 to 10 years of age. Cases had a statistically significant lower energy intake (960.9 vs. 1,135.2 kcal for controls, p = 0.010), lower level of fat (30.3 vs. 36.5 g/day, p = 0.0043) and iron intake (7.4 vs. 9.1 mg/day, p = 0.034). There was no difference in zinc, copper, carbohydrate and protein intake between the 2 groups. The plasma zinc concentration did not differ between the cases and controls (97.4 vs. 98.2 μg/dl, p = 0.882). More cases had mild-to-moderate zinc deficiency when compared to controls with 10.3 vs. 3.6%, p = 0.095. Our study did not show statistically significant difference in dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations between children with FTT and/or short stature compared to healthy controls. A prospective study is planned to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on growth parameters in FTT children. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in the forearm during dynamic handgrip exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askew Christopher D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that adenosine triphosphate (ATP released from red blood cells (RBCs may contribute to the tight coupling between blood flow and oxygen demand in contracting skeletal muscle. To determine whether ATP may contribute to the vasodilatory response to exercise in the forearm, we measured arterialised and venous plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in 10 healthy young males at rest, and at 30 and 180 seconds during dynamic handgrip exercise at 45% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Results Venous plasma ATP concentration was elevated above rest after 30 seconds of exercise (P Conclusions Collectively these results indicate that ATP in the plasma originated from the muscle microcirculation, and are consistent with the notion that deoxygenation of the blood perfusing the muscle acts as a stimulus for ATP release. That ATP concentration was elevated just 30 seconds after the onset of exercise also suggests that ATP may be a contributing factor to the blood flow response in the transition from rest to steady state exercise.

  1. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawasumi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years and aged (11-18 years. They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 μg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 μg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses.

  2. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da

    2013-01-01

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats

  3. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da [Unidade de Aterosclerose, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-10

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats.

  4. Plasma disposition, concentration in the hair, and anthelmintic efficacy of eprinomectin after topical administration in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Di Loria, Antonio; Gunay, Necati; Masucci, Roberto; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2011-12-01

    To investigate plasma disposition, concentration in the hair, and anthelmintic efficacy of eprinomectin after topical administration in donkeys. 12 donkeys naturally infected with strongyle nematodes. The pour-on formulation of eprinomectin approved for use in cattle was administered topically to donkeys at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg. Heparinized blood samples and hair samples were collected at various times between 1 hour and 40 days after administration. Samples were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Fecal strongyle egg counts were performed by use of a modified McMaster technique before and at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after treatment. Plasma concentration and systemic availability of eprinomectin were relatively higher in donkeys, compared with values reported for other animal species. Concerning the anthelmintic efficacy against strongyle nematodes, eprinomectin was completely effective (100%) on days 7 and 14 and highly effective (> 99%) until the end of the study at 56 days after treatment. No abnormal clinical signs or adverse reactions were observed for any donkeys after treatment. Eprinomectin had excellent safety. The relatively high plasma concentration after topical administration could result in use of eprinomectin for the control and treatment of parasitic diseases in donkeys.

  5. Maternal plasma concentrations of beta-lipotrophin, beta-endorphin and gamma-lipotrophin throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A J; Butt, W R; Lynch, S S; Shakespear, R A

    1983-12-01

    Plasma beta-LPH, beta-EP and gamma-LPH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 10 pregnant women from 12 weeks gestation until term and in nine women in the early follicular phase of the cycle. There was a progressive and significant rise in the concentration of all three peptides throughout pregnancy and by 32 weeks the concentrations of beta-LPH and beta-EP were greater than the corresponding concentrations in the follicular phase: gamma-LPH was greater than in the follicular phase by the end of pregnancy in those women who were delivered after 40 weeks. The ratio of beta-LPH to gamma-LPH did not change significantly throughout pregnancy, but there was a progressive fall in the beta-LPH/beta-EP ratio. The possible presence of a 'big LPH' to explain this finding is discussed.

  6. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    , the impact of hemoglobin status on proBNP concentrations has not been established in the general population. METHODS: In the 4th examination in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we performed a nested case-control study of 6238 individuals from a Danish general population. Of these, 3497 randomly selected...... participants also underwent an echocardiographic examination. The population was stratified into groups depending on health and hemoglobin status. Correlations between hemoglobin and proBNP concentrations were examined by simple and multiple regression analyses, adjusted for variables known to influence...... the proBNP plasma concentration. RESULTS: The mean proBNP concentration was increased 1.7-fold in the group with anemia vs the nonanemic group [mean (SD) 42 (45) pmol/L vs 25 (29) pmol/L, P hemoglobin on pro...

  7. PKU: high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2011-11-01

    In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early treated PKU patients (median age 8.5, range 0-35 years) participated (median phenylalanine concentration in total sample 277 (range 89-1171) μmol/l; and in patients introvert or extravert behavior. The interviewer as well as the respondents were blinded with regard to the phenylalanine concentration. Patients reported less deviant behavior compared to close environment. Mood swings were positively associated with phenylalanine concentrations in the total group (P=0.039) and patients introvert and extravert behavior were not statistically significant. there is a positive association between phenylalanine concentrations and mood swings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Addition of Concentrated Proteins and Seminal Plasma Low Molecular Weight Proteins in Freezing and Thawing of Equine Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagundes, B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in obtaining equine frozen semen with potential fertility are recognized. This study was designed to investigate the effect of seminal plasma on frozen/thawing of eight stallion semen from different breed using the following treatments: Seminal plasma with ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender; Part of seminal plasma with proteins under 10 kDa on frozen extender; Conventional freezing, using whole seminal plasma on frozen extender. Using the parameter of 30% of seminal motility post-thawing as index of good freezability, it was verified an increased percentage of stallions that presented good freezability when semen was frozen with seminal plasma containing ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender. These results, suggested the use of seminal plasma concentrated proteins from own stallion to freezing/thawing semen.

  9. Effect of seminal plasma and egg yolk concentration on freezability of goat semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg yolk and seminal plasma on the viability of cryopreserved goat semen. To this end, four fertile Saanen bucks, aged between 10 months and 1 year, and weighing 18 to 25 kg, were used. Semen was collected from each buck by the artificial vagina method at the end of breeding season (June-July. The extender used was the yolk citrate, which was split into two equal aliquots: 5% egg yolk (2.5 mL egg yolk: 47.5 mL citrate solution were added to one of the samples and 10% egg yolk (5.0 mL egg yolk: 45.0 mL citrate solution were added to another. The sperm motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT were evaluated and the data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test at 5.0% probability. The observed values for motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT, fast and slow, according to the presence of seminal plasma and egg yolk percentage were: 5% egg yolk with plasma (25.0% and 3.3; 1.60% and 0.7; 12.36% and 1.6, respectively; 5% egg yolk without plasma (23.61% and 3.1; 1.25% and 0.2; 9.93% and 1.3, respectively; 10% egg yolk with plasma (30.8% and 3.3; 4.4% and 1.9; 19.5% and 2.7, respectively; and 10% egg yolk without plasma (13.4% and 2.5; 4.1% and 0.5; 17.0% and 1.0, respectively. There were significant differences between the analyzed data in relation to semen with or without plasma at different percentages of egg yolk, and the group that presented the best results was 10% egg yolk citrate in extender with plasma. The presence of seminal plasma and higher concentration of egg yolk in extender provide a higher viability of cryopreserved goat semen.

  10. Plasma pharmacokinetics and synovial concentrations of S-flurbiprofen plaster in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yataba, Ikuko; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsushita, Isao; Kamezawa, Miho; Yamada, Ichimaro; Sasaki, Sigeru; Uebaba, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hideo; Hoshino, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetics and deep tissue penetration capability of the newly developed S-flurbiprofen plaster (SFPP) in humans. Study 1: SFPP tape-type patch (2-60 mg) was applied to the lower back for 24 h in healthy adult volunteers. S-flurbiprofen (SFP) plasma concentration was measured over time to examine SFP pharmacokinetics. Study 2: SFPP (20 mg) was applied for 12 h to the affected knee of osteoarthritis (OA) patients who were scheduled for total knee arthroplasty. Deep tissues (synovial tissue and synovial fluid) were collected during surgery to compare SFP concentrations after application of SFPP or a commercially available flurbiprofen (FP) gel-type patch. Study 1: The plasma concentration of SFP was sustained during 24-h topical application of the SFPP, showing a high percutaneous absorption ratio of 51.4-72.2 %. Cmax and AUC0-∞ were dose-proportional. Study 2: After application of the SFPP for 12 h, SFP concentrations in the synovial tissue and synovial fluid were 14.8-fold (p = 0.002) and 32.7-fold (p < 0.001) higher, respectively, than those achieved by the FP patch. Sustained plasma concentration of SFP and high percutaneous absorption ratio was observed after 24-h topical application of the SFPP. Compared to the FP patch, the SFPP showed superior percutaneous absorption and greater tissue penetration of SFP into the synovial tissue. Greater tissue penetration of the SFPP seemed to be primarily due to its formulation. Thus, SFPP is expected to show higher efficacy for the treatment of knee OA.

  11. Associations between marine food consumption and plasma concentrations of POPs in a Norwegian coastal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Charlotta; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning; Brustad, Magritt

    2009-02-01

    There are strong indications that a moderate intake of fatty fish decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its content of omega-3 fatty acids. Other studies indicate that fatty fish consumption increase the body burden of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and may thereby increase the risk of negative health effects. Many of the latter studies are based on POP analysis of fatty fish, from which a recommended daily intake for humans has been calculated based on the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from animal studies. Studies investigating associations between human plasma concentrations of POPs and intake of marine food show deviating results. In this study we investigated associations between self-reported intake of marine food (fatty fish, fish liver, fish liver oil, seagull eggs and halibut) and plasma concentrations of POPs. The study group consisted of 44 women and 16 men from northern Norway with a marine based diet. In addition to donate blood samples, the participants answered a detailed food frequency questionnaire with special emphasis on marine food consumption. Concentrations of 25 different POPs were measured in plasma. PCB 153 and p'p-DDE were the most ubiquitous PCB and chlorinated pesticide and the geometric mean concentrations were 73 ng/g lipids and 116 ng/g lipids respectively. The main findings in this study were that age, gender and intake of fresh fish liver oil were significant predictors of three of the most common PCBs and trans-Nonachlor in this study group. In addition, intake of seagull eggs influenced the concentration of PCB 180. However, even though the participants had a high intake of marine food they did not have elevated levels of POPs compared to other study groups. Intake of fatty fish did not significantly affect the body burden of POPs in this study group.

  12. Plasma concentrations resulting from florfenicol preparations given to pigs in their drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, L; Vargas, D; Ocampo, L; Sumano, H; Martinez, R; Tapia, G

    2011-09-01

    Florfenicol administered through the drinking water has been recommended as a metaphylactic antibacterial drug to control outbreaks of respiratory diseases in pigs caused by strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida, yet it is difficult to pinpoint in practice when the drug is given metaphylactically or therapeutically. Further, pigs are likely to reject florfenicol-medicated water, and plasma concentrations of the drug are likely to be marginal for diseases caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The reported minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for these organisms show a breakpoint of 2 to 3 μg/mL. An experiment was conducted during September and October 2009. One hundred twenty healthy crossbred pigs (Landrace-Yorkshire), weighing 23 ± 6.2 kg, were used in this trial. They were randomly assigned to 5 groups, with 3 replicates of 8 animals/group. Two commercial preparations of florfenicol were administered through the drinking water at 2 concentrations (0.01 and 0.015%). Water intake was measured before and after medication, and plasma concentrations of florfenicol were determined by HPLC. Considerable rejection of florfenicol-medicated water was observed. However, plasma florfenicol concentrations were of a range sufficient for a methaphylaxis approach to preventing disease by bacteria, with MIC breakpoints of ≤ 0.25 μg/mL. Decreased efficacy as a metaphylactic medication should be expected for bacteria with MIC >0.25 μg/mL, considering the reported existence of bacteria resistant to florfenicol and the natural resistance of Streptococcus suis or E. coli to this drug.

  13. [Proceeding: Production rate, metabolic clearance rate and mean plasma concentration of cortisol in hyperthyroidism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linquette, M; Lefebvre, J; Racadot, A; Cappoen, J P

    1975-01-01

    The adrenocortical function was studied in 23 patients with hyperthyroidism and compared with a group of 15 normal subjects. Parameters of adrenal function were determined with 1,2(3)H-cortisol. The half-life of cortisol is significantly shortened in hyperthyroidism, as compared to normal subjects (49,5 +/- 6,6 min vs 68,3 +/- 10,5 min) and metabolic clearance rate is increased (418,5 +/- 89,5 L/24 h vs 237,5 +/- 48,5 L/24 h, for normal subjects). The production rate of cortisol, calculated from specific and cumulate activities of THE and THF is increased in hyperthyroidism expressed as mg/24 h or mg/m2/24 h (respectively : 26,7 +/- 7,8 mg/24 h vs 15,7 +/- 3 mg/24 h and 16,9 +/- 4,6 mg/m2/24 h vs 9,5 +/- 1,8 mg/m2/24 h). The mean plasma concentration, calculated as the radio (see article) is not statiscally different in hyperthyroid and normal subjects (6,8 +/- 2,1 microg/100 ml vs 7,3 +/- 1,9 microg/100 ml). 7 patients were reinvestigated after treatment of thyrotoxicosis when they were clinically and biologically in euthyroid state. All the values were normalized, without statistically significant difference from control (T 1/2 = 65,4 +/- 18 min, Metb Cl. Rate : 255 +/- 64,5 L/24 h, production rate : 15,6 +/- 1,8 mg/24 h and 9 +/- 1,4 mg/m2/24 h. mean plasma concentration : 6,8 +/- 2,8 microg/100 ml). Shortened cortisol half life, increased metabolic clearance rate and production rate, and normal mean plasma concentration have been reported in hyperthyroidism (Peterson, Copinschi, Gallagher). These changes, secondary to thyroid hormone excess, are the consequences of increased hepatic catabolism of cortisol. The activity of 11 OH steroid deshydrogenase is increased, as demonstrated by increased ratio (see article) in normal subjects (0,001 less than p less than 0,005). There is a high proportion of 17 kéto metabolites (E, DHE, THE) whose feed-back effect is weak as compared to 17 OH metabolites (F, DHF, THF). The hypothalamo-hypophyso-adrenal system is

  14. Elevated GM3 plasma concentration in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: A lipidomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B Chan

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common neurodegenerative disease whose pathological hallmark is the accumulation of intracellular α-synuclein aggregates in Lewy bodies. Lipid metabolism dysregulation may play a significant role in PD pathogenesis; however, large plasma lipidomic studies in PD are lacking. In the current study, we analyzed the lipidomic profile of plasma obtained from 150 idiopathic PD patients and 100 controls, taken from the 'Spot' study at Columbia University Medical Center in New York. Our mass spectrometry based analytical panel consisted of 520 lipid species from 39 lipid subclasses including all major classes of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, glycerolipids and sterols. Each lipid species was analyzed using a logistic regression model. The plasma concentrations of two lipid subclasses, triglycerides and monosialodihexosylganglioside (GM3, were different between PD and control participants. GM3 ganglioside concentration had the most significant difference between PD and controls (1.531±0.037 pmol/μl versus 1.337±0.040 pmol/μl respectively; p-value = 5.96E-04; q-value = 0.048; when normalized to total lipid: p-value = 2.890E-05; q-value = 2.933E-03. Next, we used a collection of 20 GM3 and glucosylceramide (GlcCer species concentrations normalized to total lipid to perform a ROC curve analysis, and found that these lipids compare favorably with biomarkers reported in previous studies (AUC = 0.742 for males, AUC = 0.644 for females. Our results suggest that higher plasma GM3 levels are associated with PD. GM3 lies in the same glycosphingolipid metabolic pathway as GlcCer, a substrate of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, which has been associated with PD. These findings are consistent with previous reports implicating lower glucocerebrosidase activity with PD risk.

  15. Application of NMR-based metabonomics suggests a relationship between betaine absorption and elevated creatine plasma concentrations in catheterised sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Christian Clement; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2012-01-01

    of these metabolites from the small intestine. The LF diet resulted in a higher betaine concentration in the blood than the two high-fibre diets (P¼0·008). This leads to higher plasma concentrations of methionine (P¼0·0028) and creatine (P¼0·020) of endogenous origin. In conclusion, the use of NMR spectroscopy...... for measuring nutrient uptake in the present study elucidated the relationship between betaine uptake and elevated creatine plasma concentrations....

  16. Radioimmunological determination of 5a-pregnane-3,20-dione and progesterone in arterial and venous blood from the umbilical cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannich, E.

    1985-01-01

    Radioimmunological investigations of arterial and venous blood from the umbilical cord for 5a-DHP and progesterone were carried out in 60 newly delivered infants using 3 H as a tracer substance. The following findings were revealed: 1) The correlation between progesterone and 5a-DHP was better in the venous blood than in the arterial blood from the umbilical cord and the concentrations measured for the two hormones were higher in the vein. 2) Both the umbilical vein and artery showed more elevated hormone levels in male infants as compared to female infants. 3) The duration of gestation, the concentration of hydrogen ions in the fetal plasma and various other maternal and fetal factors have an influence on the height of the 5a-DHP and progesterone levels in the umbilical blood. This was also concluded from the fact that the (arterial and venous) hormone concentrations measured in infants from primiparae were higher than those in infants from multiparae. The metabolisation of 5a-DHP varies between the sexes, which does not hold true for progosterone. (TRV) [de

  17. Administration of progesterone after trauma and hemorrhagic shock prevents hepatocellular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, Joachim F; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Jarrar, Doraid; Toth, Balazs; Rue, Loring W; Bland, Kirby I; Wang, Ping; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2003-07-01

    Administration of a single dose of progesterone following trauma and hemorrhage in progesterone-deficient rats would ameliorate the inflammatory response and hepatocellular damage. A university laboratory. Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g; Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, Mass) underwent a 5-cm midline laparotomy (ie, induction of soft tissue trauma), were bled to a mean arterial blood pressure of 35 mm Hg for about 90 minutes, and then were resuscitated using Ringer lactate solution. Progesterone (25 mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle was administered subcutaneously at the end of resuscitation. In additional animals, Kupffer cells were isolated following trauma, hemorrhage, and resuscitation and treated in vitro with progesterone, lipopolysaccharide, or both. Six hours following resuscitation, plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels and liver myeloperoxidase activity were determined. Hepatocellular function (maximum velocity of indocyanine green clearance [Vmax] and the efficiency of the active transport or Michaelis-Menten constant [Km]) and plasma levels of transaminases were measured 20 hours after resuscitation. Kupffer cell IL-6 and TNF-alpha production were assessed. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as hepatic myeloperoxidase activity were increased, whereas indocyanine green clearance was depressed in vehicle-treated rats following trauma-hemorrhage. Animals treated with progesterone showed significantly reduced levels of the TNF-alpha, IL-6, and transaminases as well as reduced myeloperoxidase activity in the liver. Progesterone-treated animals showed increased Vmax and Kmax values for indocyanine green. In vitro treatment of Kupffer cells with progesterone decreased TNF-alpha production but did not affect the production of IL-6. Progesterone administration following trauma-hemorrhage ameliorates the proinflammatory response

  18. [Sustained-release progesterone vaginal suppositories 3-development and clinical feasibility testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ayako; Yamaguchi, Naho; Ohno, Yukiko; Miyata, Chihiro; Kondo, Haruomi; Sunada, Hisakazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

      Although progesterone vaginal suppositories (hospital-formulated) are used for the treatment of infertility, their half-life is so short that multiple doses are required. In this study, we aimed to develop sustained-release vaginal suppositories suitable for clinical use which maintain an effective blood concentration by once-a-day treatment, and prepared 7 types of suppository containing the sustained-release progesterone tablets to characterize their sustained-release performance. We selected one candidate suppository among them, taking recovery rate, reproducibility, and hardness, as well as the sustained-release performance into consideration. The shell of the selected suppository is composed of VOSCO S-55 and progesterone for rapid release. The molded progesterone tablets for sustained release were embedded inside. The distribution of the weight and content of the suppository was limited, and the release rate of progesterone was significantly slower than that of a conventional progesterone suppository prepared in our hospital. The single-dose administration of the selected suppository to five healthy volunteers led to significant extension of the blood concentration. We also confirmed the rise of the basic value by multiple administration. The simulation comparison suggested that the blood progesterone concentration is controlled by once-a-day administration of the selected suppository better than twice-a-day administration of the conventional suppository. In conclusion, the sustained-release vaginal suppository prepared in this study was considered to be useful for clinical treatment.

  19. Treatment with clozapine and its effect on plasma homovanillic acid and norepinephrine concentrations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Kahn, R S; Stern, R G; Hirschowitz, J; Apter, S; Knott, P; Davis, K L

    1993-02-01

    Measurement of plasma concentrations of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (pHVA), is an indirect tool to assess changes in dopamine turnover. Levels of pHVA have been reported to decrease during treatment with conventional antidopaminergic, neuroleptics, with the decrement correlating with symptomatic improvement in schizophrenic symptoms. Clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic, is the only drug proved to be effective in treatment-refractory patients. However, the mechanism mediating this unique efficacy has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the effect of clozapine on pHVA concentrations in schizophrenic patients. Since clozapine potently binds to alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, plasma norepinephrine (pNE) concentrations were also measured. Twenty-eight treatment-refractory schizophrenic patients (24 men, 4 women) were treated with clozapine (up to 600 mg/day) for 5 weeks, after a minimum 1-week drug-free period. Symptomatology and pHVA and pNE concentrations were measured at the last drug-free day and weekly for 5 weeks. Fourteen patients responded to clozapine treatment, while an equal number did not. Mean pHVA concentrations did not significantly change during treatment with clozapine. Although clozapine tended to lower pHVA concentrations in treatment responders, the effect was small and not significant. Clozapine treatment significantly raised pNE concentrations, but this did not differentiate responders from nonresponders to clozapine. These findings suggest that clozapine's effect on DA turnover is small and that clozapine may be effective in treatment-refractory schizophrenia by mechanisms other than, or in addition to, dopamine receptor blockade. However, since about one-third of NE is metabolized into HVA, the clozapine-induced increase in pNE may have overshadowed a possible lowering effect of clozapine on pHVA.

  20. Plasma capric acid concentrations in healthy subjects determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rojeet; Hui, Shu-Ping; Imai, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Satoru; Uemura, Naoto; Takeda, Seiji; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Capric acid (FA10:0, decanoic acid) is a medium-chain fatty acid abundant in tropical oils such as coconut oil, whereas small amounts are present in milk of goat, cow, and human. Orally ingested FA10:0 is transported to the liver and quickly burnt within it. Only few reports are available for FA10:0 concentrations in human plasma. Fasting (n = 5, male/female = 3/2, age 31 ± 9.3 years old) and non-fasting (n = 106, male/female = 44/62, age 21.9 ± 3.2 years old) blood samples were collected from apparently healthy Japanese volunteers. The total FA10:0 in the plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 2-nitrophenylhydrazine followed by UV detection. Inter and intra-assay coefficient of variation of FA10:0 assay at three different concentrations ranged in 1.7-3.9 and 1.3-5.4%, respectively, with an analytical recovery of 95.2-104.0%. FA10:0 concentration was below detection limit (0.1 µmol/L) in each fasting human plasma. FA10:0 was not detected in 50 (47.2%) of 106 non-fasting blood samples, while 29 (27.4%) plasma samples contained FA10:0 less than or equal to 0.5 µmol/L (0.4 ± 0.1), and 27 (25.5%) contained it at more than 0.5 µmol/L (0.9 ± 0.3). A half of the non-fasting plasma samples contained detectable FA10:0. This simple, precise, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method might be useful for monitoring plasma FA10:0 during medium-chain triglycerides therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Plasma L-tryptophan concentration in major depressive disorder: new data and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Fujii, Takashi; Koga, Norie; Hori, Hiroaki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Noda, Takamasa; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the precursor to serotonin and is metabolized mainly by the kynurenine pathway. Both serotonin and kynurenine have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, plasma tryptophan concentration in patients with MDD has not unequivocally been reported to be decreased, which prompted us to perform a meta-analysis on previous studies and our own data. We searched the PubMed database for case-control studies published until August 31, 2013, using the search terms plasma AND tryptophan AND synonyms for MDD. An additional search was performed for the term amino acid instead of tryptophan. We obtained our own data in 66 patients with MDD (DSM-IV) and 82 controls who were recruited from March 2011 to July 2012. The majority of the patients were medicated (N = 53). Total plasma tryptophan concentrations were measured by the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. We scrutinized 160 studies for eligibility. Original articles that were written in English and documented plasma tryptophan values in patients and controls were selected. We included 24 studies from the literature and our own data in the meta-analysis, which involved a total of 744 patients and 793 controls. Data on unmedicated patients (N = 156) and their comparison subjects (N = 203) were also extracted. To see the possible correlation between tryptophan concentrations and depression severity, meta-regression analysis was performed for 10 studies with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-item version score. In our case-control study, mean (SD) plasma tryptophan level was significantly decreased in the MDD patients versus the controls (53.9 [10.9] vs 57.2 [11.3] μmol/L; P = .03). The meta-analysis after adjusting for publication bias showed a significant decrease in patients with MDD with a modest effect size (Hedges g, -0.45). However, analysis on unmedicated subjects yielded a large effect (Hedges g, -0.84; P = .00015). We

  2. Impurity identifications, concentrations and particle fluxes from spectral measurements of the EXTRAP T2R plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menmuir, S.; Kuldkepp, M.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-10-01

    An absolute intensity calibrated 0.5 m spectrometer with optical multi-channel analyser detector was used to observe the visible-UV radiation from the plasma in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Spectral lines were identified indicating the presence of oxygen, chromium, iron and molybdenum impurities in the hydrogen plasma. Certain regions of interest were examined in more detail and at different times in the plasma discharge. Impurity concentration calculations were made using the absolute intensities of lines of OIV and OV measured at 1-2 ms into the discharge generating estimates of the order of 0.2% of ne in the central region rising to 0.7% of ne at greater radii for OIV and 0.3% rising to 0.6% for OV. Edge electron temperatures of 0.5-5 eV at electron densities of 5-10×1011 cm-3 were calculated from the measured relative intensities of hydrogen Balmer lines. The absolute intensities of hydrogen lines and of multiplets of neutral chromium and molybdenum were used to determine particle fluxes (at 4-5 ms into the plasma) of the order 1×1016, 7×1013 and 3×1013 particles cm-2 s-1, respectively.

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection influences the S-methadone metabolite plasma concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiow-Ling Wu

    Full Text Available Heroin-dependent patients typically contract hepatitis C virus (HCV at a disproportionately high level due to needle exchange. The liver is the primary target organ of HCV infection and also the main organ responsible for drug metabolism. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is a major treatment regimen for opioid dependence. HCV infection may affect methadone metabolism but this has rarely been studied. In our current study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that HCV may influence the methadone dosage and its plasma metabolite concentrations in a MMT cohort from Taiwan.A total of 366 MMT patients were recruited. The levels of plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV, HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies (Ab, liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, as well as methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP were measured along with the urine morphine concentration and amphetamine screening.Of the 352 subjects in our cohort with HCV test records, 95% were found to be positive for plasma anti-HCV antibody. The liver functional parameters of AST (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.02 and ALT (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.04, the plasma methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.043 and the R-enantiomer of methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.032 were significantly higher in the HCV antibody-positive subjects than in the HCV antibody-negative patients, but not the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio. The HCV levels correlated with the methadone dose (β= 14.65 and 14.13; P = 0.029 and 0.03 and the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio (β= -0.41 and -0.40; P = 0.00084 and 0.002 in both univariate and multivariate regression analyses.We conclude that HCV may influence the methadone dose and plasma S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio in MMT patients in this preliminary study.

  4. Citalopram and escitalopram plasma drug and metabolite concentrations: genome-wide associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuan; Schaid, Daniel J; Desta, Zeruesenay; Kubo, Michiaki; Batzler, Anthony J; Snyder, Karen; Mushiroda, Taisei; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Ogburn, Evan; Hall-Flavin, Daniel; Flockhart, David; Nakamura, Yusuke; Mrazek, David A; Weinshilboum, Richard M

    2014-08-01

    Citalopram (CT) and escitalopram (S-CT) are among the most widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). We applied a genome-wide association study to identify genetic factors that contribute to variation in plasma concentrations of CT or S-CT and their metabolites in MDD patients treated with CT or S-CT. Our genome-wide association study was performed using samples from 435 MDD patients. Linear mixed models were used to account for within-subject correlations of longitudinal measures of plasma drug/metabolite concentrations (4 and 8 weeks after the initiation of drug therapy), and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were modelled as additive allelic effects. Genome-wide significant associations were observed for S-CT concentration with SNPs in or near the CYP2C19 gene on chromosome 10 (rs1074145, P = 4.1 × 10(-9) ) and with S-didesmethylcitalopram concentration for SNPs near the CYP2D6 locus on chromosome 22 (rs1065852, P = 2.0 × 10(-16) ), supporting the important role of these cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in biotransformation of citalopram. After adjustment for the effect of CYP2C19 functional alleles, the analyses also identified novel loci that will require future replication and functional validation. In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that the biotransformation of CT to monodesmethylcitalopram and didesmethylcitalopram is mediated by CYP isozymes. The results of our genome-wide association study performed in MDD patients treated with CT or S-CT have confirmed those observations but also identified novel genomic loci that might play a role in variation in plasma levels of CT or its metabolites during the treatment of MDD patients with these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in pet cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Oguzhan; Arslan, Handan Hilal; Esin, Cagatay; Das, Yavuz Kursad; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cats and dogs and evaluation of their prevalence and possible effects. The concentrations of nine OCPs, such as α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT), 4,4'-DDT, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE) and 4,4'-DDE and 16 PCBs (PCB-28, -52, -70, -74, -81, -99, -101, -118, -138, -153, -156, -170, -180, -183, -187 and -208) were evaluated in the plasma samples of pet cats ( n = 15) and dogs ( n = 21). The concentrations of OCPs ranged from 1.12 ng g -1 lipid weight (lw) to 7.65 ng g -1 lw in cats and from 1.25 ng g -1 lw to 6.79 ng g -1 lw in dogs. In addition, mean PCB levels were 0.58-5.66 and 0.52-6.62 ng g -1 lw in cats and dogs, respectively. β-HCH, γ-HCH and PCB-138 levels were significantly higher in dogs ( p < 0.05). As far as could be determined, OCPs and PCBs were detected in the plasma samples of domestic cats and dogs in Turkey for the first time. Their concentrations were similar to those reported in earlier studies abroad. However, in contrast to other research, the levels of some OCPs were higher in dogs than in cats. It is concluded that, because of their high prevalence and potential health effects in animals and humans, OCP and PCB levels should be monitored systematically in domestic cats and dogs.

  6. Impact of Ficoll density gradient centrifugation on major and trace element concentrations in erythrocytes and blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Ahmed, Sultan; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ficoll density gradient centrifugation is widely used to separate cellular components of human blood. We evaluated the suitability to use erythrocytes and blood plasma obtained from Ficoll centrifugation for assessment of elemental concentrations. We determined 22 elements (from Li to U) in erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct or Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct centrifugation, those separated by Ficoll had highly elevated iodine and Ba concentration, due to the contamination from the Ficoll-Paque medium, and about twice as high concentrations of Sr and Mo in erythrocytes. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ca in erythrocytes and plasma were markedly reduced by the Ficoll separation, to some extent also Li, Co, Cu, and U. The reduced concentrations were probably due to EDTA, a chelator present in the Ficoll medium. Arsenic concentrations seemed to be lowered by Ficoll, probably in a species-specific manner. The concentrations of Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Cs were not affected in the erythrocytes, but decreased in plasma. Concentrations of Mn, Cd, and Pb were not affected in erythrocytes, but in plasma affected by EDTA and/or pre-analytical contamination. Ficoll separation changed the concentrations of Li, Ca, Co, Cu, As, Mo, I, Ba, and U in erythrocytes and blood plasma, Sr in erythrocytes, and Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb and Cs in blood plasma, to an extent that will invalidate evaluation of deficiencies or excess intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Data on final calcium concentration in native gel reagents determined accurately through inductively coupled plasma measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Viviano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present data on the concentration of calcium as determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP measurements. Calcium was estimated in the reagents used for native gel electrophoresis of Neuronal Calcium Sensor (NCS proteins. NCS proteins exhibit calcium-dependent mobility shift in native gels. The sensitivity of this shift to calcium necessitated a precise determination of calcium concentrations in all reagents used. We determined the calcium concentrations in different components used along with the samples in the native gel experiments. These were: 20 mM Tris pH 7.5, loading dye and running buffer, with distilled water as reference. Calcium determinations were through ICP measurements. It was found that the running buffer contained calcium (244 nM over the blank. Keywords: Neuronal calcium sensor proteins, Electrophoresis, Mobility shift, Calcium, Magnesium

  8. Increased plasma concentration of serum amyloid P component in centenarians with impaired cognitive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Olsen, H; Jeune, B

    1998-01-01

    these to the cognitive performance evaluated by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). We observed a significantly (p gender-matched controls (32.8+/-11.4 microg/ml). Six severely demented centenarians had an even......Serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds to all amyloid fibrils including those in the plaques and tangles of Alzheimer patients. To investigate whether the plasma SAP concentration correlated to cognitive impairment, we measured SAP levels in blood samples from 41 centenarians and compared...... higher SAP concentration (60.2 microg/ml), while the subgroup of cognitive intact centenarians (MMSE score >24) showed a normal SAP concentration (38.4+/-9.3 microg/ml). No dehydration or hepatic dysfunction was demonstrable in the centenarians. We conclude that the centenarians with impaired cognitive...

  9. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B

    1983-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... formulation, whereas this was not the case for the other (r = 0.27 and 0.49). The daily dose necessary to keep the plasma concentration within the therapeutic range of 55-110 mumole/liter varied from 7.9 to 22.9 mg/kg. Only mild side effects were recorded, but they were not correlated to the plasma...... theophylline concentration....

  10. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  11. Plasma concentrations of zonulin are elevated in obese men with fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim AS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A-Sol Kim,1,2 Hae-Jin Ko1,3 1Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea; 2Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu, South Korea; 3Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea Purpose: Zonulin is considered as a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability. The relationship between intestinal permeability and obesity is known, and many studies have investigated the relationship between intestinal permeability and liver disease. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential association between plasma zonulin concentrations and fatty liver in obese men. Patients and methods: A total of 140 obese men without inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune diseases, and severe liver diseases were included. The subjects were divided into three groups: normal, mild fatty liver, and moderate-to-severe fatty liver, according to abdominal ultrasonography findings. We subdivided the subjects into two subgroups based on the amount of alcohol consumption (appropriate drinking and hazardous drinking, and subgroup analyses were performed. Results: The mean plasma zonulin concentrations (ng/mL in the normal, mild fatty liver, and moderate-to-severe fatty liver groups were 0.618, 2.143, and 5.815, respectively (P<0.001. A multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed an odds ratio (OR of 1.77 (P=0.015 in the moderate-to-severe fatty liver group. The median plasma zonulin concentrations (ng/mL in the appropriate drinking subgroup of the fatty liver groups were 0.002, 0.500, and 6.550, respectively (P-trend<0.001, and in the hazardous drinking subgroup were 0.002, 0.590, and 5.800, respectively (P-trend=0.001. The ORs for moderate-to-severe fatty liver were 1.91 (P=0.039 in the appropriate drinking group and 1.56 (P=0.045 in the hazardous drinking group. Conclusion: Plasma zonulin concentrations were elevated

  12. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC

  13. Diagnostics of PF-1000 facility operation and plasma concentration on the basis of spectral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M.J.; Scholz, M.; Tsarenko, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The paper concerns the monitoring of the operation of high-current pulse discharges and the determination of the plasma concentration within the dense magnetized plasma column by means of optical spectroscopy methods. In experiments performed within the large PF-1000 facility, which is operated at IPPLM in Warsaw, particular attention was paid to possibility of the determination of correctness of the operational mode. In order to measure the visible radiation (VR), as emitted from the collapsing current sheath and the dense pinch region, the use was made of the MECHELLE R 900-optical-spectrometer, which was equipped with a CCD measuring head. The spectral measurements were performed at an angle of about 650 to the symmetry axis of the PF electrode system, through an optical window and a special collimator coupled with the quartz optical-cable. The observed VR emission originated from a part of the inner- and outer-electrode surfaces, the collapsing current-sheath layer and a portion of the dense plasma pinch-region (located a distance of 40-50 mm from the electrode ends). Considerable differences were found in the optical spectra recorded for so-called good shots and for cases of some failures. In the case of a breakdown (damage) of the main insulator there were observed different Al-lines, which originated from the eroded insulator material. At so-called bad vacuum conditions there were recorded various C-lines, and at an uncontrolled air-leakage into the experimental chamber there appeared numerous N-lines. The appearance of these characteristic spectral lines made possible to determine whether the operation of the PF-1000 facility was correct or incorrect. The paper reports also on estimates of plasma concentration values, which have been performed on the basis of a quantitative analysis of the Stark broadening of the selected spectral lines. (author)

  14. Measurement of plasma gentamicin concentrations postchemical ciliary body ablation in dogs with chronic glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Amy J; Lanuza, Rick; KuKanich, Butch; Crumley, William C; Pucket, Jonathan D; Allbaugh, Rachel A; Meekins, Jessica M

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the absorption of gentamicin into the plasma after an intravitreal injection in dogs and to report the success rate of this procedure in lowering the intraocular pressure. Twenty-four client-owned dogs with chronic, end-stage glaucoma. Dogs received a unilateral (22) or bilateral (2) intravitreal injection of 25-40 mg of gentamicin (mean ± SD dose 2.57 ± 1.65 mg/kg and range 0.61-7.50 mg/kg) and 1 mg of dexamethasone per eye. Blood samples were collected at various time points following the intravitreal injection. Plasma concentrations of gentamicin were determined by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total plasma concentration of gentamicin ranged from 0.21 to 9.71 μg/mL (mean ± SD 2.15 ± 2.03). The mean gentamicin CMAX was 2.29 μg/mL at 2.54 h with a terminal half-life of 9.8 h. The success rate of the chemical ablation procedure was 86.4% (19/22 eyes) in dogs that had at least 1 month of follow-up. Intravitreal injection of gentamicin in eyes with chronic glaucoma resulted in detectable plasma levels in dogs and was successful in lowering the intraocular pressure in 86.4% of the eyes after the first procedure. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Stability of BDNF in Human Samples Stored Up to 6 Months and Correlations of Serum and EDTA-Plasma Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Maryna; Schlögl, Haiko; Sacher, Julia; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kaiser, Jochen; Stumvoll, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2017-06-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neural growth factor, has gained growing interest in neuroscience, but many influencing physiological and analytical aspects still remain unclear. In this study we assessed the impact of storage time at room temperature, repeated freeze/thaw cycles, and storage at -80 °C up to 6 months on serum and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma BDNF. Furthermore, we assessed correlations of serum and plasma BDNF concentrations in two independent sets of samples. Coefficients of variations (CVs) for serum BDNF concentrations were significantly lower than CVs of plasma concentrations ( n = 245, p = 0.006). Mean serum and plasma concentrations at all analyzed time points remained within the acceptable change limit of the inter-assay precision as declared by the manufacturer. Serum and plasma BDNF concentrations correlated positively in both sets of samples and at all analyzed time points of the stability assessment ( r = 0.455 to r s = 0.596; p plasma up to 6 months. Due to a higher reliability, we suggest favoring serum over EDTA-plasma for future experiments assessing peripheral BDNF concentrations.

  16. Plasma potassium concentration and content changes after banana ingestion in exercised men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin C

    2012-01-01

    Individuals prone to exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMCs) are instructed to eat bananas because of their high potassium (K(+)) concentration and carbohydrate content and the perception that K(+) imbalances and fatigue contribute to the genesis of EAMCs. No data exist about the effect of bananas on plasma K(+) concentration ([K(+)](p)) or plasma glucose concentration ([glucose](p)) after exercise in the heat. To determine whether ingesting 0, 1, or 2 servings of bananas after 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise in the heat alters [K(+)](p) or [glucose](p) and whether changes in [K(+)](p) result from hypotonic fluid effluxes or K(+) ion changes. Crossover study. Laboratory. Nine euhydrated men (age = 27 ± 4 years, height = 180.3 ± 8.4 cm, mass = 84.9 ± 26.1 kg, urine specific gravity ≤ 1.006) without EAMCs volunteered. On 3 separate days, participants completed 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous cycling (temperature = 36.4°C ± 1.1°C, relative humidity = 19.4% ± 2.5%) and then ate 0 g (0 servings), 150 g (1 serving), or 300 g (2 servings) of bananas. Blood samples were collected at 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes postingestion. The [K(+)](p), changes in plasma K(+) content, plasma volume changes, and [glucose](p). The [K(+)](p) differed between conditions at 60 minutes; 2 servings (4.6 ± 0.3 mmol/L [conventional unit = 4.6 ± 0.3 mEq/L]) was greater than 1 serving (4.5 ± 0.2 mmol/L [conventional unit = 4.5 ± 0.2 mEq/L]) and 0 servings (4.4 ± 0.3 mmol/L [conventional unit = 4.4 ± 0.3 mEq/L]) (P banana ingestion on EAMCs is unknown; however, these data suggested bananas are unlikely to relieve EAMCs by increasing extracellular [K(+)] or [glucose](p). The increases in [K(+)](p) were marginal and within normal clinical values. The changes in [K(+)](p), plasma K(+) content, and [glucose](p) do not occur quickly enough to treat acute EAMCs, especially if they develop near the end of competition.

  17. Methodological issues in assessing plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sina; Comeau, Kathryn; Agellon, Sherry; Vanstone, Catherine; Sharma, Atul; Jones, Glenville; L'abbé, Mary; Khamessan, Ali; Weiler, Hope; Rodd, Celia

    2014-04-01

    Although no gold standard exists, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a precise and accurate method for the analysis of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Immunoassays are more readily available and require small volume sampling, ideal for infant testing. The objective was to compare two commercially available immunoassays for measuring circulating 25(OH)D concentration in infant plasma against LC-MS/MS. Capillary blood samples from 103 infants were analyzed for plasma 25(OH)D using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA, Octeia, IDS Ltd.) and radioimmunoassay (RIA, DiaSorin). Plasma 25(OH)D(3), C-3 epimer of 25(OH)D(3) (3-epi-25(OH)D(3)) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)(2)D(3)) were measured on the same samples using LC-MS/MS. To establish whether plasma 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) or 3-epi-25(OH)D(3) interferes with these immunoassay results, the zero 25(OH)D calibrator from each assay kit was spiked with increasing amounts of 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) or 3-epi-25(OH)D(3). Classifying infants below the common vitamin D status targets of 50 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L respectively, 58% and 99% fell below using the RIA, 19% and 56% with the EIA and 31% and 76% with LC-MS/MS. Compared to LC-MS/MS, both immunoassays showed poor Bland-Altman limits of agreement for 25(OH)D concentrations (RIA: limits of agreement -27 to +13%; EIA: -12 to +41%), and mountain plots (folded cumulative distribution) depicted significant skew and bias. Spiked 24,25(OH)2D3 concentrations, but not 3-epi-25(OH)D3, appeared as >100% of known values on the EIA but not on the RIA thus, suggesting that the EIA may cross-react with 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) to a greater extent than 3-epi-25(OH)D(3). Two common immunoassays resulted in very different classifications of vitamin D status possibly related to the interference of other vitamin D metabolites. Based on these data, LC-MS/MS assessment of vitamin D status is recommended in young infants (4-6 weeks of age). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Treatment of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis: Tolerability and plasma concentrations of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, D.R.; Høgh, B; Andersen, O

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to study the tolerability and plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in children treated for congenital toxoplasmosis. Infants were diagnosed through the Danish Toxoplasma Neonatal Screening Programme, based on detection of toxoplasma-specific IgM- and/or IgA-antibodi......The aim was to study the tolerability and plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in children treated for congenital toxoplasmosis. Infants were diagnosed through the Danish Toxoplasma Neonatal Screening Programme, based on detection of toxoplasma-specific IgM- and/or Ig...... spectrometric detection. Of 48 infants, 41 completed the treatment without change in schedule. Six infants had neutrophil counts below 0.5x10(9)/l, and one infant had an elevated bilirubin value. Twenty-nine children were tested by a series of neutrophil counts during treatment. The neutrophil count was ... efficacy is still a concern, since progression of eye lesions was observed in three eyes during the follow-up period. We concluded that the treatment was well tolerated in 86% (25/29) of the children. The drugs did not affect their weight gain. Drugs given in the recommended doses led to concentrations...

  19. Plasma vs heart tissue concentration in humans - literature data analysis of drugs distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylutki, Zofia; Polak, Sebastian

    2015-03-12

    Little is known about the uptake of drugs into the human heart, although it is of great importance nowadays, when science desires to predict tissue level behavior rather than to measure it. Although the drug concentration in cardiac tissue seems a better predictor for physiological and electrophysiological changes than its level in plasma, knowledge of this value is very limited. Tissue to plasma partition coefficients (Kp) come to rescue since they characterize the distribution of a drug among tissues as being one of the input parameters in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. The article reviews cardiac surgery and forensic medical studies to provide a reference for drug concentrations in human cardiac tissue. Firstly, the focus is on whether a drug penetrates into heart tissue at a therapeutic level; the provided values refer to antibiotics, antifungals and anticancer drugs. Drugs that directly affect cardiomyocyte electrophysiology are another group of interest. Measured levels of amiodarone, digoxin, perhexiline and verapamil in different sites in human cardiac tissue where the compounds might meet ion channels, gives an insight into how these more lipophilic drugs penetrate the heart. Much data are derived from postmortem studies and they provide insight to the cardiac distribution of more than 200 drugs. The analysis depicts potential problems in defining the active concentration location, what may indirectly suggest multiple mechanisms involved in the drug distribution within the heart. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Rapid measurement of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment using LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Xuan-Mai T.; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka Urszula; Jensen, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) concentration and isotopic enrichment are commonly used to evaluate FFA metabolism. Until now, gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) was the best method to measure isotopic enrichment in the methyl derivatives of 13C-labeled fatty acids. Although IRMS is excellent for analyzing enrichment, it requires time-consuming derivatization steps and is not optimal for measuring FFA concentrations. We developed a new, rapid, and reliable method for simultaneous quantification of 13C-labeled fatty acids in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). This method involves a very quick Dole extraction procedure and direct injection of the samples on the HPLC system. After chromatographic separation, the samples are directed to the mass spectrometer for electrospray ionization (ESI) and analysis in the negative mode using single ion monitoring. By employing equipment with two columns connected parallel to a mass spectrometer, we can double the throughput to the mass spectrometer, reducing the analysis time per sample to 5 min. Palmitate flux measured using this approach agreed well with the GC/C/IRMS method. This HPLC/MS method provides accurate and precise measures of FFA concentration and enrichment. PMID:20526002

  1. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycerol concentrations in the postmature rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, A C; Roux, J F; Shapiro, M I

    1980-02-15

    Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glycerol, and glucose concentrations were measured in term and postmature rabbits. The data show that the term and postmature mothers have significantly higher glycemia than their fetuses. However, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations are lower in the postmature mother than in her fetus. Postmature fetuses are characterized by very high plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. The results demonstrate that postmaturity is accompanied by maternal and fetal lipid metabolic changes related to a decrease in the transfer of maternal fatty acids through the placenta and to a diminution in fetal liver glucose utilization. The postmature fetus is then in a relative state of fasting and must rely on its own supply of fuel (glycogen and lipids) to provide cells for growth and survival. The maternal metabolic changes can possibly be explained by a decreased utilization of maternal substrates by the fetus, the placenta becoming insufficient. The close interrelationship of fetal and maternal lipid metabolism with the activity of the placenta suggests that an accurate knowledge of the metabolic changes taking place in the fetus during alteration of the maternal environment is indispensable to the understanding of the short- and long-term effects of maternal disease on the fetus.

  2. Ghrelin plasma concentration does not covary with energy demand in adult laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, A; Schrader, L; Weigend, S; Petow, S

    2017-10-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is suggested to be involved in food intake regulation in young growing chicken. Whether ghrelin is involved in the regulation of energetic balance associated with laying performance in adult laying hens was studied by use of 4 chicken lines that differ in laying performance and phylogeny (4 lines; 16 hens per line). As housing conditions are also known to affect energy demand, half of the hens per line were housed in single cages and the other half of hens were maintained in a floor housing system. Plasma samples were collected at 17 to 19, 33 to 35, 49 to 51, and 72 wk of age and analyzed with a chicken ghrelin ELISA Kit. From caged hens, individual food consumption and laying performance additionally was recorded. Due to its function in growth and its relationship with ghrelin, also GH plasma concentrations were analyzed. Ghrelin concentrations did not differ between the 4 lines at any of the test periods (all P > 0.05). Ghrelin was negatively related to food consumption only in the growing period of the high-performing lines (both P ghrelin concentrations compared with caged hens (P ghrelin is not involved in regulating energy intake related to laying performance but rather seems to be related to body growth and housing condition before start of lay, the latter possibly due to differences in hens' behavioral activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Disturbances in production of progesterone and their implications in plant studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Anna; Oklestkova, Jana; Novak, Ondrej; Śniegowska-Świerk, Katarzyna; Snaczke, Zuzanna; Pociecha, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    Progesterone is a mammalian hormone that has also been discovered in plants but its physiological function in plants is not explained. Experiments using inhibitors of progesterone synthesis and binding would be useful in studies on the significance of this compound in plants. Until now, trilostane and mifepristone have been used in medical sciences as progesterone biosynthesis and binding inhibitors, respectively. We tested these synthetic steroids for the first time in plants and found that they reduced the content of progesterone in wheat. The aim of further experiments was to answer whether the potential disturbances in the production/binding of progesterone, influence resistance to environmental stress (drought) and the development of wheat. Inhibitors and progesterone were applied to plants via roots in a concentration of 0.25-0.5mg/l water. Both inhibitors lowered the activity of CO2 binding enzyme (Rubisco) in wheat exposed to drought stress and trilostane additionally lowered the chlorophyll content. However, trilostane-treated plants were rescued by treatment with exogenous progesterone. The inhibitors also modulated the development of winter wheat, which indicated the significance of steroid regulators and their receptors in this process. In this study, in addition to progesterone and its inhibitors, brassinosteroid (24-epibrassinolide) and an inhibitor of biosynthesis of brassinosteroids were also applied. Mifepristone inhibited the generative development of wheat (like 24-epibrassinolide), while trilostane (like progesterone and an inhibitor of biosynthesis of brassinosteroids) stimulated the development. We propose a model of steroid-induced regulation of the development of winter wheat, where brassinosteroids act as inhibitors of generative development, while progesterone or other pregnane derivatives act as stimulators. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between plasma tenofovir concentration and renal function markers in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwila Mulubwa

    2016-07-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between plasma tenofovir (TFV concentration and certain renal function markers in HIV-infected women on TDF antiretroviral therapy (ART.These markers were also compared to a HIV-uninfected control group. Methods: HIV-infected women (n = 30 on TDF-based ART were matched with 30 controls forage and body mass index. Renal markers analysed were estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, creatinine clearance (CrCl, serum creatinine, albuminuria, glucosuria, serum urea, serum uric acid, urine sodium and maximum tubular reabsorption of phosphate. Baseline eGFR and CrCl data were obtained retrospectively for the HIV-infected women. Plasma TFV was assayed using a validated HPLC-MS/MS method. Step wise regression, Mann–Whitney test, unpaired and paired t-tests were applied in the statistical analyses. Results: TFV concentration was independently associated with albuminuria (adjusted r2 = 0.339; p = 0.001 in HIV-infected women. In the adjusted (weight analysis, eGFR (p = 0.038,CrCl (p = 0.032 and albuminuria (p = 0.048 were significantly higher in HIV-infected compared to the uninfected women, but eGFR was abnormally high in HIV-infected women. Both eGFR (p < 0.001 and CrCl (p = 0.008 increased from baseline to follow-up in HIV-infected women. Conclusion: Plasma TFV concentration was associated with increased albuminuria in HIV infected women in this sub-study. Both eGFR and CrCl were increased in HIV-infected women from baseline. These findings should be confirmed in larger studies, and hyperfiltration in HIV-infected women warrants further investigation.

  5. Adequate plasma drug concentrations suggest that amoxicillin can be administered by continuous infusion using elastomeric pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensdorff, Lyne; Boillat-Blanco, Noémie; Decosterd, Laurent; Buclin, Thierry; de Vallière, Serge

    2017-09-01

    Elastomeric pumps can be useful for the administration of antibiotics in the outpatient setting. To determine amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps, as well as the effectiveness of amoxicillin treatment administered by elastomeric pumps. Antibiotic degradation was measured in elastomeric pumps filled with 6 g of amoxicillin in 240 mL of NaCl 0.9% by drawing samples at 12 h intervals when stored in the fridge for 48 h and when worn around the waist for 24 h. Subsequently nine patients were treated with continuous infusions of 8 or 12 g of amoxicillin per day. Plasma amoxicillin concentrations were measured on each visit to the outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy unit. Clinical outcome was verified 3 months after the end of treatment. Amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps reached 10% after 48 h in the fridge and an additional 30% when worn around the waist for 24 h. Mean plasma drug concentrations achieved with 12 g of amoxicillin per day were 18.5 mg/L (95% CI 13.5-23.5), which is largely above the MIC of amoxicillin-susceptible bacteria. Nine patients treated for various complicated infections were cured and had no unexpected adverse effects. Adequate plasma drug concentrations and favourable clinical outcomes suggest that amoxicillin can be administered by continuous infusion using elastomeric pumps. This treatment modality does not fulfil formal requirements regarding pharmaceutical stability, but the resulting safety impact in patients is probably limited. Therapeutic drug monitoring and a close clinical follow-up are recommended if this route of administration is chosen. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Studies of radioimmunoassay for plasma aldosterone concentration by immunologic purification and extraction procedure without chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Hisamitsu

    1975-01-01

    After the aldosterone fraction of plasma was specifically absorbed using highly concentrated anti-aldosterone serum(i.e. Ab-II; diluted to 1:50,000), it was applied to the radioimmunoassay: and the separation of the free from the bound fractions was performed by the saturated ammonium sulfate method. Reasonable and satisfactory standard curves were obtained, but attention should be given to environmental factors at measurement, especially to the room temperature in summer. According to our results the mean final recovery for 58 specimens was 41.8+-6.4(SD)% through the overall extraction procedure, and the minimum detectable sensitivity of the standard curve was 10pg. The mean water blank value was 7.02+-2.62 (SD) pg/tube. Possible reasons for the higher blank value than others may have been the reagent or the solvent blank, and/or the insufficient process of immunologic purification by Ad-II for the tritium-labelled aldosterone which was used for recovery and immunoassay. The precision was from 9.4 to 25.3% coefficient of variations; the accuracy and recovery rate were almost satisfactory. In our clinical application, the plasma aldosterone concentration indicated high values in the peripheral and affected adrenal venous blood of patients with primary aldosteronism. In a patient with Bartter's syndrome, hyperreninemia and secondary hyperaldosteronism were observed. Almost all of the patients with Addison's disease and with total adrenalectomy indicated the lowest or undetectable levels. A high level of plasma aldosterone concentration was measured in a patient with edema and chronic renal failure and one with juvenile hypertension associated with an orbital tumor. (JPN)

  7. Studies of radioimmunoassay for plasma aldosterone concentration by immunologic purification and extraction procedure without chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, H [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-07-01

    After the aldosterone fraction of plasma was specifically absorbed using highly concentrated anti-aldosterone serum(i.e. Ab-II; diluted to 1:50,000), it was applied to the radioimmunoassay: and the separation of the free from the bound fractions was performed by the saturated ammonium sulfate method. Reasonable and satisfactory standard curves were obtained, but attention should be given to environmental factors at measurement, especially to the room temperature in summer. According to our results the mean final recovery for 58 specimens was 41.8+-6.4(SD)% through the overall extraction procedure, and the minimum detectable sensitivity of the standard curve was 10pg. The mean water blank value was 7.02+-2.62 (SD) pg/tube. Possible reasons for the higher blank value than others may have been the reagent or the solvent blank, and/or the insufficient process of immunologic purification by Ad-II for the tritium-labelled aldosterone which was used for recovery and immunoassay. The precision was from 9.4 to 25.3% coefficient of variations; the accuracy and recovery rate were almost satisfactory. In our clinical application, the plasma aldosterone concentration indicated high values in the peripheral and affected adrenal venous blood of patients with primary aldosteronism. In a patient with Bartter's syndrome, hyperreninemia and secondary hyperaldosteronism were observed. Almost all of the patients with Addison's disease and with total adrenalectomy indicated the lowest or undetectable levels. A high level of plasma aldosterone concentration was measured in a patient with edema and chronic renal failure and one with juvenile hypertension associated with an orbital tumor.

  8. Elevation of plasma milrinone concentrations in stage D heart failure associated with renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Zachary L; Calcutt, Marion W; Morrison, Thomas B; Akers, Wendell S; Davis, Mary Beth; Lenihan, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    To determine steady state milrinone concentrations in patients with stage D heart failure (HF) with and without renal dysfunction We retrospectively identified patients with stage D HF at a single medical center on continuous milrinonein fusion at the time of plasma collection for entry into a research registry database. Milrinone was prescribed and titrated to improve hemodynamic and clinical status by a cardiologist. Plasma samples were obtained at steady state milrinone concentrations. Patients were stratified by creatinine clearance (CrCl) into 4 groups: group 1 (CrCl >60 mL/min), group 2 (CrCl 60-30 mL/min), group 3 (CrCl milrinone hemodynamic changes by cardiac catheterization and electrophysiologic changes by implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) interrogation. A total of 29 patients were identified: group 1 (n=14), group 2 (n=10), group 3(n=3), and group 4 (n = 2). The mean infusion rate (0.391+0.08 mg/kg/min) did not differ between groups (P=0.14). The mean milrinone concentration was 451+243 ng/mL in group 1, 591+293 ng/mL in group 2, 1575+962 ng/mL in group 3, and 6252+4409 ng/mL in group 4 (Pmilrinone hemodynamic improvements between the groups (P=0.41). The ICD interrogation revealed limited comparisons, but 6 of the 8 post milrinone ventricular tachycardia episodes requiring defibrillation occurred in group 4 patients. Patients with stage D HF having severe renal dysfunction have elevated milrinone concentrations. Future studies of milrinone concentrations are warranted to investigate the potential risk of life-threatening arrhythmias and potential dosing regimens in renal dysfunction.

  9. Comparison of point-of-care methods for preparation of platelet concentrate (platelet-rich plasma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibrich, Gernot; Kleis, Wilfried K G; Streckbein, Philipp; Moergel, Maximilian; Hitzler, Walter E; Hafner, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the concentrations of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which are likely to depend on the method used for its production. The cellular composition and growth factor content of platelet concentrates (platelet-rich plasma) produced by six different procedures were quantitatively analyzed and compared. Platelet and leukocyte counts were determined on an automatic cell counter, and analysis of growth factors was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The principal differences between the analyzed PRP production methods (blood bank method of intermittent flow centrifuge system/platelet apheresis and by the five point-of-care methods) and the resulting platelet concentrates were evaluated with regard to resulting platelet, leukocyte, and growth factor levels. The platelet counts in both whole blood and PRP were generally higher in women than in men; no differences were observed with regard to age. Statistical analysis of platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) showed no differences with regard to age or gender. Platelet counts and TGF-β1 concentration correlated closely, as did platelet counts and PDGF-AB levels. There were only rare correlations between leukocyte counts and PDGF-AB levels, but comparison of leukocyte counts and PDGF-AB levels demonstrated certain parallel tendencies. TGF-β1 levels derive in substantial part from platelets and emphasize the role of leukocytes, in addition to that of platelets, as a source of growth factors in PRP. All methods of producing PRP showed high variability in platelet counts and growth factor levels. The highest growth factor levels were found in the PRP prepared using the Platelet Concentrate Collection System manufactured by Biomet 3i.

  10. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P renal hemodynamics, urine flow, sodium excretion rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly...

  11. Intraileal casein infusion increases plasma concentrations of amino acids in humans: A randomized cross over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripken, Dina; van Avesaat, Mark; Troost, Freddy J; Masclee, Ad A; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F

    2017-02-01

    Activation of the ileal brake by casein induces satiety signals and reduces energy intake. However, adverse effects of intraileal casein administration have not been studied before. These adverse effects may include impaired amino acid digestion, absorption and immune activation. To investigate the effects of intraileal infusion of native casein on plasma amino acid appearance, immune activation and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A randomized single-blind cross over study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26 ± 2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8 ± 0.4 kg/m -2 ), who were intubated with a naso-ileal feeding catheter. Thirty minutes after intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing either control (C) consisting of saline, a low-dose (17.2 kcal) casein (LP) or a high-dose (51.7 kcal) of casein (HP) over a period of 90 min. Blood samples were collected for analysis of amino acids (AAs), C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxylipins at regular intervals. Furthermore, GI symptom questionnaires were collected before, during and after ileal infusion. None of the subjects reported any GI symptoms before, during or after ileal infusion of C, LP and HP. Plasma concentrations of all AAs analyzed were significantly increased after infusion of HP as compared to C (p casein, respectively. Ileal casein infusion did not affect plasma concentrations of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α. Infusion of HP resulted in a decreased concentration of 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid whereas none of the other oxylipins analyzed were affected. A single intraileal infusion of native casein results in a concentration and time dependent increase of AAs in plasma, suggesting an effective digestion and absorption of AAs present in casein. Also, ileal infusion did not result in immune activation nor in GI symptoms. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01509469. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  12. Changes of iron concentrations in skin and plasma of patients with hemochromatosis along therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Alves, L.C.; Neres, M.; Pinheiro, T.; Barreiros, A.; Fleming, R.; Silva, J.N.; Filipe, P.; Silva, R.

    2009-01-01

    Skin as a manageable organ can provide direct or indirect information of tissue iron overload resulting from inherited disorders as hemochromatosis. Patients with hemochromatosis were evaluated at three consecutive phases along the therapy programme. Nuclear microprobe techniques were used to assess skin iron and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence to determine the plasma iron concentrations. Results showed that iron pools were differently correlated at the three therapy phases. These variations highlighted the value of skin iron content to assess organ iron deposition and therapy efficacy. Skin iron content can be used for a better management of patients with iron overload pathologies. (author)

  13. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurized combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V.

    1995-01-01

    The plasma assisted method for continuous measurement of alkali metal concentrations in product gas flows of pressurized energy processes will be tested and applied at the 1.6 MW PFBC/G facility at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Measurements will be performed during 1995 and 1996 at different stages of the research programme. The results are expected to give information about the influence of different process conditions on the generation of alkali metal vapours, the comparison of different methods for alkali measurement and the specific performance of our system. The project belongs to the Joule II extension program under contract JOU2-CT93-0431. (author)

  14. Up-regulation of the alligator CYP3A77 gene by toxaphene and dexamethasone and its short term effect on plasma testosterone concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, M.P.; Kohno, S.; Blumberg, B.; Iguchi, T.; Guillette, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we describe an alligator hepatic CYP3A gene, CYP3A77, which is inducible by dexamethasone and toxaphene. CYP3A plays a broad role in biotransforming both exogenous compounds and endogenous hormones such as testosterone and estradiol. Alligators collected from sites in Florida that are contaminated with organochlorine compounds exhibit differences in sex steroid concentrations. Many organochlorine compounds induce CYP3A expression in other vertebrates; hence, CYP3A induction by organochlorine contaminants could increase biotransformation and clearance of sex steroids by CYP3A and provide a plausible mechanism for the lowering of endogenous sex steroid concentrations in alligator plasma. We used real time PCR to examine whether known and suspected CYP3A inducers (dexamethasone, metyrapone, rifampicin, and toxaphene) up-regulate steady state levels of hepatic CYP3A77 transcript to determine if induction patterns in female juvenile alligators are similar to those reported in other vertebrates and whether toxaphene, an organochlorine compound found in high concentrations in Lake Apopka alligators, induces this gene. Estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor (PR), and steroid-xenobiotic receptor (SXR) transcripts were also measured to determine whether any of these nuclear receptors are also regulated by these compounds in alligators. Dexamethasone (4.2-fold) and toxaphene (3.5-fold) significantly induced CYP3A77 gene transcript, whereas rifampicin (2.8-fold) and metyrapone (2.1-fold) up-regulated ERβ after 24 h. None of the compounds significantly up-regulated AR, ERα, GR, PR, or SXR over this time period. Plasma testosterone (T) did not change significantly after 24 h in alligators from any of the treatment groups. Dexamethasone treated animals exhibited a strong relationship between the 24 h plasma T concentrations and CYP3A77 (R 2 = 0.9, positive) and SXR (R 2

  15. Cardiac natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations during the first 72 hours of life in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Christoffersen, Christina; Nørgaard, Linn Maiken

    2013-01-01

    .73). Plasma pro-ANP levels were highest on the day of delivery (5580 pmol/L [4320-6786] decreasing to 2484 pmol/L [1602-2898] after 72 hours, P tissue were immature, ie, unprocessed pro...... the transition from fetal to neonate circulation. However, the cardiac gene expression does not explain plasma concentrations....

  16. Effects of fasting on plasma catecholamine, corticosterone and glucose concentrations under basal and stress conditions in individual rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; Koopmans, S.J.; Slangen, J L; Van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), corticosterone (CS) and glucose concentrations were determined in blood sampled via a cardiac catheter from freely moving male rats under ad lib fed and 24 hr food deprived conditions using a repeated measures within-subject design. Resting plasma NA and

  17. Concentration of plasma thyroglobulin and urinary excretion of iodinated material in the diagnosis of thyroid disorders in congenital hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gons, M. H.; Kok, J. H.; Tegelaers, W. H.; de Vijlder, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper we describe methods for the early aetiological diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism, using beside the classical T4, T3 and TSH plasma concentrations, four additional parameters in plasma and urine. The first one is thyroglobulin (Tg). In normal children of more than one year of age

  18. Endothelin-1 and -3 plasma concentrations in patients with cirrhosis: role of splanchnic and renal passage and liver function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbes, A L; Møller, S; Gülberg, V

    1995-01-01

    of splanchnic and renal passage and of liver function on plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin-3 (ET-3) in patients with cirrhosis compared with controls. Eighteen patients with cirrhosis and 8 normotensive controls of similar age were investigated. Arterial and venous plasma samples were...

  19. Can Saliva and Plasma Methadone Concentrations Be Used for Enantioselective Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Studies in Patients With Advanced Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rani; Haywood, Alison; Good, Phillip; Hennig, Stefanie; Khan, Sohil; Norris, Ross; Hardy, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Methadone is a potent analgesic used to treat refractory cancer pain. It is administered as a racemic mixture, with the l-enantiomer being primarily a μ-receptor agonist, whereas the d-enantiomer is an N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist and inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Dose requirements vary greatly among patients to achieve optimal pain control and to avoid the risk of adverse effects. The relationship between plasma and saliva methadone enantiomer concentrations was investigated to determine if saliva could be a substitute for plasma in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies for clinical monitoring and dose optimization of methadone in patients with advanced cancer. Patients with advanced cancer who were prescribed varying doses of oral methadone for pain management were recruited to obtain paired plasma and saliva samples. Pain scores were recorded at the time of sampling. The total and unbound plasma and saliva concentrations of the l- and d-enantiomers of methadone were quantified by using an HPLC-MS/MS method. The relationship between plasma (total and unbound) and saliva concentrations were compared. The saliva-to-plasma concentration ratio was compared versus the dose administered and the time after dosing for both enantiomers. The association of methadone concentrations with reported pain scores was compared by using a Mann-Whitney U test for significance. Fifty patients receiving a mean dose of 11mg/d of methadone provided 151 paired plasma and saliva samples. The median age of the population was 61 years with an interquartile range of 53-71 years with total body weight ranging from 59-88 kg. Median (interquartile) total plasma concentrations for l- and d-methadone were 50.78 ng/mL (30.6-113.0 ng/mL) and 62.0 ng/mL (28.7-116.0 ng/mL), respectively. Median (interquartile range) saliva concentrations for l- and d-methadone were 81.5 ng/mL (28.0-203.2 ng/mL) and 44.2 (16.2-149.7 ng/mL). No relationship could be established between

  20. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    KAUST Repository

    Chauke, Chesa G.; Arieff, Zainunisha; Kaur, Mandeep; Seier, Jü rgen V.

    2014-01-01

    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African

  1. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  2. Changes in plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonists in response to adrenaline infusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, S R; Ostrowski, K.; Ullum, H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of adrenaline in the response of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonists (ra) to extreme physiological conditions such as trauma and exercise, we examined the concentrations in the plasma of these cytokines during an adrenaline infusion. Given the fact...... that HIV infected patients have elevated levels of IL-6 in plasma, 12 HIV seropositive subjects and 6 HIV seronegative control subjects received a 1-h adrenaline infusion. Baseline concentrations of IL-6 and IL-1ra were higher in the HIV patients compared with the controls (P...), being most pronounced in the untreated subgroup of HIV infected patients (n = 6). The plasma concentration of adrenaline had increased 24-fold after 15 min of adrenaline infusion. The plasma concentration of IL-6 had increased by two- to threefold after 45 min of adrenaline infusion (P

  3. Ion mobility spectrometry as a simple and rapid method to measure the plasma propofol concentrations for intravenous anaesthesia monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qinghua; Jiang, Dandan; Gong, Yulei; Li, Enyou; Li, Haiyang

    2016-11-01

    The plasma propofol concentration is important information for anaesthetists to monitor and adjust the anaesthesia depth for patients during a surgery operation. In this paper, a stand-alone ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) was constructed for the rapid measurement of the plasma propofol concentrations. Without any sample pre-treatment, the plasma samples were dropped on a piece of glass microfiber paper and then introduced into the IMS cell by the thermal desorption directly. Each individual measurement could be accomplished within 1 min. For the plasma propofol concentrations from 1 to 12 μg mL-1, the IMS response was linear with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.998, while the limit of detection was evaluated to be 0.1 μg mL-1. These measurement results did meet the clinical application requirements. Furthermore, other clinically-often-used drugs, including remifentanil, flurbiprofen and atracurium, were found no significant interference with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the plasma propofol. The plasma propofol concentrations measured by IMS were correlated well with those measured by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results confirmed an excellent agreement between these two methods. Finally, this method was applied to monitor the plasma propofol concentrations for a patient undergoing surgery, demonstrating its capability of anaesthesia monitoring in real clinical environments.

  4. Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin in African grey parrots treated with medicated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, K; Aucoin, D P; Whitt, D A; Prus, S A

    1990-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin were measured four times during a 7-day treatment period in African grey parrots that were fed with enrofloxacin-medicated drinking water. Water medicated at doubling doses of 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/ml achieved mean concentrations (+/- SEM) of 0.10 (+/- 0.05), 0.12 (+/- 0.05), 0.12 (+/- 0.03), 0.15 (+/- 0.05), 0.30 (+/- 0.11), and 0.20 (+/- 0.06) micrograms/ml, respectively. A portion of the administered enrofloxacin was metabolized to an equipotent metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Mean ciprofloxacin concentrations paralleled enrofloxacin concentrations but were lower, ranging from 0.04 to 0.27 micrograms/ml. Acceptance of medicated water was adequate at lower doses; however, at doses of 1.5 and 3.0 mg/ml, acceptance was unsatisfactory, and mean weight loss in these groups was significantly higher than the control group. Based on the concentrations achieved in these preliminary trials and the susceptibility patterns of gram-negative bacteria isolated from psittacine birds, drinking water medicated with enrofloxacin at 0.19-0.75 mg/ml might be effective for treating highly susceptible gram-negative bacterial infections in African grey parrots.

  5. Platelet concentration in platelet-rich plasma affects tenocyte behavior in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Ilaria; D'Ascenzo, Sandra; Mancò, Annalisa; Di Stefano, Gabriella; Di Francesco, Marianna; Rughetti, Anna; Dal Mas, Antonella; Properzi, Gianfranco; Calvisi, Vittorio; Dolo, Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Since tendon injuries and tendinopathy are a growing problem, sometimes requiring surgery, new strategies that improve conservative therapies are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a good candidate by virtue of its high content of growth factors, most of which are involved in tendon healing. This study aimed to evaluate if different concentrations of platelets in PRP have different effects on the biological features of normal human tenocytes that are usually required during tendon healing. The different platelet concentrations tested (up to 5 × 10(6) plt/µL) stimulated differently tenocytes behavior; intermediate concentrations (0.5 × 10(6), 1 × 10(6) plt/µL) strongly induced all tested processes (proliferation, migration, collagen, and MMPs production) if compared to untreated cells; on the contrary, the highest concentration had inhibitory effects on proliferation and strongly reduced migration abilities and overall collagen production but, at the same time, induced increasing MMP production, which could be counterproductive because excessive proteolysis could impair tendon mechanical stability. Thus, these in vitro data strongly suggest the need for a compromise between extremely high and low platelet concentrations to obtain an optimal global effect when inducing in vivo tendon healing.

  6. Plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins in newborn kids and female Baladi goats during late pregnancy and onset of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, S A; Azab, M E

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of blood lipids and some lipoproteins were investigated in normal female Baladi goats during late pregnancy, parturition and onset of lactation as well as in their newborn kids during the first two weeks of life. A total number of 60 herparinized blood samples was collected from does at 4, 3, 2 and 1 weeks pre-partum, day of parturition and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks postpartum. In addition, blood samples were also collected from their newborn kids during the first two weeks of life (day of birth, 1 and 2 weeks of age). Plasma was separated and analyzed for concentration of total lipid, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and some lipoproteins as high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The obtained results revealed that there was a significant decrease in plasma level of total lipids at one week after parturition. Plasma level of triaclyglycerols was significantly higher at 4, 3 and 2 weeks before parturition. This increase became very highly significant at one week before parturition. Meanwhile, plasma phospholipid concentrations showed a significant decrease at 3 weeks before parturition, followed by an significant increase at 2 and 3 weeks after parturition and highly significant increase at 4 weeks after parturition. The concentration of plasma NEFA showed a significant increase at 4 weeks before parturition followed by a very highly significant increase at 2 and 1 week before parturition. On the other hand plasma NEFA was non detected at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-partum when compared with the value reported at day of parturition. Regarding plasma lipoprotein concentrations the obtained results showed that there was a significant increase in plasma HDL-C level at 2 and 3 weeks after parturition, followed by a very highly significant decrease at the fourth week post-partum. However, plasma LDL-C level showed a significant decrease at 3, 2 and 1 weeks

  7. The effect of 8-week low impact aerobic exercise on plasma fibrinogen concentration in old women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Dehghan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Applied Exercise Physiology focuses on the physiological effects of exercise training on physiological processes, health, and physical well-being. The aim of this study was investigation of effects of 8-week low impact aerobic exercise on plasma fibrinogen concentration in old women. Fibrinogen is one of the most important inflammation factors and a prediction index in cardio vascular diseases. Iranian women especially older ones are generally sedentary because of their traditional and religious believes. Samples were 23 healthy and enable to do physical activity old women of Shahrekord (Chaharmahal va bakhtiary province, Iran retirement home. Subjects were randomly divided to two groups including experimental (n=14 individuals and control (n=11 individuals. First, for assessment of fibrinogen level, 5cc blood samples were obtained after 8 hours nightly fasting from anterior vein in resting condition. Experimental group was participated in 8 week (three times a week LIA training program (15 min in first day with 40% of maximum heart rate until 40 min in last day with 65% of maximum heart rate. All of mentioned measurements repeated at the end of 8 week training. The obtained results showed that 8 week LIA program has significant effect on reduction of old women plasma fibrinogen level (P=0.02. It seems that use of 8 week LIA training has positive effects on improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of inflammation disease related to plasma fibrinogen level in Iranian old women. Key words: aerobic exercises, old women, fibrinogen.

  8. Plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in eclamptic and preeclamptic African women postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkovic, A; Mahomed, K; Malinow, M R; Sorenson, T K; Woelk, G B; Williams, M A

    1999-09-01

    To examine the relationship between plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of eclampsia and preeclampsia among sub-Saharan African women who delivered at Harare Maternity Hospital in Zimbabwe. We ran a hospital-based, case-control study at Harare Maternity Hospital, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe comprising 33 pregnant women with eclampsia and 138 with preeclampsia. Controls were 185 normotensive pregnant women. Plasma was collected postpartum and homocyst(e)ine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Women with eclampsia or preeclampsia had significantly higher mean homocyst(e)ine levels than normotensive controls (12.54 or 12.77 micromol/L versus 9.93 micromol/L, respectively, Pine distribution (median 13.9 micromol/L) compared with women in the lowest quartile (median 6.2 micromol/L). The corresponding OR for preeclampsia was 4.57. Nulliparas with elevated homocyst(e)ine had a 12.90 times higher risk of preeclampsia compared with multiparas without elevated homocyst(e)ine. Postpartum plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations are higher among Zimbabwean women with eclampsia and preeclampsia compared with normotensive women.

  9. Treatment of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis: tolerability and plasma concentrations of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dorte Remmer; Høgh, Birthe; Andersen, O

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to study the tolerability and plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in children treated for congenital toxoplasmosis. Infants were diagnosed through the Danish Toxoplasma Neonatal Screening Programme, based on detection of toxoplasma-specific IgM- and/or Ig...... detection. Of 48 infants, 41 completed the treatment without change in schedule. Six infants had neutrophil counts below 0.5×109/l, and one infant had an elevated bilirubin value. Twenty-nine children were tested by a series of neutrophil counts during treatment. The neutrophil count was 0.5×109/l or lower...... of eye lesions was observed in three eyes during the follow-up period. We concluded that the treatment was well tolerated in 86% (25/29) of the children. The drugs did not affect their weight gain. Drugs given in the recommended doses led to concentrations within expected therapeutic limits....

  10. Concentrated ion beam emitted from an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-01-28

    An enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator with an outlet diameter of 150 mm is experimentally demonstrated to produce a concentrated ion beam, especially at a high discharge voltage, with a high current utilization efficiency of up to {approx}0.9. Numerical investigation based on the three-dimensional particle-in-cell method is performed to study the ion dynamics and elucidate the origin of the ion beam characteristics. The simulation results reveal that the equipotential lines play an important role in the surface near the anode emitting the ions. The ion emitting surface is determined by the magnetic field lines near the anode and the magnetic mirror contributes to the concentrated beam significantly. The high current utilization efficiency results from the appropriate obliquity of the magnetic mirror.

  11. Evidence of small-scale magnetic concentrations dragged by vortex motion of solar photospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmaceda, L.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; Palacios, J.; Cabello, I.; Domingo, V.

    2010-04-01

    Vortex-type motions have been measured by tracking bright points in high-resolution observations of the solar photosphere. These small-scale motions are thought to be determinant in the evolution of magnetic footpoints and their interaction with plasma and therefore likely to play a role in heating the upper solar atmosphere by twisting magnetic flux tubes. We report the observation of magnetic concentrations being dragged towards the center of a convective vortex motion in the solar photosphere from high-resolution ground-based and space-borne data. We describe this event by analyzing a series of images at different solar atmospheric layers. By computing horizontal proper motions, we detect a vortex whose center appears to be the draining point for the magnetic concentrations detected in magnetograms and well-correlated with the locations of bright points seen in G-band and CN images.

  12. Increments in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations after neuroleptic discontinuation are associated with worsening of schizophrenic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R S; Amin, F; Powchik, P; Knott, P; Goldstein, M; Apter, S; Kerman, B; Jaff, S; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Thirty-two male schizophrenic patients participated in this study. 2. Plasma concentrations of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (pHVA) were assessed once on neuroleptic medication and twice a week for a maximum of six weeks after its discontinuation. 3. Psychiatric symptomatology was assessed once on neuroleptic medication and once a week for a maximum of six weeks after its discontinuation, using the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS). 4. pHVA and total BPRS score increased significantly after discontinuation of neuroleptic as compared to baseline. 5. The magnitude of pHVA and BPRS increments after discontinuation of neuroleptic correlated significantly. 6. Results of this study suggest that worsening of schizophrenic symptoms after discontinuation of neuroleptic treatment is associated with increased pHVA concentrations.

  13. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  14. Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Motor Prognosis in Parkinson Disease.

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    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years. Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900.Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021 for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030 for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900. The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61 and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.

  15. Effect of progesterone supplementation in the first week post conception on embryo survival in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Lonergan, P; Diskin, M G; Roche, J F; Crowe, M A

    2009-04-15

    Progesterone is essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of elevating progesterone during the different physiological stages of early embryo development on embryo survival. Estrus was synchronized in cross-bred beef heifers (n=197, approximately 2-years old) and they were inseminated 12-18h after estrus onset (=Day 0). Inseminated heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) Control, n=69; (2) progesterone supplementation using a Controlled Internal Drug Release Device (CIDR) from Day 3 to 6.5, n=64; or (3) progesterone supplementation using a CIDR from Day 4.5 to 8, n=64. Body condition (BCS) and locomotion scores (scale of 1-5) were recorded for all animals. Animals with a locomotion score >/=4 (very lame) were excluded. Embryo survival rate was determined at slaughter on Day 25. Conceptus length and weight were recorded and the corpus luteum (CL) of all pregnant animals was dissected and weighed. Supplementation with exogenous progesterone increased (Prate compared with controls. Mean CL weight, conceptus length and conceptus weight were not different between treatments. There was a positive relationship (Prate in treated heifers and a similar trend existed between the increase from Days 4.5 to 8 (Prate in treated heifers. A direct correlation was seen between locomotion score and embryo survival rate, with higher (Prates in heifers with a lower locomotion score. In conclusion, supplementation with progesterone at different stages of early embryo development increased peripheral progesterone concentration and resulted in a positive association between changes in progesterone concentration during the early luteal phase and embryo survival rate. Supplementation with progesterone had no effect on either CL weight or conceptus size in pregnant animals. Lameness had a significant negative effect on early embryo survival.

  16. Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations in monozygotic twins discordant for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskelä, Piia; Ukkola, Olavi; Vartiainen, Johanna; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bouchard, Claude; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

    2009-02-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone that is involved in the regulation of food intake. Neuronal, endocrine, and genetic factors have been shown to regulate plasma ghrelin levels; but the determinants of fasting ghrelin concentrations are not yet fully understood. The main aim was to explore the roles of adiposity and genetic differences in determining fasting plasma total ghrelin levels. We measured total ghrelin levels in a population of 23 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for obesity. In addition, 2 variants of ghrelin gene, namely, Arg51Gln and Leu72Met, were genotyped in 3 populations of monozygotic twin pairs: 23 obesity-discordant, 43 lean-concordant, and 46 obesity-concordant twin pairs. In discordant twins, lean co-twins had higher fasting plasma total ghrelin levels (950 pg/mL, SD = 328 pg/mL) than obese twins (720 pg/mL, SD = 143 pg/mL; P = .003). Arg51Gln-polymorphism of the ghrelin gene was equally distributed between the twin groups. However, there were significant differences in genotype frequencies at the Leu72Met polymorphism between the discordant and obese-concordant groups (P = .003) and between the discordant and lean-concordant groups (P = .011), but not between the 2 concordant groups. In the discordant group, there were fewer Met carriers (4%) than among the obese (17%) or the lean-concordant groups (15%). Plasma total ghrelin levels are affected by acquired obesity independent of genetic background. The Leu72 allele is particularly common among monozygotic twins discordant for obesity, suggesting that this ghrelin allele is more permissive in the regulation of energy balance. The ghrelin gene may thus play a role in the regulation of variability of body weight, such that Leu72 allele carriers are more prone to weight variability in response to environmental factors.

  18. Versatile action of picomolar gradients of progesterone on different sperm subpopulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rafael Uñates

    Full Text Available High step concentrations of progesterone may stimulate various sperm physiological processes, such as priming and the acrosome reaction. However, approaching the egg, spermatozoa face increasing concentrations of the hormone, as it is secreted by the cumulus cells and then passively diffuses along the cumulus matrix and beyond. In this context, several questions arise: are spermatozoa sensitive to the steroid gradients as they undergo priming and the acrosome reaction? If so, what are the functional gradual concentrations of progesterone? Do spermatozoa in different physiological states respond differentially to steroid gradients? To answer these questions, spermatozoa were confronted with progesterone gradients generated by different hormone concentrations (1 pM to 100 µM. Brief exposure to a 10 pM progesterone gradient stimulated priming for the acrosome reaction in one sperm subpopulation, and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction in a different sperm subpopulation. This effect was not observed in non-capacitated cells or when progesterone was homogeneously distributed. The results suggest a versatile role of the gradual distribution of very low doses of progesterone, which selectively stimulate the priming and the acrosome reaction in different sperm subpopulations.

  19. Lowering Plasma Glucose Concentration by Inhibiting Renal Sodium-Glucose Co-Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining normoglycaemia not only reduces the risk of diabetic microvascular complications but also corrects the metabolic abnormalities that contribute to the development and progression of hyperglycaemia (i.e. insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction). Progressive beta-cell failure, in addition to the multiple side effects associated with many current antihyperglycaemic agents (e.g., hypoglycaemia and weight gain) presents major obstacle to the achievement of the recommended goal of glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, novel effective therapies are needed for optimal glucose control in subjects with DM. Recently, specific inhibitors of renal sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) have been developed to produce glucosuria and lower the plasma glucose concentration. Because of their unique mechanism of action (which is independent of the secretion and action of insulin), these agents are effective in lowering the plasma glucose concentration in all stages of DM and can be combined with all other antidiabetic agents. In this review, we summarize the available data concerning the mechanism of action, efficacy and safety of this novel class of antidiabetic agent. PMID:24690096

  20. The Effect of Geographic Location on Circannual Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Plasma Concentrations in Horses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secombe, C J; Tan, R H H; Perara, D I; Byrne, D P; Watts, S P; Wearn, J G

    2017-09-01

    Longitudinal evaluation of plasma endogenous ACTH concentration in clinically normal horses has not been investigated in the Southern Hemisphere. To longitudinally determine monthly upper reference limits for plasma ACTH in 2 disparate Australian geographic locations and to examine whether location affected the circannual rhythm of endogenous ACTH in the 2 groups of horses over a 12-month period. Clinically normal horses horses from Perth and ≤67 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Townsville, than at the acrophase, ≤94 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Perth, ≤101 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Townsville. Circannual rhythms of endogenous ACTH concentrations vary between geographic locations, this could be due to changes in photoperiod or other unknown factors, and upper reference limits should be determined for specific locations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in Crohn's and pancreatic cancer patients compared to control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drai, J; Borel, P; Faure, H; Galabert, C; Le Moël, G; Laromiguière, M; Fayol, V

    2009-03-01

    Carotenoids are colored molecules that are widespread in the plant kingdom, but animals cannot synthesize them. Carotenes are long, apolar molecules which require fully functioning digestive processes to be absorbed properly. Hence they could be interesting markers of intestinal absorption and digestion. Indeed, only few tests are available to assess these processes and only the D-xylose tolerance test is routinely used. However D-xylose is a sugar that tests only the absorption of water-soluble compounds and it only tests duodenal absorption. In this study, we have evaluated carotenoids as markers of digestion and absorption. We compared fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in 21 control subjects, 20 patients with Crohn's disease, and 18 patients with pancreatic cancer. Crohn's disease alters intestinal absorption while pancreatic cancer decreases pancreatic enzyme secretion thus impairing digestion. Results show that all carotenoids are significantly lower in Crohn's and cancer patients as compared to control subjects and the multifactorial analysis shows that this decrease is mostly independent of dietary intake. Interestingly, maldigestion as seen in pancreatic cancer more strongly influences plasma lutein and lycopene concentrations while malabsorption in Crohn's disease acts on other carotenoids. Thus carotenoids could be interesting alternatives for testing and following patients that are suspected of having malabsorption or maldigestion syndromes.

  2. Fibrinogen plasma concentration is an independent marker of haemodynamic impairment in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigs, Jan K.; Baumann, Hans Jörg; Lüneburg, Nicole; Quast, Gesine; Harbaum, Lars; Heyckendorf, Jan; Sydow, Karsten; Schulte-Hubbert, Bernhard; Halank, Michael; Klose, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Fibrinogen has a crucial role in both inflammation and coagulation, two processes pivotal for the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. We therefore aimed to investigate whether fibrinogen plasma concentrations a) are elevated in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and b) may serve as a novel biomarker for haemodynamic impairment. In a dual-centre, retrospective analysis including 112 patients with PAH (n = 52), CTEPH (n = 49) and a control cohort of patients with suspected PAH ruled out by right heart catheterisation (n = 11), we found fibrinogen plasma concentrations to be increased in patients with PAH (4.1 ± 1.4 g/l) and CTEPH (4.3 ± 1.2 g/l) compared to control patients (3.4 ± 0.5 g/l, p = 0.0035 and p = 0.0004, respectively). In CTEPH patients but not in PAH patients fibrinogen was associated with haemodynamics (p < 0.036) and functional parameters (p < 0.041). Furthermore, fibrinogen was linked to disease severity (WHO functional class, p = 0.017) and independently predicted haemodynamic impairment specifically in CTEPH (p < 0.016). Therefore, fibrinogen seems to represent an important factor in CTEPH pathophysiology and may have the potential to guide clinical diagnosis and therapy. PMID:24770447

  3. Comparison of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle carnitine concentrations in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G; Cornelius, L; Keene, B; Rakich, P; Shug, A

    1990-09-01

    Concentrations of total, free, and esterified carnitine were determined in plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and compared with values from healthy cats. The mean concentrations of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle total carnitine; plasma and skeletal muscle free carnitine; and plasma and liver esterified carnitine were greater (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. The mean for the ratio of free/total carnitine in plasma and liver was lower (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. These data suggest that carnitine deficiency does not contribute to the pathogenesis of feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  4. Plasma firocoxib concentrations after intra-articular injection of autologous conditioned serum prepared from firocoxib positive horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortved, K F; Goodale, M B; Ober, C; Maylin, G A; Fortier, L A

    2017-12-01

    Orthobiologics such as autologous conditioned serum (ACS) are often used to treat joint disease in horses. Because ACS is generated from the horse's own blood, any medication administered at the time of preparation would likely be present in stored ACS, which could lead to an inadvertent positive drug test following intra-articular (IA) injection. The main objective of this study was to determine if ACS prepared from firocoxib positive horses could result in detectable plasma concentrations of the drug following IA injection. Firocoxib was administered to six horses at 0.1mg/kg PO twice at a 24h interval. Blood was obtained at 4h following the second dose and transferred to a separate syringe (Arthrex IRAP II) for ACS preparation. Plasma and ACS concentrations of firocoxib were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). When horses were confirmed firocoxib negative, 7.5mL of ACS was injected into both tarsocrural joints. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48h, and firocoxib concentration was measured. Mean (±standard error of the mean, SEM) plasma concentration of firocoxib 4h following the second dose was 33.3±4.72ng/mL. Mean (±SEM) firocoxib concentration in ACS was 35.4±4.47ng/mL. Fourteen days following the second and last dose of firocoxib, mean plasma concentration was below the lower limit of detection (LOD=1ng/mL) in all horses. Following IA injection of ACS, plasma concentrations of firocoxib remained below LOD at all times in all horses. ACS generated from horses with therapeutic plasma concentrations of firocoxib did not contain sufficient firocoxib to lead to a positive plasma drug test following IA administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efeito da aplicação de hCG ou GnRH sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona e eficiência reprodutiva em porcas Effect of injection of hCG or GnRH on progesterone serum concentration and reproductive efficiency of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.R. Carvalho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação de diferentes hormônios no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona e sobre as características reprodutivas, em 103 porcas entre o terceirro e sexto parto. As matrizes foram divididas em: grupo-controle (n=35, não tratado, grupo GnRH (n=34, animais submetidos à aplicação intramuscular (IM de 50mcg de um análogo-GnRH no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação, e grupo hCG (n=34, animais submetidos à aplicação IM de 500UI de hCG no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação. A aplicação dos hormônios não influenciou as características reprodutivas taxa de parto, número total de nascidos, número de nascidos vivos e peso da leitegada (P>0,05. Cinco animais de cada grupo foram submetidos a coletas de sangue da veia cava nos dias 3, 5, 8, 12, 21 e 28 após a primeira inseminação para avaliação da concentração sérica de progesterona (ng/ml, utilizando a técnica de radioimunoensaio. Não houve diferença significativa quanto à concentração sérica de progesterona entre os grupos.Two different hormones were administered on the fifth day after the first insemination to evaluate their influence on serum progesterone concentrations and on reproductive efficiency, in multiparous sows between the third and the sixth parturition. The reproductive performance was evaluated in 103 sows distributed into three groups: 1-Control (n=35; 2-GnRH, 50m g of GnRH-analogue, administered IM on the fifth day after the first insemination (n=34; and 3-hCG, 500 IU of hCG administered IM in the fifth day after the first insemination (n=34. No effect (P>0.05 of hormone treatments on farrowing rate, litter size, live born and litter weight was observed. Five sows of each group were blood sampled on days 3, 5, 8, 12, 21, 28, after the first insemination, to evaluate serum progesterone concentrations (ng/ml. Serum progesterone concentrations were not affected (P>0.05 by

  6. Effects of progesterone stimulated allopregnanolone on craving and stress response in cocaine dependent men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milivojevic, Verica; Fox, Helen C; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Covault, Jonathan; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-03-01

    Fluctuations in progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle have been shown to affect physiological and subjective effects of cocaine. Furthermore, our laboratory has demonstrated that following drug-cue exposure, cocaine dependent women with high levels of circulating progesterone display lower diastolic and systolic blood pressure responses and report lower levels of anxiety and drug craving compared to cocaine dependent women with low levels of progesterone. In the current study we examined the role of the progesterone derived neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) on stress arousal, inhibitory control and drug craving in cocaine dependent subjects. Plasma levels of ALLO were measured using GC/MS in 46 treatment-seeking cocaine dependent men and women on day 5 of a 7-day treatment regimen of micronized progesterone (15M/8F) (400mg/day) or placebo (14M/9F) administered in a double blind, randomized manner. As a control, levels of the testosterone derived neurosteroid androstanediol (ADIOL) were also measured. All subjects participated in laboratory sessions on days 5-7 of progesterone/placebo administration in which they were exposed to a series of 5-min personalized guided imagery of either a stressful situation, cocaine use or of a neutral setting and dependent variables including subjective craving, mood, Stroop task as a measure of inhibitory control performance and plasma cortisol were assessed. Participants were grouped by high or low ALLO level and levels of dependent variables compared between ALLO groups. Progesterone relative to placebo significantly increased ALLO levels with no sex differences. There were no effects of micronized progesterone on the testosterone derived ADIOL. Individuals in the high versus the low ALLO group showed decreased levels of cortisol at baseline, and a higher cortisol response to stress; higher positive mood scores at baseline and improved Stroop performance in the drug-cue and stress conditions, and reduced cocaine

  7. PFAS concentrations in plasma samples from Danish school children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Siersma, Volkert D; Grandjean, Philippe; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are accumulating in our environment and human exposure to these potentially harmful chemicals are of growing concern. In the present study, 116 children aged 6-11 and 143 mothers in two locations in Denmark donated blood samples as a supplement to their participation in the large European human biomonitoring project, DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale). The blood samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the