WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma processing tools

  1. Development of atmospheric pressure plasma processing machine tool for large aperture optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xing; Wu, Yangong; Zhang, Peng; Xin, Qiang; Wang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, major projects, such as National Ignition Facility and Laser Mégajoule, have generated great demands for large aperture optics with high surface accuracy and low Subsurface Damage (SSD) at the mean time. In order to remove SSD and improve surface quality, optics is fabricated by sub-aperture polishing. However, the efficiency of the sub-aperture polishing has been a bottleneck step for the optics manufacturing. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Processing (APPP) as an alternate method offers high potential for speeding up the polishing process. This technique is based on chemical etching, hence there is no physical contact and no damage is induced. In this paper, a fast polishing machine tool is presented which is designed for fast polishing of the large aperture optics using APPP. This machine tool employs 3PRS-XY hybrid structure as its framework. There is a platform in the 3PRS parallel module to support the plasma generating system. And the large work piece is placed on the XY stage. In order to realize the complex motion trajectory for polishing the freeform optics, five axis of the tool operate simultaneously. To overcome the complexity of inverse kinematics calculation, a dedicated motion control system is also designed for speeding up the motion response. For high removal rate, the individual influence of several key processing parameters is investigated. And under specific production condition, this machine tool offers a high material over 30mm3/min for fused silica substrates. This results shows that APPP machine tool has a strong potential for fast polishing large optics without introducing SSD.

  2. Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF2 radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, M.; Lang, N.; Zimmermann, S.; Schulz, S. E.; Buchholtz, W.; Röpcke, J.; van Helden, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF2 radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF2 radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm-1. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ν3 fundamental band of CF2 with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF2 radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing.

  3. Batch processing of overlapping molecular spectra as a tool for spatio-temporal diagnostics of power modulated microwave plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voráč, Jan; Synek, Petr; Potočňáková, Lucia; Hnilica, Jaroslav; Kudrle, Vít

    2017-02-01

    Power modulated microwave plasma jet operating in argon at atmospheric pressure was studied by spatio-temporally resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in order to clarify the influence of modulation on plasma parameters. OES was carried out in OH, NH, N2 and {{{N}}}2+ spectral regions using a spectrometer with intensified CCD detector synchronised with 101–103 Hz sine modulating signal. A special software, able to fit even the overlapping spectra, was developed to batch process the massive datasets produced by this spatio-temporal study. Results show that studied species with the exception of {{{N}}}2+ have balanced rotational and vibrational temperatures across the modulation frequencies. Significant influence of modulation can be clearly observed on temperature spatial gradients. Whereas for low modulation frequencies where the temperatures reach sharp maxima upon discharge tip, the high frequency modulation produces thermally homogeneous plasma.

  4. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  5. Real-Time Fault Classification for Plasma Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun

    2011-01-01

    Plasma process tools, which usually cost several millions of US dollars, are often used in the semiconductor fabrication etching process. If the plasma process is halted due to some process fault, the productivity will be reduced and the cost will increase. In order to maximize the product/wafer yield and tool productivity, a timely and effective fault process detection is required in a plasma reactor. The classification of fault events can help the users to quickly identify fault processes, ...

  6. Plasma Disinfection and the Deterioration of Surgical Tools at Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaba, Siti Khadijah; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Ohkawa, Hiroshi; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Tsuji, Masao; Shimizu, Naohiro; Imanishi, Yuichirou

    The purpose of this paper is to present and compare disinfection effect of plasma by means of Atmospheric Pressure Glow plasma and streamer discharge. Geobacillus stearothermophilus was used as biological indicator for disinfection process. The effect of blades after irradiated in plasma was also studied by SEM analysis. It was found that the disinfection process was effective when the cylindrical configuration was applied. Carbon steel blade was also found to be deteriorated after immersed in plasma irradiation. Results indicate that disinfection can be achieved and at the same time deteriorations of the tools were observed.

  7. Biomimetics: process, tools and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, P E; Wanieck, K; Zollfrank, C; Maranzana, N; Aoussat, A

    2017-01-23

    Biomimetics applies principles and strategies abstracted from biological systems to engineering and technological design. With a huge potential for innovation, biomimetics could evolve into a key process in businesses. Yet challenges remain within the process of biomimetics, especially from the perspective of potential users. We work to clarify the understanding of the process of biomimetics. Therefore, we briefly summarize the terminology of biomimetics and bioinspiration. The implementation of biomimetics requires a stated process. Therefore, we present a model of the problem-driven process of biomimetics that can be used for problem-solving activity. The process of biomimetics can be facilitated by existing tools and creative methods. We mapped a set of tools to the biomimetic process model and set up assessment sheets to evaluate the theoretical and practical value of these tools. We analyzed the tools in interdisciplinary research workshops and present the characteristics of the tools. We also present the attempt of a utility tree which, once finalized, could be used to guide users through the process by choosing appropriate tools respective to their own expertize. The aim of this paper is to foster the dialogue and facilitate a closer collaboration within the field of biomimetics.

  8. Plasma Processing of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-22

    used in France. In this case, three ’ movable electrodes arranged about the central axis with a coaxial sheath gas are employed. Initially the...Demiocratic Republic plasma furnace. chrome -magnesite; the bottom section is lined with rammed chrome -magnesite refractory. Due to the high heat loads... sheath injector design, cathode tip shape, and degree of water cooling are important parameters in providing a stable, uncontaminating, long-lifetime

  9. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Bolic, Andrijana; Svanholm, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This manuscript therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: on-line sensors, mechanistic models and small-scale equipment for high-throughput experimentation. The manuscript ends with a short...

  10. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Bolic, Andrijana; Svanholm, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This manuscript therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: on-line sensors, mechanistic models and small-scale equipment for high-throughput experimentation. The manuscript ends with a short...

  11. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This presentation therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: - On-line sensors, where for example spectroscopic measurements are increasingly applied - Mechanistic models, which can be used...

  12. Methods for characterising microphysical processes in plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    de Wit, T Dudok; Furno, I; Sorriso-Valvo, L; Zimbardo, G

    2013-01-01

    Advanced spectral and statistical data analysis techniques have greatly contributed to shaping our understanding of microphysical processes in plasmas. We review some of the main techniques that allow for characterising fluctuation phenomena in geospace and in laboratory plasma observations. Special emphasis is given to the commonalities between different disciplines, which have witnessed the development of similar tools, often with differing terminologies. The review is phrased in terms of few important concepts: self-similarity, deviation from self-similarity (i.e. intermittency and coherent structures), wave-turbulence, and anomalous transport.

  13. A secondary fuel removal process: plasma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, J. Y.; Kim, Y. S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, K. K.; Yang, M. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Plasma etching process of UO{sub 2} by using fluorine containing gas plasma is studied as a secondary fuel removal process for DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel Into Candu) process which is taken into consideration for potential future fuel cycle in Korea. CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} gas mixture is chosen for reactant gas and the etching rates of UO{sub 2} by the gas plasma are investigated as functions of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio, plasma power, substrate temperature, and plasma gas pressure. It is found that the optimum CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio is around 4:1 at all temperatures up to 400 deg C and the etching rate increases with increasing r.f. power and substrate temperature. Under 150W r.f. power the etching rate reaches 1100 monolayers/min at 400 deg C, which is equivalent to about 0.5mm/min. (author).

  14. Plasma detachment with molecular processes in divertor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, N.; Ezumi, N.; Nishijima, D.; Takamura, S. [Dept. of Energy Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Molecular processes in detached recombining plasmas are briefly reviewed. Several reactions with vibrationally excited hydrogen molecule related to recombination processes are described. Experimental evidence of molecular activated recombination observed in a linear divertor plasma simulator is also shown. (author)

  15. Plasma diagnostics in plasma processing for nanotechnology and nanolevel chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Akatsuka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the role of various plasma diagnostics in plasma processing for nanotechnology, and points out some essential methods of spectroscopic methods to diagnose plasmas for nanoprocessing. Two experimental examples are discussed between the characteristics of nanomaterials and plasma parameters. One is measurement of rotation temperature in processing of carbon nanotube. The other is that of vibrational temperature in surface nitriding of titanium by nitrogen plasma processing. We summarize what to measure and how to measure them from the technical viewpoint of plasma diagnostics.

  16. Advanced plasma diagnostics for plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Mikhail Victorovich

    1999-10-01

    A new, non-intrusive, non-perturbing diagnostic method was developed that can be broadly applied to low pressure, weakly ionized plasmas and glow discharges-trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES). The method is based on a comparison of intensities of atomic emission from trace amounts of inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) that are added to the discharge to intensities calculated from the theoretical model. The model assumes a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), computes the population of emitting levels both from the ground state and the metastable states of rare gases, and from the best fit between theory and experiment determines electron temperature (Te). Subject to conditions, TRG-OES can also yield electron density or its upper or lower limit. From the comparison of the emission from levels excited predominantly by high energy electrons to that excited by low energy electrons, information about the EEDF can be obtained. The use of TRG-OES also allows a traditionally qualitative actinometry technique (determination of concentration of radical species in plasma through optical emission) to become a precise quantitative method by including Te and rare gases metastables effects. A combination of TRG-OES, advanced actinometry, and Langmuir probe measurements was applied to several different plasma reactors and regimes of operation. Te measurements and experiments to correct excitation cross section were conducted in a laboratory helical resonator. Two chamber configuration of a commercial (Lam Research) metal etcher were studied to determine the effects of plasma parameters on plasma-induced damage. Two different methods (RF inductive coupling and ultra-high frequency coupling) for generating a plasma in a prototype reactor were also studied. Pulsed plasmas, a potential candidate to eliminate the plasma-induced damage to microelectronics devices that occurs in manufacturing due to differential charging of the wafer, have

  17. INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2009-07-01

    This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early

  18. Effect of plasma processing reactor circuitry on plasma characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauf, S.; Kushner, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1997-12-31

    It is well known that external circuitry greatly influences the performance of plasma processing reactors. Simulation of external circuits difficult since the time in which the external circuit attains the steady-state is several orders of magnitude longer than typical plasma simulation time scales. In this paper, the authors present a technique to simulate the external circuit concurrently with the plasma, and implement it into the Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model (HPEM). The resulting model is used to investigate the influence of external circuitry on plasma behavior.

  19. Atomic and molecular processes in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janev, R.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-01-01

    The role of atomic and molecular processes in achieving and maintaining the conditions for thermonuclear burn in a magnetically confined fusion plasma is described. Emphasis is given to the energy balance and power and particle exhaust issues. The most important atomic and molecular processes which affect the radiation losses and impurity transport in the core plasma, the neutral particle transport in the plasma edge and the radiative cooling of divertor plasmas are discussed in greater detail. (author)

  20. Real-Time Fault Classification for Plasma Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Yang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasma process tools, which usually cost several millions of US dollars, are often used in the semiconductor fabrication etching process. If the plasma process is halted due to some process fault, the productivity will be reduced and the cost will increase. In order to maximize the product/wafer yield and tool productivity, a timely and effective fault process detection is required in a plasma reactor. The classification of fault events can help the users to quickly identify fault processes, and thus can save downtime of the plasma tool. In this work, optical emission spectroscopy (OES is employed as the metrology sensor for in-situ process monitoring. Splitting into twelve different match rates by spectrum bands, the matching rate indicator in our previous work (Yang, R.; Chen, R.S. Sensors 2010, 10, 5703-5723 is used to detect the fault process. Based on the match data, a real-time classification of plasma faults is achieved by a novel method, developed in this study. Experiments were conducted to validate the novel fault classification. From the experimental results, we may conclude that the proposed method is feasible inasmuch that the overall accuracy rate of the classification for fault event shifts is 27 out of 28 or about 96.4% in success.

  1. Real-time fault classification for plasma processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun

    2011-01-01

    Plasma process tools, which usually cost several millions of US dollars, are often used in the semiconductor fabrication etching process. If the plasma process is halted due to some process fault, the productivity will be reduced and the cost will increase. In order to maximize the product/wafer yield and tool productivity, a timely and effective fault process detection is required in a plasma reactor. The classification of fault events can help the users to quickly identify fault processes, and thus can save downtime of the plasma tool. In this work, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is employed as the metrology sensor for in-situ process monitoring. Splitting into twelve different match rates by spectrum bands, the matching rate indicator in our previous work (Yang, R.; Chen, R.S. Sensors 2010, 10, 5703-5723) is used to detect the fault process. Based on the match data, a real-time classification of plasma faults is achieved by a novel method, developed in this study. Experiments were conducted to validate the novel fault classification. From the experimental results, we may conclude that the proposed method is feasible inasmuch that the overall accuracy rate of the classification for fault event shifts is 27 out of 28 or about 96.4% in success.

  2. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Traditional approaches for active flow separation control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are limited to relatively low speed flows and atmospheric conditions. This results in low feasibility of the DBDs for aerospace applications. For active flow control at turbine blades, fixed wings, and rotary wings and on hypersonic vehicles, DBD plasma actuators must perform at a wide range of conditions, including rarified flows and combustion mixtures. An efficient, comprehensive, physically based DBD simulation tool can optimize DBD plasma actuators for different operation conditions. Researchers are developing a DBD plasma actuator simulation tool for a wide range of ambient gas pressures. The tool will treat DBD using either kinetic, fluid, or hybrid models, depending on the DBD operational condition.

  3. Plasma chemistry study of PLAD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Shu; Brumfield, Kyle; Liu, Lequn Jennifer; Hu, Yongjun Jeff; McTeer, Allen; Hsu, Wei Hui; Wang Maoying [Nanya Technology Inc., Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Micron Technology Inc., Boise, ID 83707 (United States)

    2012-11-06

    Plasma doping (PLAD) shows very different impurity profiles compared to the conventional beam-line-based ion implantations due to its non-mass separation property and plasma environment. There is no simulation for PLAD process so far due to a lack of a dopant profile model. Several factors determine impurity profiles of PLAD process. The most significant factors are: plasma chemistry and deposition/etching characteristics of multi-ion species plasmas. In this paper, we present plasma chemistry and deposition/etching characteristics of PLAD processes versus co-gas dilutions. Four dopant plasmas including B{sub 2}H{sub 6}, BF{sub 3}, AsH{sub 3}, and PH{sub 3}, and two non-dopant plasmas including CH{sub 4} and GeH{sub 4} are studied and demonstrated.

  4. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  5. Cold plasma processing to improve food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold plasma is an antimicrobial process being developed for application as a food processing technology. This novel intervention is the subject of an expanding research effort by groups around the world. A variety of devices can be used to generate cold plasma and apply it to the food commodity bein...

  6. Atomic processes in optically thin plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaastra, Jelle S.; Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; Mehdipour, Missagh; Raassen, Ton; Urdampilleta, Igone

    2016-10-01

    The Universe contains a broad range of plasmas with quite different properties depending on distinct physical processes. In this contribution we give an overview of recent developments in modeling such plasmas with a focus on X-ray emission and absorption. Despite the fact that such plasmas have been investigated already for decades, and that overall there is a good understanding of the basic processes, there are still areas, where improvements have to be made that are important for the analysis of astrophysical plasmas. We present recent work on the update of atomic parameters in the codes that describe the emission from collisional plasmas, where older approximations are being replaced now by more accurate data. Further we discuss the development of models for photo-ionised plasmas in the context of outflows around supermassive black holes and models for charge transfer that are needed for analyzing the data from the upcoming ASTRO-H satellite.

  7. A plasma process monitor/control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.O.; Ward, P.P.; Smith, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Markle, R.J. [Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a system to monitor plasma processes for control of industrial applications. The system is designed to act as a fully automated, sand-alone process monitor during printed wiring board and semiconductor production runs. The monitor routinely performs data collection, analysis, process identification, and error detection/correction without the need for human intervention. The monitor can also be used in research mode to allow process engineers to gather additional information about plasma processes. The plasma monitor can perform real-time control of support systems known to influence plasma behavior. The monitor can also signal personnel to modify plasma parameters when the system is operating outside of desired specifications and requires human assistance. A notification protocol can be selected for conditions detected in the plasma process. The Plasma Process Monitor/Control System consists of a computer running software developed by Sandia National Laboratories, a commercially available spectrophotometer equipped with a charge-coupled device camera, an input/output device, and a fiber optic cable.

  8. The tools for evaluating logistics processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Adamczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growing importance of business process approach and dynamic management is triggered by market expectations for lead time reductions and the pressure for cost cuts. An efficient process management requires measurement and assessment skills. This article is intended to present the tools used in evaluating processes and the way in which they work together under simulated conditions. Methods: The project's Authors believe that a process can be assessed by measuring its attributes: cost, time and quality. An assessment tool has been developed for each of those attributes. For costs - it could be activity based costing, for time - value stream mapping; for quality - statistical process control. Each tool allows for evaluating one of the attributes, any element in the process hierarchy. The methods presented in the paper have been supplemented with process modelling and simulation. Results: In order to show how process assessment tools are combined with process simulation the Authors show a sample process in three versions (serial, parallel and mixed. A variant simulation (using iGrafx software allows for determining the values of attributes in the entire process based on the data set for its components (activities. In the example under investigation the process variant has no impact on its quality. Process cost and time are affected. Conclusions: The tools for identifying attribute values, in combination with process modelling and simulation, can prove very beneficial when applied in business practice. In the first place they allow for evaluating a process based on the value of the attributes pertaining to its particular activities, which, on the other hand, raises the possibility of process configuration at the design stage. The solution presented in the paper can be developed further with a view to process standardization and best variant recommendation.  

  9. High Temperature Plasmas Theory and Mathematical Tools for Laser and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Spatschek, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Filling the gap for a treatment of the subject as an advanced course in theoretical physics with a huge potential for future applications, this monograph discusses aspects of these applications and provides theoretical methods and tools for their investigation. Throughout this coherent and up-to-date work the main emphasis is on classical plasmas at high-temperatures, drawing on the experienced author's specialist background. As such, it covers the key areas of magnetic fusion plasma, laser-plasma-interaction and astrophysical plasmas, while also including nonlinear waves and phenomena.

  10. Process Mapping: Tools, Techniques, & Critical Success Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Howard K.

    2002-01-01

    Explains process mapping as an analytical tool and a process intervention that performance technologists can use to improve human performance by reducing error variance. Highlights include benefits of process mapping; and critical success factors, including organizational readiness, time commitment by participants, and the availability of a…

  11. Surface studies of plasma processed Nb samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Puneet V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Doleans, Marc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Hannah, Brian S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Afanador, Ralph [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Stewart, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Mammosser, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Howell, Matthew P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Saunders, Jeffrey W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Degraff, Brian D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants present at top surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities can act as field emitters and restrict the cavity accelerating gradient. A room temperature in-situ plasma processing technology for SRF cavities aiming to clean hydrocarbons from inner surface of cavities has been recently developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Surface studies of the plasma-processed Nb samples by Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) showed that the NeO2 plasma processing is very effective to remove carbonaceous contaminants from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5 to 1.0 eV.

  12. Space plasma physics: I - Stationary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya

    1989-01-01

    The physics of stationary processes in space plasmas is examined theoretically in an introduction intended for graduate students. The approach involves the extensive use of numerical simulations. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, small-amplitude waves, and the stationary solar plasma system; typical measurement data and simulation results are presented graphically.

  13. Developments in Plasma Processes for Extractive Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, W. H.; Drouet, M. G.; Munz, R. J.

    1987-12-01

    With the recent availability of commercial plasma-generating devices capable of reliable performance at powers as high as 30 MW, the applications of plasma technology in high-temperature extractive metallurgy are rapidly increasing. Some of the more promising process developments are reviewed in this paper, as are newer reactor designs.

  14. Nanocapillary Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet: A Tool for Ultrafine Maskless Surface Modification at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motrescu, Iuliana; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-05-18

    With respect to microsized surface functionalization techniques we proposed the use of a maskless, versatile, simple tool, represented by a nano- or microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jet for producing microsized controlled etching, chemical vapor deposition, and chemical modification patterns on polymeric surfaces. In this work we show the possibility of size-controlled surface amination, and we discuss it as a function of different processing parameters. Moreover, we prove the successful connection of labeled sugar chains on the functionalized microscale patterns, indicating the possibility to use ultrafine capillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets as versatile tools for biosensing, tissue engineering, and related biomedical applications.

  15. Process-Based Quality (PBQ) Tools Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J.L.

    2001-12-03

    The objective of this effort is to benchmark the development of process-based quality tools for application in CAD (computer-aided design) model-based applications. The processes of interest are design, manufacturing, and quality process applications. A study was commissioned addressing the impact, current technologies, and known problem areas in application of 3D MCAD (3-dimensional mechanical computer-aided design) models and model integrity on downstream manufacturing and quality processes. The downstream manufacturing and product quality processes are profoundly influenced and dependent on model quality and modeling process integrity. The goal is to illustrate and expedite the modeling and downstream model-based technologies for available or conceptual methods and tools to achieve maximum economic advantage and advance process-based quality concepts.

  16. Fundamental Processes in Plasmas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, Thomas M.; Driscoll, C. Fred

    2009-11-30

    This research focuses on fundamental processes in plasmas, and emphasizes problems for which precise experimental tests of theory can be obtained. Experiments are performed on non-neutral plasmas, utilizing three electron traps and one ion trap with a broad range of operating regimes and diagnostics. Theory is focused on fundamental plasma and fluid processes underlying collisional transport and fluid turbulence, using both analytic techniques and medium-scale numerical simulations. The simplicity of these systems allows a depth of understanding and a precision of comparison between theory and experiment which is rarely possible for neutral plasmas in complex geometry. The recent work has focused on three areas in basic plasma physics. First, experiments and theory have probed fundamental characteristics of plasma waves: from the low-amplitude thermal regime, to inviscid damping and fluid echoes, to cold fluid waves in cryogenic ion plasmas. Second, the wide-ranging effects of dissipative separatrices have been studied experimentally and theoretically, finding novel wave damping and coupling effects and important plasma transport effects. Finally, correlated systems have been investigated experimentally and theoretically: UCSD experients have now measured the Salpeter correlation enhancement, and theory work has characterized the 'guiding center atoms of antihydrogen created at CERN.

  17. Saturn Plasma Sources and Associated Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, M.; Andrews, D. J.; Coates, A. J.; Hamilton, D. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kotova, A.; Morooka, M.; Smith, H. T.; Westlake, J. H.

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews the different sources of plasma for Saturn's magnetosphere, as they are known essentially from the scientific results of the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. At low and medium energies, the main plasma source is the H2O cloud produced by the "geyser" activity of the small satellite Enceladus. Impact ionization of this cloud occurs to produce on the order of 100 kg/s of fresh plasma, a source which dominates all the other ones: Titan (which produces much less plasma than anticipated before the Cassini mission), the rings, the solar wind (a poorly known source due to the lack of quantitative knowledge of the degree of coupling between the solar wind and Saturn's magnetosphere), and the ionosphere. At higher energies, energetic particles are produced by energy diffusion and acceleration of lower energy plasma produced by the interchange instabilities induced by the rapid rotation of Saturn, and possibly, for the highest energy range, by contributions from the CRAND process acting inside Saturn's magnetosphere. Discussion of the transport and acceleration processes acting on these plasma sources shows the importance of rotation-induced radial transport and energization of the plasma, and also shows how much the unexpected planetary modulation of essentially all plasma parameters of Saturn's magnetosphere remains an unexplained mystery.

  18. Micro and nano fabrication tools and processes

    CERN Document Server

    Gatzen, Hans H; Leuthold, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    For Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS) production, each product requires a unique process technology. This book provides a comprehensive insight into the tools necessary for fabricating MEMS/NEMS and the process technologies applied. Besides, it describes enabling technologies which are necessary for a successful production, i.e., wafer planarization and bonding, as well as contamination control.

  19. Quality tools - systematic use in process industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sokovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper is dealing with one segment of broader research of universality systematicness in application of seven basic quality tools (7QC tools. The research was carried out in different areas that include power plant, process industry, government, health and tourism services. The aim of the research was to show on practical examples that there is real possibility of application of 7QC tools. Furthermore, the research has to show to what extent are selected tools in usage and what reasons of avoiding their broader application are. The simple example of successful application of one of quality tools are shown on selected company in process industry.Design/methodology/approach: In the research each of 7QC tools have been tested and its applicability in the frame of selected business has been shown. Systematic approach is explained on the example of selected company in process industry which is ISO 9000:2000 certified.Findings: Conducted research has shown that there is possibility of systematic application of all of the 7QC tools in the frame of companies’ overall quality management system. The research has also shown that 7QC tools are not so wide spread as expected, although they are quite simple for application and easy to interpret. The further investigation should be carried out in order to find reasons for such condition, and, in accordance, to define appropriate corrective actions to eliminate or minimize that problem.Practical implications: The partners in research were from different area of business, as stated above. To each partner has been shown in what manner can quality tools are applied and how formal quality management system can help in process improvement on day-to day basis.Originality/value: The main value of conducted research is, in author’s opinion, to show to each partner in research that all of 7QC tools can be successfully applied within their own business. Also, the correlation between formal quality

  20. Hydrogen Plasma Processing of Iron Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Kali Charan; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2017-06-01

    Iron is currently produced by carbothermic reduction of oxide ores. This is a multiple-stage process that requires large-scale equipment and high capital investment, and produces large amounts of CO2. An alternative to carbothermic reduction is reduction using a hydrogen plasma, which comprises vibrationally excited molecular, atomic, and ionic states of hydrogen, all of which can reduce iron oxides, even at low temperatures. Besides the thermodynamic and kinetic advantages of a hydrogen plasma, the byproduct of the reaction is water, which does not pose any environmental problems. A review of the theory and practice of iron ore reduction using a hydrogen plasma is presented. The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects are considered, with molecular, atomic and ionic hydrogen considered separately. The importance of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in overcoming the activation energy barriers, and in transferring energy to the iron oxide, is emphasized. Both thermal and nonthermal plasmas are considered. The thermophysical properties of hydrogen and argon-hydrogen plasmas are discussed, and their influence on the constriction and flow in the of arc plasmas is considered. The published R&D on hydrogen plasma reduction of iron oxide is reviewed, with both the reduction of molten iron ore and in-flight reduction of iron ore particles being considered. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility of the process are discussed. It is shown that hydrogen plasma processing requires less energy than carbothermic reduction, mainly because pelletization, sintering, and cokemaking are not required. Moreover, the formation of the greenhouse gas CO2 as a byproduct is avoided. In-flight reduction has the potential for a throughput at least equivalent to the blast furnace process. It is concluded that hydrogen plasma reduction of iron ore is a potentially attractive alternative to standard methods.

  1. Hydrogen Plasma Processing of Iron Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Kali Charan; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2017-03-01

    Iron is currently produced by carbothermic reduction of oxide ores. This is a multiple-stage process that requires large-scale equipment and high capital investment, and produces large amounts of CO2. An alternative to carbothermic reduction is reduction using a hydrogen plasma, which comprises vibrationally excited molecular, atomic, and ionic states of hydrogen, all of which can reduce iron oxides, even at low temperatures. Besides the thermodynamic and kinetic advantages of a hydrogen plasma, the byproduct of the reaction is water, which does not pose any environmental problems. A review of the theory and practice of iron ore reduction using a hydrogen plasma is presented. The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects are considered, with molecular, atomic and ionic hydrogen considered separately. The importance of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in overcoming the activation energy barriers, and in transferring energy to the iron oxide, is emphasized. Both thermal and nonthermal plasmas are considered. The thermophysical properties of hydrogen and argon-hydrogen plasmas are discussed, and their influence on the constriction and flow in the of arc plasmas is considered. The published R&D on hydrogen plasma reduction of iron oxide is reviewed, with both the reduction of molten iron ore and in-flight reduction of iron ore particles being considered. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility of the process are discussed. It is shown that hydrogen plasma processing requires less energy than carbothermic reduction, mainly because pelletization, sintering, and cokemaking are not required. Moreover, the formation of the greenhouse gas CO2 as a byproduct is avoided. In-flight reduction has the potential for a throughput at least equivalent to the blast furnace process. It is concluded that hydrogen plasma reduction of iron ore is a potentially attractive alternative to standard methods.

  2. Pulsed Plasma Methods in Materials Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rej, D. J.

    1996-05-01

    Plasmas are routinely used to synthesize advanced materials, because of their ability to produce reactant species that enable a wide variety of chemical reactions. For example, in microelectronics manufacturing, plasmas are used to etch, clean, ash photoresist, implant, deposit, polymerize, and metalize. The use of pulsed power may extend the utility of plasma processing. Pulsed devices such as coaxial plasma guns, cathodic arcs, pseudosparks have been employed to synthesize materials ranging from novel steel alloys and high-temperature superconductors to diamond coatings. In this talk, we will highlight plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition, methods that improve conventional steady-state chemical and physical vapor deposition techniques. Pulsed power enables energetic ion bombardment before plasma deposition to promote better film adhesion through the formation of a graded interface. Ion bombardment during deposition reduces residual stress in the deposited film, thereby enabling formation of thick layers. Also, pulsed plasma sources have advantages over steady-state devices in that they conserve electrical power and can produce high-density, fully-dissociated plasmas. As an example, we will review recent experiments on the formation of adherent diamond-like carbon films deposited onto relatively large batches of automotive components.

  3. Plasma characterization studies for materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfender, E.; Heberlein, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    New applications for plasma processing of materials require a more detailed understanding of the fundamental processes occurring in the processing reactors. We have developed reactors offering specific advantages for materials processing, and we are using modeling and diagnostic techniques for the characterization of these reactors. The emphasis is in part set by the interest shown by industry pursuing specific plasma processing applications. In this paper we report on the modeling of radio frequency plasma reactors for use in materials synthesis, and on the characterization of the high rate diamond deposition process using liquid precursors. In the radio frequency plasma torch model, the influence of specific design changes such as the location of the excitation coil on the enthalpy flow distribution is investigated for oxygen and air as plasma gases. The diamond deposition with liquid precursors has identified the efficient mass transport in form of liquid droplets into the boundary layer as responsible for high growth, and the chemical properties of the liquid for the film morphology.

  4. Cluster processes in gases and plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Boris M

    2009-01-01

    Boris M. Smirnov received his Ph.D. in physics from Leningrad State University in 1968. After working in different research positions, he finally accepted a post as head of one of the divisions of the Institute for High Temperatures at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow in 1986. Professor Smirnov is the author and co-author of approximately 50 books as well as 400 research articles in plasma physics, atomic physics, and atomic clusters. He is Vice Chairman of the National Council for Low Temperature Plasma and Chairman ofa Section on Elementary Processes in Plasma. Professor Smirnov`s r

  5. Ultrasonic Plasma Spray--A New Plasma Spray Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhi-qing; ZHANG Hua-tang; WEN Xiong-wei; LI Lu-ming

    2004-01-01

    The method of arc- ultrasonic is introduced into plasma spray process. The process of spray ZrO2-NiCoCr AlY thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) using air plasma spray (APS) process is studied. A exciting source which can be adjusted from audio frequency to several hundred thousand Hertz is designed successfully. The ultrasonic exciting source is coupled with conventional DC spraying power supply. A few ultrasonic frequencies are selected in the testing. Several parts of the coatings with the coupling arc- ultrasonic are compared with the coatings without it. The results show: with 50 kHz and 80 kHz ultrasound, the coating qualities are improved, whereas 30 kHz has an opposite effect.

  6. Atmospheric plasma processes for environmental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shapoval, Volodymyr

    2012-01-01

    Plasma chemistry is a rapidly growing field which covers applications ranging from technological processing of materials, including biological tissues, to environmental remediation and energy production. The so called atmospheric plasma, produced by electric corona or dielectric barrier discharges in a gas at atmospheric pressure, is particularly attractive for the low costs and ease of operation and maintenance involved. The high concentrations of energetic and chemically active species (e.g...

  7. Atmospheric plasma processes for environmental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shapoval, Volodymyr

    2012-01-01

    Plasma chemistry is a rapidly growing field which covers applications ranging from technological processing of materials, including biological tissues, to environmental remediation and energy production. The so called atmospheric plasma, produced by electric corona or dielectric barrier discharges in a gas at atmospheric pressure, is particularly attractive for the low costs and ease of operation and maintenance involved. The high concentrations of energetic and chemically active species (e.g...

  8. Plasma processing of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Janardan

    The development of plasma processing technology of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities not only provides a chemical free and less expensive processing method, but also opens up the possibility for controlled modification of the inner surfaces of the cavity for better superconducting properties. The research was focused on the transition of plasma etching from two dimensional flat surfaces to inner surfaces of three dimensional (3D) structures. The results could be applicable to a variety of inner surfaces of 3D structures other than SRF cavities. Understanding the Ar/Cl2 plasma etching mechanism is crucial for achieving the desired modification of Nb SRF cavities. In the process of developing plasma etching technology, an apparatus was built and a method was developed to plasma etch a single cell Pill Box cavity. The plasma characterization was done with the help of optical emission spectroscopy. The Nb etch rate at various points of this cavity was measured before processing the SRF cavity. Cylindrical ring-type samples of Nb placed on the inner surface of the outer wall were used to measure the dependence of the process parameters on plasma etching. The measured etch rate dependence on the pressure, rf power, dc bias, temperature, Cl2 concentration and diameter of the inner electrode was determined. The etch rate mechanism was studied by varying the temperature of the outer wall, the dc bias on the inner electrode and gas conditions. In a coaxial plasma reactor, uniform plasma etching along the cylindrical structure is a challenging task due to depletion of the active radicals along the gas flow direction. The dependence of etch rate uniformity along the cylindrical axis was determined as a function of process parameters. The formation of dc self-biases due to surface area asymmetry in this type of plasma and its variation on the pressure, rf power and gas composition was measured. Enhancing the surface area of the inner electrode to reduce the

  9. Criminal Network Investigation: Processes, Tools, and Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    to the success of investigations. Basic criminal network investigation concepts have been developed and tested using proof-of-concept prototyping, resulting in generic software components for tool support of criminal network investigation. We have used these components to build CrimeFighter Investigator...... three challenges we formulated our hypothesis for tool support, and analyzed problems related to each individual challenge. Our response to these problems is a list of research focus requirements, to guide our development of new processes, tools, and techniques that ultimately would reduce the impact...... of the challenges and support the hypothesis. We propose hypertext as the key technology to bridge human and tool related requirements to provide integrated support for both, resulting in increased capabilities, that ultimately will create a synergy effect useful for criminal network investigation. We create...

  10. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES MODELLING USING ADVANCED HYDROINFORMATIC TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEILICCI ERIKA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The water has an essential role in the functioning of ecosystems by integrating the complex physical, chemical, and biological processes that sustain life. Water is a key factor in determining the productivity of ecosystems, biodiversity and species composition. Water is also essential for humanity: water supply systems for population, agriculture, fisheries, industries, and hydroelectric power depend on water supplies. The modelling of hydrological processes is an important activity for water resources management, especially now, when the climate change is one of the major challenges of our century, with strong influence on hydrological processes dynamics. Climate change and needs for more knowledge in water resources require the use of advanced hydroinformatic tools in hydrological processes modelling. The rationale and purpose of advanced hydroinformatic tools is to develop a new relationship between the stakeholders and the users and suppliers of the systems: to offer the basis (systems which supply useable results, the validity of which cannot be put in reasonable doubt by any of the stakeholders involved. For a successful modelling of hydrological processes also need specialists well trained and able to use advanced hydro-informatics tools. Results of modelling can be a useful tool for decision makers to taking efficient measures in social, economical and ecological domain regarding water resources, for an integrated water resources management.

  11. MRO DKF Post-Processing Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayap, Shanti; Fisher, Forest; Gladden, Roy; Khanampompan, Teerapat

    2008-01-01

    This software tool saves time and reduces risk by automating two labor-intensive and error-prone post-processing steps required for every DKF [DSN (Deep Space Network) Keyword File] that MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) produces, and is being extended to post-process the corresponding TSOE (Text Sequence Of Events) as well. The need for this post-processing step stems from limitations in the seq-gen modeling resulting in incorrect DKF generation that is then cleaned up in post-processing.

  12. Use of Process Improvement Tools in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, James V; Kannan, Amogha; Furman, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Process improvement techniques are common in manufacturing and industry. Over the past few decades these principles have been slowly introduced in select health care settings. This article reviews the Plan, Do, Study, and Act cycle, Six Sigma, the System of Profound Knowledge, Lean, and the theory of constraints. Specific process improvement tools in health care and radiology are presented in the order the radiologist is likely to encounter them in an improvement project.

  13. Space plasma physics stationary processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Akira

    1989-01-01

    During the 30 years of space exploration, important discoveries in the near-earth environment such as the Van Allen belts, the plasmapause, the magnetotail and the bow shock, to name a few, have been made. Coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and energy transfer processes between them are being identified. Space physics is clearly approaching a new era, where the emphasis is being shifted from discoveries to understanding. One way of identifying the new direction may be found in the recent contribution of atmospheric science and oceanography to the development of fluid dynamics. Hydrodynamics is a branch of classical physics in which important discoveries have been made in the era of Rayleigh, Taylor, Kelvin and Helmholtz. However, recent progress in global measurements using man-made satellites and in large scale computer simulations carried out by scientists in the fields of atmospheric science and oceanography have created new activities in hydrodynamics and produced important new discover...

  14. Signal processing methods for MFE plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.; Casper, T.; Kane, R.

    1985-02-01

    The application of various signal processing methods to extract energy storage information from plasma diamagnetism sensors occurring during physics experiments on the Tandom Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) is discussed. We show how these processing techniques can be used to decrease the uncertainty in the corresponding sensor measurements. The algorithms suggested are implemented using SIG, an interactive signal processing package developed at LLNL.

  15. Analyzing Discourse Processing Using a Simple Natural Language Processing Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, Laura K.; Kyle, Kristopher; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) provides a powerful approach for discourse processing researchers. However, there remains a notable degree of hesitation by some researchers to consider using NLP, at least on their own. The purpose of this article is to introduce and make available a "simple" NLP (SiNLP) tool. The overarching goal of…

  16. Analyzing Discourse Processing Using a Simple Natural Language Processing Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, Laura K.; Kyle, Kristopher; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) provides a powerful approach for discourse processing researchers. However, there remains a notable degree of hesitation by some researchers to consider using NLP, at least on their own. The purpose of this article is to introduce and make available a "simple" NLP (SiNLP) tool. The overarching goal of…

  17. Nonthermal Radiation Processes in Interplanetary Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, A. C. L.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. En la interacci6n de haces de electrones energeticos con plasmas interplanetarios, se excitan ondas intensas de Langmuir debido a inestabilidad del haz de plasma. Las ondas Langmuir a su vez interaccio nan con fluctuaciones de densidad de baja frecuencia para producir radiaciones. Si la longitud de las ondas de Langmujr exceden las condicio nes del umbral, se puede efectuar la conversi5n de modo no lineal a on- das electromagneticas a traves de inestabilidades parametricas. As se puede excitar en un plasma inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas impulsadas por ondas intensas de Langmuir: (1) inestabilidades de decaimiento/fusi5n electromagnetica impulsadas por una bomba de Lang- muir que viaja; (2) inestabilidades dobles electromagneticas de decai- miento/fusi5n impulsadas por dos bombas de Langrnuir directamente opues- tas; y (3) inestabilidades de dos corrientes oscilatorias electromagne- ticas impulsadas por dos bombas de Langmuir de corrientes contrarias. Se concluye que las inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas in- ducidas por las ondas de Langmuir son las fuentes posibles de radiacio- nes no termicas en plasmas interplanetarios. ABSTRACT: Nonthermal radio emissions near the local electron plasma frequency have been detected in various regions of interplanetary plasmas: solar wind, upstream of planetary bow shock, and heliopause. Energetic electron beams accelerated by solar flares, planetary bow shocks, and the terminal shock of heliosphere provide the energy source for these radio emissions. Thus, it is expected that similar nonthermal radiation processes may be responsible for the generation of these radio emissions. As energetic electron beams interact with interplanetary plasmas, intense Langmuir waves are excited due to a beam-plasma instability. The Langmuir waves then interact with low-frequency density fluctuations to produce radiations near the local electron plasma frequency. If Langmuir waves are of sufficiently large

  18. Immediate tool incorporation processes determine human motor planning with tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganesh, G; Yoshioka, T; Osu, R; Ikegami, T

    2014-01-01

    .... However tool incorporation, evident as extensions in our body representation and peri-personal space, has been observed predominantly after extended tool exposures and does not explain our immediate...

  19. Plasma Processes : Microwave plasma deposition of diamond like carbon coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D S Patil; K Ramachandran; N Venkatramani; M Pandey; R D'Cunha

    2000-11-01

    The promising applications of the microwave plasmas have been appearing in the fields of chemical processes and semiconductor manufacturing. Applications include surface deposition of all types including diamond/diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings, etching of semiconductors, promotion of organic reactions, etching of polymers to improve bonding of the other materials etc. With a 2.45 GHz, 700 W, microwave induced plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system set up in our laboratory we have deposited diamond like carbon coatings. The microwave plasma generation was effected using a wave guide single mode applicator. We have deposited DLC coatings on the substrates like stainless steel, Cu–Be, Cu and Si. The deposited coatings have been characterized by FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometric techniques. The results show that we have achieved depositing ∼ 95% sp3 bonded carbon in the films. The films are uniform with golden yellow color. The films are found to be excellent insulators. The ellipsometric measurements of optical constant on silicon substrates indicate that the films are transparent above 900 nm.

  20. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, R.; Blacic, J.

    2000-01-01

    Space exploration and colonization must include oxygen for propulsion and life support, as well as, structural materials for construction. To the extent possible, these should be derived from locally available planetary resources. We propose an extractive metallurgy and oxygen recovery process well-suited for resource utilization in space. Locally available minerals are placed in a radio frequency-generated hydrogen plasma. This is accomplished using a fluidized bed contacting device. Electromagnetic energy is coupled to the hydrogen gas forming a non-equilibrium plasma. The plasma produces the ideal reducing agent - atomic hydrogen - in direct and intimate contact with the solid particles. When using oxide minerals as a feed, atomic hydrogen extracts oxygen from the matrix through the formation of water. The water is subsequently split into oxygen and hydrogen (the hydrogen is then recycled back to the plasma reactor). The processed solids could then be refined to produce structural materials. A conceptual process flow diagram, which requires an initial charge of hydrogen, is given.

  1. Microwave plasma torch for processing hydrocarbon gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Zherlitsyn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We designed and developed an ultrahigh-frequency (microwave plasma torch with a combined (nitrogen, methane plasma-forming environment, and microwave output of up to 2 kW, continuously. We demonstrate the possibility of using it in order to process natural and associated petroleum (APG gas into valuable products (hydrogen and carbon nanomaterial CNM with up to 70% efficiency. Based on the developed microwave plasma torch, we developed an apparatus capable of converting hydrocarbon feedstock at a capacity of 50 g/h yielding CNM and hydrogen of up to 70 vol. %. In its mobile small-tonnage version, this technology can be used on gas-condensate fields.

  2. Solar terrestrial coupling through space plasma processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birn, J. [and others

    2000-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project investigates plasma processes that govern the interaction between the solar wind, charged particles ejected from the sun, and the earth's magnetosphere, the region above the ionosphere governed by the terrestrial magnetic field. Primary regions of interest are the regions where different plasma populations interact with each other. These are regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, associated with magnetic flux and energy transfer and dynamic energy release. The investigations concerned charged particle transport and energization, and microscopic and macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere and adjacent regions. The approaches combined space data analysis with theory and computer simulations.

  3. Process for selecting engineering tools : applied to selecting a SysML tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Spain, Mark J.; Post, Debra S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Taylor, Jeffrey L.; De Jong, Kent

    2011-02-01

    Process for Selecting Engineering Tools outlines the process and tools used to select a SysML (Systems Modeling Language) tool. The process is general in nature and users could use the process to select most engineering tools and software applications.

  4. Process for selecting engineering tools : applied to selecting a SysML tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Spain, Mark J.; Post, Debra S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Taylor, Jeffrey L.; De Jong, Kent

    2011-02-01

    Process for Selecting Engineering Tools outlines the process and tools used to select a SysML (Systems Modeling Language) tool. The process is general in nature and users could use the process to select most engineering tools and software applications.

  5. Advanced plasma etching processes for dielectric materials in VLSI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan Juan

    Manufacturable plasma etching processes for dielectric materials have played an important role in the Integrated Circuits (IC) industry in recent decades. Dielectric materials such as SiO2 and SiN are widely used to electrically isolate the active device regions (like the gate, source and drain from the first level of metallic interconnects) and to isolate different metallic interconnect levels from each other. However, development of new state-of-the-art etching processes is urgently needed for higher aspect ratio (oxide depth/hole diameter---6:1) in Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits technology. The smaller features can provide greater packing density of devices on a single chip and greater number of chips on a single wafer. This dissertation focuses on understanding and optimizing of several key aspects of etching processes for dielectric materials. The challenges are how to get higher selectivity of oxide/Si for contact and oxide/TiN for vias; tight Critical Dimension (CD) control; wide process margin (enough over-etch); uniformity and repeatability. By exploring all of the parameters for the plasma etch process, the key variables are found and studied extensively. The parameters investigated here are Power, Pressure, Gas ratio, and Temperature. In particular, the novel gases such as C4F8, C5F8, and C4F6 were studied in order to meet the requirements of the design rules. We also studied CF4 that is used frequently for dielectric material etching in the industry. Advanced etch equipment was used for the above applications: the medium-density plasma tools (like Magnet-Enhanced Reactive Ion Etching (MERIE) tool) and the high-density plasma tools. By applying the Design of Experiments (DOE) method, we found the key factors needed to predict the trend of the etch process (such as how to increase the etch rates, selectivity, etc.; and how to control the stability of the etch process). We used JMP software to analyze the DOE data. The characterization of the

  6. Plasma process optimization for N-type doping applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Deven; Persing, Harold; Salimian, Siamak; Lacey, Kerry; Qin Shu; Hu, Jeff Y.; McTeer, Allen [Applied Materials, Inc., Varian Semiconductor Business Unit, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, MA 01930 (United States); Micron Technology, Inc., 8000 S. Federal Way, Boise, ID 83707 (United States)

    2012-11-06

    Plasma doping (PLAD) has been adopted across the implant technology space and into high volume production for both conventional DRAM and NAND doping applications. PLAD has established itself as an alternative to traditional ion implantation by beamline implantation. The push for high doping concentration, shallow doping depth, and conformal doping capability expand the need for a PLAD solution to meet such requirements. The unique doping profile and doping characteristics at high dose rates allow for PLAD to deliver a high throughput, differentiated solution to meet the demand of evolving transistor technology. In the PLAD process, ions are accelerated to the wafer as with a negative wafer bias applied to the wafer. Competing mechanisms, such as deposition, sputtering, and etching inherent in plasma doping require unique control and process optimization. In this work, we look at the distinctive process tool control and characterization features which enable an optimized doping process using n-type (PH{sub 3} or AsH{sub 3}) chemistries. The data in this paper will draw the relationship between process optimization through plasma chemistry study to the wafer level result.

  7. Boronic acids as tools to study (plant) developmental processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Michaela; Torres-Ruiz, Ramón A

    2017-05-04

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for organisms. In plants, B is known to stabilize the cell wall by crosslinking Rhamnogalacturonan II through ester bonds formed with cis-diols of sugar moieties. However, B is believed to be required for additional functions such as stability and function of (plasma membrane) proteins involved in signal transduction pathways. We have recently shown that boronic acids, competitors of B, efficiently induce perfect phenocopies of monopteros mutants. This effect is enigmatic because like B, boronic acids should find numerous cellular targets and thus disturb many biologic processes ending in a spectrum of unspecific embryo phenotypes. Based on chemical characteristics of boronic acids and their derivatives we discuss reasons that could explain this unusual specificity. The peculiarities of this class of compounds could provide new tools for studying developmental processes.

  8. Development of the SOFIA Image Processing Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alexander N.

    2011-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a Boeing 747SP carrying a 2.5 meter infrared telescope capable of operating between at altitudes of between twelve and fourteen kilometers, which is above more than 99 percent of the water vapor in the atmosphere. The ability to make observations above most water vapor coupled with the ability to make observations from anywhere, anytime, make SOFIA one of the world s premiere infrared observatories. SOFIA uses three visible light CCD imagers to assist in pointing the telescope. The data from these imagers is stored in archive files as is housekeeping data, which contains information such as boresight and area of interest locations. A tool that could both extract and process data from the archive files was developed.

  9. Near Real Time Tools for ISS Plasma Science and Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti, A.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program utilizes a plasma environment forecast for estimating electrical charging hazards for crews during extravehicular activity (EVA). The process uses ionospheric electron density (Ne) and temperature (Te) measurements from the ISS Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) instrument suite with the assumption that the plasma conditions will remain constant for one to fourteen days with a low probability for a space weather event which would significantly change the environment before an EVA. FPMU data is typically not available during EVA's, therefore, the most recent FPMU data available for characterizing the state of the ionosphere during EVA is typically a day or two before the start of an EVA or after the EVA has been completed. Three near real time space weather tools under development for ISS applications are described here including: (a) Ne from ground based ionosonde measurements of foF2 (b) Ne from near real time satellite radio occultation measurements of electron density profiles (c) Ne, Te from a physics based ionosphere model These applications are used to characterize the ISS space plasma environment during EVA periods when FPMU data is not available, monitor for large changes in ionosphere density that could render the ionosphere forecast and plasma hazard assessment invalid, and validate the "persistence of conditions" forecast assumption. In addition, the tools are useful for providing space environment input to science payloads on ISS and anomaly investigations during periods the FPMU is not operating.

  10. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Messerle; Alexander Ustimenko

    2012-01-01

    Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance ...

  11. Real-Time Plasma Process Condition Sensing and Abnormal Process Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The plasma process is often used in the fabrication of semiconductor wafers. However, due to the lack of real-time etching control, this may result in some unacceptable process performances and thus leads to significant waste and lower wafer yield. In order to maximize the product wafer yield, a timely and accurately process fault or abnormal detection in a plasma reactor is needed. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES is one of the most frequently used metrologies in in-situ process monitoring. Even though OES has the advantage of non-invasiveness, it is required to provide a huge amount of information. As a result, the data analysis of OES becomes a big challenge. To accomplish real-time detection, this work employed the sigma matching method technique, which is the time series of OES full spectrum intensity. First, the response model of a healthy plasma spectrum was developed. Then, we defined a matching rate as an indictor for comparing the difference between the tested wafers response and the health sigma model. The experimental results showed that this proposal method can detect process faults in real-time, even in plasma etching tools.

  12. Physicians' use of plasma methylmalonic acid as a diagnostic tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, A M; Vestergaard, H; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik;

    2000-01-01

    : This lack of response to an increased plasma methylmalonic acid raises an important question. Is the clinical response inadequate, or is the connection between an increased level of plasma methylmalonic acid and signs of clinical significant cobalamin deficiency less clear?......OBJECTIVES: To investigate physicians' reasons for requesting plasma methylmalonic acid and their reactions to an increased concentration of plasma methylmalonic acid. DESIGN: Study of medical records. SETTING: Three somatic district hospitals in Denmark. SUBJECTS: Medical records of 198 patients...... with a plasma methylmalonic acid measurement above the reference interval. Information on diagnostic decisions was available for 177 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reasons for requesting plasma methylmalonic acid and the reactions to the finding of elevated plasma methylmalonic acid. RESULTS: An explicit...

  13. Molecular processes in plasmas collisions of charged particles with molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2007-01-01

    Molecular Processes in Plasmas describes elementary collision processes in plasmas, particularly those involving molecules or molecular ions. Those collision processes (called molecular processes) maintain plasmas, produce reactive species and emissions, and play a key role in energy balance in plasmas or more specifically in determining the energy distribution of plasma particles. Many books on plasma physics mention the elementary processes, but normally rather briefly. They only touch upon the general feature or fundamental concept of the collision processes. On the other hand, there are many books on atomic and molecular physics, but most of them are too general or too detailed to be useful to people in the application fields. The present book enumerates all the possible processes in the collisions of electrons, as well as ions, with molecules. For each process, a compact but informative description of its characteristics is given together with illustrative examples. Since the author has much experience a...

  14. Lagrangian coherent structures and plasma transport processes

    CERN Document Server

    Falessi, M V; Schep, T J

    2015-01-01

    A dynamical system framework is used to describe transport processes in plasmas embedded in a magnetic field. For periodic systems with one degree of freedom the Poincar\\'e map provides a splitting of the phase space into regions where particles have different kinds of motion: periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. The boundaries of these regions are transport barriers; i.e., a trajectory cannot cross such boundaries during the whole evolution of the system. Lagrangian Coherent Structure (LCS) generalize this method to systems with the most general time dependence, splitting the phase space into regions with different qualitative behaviours. This leads to the definition of finite-time transport barriers, i.e. trajectories cannot cross the barrier for a finite amount of time. This methodology can be used to identify fast recirculating regions in the dynamical system and to characterize the transport between them.

  15. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  16. Physical processes associated with current collection by plasma contactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ira; Davis, Victoria A.

    1990-01-01

    Recent flight data confirms laboratory observations that the release of neutral gas increases plasma sheath currents. Plasma contactors are devices which release a partially ionized gas in order to enhance the current flow between a spacecraft and the space plasma. Ionization of the expellant gas and the formation of a double layer between the anode plasma and the space plasma are the dominant physical processes. A theory is presented of the interaction between the contactor plasma and the background plasma. The conditions for formation of a double layer between the two plasmas are derived. Double layer formation is shown to be a consequence of the nonlinear response of the plasmas to changes in potential. Numerical calculations based upon this model are compared with laboratory measurements of current collection by hollow cathode-based plasma contactors.

  17. PumpKin: A tool to find principal pathways in plasma chemical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markosyan, A. H.; Luque, A.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.; Ebert, U.

    2014-10-01

    PumpKin is a software package to find all principal pathways, i.e. the dominant reaction sequences, in chemical reaction systems. Although many tools are available to integrate numerically arbitrarily complex chemical reaction systems, few tools exist in order to analyze the results and interpret them in relatively simple terms. In particular, due to the large disparity in the lifetimes of the interacting components, it is often useful to group reactions into pathways that recycle the fastest species. This allows a researcher to focus on the slow chemical dynamics, eliminating the shortest timescales. Based on the algorithm described by Lehmann (2004), PumpKin automates the process of finding such pathways, allowing the user to analyze complex kinetics and to understand the consumption and production of a certain species of interest. We designed PumpKin with an emphasis on plasma chemical systems but it can also be applied to atmospheric modeling and to industrial applications such as plasma medicine and plasma-assisted combustion.

  18. Influence of Hard Tool Coatings on Process of Stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajec, Bostjan; Podgornik, Bojan; Bay, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    materials and possible hard coatings as alternative tool materials. For this purpose the blanking/punching process was first analyzed by a numerical model and based on the results four different tool materials and three hard coatings were included in the investigation and tested in a model test rig as well......Blanking/punching is a process which enables mass production of very demanding products, such as lamellas for electrical engines, generators and similar devices. Tool wear in the blanking/punching process has large influence on the product surface quality as well as on tool life. Improvement...... of tool life can be achieved by proper selection of tool materials and possible coatings. In mass production the tools are usually made of WC, which however, results in expensive tools and long time of delivery. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the influence of different tool...

  19. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Processing for Polymer Adhesion: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing has attracted significant interests over decades due to its usefulness and a variety of applications. Adhesion improvement of polymer surfaces is among the most important applications of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Reflecting recent significant de...... development of the atmospheric pressure plasma processing, this work presents its fundamental aspects, applications, and characterization techniques relevant to adhesion.......Atmospheric pressure plasma processing has attracted significant interests over decades due to its usefulness and a variety of applications. Adhesion improvement of polymer surfaces is among the most important applications of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Reflecting recent significant...

  20. Microbial adherence to a nonprecious alloy after plasma nitriding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonugelen, Mehmet; Destan, Uhmut Iyiyapici; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Oztürk, Berran; Karadeniz, Süleyman

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the microbial adherence to the surfaces of a nonprecious metal alloy after plasma nitriding. The plasma-nitriding process was performed to the surfaces of metals prepared from a nickel-chromium alloy. The microorganisms were labeled with technetium-99m. After the labeling procedure, 60 metal disks were treated with a microorganism for each use. The results revealed that the amount of adherence of all microorganisms on surfaces was changed by plasma-nitriding process; adherence decreased substantially (P plasma nitriding time were not significant (P> .05) With the plasma-nitriding process, the surface properties of nonprecious metal alloys can be changed, leading to decreased microbial adherence.

  1. Plasma nitriding and simultaneous tempering of VF 800AT tool steel; Nitretacao por plasma com revenimento simultaneo do aco ferramenta VF 800AT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prass, Andre Ricardo; Fontana, Luis Cesar; Recco, Abel Andre Candido, E-mail: prass.andrericardo@gmail.com, E-mail: luis.fontana@udesc.br, E-mail: abel.recco@udesc.br [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    Plasma nitriding of tool steels improves the surface hardness due to formation of diffusion zone and/or compound layer. The process parameters such as temperature, gas composition and dwell time, allow to control the layer thickness, the microstructure, the crystalline phases and the type of layer (for example white layer or diffusion zone). This paper discusses an alternative procedure for the heat treatment of tempering and surface treatment, both in plasma or combining conventional heat treatment with subsequent plasma nitriding. Carrying out both treatments in plasma could enable reduction in manufacturing costs, lower energy consumption and less time for tools manufacturing. Samples of VF800AT steel were treated and characterized (at surface and core of samples) through the following technique: X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, micro-hardness profile and Rockwell C measurement. Temperature measurements during the plasma treatment, show that arise thermal gradient between the surface and the core of the samples. In this work, it was observed that the surface was up to 7% hotter than the core of sample, during the plasma treatment with temperature of magnitude about 5 x 10{sup 2} °C. This thermal gradient seems inherent to the plasma process, so that it can produce different microstructure, hardness and crystalline phases between core and edge of samples. However, when two tempering operations are prior carried out in a muffle furnace and the third tempering treatment is subsequently carried out simultaneously with the plasma nitriding, it is observed that the microstructure, the crystalline phases, hardness and micro hardness (in both, edge and core) are similar to treatments done in conventional mode cycle (in muffle furnace) with subsequent plasma nitriding. (author)

  2. Modelling and Optimization of Technological Process for Magnetron Synthesis of Altin Nanocomposite Films on Cutting Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhina, T. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper highlights the results of the research on developing the mechanism to model the technological process for magnetron synthesis of nanocomposite films on cutting tools, which provides their specified physical and mechanical characteristics by controlling pulsed plasma parameters. The paper presents optimal conditions for AlTiN coating deposition on cutting tools according to the ion energy of sputtered atoms in order to provide their specified physical and mechanical characteristics.

  3. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment.

  4. Plasma generated during underwater pulsed laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jacek; Chrzanowska, Justyna; Moscicki, Tomasz; Radziejewska, Joanna; Stobinski, Leszek; Szymanski, Zygmunt

    2017-09-01

    The plasma induced during underwater pulsed laser ablation of graphite is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The results of the experiment show that the maximum plasma temperature of 25000 K is reached 20 ns from the beginning of the laser pulse and decreases to 6500 K after 1000 ns. The observed OH absorption band shows that the plasma plume is surrounded by the thin layer of dissociated water vapour at a temperature around 5500 K. The hydrodynamic model applied shows similar maximum plasma temperature at delay times between 14 ns and 30 ns. The calculations show also that already at 14th ns, the plasma electron density reaches 0.97·1027 m-3, which is the critical density for 1064 nm radiation. At the same time the plasma pressure is 2 GPa, which is consisted with earlier measurements of the peak pressure exerted on a target in similar conditions.

  5. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  6. Status and challenges in electrical diagnostics of processing plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Dry processing based on reactive plasmas was the main driven force for micro- and recently nano-electronic industry. Once with the increasing in plasma complexity new diagnostics methods have been developed to ensure a proper process control during etching, thin film deposition, ion implantation...... or other steps in device fabrication. This work reviews some of the unconventional methods developed in the last two decays to measure the parameters of reactive plasmas including, the test function method, thermal probes, and plasma-sheath-lens probes. The negative ion detection and surface contamination...... in plasmas with a high degree of contamination are also addressed. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Tools for Ephemeral Gully Erosion Process Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques to quantify ephemeral gully erosion have been identified by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as one of gaps in current erosion assessment tools. One reason that may have contributed to this technology gap is the difficulty to quantify changes in channel geometry to asses...

  8. Efficient morphological tools for astronomical image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschini, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, many applications rely on a huge quantity of images at high resolution and with high quantity of information per pixel, due either to the technological improvements of the instruments or to the type of measurement observed. This thesis is focused on exploring and developing tools and new m

  9. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David; Sahinidis, N V; Cozad, A; Lee, A; Kim, H; Morinelly, J; Eslick, J; Yuan, Z

    2013-06-04

    This presentation reports development of advanced computational tools to accelerate next generation technology development. These tools are to develop an optimized process using rigorous models. They include: Process Models; Simulation-Based Optimization; Optimized Process; Uncertainty Quantification; Algebraic Surrogate Models; and Superstructure Optimization (Determine Configuration).

  10. Influence of Process and Machine tool on tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This note gives a summary of how the process and the machine tool can influence the geometrical tolerances. The note concerns cutting processes and machine tools but many of the considerations can be transferred directly to other types of manufacturing process and machines....

  11. SPEX (Plasma Code Spectral Fitting Tool). Collisional ionization for atoms and ions of H to Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdampilleta, I.; Kaastra, J. S.

    2017-03-01

    Every observation of astrophysical objects involving a spectrum requires atomic data for the interpretation of line fluxes, ratios and ionization state of the emitting plasma. One of processes which determines it is collisional ionization. In this study an update of the direct ionization (DI) and excitation-autoionization (EA) processes is discussed for the H to Zn-like isoelectronic sequences. The previous assessments were performed by Dere (2007, A&A 466, 771) for H to Zn isoelectronc sequences, Arnaud & Raymond (1992, ApJ. 398, 394) for Fe and Arnaud & Rothenflug (1985, A&AS, 60, 425). However, in the last years new laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations of ionization cross sections have become accessible. We provide a review, extension and update of this previous work and fit the cross sections of all individuals shells of all ions from H to Zn. These data are described using an extension of Younger's formula, suitable for integration over a Maxwellian velocity distribution to derive the subshell ionization rate coefficients. These ionization rate coefficients are included together with the radiative recombination rates data (Mao et al. 2016, A&AS, 27568) and a change-exchange model (Gu et al. 2016, A&A 588, A52, 11) into the high-resolution plasma code and spectral fit tool SPEX V3.0 (Kaastra et al. 1996, UV and X-ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas).

  12. Towards a Process for Developing Maintenance Tools in Academia

    CERN Document Server

    Kienle, Holger M

    2008-01-01

    Building of tools--from simple prototypes to industrial-strength applications--is a pervasive activity in academic research. When proposing a new technique for software maintenance, effective tool support is typically required to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the approach. However, even though tool building is both pervasive and requiring significant time and effort, it is still pursued in an ad hoc manner. In this paper, we address these issues by proposing a dedicated development process for tool building that takes the unique characteristics of an academic research environment into account. We first identify process requirements based on a review of the literature and our extensive tool building experience in the domain of maintenance tools. We then outline a process framework based on work products that accommodates the requirements while providing needed flexibility for tailoring the process to account for specific tool building approaches and project constraints. The work products are...

  13. Atomic processes in high-density plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1982-12-21

    This review covers dense atomic plasmas such as that produced in inertial confinement fusion. The target implosion physics along with the associated atomic physics, i.e., free electron collision phenomena, electron states I, electron states II, and nonequilibrium plasma states are described. (MOW)

  14. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Scorey, Clive (Cheshire, CT); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  15. Understanding plasma spraying process and characteristics of DC-arc plasma gun (PJ-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Ružić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal spray processes are a group of coating processes used to apply metallic or non-metallic coatings. In these processes energy sources are used to heat the coating material (in the form of powder, wire, or rod form to a molten or semi-molten state and accelerated towards a prepared surface by either carrier gases or atomization jets. In plasma spraying process, the spraying material is generally in the form of powder and requires a carrier gas to feed the powder into the plasma jet, which is passing between the hot cathode and the cylindrical nozzle-shaped anode. The design of DC plasma gun (PJ - 100 is designed and manufactured in Serbia. Plasma spaying process, the powder injection with the heat, momentum and mass transfers between particles and plasma jet, and the latest developments related to the production of DC plasma gun are described in this article.

  16. The plasma focus as a tool for plasma-wall-interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, G.; Martinez, M.; Herrera, J. J. E.; Castillo, F.

    2015-03-01

    The study of the interaction of magnetized plasmas with candidate materials for fusion reactors, as for example tungsten, is a main topic in fusion research. Many studies simulate the plasma wall interaction using ion beams, while only a few use plasma simulators. Plasma foci can produce dense magnetized plasmas of deuterium and helium among other species. We used the plasma focus Fuego-Nuevo II, to expose tungsten samples to deuterium and helium plasmas. The samples were analysed by means of SEM, RBS and NRA, evidencing surface erosion, surface melting and retention of deuterium in a shallow surface layer of 250 nm amounting 6.5·1016 D/cm2. The plasma temperature has been measured at the position of the samples using a triple Langmuir probe and compared to calculations of a snowplow model. The modelling of the electrode to reach desired plasma parameters is discussed.

  17. 3D cutting tool-wear monitoring in the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerce, Luka; Pusavec, Franci; Kopac Janez [University of Ljubljana, Askerceva (Slovenia)

    2015-09-15

    The tool-wear of cutting tools has a very strong impact on the product quality as well as efficiency of the machining processes. Therefore, it in-the process characterization is crucial. This paper presents an innovative and reliable direct measuring procedure for measuring spatial cutting tool-wear with usage of laser profile sensor. The technique provides possibility for determination of 3D wear profiles, as advantage to currently used 2D techniques. The influence of the orientation of measurement head on the accuracy and the amount of captured reliable data was examined and the optimal setup of the measuring system was defined. Further, a special clamping system was designed to mount the measurement device on the machine tool turret. To test the measurement system, tool-life experiment was performed. Additionally, a new tool-life criterion was developed, including spatial characteristics of the tool-wear. The results showed that novel tool-wear and tool-life diagnostic represent objective and robust estimator of the machining process. Additionally, such automation of tool-wear diagnostics on machine tool provides higher productivity and quality of the machining process.

  18. Visualization tools for insurance risk processes

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Burnecki; Rafal Weron

    2006-01-01

    This chapter develops on risk processes which, perhaps, are most suitable for computer visualization of all insurance objects. At the same time, risk processes are basic instruments for any non-life actuary – they are vital for calculating the amount of loss that an insurance company may incur.

  19. Prototype Tool Support for SEI Process and Risk Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, M.; Kelly, J.; Kiper, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of tool support for risk assessment that uses selected components of the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) information, specifically: Capability Maturity Model (CMM) process activities, CMM process goals and the SEI taxonomy of software project risks.

  20. Plasma Processes : Arc root dynamics in high power plasma torches – Evidence of chaotic behavior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Das

    2000-11-01

    Although plasma torches have been commercially available for about 50 years, areas such as plasma gun design, process efficiency, reproducibility, plasma stability, torch lives etc. have remained mostly unattended. Recent torch developments have been focusing on the basic understanding of the plasma column and its dynamics inside the plasma torch, the interaction of plasma jet and the powders, the interaction of the plasma jet with surroundings and the impingement of the jet on the substrate. Two of the major causes of erratic and poor performance of a variety of thermal plasma processes are currently identified as the fluctuations arising out of the arc root movement on the electrodes inside the plasma torch and the fluid dynamic instabilities arising out of entrainment of the air into the plasma jet. This paper reviews the current state of understanding of these fluctuations as well as the dynamics of arc root movement in plasma torches. The work done at the author’s laboratory on studying the fluctuations in arc voltage, arc current, acoustic emissions and optical emissions are also presented. These fluctuations are observed to be chaotic and interrelated. Real time monitoring and controlling the arc instabilities through chaos characterization parameters can greatly contribute to the understanding of electrode erosion as well as improvement of plasma torch lifetime.

  1. Business Process Variability : A Tool for Declarative Template Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulanov, P.; Groefsema, H.; Aiello, M.

    2012-01-01

    To lower both implementation time and cost, many Business Process Management tools use process templates to implement highly recurring processes. However, in order for such templates to be used, a process has to adhere substantially to the template. Therefore, current practice for processes which de

  2. Neoteric Media as Tools for Process Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, C. C.; Mammucari, R.; Foster, N. R.

    2017-06-01

    Process intensification (PI) is a commonly used term in the chemical processing industry. When the concept of PI was first introduced in the late 1970s within the Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) company, the main impetus was to reduce the processing cost without impairing the production rate. Neoteric media present as alternatives in chemical processing include gas-expanded liquids, ionic liquids, subcritical water, and combination of gas-expanded liquids and ionic liquids. The applications of neoteric media include particle engineering for improved bioavailability, controlled release of therapeutic implants, pharmaceutical formulations, extraction of natural products, nano-carriers for drug delivery, sterilisation of implants, and chemical reactions. This paper provides an overview of the use of these neoteric media.

  3. Plasma Processes : Minimum dissipative relaxed states in toroidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Bhattacharyya; M S Janaki; B Dasgupta

    2000-11-01

    Relaxation of toroidal discharges is described by the principle of minimum energy dissipation together with the constraint of conserved global helicity. The resulting Euler-Lagrange equation is solved in toroidal coordinates for an axisymmetric torus by expressing the solutions in terms of Chandrasekhar-Kendall (C-K) eigenfunctions analytically continued in the complex domain. The C-K eigenfunctions are obtained as hypergeometric functions that are solutions of scalar Helmholtz equation in toroidal coordinates in the large aspect-ratio approximation. Equilibria are constructed by assuming the current to vanish at the edge of plasma. For the = 0; = 0 ( and are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers respectively) relaxed states, the magnetic field, current, (safety factor) and pressure profiles are calculated for a given value of aspect-ratio of the torus and for different values of the eigenvalue 0. The new feature of the present model is that solutions allow for both tokamak as well as RFP-like behaviour with increase in the values of 0, which is related directly to volt-sec in the experiment.

  4. Plasma Processes : Plasma sprayed alumina coatings for radiation detector development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mary Alex; V Balagi; K R Prasad; K P Sreekumar; P V Ananthapadmanabhan

    2000-11-01

    Conventional design of radiation detectors uses sintered ceramic insulating modules. The major drawback of these ceramic components is their inherent brittleness. Ion chambers, in which these ceramic spacers are replaced by metallic components with plasma spray coated alumina, have been developed in our Research Centre. These components act as thin spacers that have good mechanical strength as well as high electrical insulation and replace alumina insulators with the same dimensions. As a result, the design of the beam loss monitor ion chamber for CAT could be simplified by coating the outer surface of the HT electrode with alumina. One of the chambers developed for isotope calibrator for brachytherapy gamma sources has its outer aluminium electrode (60 mm dia × 220 mm long) coated with 250 thick alumina (97%) + titania (3%). In view of potential applications in neutron-sensitive ion chambers used in reactor control instrumentation, studies were carried out on alumina 100 to 500 thick coatings on copper, aluminium and SS components. The electrical insulation varied from 108 ohms to 1012 ohms for coating thicknesses above 200 . The porosity in the coating resulted in some fall in electrical insulation due to moisture absorption. An improvement could be achieved by providing the ceramic surface with moisture-repellent silicone oil coating. Irradiation at Apsara reactor core location showed that the coating on aluminium was found to be unaffected after exposure to 1017 nvt fluence.

  5. Process characteristics of fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding

    OpenAIRE

    Mahrle, A; SCHNICK, M; Rose, S; Demuth, C; Beyer, E.; Füssel, U

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Experimental and theoretical investigations on fibre-laser assisted plasma arc welding (LAPW) have been performed. Welding experiments were carried out on aluminium and steel sheets. In case of a highly focused laser beam and a separate arrangement of plasma torch and laser beam, high-speed video recordings of the plasma arc and corresponding measurements of the time-dependent arc voltage revealed differences in the process behaviour for both materials. In case of aluminium weldin...

  6. Laser initiation and decay processes in an organic vapor plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guowen

    A large volume organic molecular plasma (hundreds of cm3) is created by a 193 nm laser ionizing an organic molecule, Tetrakis-(dimethylamino)-ethylene (TMAE). The plasma is found to be characterized by high electron density (10 13-1011cm-3), low electron temperature (~0.1 eV), fast creation (~10 ns) and rapid decaying (electron-ion recombination coefficient ~10-6 cm3/s). Fast Langmuir probe (LP) techniques are developed for diagnosing this plasma, including a novel probe design and fabrication, a fast detection system, sampling, indirect probe heating, electro-magnetic shielding and dummy probe techniques. Plasma physical processes regarding fast LP diagnostics for different time scales (t> and <100 ns) are studied. A theory for the correction due to a rapidly decaying plasma to LP measurements is developed. The mechanisms responsible for the plasma decay are studied, and a delayed ionization process is found to be important in interpreting the decay processes. It is also found that nitrogen can enhance the delayed emission of a TMAE Rydberg state from the TMAE plasma. This result strongly suggests that a long-lifetime highly-excited state is important in the TMAE plasma decay process. This result supports the delayed ionization mechanism. A model combining electron-ion recombination and delayed ionization processes is developed to calculate the delayed ionization lifetime.

  7. Use of cold plasma in food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastwijk, H.C.; Nierop Groot, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    Application of cold plasma has been reported in agriculture, food, and bioscience literature as an effective, non-chemical, gas-phase disinfection agent that can be applied at moderate temperatures. The unusual thermodynamic properties of these gases are discussed with focus on nitrogen-based

  8. Plasma processing methods for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Jasiński, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    In the future a transfer from the fossil fuel-based economy to hydrogen-based economy is expected. Therefore the development of systems for efficient H2 production becomes important. The several conventional methods of mass-scale (or central) H2 production (methane, natural gas and higher hydrocarbons reforming, coal gasification reforming) are well developed and their costs of H2 production are acceptable. However, due to the H2 transport and storage problems the small-scale (distributed) technologies for H2 production are demanded. However, these new technologies have to meet the requirement of producing H2 at a production cost of (1-2)/kg(H2) (or 60 g(H2)/kWh) by 2020 (the U.S. Department of Energy's target). Recently several plasma methods have been proposed for the small-scale H2 production. The most promising plasmas for this purpose seems to be those generated by gliding, plasmatron and nozzle arcs, and microwave discharges. In this paper plasma methods proposed for H2 production are briefly described and critically evaluated from the view point of H2 production efficiency. The paper is aiming at answering a question if any plasma method for the small-scale H2 production approaches such challenges as the production energy yield of 60 g(H2)/kWh, high production rate, high reliability and low investment cost. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  9. Synthesis of functional nanocrystallites through reactive thermal plasma processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa Ishigaki and Ji-Guang Li

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of synthesizing functional nanostructured powders through reactive thermal plasma processing has been developed. The synthesis of nanosized titanium oxide powders was performed by the oxidation of solid and liquid precursors. Quench gases, either injected from the shoulder of the reactor or injected counter to the plasma plume from the bottom of the reactor, were used to vary the quench rate, and therefore the particle size, of the resultant powders. The experimental results are well supported by numerical analysis on the effects of the quench gas on the flow pattern and temperature field of the thermal plasma as well as on the trajectory and temperature history of the particles. The plasma-synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles showed phase preferences different from those synthesized by conventional wet-chemical processes. Nanosized particles of high crystallinity and nonequilibrium chemical composition were formed in one step via reactive thermal plasma processing.

  10. Improving Tools and Processes in Mechanical Design Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Clark

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative product development projects in the aerospace and defense industry are held hostage to high cost and risk due to poor alignment of collaborative design tools and processes. This impasse can be broken if companies will jointly develop implementation approaches and practices in support of high value working arrangements. The current tools can be used to better advantage in many situations and there is reason for optimism that tool vendors will provide significant support.

  11. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the work reported are: to develop new computational tools and models to enable industry to more rapidly develop and deploy new advanced energy technologies; to demonstrate the capabilities of the CCSI Toolset on non-proprietary case studies; and to deploy the CCSI Toolset to industry. Challenges of simulating carbon capture (and other) processes include: dealing with multiple scales (particle, device, and whole process scales); integration across scales; verification, validation, and uncertainty; and decision support. The tools cover: risk analysis and decision making; validated, high-fidelity CFD; high-resolution filtered sub-models; process design and optimization tools; advanced process control and dynamics; process models; basic data sub-models; and cross-cutting integration tools.

  12. Microbial Enzymes: Tools for Biotechnological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Adrio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial enzymes are of great importance in the development of industrial bioprocesses. Current applications are focused on many different markets including pulp and paper, leather, detergents and textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemical, food and beverages, biofuels, animal feed and personal care, among others. Today there is a need for new, improved or/and more versatile enzymes in order to develop more novel, sustainable and economically competitive production processes. Microbial diversity and modern molecular techniques, such as metagenomics and genomics, are being used to discover new microbial enzymes whose catalytic properties can be improved/modified by different strategies based on rational, semi-rational and random directed evolution. Most industrial enzymes are recombinant forms produced in bacteria and fungi.

  13. Microbial enzymes: tools for biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose L; Demain, Arnold L

    2014-01-16

    Microbial enzymes are of great importance in the development of industrial bioprocesses. Current applications are focused on many different markets including pulp and paper, leather, detergents and textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemical, food and beverages, biofuels, animal feed and personal care, among others. Today there is a need for new, improved or/and more versatile enzymes in order to develop more novel, sustainable and economically competitive production processes. Microbial diversity and modern molecular techniques, such as metagenomics and genomics, are being used to discover new microbial enzymes whose catalytic properties can be improved/modified by different strategies based on rational, semi-rational and random directed evolution. Most industrial enzymes are recombinant forms produced in bacteria and fungi.

  14. Mirror-field confined compact plasma source using permanent magnet for plasma processings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tetsuya; Sato, Kei-ichiro; Yabuta, Yuki; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2016-12-01

    A mirror-field confined compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source using permanent magnets was developed, aiming for the realization of high-quality plasma processings where high-density reactive species are supplied to a substrate with minimizing the ion bombardment damages. The ECR position was located between a microwave transmissive window and a quartz limiter, and plasmas were transported from the ECR position to a midplane of the magnetic mirror field through the quartz limiter. Thus, a radius of core plasma could be determined by the limiter, which was 15 mm in this study. Plasma parameters were investigated by the Langmuir probe measurement. High-density plasma larger than 1011 cm-3 could be produced by applying 5.85-GHz microwave power of 10 W or more. For the outside region of the core plasma where a wafer for plasma processings will be set at, the ion current density was decreased dramatically with distance from the core plasma and became smaller by approximately two orders of magnitude that in the core plasma region for the radial position of 40 mm, suggesting the realization of reduction in ion bombardment damages.

  15. Mirror-field confined compact plasma source using permanent magnet for plasma processings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tetsuya; Sato, Kei-Ichiro; Yabuta, Yuki; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2016-12-01

    A mirror-field confined compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source using permanent magnets was developed, aiming for the realization of high-quality plasma processings where high-density reactive species are supplied to a substrate with minimizing the ion bombardment damages. The ECR position was located between a microwave transmissive window and a quartz limiter, and plasmas were transported from the ECR position to a midplane of the magnetic mirror field through the quartz limiter. Thus, a radius of core plasma could be determined by the limiter, which was 15 mm in this study. Plasma parameters were investigated by the Langmuir probe measurement. High-density plasma larger than 10(11) cm(-3) could be produced by applying 5.85-GHz microwave power of 10 W or more. For the outside region of the core plasma where a wafer for plasma processings will be set at, the ion current density was decreased dramatically with distance from the core plasma and became smaller by approximately two orders of magnitude that in the core plasma region for the radial position of 40 mm, suggesting the realization of reduction in ion bombardment damages.

  16. Plasma Processing with Fluorine Chemistry for Modification of Surfaces Wettability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Satulu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using plasma in conjunction with fluorinated compounds is widely encountered in material processing. We discuss several plasma techniques for surface fluorination: deposition of fluorocarbon thin films either by magnetron sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene targets, or by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition using tetrafluoroethane as a precursor, and modification of carbon nanowalls by plasma treatment in a sulphur hexafluoride environment. We showed that conformal fluorinated thin films can be obtained and, according to the initial surface properties, superhydrophobic surfaces can be achieved.

  17. The ToolBus: A Service-oriented Architecture for Language processing Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klint, P.

    2007-01-01

    The paradigm of service orientation creates new opportunities for language-processing tools and Interactive Development Environments. At CWI we have developed the ToolBus, a service-oriented architecture with application areas like software renovation and implementation of domain- specific languages

  18. Antireflection coatings on plastics deposited by plasma polymerization process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K M K Srivatsa; M Bera; A Basu; T K Bhattacharya

    2008-08-01

    Antireflection coatings (ARCs) are deposited on the surfaces of optical elements like spectacle lenses to increase light transmission and improve their performance. In the ophthalmic industry, plastic lenses are rapidly displacing glass lenses due to several advantageous features. However, the deposition of ARCs on plastic lenses is a challenging task, because the plastic surface needs treatment for adhesion improvement and surface hardening before depositing the ARC. This surface treatment is usually done in a multi-stage process—exposure to energetic radiations, followed by deposition of a carbonyl hard coating by spin or dip coating processes, UV curing, etc. However, this treatment can also be done by plasma processes. Moreover, the plasma polymerization process allows deposition of optical films at room temperature, essential for plastics. The energetic ions in plasma processes provide similar effects as in ion assisted physical deposition processes to produce hard coatings, without requiring sophisticated ion sources. The plasma polymerization process is more economical than ion-assisted physical vapour deposition processes as regards equipment and source materials and is more cost-effective, enabling the surface treatment and deposition of the ARC in the same deposition system in a single run by varying the system parameters at each step. Since published results of the plasma polymerization processes developed abroad are rather sketchy and the techniques are mostly veiled in commercial secrecy, innovative and indigenous plasma-based techniques have been developed in this work for depositing the complete ARCs on plastic substrates.

  19. Launch Vehicle Design Process Characterization Enables Design/Project Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Robinson, Nancy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the project described in this viewgraph presentation included the following: (1) Provide an overview characterization of the launch vehicle design process; and (2) Delineate design/project tool to identify, document, and track pertinent data.

  20. Real-Time Smart Tools for Processing Spectroscopy Data Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose novel and real-time smart software tools to process spectroscopy data. Material abundance or compositional maps will be generated for rover guidance,...

  1. Selected Tools for Risk Analysis in Logistics Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulińska, Ewa

    2012-03-01

    As each organization aims at managing effective logistics processes, risk factors can and should be controlled through proper system of risk management. Implementation of complex approach to risk management allows for the following: - evaluation of significant risk groups associated with logistics processes implementation, - composition of integrated strategies of risk management, - composition of tools for risk analysis in logistics processes.

  2. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon, E-mail: shohet@engr.wisc.edu [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Sabat, Grzegorz; Sussman, Michael R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Nishi, Yoshio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye.

  3. Rapid tooling for functional prototyping of metal mold processes: Literature review on cast tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hochanadel, P.W. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    1995-11-01

    This report is a literature review on cast tooling with the general focus on AISI H13 tool steel. The review includes processing of both wrought and cast H13 steel along with the accompanying microstructures. Also included is the incorporation of new rapid prototyping technologies, such as Stereolithography and Selective Laser Sintering, into the investment casting of tool steel. The limiting property of using wrought or cast tool steel for die casting is heat checking. Heat checking is addressed in terms of testing procedures, theories regarding the mechanism, and microstructural aspects related to the cracking.

  4. Method and system for nanoscale plasma processing of objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Hua, Xuefeng; Stolz, Christian

    2008-12-30

    A plasma processing system includes a source of plasma, a substrate and a shutter positioned in close proximity to the substrate. The substrate/shutter relative disposition is changed for precise control of substrate/plasma interaction. This way, the substrate interacts only with a fully established, stable plasma for short times required for nanoscale processing of materials. The shutter includes an opening of a predetermined width, and preferably is patterned to form an array of slits with dimensions that are smaller than the Debye screening length. This enables control of the substrate/plasma interaction time while avoiding the ion bombardment of the substrate in an undesirable fashion. The relative disposition between the shutter and the substrate can be made either by moving the shutter or by moving the substrate.

  5. Apparatus and method for plasma processing of SRF cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, J; Peshl, J; Bašović, M; Popović, S; Valente-Feliciano, A -M; Phillips, L; Vuškovića, L

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are described for plasma etching of the inner surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Accelerator SRF cavities are formed into a variable-diameter cylindrical structure made of bulk niobium, for resonant generation of the particle accelerating field. The etch rate non-uniformity due to depletion of the radicals has been overcome by the simultaneous movement of the gas flow inlet and the inner electrode. An effective shape of the inner electrode to reduce the plasma asymmetry for the coaxial cylindrical rf plasma reactor is determined and implemented in the cavity processing method. The processing was accomplished by moving axially the inner electrode and the gas flow inlet in a step-wise way to establish segmented plasma columns. The test structure was a pillbox cavity made of steel of similar dimension to the standard SRF cavity. This was adopted to experimentally verify the plasma surface reaction on cylindrical structures with variable diameter using the segment...

  6. Status and challenges in electrical diagnostics of processing plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen

    Reactive plasmas produced in oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and other complex gas mixture are used for various applications including thin films, etching, ion implantation, ashing, particles growth, oxidation and other surface functionalization processes. Most of the reactive gases are also...... the possibility to control and use these plasmas for processing. Development of reactive plasma sources for both applications and basic science is rather challenging and some of these efforts will be presented in direct correlation with diagnostic approaches....... electronegative so that, the role of negative ions cannot be neglected. The continuous decrease of the features size in micro- and nanoelectronic industry requires a precise control of plasma parameters including the negative ions. Despite of a good progress in plasma diagnostics, yet more is to be done...

  7. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  8. SOME COLLISION PROCESSES IN PLASMAS WITH HIGHER TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KazuoTakayanagi

    1990-01-01

    Some collision processes important in hot and dense plasmas are discussed.Recent calculation of secondary electron velocity distribution in ionizing collision between an electron and a multiply-charged ion is reported.

  9. Reactive Atom Plasma Processing of Slumped Glass Wedges Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Reactive Atom Plasma (RAPTM) process will be evaluated as a rapid and practical method for fabricating precision wedges in glass sheets. The glass sheets are to...

  10. Pre-Processing and Modeling Tools for Bigdata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Hadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling tools and operators help the user / developer to identify the processing field on the top of the sequence and to send into the computing module only the data related to the requested result. The remaining data is not relevant and it will slow down the processing. The biggest challenge nowadays is to get high quality processing results with a reduced computing time and costs. To do so, we must review the processing sequence, by adding several modeling tools. The existing processing models do not take in consideration this aspect and focus on getting high calculation performances which will increase the computing time and costs. In this paper we provide a study of the main modeling tools for BigData and a new model based on pre-processing.

  11. Optimization of Process Parameters of Tool Wear in Turning Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Barman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tool Wear is of great apprehension in machining industries since itaffects the surface quality, dimensional accuracy and production cost of the materials / components. In the present study twenty seven experiments were conducted as per 3 parameter 3 level full factorial design for turning operation of a mild steel specimen with high speed steel (HSS cutting tool. An experimental investigation on cutting tool wear and a mathematical model for tool wear estimation is reported in this paper where the model was simulated by computer programming and it has been found that this model is capable of estimating the wear rate of cutting tool and it provides an optimum set of process parameters for minimum tool wear.

  12. Representation stigma: Perceptions of tools and processes for design graphics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbarash

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Practicing designers and design students across multiple fields were surveyed to measure preference and perception of traditional hand and digital tools to determine if common biases for an individual toolset are realized in practice. Significant results were found, primarily with age being a determinant in preference of graphic tools and processes; this finding demonstrates a hard line between generations of designers. Results show that while there are strong opinions in tools and processes, the realities of modern business practice and production gravitate towards digital methods despite a traditional tool preference in more experienced designers. While negative stigmas regarding computers remain, younger generations are more accepting of digital tools and images, which should eventually lead to a paradigm shift in design professions.

  13. Development of Expert Controller for Plasma Spraying Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIChun-xu; CHENKe-xuan; LIHe-qi; LIDe-wu

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at the plasma spraying process control, the control system model is developed on the basis of analyzing control parameters and coating properties and their correlation, and the corresponding control method and regulations are also given. With the developed expert controller for plasma spraying process, stable spraying can be realized using ordinary spraying powder and the coating of compaction, homogeneity and high bonding strength can be obtained.

  14. Time dependent atomic processes in discharge produced low Z plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, M.; Sasaki, T.; Horioka, K.; Kawamura, T.

    2008-05-01

    The z-pinch simulation have been performed with magneto-hydro dynamics and atomic population kinetics codes. A factor associated with transient atomic processes was proposed. The atomic transient degrees of dopant lithium in hydrogen plasma were calculated with initial plasma densities of 1.0 × 1016 ~ 5.0 × 1017cm-3. The higher initial plasma density is, the lower is the transient degree generally. It is also found that the transient properties of the atomic processes are sensitive to ionization energy and electron temperature.

  15. Initial damage processes for diamond film exposure to hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deslandes, A., E-mail: acd@ansto.gov.au [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Guenette, M.C. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Samuell, C.M. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Karatchevtseva, I. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Ionescu, M.; Cohen, D.D. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia); Blackwell, B. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Corr, C., E-mail: cormac.corr@anu.edu.au [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Riley, D.P., E-mail: dry@ansto.gov.au [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Sydney (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • Exposing chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond films in a recently constructed device, MAGPIE, specially commissioned to simulate fusion plasma conditions. • Non-diamond material is etched from the diamond. • There is no hydrogen retention observed, which suggests diamond is an excellent candidate for plasma facing materials. • Final structure of the surface is dependent on synergistic effects of etching and ion-induced structural change. -- Abstract: Diamond is considered to be a possible alternative to other carbon based materials as a plasma facing material in nuclear fusion devices due to its high thermal conductivity and resistance to chemical erosion. In this work CVD diamond films were exposed to hydrogen plasma in the MAGnetized Plasma Interaction Experiment (MAGPIE): a linear plasma device at the Australian National University which simulates plasma conditions relevant to nuclear fusion. Various negative sample stage biases of magnitude less than 500 V were applied to control the energies of impinging ions. Characterisation results from SEM, Raman spectroscopy and ERDA are presented. No measureable quantity of hydrogen retention was observed, this is either due to no incorporation of hydrogen into the diamond structure or due to initial incorporation as a hydrocarbon followed by subsequent etching back into the plasma. A model is presented for the initial stages of diamond erosion in fusion relevant hydrogen plasma that involves chemical erosion of non-diamond material from the surface by hydrogen radicals and damage to the subsurface region from energetic hydrogen ions. These results show that the initial damage processes in this plasma regime are comparable to previous studies of the fundamental processes as reported for less extreme plasma such as in the development of diamond films.

  16. Proceedings of the international seminar on atomic processes in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takako; Murakami, Izumi [eds.

    2000-01-01

    The International Seminar on Atomic Processes in Plasmas (ISAPP), a satellite meeting to the ICPEAC was held July 28-29 at the National Institute for Fusion Science in Toki, Gifu, Japan. About 110 scientists attended the ISAPP meeting and discussed atomic processes and atomic data required for fusion research. This Proceedings book includes the papers of the talks, posters and panel discussion given at the meeting. The invited talks described the super configuration array method for complex spectra, near-LTE atomic kinetics, R-matrix calculations, the binary-encounter dipole model for electron-impact ionization of molecules, other calculations of molecular processes, the ADAS project and the NIFS atomic data-base, and a survey of the role of molecular processes in divertor plasmas. On the experimental side crossed-beam ion-ion collision-experiments for charge transfer, and storage-ring and EBIT measurements of ionization, excitation and dielectronic recombination cross-sections were presented, and atomic processes important for x-ray laser experiments and x-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical plasmas were described. The new method of plasma polarization spectroscopy was outlined. There was also a spectroscopic study of particle transport in JT-60U, new results for detached plasmas, and a sketch of the first hot plasma experiments with the Large Helical Device recently completed at NIFS. The 63 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Study on the ignition process of a segmented plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiuquan; Yu, Deping; Xiang, Yong; Li, Chao; Jiang, Hui; Yao, Jin

    2017-07-01

    Direct current plasma torches have been applied to generate unique sources of thermal energy in many industrial applications. Nevertheless, the successful ignition of a plasma torch is the key process to generate the unique source (plasma jet). However, there has been little study on the underlying mechanism of this key process. A thorough understanding of the ignition process of a plasma torch will be helpful for optimizing the design of the plasma torch structure and selection of the ignition parameters to prolong the service life of the ignition module. Thus, in this paper, the ignition process of a segmented plasma torch (SPT) is theoretically and experimentally modeled and analyzed. Corresponding electrical models of different stages of the ignition process are set up and used to derive the electrical parameters, e.g. the variations of the arc voltage and arc current between the cathode and anode. In addition, the experiments with different ignition parameters on a home-made SPT have been conducted. At the same time, the variations of the arc voltage and arc current have been measured, and used to verify the ones derived in theory and to determine the optimal ignition parameters for a particular SPT.

  18. Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma during laser processing of aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lober, R.; Mazumder, J.

    2007-10-01

    The role of the plasma in laser-metal interaction is of considerable interest due to its influence in the energy transfer mechanism in industrial laser materials processing. A 10 kW CO2 laser was used to study its interaction with aluminium under an argon environment. The objective was to determine the absorption and refraction of the laser beam through the plasma during the processing of aluminium. Laser processing of aluminium is becoming an important topic for many industries, including the automobile industry. The spectroscopic relative line to continuum method was used to determine the electron temperature distribution within the plasma by investigating the 4158 Å Ar I line emission and the continuum adjacent to it. The plasmas are induced in 1.0 atm pure Ar environment over a translating Al target, using f/7 and 10 kW CO2 laser. Spectroscopic data indicated that the plasma composition and behaviour were Ar-dominated. Experimental results indicated the plasma core temperature to be 14 000-15 300 K over the incident range of laser powers investigated from 5 to 7 kW. It was found that 7.5-29% of the incident laser power was absorbed by the plasma. Cross-section analysis of the melt pools from the Al samples revealed the absence of any key-hole formation and confirmed that the energy transfer mechanism in the targets was conduction dominated for the reported range of experimental data.

  19. [Plasma cholesterol determination in birds--a diagnostic tool for detection of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesau, B; Kummerfeld, N

    1998-07-01

    An investigation was done on the clinical usefulness of the dry chemistry analyzer Vitros DT 60 II for determination of avian plasma cholinesterase. The analytical reliability of the method, evaluated by precision and accuracy, proved to be high for plasma of numerous pet and wild birds. Values of normal plasma-cholinesterase activity were established for different psittacine and European wild birds. Significant differences in physiologic plasma-cholinesterase activity were noted between closely related species as well as between juvenile and adult birds. These findings emphasize the necessity to use control values of the same species and age group for comparison. Dry chemistry plasma-cholinesterase determination can be used as a diagnostic tool for detection of organophosphate and carbamate poisonings in the majority of investigated birds.

  20. Plasma processes and applications in NanoBiotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, F; Colpo, P, E-mail: francois.rossi@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), I-21020, Ispra (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    Nanostructured surfaces presenting chemical or topographical patterns are now being increasingly developed in nanobiotechnology. Major applications are related to cell culture models and biodetection. We show that plasma technologies, in particular the combination plasma polymers deposition and etching, together with colloidal lithography, e-beam lithography and microcontact printing, are essential tools to produce nanostructured surfaces. We show that chemical and topographical patterns can be obtained on different substrates, with dimensions down to some 10 nm. The applications of these nanostructured surfaces in biology and bio-detection are reviewed and the advantages and limitation of the techniques underlined.

  1. Atmospheric pressure plasmas for aerosols processes in materials and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, J. P.; Jidenko, N.; Bourgeois, E.

    2009-08-01

    The paper highlights applications of some atmospheric pressure plasmas (dc-corona, streamer and spark and ac-Dielectric Barrier Discharges) to aerosol processes for Materials and Environment (filtration, diagnostics). The production of vapor i.e. condensable gaseous species, leads to nano-sized particles by physical and chemical routes of nucleation in these AP plasmas: (i) when dc streamer and spark filamentary discharges as well as ac filamentary dielectric barrier discharges interact with metal or dielectric surfaces, and (ii) when discharges induce reactions with gaseous precursors in volume. It is shown how composition, size and structure of primary nano-particles are related to plasma parameters (energy, number per unit surface and time and thermal gradients). Then the growth by coagulation controls the final size of agglomerates versus plasma parameters and transit time in and after the plasma. Charging and electro-thermal collection are depicted to account for the related potential applications of controlled kinematics of charged aerosol.

  2. Ergonomics and simulation tools for service & industrial process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A.; García, M.

    2012-04-01

    Human interaction within designed processes is a really important factor in how efficiently any process will operate. How a human will function in relation to a process is not easy to predict. All the ergonomic considerations traditionally have been evaluated outside of the 3D product design. Nowadays technologies of 3D process design and simulation tools give us this opportunity from the earliest stages of the design process. Also they can be used to improve current process in order to increase human comfort, productivity and safety. This work shows a methodology using 3D design and simulation tools to improve industrial and service process. This methodology has as an objective the detection, evaluation, control of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs).

  3. Silicon epitaxy process recipe and tool configuration optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, W. H.; Cheong, K. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Silicon epitaxy is widely used in semiconductor fabrication due to its ability to produce high quality and low cost thin film. Epitaxy optimized process condition with respect to the process recipe and tool for the maximization of n-type epitaxial production has been investigated. For standard recipe of an epitaxy process, there are seven main steps, namely purge, ramp, bake, stab, deposition, post and cooling. This project focuses on the recipe optimization on ramp, bake and stab steps. For the tool configuration, cool-down step has been optimized. Impact on slip, haze, wafers warpage and crystal originated particles have been investigated.

  4. Beginning Digital Image Processing Using Free Tools For Photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Montabone, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Since the advent of digital photography, we have been able to post-process our pictures. However, to do it properly, we have to become digital art apprentices. Sebastian Montabone is a computer vision expert who wants us to use our cameras and image processing software to come up with works of art. In this book, he teaches image processing techniques of ascending difficulty based on freely available tools. The book teaches you to use the best tools for the job, and it focuses on the techniques, not the environments or toolchains in which they run. Also in this book, youa??ll learn about the Ca

  5. Model based methods and tools for process systems engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    Process systems engineering (PSE) provides means to solve a wide range of problems in a systematic and efficient manner. This presentation will give a perspective on model based methods and tools needed to solve a wide range of problems in product-process synthesis-design. These methods and tools...... of the framework. The issue of commercial simulators or software providing the necessary features for product-process synthesis-design as opposed to their development by the academic PSE community will also be discussed. An example of a successful collaboration between academia-industry for the development...

  6. Numerical Tool Path Optimization for Conventional Sheet Metal Spinning Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentsch, Benedikt; Manopulo, Niko; Hora, Pavel

    2016-08-01

    To this day, conventional sheet metal spinning processes are designed with a very low degree of automation. They are usually executed by experienced personnel, who actively adjust the tool paths during production. The practically unlimited freedom in designing the tool paths enables the efficient manufacturing of complex geometries on one hand, but is challenging to translate into a standardized procedure on the other. The present study aims to propose a systematic methodology, based on a 3D FEM model combined with a numerical optimization strategy, in order to design tool paths. The accurate numerical modelling of the spinning process is firstly discussed, followed by an analysis of appropriate objective functions and constraints required to obtain a failure free tool path design.

  7. Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tataronis, J. A.

    2004-06-01

    This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfvkn continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named “accumulation continuum” and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory.

  8. CURING PROCESS OF PHOTOPOLYMER RESIN BOND DIAMOND TOOLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Tao; PENG Wei; YAO Chunyan

    2007-01-01

    Analytical simulation and corresponding proof-test are adopted to study the principle of the curing process of photopolymer resin diamond tools. The influence of the diamond as abrasives in photopolymer resin owing to the absorptivity of the diamond for the UV light on the photopolymer resin curing process is discussed. Based on the above, a kind of diamond tool-dicing blade is selected to analyze the curing process of photopolymer bond diamond tools. An analytical model of curing process is developed and a correlation curve between the depth of polymerization of the photopolymer resin diamond tools and the exposure time to represent the curing process of photopolymer bond dicing blade. A test is done to proof-test the validity of the analytical model and the correlation curve. The simulated data fit the experimental results, which demonstrates the analytical models and numerical algorithm are of high reliability. The analytical simulation method could possibly be used to optimize the curing cycle and improve the quality of the photopolymers resin bond diamond tools.

  9. Plasma Processing of Large Curved Surfaces for SRF Cavity Modification

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, J; Popović, S; Valente-Feliciano, A -M; Phillips, L; Vušković, L

    2014-01-01

    Plasma based surface modification of niobium is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The development of the technology based on Cl2/Ar plasma etching has to address several crucial parameters which influence the etching rate and surface roughness, and eventually, determine cavity performance. This includes dependence of the process on the frequency of the RF generator, gas pressure, power level, the driven (inner) electrode configuration, and the chlorine concentration in the gas mixture during plasma processing. To demonstrate surface layer removal in the asymmetric non-planar geometry, we are using a simple cylindrical cavity with 8 ports symmetrically distributed over the cylinder. The ports are used for diagnosing the plasma parameters and as holders for the samples to be etched. The etching rate is highly correlated with the shape of the inner electrode, radio-frequency (RF) circuit elements, chlorine concentration in the Cl2/Ar gas mixtures, residence...

  10. Modelling of the arc reattachment process in plasma torches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trelles, J P; Pfender, E; Heberlein, J V R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2007-09-21

    The need to improve plasma spraying processes has motivated the development of computational models capable of describing the arc dynamics inside plasma torches. Although progress has been made in the development of such models, the realistic simulation of the arc reattachment process, a central part of the arc dynamics inside plasma torches, is still an unsolved problem. This study presents a reattachment model capable of mimicking the physical reattachment process as part of a local thermodynamic equilibrium description of the plasma flow. The fluid and electromagnetic equations describing the plasma flow are solved in a fully-coupled approach by a variational multi-scale finite element method, which implicitly accounts for the multi-scale nature of the flow. The effectiveness of our modelling approach is demonstrated by simulations of a commercial plasma spraying torch operating with Ar-He under different operating conditions. The model is able to match the experimentally measured peak frequencies of the voltage signal, arc lengths and anode spot sizes, but produces voltage drops exceeding those measured. This finding, added to the apparent lack of a well-defined cold boundary layer all around the arc, points towards the importance of non-equilibrium effects inside the torch, especially in the anode attachment region.

  11. Decontamination of a rotating cutting tool during operation by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Kusano, Yukihiro; Hansen, F.

    2010-01-01

    The decontamination of a rotating cutting tool used for slicing in the meat industry by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua...

  12. PLASMA PROTEIN PROFILING AS A HIGH THROUGHPUT TOOL FOR CHEMICAL SCREENING USING A SMALL FISH MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. Tod, Michael J. Hemmer, Kimberly A. Salinas, Sherry S. Wilkinson, James Watts, James T. Winstead, Peggy S. Harris, Amy Kirkpatrick and Calvin C. Walker. In press. Plasma Protein Profiling as a High Throughput Tool for Chemical Screening Using a Small Fish Model (Abstra...

  13. A Course on Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Herbert H.; Reif, Rafael

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course, taught jointly by electrical/chemical engineering departments at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, designed to teach the fundamental science of plasma processing as well as to give an overview of the present state of industrial processes. Provides rationale for course development, texts used, class composition, and…

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma: a high-performance tool for the efficient removal of biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Fricke

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The medical use of non-thermal physical plasmas is intensively investigated for sterilization and surface modification of biomedical materials. A further promising application is the removal or etching of organic substances, e.g., biofilms, from surfaces, because remnants of biofilms after conventional cleaning procedures are capable to entertain inflammatory processes in the adjacent tissues. In general, contamination of surfaces by micro-organisms is a major source of problems in health care. Especially biofilms are the most common type of microbial growth in the human body and therefore, the complete removal of pathogens is mandatory for the prevention of inflammatory infiltrate. Physical plasmas offer a huge potential to inactivate micro-organisms and to remove organic materials through plasma-generated highly reactive agents. METHOD: In this study a Candida albicans biofilm, formed on polystyrene (PS wafers, as a prototypic biofilm was used to verify the etching capability of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet operating with two different process gases (argon and argon/oxygen mixture. The capability of plasma-assisted biofilm removal was assessed by microscopic imaging. RESULTS: The Candida albicans biofilm, with a thickness of 10 to 20 µm, was removed within 300 s plasma treatment when oxygen was added to the argon gas discharge, whereas argon plasma alone was practically not sufficient in biofilm removal. The impact of plasma etching on biofilms is localized due to the limited presence of reactive plasma species validated by optical emission spectroscopy.

  15. An Educational Tool for Interactive Parallel and Distributed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we try to describe how the Modular Interactive Tiles System (MITS) can be a valuable tool for introducing students to interactive parallel and distributed processing programming. This is done by providing an educational hands-on tool that allows a change of representation...... of the abstract problems related to designing interactive parallel and distributed systems. Indeed, MITS seems to bring a series of goals into the education, such as parallel programming, distributedness, communication protocols, master dependency, software behavioral models, adaptive interactivity, feedback...... parallel and distributed processing with different software behavioural models such as open loop, randomness based, rule based, user interaction based, AI and ALife based software....

  16. Anvil Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Bauman, William, III; Keen, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. In order for the Anvil Tool to remain available to the meteorologists, the AMU was tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This report describes the work done by the AMU to develop the Anvil Tool for AWIPS to create a graphical overlay depicting the threat from thunderstorm anvil clouds. The AWIPS Anvil Tool is based on the previously deployed AMU MIDDS Anvil Tool. SMG and 45 WS forecasters have used the MIDDS Anvil Tool during launch and landing operations. SMG's primary weather analysis and display system is now AWIPS and the 45 WS has plans to replace MIDDS with AWIPS. The Anvil Tool creates a graphic that users can overlay on satellite or radar imagery to depict the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on an average of the upper-level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 nm standoff circles centered at the location of interest, in addition to one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 degree sector width based on a previous AMU study which determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 degrees of the upper-level (300- to 150-mb) wind direction. This report briefly describes the history of the MIDDS Anvil Tool and then explains how the initial development of the AWIPS Anvil Tool was carried out. After testing was

  17. Atomic and molecular processes in JT-60U divertor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaga, H.; Shimizu, K.; Itami, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Atomic and molecular data are indispensable for the understanding of the divertor characteristics, because behavior of particles in the divertor plasma is closely related to the atomic and molecular processes. In the divertor configuration, heat and particles escaping from the main plasma flow onto the divertor plate along the magnetic field lines. In the divertor region, helium ash must be effectively exhausted, and radiation must be enhanced for the reduction of the heat load onto the divertor plate. In order to exhaust helium ash effectively, the difference between behavior of neutral hydrogen (including deuterium and tritium) and helium in the divertor plasma should be understood. Radiation from the divertor plasma generally caused by the impurities which produced by the erosion of the divertor plate and/or injected by gas-puffing. Therefore, it is important to understand impurity behavior in the divertor plasma. The ions hitting the divertor plate recycle through the processes of neutralization, reflection, absorption and desorption at the divertor plates and molecular dissociation, charge-exchange reaction and ionization in the divertor plasma. Behavior of hydrogen, helium and impurities in the divertor plasmas can not be understood without the atomic and molecular data. In this report, recent results of the divertor study related to the atomic and molecular processes in JT-60U were summarized. Behavior of neural deuterium and helium was discussed in section 2. In section 3, the comparisons between the modelling of the carbon impurity transport and the measurements of C II and C IV were discussed. In section 4, characteristics of the radiative divertor using Ne puffing were reported. The new diagnostic method for the electron density and temperature in the divertor plasmas using the intensity ratios of He I lines was described in section 5. (author)

  18. Study of Tool Wear and Overcut in EDM Process with Rotary Tool and Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Teimouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tool wear and workpiece overcut have been studied in electrical discharge machining process with rotational external magnetic field and rotational electrode. Experiments have been divided to three main regimes, namely, low-energy regime, middle-energy regime, and high-energy regime. The influence of process parameters were investigated on electrode wear rate and overcut. Results indicate that applying a magnetic field around the machining gap increases the electrode wear rate and overcut. Also, rotation of the tool has negative effect on overcut.

  19. In-process machine tool vibration cancellation using PMN actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshete, Zelalem; Zhang, Guangming

    1996-12-01

    At present, the machine tool technology in the US is not in the state-of-the-art of leading international competitors. Conventional machine tools under use are being pushed into their machining accuracy limits. There is a pressing need calling for revitalizing the machine tool industry. This paper presents, a mechatronic system developed for reducing tool vibration during machining. It consists of electrical and mechanical components, and is realized by placing electrically driven electrostrictive actuators in a specially designed tool post mechanical structure. The linear neural network controller, namely, digital filters, are implemented using a signal processing board. The experimental investigation is conducted in two stages. In the first stage, a test bed is established to use an electro-magnetic shaker to resemble the excitation of cutting force acting on the tool. In the second stage, experiments were conducted using a lathe on the shop floor. In-process vibration cancellation was observed. In the laboratory experiment, a percent reduction in the 90 percent was possible using a feedforward scheme. The improvement in surface roughness during the turning operation was confirmed from measurements of surface roughness profiles.

  20. Synchronous pulsing plasma utilization in dummy poly gate removal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruixuan; Meng, Xiao-Ying; Han, Qiu-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Yang

    2015-03-01

    When CMOS technology reaches 28/20nm node and beyond, several new schemes are implemented such as High K metal gate (HKMG) which can enhance the device performance and has better control of device current leakage. Dummy poly gate removal (DPGR) process is introduced for HKMG, and works as a key process to control the work function of metal gate and threshold voltage (Vt) shift. In dry etch technology, conventional continuous wave (CW) plasma process has been widely used, however, it may not be capable for some challenging process in 28nm node and beyond. In DPGR process for HKMG scheme, CW scheme may result in plasma damage of gate oxide/capping layer for its inherent high electron temperature (Te) and ion energy while synchronous pulsing scheme is capable to simultaneously pulse both source and bias power, which could achieve lower Te, independent control of ion and radical flux, well control the loading of polymer deposition on dense/ isolate features. It's the first attempt to utilize synchronous pulsing plasma in DPGR process. Experiment results indicate that synchronous pulsing could provide less silicon recess under thin gate oxide which is induced by the plasma oxidation. Furthermore, the loading of HK capping layer loss between long channel and short channel can be well controlled which plays a key role on transistor performance, such as leakage and threshold voltage shift. Additionally, it has been found that synchronous pulsing could distinctly improve ILD loss when compared with CW, which is helpful to broaden the whole process window.

  1. Plasma Processes : Sheath and plasma parameters in a magnetized plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bornali Singha; A Sharma; J Chutia

    2000-11-01

    The variation of electron temperature and plasma density in a magnetized 2 plasma is studied experimentally in presence of a grid placed at the middle of the system. Plasma leaks through the negatively biased grid from the source region into the diffused region. It is observed that the electron temperature increases with the magnetic field in the diffused region whereas it decreases in the source region of the system for a constant grid biasing voltage. Also, investigation is done to see the change of electron temperature with grid biasing voltage for a constant magnetic field. This is accompanied by the study of the variation of sheath structure across the grid for different magnetic field and grid biasing voltage as well. It reveals that with increasing magnetic field and negative grid biasing voltage, the sheath thickness expands.

  2. Development of continuous pharmaceutical production processes supported by process systems engineering methods and tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a radical transition towards continuous production processes. Systematic use of process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools form the key to achieve this transition in a structured and efficient way....

  3. Numerical simulation of chemical processes in atmospheric plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Jian-Ming; Guo Wei; Wang Long; Shao Fu-Qiu

    2004-01-01

    A model is built to study chemical processes in atmospheric plasmas at low altitude (high pressure) and at high altitude (low pressure). The plasma lifetime and the temporal evolution of the main charged species are presented.The electron number density does not strictly obey the exponential damping law in a long period. The heavy charged species are dominant at low altitude in comparison with the light species at high altitude. Some species of small amount in natural air play an important role in the processes.

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Tooling for Refrigeration Cabinet Foaming Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nuttall, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cukier, Michael [Whirlpool Corp., Benton Harbor, MI (United States); Hile, Michael [Whirlpool Corp., Benton Harbor, MI (United States)

    2016-07-29

    The primary objective of this project was to leverage the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) process and materials into a long term, quick change tooling concept to drastically reduce product lead and development timelines and costs. Current refrigeration foam molds are complicated to manufacture involving casting several aluminum parts in an approximate shape, machining components of the molds and post fitting and shimming of the parts in an articulated fixture. The total process timeline can take over 6 months. The foaming process is slower than required for production, therefore multiple fixtures, 10 to 27, are required per refrigerator model. Molds are particular to a specific product configuration making mixed model assembly challenging for sequencing, mold changes or auto changeover features. The initial goal was to create a tool leveraging the ORNL materials and additive process to build a tool in 4 to 6 weeks or less. A secondary goal was to create common fixture cores and provide lightweight fixture sections that could be revised in a very short time to increase equipment flexibility reduce lead times, lower the barriers to first production trials, and reduce tooling costs.

  5. Wind Energy Deployment Process and Siting Tools (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.

    2015-02-01

    Regardless of cost and performance, some wind projects cannot proceed to completion as a result of competing multiple uses or siting considerations. Wind energy siting issues must be better understood and quantified. DOE tasked NREL researchers with depicting the wind energy deployment process and researching development considerations. This presentation provides an overview of these findings and wind siting tools.

  6. Simulation modeling: a powerful tool for process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxerman, S B

    1996-01-01

    Simulation modeling provides an efficient means of examining the operation of a system under a variety of alternative conditions. This tool can potentially enhance a benchmarking project by providing a means for evaluating proposed modifications to the system or process under study.

  7. Additive Manufacturing of Tooling for Refrigeration Cabinet Foaming Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of this project was to leverage the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) process and materials into a long term, quick change tooling concept to drastically reduce product lead and development timelines and costs. Current refrigeration foam molds are complicated to manufacture involving casting several aluminum parts in an approximate shape, machining components of the molds and post fitting and shimming of the parts in an articulated fixture. The total process timeline can take over 6 months. The foaming process is slower than required for production, therefore multiple fixtures, 10 to 27, are required per refrigerator model. Molds are particular to a specific product configuration making mixed model assembly challenging for sequencing, mold changes or auto changeover features. The initial goal was to create a tool leveraging the ORNL materials and additive process to build a tool in 4 to 6 weeks or less. A secondary goal was to create common fixture cores and provide lightweight fixture sections that could be revised in a very short time to increase equipment flexibility reduce lead times, lower the barriers to first production trials, and reduce tooling costs.

  8. From pulsed power to processing: Plasma initiated chemical process intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, E.J.M. van; Yan, K.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Winands, G.J.J.; Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Hoeben, W.F.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Smart electric power for process intensification is a challenging research field that integrates power engineering, chemistry and green technology. Pulsed power technology is offering elegant solutions. This work focuses on backgrounds of matching the power source to the process. Important items are

  9. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  10. Tools for Observation: Art and the Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, E. C.; Coryell-Martin, M.; Maisch, K.

    2015-12-01

    Art can support the scientific process during different phases of a scientific discovery. Art can help explain and extend the scientific concepts for the general public; in this way art is a powerful tool for communication. Art can aid the scientist in processing and interpreting the data towards an understanding of the concepts and processes; in this way art is powerful - if often subconscious - tool to inform the process of discovery. Less often acknowledged, art can help engage students and inspire scientists during the initial development of ideas, observations, and questions; in this way art is a powerful tool to develop scientific questions and hypotheses. When we use art as a tool for communication of scientific discoveries, it helps break down barriers and makes science concepts less intimidating and more accessible and understandable for the learner. Scientists themselves use artistic concepts and processes - directly or indirectly - to help deepen their understanding. Teachers are following suit by using art more to stimulate students' creative thinking and problem solving. We show the value of teaching students to use the artistic "way of seeing" to develop their skills in observation, questioning, and critical thinking. In this way, art can be a powerful tool to engage students (from elementary to graduate) in the beginning phase of a scientific discovery, which is catalyzed by inquiry and curiosity. Through qualitative assessment of the Girls on Ice program, we show that many of the specific techniques taught by art teachers are valuable for science students to develop their observation skills. In particular, the concepts of contour drawing, squinting, gesture drawing, inverted drawing, and others can provide valuable training for student scientists. These art techniques encourage students to let go of preconceptions and "see" the world (the "data") in new ways they help students focus on both large-scale patterns and small-scale details.

  11. 14th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP 14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Preface The High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP) is a bi-annual international conference based in Europe with topics encompassing the whole area of plasma processing science. This conference is open to all the international community in the world involved in plasma science and plasma technology. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, facilitate the contacts between science, technology and industry and provide a platform for the exploration of both fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. For this edition of HTPP, as was the case for the last, we have achieved a well balanced participation from the communities of both thermal and non-thermal plasma researchers. 75 people from 17 countries attended the conference with the total number of contributions being 74, consisting of 19 invited talks and 55 poster contributions. As a HTPP tradition a poster competition has been carried out during the conference. The winner of the poster competition was Fabrice Mavier from Université de Limoges, France with his paper “Pulsed arc plasma jet synchronized with drop-on-demand dispenser” All the participants also ejoyed the social program including an “unconventional” tour of the city, the visit to the famous Hofbräuhaus and the dinner at the Blutenburg, a beautiful inner-city castle. We have received papers corresponding to the contributions of HTPP-2014 that have been submitted for publication in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Each submitted contribution has been peer reviewed and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In total, 18 manuscripts have been accepted for publication covering a range of topics of plasma processing science from plasma fundamentals to process applications through to experiments, diagnostics and modelling. We deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions and we

  12. Friction stir welding tool and process for welding dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J; Jana, Saumyadeep; Mattlin, Karl F

    2013-05-07

    A friction stir welding tool and process for lap welding dissimilar materials are detailed. The invention includes a cutter scribe that penetrates and extrudes a first material of a lap weld stack to a preselected depth and further cuts a second material to provide a beneficial geometry defined by a plurality of mechanically interlocking features. The tool backfills the interlocking features generating a lap weld across the length of the interface between the dissimilar materials that enhances the shear strength of the lap weld.

  13. The Software Improvement Process - Tools And Rules To Encourage Quality

    CERN Document Server

    Sigerud, K

    2011-01-01

    The Applications section of the CERN accelerator Controls group has decided to apply a systematic approach to quality assurance (QA), the “Software Improvement Process”, SIP. This process focuses on three areas: the development process itself, suitable QA tools, and how to practically encourage developers to do QA. For each stage of the development process we have agreed on the recommended activities and deliverables, and identified tools to automate and support the task. For example we do more code reviews. As peer reviews are resource-intensive, we only do them for complex parts of a product. As a complement, we are using static code checking tools, like FindBugs and Checkstyle. We also encourage unit testing and have agreed on a minimum level of test coverage recommended for all products, measured using Clover. Each of these tools is well integrated with our IDE (Eclipse) and give instant feedback to the developer about the quality of their code. The major challenges of SIP have been to 1) agree on com...

  14. Processes, Performance Drivers and ICT Tools in Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oškrdal Václav

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an insight to processes, performance drivers and ICT tools in human resources (HR management area. On the basis of a modern approach to HR management, a set of business processes that are handled by today’s HR managers is defined. Consequently, the concept of ICT-supported performance drivers and their relevance in the area of HR management as well as the relationship between HR business processes, performance drivers and ICT tools are defined. The theoretical outcomes are further enhanced with results obtained from a survey among Czech companies. This article was written with kind courtesy of finances provided by VŠE IGA grant „IGA – 32/2010“.

  15. Analysis of Cryogenic Cycle with Process Modeling Tool: Aspen HYSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, D. M.; Patel, H. K.

    2015-10-01

    Cryogenic engineering deals with the development and improvement of low temperature techniques, processes and equipment. A process simulator such as Aspen HYSYS, for the design, analysis, and optimization of process plants, has features that accommodate the special requirements and therefore can be used to simulate most cryogenic liquefaction and refrigeration processes. Liquefaction is the process of cooling or refrigerating a gas to a temperature below its critical temperature so that liquid can be formed at some suitable pressure which is below the critical pressure. Cryogenic processes require special attention in terms of the integration of various components like heat exchangers, Joule-Thompson Valve, Turbo expander and Compressor. Here, Aspen HYSYS, a process modeling tool, is used to understand the behavior of the complete plant. This paper presents the analysis of an air liquefaction plant based on the Linde cryogenic cycle, performed using the Aspen HYSYS process modeling tool. It covers the technique used to find the optimum values for getting the maximum liquefaction of the plant considering different constraints of other parameters. The analysis result so obtained gives clear idea in deciding various parameter values before implementation of the actual plant in the field. It also gives an idea about the productivity and profitability of the given configuration plant which leads to the design of an efficient productive plant.

  16. On the iodine doping process of plasma polymerised thiophene layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, L.M.H.; Engbers, G.H.M.; White, R.; Feijen, Jan

    2002-01-01

    To make a fair comparison of the conductive properties of plasma polymerised thiophene (PPT) layers deposited under different conditions, optimal doping procedures should be applied. The iodine doping process of PPT layers deposited at high (HP) and low (LP) pressure has been studied in detail.

  17. Cold plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. Although well-established in non-food applications for surface treatment and modification, cold plasma is a relatively new food safety intervention. As a nonthermal food processing te...

  18. Electron beam generated plasmas for the processing of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, S. G.; Hernández, S. C.; Boris, D. R.; Petrova, Tz B.; Petrov, G. M.

    2017-09-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed a processing system based on an electron beam-generated plasma and applied it to the processing of graphene. Unlike conventional discharges produced by electric fields (DC, RF, microwave, etc), the plasma is driven by a high-energy (~few keV) electron beam, an approach that simplifies the relative production of species while providing comparatively high ion-to-radical production rates. The resulting plasmas are characterized by high charged particle densities (1010-1011 cm-3) and electron temperatures that are typically about 1.0 eV or lower. Accordingly, the flux to adjacent surfaces is generally dominated by ions with kinetic energies in the range of 1-5 eV, a value at or near the bond strength of most materials. This provides the potential for controllably engineering materials with monolayer precision, an attribute attractive for the processing of atomically thin material systems. This work describes the attributes of electron beam driven plasma processing system and its use in modification of graphene.

  19. On the iodine doping process of plasma polymerised thiophene layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, L.M.H.; Engbers, G.H.M.; White, R.; Feijen, J.

    2001-01-01

    To make a fair comparison of the conductive properties of plasma polymerised thiophene (PPT) layers deposited under different conditions, optimal doping procedures should be applied. The iodine doping process of PPT layers deposited at high (HP) and low (LP) pressure has been studied in detail. Dopi

  20. Methods and tools for sustainable chemical process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat; Quaglia, Alberto;

    2015-01-01

    As the pressure on chemical and biochemical processes to achieve a more sustainable performance increases, the need to define a systematic and holistic way to accomplish this is becoming more urgent. In this chapter, a multilevel computer-aided framework for systematic design of more sustainable...... chemical processes is presented. The framework allows the use of appropriate computer-aided methods and tools in a hierarchical manner according to a developed work flow for a multilevel criteria analysis that helps generate competing and more sustainable process design options. The application...

  1. Plasma Processes and Polymers: 16th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry Taormina, Italy June 22-27, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Riccardo; Favia, Pietro; Oehr, Christian; Wertheimer, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    This volume compiles essential contributions to the most innovative fields of Plasma Processes and Polymers. High-quality contributions cover the fields of plasma deposition, plasma treatment of polymers and other organic compounds, plasma processes under partial vacuum and at atmospheric pressure, biomedical, textile, automotive, and optical applications as well as surface treatment of bulk materials, clusters, particles and powders. This unique collection of refereed papers is based on the best contributions presented at the 16th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry in Taormina, Italy (ISPC-16, June 2003). A high class reference of relevance to a large audience in plasma community as well as in the area of its industrial applications.

  2. Natural language processing tools for computer assisted language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeventer Faltin, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the usefulness of natural language processing (NLP tools for computer assisted language learning (CALL through the presentation of three NLP tools integrated within a CALL software for French. These tools are (i a sentence structure viewer; (ii an error diagnosis system; and (iii a conjugation tool. The sentence structure viewer helps language learners grasp the structure of a sentence, by providing lexical and grammatical information. This information is derived from a deep syntactic analysis. Two different outputs are presented. The error diagnosis system is composed of a spell checker, a grammar checker, and a coherence checker. The spell checker makes use of alpha-codes, phonological reinterpretation, and some ad hoc rules to provide correction proposals. The grammar checker employs constraint relaxation and phonological reinterpretation as diagnosis techniques. The coherence checker compares the underlying "semantic" structures of a stored answer and of the learners' input to detect semantic discrepancies. The conjugation tool is a resource with enhanced capabilities when put on an electronic format, enabling searches from inflected and ambiguous verb forms.

  3. Research of Plasma Spraying Process on Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricija Kavaliauskaitė

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines plasma sprayed 95Ni-5Al coatings on alu-minum-magnesium (Mg ≈ 2,6‒3,6 % alloy substrate. Alumi-num-magnesium samples prior spraying were prepared with mechanical treatment (blasting with Al2O3. 95Ni-5Al coatings on aluminum-magnesium alloys were sprayed with different parameters of process and coating‘s thickness, porosity, micro-hardness and microstructure were evaluated. Also numerical simulations in electric and magnetic phenomena of plasma spray-ing were carried out.

  4. Proteomics tools reveal startlingly high amounts of oxytocin in plasma and serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Johnsen, Elin; Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Maclean, Evan L.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Leknes, Siri; Lundanes, Elsa; Wilson, Steven Ray

    2016-08-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is associated with a plethora of social behaviors, and is a key topic at the intersection of psychology and biology. However, tools for measuring OT are still not fully developed. We describe a robust nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) platform for measuring the total amount of OT in human plasma/serum. OT binds strongly to plasma proteins, but a reduction/alkylation (R/A) procedure breaks this bond, enabling ample detection of total OT. The method (R/A + robust nanoLC-MS) was used to determine total OT plasma/serum levels to startlingly high concentrations (high pg/mL-ng/mL). Similar results were obtained when combining R/A and ELISA. Compared to measuring free OT, measuring total OT can have advantages in e.g. biomarker studies.

  5. Optimization of the process of plasma ignition of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peregudov, V.S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-04-15

    Results are given of experimental and theoretical investigations of plasma ignition of coal as a result of its thermochemical preparation in application to the processes of firing up a boiler and stabilizing the flame combustion. The experimental test bed with a commercial-scale burner is used for determining the conditions of plasma ignition of low-reactivity high-ash anthracite depending on the concentration of coal in the air mixture and velocity of the latter. The calculations produce an equation (important from the standpoint of practical applications) for determining the energy expenditure for plasma ignition of coal depending on the basic process parameters. The tests reveal the difficulties arising in firing up a boiler with direct delivery of pulverized coal from the mill to furnace. A scheme is suggested, which enables one to reduce the energy expenditure for ignition of coal and improve the reliability of the process of firing up such a boiler. Results are given of calculation of plasma thermochemical preparation of coal under conditions of lower concentration of oxygen in the air mixture.

  6. An educational tool for interactive parallel and distributed processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2012-01-01

    In this article we try to describe how the modular interactive tiles system (MITS) can be a valuable tool for introducing students to interactive parallel and distributed processing programming. This is done by providing a handson educational tool that allows a change in the representation...... of abstract problems related to designing interactive parallel and distributed systems. Indeed, the MITS seems to bring a series of goals into education, such as parallel programming, distributedness, communication protocols, master dependency, software behavioral models, adaptive interactivity, feedback...... interactive parallel and distributed processing with different behavioral software models such as open loop, randomness-based, rule-based, user interaction-based, and AI- and ALife-based software....

  7. Roadmaps—A new tool for commercial space processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Raymond P.; Crawford, James L.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new management and planning tool ``roadmaps'' for the commercial development and use of space. It is focused around the disciplines of biotechnology and material science. Roadmaps have evolved from changes in U.S. space policy and NASA strategic plans. The evolution of the Roadmaps concept is tied to five observations: 1) Space Processing Division projects are not subject to standard ``peer'' reviews; 2) government funding requires early commercial investments in space; 3) marketable products are essential to the program mission; 4) funding of new science or technology is incidental to new product development; and 5) the use of roadmaps forces early planning to the market. The result is a course chartered for the future development of products in biotechnology and materials using space based infrastructure and technology development. These tools chart a course for commercial space processing; where the project completion is the development of new products in biotechnology and materials using space based technology.

  8. Models and Modelling Tools for Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    The design, development and reliability of a chemical product and the process to manufacture it, need to be consistent with the end-use characteristics of the desired product. One of the common ways to match the desired product-process characteristics is through trial and error based experiments......-based framework is that in the design, development and/or manufacturing of a chemical product-process, the knowledge of the applied phenomena together with the product-process design details can be provided with diverse degrees of abstractions and details. This would allow the experimental resources......, are the needed models for such a framework available? Or, are modelling tools that can help to develop the needed models available? Can such a model-based framework provide the needed model-based work-flows matching the requirements of the specific chemical product-process design problems? What types of models...

  9. Prediction of plasma simulation data with the Gaussian process method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuss, R.; Toussaint, U. von, E-mail: udo.v.toussaint@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-12-05

    The simulation of plasma-wall interactions of fusion plasmas is extremely costly in computer power and time - the running time for a single parameter setting is easily in the order of weeks or months. We propose to exploit the already gathered results in order to predict the outcome for parametric studies within the high dimensional parameter space. For this we utilize Gaussian processes within the Bayesian framework and perform validation with one and two dimensional test cases from which we learn how to assess the outcome. Finally, the newly implemented method is applied to simulated data from the scrape-off layer of a fusion plasma. Uncertainties of the predictions are provided which point the way to parameter settings of further (expensive) simulations.

  10. Generation of low-temperature air plasma for food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya

    2015-11-01

    The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas temperature at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient air in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in air and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.

  11. Effect of Plasma Nitriding Process Conditions on Corrosion Resistance of 440B Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łępicka Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Martensitic stainless steels are used in a large number of various industrial applications, e.g. molds for plastic injections and glass moldings, automotive components, cutting tools, surgical and dental instruments. The improvement of their tribological and corrosion properties is a problem of high interest especially in medical applications, where patient safety becomes a priority. The paper covers findings from plasma nitrided AISI 440B (PN-EN or DIN X90CrMoV18 stainless steel corrosion resistance studies. Conventionally heat treated and plasma nitrided in N2:H2 reaction gas mixture (50:50, 65:35 and 80:20, respectively in two different temperature ranges (380 or 450°C specimens groups were examined. Microscopic observations and electrochemical corrosion tests were performed using a variety of analytical techniques. As obtained findings show, plasma nitriding of AISI 440B stainless steel, regardless of the process temperature, results in reduction of corrosion current density. Nevertheless, applying thermo-chemical process which requires exceeding temperature of about 400°C is not recommended due to increased risk of steel sensitization to intergranular and stress corrosion. According to the results, material ion nitrided in 450°C underwent leaching corrosion processes, which led to significant disproportion in chemical composition of the corroded and corrosion-free areas. The authors suggest further research into corrosion process of plasma nitrided materials and its degradation products.

  12. Cassiopee: a CFD pre-and post-processing tool

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, C.; Péron, S.; Landier, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the capabilities of a new open-source pre-and post-processing tool for Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations, called Cassiopee. Its architecture, which is basically a set of Python modules, and the handled data, which is based on CGNS standard, are described. Some examples of workflows that can be built with Cassiopee functions are provided. Finally, some applications of Cassiopee functions to realistic CFD configurations are briefly presented.

  13. Application of Process Modeling Tools to Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Release; Distribution is unlimited. Different People – Different Preferences • We need to view process data in multiple formats. – DSM – GANTT Charts...CertificatePrograms/tRI Scheduling Software Spreadsheet Software Info Modeling Software DSM Tool Schedules IDEF Diagrams Spreadsheets DSM Schema 6/2...Chart Gantt Chart DSM Flow Chart by Geography 6/2/2011 3:41 PM 16Statement A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution is unlimited. Multi-domain

  14. System Maturity and Architecture Assessment Methods, Processes, and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    1 For a detailed description of the SRL methodology see Sauser, B., J.E. Ramirez- Marquez , D. Nowicki, A...and Ramirez- Marquez 2009; Magnaye, Sauser et al. 2010). Although there are guidelines and tools to support the assessment process (Nolte, Kennedy...employ these metrics (Tan, Sauser et al. 2011). Graettinger, et al. (Graettinger, Garcia et al. 2002) reports that approaches for readiness level

  15. Nonlinear processes in the strong wave-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoraro, Francesco; Califano, Francesco; Attico, Nicola; Bulanov, Sergei

    2000-10-01

    Nonlinear interactions in hot laboratory and/or astrophysical plasmas are a very efficient mechanism able to transfer the energy from the large to the small spatial scales of the system. As a result, kinetic processes are excited and play a key role in the plasma dynamics since the typical fluid dissipative length scales (where the nonlinear cascade is stopped) are (much) smaller then the kinetic length scales. Then, the key point is the role of the kinetic effects in the global plasma dynamics, i.e. whether the kinetic effects remains confined to the small scales of the system or whether there is a significant feedback on the large scales. Here we will address this problem by discussing the nonlinear kinetic evolution of the electromagnetic beam plasma instability where phase space vortices, as well as large scale vortex like magnetic structures in the physical space, are generated by wave - particle interactions. The role and influence of kinetic effects on the large scale plasma dynamics will be also discussed by addressing the problem of collisionless magnetic reconection.

  16. Process characteristics of fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrle, A; Schnick, M; Rose, S; Demuth, C; Beyer, E; Fuessel, U, E-mail: achim.mahrle@iws.fraunhofer.de [Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Surface and Manufacturing Technology, PO Box, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-08-31

    Experimental and theoretical investigations on fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding (LAPW) were performed. Welding experiments were carried out on aluminium and steel sheets. In the case of a highly focused laser beam and a separate arrangement of plasma torch and laser beam, high-speed video recordings of the plasma arc and corresponding measurements of the time-dependent arc voltage revealed differences in the process behaviour for both materials. In the case of aluminium welding, a sharp decline in arc voltage and stabilization and guiding of the anodic arc root was observed whereas in steel welding the arc voltage was slightly increased after the laser beam was switched on. However, significant improvement of the melting efficiency with the combined action of plasma arc and laser beam was achieved for both types of material. Theoretical results of additional numerical simulations of the arc behaviour suggest that the properties of the arc plasma are mainly influenced not by a direct interaction with the laser radiation but by the laser-induced evaporation of metal. Arc stabilization with increased current densities is predicted for moderate rates of evaporated metal only whereas metal vapour rates above a certain threshold causes a destabilization of the arc and reduced current densities along the arc axis.

  17. Frequency dependent plasma characteristics in a capacitively coupled 300 mm wafer plasma processing chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebner, Gregory A [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87185-1423 (United States); Barnat, Edward V [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87185-1423 (United States); Miller, Paul A [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87185-1423 (United States); Paterson, Alex M [Applied Materials, 974 Arques Avenue, Sunnyvale CA, 94086 (United States); Holland, John P [Applied Materials, 974 Arques Avenue, Sunnyvale CA, 94086 (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Argon plasma characteristics in a dual-frequency, capacitively coupled, 300 mm-wafer plasma processing system were investigated for rf drive frequencies between 10 and 190 MHz. We report spatial and frequency dependent changes in plasma parameters such as line-integrated electron density, ion saturation current, optical emission and argon metastable density. For the conditions investigated, the line-integrated electron density was a nonlinear function of drive frequency at constant rf power. In addition, the spatial distribution of the positive ions changed from uniform to peaked in the centre as the frequency was increased. Spatially resolved optical emission increased with frequency and the relative optical emission at several spectral lines depended on frequency. Argon metastable density and spatial distribution were not a strong function of drive frequency. Metastable temperature was approximately 400 K.

  18. Optimization of the ASPN Process to Bright Nitriding of Woodworking Tools Using the Taguchi Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowicz, J.; Staśkiewicz, J.; Szafirowicz, K.; Jakrzewski, D.; Grzesiak, G.; Stępniak, M.

    2013-02-01

    The subject of the research is optimization of the parameters of the Active Screen Plasma Nitriding (ASPN) process of high speed steel planing knives used in woodworking. The Taguchi approach was applied for development of the plan of experiments and elaboration of obtained experimental results. The optimized ASPN parameters were: process duration, composition and pressure of the gaseous atmosphere, the substrate BIAS voltage and the substrate temperature. The results of the optimization procedure were verified by the tools' behavior in the sharpening operation performed in normal industrial conditions. The ASPN technology proved to be extremely suitable for nitriding the woodworking planing tools, which because of their specific geometry, in particular extremely sharp wedge angles, could not be successfully nitrided using conventional direct current plasma nitriding method. The carried out research proved that the values of fracture toughness coefficient K Ic are in correlation with maximum spalling depths of the cutting edge measured after sharpening, and therefore may be used as a measure of the nitrided planing knives quality. Based on this criterion the optimum parameters of the ASPN process for nitriding high speed planing knives were determined.

  19. MAGIC: A Tool for Combining, Interpolating, and Processing Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Transients in the solar coronal magnetic field are ultimately the source of space weather. Models which seek to track the evolution of the coronal field require magnetogram images to be used as boundary conditions. These magnetograms are obtained by numerous instruments with different cadences and resolutions. A tool is required which allows modelers to fmd all available data and use them to craft accurate and physically consistent boundary conditions for their models. We have developed a software tool, MAGIC (MAGnetogram Interpolation and Composition), to perform exactly this function. MAGIC can manage the acquisition of magneto gram data, cast it into a source-independent format, and then perform the necessary spatial and temporal interpolation to provide magnetic field values as requested onto model-defined grids. MAGIC has the ability to patch magneto grams from different sources together providing a more complete picture of the Sun's field than is possible from single magneto grams. In doing this, care must be taken so as not to introduce nonphysical current densities along the seam between magnetograms. We have designed a method which minimizes these spurious current densities. MAGIC also includes a number of post-processing tools which can provide additional information to models. For example, MAGIC includes an interface to the DA VE4VM tool which derives surface flow velocities from the time evolution of surface magnetic field. MAGIC has been developed as an application of the KAMELEON data formatting toolkit which has been developed by the CCMC.

  20. Plasma process control for improved PEO coatings on magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Riyad Omran

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is a high voltage plasma-assisted oxidation process uses an environmentally-friendly aqueous electrolyte to oxidize the metal surfaces to form ceramic oxide coatings which impart a high corrosion and wear resistance. One of the main advantages of PEO process is that it can be applied to treat samples with complex shapes, and surfaces with different composition and microstructure. The PEO process of Mg alloys is strongly influenced by such parameters as electrolyte composition and concentration, current or voltage applied and substrate alloy. Generally, these parameters have a direct influence on the discharging behavior. The discharges play an essential role in the formation and resulting composition of the 3-layer oxide structure. A detailed knowledge of the coating mechanisms is extremely important in order to produce a desired coating quality to reach the best performance of the PEO coatings in terms of corrosion resistance and tribological properties (wear rate, COF). During PEO processing of magnesium, some of the metal cations are transferred outwards from the substrate and react with anions to form ceramic coatings. Also, due to the high electric field in the discharge channels, oxygen anions transfer towards the magnesium substrate and react with Mg2+ cations to form a ceramic coating. Although, in general, PEO coating of Mg alloys produces the three-layered structure, the relative proportions of the three-layers are strongly influenced by the PEO processing parameters. In PEO process, the ceramic coating grows inwards to the alloy substrate and outwards to the coating surface simultaneously. For the coating growth, there are three simultaneous processes taking place, namely the electrochemical, the plasma chemical reactions and thermal diffusion. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed for the discharge characterization by following the substrate and electrolyte element present in the plasma discharge during the

  1. Biopharmaceutical Process Optimization with Simulation and Scheduling Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetri Petrides

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Design and assessment activities associated with a biopharmaceutical process are performed at different levels of detail, based on the stage of development that the product is in. Preliminary “back-of-the envelope” assessments are performed early in the development lifecycle, whereas detailed design and evaluation are performed prior to the construction of a new facility. Both the preliminary and detailed design of integrated biopharmaceutical processes can be greatly assisted by the use of process simulators, discrete event simulators or finite capacity scheduling tools. This report describes the use of such tools for bioprocess development, design, and manufacturing. The report is divided into three sections. Section One provides introductory information and explains the purpose of bioprocess simulation. Section Two focuses on the detailed modeling of a single batch bioprocess that represents the manufacturing of a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (MAb. This type of analysis is typically performed by engineers engaged in the development and optimization of such processes. Section Three focuses on production planning and scheduling models for multiproduct plants.

  2. Reflexivity: a methodological tool in the knowledge translation process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Sarah; Jackson, Suzanne F; Shakya, Yogendra B

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge translation is a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and application of knowledge. It is considered the bridge that closes the gap between research and practice. Yet it appears that in all areas of practice, a significant gap remains in translating research knowledge into practical application. Recently, researchers and practitioners in the field of health care have begun to recognize reflection and reflexive exercises as a fundamental component to the knowledge translation process. As a practical tool, reflexivity can go beyond simply looking at what practitioners are doing; when approached in a systematic manner, it has the potential to enable practitioners from a wide variety of backgrounds to identify, understand, and act in relation to the personal, professional, and political challenges they face in practice. This article focuses on how reflexive practice as a methodological tool can provide researchers and practitioners with new insights and increased self-awareness, as they are able to critically examine the nature of their work and acknowledge biases, which may affect the knowledge translation process. Through the use of structured journal entries, the nature of the relationship between reflexivity and knowledge translation was examined, specifically exploring if reflexivity can improve the knowledge translation process, leading to increased utilization and application of research findings into everyday practice.

  3. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, S., E-mail: hamann@inp-greifswald.de; Röpcke, J. [INP-Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Materials Engineering, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Strämke, M.; Strämke, S. [ELTRO GmbH, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Ring 3, 52499 Baesweiler (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  4. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.; Röpcke, J.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH4, C2H2, HCN, and NH3). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  5. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S; Börner, K; Burlacov, I; Spies, H-J; Strämke, M; Strämke, S; Röpcke, J

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH4, C2H2, HCN, and NH3). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  6. The variable polarity plasma arc welding process: Characteristics and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Zhu, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advantages of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process include faster welding, fewer repairs, less joint preparation, reduced weldment distortion, and absence of porosity. The power distribution was analyzed for an argon plasma gas flow constituting the fluid in the VPPA Welding Process. The major heat loss at the torch nozzle is convective heat transfer; in the space between the outlet of the nozzle and the workpiece; radiative heat transfer; and in the keyhole in the workpiece, convective heat transfer. The power absorbed at the workpiece produces the molten puddle that solidifies into the weld bead. Crown and root widths, and crown and root heights of the weld bead are predicted. The basis is provided for an algorithm for automatic control of VPPA welding machine parameters to obtain desired weld bead dimensions.

  7. MATLAB tools for lidar data conversion, visualization, and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Kaijing; Yang, Jie; Lu, Yilong

    2011-10-01

    LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) [1] is an optical remote sensing technology that has gained increasing acceptance for topographic mapping. LIDAR technology has higher accuracy than RADAR and has wide applications. The relevant commercial market for LIDAR has developed greatly in the last few years. LAS format is approved to be the standard data format for interchanging LIDAR data among different software developers, manufacturers and end users. LAS data format reduces the data size compared to ASCII data format. However, LAS data file can only be visualized by some expensive commercial software. There are some free tools available, but they are not user-friendly and have less or poor visualization functionality. This makes it difficult for researchers to investigate and use LIDAR data. Therefore, there is a need to develop an efficient and low cost LIDAR data toolbox. For this purpose we have developed a free and efficient Matlab tool for LIDAR data conversion, visualization and processing.

  8. EXAFS investigation of nanoparticles produced in a thermal plasma process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R. [Heinrich-Heine-Univ. Duesseldorf, Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik (Germany); Buchner, P. [Heinrich-Heine-Univ. Duesseldorf, Inst. fuer Laser- und Plasmaphysik (Germany); Strehblow, H.H. [Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Nanosized ceramic powders (Cu/SiC, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized cubic ZrO{sub 2}) were produced by evaporation of coarsely grained powders of the respective materials in an inductively coupled thermal plasma process and rapid quenching of the vapor. The atomic short range order of these nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 10 nm was investigated ex situ with EXAFS. The results are compared to crystalline reference materials. (au) 10 refs.

  9. Capability studies, helpful tools in process quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ability of processes to meet customer’quality requirements has become essential for providing competitive advantages such as cost savings, reducing the number of nonconfoming products or increasing customer satisfaction. This paper aims to conduct a capability study for a swaging process (that ensures an assembly dimension of a key product characteristic (the outer diameter of a new part, related to the concept of capability and performance indices and how these metrics can be used and interpreted to become powerful tools for decision making. To achieve the goal of the paper, the following key aspects were analyzed: capability of the measurement system capability (gage R&R, production equipment (machine capability and process capability/performance during the first serial production. The analysis was performed with Minitab® 17, the most commonly used software for quality improvement.

  10. Deposição por plasma com arco transferido Hardfacing by plasma transfer arc process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vergara Díaz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Em virtude do Processo de Soldagem Plasma com Alimentação de Pó ter similaridades com o Processo de Soldagem Plasma com Alimentação de Arame, foi realizado um estudo comparativo entre ambos os processos utilizando-se a liga a base de cobalto comercialmente conhecida como Stellite 6, como material de adição na forma de pó e arame. A pesquisa foi realizada com a expectativa de ser aplicada nas operações de revestimentos de superfícies, em especial em pás de turbinas hidráulicas desgastadas por cavitação. A seleção do material de adição a ser empregado depende da natureza do mecanismo de desgaste encontrado. No Labsolda, a liga Stellite 6 vem sendo uma das mais utilizadas, por apresentar uma excelente resistência ao desgaste erosivo por cavitação. Foi avaliada a influência da vazão de gás de plasma a partir dos valores de diluição, dimensões do cordão, dureza e microestrutura. O Processo de Soldagem Plasma com Alimentação de Pó foi o que produziu o melhor acabamento superficial, menor diluição, melhor molhamento e maior largura. Com isto abre-se uma nova perspectiva para revestimentos metálicos e neste contexto se insere a recuperação por soldagem de partes erodidas de turbinas hidráulicas.The Plasma powder transferred arc welding process, which uses feed stock in the powder form, has similarities with Plasma wire transferred arc welding. This work describes a comparative study of the two processes using a Cobalt-based alloy commercially known as Stellite 6. This Co-based alloy is recognized for its superior cavitation erosion resistance. The aim of this work is to investigate the potential of PTA coatings for the protection and refurbishiment hydraulic turbine blades. Coatings were evaluated for the influence of Plasma gas flow rate on coating dilution, geometry, hardness and microstructure. Coatings processed with the atomized Stellite 6 powder feestock showed a superior surface quality, lower dilution

  11. Cold atmospheric plasma: a new tool for the treatment of superficial driveline infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Lutz; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus Dieter; Wollert, Hans-Georg

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous driveline infections (DI) are leading factors for morbidity and mortality in ventricular assist device (VAD) patients. In recent years, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has been safely and effectively used in clinical settings to treat topical infections. We describe the first use of CAP to treat a superficial DI. CAP was applied with the kinPen® MED plasma jet device (neoplas tools GmbH, Greifswald, Germany), in the treatment of a DI in a 66-year-old VAD patient in Klinikum Karlsburg, Germany. The patient received a daily application of CAP of 1 min for 12 days. One CAP application was administered each week for 4 weeks in our outpatient clinic after patient discharge. Laboratory tests were conducted and photographs of the driveline exit site were taken. After CAP treatment, the local infection was completely regressed without any signs of exudation or recurrence of the infection. There were no adverse side effects observed, and the HVAD logfile data did not show any abnormalities during treatment. Here, we demonstrate a successful resolution of a VAD DI with the kinPen plasma jet device. We believe that CAP has the potential to be a simple and effective tool in the treatment of superficial DIs.

  12. The expansion of a plasma into a vacuum - Basic phenomena and processes and applications to space plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

    1983-01-01

    In this review attention is called to basic phenomena and physical processes involved in the expansion of a plasma into a vacuum, or the expansion of a plasma into a more tenuous plasma, in particular the fact that upon the expansion, ions are accelerated and reach energies well above their thermal energy. Also, in the process of the expansion a rarefaction wave propagates into the ambient plasma, an ion front moves into the expansion volume, and discontinuities in plasma parameters occur. The physical processes which cause the above phenomena are discussed, and their possible application is suggested for the case of the distribution of ions and electrons (hence plasma potential and electric fields) in the wake region behind artificial and natural obstacles moving supersonically in a rarefied space plasma. To illustrate this, some in situ results are reexamined. Directions for future work in this area via the utilization of the Space Shuttle and laboratory work are also mentioned.

  13. Reconstruction of the ion plasma parameters from the current measurements: mathematical tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    Full Text Available Instrument d’Analyse du Plasma (IAP is one of the instruments of the newly prepared ionospheric mission Demeter. This analyser was developed to measure flows of thermal ions at the altitude of ~ 750 km and consists of two parts: (i retarding potential analyser (APR, which is utilised to measure the energy distribution of the ion plasma along the sensor look direction, and (ii velocity direction analyser (ADV, which is used to measure the arrival angle of the ion flow with respect to the analyser axis. The necessity to obtain quick and precise estimates of the ion plasma parameters has prompted us to revise the existing mathematical tool and to investigate different instrumental limitations, such as (i finite angular aperture, (ii grid transparency, (iii potential depression in the space between the grid wires, (iv losses of ions during their passage between the entrance diaphragm and the collector. Simple analytical expressions are found to fit the currents, which are measured by the APR and ADV collectors, and show a very good agreement with the numerical solutions. It was proven that the fitting of the current with the model functions gives a possibility to properly resolve even minor ion concentrations and to find the arrival angles of the ion flow in the multi-species plasma. The discussion is illustrated by an analysis of the instrument response in the ionospheric conditions which are predicted by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model.

    Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection; instruments and techniques – Space plasma physics (experimental and mathematical techniques

  14. Process Modeling In Cold Forging Considering The Process-Tool-Machine Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroiss, Thomas; Engel, Ulf; Merklein, Marion

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, a methodic approach is presented for the determination and modeling of the axial deflection characteristic for the whole system of stroke-controlled press and tooling system. This is realized by a combination of experiment and FE simulation. The press characteristic is uniquely measured in experiment. The tooling system characteristic is determined in FE simulation to avoid experimental investigations on various tooling systems. The stiffnesses of press and tooling system are combined to a substitute stiffness that is integrated into the FE process simulation as a spring element. Non-linear initial effects of the press are modeled with a constant shift factor. The approach was applied to a full forward extrusion process on a press with C-frame. A comparison between experiments and results of the integrated FE simulation model showed a high accuracy of the FE model. The simulation model with integrated deflection characteristic represents the entire process behavior and can be used for the calculation of a mathematical process model based on variant simulations and response surfaces. In a subsequent optimization step, an adjusted process and tool design can be determined, that compensates the influence of the deflections on the workpiece dimensions leading to high workpiece accuracy. Using knowledge on the process behavior, the required number of variant simulations was reduced.

  15. Tool and ideological knowledge in Street Outreach Office working process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Maria Terumi Maruyama; Larocca, Liliana Muller; Chaves, Maria Marta Nolasco; Piosiadlo, Laura Christina Macedo; Albuquerque, Guilherme Souza

    2016-01-01

    To identify ideological knowledge and tool knowledgethat provide support to the Street Outreach Office working process. Qualitative and exploratory research. TwentyStreet Outreach Office professionals and six users collected the data, applying different semi-structured interview schedules for each category of participants. The resulting categories were analyzed in light of tool and ideological knowledge presented in the working process. From the participant discourses the following ideological knowledge emerged: public policies and the needs of the person ina street situation and tool knowledge, as well as devices and tools for the care of people in street situations and a weekly schedule. The focus on the working process discourse, supported by ideological knowledge, was verified. The structural dimension of the objective reality of the population in street situations was perceptible in the social determination of being situating on the street. When daily situations were revealed, the limitations to be overcome in the working process context were noticed. Identificar os saberes ideológicos e instrumentais que subsidiam o processo de trabalho do Consultório na Rua. Pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória. A coleta de dados foi realizada junto a 20 profissionais e seis usuários do Consultório na Rua de um município do sul do Brasil, por meio de entrevistas com roteiros semiestruturados distintos para cada categoria de participantes. As classes resultantes foram analisadas à luz dos saberes ideológicos e instrumentais presentes no processo de trabalho. Dos discursos dos participantes emergiram os saberes ideológicos: políticas públicas e necessidades da pessoa em situação de rua e os saberes instrumentais: dispositivos e instrumentos no cuidado à pessoa em situação de rua e agenda semanal. Constatou-se a centralidade dos discursos no processo de trabalho, sustentado pelos saberes ideológicos. A dimensão estrutural da realidade objetiva da população em

  16. An heuristic based practical tool for casting process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, N.K.; Smith, K.A.; Voller, V.R.; Haberle, K.F. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The work in this paper reports on an heuristic based computer tool directed at casting process design; in particular key design parameters, such as part orientation, location of sprues, feeding rates, etc. The underlying principal used is that a given casting can be represented on identifying and classifying its critical features. The input to the system consists of the attributes of the features and the graphical output provides semi-quantitative information on key design parameters. Results on real castings match those of the expert casting designers and in some cases potential design improvements have been suggested by the system.

  17. Process Improvement Through Tool Integration in Aero-Mechanical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Emerging capabilities in commercial design tools promise to significantly improve the multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary design and analysis coverage for aerospace mechanical engineers. This paper explores the analysis process for two example problems of a wing and flap mechanical drive system and an aircraft landing gear door panel. The examples begin with the design solid models and include various analysis disciplines such as structural stress and aerodynamic loads. Analytical methods include CFD, multi-body dynamics with flexible bodies and structural analysis. Elements of analysis data management, data visualization and collaboration are also included.

  18. Quantification of plasma DNA as a screening tool for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广顺; 侯爱荣; 李龙芸; 高燕宁; 程书钧

    2004-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that circulating DNA may be a potential tumor marker for lung cancer, but most of these studies are conducted between healthy controls and lung cancer patients, with few or no benign lung disease patients included. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of plasma DNA quantification in discriminating lung cancer from the healthy and benign lung disease.Results Plasma DNA values were significantly increased in lung cancer patients, especially in those with metastases, and in benign lung disease patients compared with that in the healthy individuals (P<0.001, respectively). The values in lung cancer patients were significantly increased compared with that in the benign lung disease patients (P<0.001). The area under the curve was 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.99] for the healthy versus lung cancer, 0.73 (95% CI 0.64-0.83) for lung cancer versus benign lung disease, and 0.86 (95% CI 0.80-0.91) for lung cancer versus the healthy and benign lung disease.Conclusions Plasma DNA quantification has a strong power to discriminate lung cancer from the healthy and from the healthy and benign lung disease, less power to discriminate lung cancer from benign lung disease. Plasma DNA quantification may be useful as a screening tool for lung cancer.

  19. Process Evaluation Tools for Enzymatic Cascades Welcome Message

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu, Rohana

    Biocatalysis is attracting significant attention from both academic and industrial scientists due to the excellent capability of enzyme to catalyse selective reactions. Recently, much interest has been shown in the application of enzymatic cascades as a useful tool in organic synthesis to synthes......Biocatalysis is attracting significant attention from both academic and industrial scientists due to the excellent capability of enzyme to catalyse selective reactions. Recently, much interest has been shown in the application of enzymatic cascades as a useful tool in organic synthesis...... improvement and implementation. Hence, the goal of this thesis is to evaluate the process concepts in enzymatic cascades in a systematic manner, using tools such as thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. Three relevant case studies have been used to exemplify the approach. In the first case study, thermodynamic...... the equilibrium positions in the main syntheses. In principle, this strategy could successfully achieve high conversion, using ammonia as the sole reagent used in excess to drive the conversion. The findings herein indicate that quantitatively the possibilities for improving the conversion of thermodynamically...

  20. Localized Overheating Phenomena and Optimization of Spark-Plasma Sintering Tooling Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darold G. Martin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper shows the application of a three-dimensional coupled electrical, thermal, mechanical finite element macro-scale modeling framework of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS to an actual problem of SPS tooling overheating, encountered during SPS experimentation. The overheating phenomenon is analyzed by varying the geometry of the tooling that exhibits the problem, namely by modeling various tooling configurations involving sequences of disk-shape spacers with step-wise increasing radii. The analysis is conducted by means of finite element simulations, intended to obtain temperature spatial distributions in the graphite press-forms, including punches, dies, and spacers; to identify the temperature peaks and their respective timing, and to propose a more suitable SPS tooling configuration with the avoidance of the overheating as a final aim. Electric currents-based Joule heating, heat transfer, mechanical conditions, and densification are imbedded in the model, utilizing the finite-element software COMSOL™, which possesses a distinguishing ability of coupling multiple physics. Thereby the implementation of a finite element method applicable to a broad range of SPS procedures is carried out, together with the more specific optimization of the SPS tooling design when dealing with excessive heating phenomena.

  1. Activation of mass transfer processes at spark plasma sintering of zirconium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarachkin, S. A.; Ivashutenko, A. S.; Martyushev, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the results of numerical simulation of thermal and electric fields' distribution in the graphite moulding tool and in the sintered sample of ZrO2-4%Y2O3 in the course of spark plasma sintering (SPS). The reduction of SPS duration is accounted for the largeness of specific thermal flux towards the sample surface, emitted by the graphite moulding tool. The impact of the electric field on the sample structure leads to emergence of the polarizing processes forcing zirconium ions to shift from lattice sites, which is able to reduce the required value of thermal energy necessary for initiation of a diffusion process. The axial pressure at high temperatures of sintering can lead to plastic deformation of the powder particles.

  2. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  3. Modeling as a tool for process control: alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayeb, A.M.; Ashour, I.A.; Mostafa, N.A. (El-Minia Univ. (EG). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    The results of the alcoholic fermentation of beet sugar molasses and wheat milling residues (Akalona) were fed into a computer program. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for these fermentation reactions were determined. These parameters were put into a kinetic model. Next, the model was tested, and the results obtained were compared with the experimental results of both beet molasses and Akalona. The deviation of the experimental results from the results obtained from the model was determined. An acceptable deviation of 1.2% for beet sugar molasses and 3.69% for Akalona was obtained. Thus, the present model could be a tool for chemical engineers working in fermentation processes both with respect to the control of the process and the design of the fermentor. (Author).

  4. Analysis of Requirement Engineering Processes, Tools/Techniques and Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tousif ur Rehman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Requirement engineering is an integral part of the software development lifecycle since the basis for developing successful software depends on comprehending its requirements in the first place. Requirement engineering involves a number of processes for gathering requirements in accordance with the needs and demands of users and stakeholders of the software product. In this paper, we have reviewed the prominent processes, tools and technologies used in the requirement gathering phase. The study is useful to perceive the current state of the affairs pertaining to the requirement engineering research and to understand the strengths and limitations of the existing requirement engineering techniques. The study also summarizes the best practices and how to use a blend of the requirement engineering techniques as an effective methodology to successfully conduct the requirement engineering task. The study also highlights the importance of security requirements as though they are part of the non-functional requirement, yet are naturally considered fundamental to secure software development.

  5. CONVERSION PRODUCT STRUCTURE AS TOOL TO INCREASE YIELD PROCESSING ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khorev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors' analysis of the performance of organizations, processing raw materials of agricultural origin, in particular, dealing with meat processing, identified the need to develop tools to increase their profitability. Unlike common approaches to assessing the profitability of the processing organizations, taking into account only the interests of the organization's leadership and buyers of products, the authors proposed and implemented a concept based on the interests of participants in the triune balance business activities: owners of capital, management organizations and consumers. As one of the tools for improving the yield of processing organizations are invited to transform their product mix of economic evaluations of profitability of each product line positions. Russian researchers income from product sales are traditionally measured by indicators such as net income, income from sales, profit margins and profitability level - in terms of return on sales. The disadvantage of using these indicators, according to the authors, is their lack of objectivity in the evaluation of the effectiveness of investment business owners. In this work was used unconventional and non-proliferation in the Russian practice, the rate of economic value added (EVA, a built - in system of profitability assortment positions. As indicators, the production of a particular product line units proposed and used two quantitative indicators - EVA level per unit of production and profitability of production (for EVA, as well as a quality parameter - the level of demand. Developed by the evaluation program transformation product structure represented as a matrix management capabilities, allowing to achieve a balance of interests of the triune main participants in business activity.

  6. Magnetic Reconnection: A Fundamental Process in Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For many years, collisionless magnetic reconnect ion has been recognized as a fundamental process, which facilitates plasma transport and energy release in systems ranging from the astrophysical plasmas to magnetospheres and even laboratory plasma. Beginning with work addressing solar dynamics, it has been understood that reconnection is essential to explain solar eruptions, the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere, and the dynamics of the magnetosphere. Accordingly, the process of magnetic reconnection has been and remains a prime target for space-based and laboratory studies, as well as for theoretical research. Much progress has been made throughout the years, beginning with indirect verifications by studies of processes enabled by reconnection, such as Coronal Mass Ejections, Flux Transfer Events, and Plasmoids. Theoretical advances have accompanied these observations, moving knowledge beyond the Sweet-Parker theory to the recognition that other, collisionless, effects are available and likely to support much faster reconnect ion rates. At the present time we are therefore near a break-through in our understanding of how collisionless reconnect ion works. Theory and modeling have advanced to the point that two competing theories are considered leading candidates for explaining the microphysics of this process. Both theories predict very small spatial and temporal scales. which are. to date, inaccessible to space-based or laboratory measurements. The need to understand magnetic reconnect ion has led NASA to begin the implementation of a tailored mission, Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS), a four spacecraft cluster equipped to resolve all relevant spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation, we present an overview of current knowledge as well as an outlook towards measurements provided by MMS.

  7. Review of relaxation oscillations in plasma processing discharges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhu-Wen; M.A.Lieberman; Sungjin Kim

    2007-01-01

    Relaxation oscillations due to plasma instabilities at frequencies ranging from a few Hz to tens of kHz have been observed in various types of plasma processing discharges.Relaxation oscillations have been observed in electropositive capacitive discharges between a powered anode and a metallic chamber whose periphery iS grounded through a slot with dielectric spacers.The oscillations of time-varying optical emission from the main discharge chamber show,for example,a high-frequency (~40 kHz) relaxation oscillation at 13.33Pa,with an absorbed power being nearly the peripheral breakdown power,and a low-frequency (~3 Hz) oscillation,with an even higher absorbed power.The high-frequency oscillation is found to ignite plasma in the slot,but usually not in the peripheral chamber.The kilohertz oscillations are modelled using an electromagnetic model of the slot impedance,coupled to a circuit analysis of the system including the matching network.The model results are in general agreement with the experimental observations,and indicate a variety of behaviours dependent on the matching conditions.In low-pressure inductive discharges,oscillations appear in the transition between low-density capacitively driven and high-density inductively driven discharges when attaching gases such as SF6 and Ar/SF6 mixtures are used.Oscillations of charged particles,plasma potential,and light,at frequencies ranging from a few Hz to tens of kHz,are seen for gas pressures between 0.133 Pa and 13.33 Pa and discharge powers in a range of 75-1200 W.The region of instability increases as the plasma becomes more electronegative,and the frequency of plasma oscillation increases as the power,pressure,and gas flow rate increase.A volume-averaged (global) model of the kilohertz instability has been developed;the results obtained from the model agree well with the experimental observations.

  8. Plasma aided coal gasification and the variables in this process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, X.; Lu, Y.; Zhu, S. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2005-12-15

    In order to investigate the characters of plasma aided coal gasification in the industry-scale equipment, the tests with changing feeding rate, steam output pressure, feeding gas flux, input power of plasma generator and the additives were carried out with Datong coal. The produced gas components were analyzed by gas chromatography. And the optimal process conditions, such as, the feeding rate of 150 g/min, the feeding gas flow of 18 m{sup 3}/h, the output power of plasma generator of 100 kW, the steam output pressure of 0.3 MPa are obtained. When the contents of CaO and CaCO{sub 3} in the whole feed are 10 and 5% respectively, the experimental data show their catalytic effect is the best. Considering the molar mass of CaO and CaCO{sub 3}, it is concluded that the catalytic effect of CaO is more important than the reduction of CO{sub 2} in the gasification. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Electron-silane scattering cross section for plasma assisted processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pankaj; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2017-03-01

    Silane is an important molecule with numerous applications to natural and technological plasmas. In such environments, where plasma assisted processes are vital, electron induced reactions play a major role in its chemistry. In view of this, electron induced scattering of molecules such as silane finds significance. This article reports a comprehensive study of electron impact cross sections for silane over a wide energy range. In particular, the emphasis is given in providing a complete dataset for various electron scattering events possible with silane. Such dataset is the need for the plasma modeling community. Moreover, literature survey shows that the cross section database for silane is fragmentary. To fill this void, we have computed the differential elastic, total, rotational excitation, and momentum transfer cross sections. Two formalisms that are reliable in their energy domain are employed to accomplish the task: the R-matrix method through QUANTEMOL-N at low incident energies and the spherical complex optical potential formalism at intermediate to high energies. Interestingly, the comparison of the present cross section exhibits a good concurrence with the previous data, wherever available.

  10. Basic features of low-temperature plasma formation in the course of composite coating synthesis at the active faces of complex contoured hard tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzhozovsky, B. M.; Zimnyakov, D. A.; Zinina, E. P.; Martynov, V. V.; Pleshakova, E. S.; Yuvchenko, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Basic features of combined-discharge low-temperature plasma formation around the surfaces of complex-contoured metal units are considered. It is shown that it makes the possibilities for synthesis of hardened high-durable coatings of hard tools appropriate for material processing in extreme load-temperature conditions. Experimental study of the coating formation was carried out in combination with the analysis of emission spectra of a low-temperature plasma cloud. Some practical examples of the coating applications are presented.

  11. Speed optimized influence matrix processing in inverse treatment planning tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhein, Peter; Wilkens, Jan J; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ludwig, Thomas [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Computer Science, Research Group Parallel and Distributed Systems, Im Neuenheimer Feld 348, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: p.ziegenhein@dkfz.de, E-mail: u.oelfke@dkfz.de

    2008-05-07

    An optimal plan in modern treatment planning tools is found through the use of an iterative optimization algorithm, which deals with a high amount of patient-related data and number of treatment parameters to be optimized. Thus, calculating a good plan is a very time-consuming process which limits the application for patients in clinics and for research activities aiming for more accuracy. A common technique to handle the vast amount of radiation dose data is the concept of the influence matrix (DIJ), which stores the dose contribution of each bixel to the patient in the main memory of the computer. This study revealed that a bottleneck for the optimization time arises from the data transfer of the dose data between the memory and the CPU. In this note, we introduce a new method which speeds up the data transportation from stored dose data to the CPU. As an example we used the DIJ approach as is implemented in our treatment planning tool KonRad, developed at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. A data cycle reordering method is proposed to take the advantage of modern memory hardware. This induces a minimal eviction policy which results in a memory behaviour exhibiting a 2.6 times faster algorithm compared to the naive implementation. Although our method is described for the DIJ approach implemented in KonRad, we believe that any other planning tool which uses a similar approach to store the dose data will also benefit from the described methods. (note)

  12. Investigation of the electron capture process in semiclassical plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seisembayeva Madina M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the process of electron capture in partially ionized plasma is considered. Electron-atom interaction was described by the effective interaction potential, which takes into account the screening effect at large distances and the diffraction effect at the small distances. The results of numerical calculations of the electron capture radius, differential cross-section for different values of the coupling and density parameters are presented. The differential cross-section was obtained on the basis of perturbation theory and also by solving of the equation of motion of the projectile electron.

  13. Scattering processes and electrical conductivity of partially ionized hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, T. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); SRIETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole bi, 96a, 480012, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Galiyev, K.; Dzhumagulova, K.N. [SRIETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole bi, 96a, 480012, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Roepke, G.; Redmer, R. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    We consider partially ionized hydrogen plasma for the density region n{sub e} = (10{sup 18} / 10{sup 22}) cm{sup -} {sup 3}. The cross sections for scattering processes between the particles are calculated within the partial wave method. Charged particles in the system (electrons, protons) interact via an effective potential that takes into account three-particle correlations. The Buckingham polarization potential is used to describe electron-atom and proton-atom interactions. The electrical conductivity is determined using the Chapman-Enskog method. The results are compared with other available data. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Linear Analysis Tools for Edge and Scrape-off-Layer Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myra, J R; Umansky, M

    2008-05-20

    The edge and scrape-off-layer region of a tokamak plasma is subject to well-known ideal and resistive instabilities that are driven by various curvature- and sheath-related mechanisms. While the boundary plasma is typically strongly turbulent in experiments, it is useful to have computational tools that can analyze the linear eigenmode structure, predict quantitative trends in growth rates and elucidate the underlying drive mechanisms. Furthermore, measurement of the linear growth rate of unstable modes emerging from a known, established equilibrium configuration is one of the few methods that can provide rigorous quantitative benchmarking of plasma turbulence codes. Because the tokamak edge physics community is becoming increasingly reliant on large-scale-simulation, rigorous verification and validation (V&V) of edge codes is critical. In this paper, we describe a suite of codes that can describe linearized, nonlocal (e.g. separatrix-spanning) modes in axisymmetric (realistic divertor), toroidal geometry. Results of benchmark comparisons are given for these codes, with each other and with analytical results. The inclusion of kinetic physics effects in 2DX is also discussed.

  15. JADOPPT: java based AutoDock preparing and processing tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Carlos; Peláez, Rafael; Therón, Roberto; Luis López-Pérez, José

    2017-02-15

    AutoDock is a very popular software package for docking and virtual screening. However, currently it is hard work to visualize more than one result from the virtual screening at a time. To overcome this limitation we have designed JADOPPT, a tool for automatically preparing and processing multiple ligand-protein docked poses obtained from AutoDock. It allows the simultaneous visual assessment and comparison of multiple poses through clustering methods. Moreover, it permits the representation of reference ligands with known binding modes, binding site residues, highly scoring regions for the ligand, and the calculated binding energy of the best ranked results. JADOPPT, supplementary material (Case Studies 1 and 2) and video tutorials are available at http://visualanalytics.land/cgarcia/JADOPPT.html. carlosgarcia@usal.es or pelaez@usal.es. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Processing tools refinement for the JIRAM arrival to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriconi, Maria L.; Noschese, R.; Adriani, A.

    2017-05-01

    The JUNO mission, launched on August 2011 with the goal of investigating the origin and evolution of Jupiter, reached Jupiter in July 2016. The months preceding the JUNO orbit insertion have been crucial for all the instrument teams to check the status and working abilities of the respective experiments. JIRAM (Jupiter Infrared Auroral Mapper), with its imager and slit spectrometer operating over the 2-5μm spectral range will attempt to reveal the deep atmospheric composition -3 to 7 bars- in hot spots, to analyze the infrared auroral emissions of the H3 + molecules ionized by the Jovian magnetosphere currents and to detect the morphology and vertical structure of the clouds. Many different processing tools are in preparation to exploit the incoming JIRAM data. Here some results pertaining to the image quality optimization and the visualizations that can be obtained from the spectrometer data management are reported.

  17. fMRI paradigm designing and post-processing tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jija S James

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we first review some aspects of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm designing for major cognitive functions by using stimulus delivery systems like Cogent, E-Prime, Presentation, etc., along with their technical aspects. We also review the stimulus presentation possibilities (block, event-related for visual or auditory paradigms and their advantage in both clinical and research setting. The second part mainly focus on various fMRI data post-processing tools such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM and Brain Voyager, and discuss the particulars of various preprocessing steps involved (realignment, co-registration, normalization, smoothing in these software and also the statistical analysis principles of General Linear Modeling for final interpretation of a functional activation result.

  18. Monitoring and Improving the Reliability of Plasma Spray Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, Georg; Rauwald, Karl-Heinz; Mücke, Robert; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Monitoring and improving of process reliability are prevalent issues in thermal spray technology. They are intended to accomplish specific quality characteristics by controlling the process. For this, implicit approaches are in demand to rapidly conclude on relevant coating properties, i.e., they are not directly measured, but it is assumed that the monitored variables are in fact suggestive for them. Such monitoring can be performed in situ (during the running process) instead of measuring coating characteristics explicitly (directly) and ex situ (after the process). Implicit approaches can be based on extrinsic variables (set from outside) as well as on intrinsic parameters (internal, not directly adjustable) having specific advantages and disadvantages, each. In this work, the effects of atmospheric plasma spray process variables are systemized in process schemes. On this basis, different approaches to contribute to improved process reliability are described and assessed paying particular attention to in-flight particle diagnostics. Finally, a new test applying spray bead analysis is introduced and first results are presented.

  19. Effect of impurities on kinetic transport processes in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Stefanie

    2010-12-10

    Within the framework of this thesis, different problems arising in connection with impurities have been investigated. Collisional damping of zonal flows in tokamaks: Since the Coulomb collision frequency increases with increasing ion charge, heavy, highly charged impurities play an important role in this process. The effect of such impurities on the linear response of the plasma to an external potential perturbation, as caused by zonal flows, is calculated with analytical methods. In comparison with a pure plasma, the damping of the flows occurs, as expected, considerably faster; for experimentally relevant parameters, the enhancement exceeds the effective charge Z{sub eff} of the plasma. Impurity transport driven by microturbulence in tokamaks: With regard to impurities, it is especially important whether the resulting flows are directed inwards or outwards, since they are deleterious for core energy confinement on the one hand, but on the other hand help protecting plasma-facing components from too high energy fluxes in the edge region. A semi-analytical model is presented describing the resulting impurity fluxes and the stability boundary of the underlying mode. The main goal is to bridge the gap between, on the one hand, costly numerical simulations, which are applicable to a broad range of problems but yield scarcely traceable results, and, on the other hand, analytical theory, which might ease the interpretation of the results but is so far rather rudimentary. The model is based on analytical formulae whenever possible but resorts to a numerical treatment when the approximations necessary for an analytical solution would lead to a substantial distortion of the results. Both the direction of the impurity flux and the stability boundary are found to depend sensitively on the plasma parameters such as the impurity density and the temperature gradient. Pfirsch-Schlueter transport in stellarators: Due to geometry effects, collisional transport plays a much more

  20. REALIZING BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT BY HELP OF A PROCESS MAPPING DATABASE TOOL

    CERN Document Server

    Vergili, Ceren

    2016-01-01

    In a typical business sector, processes are the building blocks of the achievement. A considerable percentage of the processes are consisting of business processes. This fact is bringing the fact that business sectors are in need of a management discipline. Business Process Management (BPM) is a discipline that combines modelling, automation, execution, control, measurement, and optimization of process by considering enterprise goals, spanning systems, employees, customers, and partners. CERN’s EN – HE – HM section desires to apply the BPM discipline appropriately for improving their necessary technical, administrative and managerial actions to supply appropriate CERN industrial transport, handling and lifting equipment and to maintain it. For this reason, a Process Mapping Database Tool is created to develop a common understanding about how the section members can visualize their processes, agree on quality standards and on how to improve. It provides a management support by establishing Process Charts...

  1. Form control in atmospheric pressure plasma processing of ground fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Wang, Bo; Xin, Qiang; Jin, Huiliang; Wang, Jun; Dong, Wenxia

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Processing (APPP) using inductively coupled plasma has demonstrated that it can achieve comparable removal rate on the optical surface of fused silica under the atmosphere pressure and has the advantage of inducing no sub-surface damage for its non-contact and chemical etching mechanism. APPP technology is a cost effective way, compared with traditional mechanical polishing, magnetorheological finishing and ion beam figuring. Thus, due to these advantages, this technology is being tested to fabricate large aperture optics of fused silica to help shorten the polishing time in optics fabrication chain. Now our group proposes to use inductively coupled plasma processing technology to fabricate ground surface of fused silica directly after the grinding stage. In this paper, form control method and several processing parameters are investigated to evaluate the removal efficiency and the surface quality, including the robustness of removal function, velocity control mode and tool path strategy. However, because of the high heat flux of inductively coupled plasma, the removal depth with time can be non-linear and the ground surface evolvement will be affected. The heat polishing phenomenon is founded. The value of surface roughness is reduced greatly, which is very helpful to reduce the time of follow-up mechanical polishing. Finally, conformal and deterministic polishing experiments are analyzed and discussed. The form error is less 3%, before and after the APPP, when 10μm depth of uniform removal is achieved on a 60×60mm ground fused silica. Also, a basin feature is fabricated to demonstrate the figuring capability and stability. Thus, APPP is a promising technology in processing the large aperture optics.

  2. Processing of bulk Al7075 alloy by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málek, P.; Molnárová, O.; Cinert, J.; Lukáč, F.; Chráska, T.

    2017-02-01

    The main advantages of powder metallurgy processing route are the possibility to produce near-net-shape compacts and to minimize the finish machining and material loss. The main problem in particle consolidation process is to suppress porosity, to remove oxide layers, and to retain the microstructure of powder materials. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) combines concurrent uniaxial pressure and direct heating by a pulsed DC current. Sintering occurs at relatively low temperatures for a short time and does not influence significantly the microstructure in the interiors of original powder particles. The efficiency of SPS in producing compacts with low porosity might be dependent on the distribution of particle size in original powder material. The gas atomized Al7075 powder was sieved to several charges and then sintered by SPS. Microstructure of sintered compacts was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The phase composition was investigated using X-ray diffraction. The mechanical behaviour was tested by bending tests.

  3. Dusty plasma processes in Earth's polar summer mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, S. I.; Dubinsky, A. Yu.; Dubinsky

    2013-08-01

    A self-consistent model for the description of dusty plasma structures, such as noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE), which are frequently grouped together under the common term polar mesospheric clouds, is presented. The model takes into account the processes of condensation of water vapor, ionization, recombination, action of solar radiation, sedimentation, dust particle growth, dust particle charging, electric fields, etc. Using the model, we explain the basic data of observations on the behavior of charged component in polar summer mesosphere. Furthermore, we show the influence of initial distributions of fine particles as well as that of the processes of condensation and water molecule absorption by fine particles on the formation of NLC and PMSE. We also illustrate the possibility of the formation of layered structure and sharp boundaries of NLC.

  4. Plasma switch as a temporal overlap tool for pump-probe experiments at FEL facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, M.; Murphy, C. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Cammarata, M.; Döppner, T.; Düsterer, S.; Fritz, D.; Förster, E.; Galtier, E.; Gaudin, J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Göde, S.; Gregori, G.; Hilbert, V.; Hochhaus, D.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Lemke, H.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.; Moinard, A.; Neumayer, P.; Przystawik, A.; Redlin, H.; Schulz, M.; Skruszewicz, S.; Tavella, F.; Tschentscher, T.; White, T.; Zastrau, U.; Toleikis, S.

    2012-08-01

    We have developed an easy-to-use and reliable timing tool to determine the arrival time of an optical laser and a free electron laser (FEL) pulses within the jitter limitation. This timing tool can be used from XUV to X-rays and exploits high FELs intensities. It uses a shadowgraph technique where we optically (at 800 nm) image a plasma created by an intense XUV or X-ray FEL pulse on a transparent sample (glass slide) directly placed at the pump - probe sample position. It is based on the physical principle that the optical properties of the material are drastically changed when its free electron density reaches the critical density. At this point the excited glass sample becomes opaque to the optical laser pulse. The ultra-short and intense XUV or X-ray FEL pulse ensures that a critical electron density can be reached via photoionization and subsequent collisional ionization within the XUV or X-ray FEL pulse duration or even faster. This technique allows to determine the relative arrival time between the optical laser and the FEL pulses in only few single shots with an accuracy mainly limited by the optical laser pulse duration and the jitter between the FEL and the optical laser. Considering the major interest in pump-probe experiments at FEL facilities in general, such a femtosecond resolution timing tool is of utmost importance.

  5. Systematic Development of Miniaturized (Bio)Processes using Process Systems Engineering (PSE) Methods and Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich; Larsson, Hilde; Heintz, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this work is on process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools, and especially on how such PSE methods and tools can be used to accelerate and support systematic bioprocess development at a miniature scale. After a short presentation of the PSE methods and the bioprocess...... of substrate and product, which is otherwise difficult to access. In the last example, a new approach to the design of microbioreactor layouts using topology optimization is presented and discussed. Finally, the PSE methods are carefully discussed with respect to the complexity of the presented approaches...

  6. Development of Numerical Tools for the Investigation of Plasma Detachment from Magnetic Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Kamesh; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    A multidimensional numerical simulation framework aimed at investigating the process of plasma detachment from a magnetic nozzle is introduced. An existing numerical code based on a magnetohydrodynamic formulation of the plasma flow equations that accounts for various dispersive and dissipative processes in plasmas was significantly enhanced to allow for the modeling of axisymmetric domains containing three.dimensiunai momentum and magnetic flux vectors. A separate magnetostatic solver was used to simulate the applied magnetic field topologies found in various nozzle experiments. Numerical results from a magnetic diffusion test problem in which all three components of the magnetic field were present exhibit excellent quantitative agreement with the analytical solution, and the lack of numerical instabilities due to fluctuations in the value of del(raised dot)B indicate that the conservative MHD framework with dissipative effects is well-suited for multi-dimensional analysis of magnetic nozzles. Further studies will focus on modeling literature experiments both for the purpose of code validation and to extract physical insight regarding the mechanisms driving detachment.

  7. Analysis of suprathermal nuclear processes in the solar core plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronchev, Victor T.; Nakao, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Yukinobu

    2017-04-01

    A consistent model for the description of suprathermal processes in the solar core plasma naturally triggered by fast particles generated in exoergic nuclear reactions is formulated. This model, based on the formalism of in-flight reaction probability, operates with different methods of treating particle slow-down in the plasma, and allows for the influence of electron degeneracy and electron screening on processes in the matter. The model is applied to examine slowing-down of 8.7 MeV α-particles produced in the {}7{Li}(p,α )α reaction of the pp chain, and to analyze suprathermal processes in the solar CNO cycle induced by them. Particular attention is paid to the suprathermal {}14{{N}}{(α ,{{p}})}17{{O}} reaction unappreciated in standard solar model simulations. It is found that an appreciable non-standard (α ,p) nuclear flow due to this reaction appears in the matter and modifies running of the CNO cycle in ∼95% of the solar core region. In this region at R> 0.1{R}ȯ , normal branching of nuclear flow {}14{{N}}≤ftarrow {}17{{O}}\\to {(}18{{F}})\\to {}18{{O}} transforms to abnormal sequential flow {}14{{N}}\\to {}17{{O}}\\to {(}18{{F}})\\to {}18{{O}}, altering some element abundances. In particular, nuclear network calculations reveal that in the outer core the abundances of 17O and 18O isotopes can increase by a factor of 20 as compared with standard estimates. A conjecture is made that other CNO suprathermal (α ,p) reactions may also affect abundances of CNO elements, including those generating solar neutrinos.

  8. Rapid process development of chromatographic process using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry as a process analytical technology tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Binjun; Chen, Teng; Xu, Zhilin; Qu, Haibin

    2014-06-01

    The concept of quality by design (QbD) is widely applied in the process development of pharmaceuticals. However, the additional cost and time have caused some resistance about QbD implementation. To show a possible solution, this work proposed a rapid process development method, which used direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for studying the chromatographic process of Ginkgo biloba L., as an example. The breakthrough curves were fast determined by DART-MS at-line. A high correlation coefficient of 0.9520 was found between the concentrations of ginkgolide A determined by DART-MS and HPLC. Based on the PAT tool, the impacts of process parameters on the adsorption capacity were discovered rapidly, which showed a decreased adsorption capacity with the increase of the flow rate. This work has shown the feasibility and advantages of integrating PAT into QbD implementation for rapid process development.

  9. Secondary electron emission from plasma processed accelerating cavity grade niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basovic, Milos

    by different techniques. Specifically, this work provides the results of SEY from the plasma cleaned cavity grade niobium (Nb) samples. Pure niobium is currently the material of choice for the fabrication of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities. The effect of plasma processing with two different gases will be examined in two groups of samples. The first group of samples is made from cavity grade niobium. The second group of samples is made from the same material, but include a welded joint made by electron beam welding, since in niobium SRF cavities the peak electric and magnetic field are seen in close proximity to the welded joints. Both groups of samples will be exposed to nitrogen (N2) and a mixture of argon with oxygen (Ar/O2) plasma. It is the goal of this research to determine the SEY on these two groups of samples before and after plasma processing as a function of the energy of primary electrons. The SEY as a function of the angle of incidence of the primary electrons is tested on the samples treated with Ar/O2 plasma.

  10. Secondary Electron Emission from Plasma Processed Accelerating Cavity Grade Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basovic, Milos [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    by different techniques. Specifically, this work provides the results of SEY from the plasma cleaned cavity grade niobium (Nb) samples. Pure niobium is currently the material of choice for the fabrication of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities. The effect of plasma processing with two different gases will be examined in two groups of samples. The first group of samples is made from cavity grade niobium. The second group of samples is made from the same material, but include a welded joint made by electron beam welding, since in niobium SRF cavities the peak electric and magnetic field are seen in close proximity to the welded joints. Both groups of samples will be exposed to nitrogen (N2) and a mixture of argon with oxygen (Ar/O2) plasma. It is the goal of this research to determine the SEY on these two groups of samples before and after plasma processing as a function of the energy of primary electrons. The SEY as a function of the angle of incidence of the primary electrons is tested on the samples treated with Ar/O2 plasma.

  11. Eletroforese capilar acoplada à espectrometria com plasma: uma ferramenta eficiente para a especiação Capillary electrophoresis coupled to plasma spectrometry: an efficient tool for speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula G. Gervasio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important features of the CE-ICP hyphenation, as well as its advantages and drawbacks as a tool for speciation are discussed. The fundamental principles of capillary electrophoresis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are also presented. Some applications involving different designs proposed in the literature to couple CE and ICP system for elemental speciation are reviewed.

  12. Spatial control of processing plasmas in a multicusp plasma source equipped with a movable magnetic filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, O.; Naitou, H.; Sakiyama, S. (Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan))

    1991-12-20

    The plasma chemical vapor deposition (p-CVD) method has been used in the preparation of various sorts of thin films such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and hydrogenated amorphous carbon films, etc. and the application feasibility of a magnetically filtered multicusp plasma source has been studied. In this paper, it is confirmed that plasma parameters (H {sub 2} - ch {sub 4} or Ar-CH {sub 4} plasmas) are spatially well controlled by using both a movable magnetic filter and a plasma grid. Plasma parameters change sharply across the magnetic filter at any filter position and the whole plasma is divided clearly into the region of source plasma with high-energy electrons and the region of diffused plasma without high-energy electrons. Concerning the role of the magnetic filter which reflects preferentially high-energy electrons, a study is made through computer simulation. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  13. ["Veille sanitaire": tools, functions, process of healthcare monitoring in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilstein, D; Salines, G; Desenclos, J-C

    2012-10-01

    In France, the term "veille sanitaire" is widely used to designate healthcare monitoring. It contains, however, a set of concepts that are not shared equally by the entire scientific community. The same is true for activities that are part of it, even if some (surveillance for example) are already well defined. Concepts such as "observation", "vigilance", "alert" for example are not always clear. Furthermore, the use of these words in everyday language maintains this ambiguity. Thus, it seemed necessary to recall these definitions as already used in the literature or legislation texts and to make alternative suggestions. This formalization cannot be carried out without thinking about the structure of "veille sanitaire" and its components. Proposals are provided bringing out concepts of formated "veille" (monitoring) and non-formatted "veille" (monitoring). Definitions, functions, (methods and tools, processes) of these two components are outlined here as well as the cooperative relationship they sustain. The authors have attempted to provide the scientific community with a reference framework useful for exchanging information to promote research and methodological development dedicated to this public health application of epidemiology.

  14. Catalyst materials based on plasma-processed alumina nanopowder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubencovs Konstantins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A platinum catalyst for glycerol oxidation by molecular oxygen has been developed applying the extractive-pyrolytic method and using, as a support, a fine alumina powder with an average particle size of 30-60 nm processed by plasma technology. The extractive-pyrolytic method (EPM allows affixing small amounts of catalytic metals (1-5% with the particle size ranging from several nanometers to several tens of nanometers onto the surface of the support. The prepared material - 4.8 wt. % platinum on nano-sized alumina - can be used as a catalyst for glycerol oxidation by oxygen with conversion up to 84%, in order to produce some organic acids (glyceric and lactic acid with a selectivity of about 60%.

  15. Conversion of Rapid Prototyping Models into Metallic Tools by Ceramic Moulding—an Indirect Rapid Tooling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teresa; P; DUARTE; J; M; FERREIRA; F; Jorge; LINO; A; BARBEDO; Rui; NETO

    2002-01-01

    A process to convert models made by rapid prototypi ng techniques like SL (stereolitography) and LOM (laminated object manufacturing) or by conventional techniques (silicones, resins, wax, etc.) into metallic mould s or tools has been developed. The main purpose of this technique is to rapidly obtain the first prototypes of parts, for plastics injection, forging or any oth er manufacturing process using the tools produced by casting a metal into a cera mic mould. Briefly, it can be said that the ceramic...

  16. Software tools overview : process integration, modelling and optimisation for energy saving and pollution reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Hon Loong; Klemeš, Jiri; Kravanja, Zdravko; Varbanov, Petar

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of software tools based on long experience andapplications in the area of process integration, modelling and optimisation. The first part reviews the current design practice and the development of supporting software tools. Those are categorised as: (1) process integration and retrofit analysis tools, (2) general mathematical modelling suites with optimisation libraries, (3) flowsheeting simulation and (4) graph-based process optimisation tools. The second part...

  17. Investigation of four classical groove patterns with three typical tool types for use in the rigid tool smoothing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsing-Yu; Meng, Kai

    2016-07-01

    When a surface experiencing robotic processing to improve its optical performance (such as removing mid-spatial frequencies, localized grinding errors, and regional surface scratches), spindle speed, tool travel speed, pressure, slurry density as well as groove patterns are main factors to influence surface finishes. Based on the desired material removal rate, the Preston equation can provide optimized pressures and velocities between the tool and processed surface. Various groove patterns, however, can hardly predict by the equation because different patterns can cause unique tool deformation and pressure distribution, leading to determine unique smoothing result. In this paper, four typical groove patterns are studied: non-groove, grid grove, annular groove and radial groove with three typical tool types are evaluated by Finite Element Method (FEM) and statistics. Characteristics of these tools and groove patterns are presented in the end of this paper.

  18. Ni/Al Intermetallics Plasma Transferred Arc Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VeronicaA.B.Almeida; AnaSofiaC.M.D'Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    In-situ alloy development during surface processing allows for a limitless materials selection to protect components exposed to severe service conditions. In fact surface alloying offers the possibility to strengthen surface components with alloys that would not be possible to process otherwise. This work used Plasma transferred arc (PTA) hardfacing for surface alloying. Different amounts of aluminium powder, 5-25%, were added to a Ni based superalloy, from Hastealloy C family, in the atomized form. The mixture was homogeneized in a ball mill and PTA deposited on carbon steel substrate. The influence of different processing parameters on the final surface alloy was evaluated as current intensity and depositing velocity were varied. Coatings were characterized by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers microhardness profiles, under a 500g load. Results showed that PTA hardfacing is an adequate surface alloying. For the conditions tested increasing hardness was obtained by solid solution for the lower amounts of Al added and due to the new intermetallic phases for the richer Al mixture.

  19. Ni/Al Intermetallics Plasma Transferred Arc Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ver(o)nica A. B. Almeida; Ana Sofia C. M. D'Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    In-situ alloy development during surface processing allows for a limitless materials selection to protect components exposed to severe service conditions. In fact surface alloying offers the possibility to strengthen surface components with alloys that would not be possible to process otherwise. This work used Plasma transferred arc (PTA) hardfacing for surface alloying. Different amounts of aluminium powder, 5-25%, were added to a Ni based superalloy, from Hastealloy C family, in the atomized form. The mixture was homogeneized in a ball mill and PTA deposited on carbon steel substrate. The influence of different processing parameters on the final surface alloy was evaluated as current intensity and depositing velocity were varied. Coatings were characterized by optical and scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers microhardness profiles, under a 500g load. Results showed that PTA hardfacing is an adequate surface alloying. For the conditions tested increasing hardness was obtained by solid solution for the lower amounts of Al added and due to the new intermetallic phases for the richer Al mixture.

  20. Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Dallas

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

  1. An Educational Tool for Interactive Parallel and Distributed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2011-01-01

    , connectivity, topology, island modeling, user and multiuser interaction, which can hardly be found in other tools. Finally, we introduce the system of modular interactive tiles as a tool for easy, fast, and flexible hands-on exploration of these issues, and through examples show how to implement interactive...

  2. Role of Graphics Tools in the Learning Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisney, Patrice; Brandt-Pomares, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the design activities of students in secondary school in France. Graphics tools are now part of the capacity of design professionals. It is therefore apt to reflect on their integration into the technological education. Has the use of intermediate graphical tools changed students' performance, and if so in what direction, in…

  3. Integration of life cycle assessment software with tools for economic and sustainability analyses and process simulation for sustainable process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Malakul, Pomthong; Siemanond, Kitipat

    2014-01-01

    The sustainable future of the world challenges engineers to develop chemical process designs that are not only technically and economically feasible but also environmental friendly. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for identifying and quantifying environmental impacts of the chemical product....... Although there are several commercial LCA tools, there is still a need for a simple LCA software that can be integrated with process design tools. In this paper, a new LCA software, LCSoft, is developed for evaluation of chemical, petrochemical, and biochemical processes with options for integration...... with other process design tools such as sustainable design (SustainPro), economic analysis (ECON) and process simulation. The software framework contains four main tools: Tool-I is for life cycle inventory (LCI) knowledge management that enables easy maintenance and future expansion of the LCI database; Tool...

  4. A method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, a nano-imprint process, or an extrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, nano-imprint process or an extrusion process. First, there is provided a master structure (10) with a surface area comprising nanometre-sized protrusions (11) with a ......The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, nano-imprint process or an extrusion process. First, there is provided a master structure (10) with a surface area comprising nanometre-sized protrusions (11...

  5. Human Decision Processes: Implications for SSA Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciano, P.

    2013-09-01

    Despite significant advances in computing power and artificial intelligence (AI), few critical decisions are made without a human decision maker in the loop. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) missions are both critical and complex, typically adhering to the human-in-the-loop (HITL) model. The collection of human operators injects a needed diversity of expert knowledge, experience, and authority required to successfully fulfill SSA tasking. A wealth of literature on human decision making exists citing myriad empirical studies and offering a varied set of prescriptive and descriptive models of judgment and decision making (Hastie & Dawes, 2001; Baron, 2000). Many findings have been proven sufficiently robust to allow information architects or system/interface designers to take action to improve decision processes. For the purpose of discussion, these concepts are bifurcated in two groups: 1) vulnerabilities to mitigate, and 2) capabilities to augment. These vulnerabilities and capabilities refer specifically to the decision process and should not be confused with a shortcoming or skill of a specific human operator. Thus the framing of questions and orders, the automated tools with which to collaborate, priming and contextual data, and the delivery of information all play a critical role in human judgment and choice. Evaluating the merits of any decision can be elusive; in order to constrain this discussion, ‘rational choice' will tend toward the economic model characteristics such as maximizing utility and selection consistency (e.g., if A preferred to B, and B preferred to C, than A should be preferred to C). Simple decision models often encourage one to list the pros and cons of a decision, perhaps use a weighting schema, but one way or another weigh the future benefit (or harm) of making a selection. The result (sought by the rationalist models) should drive toward higher utility. Despite notable differences in researchers' theses (to be discussed in the full

  6. Development of Tools and Techniques for Processing STORRM Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shane; D'Souza, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    While at JSC for the summer of 2011, I was assigned to work on the sensor test for Orion relative-navigation risk mitigation (STORRM) development test objective (DTO). The STORRM DTO was flown on-board Endeavor during STS-134. The objective of the STORRM DTO is to test the visual navigation system (VNS), which will be used as the primary relative navigation sensor for the Orion spacecraft. The VNS is a flash lidar system intended to provide both line of sight and range information during rendezvous and proximity operations. The STORRM DTO also serves as a testbed for the high-resolution docking camera. This docking camera will be used to provide piloting cues for the crew during proximity operations. These instruments were mounted next to the trajectory control sensor (TCS) in Endeavour s payload bay. My principle objective for the summer was to generate a best estimated trajectory (BET) for Endeavor using the flight data collected by the VNS during rendezvous and the unprecedented re-rendezvous with the ISS. I processed the raw images from the VNS to produce range and bearing measurements. I then aggregated these measurements and extracted the measurements corresponding to individual reflectors. I combined the information contained in these measurements with data from the Endeavour's inertial sensors using Kalman smoothing techniques to ultimately produce a BET. This work culminated with a final presentation of the result to division management. Development of this tool required that traditional linear smoothing techniques be modified in a novel fashion to permit for the inclusion of non-linear measurements. This internship has greatly helped me further my career by providing exposure to real engineering projects. I also have benefited immensely from the mentorship of the engineers working on these projects. Many of the lessons I learned and experiences I had are of particular value because then can only be found in a place like JSC.

  7. TMS as a Tool for Examining Cognitive Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevler, Naomi; Ash, Elissa L

    2015-08-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method where an externally placed, rapidly changing magnetic field causes induction of weak electric currents that lead to changes in neuronal polarization and activity. TMS is a modality that has emerged as a unique tool in the study of functional neuroscience for several reasons. TMS can be used to selectively activate or inhibit specific cortical structures, leading to transient perturbations in their function. Systematic study of these perturbations has been employed to determine the function of specific cortical structures and to investigate structure-function relationships. These studies extend to the functional mapping of brain structures as well as brain networks. While TMS was first validated in studies of motor cortex function, it has been applied to the study of cognition and cognitive processing. "Virtual lesions" can be transiently induced in areas of eloquent cortex that allow for the evaluation of their function in cognition and behavior and can be used to evaluate the modes and hierarchy of control of these functions. When TMS is delivered in a repetitive fashion, long-term alterations of cortical function are induced which can be used to study functional brain plasticity, and the changes in brain plasticity in different cognitive states, including aging and diseases involving cognition. Furthermore, repetitive TMS strategies have been developed as possible modulators of cognitive function, with potential to serve as cognitive enhancers in both healthy and disease states. In this review, specific attention is given to the use of TMS in the evaluation of neurophysiologic changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as the potential role of TMS as a cognitive enhancing therapy in AD.

  8. Manufacture of functional surfaces through combined application of tool manufacturing processes and Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Arentoft, Mogens; Grønbæk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tool surface topography is often a key parameter in the tribological performance of modern metal forming tools. A new generation of multifunctional surfaces is achieved by combination of conventional tool manufacturing processes with a novel Robot Assisted Polishing process. This novel surface...

  9. Production of stable isotopes utilizing the plasma separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, T. S.; Tarallo, F. J.; Stevenson, N. R.

    2005-12-01

    A plasma separation process (PSP) is being operated at Theragenics Corporation's®, Oak Ridge, TN, facility for the enrichment of stable isotopes. The PSP utilizes ion cyclotron mass discrimination to separate isotopes on a relatively large scale. With a few exceptions, nearly any metallic element could be processed with PSP. Output isotope enrichment factor depends on natural abundance and mass separation and can be fairly high in some cases. The Theragenics™ PSP facility is believed to be the only such process currently in operation. This system was developed and formerly operated under the US Department of Energy Advanced Isotope Separation program. Theragenics™ also has a laboratory at the PSP site capable of harvesting the isotopes from the process and a mass spectrometer system for analyzing enrichment and product purity. Since becoming operational in 2002, Theragenics™ has utilized the PSP to separate isotopes of several elements including: dysprosium, erbium, gadolinium, molybdenum and nickel. Currently, Theragenics™ is using the PSP for the separation of 102Pd, which is used as precursor for the production of 103Pd. The 103Pd radioisotope is the active ingredient in TheraSeed®, which is used in the treatment of early stage prostate cancer and being investigated for other medical applications. New industrial, medical and research applications are being investigated for isotopes that can be enriched on the PSP. Pre-enrichment of accelerator or reactor targets offers improved radioisotope production. Theragenics operates 14 cyclotrons for proton activation and has access to HFIR at ORNL for neutron activation of radioisotopes.

  10. Thermal compression chip interconnection using organic solderability preservative etched substrate by plasma processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Won; Choi, JoonYoung; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2014-12-01

    The solderability of copper organic solderbility preservative (CuOSP) finished substrate was enhanced by the plasma etching. To improve the solderability of TC interconnection with the CuOSP finished substrate, the plasma etching process is used. An Oxygen-Hydrogen plasma treatment process is performed to remove OSP material. To prevent the oxidation by oxygen plasma treatment, hydrogen reducing process is also performed before TC interconnection process. The thickness of OSP material after plasma etching is measured by optical reflection method and the component analysis by Auger Electron Spectroscopy is performed. From the lowered thickness, the bonding force of TC interconnection after OSP etching process is lowered. Also the electrical open/short test was performed after assembling the completed semiconductor packaging. The improved yield due to the plasma etching process is achieved.

  11. Research progress of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng WANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the high-power laser welding process, plasmas are induced by the evaporation of metal under laser radiation, which can affect the coupling of laser energy and the workpiece, and ultimately impact on the reliability of laser welding quality and process directly. The research of laser-induced plasma is a focus in high-power deep penetration welding field, which provides a promising research area for realizing the automation of welding process quality inspection. In recent years, the research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics is mainly in two aspects, namely the research of plasma signal detection and the research of laser welding process modeling. The laser-induced plasma in the laser welding is introduced, and the related research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics at home and abroad is analyzed. The current problems in the field are summarized, and the future development trend is put forward.

  12. Nova tocha de plasma híbrida para o processamento de materiais New hybrid plasma torch for materials processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Thomas Lermen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste artigo foi apresentar um novo dispositivo para o processamento de materiais. Ele consiste em uma tocha de plasma híbrida, a qual é caracterizada pela formação simultânea de dois arcos plasma em apenas um dispositivo, gerando jato (de plasma com elevada densidade de energia. A tocha foi submetida aos seguintes testes experimentais: de funcionamento para verificar possíveis problemas de projeto e seus limites de operação; de caracterização, consistindo em determinar o comprimento do jato de plasma; de sua viabilidade para processamento de materiais (soldagem e corte. Com base nestes testes iniciais, alguns problemas de isolamento elétrico e térmico foram encontrados e resolvidos. Quanto aos resultados dos testes de caracterização, os parâmetros de funcionamento da tocha de plasma híbrida apresentaram influência significativa sobre o comprimento do jato de plasma. Os resultados obtidos nos testes de processamento de materiais foram satisfatórios, ou seja, é possível realizar soldagem e corte com esta tocha de plasma híbrida.The main aim of this paper was to present a new device for materials processing. It consist of a hybrid plasma torch which is characterized by the simultaneous formation of two plasma arcs in one device only, generating a (plasma jet with high energy density. The torch was submitted to the following trials: of operation to identify possible design problems and its operational torch limits; of characterization, consisting in plasma jet length determination; and of viability for materials processing (welding and cutting. Based on these initial trials, some electrical and thermal insulation problems were found and solved. Concerning the results of the characterization trials, the hybrid plasma torch parameters had a significant influence over the plasma jet length. The results obtained in the materials processing trials were satisfactory, i.e., it is possible to carry out welding and

  13. Retractable Pin Tools for the Friction Stir Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Two companies have successfully commercialized a specialized welding tool developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Friction stir welding uses the high rotational speed of a tool and the resulting frictional heat created from contact to crush, 'stir' together, and forge a bond between two metal alloys. It has had a major drawback, reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The pin is slowly plunged into the joint between two materials to be welded and rotated as high speed. At the end of the weld, the single-piece pin tool is retracted and leaves a 'keyhole,' something which is unacceptable when welding cylindrical objects such as drums, pipes and storage tanks. Another drawback is the requirement for different-length pin tools when welding materials of varying thickness. An engineer at the MSFC helped design an automatic retractable pin tool that uses a computer-controlled motor to automatically retract the pin into the shoulder of the tool at the end of the weld, preventing keyholes. This design allows the pin angle and length to be adjusted for changes in material thickness and results in a smooth hole closure at the end of the weld. Benefits of friction stir welding, using the MSFC retractable pin tool technology, include the following: The ability to weld a wide range of alloys, including previously unweldable and composite materials; provision of twice the fatigue resistance of fusion welds and no keyholes; minimization of material distortion; no creation of hazards such as welding fumes, radiation, high voltage, liquid metals, or arcing; automatic retraction of the pin at the end of the weld; and maintaining full penetration of the pin.

  14. Natural Languages Processing for Building Computer-based Learning Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 李娜

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a framework to use computer and natural language techniques for various levels of learners to learn foreign languages in Computer-based Learning environment. We propose some ideas for using the computer as a practical tool for learning foreign language where the most of courseware is generated automatically. We then describe how to build Computer-based Learning tools, discuss its effectiveness, and conclude with some possibilities using on-line resources.

  15. Imaging of the Staphylococcus aureus Inactivation Process Induced by a Multigas Plasma Jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Toshihiro; Kawano, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Yota; Uehara, Kodai; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Matsumura, Yuriko; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Azuma, Takeshi; Okino, Akitoshi

    2016-12-01

    To identify mechanisms underlying the bacterial inactivation process by atmospheric nonthermal plasma using a unique plasma jet that can generate various gas plasmas, Staphylococcus aureus were irradiated with carbon dioxide plasma, which produces a large amount of singlet oxygens, and nitrogen plasma, which produces a large amount of OH radicals. And damaged areas of plasma-treated bacteria were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. As a result, bacteria were damaged by both gas plasmas, but the site of damage differed according to gas species. Therefore, it suggests that singlet oxygen generated by carbon dioxide plasma or other reactive species caused by singlet oxygen contributes to the damage of internal structures of bacteria through the cell wall and membrane, and OH radicals generated by nitrogen plasma or other reactive species derived from OH radicals contribute to damage of the cell wall and membrane.

  16. Transferred plasma jet from a dielectric barrier discharge for processing of poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Nascimento, Fellype do; Canesqui, Mara A; Moshkalev, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    In this work we studied processing of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in two different assemblies, one using the primary plasma jet obtained from a conventional DBD and the other using a DBD plasma jet transfer. The evolution of water contact angle (WCA) in function of plasma processing time and in function of aging time as well as the changes in the surface roughness of PDMS samples for both plasma treatments have been studied. We also compared vibrational and rotational temperatures for both plasmas and for the first time the vibrational temperature (T_vib) for the transferred plasma jet has been shown to be higher as compared with the primary jet. The increment in the T_vib value seems to be the main reason for the improvements in adhesion properties and surface wettability for the transferred plasma jet. Possible explanations for the increase in the vibrational temperature are presented.

  17. Contribution to the beam plasma material interactions during material processing with TEA CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschek, Rainer; Konrad, Peter E.; Mayerhofer, Roland; Bergmann, Hans W.; Bickel, Peter G.; Kowalewicz, Roland; Kuttenberger, Alfred; Christiansen, Jens

    1995-03-01

    The TEA-CO2-laser (transversely excited atmospheric pressure) is a tool for the pulsed processing of materials with peak power densities up to 1010 W/cm2 and a FWHM of 70 ns. The interaction between the laser beam, the surface of the work piece and the surrounding atmosphere as well as gas pressure and the formation of an induced plasma influences the response of the target. It was found that depending on the power density and the atmosphere the response can take two forms. (1) No target modification due to optical break through of the atmosphere and therefore shielding of the target (air pressure above 10 mbar, depending on the material). (2) Processing of materials (air pressure below 10 mbar, depending on the material) with melting of metallic surfaces (power density above 0.5 109 W/cm2), hole formation (power density of 5 109 W/cm2) and shock hardening (power density of 3.5 1010 W/cm2). All those phenomena are usually linked with the occurrence of laser supported combustion waves and laser supported detonation waves, respectively for which the mechanism is still not completely understood. The present paper shows how short time photography and spatial and temporal resolved spectroscopy can be used to better understand the various processes that occur during laser beam interaction. The spectra of titanium and aluminum are observed and correlated with the modification of the target. If the power density is high enough and the gas pressure above a material and gas composition specific threshold, the plasma radiation shows only spectral lines of the background atmosphere. If the gas pressure is below this threshold, a modification of the target surface (melting, evaporation and solid state transformation) with TEA-CO2- laser pulses is possible and the material specific spectra is observed. In some cases spatial and temporal resolved spectroscopy of a plasma allows the calculation of electron temperatures by comparison of two spectral lines.

  18. Nonlinear Gyrokinetics: A Powerful Tool for the Description of Microturbulence in Magnetized Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John E. Krommes

    2010-09-27

    Gyrokinetics is the description of low-frequency dynamics in magnetized plasmas. In magnetic-confinement fusion, it provides the most fundamental basis for numerical simulations of microturbulence; there are astrophysical applications as well. In this tutorial, a sketch of the derivation of the novel dynamical system comprising the nonlinear gyrokinetic (GK) equation (GKE) and the coupled electrostatic GK Poisson equation will be given by using modern Lagrangian and Lie perturbation methods. No background in plasma physics is required in order to appreciate the logical development. The GKE describes the evolution of an ensemble of gyrocenters moving in a weakly inhomogeneous background magnetic field and in the presence of electromagnetic perturbations with wavelength of the order of the ion gyroradius. Gyrocenters move with effective drifts, which may be obtained by an averaging procedure that systematically, order by order, removes gyrophase dependence. To that end, the use of the Lagrangian differential one-form as well as the content and advantages of Lie perturbation theory will be explained. The electromagnetic fields follow via Maxwell's equations from the charge and current density of the particles. Particle and gyrocenter densities differ by an important polarization effect. That is calculated formally by a "pull-back" (a concept from differential geometry) of the gyrocenter distribution to the laboratory coordinate system. A natural truncation then leads to the closed GK dynamical system. Important properties such as GK energy conservation and fluctuation noise will be mentioned briefly, as will the possibility (and diffculties) of deriving nonlinear gyro fluid equations suitable for rapid numerical solution -- although it is probably best to directly simulate the GKE. By the end of the tutorial, students should appreciate the GKE as an extremely powerful tool and will be prepared for later lectures describing its applications to physical problems.

  19. Imploding process and x-ray emission of shotgun z-pinch plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Ryusuke [Nihon University, College of Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Takasugi, Keiichi; Miyamoto, Tetsu [Nihon University, Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor instability was observed on the surface of a contracting z-pinch plasma. Wavelength of the instability was analyzed from the envelope of the profile, and it increased with implosion. Analysis with finite Larmor radius effect shows that there is some acceleration of ions during the contraction process. A suggestion to obtain macroscopically uniform plasma is to increase plasma current without heating the plasma. (author)

  20. Numerical simulation of chemical processes in helium plasmas in atmosphere environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳建明; 郭伟; 王龙; 邵福球

    2005-01-01

    A model is built to study chemical processes in plasmas generated in helium with trace amounts of air at atmospheric pressure or low pressures. The plasma lifetimes and the temporal evolutions of the main charged species are presented. The plasma lifetimes are longer than that in air plasma at atmospheric pressure, but this is not true at low pressures. The electron number density does not strictly obey the exponential damping law in a longer period.

  1. Plasma Diagnostics and Plasma-Surface Interactions in Inductively Coupled Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Titus, Monica Joy

    2010-01-01

    The semiconductor industry's continued trend of manufacturing device features on the nanometer scale requires increased plasma processing control and improved understanding of plasma characteristics and plasma-surface interactions. This dissertation presents a series of experimental results for focus studies conducted in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system. First novel "on-wafer" diagnostic tools are characterized and related to plasma characteristics. Second, plasma-polymer interactio...

  2. Plasma diagnostics in a pulsed accelerator used for material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukeshov, A [Science Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a Tole bi str., 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2007-04-15

    Results of research work of a pulsed plasma accelerator, designed as diagnostic and material science stands in SRIETP are presented. We present results on the development of electric and magnetic probes used for measurement of plasma parameters. The physical properties and changes in structure of vanadium alloy, common quality carbon and stainless steels have been investigated as well.

  3. Monitoring the International Standardization Process Theoretical Choices and Methodological Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Juanals

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations are in charge of global security management. This paper outlines and argues for the construction of a theoretical and methodological framework in order to critically assess the new technopolitics currently being developed in the field of global security and which are materialized in standards. The main purpose is to design both a methodology and specific text mining tools to investigate these standards. These tools will be implemented in a platform designed to provide cartographic representations of standards and to assist the navigation of an end-user through a corpus of standards.

  4. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  5. The Main Plasma Chemical Process of Nitric Oxide Production by Arc Discharge%The Main Plasma Chemical Process of Nitric Oxide Production by Arc Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旗; 胡辉; 陈卫鹏; 许杰; 张锦丽; 吴双

    2011-01-01

    By adopting the optical multi-channel analyzer combined with fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, the dominant free radicals and products generated by arc discharge were measured and studied, and the main plasma chemical reaction process in the nitric oxide production by arc discharge was identified. Plasma chemical kinetic curves of O, O2, N2, N and NO were simulated by using CHEMKIN and MATLAB. The results show that the main plasma chemical reaction process of nitric oxide production by arc discharge is a replacement reaction between O and N2, where NO can be generated instantaneously when discharging reaches stable.

  6. Process analytical technology tools for perfusion cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercier, S.M.; Rouel, P.M.; Lebrun, P.M.; Diepenbroek, B.; Wijffels, R.H.; Streefland, M.

    2016-01-01

    During cell cultivation processes for the production of biopharmaceuticals, good process performance and good product quality can be ensured by online monitoring of critical process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, or dissolved oxygen). These data can be used in real-time for process control, as su

  7. Assessing Educational Processes Using Total-Quality-Management Measurement Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, Peter, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the use of Total Quality Management (TQM) assessment tools in educational settings highlights and gives examples of fishbone diagrams, or cause and effect charts; Pareto diagrams; control charts; histograms and check sheets; scatter diagrams; and flowcharts. Variation and quality are discussed in terms of continuous process…

  8. Supporting Learning with Process Tools: Theory and Design Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, David A.; Knuth, Randy A.

    This report begins by discussing the implications of a constructivist epistemology for instructional design and development, as well as drawbacks of the content database in instruction, the lack of special tools to help the learner actively construct knowledge, and emphasis on learning environments based on individual learning. The whole learning…

  9. "Talking Tools": Sloyd Processes Become Multimodal Stories with Smartphone Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Engblom, Annika; Hiltunen, Kasper; Hartvik, Juha; Porko-Hudd, Mia; Johansson, Marléne

    2014-01-01

    The study presented is part of a work-in-progress project of developing a mobile application for smartphones, Talking Tools (TT). The first context TT is developed for and tested in is sloyd education [Swedish: slöjd], a compulsory subject taught in Finnish schools. In sloyd learners design and manufacture unique artifacts in various materials…

  10. Plasma Fibrinogen Qualification as a Drug Development Tool in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Perspective of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Biomarker Qualification Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bruce E; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Rennard, Stephen I; Furtwaengler, Armin; Leidy, Nancy; Lowings, Michael; Martin, Ubaldo J; Martin, Thomas R; Merrill, Debora D; Snyder, Jeffrey; Walsh, John; Mannino, David M

    2016-03-15

    The COPD Foundation Biomarker Qualification Consortium (CBQC) is a unique public-private partnership established in 2010 between the COPD Foundation, the pharmaceutical industry, and academic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experts with advisors from the U.S. NHLBI and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This was a direct response to the 2009 publication of a guidance on qualification of drug development tools by the FDA. Although data were believed to be available from publicly funded and industry-funded studies that could support qualification of several tools, the necessary data resided in disparate databases. The initial intent of the CBQC was to integrate these data and submit a dossier for the qualification. This led to the FDA qualification of plasma fibrinogen as a prognostic or enrichment biomarker for all-cause mortality and COPD exacerbations in July 2015. It is the first biomarker drug development tool qualified for use in COPD under the FDA's drug development tool qualification program. This perspective summarizes the FDA's qualification process, the formation of the CBQC, and the effort that led to a successful outcome for plasma fibrinogen and discusses implications for future biomarker qualification efforts.

  11. Force-controlled analysis tool for optimization of precision CNC grinding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, C.; Fähnle, O.; Rascher, R.

    2017-06-01

    While setting up grinding processes for optics fabrication, the optimum tool and process parameters have to be chosen. Unfortunately, datasheets of commercial grinding tools contain only information about grit type and size, bond material, tool shape etc., leaving out any information about process parameters to be applied or tool lifetime or performance. For this reason, tools and machining parameters are commonly adjusted during iterative experimental test runs using actual workpieces from production batches which is time consuming, expensive and without guarantee that the optimum set of machining parameters are achieved. In this paper we present a method to determine grinding tools process window for a given workpiece material. That way, ideal machining parameters can be determined offline for maximum reliability and productivity. In addition, the gained data provides the basis to identify the most suitable grinding tool for the desired application.

  12. Analysis of Physics Processes in the AC Plasma Torch Discharge under High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronov, A. A.; Vasilieva, O. B.; Dudnik, J. D.; E Kuznetsov, V.; Kuchina, J. A.; Shiryaev, V. N.; Pavlov, A. V.

    2017-04-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of electrophysical processes in the electric discharge generated by a three-phase AC plasma torch when using a high pressure inert working gas. AC plasma torch design with end electrodes intended for work on inert gases at pressures up to 81 bar is studied. Current-voltage characteristics for different gas flow rates and pressures are presented. Physical processes characteristics of the arising voltage ripples which depend on various working parameters of the plasma torch have been investigated. Arc burning processes in the electric discharge chamber of the three-phase AC plasma torch at various working parameters were photographed.

  13. The kinetic studies of direct methane oxidation to methanol in the plasma process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    INDARTO Antonius; CHOI Jae-Wook; LEE Hwaung; SONG Hyung Keun

    2008-01-01

    The research outlined here includes a study of methanol production from direct methane conversion by means of thermal and plasma method. The kinetic study, derived from thermal-based approach, was carried out to investigate thoroughly the possible intermediate species likely to be presented in the process. A set of plasma experiments was undertaken by using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), classified as non-thermal plasma, done at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Plasma proc-ess yields more methanol than thermal process at the same methane conversion rates and methane to oxygen feed ratios. Oxidation reaction of thermal process resulted CO and CO2 as the most dominant products and the selectivity reached 19% and 68%, respectively. Moreover, more CO and less CO2 were produced in plasma process than in thermal process. The selectivity of CO and CO2 by plasma was 47% and 20%, respectively. Ethane (C2H6) was detected as the only higher hydrocarbon with a signifi-cant concentration. The concentration of ethane reached 9% of the total products in plasma process and 17% in thermal process. The maximum selectivity of methanol, the target material of this research, was 12% obtained by plasma method and less than 5% by thermal process. In some certain points, the kinetic model closely matched with the experimental results.

  14. Applications and challenges of plasma processes in nanobiotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, F; Colpo, P, E-mail: francois.rossi@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), I-21020, Ispra (Italy)

    2011-05-04

    We present an overview of the possibilities offered by plasma technologies, in particular the combination plasma polymers deposition, colloidal lithography, e-beam lithography and microcontact printing, to produce micro- and nanostructured surfaces with chemical and topographical contrast for applications in nanobiotechnology. It is shown that chemical and topographical patterns can be obtained on different substrates, with dimensions down to a few tenths of 10 nm. The applications of these nanostructured surfaces in biology, biochemistry and biodetection are presented and the advantages and limitation of the plasma techniques in this context underlined.

  15. New numerical tools to study waves and instabilities of flowing plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beliën, A.J.C.; Botchev, M.A.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Holst, van der B.; Keppens, R.

    2002-01-01

    Studying plasma waves and instabilities is an indispensable part of present thermonuclear fusion and astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Up till recently, spectral analysis was mostly restricted to static plasmas. However, the assumption of a static plasma is unrealistic not only for astrophys

  16. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures: SBIR Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This report is the final report of a SBIR Phase I project. It is identical to the final report submitted, after some proprietary information of administrative nature has been removed. The development of a numerical simulation tool for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is reported. The objectives of the project were to analyze and predict DBD operation at wide range of ambient gas pressures. It overcomes the limitations of traditional DBD codes which are limited to low-speed applications and have weak prediction capabilities. The software tool allows DBD actuator analysis and prediction for subsonic to hypersonic flow regime. The simulation tool is based on the VORPAL code developed by Tech-X Corporation. VORPAL's capability of modeling DBD plasma actuator at low pressures (0.1 to 10 torr) using kinetic plasma modeling approach, and at moderate to atmospheric pressures (1 to 10 atm) using hydrodynamic plasma modeling approach, were demonstrated. In addition, results of experiments with pulsed+bias DBD configuration that were performed for validation purposes are reported.

  17. Quality tools in a process of technical project management

    OpenAIRE

    Gwiazda, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to show how it could utilize the tools of quality management for the processof project management. Also it could be presented a modification of the Ishikawa diagram.Design/methodology/approach: In presented work has been applied the research methodology that bases onthe theoretical analysis and on the empirical researches. It is also presented a practical solution that proved thevalidity of proposed method.Findings: The base finding of the presented work is t...

  18. Impacts of Ambient and Ablation Plasmas on Short- and Ultrashort-Pulse Laser Processing of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda M. Bulgakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that more than five decades have passed since the invention of laser, some topics of laser-matter interaction still remain incompletely studied. One of such topics is plasma impact on the overall phenomenon of the interaction and its particular features, including influence of the laser-excited plasma re-radiation, back flux of energetic plasma species, and massive material redeposition, on the surface quality and processing efficiency. In this paper, we analyze different plasma aspects, which go beyond a simple consideration of the well-known effect of plasma shielding of laser radiation. The following effects are considered: ambient gas ionization above the target on material processing with formation of a “plasma pipe”; back heating of the target by both laser-driven ambient and ablation plasmas through conductive and radiative heat transfer; plasma chemical effects on surface processing including microstructure growth on liquid metals; complicated dynamics of the ablation plasma flow interacting with an ambient gas that can result in substantial redeposition of material around the ablation spot. Together with a review summarizing our main to-date achievements and outlining research directions, we present new results underlining importance of laser plasma dynamics and photoionization of the gas environment upon laser processing of materials.

  19. Integrating Thermal Tools Into the Mechanical Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Siebes, Georg; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    The intent of mechanical design is to deliver a hardware product that meets or exceeds customer expectations, while reducing cycle time and cost. To this end, an integrated mechanical design process enables the idea of parallel development (concurrent engineering). This represents a shift from the traditional mechanical design process. With such a concurrent process, there are significant issues that have to be identified and addressed before re-engineering the mechanical design process to facilitate concurrent engineering. These issues also assist in the integration and re-engineering of the thermal design sub-process since it resides within the entire mechanical design process. With these issues in mind, a thermal design sub-process can be re-defined in a manner that has a higher probability of acceptance, thus enabling an integrated mechanical design process. However, the actual implementation is not always problem-free. Experience in applying the thermal design sub-process to actual situations provides the evidence for improvement, but more importantly, for judging the viability and feasibility of the sub-process.

  20. Hybrid processing of Ti-6Al-4V using plasma immersion ion implantation combined with plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Maria Margareth da

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the fact that the Ti-6Al-4V alloy has good mechanical properties, excellent resistance to corrosion and also excellent biocompatibility, however with low wear resistance, this work aims to test plasma processes or combination of plasma and ion implantation processes to improve these characteristics. Two types of processing were used: two steps PIII (Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation combined with PN (Plasma Nitriding and single step PIII treatment. According to Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES results, the best solution was obtained by PIII for 150 minutes resulting in ~ 65 nm of nitrogen implanted layer, while the sample treated with PIII (75 minutes and PN (75 minutes reached ~ 35 nm implanted layer. The improvement of surface properties could also be confirmed by the nanoindentation technique, with values of hardness increasing for both processes. AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy characterization showed that the single step PIII process presented greater efficiency than the duplex process (PIII + PN, probably due to the sputtering occurring during the second step (PN removing partially the implanted layer of first step (PIII.

  1. SIMULATION AS A TOOL FOR PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF LOGISTIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko Popovič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the simulation of the production processes, especially module of Siemens Tecnomatix software. Tecnomatix Process Simulate is designed for building new or modifying existing production processes. The simulation created in this software has a posibility for fast testing of planned changes or improvements of the production processes. On the base of simulation you can imagine the future picture of the real production system. 3D Simulation can reflects the actual status and conditions on the running system and of course, after some improvements, it can show the possible figure of the production system.

  2. Laser hardening processing on tool steel SKD61

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金.弗拉基米尔.阿列克谢耶维奇

    2015-01-01

    This paper is aimed at overcoming different degree defects of crystalline structure in SKD61 carbide tool steel under quenching in solid phase and liquid phase. The paper studies the micro-structure and properties of laser strengthening SKD61 by using the method of laser hardening on the rein-forcement to improve the wear resistance of SKD61 . The results showed that the laser strengthening meth-od can improve the wear resistance of SKD61 . The study can provide reference for laser hardening metal materials.

  3. Simulation Process Analysis of Rubber Shock Absorber for Machine Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Rong Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation on rubber shock absorber of machine tool was studied. The simple material model of rubber was obtained by through the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The compression speed and the hardness of rubber material were considered to obtain the deformation law of rubber shock absorber. The location of fatigue were confirmed from the simulation results. The results shown that the fatigue position is distributed in the corner of shock absorber. The degree of deformation is increased with increasing of compress speed, and the hardness of rubber material is proportional to deformation.

  4. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Interaction with Soft Materials as Fundamental Processes in Plasma Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Uchida, Giichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Molecular-structure variation of organic materials irradiated with atmospheric pressure He plasma jet have been investigated. Optical emission spectrum in the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet has been measured. The spectrum shows considerable emissions of He lines, and the emission of O and N radicals attributed to air. Variation in molecular structure of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface irradiated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet has been observed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). These results via XPS and FT-IR indicate that the PET surface irradiated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet was oxidized by chemical and/or physical effect due to irradiation of active species.

  5. Dialogue Theory as a Tool for Understanding Interactive Learning Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysthe, Olga

    1999-01-01

    Explicates aspects of dialogue theory that may enhance understanding of educational processes in general and interactive learning processes in particular. Bakhtin's extended theory of dialogue, the concept of multivoicedness and Lotman's dual functions of texts are explained and used to analyze a Web-mediated discussion among university students.…

  6. Guidance as a tool for inclusive processes in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Jensen, Charlotte

    In my current Ph.d. project I am studying how dialectic processes between supervisors within the field of inclusive education and teachers can have influence on inclusive processes in practice. Furthermore my study focuses on strategies, methods and approaches used by the supervisors....

  7. Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of polymeric materials utilizing close proximity indirect exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Bonds, Truman

    2016-09-20

    A plasma treatment method that includes providing treatment chamber including an intermediate heating volume and an interior treatment volume. The interior treatment volume contains an electrode assembly for generating a plasma and the intermediate heating volume heats the interior treatment volume. A work piece is traversed through the treatment chamber. A process gas is introduced to the interior treatment volume of the treatment chamber. A plasma is formed with the electrode assembly from the process gas, wherein a reactive species of the plasma is accelerated towards the fiber tow by flow vortices produced in the interior treatment volume by the electrode assembly.

  8. Process Evaluation Tools for Enzymatic Cascades Welcome Message

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu, Rohana

    Biocatalysis is attracting significant attention from both academic and industrial scientists due to the excellent capability of enzyme to catalyse selective reactions. Recently, much interest has been shown in the application of enzymatic cascades as a useful tool in organic synthesis to synthes......Biocatalysis is attracting significant attention from both academic and industrial scientists due to the excellent capability of enzyme to catalyse selective reactions. Recently, much interest has been shown in the application of enzymatic cascades as a useful tool in organic synthesis...... the atom economy. The scheme consists of two primary enzymes (alcohol dehydrogenase and ω-transaminase) that are directly involved in the main synthesis. Alanine dehydrogenase was introduced as a secondary enzyme to regenerate the co-factor NAD+ and co-substrate alanine in situ as well as to shift...... the equilibrium positions in the main syntheses. In principle, this strategy could successfully achieve high conversion, using ammonia as the sole reagent used in excess to drive the conversion. The findings herein indicate that quantitatively the possibilities for improving the conversion of thermodynamically...

  9. Reliability of plasma-sprayed coatings: monitoring the plasma spray process and improving the quality of coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.

    2013-06-01

    As for every coating technology, the reliability and reproducibility of coatings are essential for the development of the plasma spraying technology in industrial manufacturing. They mainly depend on the process reliability, equipment and spray booth maintenance, operator training and certification, implementation and use of consistent production practices and standardization of coating testing. This paper deals with the first issue, that is the monitoring and control of the plasma spray process; it does not tackle the coating characterization and testing methods. It begins with a short history of coating quality improvement under plasma spray conditions over the last few decades, details the plasma spray torches used in the industry, the development of the measurements of in-flight and impacting particle parameters and then of sensors. It concludes with the process maps that describe the interrelations between the operating parameters of the spray process, in-flight particle characteristics and coating properties and with the potential of in situ monitoring of the process by artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic methods.

  10. Statistical relation between particle contaminations in ultra pure water and defects generated by process tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wali, F.; Knotter, D. Martin; Wortelboer, Ronald; Mud, Auke

    2007-01-01

    Ultra pure water supplied inside the Fab is used in different tools at different stages of processing. Data of the particles measured in ultra pure water was compared with the defect density on wafers processed on these tools and a statistical relation is found Keywords— Yield, defect density,

  11. Micro tooling technologies for polymer micro replication: direct, indirect and hybrid process chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    and performance of the corresponding micro mould. Traditional methods of micro tooling, such as various machining processes (e.g. micro milling, micro electrical discharge machining) have already reached their limitations with decreasing dimensions of mould inserts and cavities. To this respect, tooling process...

  12. Web 2.0 Tools and Processes in Higher Education: Quality Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Betty; Moonen, Jef

    2008-01-01

    A major change has occurred in the way Web technology is being used in society. The change is grounded in user empowerment using Web 2.0 tools and processes. Students are already sophisticated users of these tools and processes, but outside of the mainstream instructional practices in higher education. In this reflection, the educational potential…

  13. Web 2.0 Tools and Processes in Higher Education: Quality Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Betty; Moonen, Jef

    2008-01-01

    A major change has occurred in the way Web technology is being used in society. The change is grounded in user empowerment using Web 2.0 tools and processes. Students are already sophisticated users of these tools and processes, but outside of the mainstream instructional practices in higher education. In this reflection, the educational potential…

  14. Are bioassays useful tools to assess redox processes and biodegradation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Ludvigsen, L.

    2002-01-01

    When evaluating potentials for natural attenuation, assessment of ongoing redox processes are important. Terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs) such as denitrification, Fe(Ill), Mn(IV), and sulphate reduction and methane production have been assessed by several approaches including redox...... sensitive hydrochemical or geochemical parameters, levels of hydrogen, and redox potential. However, all these approaches have to be evaluated against TEAP-bioassays as the most direct measure. We assessed successfully ongoing microbial-mediated redox processes by TEAP-bioassays in degradation studies...... of aromatic and chlorinated aliphatic compounds in landfill leachate plumes, and of pesticides in aquifers with various redox conditions....

  15. Optimization of a plasma immersion ion implantation process for shallow junctions in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Ashok; Nori, Rajashree; Bhatt, Piyush; Lodha, Saurabh; Pinto, Richard, E-mail: rpinto@ee.iitb.ac.in; Rao, Valipe Ramgopal [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Jomard, François; Neumann-Spallart, Michael [Groupe d' Étude de la Matière Condensée, C.N.R.S./Université de Versailles-St.Quentin, 45, Avenue des États-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)

    2014-11-01

    A plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process has been developed for realizing shallow doping profiles of phosphorus and boron in silicon using an in-house built dual chamber cluster tool. High Si etch rates observed in a 5% PH{sub 3} in H{sub 2} plasma have been ascribed to high concentration of H(α) radicals. Therefore, subsequent work was carried out with 5% PH{sub 3} in He, leading to much smaller etch rates. By optical emission spectroscopy, the radical species H(α), PH*{sub 2}, and PH* have been identified. The concentration of all three species increased with pressure. Also, ion concentrations increased with pressure as evidenced by Langmuir data, with a maximum occurring at 0.12 mbar. The duty cycle of pulsed DC bias has a significant bearing on both the implantation and the etching process as it controls the leakage of positive charge collected at the surface of the silicon wafer during pulse on-time generated primarily due to secondary electron emission. The P implant process was optimized for a duty cycle of 10% or less at a pressure of 0.12 mbar with implant times as low as 30 s. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed a P dopant depth of 145 nm after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 950 °C for 5 s, resulting in a sheet resistance of 77 Ω/◻. Si n{sup +}/p diodes fabricated with phosphorus implantation using optimized PIII and RTA conditions exhibit J{sub on}/J{sub off} > 10{sup 6} with an ideality factor of nearly 1.2. Using similar conditions, shallow doping profiles of B in silicon have also been realized.

  16. The theta-pinch - a versatile tool for the generation and study of high temperature plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintz, E. [Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum-Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The more general technical and physical features of theta-pinches are described. Special field of their application are high-ss plasmas. Two examples are analysed and studied in more detail: a high density plasma near thermal equilibrium and a low density plasma far from equilibrium. The latter is of special interest for future investigations. Possibilities of field-reversed configurations are pointed out. (orig.)

  17. Ultrafast lasers--reliable tools for advanced materials processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koji Sugioka; Ya Cheng

    2014-01-01

      The unique characteristics of ultrafast lasers, such as picosecond and femtosecond lasers, have opened up new avenues in materials processing that employ ultrashort pulse widths and extremely high peak intensities...

  18. Plasma Surface Treatment of Powder Materials — Process and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pavlatová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyolefin particles are hydrophobic, and this prevents their use for various applications. Plasma treatment is an environment-friendly polyolefin hydrophilisation method. We developed an industrial-scale plant for plasma treatment of particles as small as micrometers in diameter. Materials such as PE waxes, UHMWPE and powders for rotomolding production were tested to verify their new surface properties. We achieved significantly increased wettability of the particles, so that they are very easily dispersive in water without agglomeration, and their higher surface energy is retained even after sintering in the case of rotomolding powders.

  19. Optimizing Friction Stir Welding via Statistical Design of Tool Geometry and Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blignault, C.; Hattingh, D. G.; James, M. N.

    2012-06-01

    This article considers optimization procedures for friction stir welding (FSW) in 5083-H321 aluminum alloy, via control of weld process parameters and tool design modifications. It demonstrates the potential utility of the "force footprint" (FF) diagram in providing a real-time graphical user interface (GUI) for process optimization of FSW. Multiple force, torque, and temperature responses were recorded during FS welding using 24 different tool pin geometries, and these data were statistically analyzed to determine the relative influence of a number of combinations of important process and tool geometry parameters on tensile strength. Desirability profile charts are presented, which show the influence of seven key combinations of weld process variables on tensile strength. The model developed in this study allows the weld tensile strength to be predicted for other combinations of tool geometry and process parameters to fall within an average error of 13%. General guidelines for tool profile selection and the likelihood of influencing weld tensile strength are also provided.

  20. Effects of tool flank wear on orthogonal cutting process of aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Ping; KE Ying-lin

    2006-01-01

    The tool flank begins to wear out as soon as cutting process proceeds. Cutting parameters such as cutting forces and cutting temperature will vary with increasing degree of flank wear. In order to reveal the relationship between them, the theoretical situations of cutting process were analyzed considering the tool flank wear effect. The variation rules of cutting force, residual stress and temperature distributions along with the tool flank wear were analyzed comparing with the sharp tool tip. Through FEM simulation method, affections of the tool flank wear value VB on cutting forces, residual stress and temperature distributions were analyzed. A special result in this simulation is that the thrust force is more sensitive to tool flank wear, which can be used as a recognition method of tool condition monitoring. The FEM simulation analysis result agrees well with the experimental measuring data in public literatures and some experiments made also by the authors.

  1. Research on the Plasma Spray Process Applying the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the physical processes of plasma spraying. The application of the finite element method has assisted in establishing the distribution of the voltage of the plasma arc and current density in the plasma stream during numerical simulation. With reference to the results of experimental data, the real location of an anode spot of the electric arc in the plasma spray process has been evaluated. The paper has calculated the values of electromagnetic Lorentz forces and established their influence on plasma flow. With the help of the two-layer model for the semi-molten nickel particle, contact between the particle and substrate during plasma spraying has been simulated.

  2. Influence of radiative processes on the ignition of deuterium–tritium plasma containing inactive impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gus’kov, S. Yu., E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Sherman, V. E. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The degree of influence of radiative processes on the ignition of deuterium–tritium (DT) plasma has been theoretically studied as dependent on the content of inactive impurities in plasma. The analytic criterion of plasma ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets is modified taking into account the absorption of intrinsic radiation from plasma in the ignition region. The influence of radiative processes on the DT plasma ignition has been analytically and numerically studied for plasma that contains a significant fraction of inactive impurities either as a result of DT fuel mixing with ICF target ablator material or as a result of using light metal DT-hydrides as solid noncryogenic fuel. It has been shown that the effect of the absorption of intrinsic radiation leads to lower impurity-induced increase in the ignition energy as compared to that calculated in the approximation of optically transparent ignition region.

  3. Influence of radiative processes on the ignition of deuterium-tritium plasma containing inactive impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Sherman, V. E.

    2016-08-01

    The degree of influence of radiative processes on the ignition of deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma has been theoretically studied as dependent on the content of inactive impurities in plasma. The analytic criterion of plasma ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets is modified taking into account the absorption of intrinsic radiation from plasma in the ignition region. The influence of radiative processes on the DT plasma ignition has been analytically and numerically studied for plasma that contains a significant fraction of inactive impurities either as a result of DT fuel mixing with ICF target ablator material or as a result of using light metal DT-hydrides as solid noncryogenic fuel. It has been shown that the effect of the absorption of intrinsic radiation leads to lower impurity-induced increase in the ignition energy as compared to that calculated in the approximation of optically transparent ignition region.

  4. Development of Functionally Graded Materials for Manufacturing Tools and Dies and Industrial Processing Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lherbier, Louis, W.; Novotnak, David, J.; Herling, Darrell, R.; Sears, James, W.

    2009-03-23

    Hot forming processes such as forging, die casting and glass forming require tooling that is subjected to high temperatures during the manufacturing of components. Current tooling is adversely affected by prolonged exposure at high temperatures. Initial studies were conducted to determine the root cause of tool failures in a number of applications. Results show that tool failures vary and depend on the operating environment under which they are used. Major root cause failures include (1) thermal softening, (2) fatigue and (3) tool erosion, all of which are affected by process boundary conditions such as lubrication, cooling, process speed, etc. While thermal management is a key to addressing tooling failures, it was clear that new tooling materials with superior high temperature strength could provide improved manufacturing efficiencies. These efficiencies are based on the use of functionally graded materials (FGM), a new subset of hybrid tools with customizable properties that can be fabricated using advanced powder metallurgy manufacturing technologies. Modeling studies of the various hot forming processes helped identify the effect of key variables such as stress, temperature and cooling rate and aid in the selection of tooling materials for specific applications. To address the problem of high temperature strength, several advanced powder metallurgy nickel and cobalt based alloys were selected for evaluation. These materials were manufactured into tooling using two relatively new consolidation processes. One process involved laser powder deposition (LPD) and the second involved a solid state dynamic powder consolidation (SSDPC) process. These processes made possible functionally graded materials (FGM) that resulted in shaped tooling that was monolithic, bi-metallic or substrate coated. Manufacturing of tooling with these processes was determined to be robust and consistent for a variety of materials. Prototype and production testing of FGM tooling showed the

  5. Reflection on the development process of a sustainability assessment tool: learning from a Flemish case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Triste

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of sustainability assessment tools in agricultural practice is often disappointing. One of the critical success factors for adoption is the tool development process. Because scientific attention to these development processes and insights about them are rather limited, we aimed to foster the scientific debate on this topic. This was done by reflecting on the development process of a Flemish sustainability assessment tool, MOTIFS. MOTIFS was developed with the aim of becoming widely adopted by farmers and farm advisors, but this result was not achieved. Our reflection process showed success factors favoring and barriers hindering tool adoption. These were grouped into three clusters of lessons learned for sound tool development: (1 institutional embeddedness, (2 ownership, and (3 tool functions. This clustering allowed us to formulate actions for researchers on the following aspects: (1 learning from stakeholders and end users, (2 providing coaching for appropriate tool use, and (3 structuring development of different tool types and exploring spin-offs from existing tools. We hope these normative results evoke other researchers to feed a debate on understanding tool development.

  6. Ergonomics oriented to processes becomes a tool for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, R L; Getty, J M

    1999-01-01

    A holistic view is essential for quality initiatives such as Total Quality Management (TQM), Standard No. ISO 9001:1994 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1994), Concurrent Engineering, Business Reengineering, and Business Process Improvement. The challenge is knowing how to transition from this theoretical concept to implementation. The relationship between quality interest and an ergonomics program will be the focus of this discussion. An ergonomics oriented improvement program includes (a) ergonomics or fitting the job to the person; (b) integration of operations management, safety engineering, medical management, and employees as co-owners of the process; (c) the emphasis of ergonomic precepts in the engineering of new processes and improvement of current processes; and (d) the emphasis of employees taking responsibility for their own well being and the improvement of their work environment. The parallel between the continuous improvement process delineated by the quality-system requirements in Standard No. ISO 9001:1994 (ISO, 1994) and the improvement contributions of ergonomics are very revealing (Getty, Abbott, & Getty, 1995). It is the contention of this approach that if the precepts of ergonomics were applied to the work environment, it would support the objective of world class quality and productivity, resulting in improved global competitiveness of businesses.

  7. Application of Atmospheric-Pressure Microwave Line Plasma for Low Temperature Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Haruka; Nakano, Suguru; Itoh, Hitoshi; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure (AP) plasmas have been given much attention because of its high cost benefit and a variety of possibilities for industrial applications. In various kinds of plasma production technique, pulsed-microwave discharge plasma using slot antenna is attractive due to its ability of high-density and stable plasma production. In this plasma source, however, size of the plasma has been limited up to a few cm in length due to standing wave inside a waveguide. To solve this, we have proposed a newly-developed AP microwave plasma source that utilizes not standing wave but travelling wave. By using this plasma source, spatially-uniform AP line plasma with 40 cm in length was realized by pure helium discharge in 60 cm slot and with nitrogen gas additive of 1%. Furthermore, gas temperature as low as 400 K was realized in this device. In this study, as an example of low temperature processes, hydrophilic treatment of PET films was performed. Processing speed increased with pulse frequency and a water contact angle of ~20° was easily obtained within 5 s with no thermal damage to the substrate. To evaluate treatment-uniformity of long line length, PET films were treated by 90 cm slot-antenna plasma and uniform treatment performance was confirmed.

  8. Comparison endpoint study of process plasma and secondary electron beam exciter optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan Thamban, P. L.; Yun, Stuart; Padron-Wells, Gabriel; Hosch, Jimmy W.; Goeckner, Matthew J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800W Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800W Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Verity Instruments, Inc., 2901 Eisenhower Street, Carrollton, Texas 75007 (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Traditionally process plasmas are often studied and monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. Here, the authors compare experimental measurements from a secondary electron beam excitation and direct process plasma excitation to discuss and illustrate its distinctiveness in the study of process plasmas. They present results that show excitations of etch process effluents in a SF{sub 6} discharge and endpoint detection capabilities in dark plasma process conditions. In SF{sub 6} discharges, a band around 300 nm, not visible in process emission, is observed and it can serve as a good indicator of etch product emission during polysilicon etches. Based on prior work reported in literature the authors believe this band is due to SiF{sub 4} gas phase species.

  9. Elementary Processes and Kinetic Modeling for Hydrogen and Helium Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Celiberto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report cross-sections and rate coefficients for excited states colliding with electrons, heavy particles and walls useful for the description of H 2 /He plasma kinetics under different conditions. In particular, the role of the rotational states in resonant vibrational excitations of the H 2 molecule by electron impact and the calculation of the related cross-sections are illustrated. The theoretical determination of the cross-section for the rovibrational energy exchange and dissociation of H 2 molecule, induced by He atom impact, by using the quasi-classical trajectory method is discussed. Recombination probabilities of H atoms on tungsten and graphite, relevant for the determination of the nascent vibrational distribution, are also presented. An example of a state-to-state plasma kinetic model for the description of shock waves operating in H 2 and He-H 2 mixtures is presented, emphasizing also the role of electronically-excited states in affecting the electron energy distribution function of free electrons. Finally, the thermodynamic properties and the electrical conductivity of non-ideal, high-density hydrogen plasma are finally discussed, in particular focusing on the pressure ionization phenomenon in high-pressure high-temperature plasmas.

  10. Plasma processing of fibre materials for enhanced impact protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Simor, M.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of lightweight impact protective clothing depends on the constituting materials, their assembly in a system and interaction under various dynamic impact conditions. In this paper an overview of options for improved impact protective clothing systems based on a new plasma technology i

  11. Plasma processing of fibre materials for enhanced impact protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Simor, M.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of lightweight impact protective clothing depends on the constituting materials, their assembly in a system and interaction under various dynamic impact conditions. In this paper an overview of options for improved impact protective clothing systems based on a new plasma technology i

  12. Thomson Scattering Process in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Quan-Zhi; JIANG Xiao-Hua; LI Wen-Hong; LIU Shen-Ye; ZHENG Zhi-Jian; ZHANG Jie; LI Yu-Tong; ZHENG Jun; YAN Fei; LU Xin; WANG Zhe-Bin; ZHENG Jian; YU Chang-Xuan

    2005-01-01

    @@ We present the evolutions of the electron temperature and plasma expansion velocity with Thomson scattering experiment. The observed time-resolved ion-acoustic image is reproduced by a numerical code which couples the Thomson scattering theory with the output parameters of the one-dimensional hydrocode MEDUSA.

  13. Plasma processing of fibre materials for enhanced impact protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Simor, M.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of lightweight impact protective clothing depends on the constituting materials, their assembly in a system and interaction under various dynamic impact conditions. In this paper an overview of options for improved impact protective clothing systems based on a new plasma technology

  14. Preparation of ion-exchange thin film using plasma processes. Plasma process wo mochiita ion kokansei usumaku no sakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogumi, Z.; Uchimoto, Y. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-10-31

    The present report describes a study which aims at preparation of a new functional film by plasma polymerization. For this purpose, 4-vinylpyridine monomer is plasma-polymerized to obtain a thin film, which is quaternarized with 1-bromopropane to produce an anion exchange thin film, which is laminated on the surface of a cation-exchange film to make a mono-valent cation perm-selective film. In plasma-polymerization, the relations of polymerizing pressure, as parameter, to the deposition rate of the polymerizerd film and the characteristics of compound were clarified. In preparing the anion-exchange thin film, the preparation of uniform ultrathin films with no pinhole was attempted. For this purpose, the transference number of Cl[sup -] was measured so as to confirm that Cl[sup -] is uniformly distributed and fixed cation groups are distributed uniformly in the film. The perm-selective film exhibited a high mono-valent cation perm-selectivity while its film resistance was increased. This increase is found to be broken down to the resistance of the plasma-polymerization film layer and the resistance of the film interface. The latter arises from the implantation of nitrogen-cointaining species in the plasma onto the surface of the cation exchange film. 26 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Electroacoustic Process Study of Plasma Sparker Under Different Water Depth

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yifan

    2015-01-05

    The plasma sparker has been applied in oceanic high-resolution seismic exploration for decades. Normally it is towed on the water surface. This is suitable for shallow water, but if the water depth is great, the resolution will decrease dramatically, especially in the horizontal direction. This paper proposes the concept of a deep-towed plasma sparker and presents an experimental study of plasma sparker performance in terms of electric parameters, bubble behavior, and acoustic characteristics. The results show that hydrostatic pressure at a source depth ranging from 1 to 2000 m has a negligible influence on the electric parameters but a strong influence on bubble behavior, wherein both the maximum bubble radius and oscillation period are decreased. The collapse pulse vanishes when the source depth reaches 1000 m or deeper, and no bubble oscillation can be distinguished. The source level (evaluated by the expansion pulse) is also decreased as the source depth increases; moreover, the greater the discharge energy, the smaller the source level loss. The discharge energy per electrode should be greater than 20 J for the deep-towed plasma sparker, which can make the source level loss induced by hydrostatic pressure smaller than the transmission loss. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) results show that the dominant energy is around 20 kHz, which is mainly induced by the expansion pulse and its oscillation. According to the simulation results, the fundamental frequency of the acoustic waveform increases with source depth in accord with a log linear trend, and also reaches tens of kilohertz in deep water. So, before the development of deep-towed plasma sparker, a new technical solution will need to be developed to solve this problem. © 1976-2012 IEEE.

  16. Nonlinear plasma processes and the formation of electron kappa distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The goal of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is to establish fundamental relationship between the time irreversible macroscopic dynamics and the underlying time reversible behavior of microscopic system. The paradigm of achieving this seemingly paradoxical goal is through the concept of probability. For classical systems Boltzmann accomplished this through his H theorem and his kinetic equation for dilute gas. Boltzmann's H function is the same as classical extensive entropy aside from the minus sign, and his kinetic equation is applicable for short-range molecular interaction. For plasmas, the long-range electromagnetic force dictates the inter-particular interaction, and the underlying entropy is expected to exhibit non-extensive, or non-additive behavior. Among potential models for the non-additive entropy, the celebrated Tsallis entropy is the most well known. One of the most useful fundamental kinetic equations that governs the long-range plasma interaction is that of weak turbulence kinetic theory. At present, however, there is no clear-cut connection between the Tsallis entropy and the kinetic equations that govern plasma behavior. This can be contrasted to Boltzmann's H theorem, which is built upon his kinetic equation. The best one can do is to show that the consequences of Tsallis entropy and plasma kinetic equation are the same, that is, they both imply kappa distribution. This presentation will overview the physics of electron acceleration by beam-generated Langmuir turbulence, and discuss the asymptotic solution that rigorously can be shown to correspond to the kappa distribution. Such a finding is a strong evidence, if not water-tight proof, that there must be profound inter-relatioship between the Tsallis thermostatistical theory and the plasma kinetic theory.

  17. Achieving atomistic control in materials processing by plasma-surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey; Chang, Jane P.

    2017-06-01

    The continuous down-scaling of electronic devices and the introduction of functionally improved novel materials require a greater atomic level controllability in the synthesis and patterning of thin film materials, especially with regards to deposition uniformity and conformality as well as etching selectivity and anisotropy. The richness of plasma chemistry and the corresponding plasma-surface interactions provide the much needed processing flexibility and efficacy. To achieve the integration of the novel materials into devices, plasma-enhanced atomic layer processing techniques are emerging as the enabling factors to obtain atomic scale control of complex materials and nanostructures. This review focuses on an overview of the role of respective plasma species involved in plasma-surface interactions, addressing their respective and synergistic effects, which is followed by two distinct applications: plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) and atomic layer etching (ALE). For plasma-enhanced ALD, this review emphasizes the use of plasma chemistry to enable alternative pathways to synthesize complex materials at low temperatures and the challenges associated with deposition conformality. For plasma enabled ALE processes, the review focuses on the surface-specific chemical reactions needed to achieve desirable selectivity and anisotropy.

  18. Computers as Research Tools 2.Data Processing and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Namio

    This article introduces how to process and visualize scientific data with using ”Gnuplot” which is freely available plotting utility from the Internet. Not only a simple example of drawing a single plot on a page but also advanced feature of handling data stream and communication to the external application is explained.

  19. FACILITATION AS A TOOL FOR INCLUSIVE PROCESSES IN CLASSROOMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Jensen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    and teachers influence on inclusive processes in the classrooms. Furthermore, my study focuses on strategies, methods and approaches that are used by the supervisors to support teachers in order to develop inclusive education. I have studied four different facilitation settings with teachers and supervisors...

  20. Framework, process and tool for managing technology-based assets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available ) and the intellectual property (IP) of the organisation, The study describes a framework linking the core processes supporting the management of technology-based assets and offerings with other organisational elements such as leadership, strategy, and culture. Specific...

  1. Developing Evaluative Tool for Online Learning and Teaching Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksal, Fahriye A.

    2011-01-01

    The research study aims to underline the development of a new scale on online learning and teaching process based on factor analysis. Further to this, the research study resulted in acceptable scale which embraces social interaction role, interaction behaviour, barriers, capacity for interaction, group interaction as sub-categories to evaluate…

  2. Game Inspired Tool Support for e-Learning Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Marie-Therese; Bustard, David; Black, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    Student engagement is crucial to the success of e-learning but is often difficult to achieve in practice. One significant factor is the quality of the learning content; also important, however, is the suitability of the process through which that material is studied. In recent years much research has been devoted to improving e-learning content…

  3. Simultaneous computation within a sequential process simulation tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Endrestøl

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an equation solver superstructure developed for a sequential modular dynamic process simulation system as part of a Eureka project with Norwegian and British participation. The purpose of the development was combining some of the advantages of equation based and purely sequential systems, enabling implicit treatment of key variables independent of module boundaries, and use of numerical integration techniques suitable for each individual type of variable. For training simulator applications the main advantages are gains in speed due to increased stability limits on time steps and improved consistency of simulation results. The system is split into an off-line analysis phase and an on-line equation solver. The off-line processing consists of automatic determination of the topological structure of the system connectivity from standard process description files and derivation of an optimized sparse matrix solution procedure for the resulting set of equations. The on-line routine collects equation coefficients from involved modules, solves the combined sets of structured equations, and stores the results appropriately. This method minimizes the processing cost during the actual simulation. The solver has been applied in the Veslefrikk training simulator project.

  4. Multimodal chromatography: an efficient tool in downstream processing of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallberg, Kristian; Johansson, Hans-Olof; Bulow, Leif

    2012-12-01

    Chromatography has become an indispensable tool for the purification of proteins. Since the regulatory demands on protein purity are expected to become stricter, the need for generating improved resins for chromatographic separations has increased. More advanced scientific investigations of protein structure/function relationships, in particular, have also been a driving force for generating more sophisticated chromatographic materials for protein separations. As a consequence, the development of alternative chromatographic strategies has been very rapid during the past decade and several new ligands have been designed and explored both in the laboratory and in large-scale industrial settings. This review describes some of these efforts using multimodal chromatography, where two or more physicochemical properties are used to enhance the specificity of the interactions between the protein and the ligand on the chromatographic matrix. In addition to experimental studies, computer modeling of ligand-protein binding has improved the design of ligands for protein recognition. The use of descriptors as well as in silico docking methods have been implemented to design multimodal resins in several instances.

  5. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  6. Atmospheric Pressure Non-Equilibrium Plasma as a Green Tool to Crosslink Gelatin Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Anna; Bigi, Adriana; Colombo, Vittorio; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Gherardi, Matteo; Gualandi, Chiara; Oleari, Maria Chiara; Panzavolta, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Electrospun gelatin nanofibers attract great interest as a natural biomaterial for cartilage and tendon repair despite their high solubility in aqueous solution, which makes them also difficult to crosslink by means of chemical agents. In this work, we explore the efficiency of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma in stabilizing gelatin nanofibers. We demonstrate that plasma represents an innovative, easy and environmentally friendly approach to successfully crosslink gelatin electrospun mats directly in the solid state. Plasma treated gelatin mats display increased structural stability and excellent retention of fibrous morphology after immersion in aqueous solution. This method can be successfully applied to induce crosslinking both in pure gelatin and genipin-containing gelatin electrospun nanofibers, the latter requiring an even shorter plasma exposure time. A complete characterization of the crosslinked nanofibres, including mechanical properties, morphological observations, stability in physiological solution and structural modifications, has been carried out in order to get insights on the occurring reactions triggered by plasma.

  7. VUV diagnostic of electron impact processes in low temperature molecular hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Komppula, J

    2015-01-01

    Novel methods for diagnostics of molecular hydrogen plasma processes, such as ionization, production of high vibrational levels, dissociation of molecules via excitation to singlet and triplet states and production of metastable states, are presented for molecular hydrogen plasmas in corona equilibrium. The methods are based on comparison of rate coefficients of plasma processes and optical emission spectroscopy of lowest singlet and triplet transitions, i.e. Lyman-band ($B^1\\Sigma^+_u \\rightarrow X^1\\Sigma^+_g$) and molecular continuum ($a^3\\Sigma^+_g \\rightarrow b^3\\Sigma^+_u$), of the hydrogen molecule in VUV wavelength range. Comparison of rate coefficients of spin-allowed and/or spin-forbidden excitations reduces the uncertainty caused by the non-equilibrium distributions of electron energy and molecular vibrational level, which are typically known poorly in plasma sources. The described methods are applied to estimate the rates of various plasma processes in a filament arc discharge.

  8. Parallel workflow tools to facilitate human brain MRI post-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaixu eCui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques are widely applied in human brain studies. To obtain specific brain measures of interest from MRI datasets, a number of complex image post-processing steps are typically required. Parallel workflow tools have recently been developed, concatenating individual processing steps and enabling fully automated processing of raw MRI data to obtain the final results. These workflow tools are also designed to make optimal use of available computational resources and to support the parallel processing of different subjects or of independent processing steps for a single subject. Automated, parallel MRI post-processing tools can greatly facilitate relevant brain investigations and are being increasingly applied. In this review, we briefly summarize these parallel workflow tools and discuss relevant issues.

  9. CPS Modeling of CNC Machine Tool Work Processes Using an Instruction-Domain Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Building cyber-physical system (CPS models of machine tools is a key technology for intelligent manufacturing. The massive electronic data from a computer numerical control (CNC system during the work processes of a CNC machine tool is the main source of the big data on which a CPS model is established. In this work-process model, a method based on instruction domain is applied to analyze the electronic big data, and a quantitative description of the numerical control (NC processes is built according to the G code of the processes. Utilizing the instruction domain, a work-process CPS model is established on the basis of the accurate, real-time mapping of the manufacturing tasks, resources, and status of the CNC machine tool. Using such models, case studies are conducted on intelligent-machining applications, such as the optimization of NC processing parameters and the health assurance of CNC machine tools.

  10. Practicing universal design to actual hand tool design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai-Chieh; Wu, Chih-Fu

    2015-09-01

    UD evaluation principles are difficult to implement in product design. This study proposes a methodology for implementing UD in the design process through user participation. The original UD principles and user experience are used to develop the evaluation items. Difference of product types was considered. Factor analysis and Quantification theory type I were used to eliminate considered inappropriate evaluation items and to examine the relationship between evaluation items and product design factors. Product design specifications were established for verification. The results showed that converting user evaluation into crucial design verification factors by the generalized evaluation scale based on product attributes as well as the design factors applications in product design can improve users' UD evaluation. The design process of this study is expected to contribute to user-centered UD application.

  11. Retro-Techno-Economic Analysis: Using (Bio)Process Systems Engineering Tools to Attain Process Target Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Felipe F.; Costa, Caliane B B; Secchi, Argimiro R.

    2016-01-01

    Economic analysis, allied to process systems engineering tools, can provide useful insights about process techno-economic feasibility. More interestingly, rather than being used to evaluate specific process conditions, this techno-economic analysis can be turned upside down to achieve target valu...

  12. Image processing tool for automatic feature recognition and quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xing; Stoddard, Ryan J.

    2017-05-02

    A system for defining structures within an image is described. The system includes reading of an input file, preprocessing the input file while preserving metadata such as scale information and then detecting features of the input file. In one version the detection first uses an edge detector followed by identification of features using a Hough transform. The output of the process is identified elements within the image.

  13. Intra-Theater Mobilization: Guidance, Process, and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    theorist Eliyahu Goldratt put this need into perspective in The Haystack Syndrome: Sifting Information out of the Data Ocean: Every organization is...judged not in isolation, but on what it contributes to the global purpose. The developer of TOC, Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt , expands on this approach: How to...the process. Goldratt refers to this as a shipping buffer, since it buffers against throughput lost when "shipments" of the product are not ready to

  14. Cell-bionics: tools for real-time sensor processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumazou, Chris; Cass, Tony

    2007-08-29

    The accurate monitoring of the physiological status of cells, tissues and whole organisms demands a new generation of devices capable of providing accurate data in real time with minimal perturbation of the system being measured. To deliver on the promise of cell-bionics advances over the past decade in miniaturization, analogue signal processing, low-power electronics, materials science and protein engineering need to be brought together. In this paper we summarize recent advances in our research that is moving us in this direction. Two areas in particular are highlighted: the exploitation of the physical properties inherent in semiconductor devices to perform very low power on chip signal processing and the use of gene technology to tailor proteins for sensor applications. In the context of engineered tissues, cell-bionics could offer the ability to monitor the precise physiological state of the construct, both during 'manufacture' and post-implantation. Monitoring during manufacture, particularly by embedded devices, would offer quality assurance of the materials components and the fabrication process. Post-implantation monitoring would reveal changes in the underlying physiology as a result of the tissue construct adapting to its new environment.

  15. Laser plasma simulations of the generation processes of Alfven and collisionless shock waves in space plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, P. A.; Zakharov, Yu P.; Tishchenko, V. N.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Melekhov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Posukh, V. G.; Terekhin, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field Eφ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field Bφ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number MA∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*1013 cm-3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller MA ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B0∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied.

  16. Numerical simulation of the coal combustion process initiated by a plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarova, A. S.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Maksimov, V. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical experiments on the torch combustion of the coal dust prepared by a plasma-thermochemical treatment for combustion have been done using the method of three-dimensional simulation. It is shown that the plasma preparation of coal for combustion enables one to optimize the process, improve the conditions for inflammation and combustion and minimize the emissions of harmful substances.

  17. Data processing of absorption spectra from photoionized plasma experiments at Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, I. M.; Durmaz, T.; Mancini, R. C. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We discuss the processing of x-ray absorption spectra from photoionized plasma experiments at Z. The data was recorded with an imaging spectrometer equipped with two elliptically bent potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals. Both time-integrated and time-resolved data were recorded. In both cases, the goal is to obtain the transmission spectra for quantitative analysis of plasma conditions.

  18. Simulation of Forming Process as an Educational Tool Using Physical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. B.; Muda, M. R.; Samad, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Metal forming process simulation requires a very high cost including the cost for dies, machine and material and tight process control since the process involve very huge pressure. A physical modeling technique is developed and initiates a new era of educational tool of simulating the process effectively. Several publications and findings have…

  19. Educational software for the visualization of space plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Le, G.; Luhmann, J. G.; Littlefield, B.

    1995-01-01

    The UCLA Space Physics Group has developed educational software composed of a series of modules to assist students with understanding basic concepts of space plasmas and charged particle motion. Present modules cover planetary magnetospheres, charged particle motion, cold plasma waves, collisionless shock waves, and solar wind. The software is designed around the principle that students can learn more by doing rather than by reading or listening. The programs provide a laboratory-like environment in which the student can control, observe, and measure complex behavior. The interactive graphics environment allows the student to visualize the results of his or her experimentation and to try different parameters as desired. The current version of the software runs on UNIX-based operating systems in an X-Windows environment. It has been used in a classroom setting at both UCLA and the University of California at San Diego.

  20. [Development of a Text-Data Based Learning Tool That Integrates Image Processing and Displaying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Takeyuki

    2015-01-01

    We developed a text-data based learning tool that integrates image processing and displaying by Excel. Knowledge required for programing this tool is limited to using absolute, relative, and composite cell references and learning approximately 20 mathematical functions available in Excel. The new tool is capable of resolution translation, geometric transformation, spatial-filter processing, Radon transform, Fourier transform, convolutions, correlations, deconvolutions, wavelet transform, mutual information, and simulation of proton density-, T1-, and T2-weighted MR images. The processed images of 128 x 128 pixels or 256 x 256 pixels are observed directly within Excel worksheets without using any particular image display software. The results of image processing using this tool were compared with those using C language and the new tool was judged to have sufficient accuracy to be practically useful. The images displayed on Excel worksheets were compared with images using binary-data display software. This comparison indicated that the image quality of the Excel worksheets was nearly equal to the latter in visual impressions. Since image processing is performed by using text-data, the process is visible and facilitates making contrasts by using mathematical equations within the program. We concluded that the newly developed tool is adequate as a computer-assisted learning tool for use in medical image processing.

  1. Dynamics of electronegative plasmas for materials processing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    Purpose was to study equilibrium particle and energy balance and heating mechanisms in electronegative rf discharges. Attention is given to formation of non-Maxwellian electron distributions and their effect on macroscopic parameters. Research includes theory, particle- in-cell simulation, and experimental investigations. Sheath heating theory and simulation results for electropositive plasmas are used as guide. The investigation was centered on, but not limited to, study of oxygen feedstock gas in capacitively and inductively coupled rf discharges.

  2. T3PS: Tool for Parallel Processing in Parameter Scans

    CERN Document Server

    Maurer, Vinzenz

    2015-01-01

    T3PS is a program that can be used to quickly design and perform parameter scans while easily taking advantage of the multi-core architecture of current processors. It takes an easy to read and write parameter scan definition file format as input. Based on the parameter ranges and other options contained therein, it distributes the calculation of the parameter space over multiple processes and possibly computers. The derived data is saved in a plain text file format readable by most plotting software. The supported scanning strategies include: grid scan, random scan, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, numerical optimization. Several example parameter scans are shown and compared with results in the literature.

  3. Continuous improvement processes using Lean Management tools. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pârv Luminița

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes how Lean Management may be applied in the university setting to improve the management processes. The correlation of didactic, educational and research activities with the stakeholders needs is one of the main objectives of the university. In this respect, an indicator used to analyse a university, for the purposes of fulfilling its mission, respectively for the purposes of streamlining its didactic and scientific activity, is related to the number of graduates on the labour market, acting in their area of specialization. This work presents a best practice of Lean Management at Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania.

  4. Short-time plasma surface modification of HDPE powder in a Plasma Downer Reactor - process, wettability improvement and ageing effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpagaus, C. [ETH Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Process Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zentrum, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Rossi, A. [ETH Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Hoenggerberg, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Universita degli Studi di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica ed Analitica, UdR INSTM I-09100 Cagliari (Italy); Rudolf von Rohr, Ph. [ETH Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Process Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zentrum, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: vonrohr@ipe.mavt.ethz.ch

    2005-12-15

    The effectiveness of improving the wettability of HDPE powders within less than 0.1 s by plasma surface modification in a Plasma Downer Reactor is investigated. A correlation is revealed between the XPS results (O/C-ratio) and the wettability (contact angle, polar surface tension by capillary rise method). The O{sub 2}-content in the plasma feed gas has been adjusted for best wettability properties. XPS results indicate the formation of C=O and COOH functional groups on the powder surface. The O/C-ratio increased from 0.0 (no oxygen on the non-treated powder) up to 0.15 for the plasma treated HDPE powder surface. With pure O{sub 2}-plasma treatment, a water contact angle reduction from >90{sup o} (no water penetration into the untreated PE powder) down to 65{sup o} was achieved. The total surface free energy increased from 31.2 to 45 mN/m. Ageing of treated powders occurs and proceeds mostly within the first 7 days of storage. Contact angle measurements and O1s/O2s intensity ratio data support that ageing is mainly a diffusion-controlled process. Nevertheless, XPS results show the presence of oxygen functional groups even after 40 days, which explains why the powder is still dispersible in water without any addition of surfactants.

  5. Note: A single-chamber tool for plasma activation and surface functionalization in microfabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Adam J.; Scherrer, Joseph R.; Reiserer, Ronald S., E-mail: ron.reiserer@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt Institute for Integrative Biosystems Research and Education and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present a simple apparatus for improved surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices. A single treatment chamber for plasma activation and chemical/physical vapor deposition steps minimizes the time-dependent degradation of surface activation that is inherent in multi-chamber techniques. Contamination and deposition irregularities are also minimized by conducting plasma activation and treatment phases in the same vacuum environment. An inductively coupled plasma driver allows for interchangeable treatment chambers. Atomic force microscopy confirms that silane deposition on PDMS gives much better surface quality than standard deposition methods, which yield a higher local roughness and pronounced irregularities in the surface.

  6. Temperature of hydrogen radio frequency plasma under dechlorination process of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Y.; Abe, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Amano, K.; Itoh, K.; Oono, T.

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that RF (radio frequency) hydrogen plasmas promote the dechlorination process of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) under irradiation of MW (microwave). A relative emission intensity spectroscope system was used for single-shot imaging of two-dimensional temperature distributions of RF hydrogen plasmas generated in chemical solutions with several mixing ratios of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and insulation oil under MW irradiation. Our experimental results showed that the plasma generation frequencies for the oil-contaminating solutions were higher than that for the pure IPA solution. In addition, the plasma temperature in the compound liquids including both oil and IPA was higher than that in the pure IPA and oil solutions. A combination of the plasma temperature measurements and plasma composition analysis indicated that the hydrogen radicals generated in a chemical solution containing the equal volumes of IPA and oil were almost the same amounts of H and H+, while those produced in the other solutions were mainly H.

  7. Synthesis and texturization processes of (super)-hydrophobic fluorinated surfaces by atmospheric plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Hubert, Julie; Dufour, Thierry; Vandencasteele, Nicolas; Reniers, François; Viville, Pascal; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Raes, M; Terryn, Herman

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and texturization processes of fluorinated surfaces by means of atmospheric plasma are investigated and presented through an integrated study of both the plasma phase and the resulting material surface. Three methods enhancing the surface hydrophobicity up to the production of super-hydrophobic surfaces are evaluated: (i) the modification of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface, (ii) the plasma deposition of fluorinated coatings and (iii) the incorporation of nanoparticles into those fluorinated films. In all the approaches, the nature of the plasma gas appears to be a crucial parameter for the desired property. Although a higher etching of the PTFE surface can be obtained with a pure helium plasma, the texturization can only be created if O2 is added to the plasma, which simultaneously decreases the total etching. The deposition of CxFy films by a dielectric barrier discharge leads to hydrophobic coatings with water contact angles (WCAs) of 115{\\textdegree}, but only the filamentary argon d...

  8. Life Cycle Assessment Studies of Chemical and Biochemical Processes through the new LCSoft Software-tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Supawanich, Perapong; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    requirements have to be evaluated together with environmental and economic aspects. The LCSoft software-tool has been developed to perform LCA as a stand-alone tool as well as integrated with other process design tools such as process simulation, economic analysis (ECON), and sustainable process design...... (SustainPro). An extended version of LCSoft is presented in this paper. The development work consists of four main tasks. The first task consists of the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) calculation function. The second task deals with the extension of the Life Cycle Inventory database and improvement of the Life...

  9. An ontological knowledge based system for selection of process monitoring and analysis tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Gernaey, Krist; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    monitoring and analysis tools for a wide range of operations has made their selection a difficult, time consuming and challenging task. Therefore, an efficient and systematic knowledge base coupled with an inference system is necessary to support the optimal selection of process monitoring and analysis tools......, satisfying the process and user constraints. A knowledge base consisting of the process knowledge as well as knowledge on measurement methods and tools has been developed. An ontology has been designed for knowledge representation and management. The developed knowledge base has a dual feature. On the one...... procedures has been developed to retrieve the data/information stored in the knowledge base....

  10. PragmatiX: An Interactive Tool for Visualizing the Creation Process Behind Collaboratively Engineered Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, Simon; Pöschko, Jan; Strohmaier, Markus; Andrews, Keith; Tudorache, Tania; Noy, Natalya F; Nyulas, Csongor; Musen, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    With the emergence of tools for collaborative ontology engineering, more and more data about the creation process behind collaborative construction of ontologies is becoming available. Today, collaborative ontology engineering tools such as Collaborative Protégé offer rich and structured logs of changes, thereby opening up new challenges and opportunities to study and analyze the creation of collaboratively constructed ontologies. While there exists a plethora of visualization tools for ontologies, they have primarily been built to visualize aspects of the final product (the ontology) and not the collaborative processes behind construction (e.g. the changes made by contributors over time). To the best of our knowledge, there exists no ontology visualization tool today that focuses primarily on visualizing the history behind collaboratively constructed ontologies. Since the ontology engineering processes can influence the quality of the final ontology, we believe that visualizing process data represents an important stepping-stone towards better understanding of managing the collaborative construction of ontologies in the future. In this application paper, we present a tool - PragmatiX - which taps into structured change logs provided by tools such as Collaborative Protégé to visualize various pragmatic aspects of collaborative ontology engineering. The tool is aimed at managers and leaders of collaborative ontology engineering projects to help them in monitoring progress, in exploring issues and problems, and in tracking quality-related issues such as overrides and coordination among contributors. The paper makes the following contributions: (i) we present PragmatiX, a tool for visualizing the creation process behind collaboratively constructed ontologies (ii) we illustrate the functionality and generality of the tool by applying it to structured logs of changes of two large collaborative ontology-engineering projects and (iii) we conduct a heuristic evaluation

  11. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Traditional approaches for active flow separation control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are limited to relatively low-speed flows and...

  12. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Traditional approaches for active flow separation control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are limited to relatively low-speed flows and...

  13. Rapid tooling--a new approach to integrated product and process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitinger, Frank

    1997-09-01

    Rapid prototyping technologies -- especially stereolithography and plastic laser sintering -- did substantially contribute in reducing product development times. But models that are produced by rapid prototyping technologies do not meet the requirements of functional prototypes, as neither the serial material nor the serial production processes are used. This concerns injection molding and pressure die-casting prototypes. Therefore rapid tooling techniques are necessary. The main emphasis of this presentation is on the significance of rapid tooling for integrated product and process development. This is discussed using the example of evolution tooling (tools that grow with the development status). Furthermore, a survey is presented of the most important rapid tooling processes that employ rapid prototyping technologies. A distinction is made here between the process chains for rapid prototyping and conversion processes and the direct manufacture of tool components. The IWB User Center (Anwenderzentrum) in Augsburg, Germany is the first European user of the indirect metal laser sintering process. In order to communicate what has been learned from initial experience with this procedure, sample tools that have been realized are described.

  14. Feature profile evolution in plasma processing using on-wafer monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Samukawa, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    This book provides for the first time a good understanding of the etching profile technologies that do not disturb the plasma. Three types of sensors are introduced: on-wafer UV sensors, on-wafer charge-up sensors and on-wafer sheath-shape sensors in the plasma processing and prediction system of real etching profiles based on monitoring data. Readers are made familiar with these sensors, which can measure real plasma process surface conditions such as defect generations due to UV-irradiation, ion flight direction due to charge-up voltage in high-aspect ratio structures and ion sheath conditions at the plasma/surface interface. The plasma etching profile realistically predicted by a computer simulation based on output data from these sensors is described.

  15. Method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jeffrey W.

    2009-09-22

    Reactive atom plasma processing can be used to shape, polish, planarize and clean the surfaces of difficult materials with minimal subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use a plasma torch, such as a conventional ICP torch. The workpiece and plasma torch are moved with respect to each other, whether by translating and/or rotating the workpiece, the plasma, or both. The plasma discharge from the torch can be used to shape, planarize, polish, and/or clean the surface of the workpiece, as well as to thin the workpiece. The processing may cause minimal or no damage to the workpiece underneath the surface, and may involve removing material from the surface of the workpiece.

  16. Solution processed organic light-emitting diodes using the plasma cross-linking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kongduo; Liu, Yang; Gong, Junyi; Zeng, Pan; Kong, Xun; Yang, Xilu; Yang, Cheng; Yu, Yan; Liang, Rongqing; Ou, Qiongrong

    2016-09-01

    Solution processed multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) present challenges, especially regarding dissolution of the first layer during deposition of a second layer. In this work, we first demonstrated a plasma cross-linking technology to produce a solution processed OLED. The surfaces of organic films can be cross-linked after mixed acetylene and Ar plasma treatment for several tens of seconds and resist corrosion of organic solvent. The film thickness and surface morphology of emissive layers (EMLs) with plasma treatment and subsequently spin-rinsed with chlorobenzene are nearly unchanged. The solution processed triple-layer OLED is successfully fabricated and the current efficiency increases 50% than that of the double-layer OLED. Fluorescent characteristics of EMLs are also observed to investigate factors influencing the efficiency of the triple-layer OLED. Plasma cross-linking technology may open up a new pathway towards fabrication of all-solution processed multilayer OLEDs and other soft electronic devices.

  17. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes…

  18. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes of 24…

  19. Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

    2012-01-01

    Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)…

  20. Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

    2012-01-01

    Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)…

  1. Organization by Gordon Research Conferences of the 2012 Plasma Processing Science Conference 22-27 July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jane

    2012-07-27

    The 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in plasma science and technology as well as explore the applications of this nonequilibrium medium in possible approaches relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics and chemistry, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma generation and multi-phase plasmas. Application sessions will explore the impact of plasma technology in renewable energy, the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks and carbon dioxide neutral solar fuels (from carbon dioxide and water), and plasma-enabled medicine and sterilization.

  2. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  3. Dynamics of electronegative plasmas for materials processing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to study the equilibrium particle and energy balance and the heating mechanisms in electronegative r.f. discharges. Particular attention is given to the formation of non-Maxwellian electron distributions and their effect on the macroscopic parameters. The research includes theory, particle-in-cell simulation, and experimental investigations. The sheath heating theory and the simulation results developed for electropositive plasmas are used to guide the investigations. The investigation was centered on, but is not limited to, the study of oxygen feedstock gas in capacitively and inductively coupled r.f. discharges. 15 refs.

  4. Characteristics of Plasma Shock Waves Generated in the Pulsed Laser Ablation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智华; 张端明; 郁伯铭; 关丽

    2002-01-01

    We modify the Sedov theory to describe plasma shock waves generated in a pulsed laser ablating process. We also study the propagation characteristics of plasma shock waves during the preparation process of functional thin films deposited by a pulsed laser. In particular, we discuss in detail the temporal behaviour of energy causing the difference of the propagation characteristics between the plasma shock wave and the ideal shock wave in the point explosion model. Under the same experimental conditions, the theoretical results calculated with our modified Sedov theory are in good agreement with the existing experimental data.

  5. Numerical Simulation on Expansion Process of Ablation Plasma Induced by Intense Pulsed Ion Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Chang; LIU Yue; WANG Xiao-Gang; MA Teng-Cai

    2006-01-01

    We present a one-dimensional time-dependent numerical model for the expansion process of ablation plasmainduced by intense pulsed ion beam(IPIB).The evolutions of density,velocity,temperature,and pressure of theablation plasma of the aluminium target are obtained.The numerical results are well in agreement with therelative experimental data.It is shown that the expansion process of ablation plasma induced by IPIB includesstrongly nonlinear effects and that shock waves appear during the propagation of the ablation plasma.

  6. Recent developments in plasma spray processes for applications in energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, G.; Jarligo, M. O.; Marcano, D.; Rezanka, S.; Zhou, D.; Vaßen, R.

    2017-03-01

    This work focuses on recent developments of plasma spray processes with respect to specific demands in energy technology. High Velocity Atmospheric Plasma Spraying (HV-APS) is a novel variant of plasma spraying devoted to materials which are prone to oxidation or decomposition. It is shown how this process can be used for metallic bondcoats in thermal barrier coating systems. Furthermore, Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS) is a new method to process submicron-sized feedstock powders which are not sufficiently flowable to feed them in dry state. SPS is presently promoted by the development of novel torch concepts with axial feedstock injection. An example for a columnar structured double layer thermal barrier coating is given. Finally, Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) is a novel technology operating in controlled atmosphere at low pressure and high plasma power. At such condition, vaporization even of high-melting oxide ceramics is possible enabling the formation of columnar structured, strain tolerant coatings with low thermal conductivity. Applying different conditions, the deposition is still dominated by liquid splats. Such process is termed Low Pressure Plasma Spraying-Thin Film (LPPS-TF). Two examples of applications are gas-tight and highly ionic and electronic conductive electrolyte and membrane layers which were deposited on porous metallic substrates.

  7. Cyberdyn supercomputer - a tool for imaging geodinamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeran, Mihai; Manea, Vlad; Besutiu, Lucian; Zlagnean, Luminita

    2014-05-01

    More and more physical processes developed within the deep interior of our planet, but with significant impact on the Earth's shape and structure, become subject to numerical modelling by using high performance computing facilities. Nowadays, worldwide an increasing number of research centers decide to make use of such powerful and fast computers for simulating complex phenomena involving fluid dynamics and get deeper insight to intricate problems of Earth's evolution. With the CYBERDYN cybernetic infrastructure (CCI), the Solid Earth Dynamics Department in the Institute of Geodynamics of the Romanian Academy boldly steps into the 21st century by entering the research area of computational geodynamics. The project that made possible this advancement, has been jointly supported by EU and Romanian Government through the Structural and Cohesion Funds. It lasted for about three years, ending October 2013. CCI is basically a modern high performance Beowulf-type supercomputer (HPCC), combined with a high performance visualization cluster (HPVC) and a GeoWall. The infrastructure is mainly structured around 1344 cores and 3 TB of RAM. The high speed interconnect is provided by a Qlogic InfiniBand switch, able to transfer up to 40 Gbps. The CCI storage component is a 40 TB Panasas NAS. The operating system is Linux (CentOS). For control and maintenance, the Bright Cluster Manager package is used. The SGE job scheduler manages the job queues. CCI has been designed for a theoretical peak performance up to 11.2 TFlops. Speed tests showed that a high resolution numerical model (256 × 256 × 128 FEM elements) could be resolved with a mean computational speed of 1 time step at 30 seconds, by employing only a fraction of the computing power (20%). After passing the mandatory tests, the CCI has been involved in numerical modelling of various scenarios related to the East Carpathians tectonic and geodynamic evolution, including the Neogene magmatic activity, and the intriguing

  8. The use of digital map drawing tools in participatory spatial planning processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steekelenburg, van M.G.N.

    2003-01-01

    The CGI (GeoInformation Centre) is constructing a new digital tool, called Maptalk, which can be used in the processes of participatory spatial planning projects. The project "speelruimte" aims at testing the Maptalk

  9. Physical Modeling of Contact Processes on the Cutting Tools Surfaces of STM When Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerov, V. A.; Uteshev, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes how to create an optimization model of the process of fine turning of superalloys and steel tools from STM on CNC machines, flexible manufacturing units (GPM), machining centers. Creation of the optimization model allows you to link (unite) contact processes simultaneously on the front and back surfaces of the tool from STM to manage contact processes and the dynamic strength of the cutting tool at the top of the STM. Established optimization model of management of the dynamic strength of the incisors of the STM in the process of fine turning is based on a previously developed thermomechanical (physical, heat) model, which allows the system thermomechanical approach to choosing brands STM (domestic and foreign) for cutting tools from STM designed for fine turning of heat resistant alloys and steels.

  10. What can we learn about HiPIMS process from the multidimensional plasma modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minea, Tiberiu

    2016-09-01

    The modeling of PVD process and especially magnetron plasma is widely reported. The novel way to excite the plasma applying to the cathode very high power pulses brings the temporal dimension to the system together with new phenomena. From the kinetic model of the dense plasma region, so called Ionization Region - IR, one can quantify the global behavior of the plasma parameters during the pulse. The most significant are the plasma composition, especially in the case of reactive gases, the fraction of back-attracted sputtered ions, the rarefaction due to wind effect, but also the discharge heating mechanisms and contribution to the discharge current. From the 2D particle modeling of the plasma new insights are revealed concerning the shape of the dense plasma region, the time evolution of the sheath, the electron energy distribution function, but also the characteristics of the diffusion plasma facing the substrate. Adding the third dimension to the model, the results reveal the complex transport of electrons especially in the azimuthal direction (instabilities and drifts), the formation of spokes and flares, and the strong relation between the secondary emission of electrons from the target and the plasma structuring. Warm thanks to Peter Awakowicz and Ante Hecimovic for inviting me to this GEC edition.

  11. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Nilsson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with vascular dementia (VaD exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods: We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy in patients with VaD. Results: Elevated plasma tHcy levels in patients with VaD could only partly be attributed to cobalamin/folate deficiency or renal impairment. Plasma tHcy might also be related to the vascular disease process since patients with depression and vascular disease exhibited similar plasma tHcy levels to patients with VaD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated plasma tHcy might be a sensitive marker for the vascular disease process in patients with VaD and that the level also is a reflection of changes in the other main determinants of plasma tHcy.

  12. A Study of Impedance Relationships in Dual Frequency PECVD Process Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Douglas; Augustyniak, Edward; Sakiyama, Yukinori; Pecvd/Ald Team

    2016-09-01

    Commercial plasma process reactors are commonly operated with a very limited suite of on-board plasma diagnostics. However, as process demands advance so has the need for detailed plasma monitoring and diagnosis. The VI probe is one of the few instruments commonly available for this task. We present a study of voltage, current, impedance and phase trends acquired by off-the-shelf VI probes in Dual Frequency (DF) 400 kHz/13.56MHz capacitively-coupled plasma (CCP) as typically used for Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD). These plasmas typically operate at pressures from 1 to 5 Torr and at RF power levels of 3 W/cm2. Interpretation of DF VI probe impedance trends is challenging. Non-linear interactions are known to exist in plasma impedance scaling with low and high frequency RF power. Simple capacitive sheath models typically do not simultaneously reproduce the impedance observed at each drive frequency. This work will compare VI probe observed DF CCP impedance tends with plasma fluid simulation. Also explored is the agreement seen with sheath models presently available in the literature. Prospects for the creation of useful equivalent circuit models is also discussed.

  13. Nature of Surface Changes in Stamping Tools of Gray and Ductile Cast Iron During Gas and Plasma Nitrocarburizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roliński, E.; Konieczny, A.; Sharp, G.

    2009-11-01

    Two cast irons, pearlitic-ferritic gray and ferritic ductile, were plasma and gas nitrocarburized at the same temperature and for the same processing time to produce a compound zone of about 10-14 μm thick. It was demonstrated that both processes caused changes in the surface roughness of the irons, and the most dramatic increase of roughness was observed after gas nitrocarburizing of the gray cast iron. It was shown that the primary reason that the results were not the same is the difference in the nitriding mechanism. Significant penetration of the surface voids and imperfections between the graphite particles and the metallic matrix by ammonia molecules led to the formation of a locally thicker compound zone and a bulging of the metallic matrix above the surface. This phenomenon did not occur in the plasma process and as a result the surface changes were much smaller than in the gas process.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF MODIFICATION PROCESSES IN RESPECT OF WEAR-RESISTANT PLASMA COATINGS USING PULSE-PLASMA MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Okovity

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains information on the investigated processes and optimized technological parameters  of  highly-energy  machining of plasma  coatings  made  of  cladding  composite  powders obtained as a result of self-spreading high-temperature synthesis. Metallographic analysis has been carried out and coating properties machined at optimum regimes have been investigated in the paper

  15. A software tool for design of process monitoring and analysis systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Gernaey, Krist; Gani, Rafiqul

    2009-01-01

    and analysis system. A software to achieve this has been developed. Two developed supporting tools for the design, a knowledge base (consisting of the process knowledge as well as the knowledge on measurement methods & tools) and a model library (consisting of the process operational models) have been extended...... rigorously and integrated with the user interface, which made the software more generic and applicable to a wide range of problems. The software for the design of a process monitoring and analysis system is presented and illustrated with a tablet manufacturing process example.......A well designed process monitoring and analysis system is necessary to consistently achieve any predefined end product quality. Systematic computer aided methods and tools provide the means to design the necessary process monitoring and analysis systems and/or to validate any existing monitoring...

  16. Estimation of Thermal Contact Conductance between Blank and Tool Surface in Hot Stamping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Zahari; Hanafiah Shaharudin, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    In hot stamping, the determination of the thermal contact conductance values between the blank and tool surface during the process is crucial for the purpose of simulating the blank rapid cooling inside the tool using finite element analysis (FEA). The thermal contact conductance value represents the coefficient of the heat transfer at the surface of two solid bodies in contact and is known to be influenced greatly by the applied pressure. In order to estimate the value and its dependency on applied pressure, the process of hot stamping was replicated and simplified into a process of compression of heated flat blank in between the tool at different applied pressure. The temperature of the blank and tool surface were measured by means of thermocouples installed inside the tool. Based on the measured temperature, the thermal contact conductance between the surfaces was calculated using Newton's cooling law equation. The calculated value was then used to simulate the blank cooling inside the tool using FEA commercial software. This paper describes an experimental approach to estimate the thermal contact conductance between a blank made of Boron Steel (USIBOR 1500) and tool made of Tool Steel (STAVAX). Its dependency on applied pressure is also studied and the experimental results were then compared with FEA simulations.

  17. Design of a novel biomedical signal processing and analysis tool for functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Sezgin; Sakoğlu, Ünal

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a MATLAB-based graphical user interface (GUI) software tool for general biomedical signal processing and analysis of functional neuroimaging data is introduced. Specifically, electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) signals can be processed and analyzed by the developed tool, which incorporates commonly used temporal and frequency analysis methods. In addition to common methods, the tool also provides non-linear chaos analysis with Lyapunov exponents and entropies; multivariate analysis with principal and independent component analyses; and pattern classification with discriminant analysis. This tool can also be utilized for training in biomedical engineering education. This easy-to-use and easy-to-learn, intuitive tool is described in detail in this paper.

  18. Feasibility of using acoustic emission to determine in-process tool wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, L.J.

    1996-04-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) was evaluated for its ability to predict and recognize failure of cutting tools during machining processes when the cutting tool rotates and the workpiece is stationary. AE output was evaluated with a simple algorithm. AE was able to detect drill failure when the transducer was mounted on the workpiece holding fixture. Drill failure was recognized as size was reduced to 0.0003 in. diameter. The ability to predict failure was reduced with drill size, drill material elasticity, and tool coating. AE output for the turning process on a lathe was compared to turning tool insert wear. The turning tool must have sufficient wear to produce a detectable change in AE output to predict insert failure.

  19. Investigation of the plasma processability of natural carbon bearing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, V. P.

    2017-01-01

    In the south of the Russian Far East, a new perspective source of minerals was pioneered, which is the metal-bearing high carbon rocks of the Ruzhinskaya square. The rocks are rich in crystalline graphite, gold, platinum and carbon nanostructures (fullerene, nanotubes and diamond-like carbon). The technique of extraction of ultrapure (99.98%) crystalline graphite from these rocks has been developed using hydrometallugical methods. The obtained graphite was used as a raw material for plasma-chemical tests succeeded in the separation of nanodimensional carbon structures, part of which could be inherited from the natural graphite-bearing rocks. The results of investigation will be used in the development of resource-saving technology of minerals extraction.

  20. Collisional processes of interest in MFE plasma research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.E.

    1990-05-24

    Research on this grant is devoted to the calculation of heavy particle collision cross sections needed for diagnostic studies of magnetic fusion plasmas. This work requires the development and testing of new theoretical methods, with the implementation of benchmarked techniques to collisions pertinent to fusion reactors. Within the last context, we have provided charge-exchange-recombination cross sections to specific n,1-levels for diagnostic studies on TFTR and for a major compilation for IAEA. We have also completed a cross section study related to the planned neutral beam current drive for ITER. In addition, calculations were completed to assess the use of He neutral atom angular scattering measurements for JT-60. Also, new theoretical methods have been developed to more accurately calculate cross sections involving either He or H{sub 2} targets and partially stripped multiply-charged ions.

  1. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction as an efficient tool for removal of phospholipids from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Bardakci, Turgay; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2016-01-01

    Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic solv...... matrix effects were investigated with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and quetiapine as model analytes. No signs of matrix effects were observed. Finally, PALME was evaluated for the aforementioned drug substances, and data were in accordance with European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines....

  2. High-intensity X-rays interaction with matter processes in plasmas, clusters, molecules and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P

    2012-01-01

    Filling the need for a book bridging the effect of matter on X-ray radiation and the interaction of x-rays with plasmas, this monograph provides comprehensive coverage of the topic. As such, it presents and explains such powerful new X-ray sources as X-ray free-electron lasers, as well as short pulse interactions with solids, clusters, molecules, and plasmas, and X-ray matter interactions as a diagnostic tool. Equally useful for researchers and practitioners working in the field.

  3. Charge Splitting In Situ Recorder (CSIR) for Real-Time Examination of Plasma Charging Effect in FinFET BEOL Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Pei; Hsieh, Ting-Huan; Lin, Chrong Jung; King, Ya-Chin

    2017-09-18

    A novel device for monitoring plasma-induced damage in the back-end-of-line (BEOL) process with charge splitting capability is first-time proposed and demonstrated. This novel charge splitting in situ recorder (CSIR) can independently trace the amount and polarity of plasma charging effects during the manufacturing process of advanced fin field-effect transistor (FinFET) circuits. Not only does it reveal the real-time and in situ plasma charging levels on the antennas, but it also separates positive and negative charging effect and provides two independent readings. As CMOS technologies push for finer metal lines in the future, the new charge separation scheme provides a powerful tool for BEOL process optimization and further device reliability improvements.

  4. Influence and Analysis of Concentrate Degree of Plasma Arc for Heat Process of Hardening Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShuo-gui; YANHong-ri

    2004-01-01

    According to the practicable model of the plasma arc surtace quench, the influence law ot me heat process, cooling course, temperature field about surface quench treatment by plasma arc due to the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source are discussed in this paper. It shows that the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source can change the width of the hardening zone and can not change the maximum harden depth. With the increase of the concentrate degree, the area of the heat influence zone is decreased and its shape is narrowed after the heat source. Relative to cooling rate, the influence of the heat source concentrate degree for heat absorption is bigger. The correctness of the practical model are proved with experimental results for quench hardening of 45# steel by plasma arc.

  5. Hybrid-PIC Computer Simulation of the Plasma and Erosion Processes in Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R.; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Gamero-Castano, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    HPHall software simulates and tracks the time-dependent evolution of the plasma and erosion processes in the discharge chamber and near-field plume of Hall thrusters. HPHall is an axisymmetric solver that employs a hybrid fluid/particle-in-cell (Hybrid-PIC) numerical approach. HPHall, originally developed by MIT in 1998, was upgraded to HPHall-2 by the Polytechnic University of Madrid in 2006. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has continued the development of HPHall-2 through upgrades to the physical models employed in the code, and the addition of entirely new ones. Primary among these are the inclusion of a three-region electron mobility model that more accurately depicts the cross-field electron transport, and the development of an erosion sub-model that allows for the tracking of the erosion of the discharge chamber wall. The code is being developed to provide NASA science missions with a predictive tool of Hall thruster performance and lifetime that can be used to validate Hall thrusters for missions.

  6. SIMULATION TOOL OF VELOCITY AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES IN THE ACCELERATED COOLING PROCESS OF HEAVY PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Adel dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to develop and apply mathematical models for determining the velocity and temperature profiles of heavy plates processed by accelerated cooling at Usiminas’ Plate Mill in Ipatinga. The development was based on the mathematical/numerical representation of physical phenomena occurring in the processing line. Production data from 3334 plates processed in the Plate Mill were used for validating the models. A user-friendly simulation tool was developed within the Visual Basic framework, taking into account all steel grades produced, the configuration parameters of the production line and these models. With the aid of this tool the thermal profile through the plate thickness for any steel grade and dimensions can be generated, which allows the tuning of online process control models. The simulation tool has been very useful for the development of new steel grades, since the process variables can be related to the thermal profile, which affects the mechanical properties of the steels.

  7. The Oil Point Method - A tool for indicative environmental evaluation in material and process selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2000-01-01

    , transport, use to final disposal. Therefore, efforts focus on attempts to integrate environmental aspects into the whole process of product development and design. They often involve established tools and methods for environmental evaluation, such as formal Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). These tools...... are made, such as the decision upon materials and manufacturing processes. It is, therefore, a major challenge to develop tools and methods, which support the environmentally conscious selection of materials and processes while requiring only relatively little time and knowledge in the field...... methods for environmental evaluation: A formal LCA method and another indicator-based method. A set of data for applying the method is presented including over 70 materials in pure or semi-finished form, over 20 manufacturing processes and some 20 other life cycle processes. Other contributions...

  8. Electron plasmas as a diagnostic tool for hyperfine spectroscopy of antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, T.; Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Evetts, N.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S. C.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Stracka, S.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.

    2013-03-01

    Long term magnetic confinement of antihydrogen atoms has recently been demonstrated by the ALPHA collaboration at CERN, opening the door to a range of experimental possibilities. Of particular interest is a measurement of the antihydrogen spectrum. A precise comparison of the spectrum of antihydrogen with that of hydrogen would be an excellent test of CPT symmetry. One prime candidate for precision CPT tests is the ground-state hyperfine transition; measured in hydrogen to a precision of nearly one part in 1012. Effective execution of such an experiment with trapped antihydrogen requires precise knowledge of the magnetic environment. Here we present a solution that uses an electron plasma confined in the antihydrogen trapping region. The cyclotron resonance of the electron plasma is probed with microwaves at the cyclotron frequency and the subsequent heating of the electron plasma is measured through the plasma quadrupole mode frequency. Using this method, the minimum magnetic field of the neutral trap can be determined to within 4 parts in 104. This technique was used extensively in the recent demonstration of resonant interaction with the hyperfine levels of trapped antihydrogen atoms.

  9. Plasma as a tool for growth of 1D and 2D nanomaterials and their conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvelbar, Uros

    2015-09-01

    The growth of 1D and 2D nanostructures in low pressure oxygen plasma is presented with the special stress on metal-oxide nanowires and their deterministic growth mechanisms. Since the resulting nanostructures not always have required properties for applications their modifications are required. Therefore their conversions into different oxides or sulphites/nitrides are required with either molecules, atoms, electrons or photons.

  10. Electron plasmas as a diagnostic tool for hyperfine spectroscopy of antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, T.; Thompson, R. I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Amole, C.; Capra, A.; Menary, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Fajans, J.; Little, A.; So, C.; Wurtele, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester, UK and The Cockcroft Institute, WA4 4AD Warrington (United Kingdom); Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Rasmussen, C. O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cesar, C. L.; Silveira, D. M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Charlton, M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-03-19

    Long term magnetic confinement of antihydrogen atoms has recently been demonstrated by the ALPHA collaboration at CERN, opening the door to a range of experimental possibilities. Of particular interest is a measurement of the antihydrogen spectrum. A precise comparison of the spectrum of antihydrogen with that of hydrogen would be an excellent test of CPT symmetry. One prime candidate for precision CPT tests is the ground-state hyperfine transition; measured in hydrogen to a precision of nearly one part in 10{sup 12}. Effective execution of such an experiment with trapped antihydrogen requires precise knowledge of the magnetic environment. Here we present a solution that uses an electron plasma confined in the antihydrogen trapping region. The cyclotron resonance of the electron plasma is probed with microwaves at the cyclotron frequency and the subsequent heating of the electron plasma is measured through the plasma quadrupole mode frequency. Using this method, the minimum magnetic field of the neutral trap can be determined to within 4 parts in 10{sup 4}. This technique was used extensively in the recent demonstration of resonant interaction with the hyperfine levels of trapped antihydrogen atoms.

  11. PREFACE: 13th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The High-Tech Plasma Processes - 13th European Plasma Conference (HTPP-2014) was held in Toulouse (France) on 22-27 June 2014. The conference series started in 1990 as a thermal plasma conference and has gradually expanded to include other related topics. Now the High-Tech Plasma Processes - European Plasma Conference (HTPP) is an international conference organised in Europe every two years with topics encompassing the whole field of plasma processing science. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, to facilitate contacts between science, technology and industry and to provide a platform for the exploration of both the fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. For this edition of HTPP, as was the case for the last, we have acheived a well balanced participation from the communities of both thermal and non-thermal plasma researchers. 142 people from 17 countries attended the conference with the total number of contributions being 155, consisting of 8 plenary and 8 invited talks plus 51 oral and 88 poster contributions. We have received numerous papers corresponding to the contributions of HTPP-2014 that have been submitted for publication in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Each submitted contribution has been peer reviewed (60 referees with at least two reviewing each paper) and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In total, 52 manuscripts have been accepted for publication covering a range of topics of plasma processing science from plasma fundamentals to process applications through to experiments, diagnostics and modelling. We have grouped the papers into the following 5 topics: - Arc-Materials Interaction and Metallurgy - Plasma Torches and Spraying - Synthesis of Powders and Nanomaterials - Deposition and Surface Treatment - Non-Equilibrium Plasmas We deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high

  12. Effect of Using Automated Auditing Tools on Detecting Compliance Failures in Unmanaged Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganata, Yurdaer; Curbera, Francisco

    The effect of using automated auditing tools to detect compliance failures in unmanaged business processes is investigated. In the absence of a process execution engine, compliance of an unmanaged business process is tracked by using an auditing tool developed based on business provenance technology or employing auditors. Since budget constraints limit employing auditors to evaluate all process instances, a methodology is devised to use both expert opinion on a limited set of process instances and the results produced by fallible automated audit machines on all process instances. An improvement factor is defined based on the average number of non-compliant process instances detected and it is shown that the improvement depends on the prevalence of non-compliance in the process as well as the sensitivity and the specificity of the audit machine.

  13. Process Intensification Tools in the Small‐Scale Pharmaceutical Manufacturing of Small Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2015-01-01

    of processes are in a state of change. However, it is important to note that not all processes can be intensified easily, such as slow chemical reactions, processes with solids, slurries, and on the like. This review summarizes applications of promising tools for achieving process intensification in the small......‐scale pharmaceutical manufacturing of so‐called small molecules. The focus is on microwave radiation, microreactors, ultrasounds, and meso‐scale tubular reactors....

  14. Investigation of the Processing Parameters Impact on the Flexural Tool Vibrations While Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an approach to analyze a dynamic stability of the drilling process in terms of tool flexibility. The proposed technique takes into consideration a regenerative effect leading to time delay in the dynamic system. This regenerative delay is the main source of arising dynamically unstable machining conditions. The paper describes a principle of emerging self-vibrations while cutting. It mentions the undesirable nature of transverse bending selfvibrations of tool, which cause a decreasing quality of the processed hole surface.The suggested approach consists in building a diagram of the drilling process stability for a tool model allowing only its flexural vibrations. The feature of the study is to describe tool dynamics using a finite element model based on the quadratic approximation of displacements for tool dynamics modeling. The assumption of an axial symmetry of drill geometry was discarded. The reduced model of tool was built taking into account two eigenvectors corresponding to tool bending. This model contains 2 degrees of freedom (DOF, which are, essentially, rotations of a drill tip. The technology of rigid multi-point constraints was used to connect those DOFs with solid finite element nodes. The system of delayed differential equations describing the reduced tool model dynamics was derived to estimate a dynamic stability of the drilling process. The Floquet theory is applied to build a stability diagram as a maximum multiplicator value versus a drill rotation rate. The presented diagram allows us to draw a conclusion that in the wide range of rotation frequencies transverse bending self- vibrations can be excited. The results obtained and the calculation technique may be used to choose the operation modes free from undesirable flexural self-vibrations of tool.The reported study was supported by RFBR within the framework of the research project ” mol_a”№ 14-08-31603 “Development of methods and algorithms for

  15. The use of process plasmas for cleaning PCB substrates for fluxless soldering of electronic assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philpott, J.D

    1999-12-01

    In this thesis the ability of single and multiple gas plasmas to improve the solderability of PCB substrates, and hence allow the removal of flux from the soldering process for electronic assemblies has been investigated. It has been shown that asymmetric electrode plasma chambers allow the use of single gas plasmas for this purpose due to their greater efficiency compared to symmetric systems. It has also been shown that the use of triple gas plasmas results in improved cleaning ability when using symmetric electrode systems. Dynamic contact angle (DCA) analysis was the primary analytical technique used in this work. This technique produces two contact angles, advancing and receding. The advancing contact angle determines the surface energy of a solid. It has been shown using Auger analysis that contact angles of approximately 48 deg indicate low levels of hydrocarbon contamination. It has also been shown that plasma cleaning processes giving advancing contact angles of this magnitude result in the ability to solder Hot Air Solder Leveled (HASL) PCB substrates without the use of flux. In addition it has been shown that, whilst it is possible to reduce the advancing contact angle of copper substrates considerably, the reduction is not as great as for HASL substrates. Analytical models of RF plasma chambers have also been reviewed, and these adapted for the plasma chambers used in this work. The experimental work carried out in this research also shows that these models hold true. (author)

  16. Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Coatings Synthesized by the Liquid Precursor Plasma Spraying Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanfeng; Song, Lei; Liu, Xiaoguang; Huang, Yi; Huang, Tao; Chen, Jiyong; Wu, Yao; Wu, Fang

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the liquid precursor plasma spraying process was used to manufacture P2O5-Na2O-CaO-SiO2 bioactive glass-ceramic coatings (BGCCs), where sol and suspension were used as feedstocks for plasma spraying. The effect of precursor and spray parameters on the formation and crystallinity of BGCCs was systematically studied. The results indicated that coatings with higher crystallinity were obtained using the sol precursor, while nanostructured coatings predominantly consisting of amorphous phase were synthesized using the suspension precursor. For coatings manufactured from suspension, the fraction of the amorphous phase increased with the increase in plasma power and the decrease in liquid precursor feed rate. The coatings synthesized from the suspension plasma spray process also showed a good in vitro bioactivity, as suggested by the fast apatite formation when soaking into SBF.

  17. Challenges in the characterization of plasma-processed three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ellen R

    2013-10-09

    Low-temperature plasmas offer a versatile method for delivering tailored functionality to a range of materials. Despite the vast array of choices offered by plasma processing techniques, there remain a significant number of hurdles that must be overcome to allow this methodology to realize its full potential in the area of biocompatible materials. Challenges include issues associated with analytical characterization, material structure, plasma processing, and uniform composition following treatment. Specific examples and solutions are presented utilizing results from analyses of three-dimensional (3D) poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds treated with different plasma surface modification strategies that illustrate these challenges well. Notably, many of these strategies result in 3D scaffolds that are extremely hydrophilic and that enhance human Saos-2 osteoblast cell growth and proliferation, which are promising results for applications including tissue engineering and advanced biomedical devices.

  18. A Method for Measurement of Dynamic Sheath Behavior in Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hongchen; MA Guojia; PENG Liping; FENG Jianji; ZHANG Huafang; MA Tengcai

    2008-01-01

    A method to measure temporal and spatial evolution of sheath in plasma immersion ion implantation (PⅢ) process is presented.A long Langrnuir probe (φ 5 mm×φ 78 mm) with low bias is used to detect the sheath propagation and backup with time.The aubstrate made of Al cylinder (φ20 mm×φ150 mm) is immersed in nitrogen and argon plasma induced by magnetron self-sustained discharge.The maximum sheath sizes,at different plasma densities under different discharge currents,are measured and compared.

  19. ASPECTS REGARDING THE OPTIMUM CUTTING TOOL PATH IN PROCESSING FREE-FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CHIFAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach on tool paths optimization in CAM-type software for milling free forms, with the goal to improve efficiency in processing using CNC machine tools. The methodology proposed in this paper, tackles the problem of mechanical processing in 3 axes using ball nose milling cutters of small diameters, which follows a free form profile. I will consider two cases: the first one considers the ball nose end mill route on a free form with an angle of less than 30°, the second one with a tool path greater than 30°. The main objective of this paper is to determine the optimum angle in order to obtain a better surface roughness, a shorter time of processing and also a higher tool-life, all these by considering all other factors that occurs in the manufacturing process. This will be done by indicating and editing the tool path so that the tools will the minimum entries and exits on the surface of the piece. This will lead to a 10% decrease of the working time.

  20. Data Analysis Techniques for Resolving Nonlinear Processes in Plasmas : a Review

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, T. Dudok

    1996-01-01

    The growing need for a better understanding of nonlinear processes in plasma physics has in the last decades stimulated the development of new and more advanced data analysis techniques. This review lists some of the basic properties one may wish to infer from a data set and then presents appropriate analysis techniques with some recent applications. The emphasis is put on the investigation of nonlinear wave phenomena and turbulence in space plasmas.

  1. Non-equilibrium effects in the processing of materials using plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangolini, Lorenzo [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2016-06-02

    We have provided experimental evidence that nanoparticles in plasma are heated to temperatures that are significantly higher than that of the background gas. This result gives experimental confirmation to a number of theoretical/computational studies that predicted this behavior. Moreover, this study has provided with the first measurement of the temperature of nanoparticles in a processing dusty plasma, i.e. under conditions that are relevant for the growth and modification of nanopowders.

  2. SCOOP: A Tool for SymboliC Optimisations Of Probabilistic Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark; Palamidessi, C.; Riska, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents SCOOP: a tool that symbolically optimises process-algebraic specifications of probabilistic processes. It takes specifications in the prCRL language (combining data and probabilities), which are linearised first to an intermediate format: the LPPE. On this format, optimisations s

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of titanium nitride coatings for cemented carbide cutting tools by pulsed high energy density plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zhijian; MIAO Hezhuo; QI Longhao; GONG Jianghong; YANG Size; LIU Chizi

    2003-01-01

    Hard, wear-resistant and well-adhesive titanium nitride coatings on cemented carbide cutting tools were prepared by the pulsed high energy density plasma technique at ambient temperature. The results of Auger spectra analysis indicated that the interface between the coating and substrate was more than 250 nm.Under optimized deposition conditions, the highest critical load measured by nanoscratch tester was more than 90 mN, which meant that the TiN film was well adhesive to the substrate; the highest nanohardness and Young's modulus according to nanoindentation tests were near to 27 and 450 GPa. The results of cutting tests evaluated by turning hardened CrWMn steel in industrial conditions indicated that the wear resistance and edge life of the cemented carbide tools were enhanced dramatically because of the deposition of titanium nitride coatings. These improvements were attributed to the three combined effects: the deposition and ion implantation of the pulsed plasma and the becoming finer of the grain sizes.

  4. PREFACE: 12th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleizes, Alain; Ghedini, Emanuele; Gherardi, Matteo; Sanibondi, Paolo; Dilecce, Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    The High-Tech Plasma Processes - 12th European Plasma Conference (HTPP-12) was held in Bologna (Italy) on 24-29 June 2012. The conference series started in 1990 as a thermal plasma conference and gradually expanded to include other topic fields as well. Now the High-Tech Plasma Processes - European Plasma Conference (HTPP) is a bi-annual international conference based in Europe with topics encompassing the whole area of plasma processing science. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, facilitate the contacts between science, technology and industry and provide a platform for the exploration of both fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. Thanks to the efforts of the conference chairman, Professor Vittorio Colombo and of the co-chair, Professor Piero Favia, a well balanced participation from both the communities of thermal and nonthermal plasma researchers was achieved; this resulted in just about 196 attendees from 39 countries, with 8 plenary and 15 invited talks, plus 50 oral and 140 poster contributions. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series gathers papers from regular contributions of HTPP-12; each contribution submitted for publication has been peer reviewed and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In the end, 39 manuscripts were accepted for publication, covering different topics of plasma processing science: from plasma fundamentals and modelling to source design and process diagnostics, from nanomaterial synthesis to surface modification, from waste treatment to plasma applications in a liquid environment. It is an honour to present this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contribution. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the international scientific committee, the local

  5. Plasma monitoring and PECVD process control in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Onno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A key process in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD of the active layers. The deposition process can be monitored in situ by plasma diagnostics. Three types of complementary diagnostics, namely optical emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and non-linear extended electron dynamics are applied to an industrial-type PECVD reactor. We investigated the influence of substrate and chamber wall temperature and chamber history on the PECVD process. The impact of chamber wall conditioning on the solar cell performance is demonstrated.

  6. Prediction of Dissociation Process of Ceramic Powder Materials under Plasma Heating Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangBoyi; TianWendong

    1993-01-01

    A model of the thermal dissocition process has been developed for the numerical simulation of ceramic powder processing in a d.c. plasma reactor.The temperature histories of zircon grains were calculated based on this model.Comparisons were carried out to determine the effects of plasma gas (N2 and Ar),free stream temperature (6000-15000)K and Reynolds number (0.0-1.0) as well as particle diameter(20-200μm)on the zircon dissociation process.The influences of proper Nusselt numer correlation and variable transport properties were discussed in detail.

  7. Cholesterol concentration in seminal plasma as a predictive tool for quality semen evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer-Ljubić, B; Aladrović, J; Marenjak, T S; Laskaj, R; Majić-Balić, I; Milinković-Tur, S

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lipid composition of bovine serum and seminal plasma, seasonality, and semen quality. The experiment was carried out in two groups of Simmental breeding bulls: Group I (ages 2 to 4 yr) and Group II (ages 5 to 10 yr). Blood samples were collected from jugular vein, and bovine semen was sampled with an artificial vagina once per season. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerols, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and lipoprotein electrophoretic patterns were determined. Seminal plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C were assayed. Serum concentration of triacylglycerols in young bulls was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn, whereas serum NEFA concentration was significantly higher in autumn compared with that in other seasons. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and LDL lipoproteins in older bulls was significantly higher in winter than in spring. Seminal plasma concentration of total cholesterol in young bulls was significantly higher in spring compared with that in summer, whereas in older bulls it was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn samples. Sperm volume of both groups was significantly higher in summer compared with that in autumn and winter. Sperm motility in young bulls was lowest in summer and differed significantly from the values recorded in other seasons. The changes observed in seminal plasma cholesterol concentration were associated with extracellular lipid use and appeared to be applicable as a biochemical marker of sperm quality.

  8. Identification of hepatotropic viruses from plasma using deep sequencing: a next generation diagnostic tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Law

    Full Text Available We conducted an unbiased metagenomics survey using plasma from patients with chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and patients without liver disease (control. RNA and DNA libraries were sequenced from plasma filtrates enriched in viral particles to catalog virus populations. Hepatitis viruses were readily detected at high coverage in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and C, but only a limited number of sequences resembling other viruses were found. The exception was a library from a patient diagnosed with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection that contained multiple sequences matching GB virus C (GBV-C. Abundant GBV-C reads were also found in plasma from patients with AIH, whereas Torque teno virus (TTV was found at high frequency in samples from patients with AIH and NASH. After taxonomic classification of sequences by BLASTn, a substantial fraction in each library, ranging from 35% to 76%, remained unclassified. These unknown sequences were assembled into scaffolds along with virus, phage and endogenous retrovirus sequences and then analyzed by BLASTx against the non-redundant protein database. Nearly the full genome of a heretofore-unknown circovirus was assembled and many scaffolds that encoded proteins with similarity to plant, insect and mammalian viruses. The presence of this novel circovirus was confirmed by PCR. BLASTx also identified many polypeptides resembling nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV proteins. We re-evaluated these alignments with a profile hidden Markov method, HHblits, and observed inconsistencies in the target proteins reported by the different algorithms. This suggests that sequence alignments are insufficient to identify NCLDV proteins, especially when these alignments are only to small portions of the target protein. Nevertheless, we have now established a reliable protocol for the identification of viruses in plasma that can also be

  9. Atmospheric pressure plasma CVD as a tool to functionalise wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spange, Sebastian; Pfuch, Andreas; Wiegand, Cornelia; Beier, Oliver; Hipler, Uta C; Grünler, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    The main goal of this investigation was the preparation of an antibacterial layer system for additional modification of wound dressings with atmospheric plasma. Furthermore, the modified wound dressings were checked on there bactericidal and cytotoxic activity. The layer system was applied by using a novel atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapour deposition technique on a variety of textile substrates which are suitable as wound dressing materials. The layer system composed of silicon dioxide with in situ generated embedded silver nanoparticles. The bactericidal activity of the produced wound dressings was investigated against different bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae while the cytotoxic potential of the coated wound dressings was verified using human keratinocytes. Even at low concentrations of silver precursor a strong antibacterial effect was observed in direct contact with S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. Furthermore, extractions produced from the coated textiles showed a good antibacterial effect. By means of optimised coating parameters a therapeutic window for those wound dressings could be identified. Consequently, the atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapour deposition technique promise an effective and low cost modification of wound dressing materials.

  10. Chip-ejection interference in cutting processes of modern cutting tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师汉民

    1999-01-01

    Based on the “principle of minimum energy”, the basic characteristics of non-free cutting are studied; the phenomenon and the nature of chip-ejection interference commonly existing in the cutting process of modem cutting tools are explored. A "synthesis method of elementary cutting tools" is suggested for modeling the cutting process of modem complex cutting tools. The general equation governing the chip-ejection motion is deduced. Real examples of non-free cutting are analyzed and the theoretically predicted results are supported by the experimental data or facts. The sufficient and necessary conditions for eliminating chip-ejection interference and for realizing free cutting are given; the idea and the technical approach of "the principle of free cutting" are also discussed, and a feasible way for improving or optimizing the cutting performance of modem cutting tools is, therefore, found.

  11. [Innovator practices in collective health: re-reading tool of the health disease process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Marcia Regina; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2007-12-01

    This study aims to present the basis to build a re-reading tool of the Health-Disease Process which relies on dialogical relation among social categories and the functional variables found in the a consultation instrument. The tool is an analytical model for decision support that intends the development of data warehousing. Data from the electronic records of nursing consultation were related to the categories: need, social class, gender, race and generation, unveil the social aspects of the health--disease process and assign degrees of vulnerability to homogeneous social groups. Four degrees of vulnerability can be observed that are qualified by eleven markers. The tool lead to the reflection that inequalities are reproduced as time goes by and transforms groups in targets from the social immobility. Although there are some gaps for the visualization of the social categories, the tool enables to visualize the collective face of families and social groups.

  12. The Process of Plasma Chemical Photoresist Film Ashing from the Surface of Silicon Wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siarhei Bordusau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the research for finding new technical methods of treating materials with plasma, including the development of energy and resource saving technologies for microelectronic manufacturing, is particularly actual.In order to improve the efficiency of microwave plasma chemical ashing of photoresist films from the surface of silicon wafers a two-stage process of treating was developed. The idea of the developed process is that wafers coated with photoresist are pre-heated by microwave energy. This occurs because the microwave energy initially is not spent on the excitation and maintenance of a microwave discharge but it is absorbed by silicon wafers which have a high tangent of dielectric losses. During the next step after the excitation of the microwave discharge the interaction of oxygen plasma with a pre-heated photoresist films proceeds more intensively. The delay of the start of plasma forming process in the vacuum chamber of a plasmatron with respect to the beginning of microwave energy generation by a magnetron leads to the increase of the total rate of photoresist ashing from the surface of silicon wafers approximately 1.7 times. The advantage of this method of microwave plasma chemical processing of semi-conductor wafers is the possibility of intensifying the process without changing the design of microwave discharge module and without increasing the input microwave power supplied into the discharge.

  13. Plasma-statistical models of the atom in the theory of some collisional and radiative processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astapenko, VA

    2002-01-01

    A plasma-statistical model was used to describe collisional and radiative processes involving target ionization, namely, collisional ionization of atoms and incoherent polarization bremsstrahlung. The cross sections of these processes were expressed through the Compton profile of X-ray scattering, f

  14. Modeling Constellation Virtual Missions Using the Vdot(Trademark) Process Management Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Roger; ONeil, Daniel; Sturken, Ian; Nix, Michael; Yanez, Damian

    2011-01-01

    The authors have identified a software tool suite that will support NASA's Virtual Mission (VM) effort. This is accomplished by transforming a spreadsheet database of mission events, task inputs and outputs, timelines, and organizations into process visualization tools and a Vdot process management model that includes embedded analysis software as well as requirements and information related to data manipulation and transfer. This paper describes the progress to date, and the application of the Virtual Mission to not only Constellation but to other architectures, and the pertinence to other aerospace applications. Vdot s intuitive visual interface brings VMs to life by turning static, paper-based processes into active, electronic processes that can be deployed, executed, managed, verified, and continuously improved. A VM can be executed using a computer-based, human-in-the-loop, real-time format, under the direction and control of the NASA VM Manager. Engineers in the various disciplines will not have to be Vdot-proficient but rather can fill out on-line, Excel-type databases with the mission information discussed above. The author s tool suite converts this database into several process visualization tools for review and into Microsoft Project, which can be imported directly into Vdot. Many tools can be embedded directly into Vdot, and when the necessary data/information is received from a preceding task, the analysis can be initiated automatically. Other NASA analysis tools are too complex for this process but Vdot automatically notifies the tool user that the data has been received and analysis can begin. The VM can be simulated from end-to-end using the author s tool suite. The planned approach for the Vdot-based process simulation is to generate the process model from a database; other advantages of this semi-automated approach are the participants can be geographically remote and after refining the process models via the human-in-the-loop simulation, the

  15. Tools for environmental simulations and calculations in an Integrated Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    to address environmental issues. This paper in specific takes its starting point in a student project where the student is working with a building complex that have to fulfill the passive house standards and through that the student explores the use of the simulation and calculation tools in the design...... the possibilities of interoperability and the different possibilities are utilized pointing towards a heavier focus of the utilization of BIM tools in the design process from the first stages....

  16. Precision livestock tools to improve products and processes in broiler production: a review

    OpenAIRE

    MN Mollo; Vendrametto,O; MT Okano

    2009-01-01

    Economic growth and production process development require technological support. Technology changes production functions, enabling a higher number of goods to be produced using the same amount of input. In this review, we discuss research and development in information technology that has led to innovative actions, with the new generation of tools, known as precision agriculture tools, that can be applied in Brazilian poultry production. In this context, research and development have focused...

  17. Possibilities for using software tools in the process of secuirty design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mariš

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors deal with the use of software support the process of security design. The article proposes the theoretical basis of the implementation of software tools to design activities. Based on the selected design standards of electrical safety systems application design solutions, especially in drawing documentation. The article should serve the needs of the project team members in order to use selected software tools and a subsequent increase in the degree of automation of design activities.

  18. PermA and Balloon: Tools for string alignment and text processing

    OpenAIRE

    Reichel, Uwe D.

    2012-01-01

    Two online research tools are presented in this paper: PermA, a general-purpose string aligner which can for example be used for grapheme-to-phoneme and phoneme-to-phoneme alignment, and Balloon, a text processing toolkit for German and English providing components for part-of-speech tagging, morphological analyses, and grapheme-to-phoneme conversion including syllabifica- tion and word-stress assignment. The general architectures of these tools are introduced with a focus on recent imp...

  19. Overview of image processing tools to extract physical information from JET videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, T.; Murari, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Tiseanu, I.; Zoita, V.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-11-01

    In magnetic confinement nuclear fusion devices such as JET, the last few years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital imagery, not only for the surveying and control of experiments, but also for the physical interpretation of results. More than 25 cameras are routinely used for imaging on JET in the infrared (IR) and visible spectral regions. These cameras can produce up to tens of Gbytes per shot and their information content can be very different, depending on the experimental conditions. However, the relevant information about the underlying physical processes is generally of much reduced dimensionality compared to the recorded data. The extraction of this information, which allows full exploitation of these diagnostics, is a challenging task. The image analysis consists, in most cases, of inverse problems which are typically ill-posed mathematically. The typology of objects to be analysed is very wide, and usually the images are affected by noise, low levels of contrast, low grey-level in-depth resolution, reshaping of moving objects, etc. Moreover, the plasma events have time constants of ms or tens of ms, which imposes tough conditions for real-time applications. On JET, in the last few years new tools and methods have been developed for physical information retrieval. The methodology of optical flow has allowed, under certain assumptions, the derivation of information about the dynamics of video objects associated with different physical phenomena, such as instabilities, pellets and filaments. The approach has been extended in order to approximate the optical flow within the MPEG compressed domain, allowing the manipulation of the large JET video databases and, in specific cases, even real-time data processing. The fast visible camera may provide new information that is potentially useful for disruption prediction. A set of methods, based on the extraction of structural information from the visual scene, have been developed for the

  20. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Tools for Biogas Process Analysis, Diagnosis and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebuhn, Michael; Weiß, Stefan; Munk, Bernhard; Guebitz, Georg M

    2015-01-01

    Many biotechnological processes such as biogas production or defined biotransformations are carried out by microorganisms or tightly cooperating microbial communities. Process breakdown is the maximum credible accident for the operator. Any time savings that can be provided by suitable early-warning systems and allow for specific countermeasures are of great value. Process disturbance, frequently due to nutritional shortcomings, malfunction or operational deficits, is evidenced conventionally by process chemistry parameters. However, knowledge on systems microbiology and its function has essentially increased in the last two decades, and molecular biology tools, most of which are directed against nucleic acids, have been developed to analyze and diagnose the process. Some of these systems have been shown to indicate changes of the process status considerably earlier than the conventionally applied process chemistry parameters. This is reasonable because the triggering catalyst is determined, activity changes of the microbes that perform the reaction. These molecular biology tools have thus the potential to add to and improve the established process diagnosis system. This chapter is dealing with the actual state of the art of biogas process analysis in practice, and introduces molecular biology tools that have been shown to be of particular value in complementing the current systems of process monitoring and diagnosis, with emphasis on nucleic acid targeted molecular biology systems.

  1. Development and testing of an integrated rotating dynamometer on tool holder for milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Muhammad; Ghani, Jaharah A.; Nuawi, Mohd Zaki; Che Haron, Che Hassan

    2015-02-01

    The cutting force provides significant information to help understand the machining process, optimization, tool condition monitoring, tool design and others. Hence, various methods of measuring the cutting force have been proposed by many researchers. In this work, an innovative integrated rotating dynamometer and tool holder is designed, constructed and tested that can fulfil the requirement to measure the cutting force in a wireless environment system. The device consists of a strain gauge based sensor that is mounted on a newly designed force sensing element which is then placed in the rotating tool holder. The force sensing element is designed in the form of a symmetrical cross beam type with four arms, shaped as a rectangular parallelepiped. This device is intended to be used in a rotating spindle such as in milling and drilling processes. A conditioning system and an inductive telemetry transmitter unit are incorporated into a modified tool holder in order to collect and transmit the cutting force signal to the data acquisition system. The rotating dynamometer has been subjected to a series of tests to determine its static and dynamic characteristics. Thus, it is tested experimentally by conducting cutting tests up to cutting speed 550 m/min with a single-tool insert. The results show it is suitable and reliable to measure the cutting force in milling processes.

  2. Development of Multi-slice Analytical Tool to Support BIM-based Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmodiwirjo, P.; Johanes, M.; Yatmo, Y. A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the on-going development of computational tool to analyse architecture and interior space based on multi-slice representation approach that is integrated with Building Information Modelling (BIM). Architecture and interior space is experienced as a dynamic entity, which have the spatial properties that might be variable from one part of space to another, therefore the representation of space through standard architectural drawings is sometimes not sufficient. The representation of space as a series of slices with certain properties in each slice becomes important, so that the different characteristics in each part of space could inform the design process. The analytical tool is developed for use as a stand-alone application that utilises the data exported from generic BIM modelling tool. The tool would be useful to assist design development process that applies BIM, particularly for the design of architecture and interior spaces that are experienced as continuous spaces. The tool allows the identification of how the spatial properties change dynamically throughout the space and allows the prediction of the potential design problems. Integrating the multi-slice analytical tool in BIM-based design process thereby could assist the architects to generate better design and to avoid unnecessary costs that are often caused by failure to identify problems during design development stages.

  3. Nuclear fuel materials processing in reactive gas plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jin Young; Yang, Myung Seung; Seo, Yong Dae; Kim Yong Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    DUPIC fuel cycle development project in KAERI of Korea was initiated in 1991 and has advanced in relevant technologies for last 10 years. The project includes five different topics such as nuclear fuel manufacturing, compatibility evaluation, performance evaluation, manufacturing facility management, and safeguards. The contents and results of DUPIC R and D up to now are as follow: - the basic foundation was established for the critically required pelletizing technology and powder treatment technology for DUPIC. - development of DUPIC process line and deployment of 20 each process equipment and examination instruments in DFDF. - powder and pellet characterization study was done at PIEF based on the simfuel study results, and 30 DUPIC pellets were successfully produced. - the manufactured pellets were used for sample fuel rods irradiated in July,2000 in HANARO research reactor in KAERI and have been under post irradiation examination. (Hong, J. S.)

  4. A computer-aided software-tool for sustainable process synthesis-intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Babi, Deenesh K.; Bottlaender, Jack

    2017-01-01

    and determine within the design space, the more sustainable processes. In this paper, an integrated computer-aided software-tool that searches the design space for hybrid/intensified more sustainable process options is presented. Embedded within the software architecture are process synthesis...... constraints while also matching the design targets, they are therefore more sustainable than the base case. The application of the software-tool to the production of biodiesel is presented, highlighting the main features of the computer-aided, multi-stage, multi-scale methods that are able to determine more......Currently, the process industry is moving towards the design of innovative, more sustainable processes that show improvements in both economic and environmental factors. The design space of unit operations that can be combined to generate process flowsheet alternatives considering known unit...

  5. On-line elemental analysis of fossil fuel process streams by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, W.P.

    1995-06-01

    METC is continuing development of a real-time, multi-element plasma based spectrometer system for application to high temperature and high pressure fossil fuel process streams. Two versions are under consideration for development. One is an Inductively Coupled Plasma system that has been described previously, and the other is a high power microwave system. The ICP torch operates on a mixture of argon and helium with a conventional annular swirl flow plasma gas, no auxiliary gas, and a conventional sample stream injection through the base of the plasma plume. A new, demountable torch design comprising three ceramic sections allows bolts passing the length of the torch to compress a double O-ring seal. This improves the reliability of the torch. The microwave system will use the same data acquisition and reduction components as the ICP system; only the plasma source itself is different. It will operate with a 750-Watt, 2.45 gigahertz microwave generator. The plasma discharge will be contained within a narrow quartz tube one quarter wavelength from a shorted waveguide termination. The plasma source will be observed via fiber optics and a battery of computer controlled monochromators. To extract more information from the raw spectral data, a neural net computer program is being developed. This program will calculate analyte concentrations from data that includes analyte and interferant spectral emission intensity. Matrix effects and spectral overlaps can be treated more effectively by this method than by conventional spectral analysis.

  6. Development And Optical Absorption Properties Of A Laser Induced Plasma During CO2-Laser Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, E.; Bakowsky, L.; Loosen, P.; Poprawe, R.; Herziger, G.

    1984-03-01

    Laser material processing is accompanied by a laser induced plasma in front of the target surface as soon as the laser radiation exceeds a certain critical intensity. For cw CO2-laser machining of metal targets the threshold for plasma onset is about 106 W/cm2. Critical condition for plasma generation at this intensity level is to reach evaporation temperature at the target's surface. At intensity levels exceeding 106 W/cm2 the laser light is interacting with the laser induced plasma and then the plasma in turn interacts with the target. The absorptivity is no longer constant, but increases with increasing intensity of the incident radiation, so that the total amount of power coupled to the target is increasing. This holds up to intensity levels of 2'10 Wicm2. Then the plasma begins to withdraw from the target surface, thus interrupting plasma-target interaction so that the laser power is no longer coupled into the target completely. The results of laser welding (welding depth) in the intensity level of 106 W/cm2 are governed by the product of incident intensity times focus radius, so that welding results are a measure to determine focus radius and laser intensity.

  7. Computer-aided tool for solvent selection in pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; K. Tula, Anjan; Gernaey, Krist V.

    In the pharmaceutical processes, solvents have a multipurpose role since different solvents can be used in different stages (such as chemical reactions, separations and purification) in the multistage active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) production process. The solvent swap and selection task......-aided framework with the objective to assist the pharmaceutical industry in gaining better process understanding. A software interface to improve the usability of the tool has been created also....

  8. Fundamental studies of the plasma extraction and ion beam formation processes in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Hongsen

    1995-02-10

    The fundamental and practical aspects are described for extracting ions from atmospheric pressure plasma sources into an analytical mass spectrometer. Methodologies and basic concepts of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are emphasized in the discussion, including ion source, sampling interface, supersonic expansion, slumming process, ion optics and beam focusing, and vacuum considerations. Some new developments and innovative designs are introduced. The plasma extraction process in ICP-MS was investigated by Langmuir measurements in the region between the skimmer and first ion lens. Electron temperature (T{sub e}) is in the range 2000--11000 K and changes with probe position inside an aerosol gas flow. Electron density (n{sub e}) is in the range 10{sup 8}--10{sup 10} {sup {minus}cm }at the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10{sup 6}--10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}3} near the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10{sup 6}--10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}3} downstream further behind the skimmer. Electron density in the beam leaving the skimmer also depends on water loading and on the presence and mass of matrix elements. Axially resolved distributions of electron number-density and electron temperature were obtained to characterize the ion beam at a variety of plasma operating conditions. The electron density dropped by a factor of 101 along the centerline between the sampler and skimmer cones in the first stage and continued to drop by factors of 10{sup 4}--10{sup 5} downstream of skimmer to the entrance of ion lens. The electron density in the beam expansion behind sampler cone exhibited a 1/z{sup 2} intensity fall-off (z is the axial position). An second beam expansion originated from the skimmer entrance, and the beam flow underwent with another 1/z{sup 2} fall-off behind the skimmer. Skimmer interactions play an important role in plasma extraction in the ICP-MS instrument.

  9. Plasma Processing of Large Surfaces with Application to SRF Cavity Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Janardan; Popovic, Svetozar; Vuskovic, Leposova; Im, Do; Valente, Anne-Marie; Phillips, H

    2013-09-01

    Plasma based surface modifications of SRF cavities present promising alternatives to the wet etching technology currently applied. To understand and characterize the plasma properties and chemical kinetics of plasma etching processes inside a single cell cavity, we have built a specially-designed cylindrical cavity with 8 observation ports. These ports can be used for holding niobium samples and diagnostic purposes simultaneously. Two frequencies (13.56 MHz and 2.45 GHz) of power source are used for different pressure, power and gas compositions. The plasma parameters were evaluated by a Langmuir probe and by an optical emission spectroscopy technique based on the relative intensity of two Ar 5p-4s lines at 419.8 and 420.07 nm. Argon 5p-4s transition is chosen to determine electron temperature in order to optimize parameters for plasma processing. Chemical kinetics of the process was observed using real-time mass spectroscopy. The effect of these parameters on niobium surface would be measured, presented at this conference, and used as guidelines for optimal design of SRF etching process.

  10. A potential tool for diagnosis of male infertility: Plasma metabolomics based on GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyi; Wang, Yang; Yun, Yonghuan; Xia, Zian; Lu, Hongmei; Luo, Jiekun; Liang, Yizeng

    2016-01-15

    Male infertility has become an important public health problem worldwide. Nowadays the diagnosis of male infertility frequently depends on the results of semen quality or requires more invasive surgical intervention. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel approach for early diagnosis of male infertility. According to the presence or absence of normal sexual function, the male infertility is classified into two phenotypes, erectile dysfunction (ED) and semen abnormalities (SA). The aim of this study was to investigate the GC-MS plasma profiles of infertile male having erectile dysfunction (ED) and having semen abnormalities (SA) and discover the potential biomarkers. The plasma samples from healthy controls (HC) (n=61) and infertility patients with ED (n=26) or with SA (n=44) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for discrimination and screening potential biomarkers. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed on GC-MS dataset. The results showed that HC could be discriminated from infertile cases having SA (AUC=86.96%, sensitivity=78.69%, specificity=84.09%, accuracy=80.95%) and infertile cases having ED (AUC=94.33%, sensitivity=80.33%, specificity=100%, accuracy=87.36%). Some potential biomarkers were successfully discovered by two commonly used variable selection methods, variable importance on projection (VIP) and original coefficients of PLS-DA (β). 1,5-Anhydro-sorbitol and α-hydroxyisovaleric acid were identified as the potential biomarkers for distinguishing HC from the male infertility patients. Meanwhile, lactate, glutamate and cholesterol were the found to be the important variables to distinguish between patients with erectile dysfunction from those with semen abnormalities. The plasma metabolomics may be developed as a novel approach for fast, noninvasive, and acceptable diagnosis and characterization of male infertility.

  11. Real-time dielectric-film thickness measurement system for plasma processing chamber wall monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    An in-situ real-time processing chamber wall monitoring system was developed. In order to measure the thickness of the dielectric film, two frequencies of small sinusoidal voltage (∼1 V) signals were applied to an electrically floated planar type probe, which is positioned at chamber wall surface, and the amplitudes of the currents and the phase differences between the voltage and current were measured. By using an equivalent sheath circuit model including a sheath capacitance, the dielectric thickness can be obtained. Experiments were performed in various plasma condition, and reliable dielectric film thickness was obtained regardless of the plasma properties. In addition, availability in commercial chamber for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was verified. This study is expected to contribute to the control of etching and deposition processes and optimization of periodic maintenance in semiconductor manufacturing process.

  12. Application of CBR method for adding the process of cutting tools and parameters selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepka, P.; Herbus, K.

    2015-11-01

    Modem enterprises must face with the dynamically changing market demand what influences the designing process. It is possible by linking computer tools with information gathered by experienced designers teams. The article describes the method basing on engineering knowledge and experience to adding the process of tools selection and cutting parameters determination for a turning operation. The method, proposed by the authors, is based on the CBR (Case Based Reasoning) method. CBR is a method of problem solving that involves searching for an analogy (similarity) between the current task to be solved, and the earlier cases that properly described, are stored in a computer memory. This article presents an algorithm and a formalized description of the developed method. It was discussed the range of its utilization, as well as it was illustrated the method of its functioning on the example of the tools and cutting parameters selection with respect to the turning process.

  13. Free and open source simulation tools for the design of power processing units for photovoltaic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Morales-Hernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources, including solar photovoltaic, require electronic circuits that serve as interface between the transducer device and the device or system that uses energy. Moreover, the energy efficiency and the cost of the system can be compromised if such electronic circuit is not designed properly. Given that the electrical characteristics of the photovoltaic devices are nonlinear and that the most efficient electronic circuits for power processing are naturally discontinuous, a detailed dynamic analysis to optimize the design is required. This analysis should be supported by computer simulation tools. In this paper a comparison between two software tools for dynamic system simulation is performed to determinate its usefulness in the design process of photovoltaic systems, mainly in what corresponds to the power processing units. Using as a case of study a photovoltaic system for battery charging it was determined that Scicoslab tool was the most suitable.

  14. Physicochemical processes in the indirect interaction between surface air plasma and deionized water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. C.; Liu, D. X.; Chen, C.; Li, D.; Yang, A. J.; Rong, M. Z.; Chen, H. L.; Kong, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most central scientific questions for plasma applications in healthcare and environmental remediation is the chemical identity and the dose profile of plasma-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that can act on an object inside a liquid. A logical focus is on aqueous physicochemical processes near a sample with a direct link to their upstream gaseous processes in the plasma region and a separation gap from the liquid bulk. Here, a system-level modeling framework is developed for indirect interactions of surface air plasma and a deionized water bulk and its predictions are found to be in good agreement with the measurement of gas-phase ozone and aqueous long-living ROS/RNS concentrations. The plasma region is described with a global model, whereas the air gap and the liquid region are simulated with a 1D fluid model. All three regions are treated as one integrated entity and computed simultaneously. With experimental validation, the system-level modeling shows that the dominant aqueous ROS/RNS are long-living species (e.g. H2O2 aq, O3 aq, nitrite/nitrate, H+ aq). While most short-living gaseous species could hardly survive their passage to the liquid, aqueous short-living ROS/RNS are generated in situ through reactions among long-living plasma species and with water molecules. This plasma-mediated remote production of aqueous ROS/RNS is important for the abundance of aqueous HO2 aq, HO3 aq, OHaq and \\text{O}2- aq as well as NO2 aq and NO3 aq. Aqueous plasma chemistry offers a novel and significant pathway to activate a given biological outcome, as exemplified here for bacterial deactivation in plasma-activated water. Additional factors that may synergistically broaden the usefulness of aqueous plasma chemistry include an electric field by aqueous ions and liquid acidification. The system-modeling framework will be useful in assisting designs and analyses of future investigations of plasma-liquid and plasma-cell interactions.

  15. Confocal microscopy: A new tool for erosion measurements on large scale plasma facing components in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, E., E-mail: eric.gauthier@cea.fr [CEA/DSM/IRFM, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Brosset, C.; Roche, H.; Tsitrone, E.; Pégourié, B.; Martinez, A. [CEA/DSM/IRFM, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Languille, P. [PIIM, CNRS-Université de Provence, Centre de St Jérôme, 13397 Marseille, Cedex 20 (France); Courtois, X.; Lallier, Y. [CEA/DSM/IRFM, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Salami, M. [AVANTIS CONCEPT, 75 Rue Marcelin Berthelot, 13858 Aix en Provence (France)

    2013-07-15

    A diagnostic based on confocal microscopy was developed at CEA Cadarache in order to measure erosion on large plasma facing components during shutdown in situ in Tore Supra. This paper describes the diagnostic and presents results obtained on Beryllium and Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) materials. Erosion in the range of 800 μm was found on one sector of the Toroidal Pumped Limiter (TPL) which provides, by integration to the full limiter a net carbon erosion of about 900 g over the period 2002–2007.

  16. Process planning optimization on turning machine tool using a hybrid genetic algorithm with local search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A turning machine tool is a kind of new type of machine tool that is equipped with more than one spindle and turret. The distinctive simultaneous and parallel processing abilities of turning machine tool increase the complexity of process planning. The operations would not only be sequenced and satisfy precedence constraints, but also should be scheduled with multiple objectives such as minimizing machining cost, maximizing utilization of turning machine tool, and so on. To solve this problem, a hybrid genetic algorithm was proposed to generate optimal process plans based on a mixed 0-1 integer programming model. An operation precedence graph is used to represent precedence constraints and help generate a feasible initial population of hybrid genetic algorithm. Encoding strategy based on data structure was developed to represent process plans digitally in order to form the solution space. In addition, a local search approach for optimizing the assignments of available turrets would be added to incorporate scheduling with process planning. A real-world case is used to prove that the proposed approach could avoid infeasible solutions and effectively generate a global optimal process plan.

  17. Hardening Effect on Machined Surface for Precise Hard Cutting Process with Consideration of Tool Wear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yongheng

    2014-01-01

    During hard cutting process there is severe thermodynamic coupling effect between cutting tool and workpiece, which causes quenching effect on finished surfaces under certain conditions. However, material phase transformation mechanism of heat treatment in cutting process is different from the one in traditional process, which leads to changes of the formation mechanism of damaged layer on machined workpiece surface. This paper researches on the generation mechanism of damaged layer on machined surface in the process of PCBN tool hard cutting hardened steel Cr12MoV. Rules of temperature change on machined surface and subsurface are got by means of finite element simulation. In phase transformation temperature experiments rapid transformation instrument is employed, and the effect of quenching under cutting conditions on generation of damaged layer is revealed. Based on that, the phase transformation points of temperature under cutting conditions are determined. By experiment, the effects of cutting speed and tool wear on white layer thickness in damaged layer are revealed. The temperature distribution law of third deformation zone is got by establishing the numerical prediction model, and thickness of white layer in damaged layer is predicted, taking the tool wear effect into consideration. The experimental results show that the model prediction is accurate, and the establishment of prediction model provides a reference for wise selection of parameters in precise hard cutting process. For the machining process with high demanding on surface integrity, the generation of damaged layer on machined surface can be controlled precisely by using the prediction model.

  18. Simulation of polyatomic discharges for thin film deposition processes in low-pressure plasma reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Kallol

    conditions of experimental reactors. The discharge models were used to investigate the effects of operating and design parameters of the reactors on plasma process characteristics to obtain better process characteristics on the wafer. These parameters can be used to design new reactors for the deposition/etching process. The models can be modified for different feed gases for other applications like plasma etching or sputtering.

  19. Laser induced wounding of the plasma membrane and methods to study the repair process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana J; Maiuri, Paolo; Lafaurie-Janvore, Julie; Perez, Franck; Piel, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to agents that can trigger the perforation of their plasma membrane. This damage occurs naturally, and the frequency and intensity depends on how much cells are exposed to damaging threats. The following protocol is a simple and powerful method to damage the plasma membrane using laser ablation. It allows the induction of a single and localized wound at the plasma membrane of cultured cells, which can be followed with fast time-lapse imaging. The first part of the protocol describes simple cell culture techniques and the material ideal to make the experiments. A second part of the protocol gives advice about the procedures to make effective wounds in cells while ensuring a good survival rate. We also propose different ways to follow the opening and closure of the plasma membrane. Finally, we describe the procedure to efficiently analyze the data acquired after single cell photodamage to characterize the wounding process.

  20. Numerical simulation of nonlinear processes in a beam-plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efimova, A. A., E-mail: anna.an.efimova@gmail.com; Berendeev, E. A.; Vshivkov, V. A. [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics SB RAS 6 Acad. Lavrentyev Ave., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Dudnikova, G. I. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS, 6 Acad. Lavrentyev Ave., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    In the present paper we consider the efficiency of the electromagnetic radiation generation due to various nonlinear processes in the beam-plasma system. The beam and plasma parameters were chosen close to the parameters in the experiment on the GOL-3 facility (BINP SB RAS). The model of the collisionless plasma is described by system of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations with periodic boundary conditions. The parallel numerical algorithm is based on the particles-in-cell method (PIC) with mixed Euler-Lagrangian domain decomposition. Various scenarios of nonlinear evolution in the beam-plasma system under the influence of an external magnetic field in case of a low density beam were studied. The energy transfer from one unstable mode to the others modes was observed.

  1. Mass spectroscopy of the ion flux produced during inductively coupled plasma nitriding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodko, D. V.; Kaziev, A. V.; Ageychenkov, D. G.; Meshcheryakova, E. A.; Pisarev, A. A.; Tumarkin, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    Ion fluxes on the surface of sample embedded in inductively coupled plasma have been studied in conditions typical for titanium alloy nitriding: total pressure 0.44 Pa, Ar/N2 = 70%/30%, and RF power 1500 W. The gas composition was independently monitored by the quadrupole analyser. The ion fluxes were sampled using a specially designed electrostatic extractor and then analysed with a magnetic sector mass-separator. The extractor design allowed us to apply a bias voltage to the plasma facing electrode thus imitating interaction of ions with the surface during the plasma processing. The ion fluxes of Ar+, {{{N}}}2{}+, and N+ on the surface were measured. The mass spectroscopy diagnostics unit is suitable for extensive ion content studies in the plasma technology facilities.

  2. THE PROCESS CAPABILITY ANALYSIS - A TOOL FOR PROCESS PERFORMANCE MEASURES AND METRICS - A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerriswamy Wooluru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Process Capability can be evaluated through the computations of various process capability ratios and indices. The basic three capability indices commonly used in manufacturing industries are Cp, Cpk, Cpm and Cpmk .Process capability indices are intended to provide single number assessment of the ability of a process to meet specification limits on quality characteristics of interest. Thus, it identifies the opportunities for improving quality and productivity. The level of significance on process capability analysis has been increased considerably over last decade, but the literature findings reveal the importance of understanding the concepts, methodologies and critical assumptions while its implementation in manufacturing process. The objective of this paper is to conduct process capability analysis for boring operation by understanding the concepts, methodologies and making critical assumptions.

  3. Observed manipulation enhances left fronto-parietal activations in the processing of unfamiliar tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Naima Rüther

    Full Text Available Tools represent a special class of objects, as functional details of tools can afford certain actions. In addition, information gained via prior experience with tools can be accessed on a semantic level, providing a basis for meaningful object interactions. Conceptual representations of tools also encompass knowledge about tool manipulation which can be acquired via direct (active manipulation or indirect (observation of others manipulating objects motor experience. The present study aimed to explore the impact of observation of manipulation on the neural processing of previously unfamiliar, manipulable objects. Brain activity was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants accomplished a visual matching task involving pictures of the novel objects before and after they received object-related training. Three training session in which subjects observed an experimenter manipulating one set of objects and visually explored another set of objects were used to make subjects familiar with the tools and to allow the formation of new tool representations. A control object set was not part of the training. Training-related brain activation increases were found for observed manipulation objects compared to not trained objects in a left-hemispheric network consisting of inferior frontal gyrus (iFG pars opercularis and triangularis and supramarginal/angular gyrus. This illustrates that direct manipulation experience is not required to elicit tool-associated activation changes in the action system. While the iFG activation might indicate a close relationship between the areas involved in tool representation and those involved in observational knowledge acquisition, the parietal activation is discussed in terms of non-semantic effects of object affordances and hand-tool spatial relationships.

  4. SustainPro - A tool for systematic process analysis, generation and evaluation of sustainable design alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    Chemical processes are continuously facing challenges from the demands of the global market related to economics, environment and social issues. This paper presents the development of a software tool (SustainPro) and its application to chemical processes operating in batch or continuous modes...... the user through the necessary steps according to work-flow of the implemented methodology. At the end the design alternatives, are evaluated using environmental impact assessment tools and safety indices. The extended features of the methodology incorporate Life Cycle Assessment analysis and economic...

  5. Kinematic simulation of a parallel NC machine tool in the manufacturing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-min; FAN Yu; JIA Dong-yun; ZOU Qiu-ling; WU Ying

    2006-01-01

    Aimed at enhancing the research status of parallel machine tools,this paper introduces the structure of a 6-SPS parallel machine tool and explains the application significance of the kinematic simulation of the manufacturing process.The simulation software was developed in Microsoft Visual C++6.0 using OpenGL API functions.The data flows are presented.Finally, a simulation application of odd leaf hyperboloid is performed before the manufacturing process; the kinematic simulation demonstrates the rationale of trace planning and the feasibility of manufacturing instruction.

  6. Tool path generation and back-off error analyze for robot milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Tang, Chen; Wang, Ju; Wang, Qian

    2017-06-01

    An improved CC route tool path generation method is presented for robot milling process. Corresponding back-off error model is established based on the robot static elastic model and the ball-end cutter milling force model. Compared with the traditional CC route method, the distance between the adjacent constraint surfaces is adjusted dynamically and thus the milling accuracy will be improved. According to the back-off error model, tool posture can be optimized using genetic algorithms. It is significantly important for reducing the back-off error during robot milling process.

  7. Plasma Processing of SRF Cavities for the next Generation Of Particle Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuskovic, Leposava

    2015-11-23

    The cost-effective production of high frequency accelerating fields are the foundation for the next generation of particle accelerators. The Ar/Cl2 plasma etching technology holds the promise to yield a major reduction in cavity preparation costs. Plasma-based dry niobium surface treatment provides an excellent opportunity to remove bulk niobium, eliminate surface imperfections, increase cavity quality factor, and bring accelerating fields to higher levels. At the same time, the developed technology will be more environmentally friendly than the hydrogen fluoride-based wet etching technology. Plasma etching of inner surfaces of standard multi-cell SRF cavities is the main goal of this research in order to eliminate contaminants, including niobium oxides, in the penetration depth region. Successful plasma processing of multi-cell cavities will establish this method as a viable technique in the quest for more efficient components of next generation particle accelerators. In this project the single-cell pill box cavity plasma etching system is developed and etching conditions are determined. An actual single cell SRF cavity (1497 MHz) is plasma etched based on the pill box cavity results. The first RF test of this plasma etched cavity at cryogenic temperature is obtained. The system can also be used for other surface modifications, including tailoring niobium surface properties, surface passivation or nitriding for better performance of SRF cavities. The results of this plasma processing technology may be applied to most of the current SRF cavity fabrication projects. In the course of this project it has been demonstrated that a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge can be successfully used for etching curved niobium surfaces, in particular the inner walls of SRF cavities. The results could also be applicable to the inner or concave surfaces of any 3D structure other than an SRF cavity.

  8. The spray-drying process is sufficient to inactivate infectious porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jianqiang; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2014-11-07

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is considered an emergent pathogen associated with high economic losses in many pig rearing areas. Recently it has been suggested that PEDV could be transmitted to naïve pig populations through inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) into the nursery diet which led to a ban of SDPP in several areas in North America and Europe. To determine the effect of spray-drying on PEDV infectivity, 3-week-old pigs were intragastrically inoculated with (1) raw porcine plasma spiked with PEDV (RAW-PEDV-CONTROL), (2) porcine plasma spiked with PEDV and then spray dried (SD-PEDV-CONTROL), (3) raw plasma from PEDV infected pigs (RAW-SICK), (4) spray-dried plasma from PEDV infected pigs (SD-SICK), or (5) spray-dried plasma from PEDV negative pigs (SD-NEG-CONTROL). For the spray-drying process, a tabletop spray-dryer with industry-like settings for inlet and outlet temperatures was used. In the RAW-PEDV-CONTROL group, PEDV RNA was present in feces at day post infection (dpi) 3 and the pigs seroconverted by dpi 14. In contrast, PEDV RNA in feces was not detected in any of the pigs in the other groups including the SD-PEDV-CONTROL group and none of the pigs had seroconverted by termination of the project at dpi 28. This work provides direct evidence that the experimental spray-drying process used in this study was effective in inactivating infectious PEDV in the plasma. Additionally, plasma collected from PEDV infected pigs at peak disease did not contain infectious PEDV. These findings suggest that the risk for PEDV transmission through commercially produced SDPP is minimal.

  9. Preparation of Hollow Spherical and Core/shell Structured Powders by Plasma Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xiaofeng; ZHOU; Kesong; DENG; Changguang; SONG; Jinbing; ZHANG; Jifu; DONG; Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    Four types of hollow spherical micro- and nano-szied powders of ZrO2-7wt.%Y2O3(7YSZ), ZrO2-7wt.%Y2O3, Al2O3-13 wt.% TiO2(AT) and WC as well as one type of core/shell structured powder of ZrB2-30 wt.%Mo Si2 were prepared via plasma processing. In addition, the formation mechanisms of hollow spherical and core/shell structured powders prepared via plasma processing were also proposed.

  10. A blood-based screening tool for Alzheimer's disease that spans serum and plasma: findings from TARC and ADNI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid E O'Bryant

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: There is no rapid and cost effective tool that can be implemented as a front-line screening tool for Alzheimer's disease (AD at the population level. OBJECTIVE: To generate and cross-validate a blood-based screener for AD that yields acceptable accuracy across both serum and plasma. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of serum biomarker proteins were conducted on 197 Alzheimer's disease (AD participants and 199 control participants from the Texas Alzheimer's Research Consortium (TARC with further analysis conducted on plasma proteins from 112 AD and 52 control participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI. The full algorithm was derived from a biomarker risk score, clinical lab (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, homocysteine, and demographic (age, gender, education, APOE*E4 status data. MAJOR OUTCOME MEASURES: Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: 11 proteins met our criteria and were utilized for the biomarker risk score. The random forest (RF biomarker risk score from the TARC serum samples (training set yielded adequate accuracy in the ADNI plasma sample (training set (AUC = 0.70, sensitivity (SN = 0.54 and specificity (SP = 0.78, which was below that obtained from ADNI cerebral spinal fluid (CSF analyses (t-tau/Aβ ratio AUC = 0.92. However, the full algorithm yielded excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.88, SN = 0.75, and SP = 0.91. The likelihood ratio of having AD based on a positive test finding (LR+ = 7.03 (SE = 1.17; 95% CI = 4.49-14.47, the likelihood ratio of not having AD based on the algorithm (LR- = 3.55 (SE = 1.15; 2.22-5.71, and the odds ratio of AD were calculated in the ADNI cohort (OR = 28.70 (1.55; 95% CI = 11.86-69.47. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to create a blood-based screening algorithm that works across both serum and plasma that provides a comparable screening accuracy to that obtained from CSF analyses.

  11. Simulation of operational processes in hospital emergency units as lean healthcare tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Macedo Gomes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Lean philosophy is gaining importance due to a competitive environment, which increases the need to reduce costs. Lean practices and tools have been applied to manufacturing, services, supply chain, startups and, the next frontier is healthcare. Most lean techniques can be easily adapted to health organizations. Therefore, this paper intends to summarize Lean practices and tools that are already being applied in health organizations. Among the numerous techniques and lean tools used, this research highlights the Simulation. Therefore, in order to understand the use of Simulation as a Lean Healthcare tool, this research aims to analyze, through the simulation technique, the operational dynamics of the service process of a fictitious hospital emergency unit. Initially a systematic review of the literature on the practices and tools of Lean Healthcare was carried out, in order to identify the main techniques practiced. The research highlighted Simulation as the sixth most cited tool in the literature. Subsequently, a simulation of a service model of an emergency unit was performed through the Arena software. As a main result, it can be highlighted that the attendants of the built model presented a degree of idleness, thus, they are able to atend a greater demand. As a last conclusion, it was verified that the emergency room is the process with longer service time and greater overload.

  12. The effect of tooling deformation on process control in multistage metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havinga, Jos; van den Boogaard, Ton

    2016-10-01

    Forming of high-strength steels leads to high loads within the production process. In multistage metal forming, the loads in different process stages are transferred to the other stages through elastic deformation of the stamping press. This leads to interactions between process steps, affecting the process forces in each stage and the final geometry of the product. When force measurements are used for control of the metal forming process, it is important to understand these interactions. In his work, interactions within an industrial multistage forming process are investigated. Cutting, deepdrawing, forging and bending steps are performed in the production process. Several test runs of a few thousand products each were performed to gather information about the process. Statistical methods are used to analyze the measurements. Based on the cross-correlation between the force measurements of different stages, it can be shown that the interactions between the process steps are caused by elastic deformation of the tooling and the stamping press.

  13. Self-bias Dependence on Process Parameters in Asymmetric Cylindrical Coaxial Capacitively Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, J; Popović, S; Valente-Feliciano, A -M; Phillips, L; Vušković, L

    2015-01-01

    An rf coaxial capacitively coupled Ar/Cl2 plasma is applied to processing the inner wall of superconducting radio frequency cavities. A dc self-bias potential is established across the inner electrode sheath due to the surface area difference between inner and outer electrodes of the coaxial plasma. The self-bias potential measurement is used as an indication of the plasma sheath voltage asymmetry. The understanding of the asymmetry in sheath voltage distribution in coaxial plasma is important for the modification of the inner surfaces of three dimensional objects. The plasma sheath voltages were tailored to process the outer wall by providing an additional dc current to the inner electrode with the help of an external dc power supply. The dc self-bias potential is measured for different diameter electrodes and its variation on process parameters such as gas pressure, rf power and percentage of chlorine in the Ar/Cl2 gas mixture is studied. The dc current needed to overcome the self-bias potential to make it ...

  14. Diagnostics and analyses of decay process in laser produced tetrakis(dimethyl-amino)ethylene plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guowen; Scharer, John E.; Kelly, Kurt L.

    2001-01-01

    A large volume (hundreds of cm3) plasma is created by a 193 nm laser ionizing an organic vapor, tetrakis(dimethyl-amino)ethylene (TMAE). The plasma is characterized as high electron density (1013-1012 cm-3) and low electron temperature (˜0.1 eV). To investigate the plasma decay processes, a fast Langmuir probe technique is developed, including detailed considerations of probe structure, probe surface cleaning, shielding, frequency response of the detection system, physical processes in probe measurement, dummy probe corrections as well as noise analysis. The mechanisms for the plasma decay are studied and a delayed ionization process following the laser pulse is found to be important. This mechanism is also supported by optical emission measurements which show that nitrogen enhances the delayed emission from TMAE plasma. A model combining electron-ion recombination and delayed ionization is utilized together with experimental results to order the terms and calculate the relaxation times for delayed ionization. The relaxation times are longer for lower TMAE pressures and lower electron densities.

  15. The copper recovery from cupric oxide catalysts by plasma reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imris, I.; Klenovcanova, A. [Technical Univ. of Kosice, Kosice (Slovakia). Dept. of Power Engineering

    2007-07-01

    A plasma reduction process was used to recover copper from cupric oxide catalysts. Two types of plasma reduction smelting tests were conducted to verify the thermodynamic calculations. The plasma reactor consisted of a cylindrical steel shell lined with a castable alumina and a graphite crucible. Cupric oxide catalyst ESM 461 was mixed with stoichiometric amounts of carbon reductant and a 10 per cent addition of calcium oxide flux. Results of the experimental tests and the thermodynamic analysis showed that the copper can be extracted from cupric oxide using the plasma reduction process. Copper recovery was limited by physico-chemical copper losses. Copper oxide solubility was relatively high, so that copper recovery was low in their first series of plasma tests. The addition of calcium oxide flux improved copper recovery rates when dicalcium silicate was formed in the slag. The offgas samples indicated that concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the gas phase was very high. It was concluded that the process is both commercially feasible and does not produce liquid or solid wastes. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. Development of a simple device for processing whole-blood samples into measured aliquots of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C A; Johnson, W F; Walker, W A

    1986-09-01

    A capillary processor and aliquoter has been designed and fabricated that is capable of accepting aliquots of whole blood and automatically processing them into discrete aliquots of plasma. The device consists of two disks, each of which contains 16 individual capillaries and a processing rotor. One disk accepts larger capillaries that hold approximately 100 microL of whole blood each. The second disk accepts 2.54-cm-long precision capillaries of various internal diameters, which provide exact sample volumes from 1 to 10 microL. The processing rotor contains 16 individual compartments and chambers to accept both disks. Applying centrifugal force transfers the aliquots of whole blood into their respective compartments, where they are separated into cellular and plasma fractions. As the rotor speed is slowly decreased, an aliquot of plasma is withdrawn by capillary action into each measuring capillary. The disk containing the 16 measured aliquots of plasma is then removed and placed into a modified rotor for conventional centrifugal analysis. This device can entrain and deliver microliter volumes of liquids with precision and accuracy (1-2%) near that of mechanical pipettes. Assays of the separated plasma aliquots also have acceptable precision (e.g., CVs approximately 3% for measurements of serum enzymes).

  17. Plasma Processes : Operation of a capacitor bank for plasma metal forming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sarkar; S Chaturvedi; Raj Kumar; Rajesh Kumar; D Lathi; A Shyam; J Sonara

    2000-11-01

    Previously metal forming has been done using electromagnet in pulsed power mode, better known as magneform [1]. Here we will be presenting a different technique for metal forming. We are using water as a medium for this process. By discharging the stored electrical energy of the capacitor bank in water, we are getting the desired result i.e. to form (expand or compress) a wide range of workpiece to the desired shapes. The advantage of this method over conventional method is that it uses low power (negligible running cost). It does not require any post assembly cleaning degreasing and is hence environmentally ‘friendly’.

  18. Plasma proteins as biomarkers of the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranckx, R; Savu, L; Lambert, N; de Conchard, G V; Grosse, R; Mourey, M S; Corman, B

    1995-02-01

    This study was designed to characterize the rat serum proteins as biomarkers of the normal aging process. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis or electroimmunodiffusion quantitation of proteins was performed in rats aged 6, 12, 24, and 30 mo. Selection of healthy animals was based on confrontation of crossed immunoelectrophoresis patterns with those of experimentally inflamed young adults and with individual anatomopathological data. Convergence of inflammatory patterns and severe histological lesions was the exclusion criterion. Senescence-induced decrease was demonstrated for eight proteins [negative senescence reactants (SRs-)] and increase for six proteins [positive SRs (SRs+)]. Most SRs belonged to the class of proteins responsive to acute inflammation [acute phase reactants (APRs)]. One SR+, the thyroxine-binding globulin, a high-affinity thyroid hormone binder, emerged as a particularly reliable senescence biomarker, showing the highest aging-related variation (8-fold increase from 6 to 30 mo) and not belonging to the APR class. Chronic treatment with perindopril, an angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor used in heart and renal disease therapy, significantly enhanced thyroxine-binding capacity, possibly by preventing age-related alterations of serum lipids. Serum protein patterns prove valuable both as indexes for selecting aging animals free from superimposed pathologies and as parameters of senescence-induced changes in protein biosynthesis.

  19. Tuning of tool dynamics for increased stability of parallel (simultaneous) turning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, E.; Comak, A.; Budak, E.

    2016-01-01

    Parallel (simultaneous) turning operations make use of more than one cutting tool acting on a common workpiece offering potential for higher productivity. However, dynamic interaction between the tools and workpiece and resulting chatter vibrations may create quality problems on machined surfaces. In order to determine chatter free cutting process parameters, stability models can be employed. In this paper, stability of parallel turning processes is formulated in frequency and time domain for two different parallel turning cases. Predictions of frequency and time domain methods demonstrated reasonable agreement with each other. In addition, the predicted stability limits are also verified experimentally. Simulation and experimental results show multi regional stability diagrams which can be used to select most favorable set of process parameters for higher stable material removal rates. In addition to parameter selection, developed models can be used to determine the best natural frequency ratio of tools resulting in the highest stable depth of cuts. It is concluded that the most stable operations are obtained when natural frequency of the tools are slightly off each other and worst stability occurs when the natural frequency of the tools are exactly the same.

  20. PARTICIPANT SUPPORT FOR THE 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE ON PLASMA PROCESSING SCIENCE (JULY 11-16,2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwe Kortshagen

    2011-06-14

    The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Plasma Processing Science will feature a comprehensive program that will highlight the most cutting edge scientific advances in low temperature plasma science and will explore the applications of low temperature plasma technology relative to many grand societal challenges. Fundamental science sessions will focus on plasma kinetics, plasma surface interactions, and recent trends in plasma generation and multi-phase plasmas. Application sessions will explore the impact of plasma technology in renewable energy and the production of fuels from renewable feedstocks, plasma-enabled medicine and sterilization, and environmental remediation and waste treatment. The conference will bring together in an informal atmosphere leaders in the field with junior investigators and graduate students. The special format of the Gordon Conferences, with programmed discussion sessions and ample time for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, will provide for a fertile atmosphere of brainstorming and creative thinking among the attendees.

  1. Practical applications of ion beam and plasma processing for improving corrosion and wear protection

    CERN Document Server

    Klingenberg, M L; Wei, R; Demaret, J; Hirvonen, J

    2002-01-01

    A multi-year project for the US Army has been investigating the use of various ion beam and plasma-based surface treatments to improve the corrosion and wear properties of military hardware. These processes are intended to be complementary to, rather than competing with, other promising macro scale coating processes such high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) deposition, particularly in non-line-of- sight and flash chrome replacement applications. It is believed that these processes can improve the tribological and corrosion behavior of parts without significantly altering the dimensions of the part, thereby eliminating the need for further machining operations and reducing overall production costs. The ion beam processes chosen are relatively mature, low-cost processes that can be scaled-up. The key methods that have been considered under this program include nitrogen ion implantation into electroplated hard chrome, ion beam assisted chromium and chromium nitride coatings, and plasma-deposited diamond- like carbon an...

  2. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  3. Surface roughening of ground fused silica processed by atmospheric inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Qiang; Li, Na; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bo, E-mail: bradywang@hit.edu.cn; Li, Guo; Ding, Fei; Jin, Huiliang

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • The morphology evolution of ground fused silica, processed by atmospheric plasma, was investigated experimentally. • The roughness development results from opening and coalescing of the plasma-etched cracks. • The shapes of grain-like etched pits are the results of the adjacent cracks coalescing with one another. • The descent of the pits density is due to some smaller etched pits that are swallowed up by larger pits. • Leading role in surface smoothing is laterally etching away the side walls of the intersecting pits. - Abstract: Subsurface damage (SSD) is a defect that is inevitably induced during mechanical processes, such as grinding and polishing. This defect dramatically reduces the mechanical strength and the laser damage thresholds of optical elements. Compared with traditional mechanical machining, atmospheric pressure plasma processing (APPP) is a relatively novel technology that induces almost no SSD during the processing of silica-based optical materials. In this paper, a form of APPP, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), is used to process fused silica substrates with fluorocarbon precursor under atmospheric pressure. The surface morphology evolution of ICP-processed substrates was observed and characterized by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the roughness evolves with the etching depth, and the roughness evolution is a single-peaked curve. This curve results from the opening and the coalescing of surface cracks and fractures. The coalescence procedure of these microstructures was simulated with two common etched pits on a polished fused silica surface. Understanding the roughness evolution of plasma-processed surface might be helpful in optimizing the optical fabrication chain that contains APPP.

  4. Towards a New Approach of the Economic Intelligence Process: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Informational Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Briciu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the obvious trends in current business environment is the increased competition. In this context, organizations are becoming more and more aware of the importance of knowledge as a key factor in obtaining competitive advantage. A possible solution in knowledge management is Economic Intelligence (EI that involves the collection, evaluation, processing, analysis, and dissemination of economic data (about products, clients, competitors, etc. inside organizations. The availability of massive quantities of data correlated with advances in information and communication technology allowing for the filtering and processing of these data provide new tools for the production of economic intelligence.The research is focused on innovative aspects of economic intelligence process (models of analysis, activities, methods and informational tools and is providing practical guidelines for initiating this process. In this paper, we try: (a to contribute to a coherent view on economic intelligence process (approaches, stages, fields of application; b to describe the most important models of analysis related to this process; c to analyze the activities, methods and tools associated with each stage of an EI process.

  5. Arc-Plasma Wire Spraying: An Optical Study of Process Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, I. P.; Dolmatov, A. V.; Kharlamov, M. Yu.; Gulyaev, P. Yu.; Jordan, V. I.; Krivtsun, I. V.; Korzhyk, V. M.; Demyanov, O. I.

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper, we report on the results of an experimental study of heat- and mass-transfer processes in a Plazer 30-PL-W plasma-jet facility used for arc-plasma wire spraying. Using an original optical diagnostic system, we have studied melting behavior of the metal wire, break up and atomization of liquid metal. For the first time, experimental data on the in-flight velocity and temperature of spray particles in arc-plasma wire spraying were obtained. In spite of moderate particle velocities (about 50 m/s), the obtained steel coatings proved to have a low porosity of 1.5%. While studying the spraying process of tungsten wire, we observed the occurrence of anomalous high-velocity (over 4000 m/s) outbursts ejected from the surface of liquid metal droplets. The nature of such outbursts calls for further study.

  6. New chamber walls conditioning and cleaning strategies to improve the stability of plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunge, G.; Pelissier, B.; Joubert, O.; Ramos, R.; Maurice, C.

    2005-08-01

    One major challenge in plasma etching processes for integrated circuit fabrication is to achieve a good wafer-to-wafer repeatability. This requires a perfect control of the plasma chamber wall conditions. For silicon etching processes, which deposit SiOyClz layers on the chamber walls, this is achieved by cleaning the interior surfaces of the plasma chamber with an SF6-based plasma after each wafer is etched. However, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the reactor wall surfaces shows that the inner parts of the Al2O3 chamber are strongly fluorinated (formation of Al-F bonds) during the SF6 plasma. At the same time the AlFx layer is sputtered from some parts of the chamber (mostly from the roof, which is bombarded by high energy ions), and AlF redeposition is observed on other parts of the reactor body. Hence, the cleaning process of the reactor leaves AlF residues on the chamber wall on its own. This leads to several issues including flake off of AlxFy particles on the wafer and process drifts (due both to the progressive growth of AlF material on the SiO2 windows and to the release of F atoms from the chamber walls during the etching process). This indicates that a strategy other than dry-cleaning the Al2O3 chamber walls in fluorine-based plasmas should be found. In this paper we have investigated two different strategies. The first one consists of replacing Al2O3 covering the chamber walls by another material for the chamber walls inner coating. In particular, we have investigated the surface modification of several types of organic polymers (Teflon, Parylene and carbon-rich polymers), when exposed to SF6-based plasmas. We show that these materials can be reset to their original condition after exposure to a dry-cleaning process because carbon containing polymers are slowly etched away by the SF6/O2 plasma. This suggests that the replacement of the conventional Al2O3 chamber wall material by a carbon-coated liner should be possible. Alternatively, we

  7. Plasma flow reactor for steady state monitoring of physical and chemical processes at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Batikan; Mehl, Marco; Armstrong, Michael R.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Weisz, David G.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Dai, Zurong; Radousky, Harry B.; Chernov, Alex; Ramon, Erick; Stavrou, Elissaios; Knight, Kim; Fabris, Andrea L.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rose, Timothy P.

    2017-09-01

    We present the development of a steady state plasma flow reactor to investigate gas phase physical and chemical processes that occur at high temperature (1000 reactor consists of a glass tube that is attached to an inductively coupled argon plasma generator via an adaptor (ring flow injector). We have modeled the system using computational fluid dynamics simulations that are bounded by measured temperatures. In situ line-of-sight optical emission and absorption spectroscopy have been used to determine the structures and concentrations of molecules formed during rapid cooling of reactants after they pass through the plasma. Emission spectroscopy also enables us to determine the temperatures at which these dynamic processes occur. A sample collection probe inserted from the open end of the reactor is used to collect condensed materials and analyze them ex situ using electron microscopy. The preliminary results of two separate investigations involving the condensation of metal oxides and chemical kinetics of high-temperature gas reactions are discussed.

  8. SERVICE ATTRIBUTE-PROCESS MATRIX: A TOOL FOR DESIGNING AND MANAGING SERVICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The growing importance of the service economy during the last 40 years has raised the need for new tools for designing and managing services. As a result, several authors have developed service classification systems, in order to better understand the nature of service operations and provide methods and tools to improve service efficiency and quality. This paper exploits the work resulting from service classification systems and identifies the principal attributes to be considered in service management. The tool introduced for this purpose is the Service Attribute-Process Matrix (SAPM),which uses selected results from existing service classification schemes to investigate the importance of the significant service attributes to major processes of the service life cycle.

  9. Virtual reality as a multidisciplinary convergence tool in the product design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël Guerlesquin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays firms have to use concurrent design to meet customers’ expectations. A plural approach to the design process is essential. Unfortunately, the design activity involves experts specialized in various aspects of the product such as aesthetics, ergonomics and mechanics. Thus the collaboration between these experts is particularly difficult in the convergence steps and often results in complex adjustments. This paper details a proposition of design methodology based on a multidisciplinary approach, using virtual reality tools. Our goal is to facilitate the integration of ergonomics and aesthetics in a mechanical design process. In this context, we consider virtual reality as an intermediary design tool useful for collaborative decision support during convergence phases. We present our methodology and associated tools tested during an industrial project, by focusing on an aesthetics-mechanics convergence step.

  10. Virtual reality as a multidisciplinary convergence tool in the product design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël Guerlesquin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays firms have to use concurrent design to meet customers’ expectations. A plural approach to the design process is essential. Unfortunately, the design activity involves experts specialized in various aspects of the product such as aesthetics, ergonomics and mechanics. Thus the collaboration between these experts is particularly difficult in the convergence steps and often results in complex adjustments. This paper details a proposition of design methodology based on a multidisciplinary approach, using virtual reality tools. Our goal is to facilitate the integration of ergonomics and aesthetics in a mechanical design process. In this context, we consider virtual reality as an intermediary design tool useful for collaborative decision support during convergence phases. We present our methodology and associated tools tested during an industrial project, by focusing on an aesthetics-mechanics convergence step.

  11. [Plasma copeptin--a multi-purpose diagnostic tool for clinicians?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is utilized in the diagnosis of hyponatremia and polyuria. However, determination of ADH is slow, and results may be unreliable. Copeptin is a glycopeptide of 39 amino acid residues that is cleaved from a precursor of ADH and secreted to the circulation in an equimolar manner with ADH. Determination of the copeptin level is quick and reliable, and improves the diagnostics of osmotic disorders. Copeptin seems to be a promising diagnostic tool also in acute coronary syndrome and may have prognostic significance in cardiac insufficiency, stroke or septicaemia, too.

  12. The Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (SPPS) Process: A Review with Energy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Eric H.; Jiang, Chen; Gell, Maurice

    2015-10-01

    Solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) is a coating deposition process that uses conventional plasma spray equipment, and solution precursors, rather than ceramic or metal powders, as starting materials. Because the process is exposed to oxygen at high temperatures, nearly all coatings, to date, are oxide ceramics. In this review, both the advantages and the disadvantages of the SPPS process and some comparisons made to the suspension plasma spray (SPS) process will be discussed. The advantages of the SPPS process include rapid exploration of compositions and fabrication of advanced coatings with unique microstructural features. Examples presented span densities from porous thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to dense TiO2 coatings. Two TBCs are in an advanced development stage: (1) a low thermal conductivity YSZ TBC and (2) a high-temperature yttrium aluminum garnet TBC. As for disadvantages, there are (1) the additional development work for each new precursor and (2) a lower standoff distance and deposition rate than the APS process, related to the evaporation of the solvent. The SPS process shares the same disadvantages. In developing new coatings, a number of factors should be considered and understood, which would help to shorten future development efforts. Future directions of the SPPS process will also be discussed.

  13. Rapid determination of immunoglobulin G concentration in cold ethanol precipitation process of raw plasma with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Aihua; Zang, Hengchang; Li, Hu; Jiang, Wei; Li, Lian; Wang, Jinfeng

    2013-12-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is known to be a powerful analytical tool in process monitoring. The feasibility of NIRS was investigated for determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in raw plasma cold ethanol precipitation process. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to develop regression model for 63 samples between spectra and reference data measured with a UV spectrophotometer. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS) and successive projection algorithm (SPA), were performed and compared with models based on all the variables. The values of Rc and root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) produced by the best model for the calibration set were 0.9599 and 0.6135 g/L, respectively. While for the validation set, the values of Rp and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.9577 and 0.4913 g/L, respectively. The results of this paper demonstrated that NIRS could be a feasible alternative approach for rapid determination of IgG in the cold ethanol precipitation process and can be used as a PAT tool in the future.

  14. Rapid determination of immunoglobulin G concentration in cold ethanol precipitation process of raw plasma with near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Aihua; Zang, Hengchang; Li, Hu; Jiang, Wei; Li, Lian; Wang, Jinfeng

    2013-12-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is known to be a powerful analytical tool in process monitoring. The feasibility of NIRS was investigated for determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in raw plasma cold ethanol precipitation process. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to develop regression model for 63 samples between spectra and reference data measured with a UV spectrophotometer. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS) and successive projection algorithm (SPA), were performed and compared with models based on all the variables. The values of Rc and root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) produced by the best model for the calibration set were 0.9599 and 0.6135 g/L, respectively. While for the validation set, the values of Rp and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.9577 and 0.4913 g/L, respectively. The results of this paper demonstrated that NIRS could be a feasible alternative approach for rapid determination of IgG in the cold ethanol precipitation process and can be used as a PAT tool in the future.

  15. Flow characteristic of in-flight particles in supersonic plasma spraying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Zhao, Guangxi; Du, Jun; Bai, Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a computational model based on supersonic plasma spraying (SAPS) is developed to describe the plasma jet coupled with the injection of carrier gas and particles for SAPS. Based on a high-efficiency supersonic spraying gun, the 3D computational model of spraying gun was built to study the features of plasma jet and its interactions with the sprayed particles. Further the velocity and temperature of in-flight particles were measured by Spray Watch 2i, the shape of in-flight particles was observed by scanning electron microscope. Numerical results were compared with the experimental measurements and a good agreement has been achieved. The flight process of particles in plasma jet consists of three stages: accelerated stage, constant speed stage and decelerated stage. Numerical and experimental indicates that the H2 volume fraction in mixture gas of Ar + H2 should keep in the range of 23-26 %, and the distance of 100 mm is the optimal spraying distance in Supersonic atmosphere plasma spraying. Particles were melted and broken into small child particles by plasma jet and the diameters of most child particles were less than 30 μm. In general, increasing the particles impacting velocity and surface temperature can decrease the coating porosity.

  16. Processing: A Python Framework for the Seamless Integration of Geoprocessing Tools in QGIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Graser

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Processing is an object-oriented Python framework for the popular open source Geographic Information System QGIS, which provides a seamless integration of geoprocessing tools from a variety of different software libraries. In this paper, we present the development history, software architecture and features of the Processing framework, which make it a versatile tool for the development of geoprocessing algorithms and workflows, as well as an efficient integration platform for algorithms from different sources. Using real-world application examples, we furthermore illustrate how the Processing architecture enables typical geoprocessing use cases in research and development, such as automating and documenting workflows, combining algorithms from different software libraries, as well as developing and integrating custom algorithms. Finally, we discuss how Processing can facilitate reproducible research and provide an outlook towards future development goals.

  17. Morphological stability of the atomically clean surface of silicon (100) crystals after microwave plasma-chemical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yafarov, R. K., E-mail: pirpc@yandex.ru; Shanygin, V. Ya. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov Branch of the Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The morphological stability of atomically clean silicon (100) surface after low-energy microwave plasma-chemical etching in various plasma-forming media is studied. It is found that relaxation changes in the surface density and atomic bump heights after plasma processing in inert and chemically active media are multidirectional in character. After processing in a freon-14 medium, the free energy is minimized due to a decrease in the surface density of microbumps and an increase in their height. After argon-plasma processing, an insignificant increase in the bump density with a simultaneous decrease in bump heights is observed. The physicochemical processes causing these changes are considered.

  18. Understanding Managers Decision Making Process for Tools Selection in the Core Front End of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appio, Francesco P.; Achiche, Sofiane; McAloone, Tim C.

    2011-01-01

    New product development (NPD) describes the process of bringing a new product or service to the market. The Fuzzy Front End (FFE) of Innovation is the term describing the activities happening before the product development phase of NPD. In the FFE of innovation, several tools are used to facilitate...

  19. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  20. You Are Your Words: Modeling Students' Vocabulary Knowledge with Natural Language Processing Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Laura K.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the degree to which the lexical properties of students' essays can inform stealth assessments of their vocabulary knowledge. In particular, we used indices calculated with the natural language processing tool, TAALES, to predict students' performance on a measure of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, two corpora were…