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Sample records for plasma potassium concentration

  1. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  2. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  3. Influence of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium in normal, electrolytes depleted and aldosterone treated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, M; Szczepańska-Sadowska, E; Krzymień, J; Kozłowski, S; Czyzyk, A

    1987-10-01

    Effects of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium were compared in conscious dogs 1) maintained in water and electrolytes balance (Series 1, 10 dogs), 2) depleted of electrolytes by repeated i.v. loading with 20% mannitol (Series 2, 10 dogs), and 3) aldosterone treated (0.8 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 i.v., Series 3, 10 dogs). In each Series intravenous infusion of insulin at a rate of 0.05 U.kg-1.h-1 elicited transient increase in plasma sodium concentration and prolonged hypokalemia. Repeated loading with mannitol in Series 2 elicited significant elevation of plasma sodium, ADH and aldosterone concentrations, as well as decrease in extracellular fluid volume. Infusion of insulin in this Series elicited smaller decrease in plasma potassium concentration and longer lasting hypernatremia than in dogs in water-electrolytes balance. Aldosterone infusion in Series 3 did not change hypokalemic effect of insulin but attenuated hypernatremia. Infusion of insulin in Series 1 elicited increase of sodium excretion and decrease in potassium excretion. These effects were absent in Series 2 and 3. The results indicate that depletion of electrolytes and blood aldosterone elevation modify the effects of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium.

  4. The effects of venous cannulation technique and cardioplegia type on plasma potassium concentration and arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E T

    2012-02-03

    The cannulation method and cardioplegia solution used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may both influence plasma potassium concentrations ([K+]) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Bi-caval or right atrial cannulation methods are routinely used in conjunction with crystalloid or blood cardioplegia. We investigated the influence of cannulation method and cardioplegia solutions on plasma [K+] and MAP during cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using CPB were studied. They were randomly divided into three groups of 20 patients. Patients in Group A underwent bi-caval venous cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group B patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group C patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received blood cardioplegia. In each case. cardioplegia was administered antegrade via the aortic root. Plasma [K+], MAP. and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were measured over an 8-min period following cardioplegia administration (pilot studies indicated pressure changes occuring post cardioplegia administration up to this time). The combination of bi-caval cannulation and crystalloid cardioplegia (Group A) was associated with the least increase in plasma [K+] and no decrease in MAP. The maximum [K+] for this Group was 4.2 mmol\\/L (4.6% increase). The minimum mean pressure was 57 mmHg (13.6% increase). Both right atrial cannulation groups (B and C) showed a large rise in plasma [K+] and a decrease in MAP. Group B maximum [K+] was 5.2 mmol\\/L (27.5% increase). Group C was also 5.2 mmol\\/L (26.0% increase). Group C showed the largest pressure decrease, the minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (21.3% decrease). The Group B minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (8.7% decrease). Our results show that patients undergoing CPB operations who are deemed to be at increased risk of suffering adverse effects from hypotensive episodes may

  5. Evaluation of 2 portable ion-selective electrode meters for determining whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid potassium concentrations in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Grünberg, W; Constable, P D

    2016-09-01

    Two low-cost ion-selective electrode (ISE) handheld meters (CARDY C-131, LAQUAtwin B-731; Horiba Ltd., Albany, NY) have recently become available for measuring the potassium concentration ([K(+)]) in biological fluids. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the analytical performance of the ISE meters in measuring [K(+)] in bovine whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid. We completed 6 method comparison studies using 369 whole blood and plasma samples from 106 healthy periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 138 plasma samples from 27 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 92 milk samples and 204 urine samples from 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, and 94 abomasal fluid samples from 6 male Holstein-Friesian calves. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize meter performance against reference methods (indirect ISE, Hitachi 911 and 917; inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The CARDY ISE meter applied directly in plasma measured [K(+)] as being 7.3% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with the recommended adjustment of +7.5% when indirect ISE methods are used to analyze plasma. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in direct mode measured fat-free milk [K(+)] as being 3.6% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with a herd milk protein percentage of 3.4%. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured abomasal fluid [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured urine [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method, but the median measured value for urine [K(+)] was 83% of the true value measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We conclude that the CARDY and LAQUAtwin ISE meters are practical, low-cost, rapid, accurate point-of-care instruments suitable for measuring [K(+)] in whole blood, plasma, milk, and abomasal fluid samples from cattle. Ion-selective electrode methodology is

  6. Serum potassium concentrations: Importance of normokalaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Manuel; Fernández-Reyes, María José

    2017-06-21

    Abnormalities in potassium concentrations are associated with morbidity and mortality. In recent years it has been considered that small variations in serum potassium concentrations within normal intervals may also be associated with mortality. Strategies for achieving normokalaemia include dietary measures, limiting the use of potassium retaining drugs, and use of conventional cation exchange resins (calcium/sodium polystyrene sulfonate) and/or the new non-absorbed cation exchange polymer (patiromer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma Potassium Levels in Healthy Prehypertension Subjects and the Role of A High Potassium Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farapti, Farapti; Sayogo, Savitri; Siregar, Parlindungan

    2017-02-24

    Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended levels of potassium. Long term low potassium intake could lead to decreased plasma potassium levels and induce hypokalemia. The increasing of plasma potassium levels 0,2-0,4 mmol/L by improving potassium intake decreased significantly blood pressure (BP). Assessing plasma potassium levels in healthy people related to potassium intake have not been studied. In this study, we analysed plasma potassium levels in prehypertension (PHT) subjects and to evaluate the effect of tender coconut water (TCW) as a high potassium drink on plasma potassium levels in PHT adults. Thirthy-two female aged 25-44 years were randomly allocated to 14 days on TCW or water in a parallel randomized clinical trial . The treatment (T) group received TCW 300 ml twice daily and the control (C) group received water 300 ml twice daily too. At baseline, plasma potassium levels was 3.71±0.41 mmol/L, and 22.58% were categorized as hypokalemia. After 14 days treatment, potassium plasma level between T and C groups were not significantly different (p=0,247). The change of plasma potassium levels in both groups showed tendency to increase but not statistically significant (p=0.166). In healthy prehypertension women, the low levels of potassium plasma may be caused by low potassium intake for long time and intervension with TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has not proven yet to increase plasma potassium levels. It is necessary to give higher dose and longer time to increase potassium plasma in low potassium plasma level subjects.

  8. Intraerythrocytic sodium and potassium concentrations during acute and chronic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K E; Koldkjaer, O; Berndtz, N H; Hvidt, S; Kjaer, K; Midtskov, C; Sanchez, G

    1982-01-01

    To assess the cellular effects of digoxin, intraerythrocytic sodium and potassium concentrations were measured in 17 patients during the early phase of digitalization, in 45 patients on long-term therapy and in 64 non-digitalized control patients. Acute digitalization raised intraerythrocytic sodium from 11.6 +/- 0.4 to 16.7 +/- 1.0 mmol/l (mean +/- SEM) (p less than 0.01) and reduced intraerythrocytic potassium from 100.1 +/- 1.3 to 95.9 +/- 1.8 mmol/l (p less than 0.01). These changes were strongly correlated with the steady-state plasma digoxin concentration. During a few weeks of digoxin therapy, the intraerythrocytic cation composition normalized gradually. In patients on chronic treatment, neither intraerythrocytic sodium (11.3 +/- 0.3 mmol/l) nor potassium concentrations (100.0 +/- 0.6 mmol/l) differed significantly from the values of the control group (11.4 +/- 0.2 and 99.9 +/- 0.5 mmol/l, respectively). The changes in intraerythrocytic cation concentrations, induced by acute digitalization, seem to disappear during chronic administration of the drug.

  9. Sodium retention by insulin may depend on decreased plasma potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, C E; Koomans, H A; Bijlsma, J A; Rabelink, T J; Dorhout Mees, E J

    1991-02-01

    Evidence is accumulating that insulin is a hypertensive factor in humans. The involved mechanism may be its sodium-retaining effect. We examined whether insulin causes sodium retention through a direct action on the kidney, as is generally assumed, or indirectly through hypokalemia. Insulin was infused (euglycemic clamp technique) with and without potassium infusion to prevent hypokalemia in six healthy subjects. Without potassium infusion, insulin caused a marked decrease in plasma potassium (-0.75 mmol/L), and decreased urinary sodium and potassium excretions by, approximately 38% and 65%, respectively. Simultaneous potassium infusion largely prevented the decrease in plasma potassium, as well as the decrease in urinary sodium and potassium excretions. These data suggest that the acute antinatriuretic effect of insulin may be largely mediated in an indirect way, ie, through hypokalemia.

  10. Differences in serum potassium concentrations between Chinese, Indians and Malays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that potassium concentrations may vary between different geographical regions, possibly reflecting ethnic differences in potassium status. This study compared the serum potassium concentrations of three Asian ethnicities in a single geographical location. Details of simultaneous serum potassium, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride and serum index measurements for samples from polyclinics and health screening were extracted for multivariable linear regression. Haemolysed and duplicate patient samples were excluded. Separate analysis was performed based on measurement platform (Roche or Beckman-Coulter) and patient location. Eighty-five thousand nine hundred and ninety-seven records met the inclusion criteria. When controlled for age, gender, serum creatinine, cholesterol and triglyceride, the average serum potassium concentration in Indians was 0.13-0.16 mmol/L higher than in Malays, who in turn had average serum potassium concentrations 0.05-0.06 mmol/L higher than Chinese when controlled for age, gender, serum creatinine, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. For patients undergoing health screening, the average serum potassium concentration in Indians and Malays was 0.12 mmol/L higher than in Chinese. Chinese individuals have lower average serum potassium concentrations than Indians and Malays. This may have clinical implications in relation to the high occurrence of thyrotoxic hypokalaemic paralysis and the aetiology of sudden unexplained death syndrome (SUDS) in Asians.

  11. Diagnostic value of plasma aldosterone/potassium ratio in hypoaldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, C J; Wu, K D; Tsai, D M; Liao, S T; Siauw, C P; Lee, L S

    1995-05-01

    The diagnosis of hypoaldosteronism usually depends upon a combination of abnormal clinical and laboratory findings. The most common abnormality in hypoaldosteronism is hyperkalemia, which may be combined with sodium depletion. In the present study, 5 of 16 patients diagnosed with isolated hypoaldosteronism (IHA) had sodium depletion due to renal salt wasting, and four patients had normokalemia. Of these 16 IHA patients, 70% had subnormal baseline and stimulated plasma renin activity (PRA). Six patients diagnosed with type I pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) had normal or high PRA and plasma aldosterone concentrations (PAC). In 11 control subjects, supine PAC correlated positively with serum potassium (SK), and PAC stimulated by furosemide and ambulation correlated with the 24-hour urinary potassium excretion (UK). However, these correlations were not found in IHA and PHA patients. The ratio of UK/UNa+K and UNa/UK correlated with the stimulated PAC when the IHA and control subjects were taken as a whole. However, these electrolyte excretion parameters bore no relationship to the supine PAC. The stimulated PAC/SK ratio was used to discriminate the three groups; all IHA patients had a ratio below 3. The results indicate that stimulated PAC reflects the bioactivity of aldosterone on the collecting tubule, and the stimulated PAC/SK ratio is useful for the diagnosis of hypoaldosteronism and pseudohypoaldosteronism.

  12. Correction factors for estimating potassium concentrations in samples with in vitro hemolysis: a detriment to patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mai M H; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Kazmierczak, Steven C

    2009-06-01

    Correction factors have been proposed for estimating true potassium concentrations in blood samples with evidence of in vitro hemolysis. We used 2 different models of true (ie, nonsimulated) in vitro hemolysis to evaluate the clinical utility of correction factors for estimating potassium concentrations in samples with evidence of in vitro hemolysis. Potassium correction factors were derived using 2 different models. In model 1, potassium and plasma hemoglobin were measured with the Hitachi 747 analyzer in 132 paired blood samples, with each pair consisting of 1 sample with evidence of hemolysis and 1 without, collected during the same phlebotomy procedure. The change in measured potassium concentration was plotted versus the change in plasma hemoglobin concentration for each pair of samples. In model 2, the potassium levels of 142 784 blood samples and the corresponding hemolytic index values were measured with the Beckman LX20 analyzer. Potassium concentrations at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles were calculated for each hemolysis index category. From our 2 models, we derived correction factors expressing an increase in potassium concentration of 0.51 and 0.40 mEq/L for every increase in plasma hemoglobin concentration of 0.1 g/dL. These correction factors are much higher than those reported in studies that simulated in vitro hemolysis by freeze-thaw lysis or osmotic disruption of whole blood. Use of correction factors for estimating the true potassium concentration in samples with evidence of in vitro hemolysis is not recommended. Derivation of correction factors by using samples with nonsimulated in vitro hemolysis suggests that the actual increase in potassium in hemolyzed samples is much higher than that reported in previous studies that produced hemolysis with artificial means.

  13. Plasma renin activities, angiotensin II concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values in dogs with severe heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, H; Kitoh, K; Inoue, H; Ohba, Y; Suzuki, F; Sasaki, Y

    2000-04-01

    Relationships among plasma renin activities (PRA), plasma angiotensin II (ATII) concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values were examined in dogs with ascitic pulmonary heartworm disease and acute- and chronic-vena caval syndrome (CS). PRA, plasma ATII concentration and plasma ANP concentration tended to be higher or were significantly higher in dogs with ascites, acute- and chronic-CS. PRA correlated significantly with plasma ATII concentration, WBC count, ALP activity, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chloride, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ATII concentration correlated significantly with WBC count, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ANP concentration did not correlate with PRA or ATII concentration, but correlated significantly only with pulmonary arterial pressure.

  14. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients : The role of insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Lansink, Annemieke Oude; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wietasch, Gotz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were

  15. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients : The role of insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Oude Lansink, Annemieke; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wietasch, Gotz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Objectives: Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were

  16. Increasing plasma [K+] by intravenous potassium infusion reduces NCC phosphorylation and drives kaliuresis and natriuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Srinivas; Lee, Donna H; Oh, Young Taek; Delpire, Eric; Youn, Jang H; McDonough, Alicia A

    2014-05-01

    Dietary potassium loading results in rapid kaliuresis, natriuresis, and diuresis associated with reduced phosphorylation (p) of the distal tubule Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC). Decreased NCC-p inhibits NCC-mediated Na(+) reabsorption and shifts Na(+) downstream for reabsorption by epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), which can drive K(+) secretion. Whether the signal is initiated by ingesting potassium or a rise in plasma K(+) concentration ([K(+)]) is not understood. We tested the hypothesis, in male rats, that an increase in plasma [K(+)] is sufficient to reduce NCC-p and drive kaliuresis. After an overnight fast, a single 3-h 2% potassium (2%K) containing meal increased plasma [K(+)] from 4.0 ± 0.1 to 5.2 ± 0.2 mM; increased urinary K(+), Na(+), and volume excretion; decreased NCC-p by 60%; and marginally reduced cortical Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) phosphorylation 25% (P = 0.055). When plasma [K(+)] was increased by tail vein infusion of KCl to 5.5 ± 0.1 mM over 3 h, significant kaliuresis and natriuresis ensued, NCC-p decreased by 60%, and STE20/SPS1-related proline alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) phosphorylation was marginally reduced 35% (P = 0.052). The following were unchanged at 3 h by either the potassium-rich meal or KCl infusion: Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), NHE3-p, NKCC, ENaC subunits, and renal outer medullary K(+) channel. In summary, raising plasma [K(+)] by intravenous infusion to a level equivalent to that observed after a single potassium-rich meal triggers renal kaliuretic and natriuretic responses, independent of K(+) ingestion, likely driven by decreased NCC-p and activity sufficient to shift sodium reabsorption downstream to where Na(+) reabsorption and flow drive K(+) secretion.

  17. Association of plasma potassium concentration with muscle tone, ECG, and levels of serum muscle enzymes in patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis%低钾型周期性麻痹患者血钾浓度与肌力、心电图改变及肌酶水平的关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩增灿

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of plasma potassium concentration with muscle tone, ECG, and levels of serum muscle enzymes in patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis.Methods The muscle tone, ECG, levels of serum muscle enzymes, and plasma potassium concentration wore measured and then analyzed in 80 patients. Results Of 80 patients, 20 patients had mild hypokalemia, 34 had moderate hypokalemia, and 26 had severe hypokalemia. The relation between muscle tone and potassium was not stable ( P> 0.05 ). 68 patients ( 85% ) developed abnormal ECG changes; the occurrence of abnormal ECG increased with the decrease in potassium levels. 64 patients( 80% ) had an elevated levels of muscle enzymes; and the levels of muscle enzymes were negatively related with potassium concentration. Conclusions Understanding of the association of plasma potassium concentration with with muscle tone, ECG, and levels of serum muscle enzymes is very important in the diagnosis and treatment of hypokalemic periodic paralysis.%目的 探讨低钾性周期性麻痹(HOPP)患者血钾浓度与肌力、心电图及肌酶的关系.方法对80例HOPP患者进行血钾浓度、肌力、心电图及肌酶水平检测并分析.结果 80例HOPP患者中,轻度低钾组20例,中度低钾组34例,重度低钾组26例,3组中血钾浓度与肌力关系不恒定(P>0.05).80例HOPP患者中心电图异常68例,占85%.心电图异常随低血钾程度下降,出现率增高.80例HOPP患者中肌酶升高64例,占80%.血清肌酶水平均有不同程度增高,血钾浓度与肌酶水平呈负相关.结论 了解低钾程度与肌力、肌酶及心电图的关系,对HOPP的诊断、治疗具有重要意义.

  18. Tomato yield and potassium concentrations in soil and in plant petioles as affected by potassium fertirrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FONTES PAULO CEZAR REZENDE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Santa Clara was grown on a silt clay soil with 46 mg dm-3 Mehlich 1 extractable K, to evaluate the effects of trickle-applied K rates on fruit yield and to establish K critical concentrations in soil and in plant petioles. Six potassium rates (0, 48, 119, 189, 259 and 400 kg ha-1 K were applied in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Soil and plant K critical levels were determined at two plant growth stages (at the beginning of the second and fourth cluster flowering. Total, marketable and weighted yields increased with K rates, reaching their maximum of 86.4, 73.4, and 54.9 ton ha-1 at 198, 194, and 125 kg ha-1 K , respectively. At the first soil sampling date K critical concentrations in the soil associated with K rates for maximum marketable and weighted yields were 92 and 68 mg dm-3, respectively. Potassium critical concentrations in the dry matter of the petioles sampled by the beginning of the second and fourth cluster flowering time, associated with maximum weighted yield, were 10.30 and 7.30 dag kg-1, respectively.

  19. What is the acceptable hemolysis index for the measurements of plasma potassium, LDH and AST?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Nathalie; Pige, Raphaëlle; Cohen, Richard; Pecquet, Matthieu

    2016-06-01

    Hemolysis is a cause of variability in test results for plasma potassium, LDH and AST and is a non-negligible part of measurement uncertainty. However, allowable levels of hemolysis provided by reagent suppliers take neither analytical variability (trueness and precision) nor the measurand into account. Using a calibration range of hemolysis, we measured the plasma concentrations of potassium, LDH and AST, and hemolysis indices with a Cobas C501 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics(®), Meylan, France). Based on the allowable total error (according to Ricós et al.) and the expanded measurement uncertainty equation we calculated the maximum allowable bias for two concentrations of each measurand. Finally, we determined the allowable hemolysis indices for all three measurands. We observed a linear relationship between the observed increases of concentration and hemolysis indices. The LDH measurement was the most sensitive to hemolysis, followed by AST and potassium measurements. The determination of the allowable hemolysis index depends on the targeted measurand, its concentration and the chosen level of requirement of allowable total error.

  20. Low dialysate potassium concentration: an overrated risk factor for cardiac arrhythmia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J Gary

    2015-01-01

    Serum potassium concentrations rise with dietary potassium intake between dialysis sessions and are often at hyperkalemic levels by the next session. Conversely, potassium concentrations fall during each hemodialysis, and sometimes reach hypokalemic levels by the end. Low potassium dialysate, which rapidly decreases serum potassium and often brings it to hypokalemic levels, is almost universally considered a risk factor for life-threatening arrhythmias. While there is little doubt about the threat of lethal arrhythmias due to hyperkalemia, convincing evidence for the danger of low potassium dialysate and rapid or excess potassium removal has not been forthcoming. The original report of more frequent ventricular ectopy in early dialysis that was improved by reducing potassium removal has received very little confirmation from subsequent studies. Furthermore, the occurrence of ventricular ectopy during dialysis does not appear to predict mortality. Studies relating sudden deaths to low potassium dialysate are countered by studies with more thorough adjustment for markers of poor health. Dialysate potassium concentrations affect the excursions of serum potassium levels above or below the normal range, and have the potential to influence dialysis safety. Controlled studies of different dialysate potassium concentration and their effect on mortality and cardiac arrests have not been done. Until these results become available, I propose interim guidelines for the setting of dialysate potassium levels that may better balance risks and benefits.

  1. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blackberries Root vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruit Your kidneys help to keep the right amount of potassium in your body. If you have chronic kidney disease, your kidneys may not remove extra potassium from ...

  2. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high in potassium include bananas, cantaloupe, grapefruit, oranges, tomato or prune juice, honeydew melons, prunes, molasses and ... of a Heart Attack 10 Angina (Chest Pain) *Red Dress ™ DHHS, Go Red ™ AHA ; National Wear Red ...

  3. The influence of plasma protein concentration on potassium,sodium and chloride measurement by ion-selective-electrodes%血浆蛋白水平对间接离子选择电极法检测钾钠氯离子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志勇; 肖鹿骋; 顾桂兰; 曹娟; 张超; 盛敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨血浆蛋白水平变化导致间接和直接离子选择电极法(ISE)结果间存在的差异,揭示直接ISE与间接ISE测定血浆钾、钠、氯离子结果之间的差异与血浆蛋白水平之间的关系.方法 选取低、中、高血浆蛋白的独立样本,研究直接与间接离子选择电极法对血浆钾、钠、氯检测结果差异以及与蛋白水平之间的线性关系.结果 间接法与直接法检测钠离子结果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),钠离子结果差异与总蛋白、清蛋白离子回归方程分别为Y=-0.129 4X+9.604 1和Y=-0.195X+7.807 8,相关系数r(r2)分别为0.76(0.57)和0.61(0.37),均P<0.001.结论 采用间接ISE法检测血浆钠离子时,对血浆蛋白水平的变化具有影响,直接与间接ISE法检测血浆钠离子结果差异和总蛋白、白蛋白水平之间线性回归等式可以成立.在总蛋白和(或)清蛋白水平明显异常时,直接ISE法测定血浆钠离子结果应当作为临床正确的依据.%Objective To test the hypothesis that the difference between indirect and direct potassium, sodium and chloride assays would be related to the plasma protein concentration, and to derive the relationship between the difference of direct and indirect ion selective electrode(ISE) measurements of plasma potassium,sodium and chloride and the protein concentration. Methods Independent specimens,that covered the whole level of the protein range, were selected,and linear relationships between the difference between direct and indirect ISE measurements of plasma potassium,sodium,chloride and the total protein and albumin concentration were analyzed. Results Significant biases were observed between indirect and direct ISE measurement of sodium level. The regression equations of the difference and the total protein level, albumin level were Y= - 0. 129 4X + 9. 604 1 和 Y = - 0. 195X + 7. 807 8, with r(r2 )of 0. 76(0. 57)and 0. 61(0. 37)and with P<0. 001. Conclusion The plasma sodium

  4. Potassium as an intrinsic uncoupler of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe

    The plant plasma membrane proton pump (H(+)-ATPase) is stimulated by potassium, but it has remained unclear whether potassium is actually transported by the pump or whether it serves other roles. We now show that K(+) is bound to the proton pump at a site involving Asp(617) in the cytoplasmic...

  5. Effects of low-dose thiazide diuretics on fasting plasma glucose and serum potassium-a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukete, Bertrand N; Rosendorff, Clive

    2013-01-01

    This study is a meta-analysis of the metabolic profile (fasting plasma glucose and serum potassium) of low-dose thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics. The meta-analysis involved 10 randomized controlled clinical trials with a total sample size of 17,636 and 17,947 for the potassium and glucose arms respectively. The random effect model was used to calculate the odds ratio with 95 percent confidence interval. The cumulative mean change of fasting plasma glucose was +0.20 mmol/L (+3.6 mg/dL) for the diuretic arm versus +0.12 mmol/L (+2.2 mg/dL) for the comparator arm. The cumulative mean change of serum potassium was -0.22 mmol/L (-0.22 mEq/L) for the diuretic arm versus +0.05 mmol/L (+0.05 mEq/L) for the comparator arm. The aggregate odds ratio for having higher fasting plasma glucose in subjects on low-dose thiazide versus non-thiazide antihypertensive was 1.22 (1.11 to 1.33; P < .01). The odds ratio for having a lower serum potassium in subjects on low-dose thiazide versus non-thiazide antihypertensive was 0.36 (0.27 to 0.49; P < .01). The magnitude of the observed change in fasting plasma glucose associated with low-dose thiazide diuretic use, while statistically significant, does not appear to place patients at clinically significant risk. On the other hand, the observed change in serum potassium was also statistically significant, and may be clinically significant in patients whose baseline potassium concentration is low or low-normal, and could predispose at-risk patients, such as those with ischemic heart disease, to ventricular arrhythmias.

  6. Reduction in potassium concentration of stored red blood cell units using a resin filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chisa; Heitmiller, Eugenie S; Ness, Paul M; King, Karen E

    2010-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a serious complication of rapid and massive blood transfusion due to high plasma potassium (K) in stored red blood cell (RBC) units. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) was developed in Japan to remove K by exchanging with sodium (Na). We performed an in vitro evaluation of its efficacy and feasibility of use. Three AS-3 RBC units were filtered by each PAF using gravity; 10 PAFs were tested. Blood group, age, flow rate, and irradiation status were recorded. Total volume, K, Na, Cl, Mg, total Ca (tCa), RBC count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma Hb were measured before and after filtering each unit. Ionized Ca (iCa), pH, and glucose were measured for some units. After filtration, the mean decrease in K was 97.5% in the first RBC unit, 91.2% in the second unit, and 64.4% in the third unit. The mean increases in Na, Mg, and tCa were 33.0, 151.4, and 116.1%, respectively. iCa and pH remained low; glucose was unchanged. RBC count, Hb, and Hct decreased slightly after filtration of first units; plasma Hb was unchanged. After filtration, there was no visual evidence of increased hemolysis or clot formation. The PAF decreased K concentration in stored AS-3 RBC units to minimal levels in the first and second RBC units. Optimally, one filter could be used for 2 RBC units. Although Na increased, the level may not be clinically significant. PAF may be useful for at-risk patients receiving older units or blood that has been stored after gamma irradiation. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  7. Serum potassium concentration in hyperglycemia of diabetes mellitus with long-term dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzamaloukas, A H; Avasthi, P S

    1987-05-01

    Severe hyperkalemia (serum potassium level >6 mmol per liter [mEq per liter]), often with electrocardiographic disturbances, was noted at presentation in 30% of 73 hyperglycemic episodes (serum glucose concentration >25 mmol per liter [455 mg per dl]) observed in 15 in-hospital patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who were receiving long-term hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Serum glucose concentration and total carbon dioxide content correlated significantly with the presenting serum potassium concentration. Treatment with parenteral insulin alone resulted in a decrease of the serum glucose value from 41 +/- 14 (standard deviation) to 11 +/- 5 mmol per liter (P decrease in potassium concentration during treatment. Insulin alone resulted in correction of hyperkalemia in all instances. Posttreatment hypokalemia was noted in only two instances, each associated with both ketoacidosis and low-normal serum potassium concentration at hyperglycemia. Giving insulin is the only treatment usually needed for the hyperkalemia of hyperglycemia in patients on ongoing dialysis.

  8. Pathogenic Candida species differ in the ability to grow at limiting potassium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hušeková, B; Elicharová, H; Sychrová, H

    2016-05-01

    A high intracellular concentration of potassium (200-300 mmol/L) is essential for many yeast cell functions, such as the regulation of cell volume and pH, maintenance of membrane potential, and enzyme activation. Thus, cells use high-affinity specific transporters and expend a lot of energy to acquire the necessary amount of potassium from their environment. In Candida genomes, genes encoding 3 types of putative potassium uptake systems were identified: Trk uniporters, Hak symporters, and Acu ATPases. Tests of the tolerance and sensitivity of C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis to various concentrations of potassium showed significant differences among the species, and these differences were partly dependent on external pH. The species most tolerant to potassium-limiting conditions were C. albicans and C. krusei, while C. parapsilosis tolerated the highest KCl concentrations. Also, the morphology of cells changed with the amount of potassium available, with C. krusei and C. tropicalis being the most influenced. Taken together, our results confirm potassium uptake and accumulation as important factors for Candida cell growth and suggest that the sole (and thus probably indispensable) Trk1 potassium uptake system in C. krusei and C. glabrata may serve as a target for the development of new antifungal drugs.

  9. Influence of potassium pyrophosphate in electrolyte on coated layer of AZ91 Mg alloy formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Young CHO; Duck-Young HWANG; Dong-Heon LEE; Bongyoung YOO; Dong-Hyuk SHIN

    2009-01-01

    The effect of potassium pyrophosphate in the electrolyte on plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process for AZ91 Mg alloy was investigated. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the coating layer on the AZ91 Mg alloy were evaluated and corrosion resistance was also estimated by potentiodynamic polarization analysis. The coating layer on AZ91 Mg alloy coated from the Bath 2 containing 0.03 mol/L of potassium pyrophosphate for 360 s exhibited considerably dense structure and contained 11%-18% (mass fraction) of phosphorous. The higher content of phosphorous of coating layer coated from Bath 2 could be detected at the bottom of oxide layer, which strongly implied that the phosphorous ion might be concentrated at the barrier layer. Corrosion potential of coating layer of AZ91 Mg alloy increased and corrosion current density decreased with increasing the concentration of potassium pyrophosphate. The polarization resistance (Rp) of coating layer of AZ91 Mg alloy coated from Bath 2 was 4.65×107 Ω/cm2, which was higher than that (Rp=3.56×104 Ω/cm2) of the sample coated from electrolyte without potassium pyrophosphate. The coating layer coated from Bath 2 containing 0.03 mol/L potassium pyrophosphate exhibited the best corrosion resistance.

  10. Potassium double tungstate waveguides with high ytterbium concentration for optical amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yong, Yean-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, the research work concerning high ytterbium concentration potassium double tungstate waveguides catered for optical amplification purpose is presented. The scope of the research work includes the investigation of spectroscopic and optical gain properties in epitaxy layers with

  11. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in morbidly obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, A; Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations and liver morphology were investigated in 45 morbidly obese subjects (median overweight 88%) and in 42 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. A significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentration (median 464 mg/l, range 276-862 mg....../l) was found in the obese subjects when compared with concentrations in the controls (median 348 mg/l, range 164-536 mg/l). Plasma fibronectin concentrations of the obese patients correlated significantly to their degree of overweight (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05) as well as to the degree of fatty change found...... in their liver biopsies (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05). Significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated plasma fibronectin concentrations even in obese subjects without hepatic fatty change indicate that liver fat accumulation is no prerequisite of the obesity-related elevation of plasma fibronectin. Raised plasma...

  12. Concentrations of Uranium,Thorium and Potassium in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunholm, Bo; Linden, Anders H.; Gustafsson, Bosse [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    This report is largely a result of the Swedish contribution to an IAEA co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on the use of selected safety indicators in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The CRP was focusing on the assessment of the longterm safety of radioactive waste disposal by means of additional safety indicators based on data from natural systems with emphasis on description of existing data on radioactive elements and radionuclides. A major part of the work was focused on collecting data on geophysics as well as geochemistry and groundwater chemistry; mainly uranium (U), thorium (Th) and potassium (K). Data were interpreted resulting in maps and statistical description.

  13. Simultaneous determination of diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride in human plasma using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahivelkar, Prasad P; Bhoir, Suvarna I; Bari, Sanjay B; Surana, Sanjay J; Bhagwat, Ashok M

    2012-09-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection is proposed for the estimation of diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride in human plasma. Liquid-liquid extraction was carried out with a mixture of dichloromethane-isopropyl alcohol (80:20, v/v). Chromatographic separation of the analytes and internal standard was achieved on an analytical 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. reversed-phase Thermo BDS Hypersil C8 (5 µm particle size) column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.02M ammonium acetate buffer (53:47, v/v) at pH 3.5. The run time was less than 15 min. Column eluate was monitored at 230 nm. The linearity over the concentration ranges of 25-1500 ng/mL and 32-960 ng/mL was obtained for diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride, respectively. The limit of quantification was 25 and 32 ng/mL for diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride, respectively. Recoveries of diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride from plasma were 97.45% and 98.27%, respectively.

  14. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic.

  15. Increased plasma fibronectin concentrations in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Dejgaard, A; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    In 23 morbidly obese patients we investigated the influence of a large weight loss (30.6 kg, range 17.5-90.8) on the plasma fibronectin concentrations. Further, changes in plasma fibronectin were related to serum insulin levels and to liver biochemistry. Between the measurements patients had been...

  16. Plasma catecholamine concentrations associated with cerebral vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loach, A B; Benedict, C R

    1980-03-01

    Plasma concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured sequentially over the immediate post-operative period following clipping of an intracranial aneurysm in 11 patients. Those patients who developed local cerebral vasospasm showed a sustained rise in plasma catecholamines, particularly noradrenaline, whilst those patients who developed generalised cerebral vasospasm showed early peaks of very high concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline which preceded radiological evidence of generalized vasospam.

  17. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-03

    Aug 3, 1989 ... nectar ion concentrations in carpenter bee and hummingbird flowers. ..... bee foragers gather nectar for the colony as a whole. ... solutions to honey bees foraging at a feeder. Artificial food sources have been used extensively ...

  18. Nitrate and potassium concentration in fertigated soil cultivated with wine vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Oliveira da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the semiarid region of Brazil the use of irrigation systems for applying fertilizers in horticulture is the primary means for incorporating nutrients in the soil. However, this technique still requires its use in wine vines to be assessed. In view of this, this study aimed to assess nitrate and potassium concentrations in soil fertigated with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers in 3 wine grape growing cycles. A field experiment was conducted with 'Syrah' wine grapes, in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil; it assessed five nitrogen doses (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 and five K2O doses (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 applied by drip irrigation system with two emitters per plant, with a flow rate of 4 L h-1. The experimental design used was the factorial split-plot, making up 13 combinations arranged in 4 randomized blocks. Soil solution samples were collected weekly with the aid of porous cup extractors for all treatments and at depths of 0.4 and 0.6 m by determining nitrate and potassium concentrations and electrical conductivity. Increased levels of both nutrients in the irrigation water increased the availability of nitrate and potassium in the soil solution. The highest nitrate and potassium concentrations were found in the second growing cycle at both depths studied.

  19. Dopant Concentration and Effective Atomic Number of Copper-Doped Potassium Borate Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper-doped (0.5 mol% and undoped potassium borate glasses have been prepared by the composition of (100-xH3BO3 + xK2CO3, where 10 ≤ x ≤ 30 mol % by the traditional melting quenching method. The structural pattern of glasses with different composition has been identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The glow curves were analysed to determine various characterizations of the TLDs. Identification of the compositions and concentrations and effective atomic number of undoped and doped potassium borate glass was carried out using scanning electron microscope analysis (SEM. The dopant concentrations are found to be 0.25 mol%, while Zeff are 11.42 and 10.48 for Cu-doped and undoped potassium borate glasses, respectively.

  20. Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnel Helling

    Full Text Available Higher than normal plasma glutamine concentration at admission to an intensive care unit is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Very high plasma glutamine levels are sometimes seen in both acute and chronic liver failure. We aimed to systematically explore the relation between different types of liver failure and plasma glutamine concentrations.Four different groups of patients were studies; chronic liver failure (n = 40, acute on chronic liver failure (n = 20, acute fulminant liver failure (n = 20, and post-hepatectomy liver failure (n = 20. Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD scores were assessed as indices of liver function. All groups except the chronic liver failure group were followed longitudinally during hospitalisation. Outcomes were recorded up to 48 months after study inclusion.All groups had individuals with very high plasma glutamine concentrations. In the total group of patients (n = 100, severity of liver failure correlated significantly with plasma glutamine concentration, but the correlation was not strong.Liver failure, regardless of severity and course of illness, may be associated with a high plasma glutamine concentration. Further studies are needed to understand whether high glutamine levels should be regarded as a biomarker or as a contributor to symptomatology in liver failure.

  1. Increased plasma fructosamine concentrations in laminitic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Withers, J M; Mair, T S

    2012-03-01

    The use of plasma fructosamine concentration ([fructosamine]) as a marker of abnormal glucose homeostasis in laminitic horses has not been investigated. Plasma fructosamine concentration may be higher amongst laminitic horses than normal horses; this might relate to underlying insulin resistance. 1) To compare [fructosamine] between laminitic and normal horses. 2) To investigate associations between [fructosamine] at presentation in laminitic horses with a) single sample markers of insulin resistance and b) outcome. Plasma fructosamine concentration, fasting serum insulin concentration (insulin) and fasting plasma glucose concentration (glucose) were measured in 30 horses that presented with laminitis. Clinical details and follow-up data were recorded. Plasma fructosamine concentration was also measured in 19 nonlaminitic control horses. Laminitic horses had significantly higher mean [fructosamine] than normal horses (P<0.001). Thirteen of 30 laminitic horses had fasting hyperinsulinaemia, 2/30 had fasting hyperglycaemia. Statistically significant univariable correlations were identified between [fructosamine] and [glucose], [insulin] and the proxies RISQI and MIRG. Trends for association between [fructosamine] and negative outcome did not reach statistical significance. Increased mean [fructosamine] in laminitic horses may represent abnormal glycaemic control and [fructosamine] may become a clinically useful marker. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  2. A new approach to endocochlear potential and potassium ion concentration measures in mini pig models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Ren a; Ling Zhang b; Weiwei Guo a; Wei Sun c; Shiming Yang a

    2014-01-01

    Mini pig models are large mammals and their ears are more similar with human beings in structure and development than other animals. However, the study on porcine ears is still in the initial stage and there is no description of an ideal operation approach to endocochlear potential and potassium ion concentration measurements. In this article, we describe a pre-auricular surgical approach to access the middle and inner ear for endocochlear potential and potassium ion concentration measures in mini pig models. Ten one-week old normal mini pigs were used in the study. The bulla of the temporal bone was accessed via a pre-auricular approach for endocochlear potential and potassium ion concentration measurements. The condition of the animals during the first posteexperiment 24 h was observed. One animal died during surgery. The pre-auricular approach improved protection and preservation of relevant nervous and vascular elements including the facial nerve and carotid ar-tery. So, the pre-auricular approach can be used for endocochlear potential and potassium ion concentration measurements with improved nerve and artery preservation mini pigs.

  3. Doxepin concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomburg, Robert; Remane, Daniela; Fassbender, Klaus; Maurer, Hans H; Spiegel, Jörg

    2011-04-01

    Doxepin--like other antidepressant drugs (ADs)--shows a variable antidepressant effect in clinical practice. The cause for this variability is as yet unclear; however, pharmacokinetic factors such as the variable permeability of doxepin into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), may contribute to the difference in therapeutic efficacy. We measured and correlated the concentration of doxepin and its active metabolite nordoxepin in both the plasma and CSF. Plasma and CSF samples were taken simultaneously from 21 patients who were treated with doxepin due to different clinical indications. The plasma concentration of both doxepin and nordoxepin correlated significantly with the oral dosage of doxepin (doxepin: r = +0.66, p < 0.001; nordoxepin: r = +0.78, p < 0.0001; Spearman's correlation). Furthermore, we found significant correlations between the plasma and CSF concentrations of both doxepin (r = +0.71; p < 0.001; Pearson's correlation) and nordoxepin (r = +0.74; p < 0.001). These highly significant correlations between the plasma and CSF concentrations indicate a constant CSF permeability of doxepin and its active metabolite nordoxepin.

  4. Serum Potassium Concentration in Hyperglycemia of Diabetes Mellitus With Long-term Dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Antonios H Tzamaloukas; Avasthi, Pratap S.

    1987-01-01

    Severe hyperkalemia (serum potassium level >6 mmol per liter [mEq per liter]), often with electrocardiographic disturbances, was noted at presentation in 30% of 73 hyperglycemic episodes (serum glucose concentration >25 mmol per liter [455 mg per dl]) observed in 15 in-hospital patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who were receiving long-term hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Serum glucose concentration and total carbon dioxide content correlated significantly with the present...

  5. Serum and tissue iodine concentrations in rats fed diets supplemented with kombu powder or potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Mukama, Ayumi; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Serum and tissue iodine concentration was measured in rats fed a diet supplemented with powdered kombu (Saccharina sculpera) or potassium iodide to evaluate the absorption of iodine from kombu. Eighteen male 5-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a basal AIN93G diet (iodine content, 0.2 mg/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with iodine (183 mg/kg) either in the form of kombu powder or potassium iodine (KI) for 4 wk. There were no differences in weight gain or serum biochemistry tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration) after iodine supplementation. In addition, serum levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone, were not affected. On the other hand, serum and tissue (thyroid, liver and kidney) iodine concentrations were markedly elevated after iodine supplementation. There was no difference in thyroid iodine concentration between KI and kombu supplementation. However, there was a significant difference observed in the iodine concentrations of serum, liver and kidney between the two iodine sources; rats fed KI had iodine concentrations in these tissues 1.8 to 1.9 times higher than those in rats fed kombu powder. These results suggest that the absorption of iodine from kombu is reduced compared to that from potassium iodide.

  6. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kępka, Alina; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Płudowski, Paweł; Konarzewska, Emilia; Szulc, Agata; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2013-05-31

    Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell. The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period. The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men) aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6 ± 8.9) and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men) aged 22-60 years (39.8 ± 9.4). The patients' alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6 ± 7.5). Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9 ± 151.5). Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0), 30th (T30) and 49th (T49) day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC) and total (TC) carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student's t-test was used. At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05) in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01) as well as AC (p < 0.001) were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001)was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05), whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05). Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine after chronic alcohol intoxication is caused by the uptake of blood

  7. Rice potassium transporter OsHAK1 is essential for maintaining potassium-mediated growth and functions in salt tolerance over low and high potassium concentration ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Hu, Qingdi; Luo, Le; Yang, Tianyuan; Zhang, Song; Hu, Yibing; Yu, Ling; Xu, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Potassium (K) absorption and translocation in plants rely upon multiple K transporters for adapting varied K supply and saline conditions. Here, we report the expression patterns and physiological roles of OsHAK1, a member belonging to the KT/KUP/HAK gene family in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The expression of OsHAK1 is up-regulated by K deficiency or salt stress in various tissues, particularly in the root and shoot apical meristem, the epidermises and steles of root, and vascular bundles of shoot. Both oshak1 knockout mutants in comparison to their respective Dongjin or Manan wild types showed a dramatic reduction in K concentration and stunted root and shoot growth. Knockout of OsHAK1 reduced the K absorption rate of unit root surface area by ∼50-55 and ∼30%, and total K uptake by ∼80 and ∼65% at 0.05-0.1 and 1 mm K supply level, respectively. The root net high-affinity K uptake of oshak1 mutants was sensitive to salt stress but not to ammonium supply. Overexpression of OsHAK1 in rice increased K uptake and K/Na ratio. The positive relationship between K concentration and shoot biomass in the mutants suggests that OsHAK1 plays an essential role in K-mediated rice growth and salt tolerance over low and high K concentration ranges.

  8. Plasma-membrane hyperpolarization diminishes the cation efflux via Nha1 antiporter and Ena ATPase under potassium-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrádka, Jaromír; Sychrová, Hana

    2012-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae extrudes K(+) cations even when potassium is only present in scarce amounts in the environment. Lost potassium is taken up by the Trk1 and Trk2 uptake systems. If the Trk transporters are absent or nonfunctional, the efflux of potassium is significantly diminished. A series of experiments with strains lacking various combinations of potassium efflux and uptake systems revealed that all three potassium-exporting systems the Nha1 antiporter, Ena ATPase and Tok1 channel contribute to potassium homeostasis and are active upon potassium limitation in wild-type cells. In trk1Δ trk2Δ mutants, the potassium efflux via potassium exporters Nha1 and Ena1 is diminished and can be restored either by the expression of TRK1 or deletion of TOK1. In both cases, the relative hyperpolarization of trk1Δ trk2Δ cells is decreased. Thus, it is the plasma-membrane potential which serves as the common mechanism regulating the activity of K(+) exporting systems. There is a continuous uptake and efflux of potassium in yeast cells to regulate their membrane potential and thereby other physiological parameters, and the cells are able to quickly and efficiently compensate for a malfunction of potassium transport in one direction by diminishing the transport in the other direction.

  9. The responses of rainbow trout gills to high lithium and potassium concentrations in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatcheva, Victoria; Holopainen, Ismo J; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study is to discern the effects of increased waterborne lithium and potassium on rainbow trout gill histology, lipid composition, and enzyme activity. The study aims to elucidate the effects of these ions in the laboratory in concentrations similar to those prevailing in a forest lake Poppalijärvi in a contaminated mining area in NW Russia. Under the lithium and potassium exposure, the fish were further stressed by high pH (8.2 as in Lake Poppalijärvi) and lack of food. These multiple stress conditions altered the gill membrane fluidity by increasing sphingomyelin (5.5+/-0.6 compared to 2.9+/-0.3% in the control) and reducing cholesterol (4+/-1 compared to 17+/-3 mg g(-1) in the control). The total ATPase activity tended to be higher in the lithium-potassium-exposed group (46+/-6 compared to 34+/-2 micromol Pi h(-1) mg(-1)protein in the control). Lithium toxicity was lowered here by the protective role of higher potassium contents.

  10. {sup 40}K determination to estimate the concentration of total potassium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escareno J, E.; Mares E, C. A.; Hernandez V, C.; Contreras S, H.; Hernandez A, L.; Baltazar R, A.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: edmundoej@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Total potassium concentration has been determined by measuring the 1.46 MeV gamma ray emitted during {sup 40}K decay. In nature there are three K isotopes: {sup 39}K, {sup 41}K, and {sup 40}K, this last is radioactive with a half life of 10{sup 9} years. In nature, {sup 40}K is in 0.0117% and this is measured in order to estimate the total amount of potassium. Potassium plays and comporting role in growing and reproduction of animals and plants. Due to decay properties and because it is essential to humans {sup 40}K is important for radiological protection. Due to secular equilibrium the {gamma}-ray emission rate of {sup 40}K is proportional to total {sup 40}K concentration and can be used to estimate the total amount of K. In this work a set of {sup 40}K calibrating sources has been prepared and was utilized with NaI (Tl)-based spectrometric {gamma}-ray system to measure the {sup 40}K concentration in several samples; with this information total K was evaluated. (Author)

  11. [Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in human milk and infant formulas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, E M; Sanz Alaejos, M; Díaz Romero, C

    2002-12-01

    Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were determined in 55 samples of mature human milk from Canary women and 5 samples of powdered infant formula. According to the literature our data fell within the normal intervals described for each kind of milk. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na y K of powdered infant formula was higher than those concentrations found in the human milks. Significant differences among the concentrations of Ca, Mg and Na for the milks of the considered mothers were observed. Only the Ca intakes for infants fed with human milk were lower than those requirements recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board (1989). However, the infants fed with powdered infant formula had an adequate intake of all the studied metals. A progressive decrease of the Na, K and Ca concentrations with the lactation stage was observed. Maternal age, parity and sex of the newborns did not affect the metal concentrations significantly.

  12. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gujarati, Vivek P., E-mail: vivekgujarati@gmail.com; Deshpande, M. P., E-mail: vishwadeshpande@yahoo.co.in; Patel, Kamakshi R.; Chaki, S. H. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat (India)

    2016-05-06

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field, UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.

  13. Plasma homocysteine concentrations in novel microminipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Otsuka, Akira; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Ogata, Kenji; Tanimoto, Akihide; Kanouchi, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    A novel microminipig has been recently developed for use in biomedical research. In the present study, age- and sex-related differences, as well as 24-h fluctuations in plasma total homocysteine concentrations (tHcy), were investigated in these microminipigs. tHcy (mean±SD) was 10.2±3.4 μM and significantly correlated with age. By contrast, neither the differences in tHcy between sexes nor the 24-h fluctuations in tHcy after feeding were significant. The kinetics of plasma tHcy after intravenous injection of reduced Hcy showed that its levels peaked within 5 min post-injection, as did the levels of tHcy. These results suggested that reduced Hcy is rapidly oxidized or metabolized. The half-lives of reduced Hcy, tHcy, and reduced cysteine in the blood were 47, 71, and 141 min, respectively. In conclusion, there was a significantly positive correlation between age and plasma tHcy in microminipigs. After intravenous injection of reduced Hcy, plasma tHcy quickly returned to pre-injection levels. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of thorium, uranium and potassium elemental concentrations in surface soils in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzis, Michalis; Tsertos, Haralabos

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to determine thorium, uranium and potassium elemental concentrations in surface soils throughout the accessible area of Cyprus using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. A total of 115 soil samples was collected from all over the bedrock surface of the island based on the different lithological units of the study area. The soil samples were air-dried, sieved through a fine mesh, sealed in 1000-ml plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory in terms of their gamma radioactivity for a counting time of 18 h each. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, elemental concentrations were determined for thorium (range from 2.5 x 10(-3) to 9.8 microg g(-1)), uranium (from 8.1 x 10(-4) to 3.2 microg g(-1)) and potassium (from 1.3 x 10(-4) to 1.9%). The arithmetic mean values (A.M. +/- S.D.) calculated from all samples are: (1.2+/-1.7 microg g(-1)), (0.6+/-0.7) microg g(-1), and (0.4+/-0.3%), for thorium, uranium and potassium, respectively, which are by a factor of three-six lower than the world average values of 7.4 microg g(-1) (Th), 2.8 microg g(-1) (U) and 1.3% (K) derived from all data available worldwide. The best-fitting relation between the concentrations of Th and K versus U and also of K versus Th, is essentially of linear type with a correlation coefficient of 0.93, 0.84 and 0.90, respectively. The Th/U, K/U and K/Th ratios (slopes) extracted are equal to 2.0, 2.8 x 10(3) and 1.4 x 10(3), respectively.

  15. Thermal history effects on electrical relaxation and conductivity for potassium silicate glass with low alkali concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Hann, Raiford E.; Cooper, Alfred R.

    1993-01-01

    Electrical response measurements from 10 Hz to 100 kHz between 120 and 540 C were made on potassium-silicate glasses with alkali oxide contents of 2, 3, 5 and 10 mol percent. Low alkali content glasses were chosen in order to try to reduce the Coulombic interactions between alkali ions to the point that frozen structural effects from the glass could be observed. Conductivity and electrical relaxation responses for both annealed and quenched glasses of the same composition were compared. Lower DC conductivity (sigma(sub DC)) activation energies were measured for the quenched compared to the annealed glasses. The two glasses with the lowest alkali contents exhibited a non-Arrhenius concave up curvature in the log(sigma(sub DC)) against 1/T plots, which decreased upon quenching. A sharp decrease in sigma(sub DC) was observed for glasses containing K2O concentrations of 5 mol percent or less. The log modulus loss peak (M'') maximum frequency plots against 1/T all showed Arrhenius behavior for both annealed and quenched samples. The activation energies for these plots closely agreed with the sigma(sub DC) activation energies. A sharp increase in activation energy was observed for both series as the potassium oxide concentration decreased. Changes in the electrical response are attributed to structural effects due to different alkali concentrations. Differences between the annealed and quenched response are linked to a change in the distribution of activation energies (DAE).

  16. [The relationship between PMI and concentration of potassium ion and sodium ion in swine aqueous humor after death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ju; Yu, Guang-biao; Dong, Ye-qiang; Fang, Chao; Jing, Hua-lan; Luo, Si-min

    2010-04-01

    To explored the relationship between the concentration of potassium ion as well as sodium ion in the aqueous humor and post-mortem interval (PMI). The concentrations of potassium ion and sodium ion in the aqueous humor of swine within 48 h after death at 4 degrees C and 28 degrees C were detected using Z-500 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of potassium ion and sodium ion in aqueous humor of isolated swine eyeballs within 48 h after death when the environmental temperature was 4 degrees C were significantly related to PMI. The relationship between PMI and the concentration of potassium ion was PMI = -0.178[K+]2 + 49.978 (R2 = 0.995). The relationship between PMI and the rate of sodium ion and potassium ion was PMI = 120.987/[Na+/K+]-28.834 (R2 = 0.905). The concentration of potassium in aqueous humor of isolated swine eyeballs may be one of the reference indicators to estimate PMI of the corpses at lower temperatures.

  17. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Yanosky, T.M.; Siegel, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The wood of tuliptrees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  18. GLC determination of plasma drug levels after oral administration of clorazepate potassium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Chun, A H

    1975-10-01

    Plasma nordiazepam levels resulting from the oral administration of clorazepate potassium salts were determined by a sensitive GLC assay. Nordiazepam and the internal standard (diazepam) were selectively extracted into ether at pH 9.2, hydrolyzed to their respective benzophenones, and quantified by electron-capture detection. The assay was used in a comparative bioavailability study of single equimolar oral doses of monopotassium and dipotassium salts of clorazepate in dogs. Both clorazepate salts were rapidly absorbed and exhibited mean peak total drug levels after 1 hr. Clorazepate levels accounted for about 50% of the total drug levels present. No statistical difference in the plasma drug levels of clorazepate mono- and dipotassium salts and the metabolite was found in dogs.

  19. Higher Potassium Concentration in Shoots Reduces Gray Mold in Sweet Basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermiyahu, Uri; Israeli, Lior; David, Dalia Rav; Faingold, Inna; Elad, Yigal

    2015-08-01

    Nutritional elements can affect plant susceptibility to plant pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea. We tested the effect of potassium (K) fertilization on gray mold in sweet basil grown in pots, containers, and soil. Increased K in the irrigation water and in the sweet basil tissue resulted in an exponential decrease in gray mold severity. Potassium supplied to plants by foliar application resulted in a significant decrease in gray mold in plants grown with a low rate of K fertigation. Lower K fertigation resulted in a significant increase in B. cinerea infection under semi-commercial conditions. Gray mold severity in harvested shoots was significantly negatively correlated with K concentration in the irrigation solution, revealing resistance to B. cinerea infection as a result of high K concentration in sweet basil tissue. Gray mold was reduced following K foliar application of the plants. In general, there was no synergy between the fertigation and foliar spray treatments. Proper K fertilization can replace some of the required chemical fungicide treatments and it may be integrated into gray mold management for improved disease suppression.

  20. Plasma bupivacaine concentrations following psoas compartment block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoom, J A; Zuurmond, W W; Sih, I L; Bovill, J; Osterlöf, G; Oosting, H V

    1986-02-01

    Fourteen patients undergoing hip replacement surgery under psoas compartment block combined with general anaesthesia were studied. Group 1 (n = 7) received plain and Group 2 (n = 7) received 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline. The mean maximum peak concentrations were 1.93 (SEM 0.46) micrograms/ml and 1.04 (SEM 0.19) micrograms/ml at 10 minutes in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Bupivacaine concentrations were higher at all times in the group which received plain than the group receiving solution containing adrenaline. These differences were statistically significant at 10, 15 (p less than 0.05) and 30 minutes (p less than 0.025). The highest recorded plasma bupivacaine concentration was 4.54 micrograms/ml in one patient receiving plain bupivacaine. No patient developed any signs of toxic symptoms. The duration of analgesia was longer (p less than 0.005) in the group receiving bupivacaine with adrenaline. Bupivacaine 0.25% with adrenaline 1:200 000 is safe for psoas compartment block, and is recommended for hip surgery.

  1. Predictors of plasma zinc concentrations in children with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tor A; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Chandyo, Ram K; Sharma, Pushpa R; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2004-03-01

    Plasma and serum zinc concentrations are the most widely used markers of zinc status in individual persons and populations. The objective was to identify factors that influence plasma zinc concentrations during acute childhood diarrhea. This was a cross-sectional study of 1757 cases of acute diarrhea in 6-35-mo-old Nepalese children. The association between plasma zinc concentration and several clinical, anthropometric, socioeconomic, and biochemical variables was estimated in simple and multiple linear regression analyses. We observed a reduction in the mean plasma zinc concentration of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.74) micro mol/L per degree ( degrees C) increase in axillary temperature. Having dysentery and an elevated plasma C-reactive protein concentration was also independently associated with lower plasma zinc. Children with clinical features of dehydration had higher plasma zinc concentrations than did those who were not dehydrated. Furthermore, a decrease in plasma albumin of 1 g/L was associated with a decrease in plasma zinc of 0.25 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.29) micro mol/L. The plasma albumin concentration confounded the associations between some clinical variables and plasma zinc, but the association between axillary temperature and dehydration on one hand and plasma zinc on the other was not substantially influenced by the albumin concentration. Moreover, the plasma zinc concentration increased with an increase in observed hemolysis. Dehydration, clinical and biochemical indicators of inflammation and hemolysis, and, when possible, plasma albumin concentrations should be taken into account when the plasma zinc concentration is used to estimate zinc status during episodes of diarrhea in childhood.

  2. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  3. Determination of uranium, thorium and potassium activity concentrations in soil cores in Araba valley, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusini, M; Al-Ayasreh, K; Al-Jundi, J

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from six different locations in Araba valley, situated between Aqaba port and Dead sea. The samples have been analysed by using gamma-ray spectrometry. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, activity concentrations are determined for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K. The mean activity concentration for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K was found to be in the range 19 +/- 1.4 to 38.7 +/- 3, 14.3 +/- 0.8 to 35 +/- 3.2 and 94 +/- 18.9 to 762 +/- 47.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These results indicate that the mean concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the populated Araba valley are lower than those in other populated areas. On the other hand, the concentrations of the major oxides (Al(2)O(3), SiO(2), K(2)O, CaO and Fe(2)O(3)) in the samples were determined using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence. High potassium and iron content in some samples might be attributed to the active faults, which refer to the Dead sea transform fault.

  4. Potassium physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, S O

    1986-04-25

    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  5. Plasma tryptophan concentration in depressive illness and mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, M; Moody, J P; Worrall, E P; Walker, P; Naylor, G J

    1976-03-01

    Total and free plasma trytophan levels were measured in depressive and manic patients before and after recovery. No change was found in total or free plasma trytophan concentration on recovery from depressive illness. Free plasma tryptophan levels were higher in recovered manics than in active manics, and a group of four manic patients tested before and after recovery showed a significant increase in free plasma tryptophan concentration on recovery.

  6. The distribution of potassium and sodium concentrations in the erythrocytes of some breeds of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, J J; Bayón, Y; Primitivo, F

    1994-01-12

    The distribution of erythrocyte potassium and sodium concentrations was studied in Sayaguesa (n = 150), Brown Swiss (n = 163) and two populations of Avileña-Negra Ibérica cattle (n = 141 and 141 respectively). No polymorphism was detected for red-cell cation content in any of the breeds investigated. Mean values of potassium concentrations varied between 21.42 and 24.92 mmol/l red cells, those of sodium contents ranging from 77.50-93.44 mmol/1. The cattle studied can thus be considered as belonging to the 'low potassium' (LK) type. Significant differences were found both in potassium and sodium concentrations between one of the populations of Avileña-Negra Ibérica and the other groups examined. Mean values of sodium levels in Brown Swiss were also significantly different from the other groups. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Verteilung von Kalium- und Natriumblutspiegelwerten in Erythrozyten einiger Rinderrassen Die Verteilung von Kalium- und Natriumkonzentrationen in Erythrozyten wurde in vier Gruppen untersucht: Sayaguesa (n = 150), Braunvieh (n = 163) und zwei Gruppen von Avileña-Negra Ibérica Rindern (n = 141). In keiner der untersuchten Gruppen wurde Polymorphismus für den Cationenspiegel gefunden. Mittelwerte für Kaliumkonzentration schwankten zwischen 21,4 und 24,9 mmol/l roter Zellen, die für Natriumgehalt zwischen 77,5 und 93,4 mmol/1. Die Rinder könnten daher als 'niedrigere Kalium' Type bezeichnet werden. Signifikante Unterschiede wurden sowohl für den Kalium-als auch für der Natriumspiegel zwischen den beiden Avileña-Negra Ibérica Gruppen gefunden. Die Mittelwerte für Natriumspiegel in Braunvieh waren ebenfalls significant unterscniedlich im Vergleich zu den anderen. RESUMEN: Distributión del potasio y sodio eritrocitarios en algunas razas de ganado vacuno Se estudió la distribución de las concentraciones de potasio y sodio eritrocitarios en cuatro grupos de ganado vacuno: Sayaguesa (n = 150), Pardo Alpina (n = 163) y dos poblaciones de Avile

  7. Noninvasive quantification of blood potassium concentration from ECG in hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Cristiana; Cortesi, Marilisa; Callisesi, Giulia; De Bie, Johan; Napolitano, Carlo; Santoro, Antonio; Mortara, David; Severi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Blood potassium concentration ([K+]) influences the electrocardiogram (ECG), particularly T-wave morphology. We developed a new method to quantify [K+] from T-wave analysis and tested its clinical applicability on data from dialysis patients, in whom [K+] varies significantly during the therapy. To elucidate the mechanism linking [K+] and T-wave, we also analysed data from long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2) patients, testing the hypothesis that our method would have underestimated [K+] in these patients. Moreover, a computational model was used to explore the physiological processes underlying our estimator at the cellular level. We analysed 12-lead ECGs from 45 haemodialysis and 12 LQT2 patients. T-wave amplitude and downslope were calculated from the first two eigenleads. The T-wave slope-to-amplitude ratio (TS/A) was used as starting point for an ECG-based [K+] estimate (KECG). Leave-one-out cross-validation was performed. Agreement between KECG and reference [K+] from blood samples was promising (error: −0.09 ± 0.59 mM, absolute error: 0.46 ± 0.39 mM). The analysis on LQT2 patients, also supported by the outcome of computational analysis, reinforces our interpretation that, at the cellular level, delayed-rectifier potassium current is a main contributor of KECG correlation to blood [K+]. Following a comprehensive validation, this method could be effectively applied to monitor patients at risk for hyper/hypokalemia. PMID:28198403

  8. Emergency Do Not Consume/do Not Use concentrations for potassium permanganate in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, C C; Bhat, V S; Ball, G L; McLellan, C J

    2013-03-01

    Over the past decade, regulatory authorities and water purveyors have become increasingly concerned with accidental or intentional adulteration of municipal drinking water. Emergency response guidelines, such as the 'Do Not Consume' or use concentration limits derived herein, can be used to notify the public in such cases. Potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) is used to control iron concentrations and to reduce the levels of nuisance materials that affect odor or taste of finished drinking water. Manganese (Mn) is recognized an essential nutrient, permanganate (MnO4 (-)) and manganous (Mn(+2)) ions are caustic, and the acute toxicity of KMnO(4) is defined by its oxidant/irritant properties and by the toxicity of Mn. Ingestion of small amounts (4-20 mg/kg) of aqueous KMnO(4) solutions that are above 200 mg/L causes gastrointestinal distress, while bolus ingestion has caused respiratory arrest following coagulative necrosis and hemorrhage in the esophagus, stomach, or liver. Dilute KMnO(4) solutions (1-100 mg/L) are used as a topical antiseptics and astringents, but >1:5000 (200 mg/L) dilutions can irritate or discolor sensitive mucous membranes and direct skin or ocular contact with concentrated KMnO(4) can perforate tissues. Based on clinical experience with 200 mg/L KMnO(4), a Do Not Consume concentration of 7 mg/L KMnO(4) (equivalent to 2 mg Mn/L) is recommended. Recognizing limited empirical data from which to calculate an ocular reference value, a skin contact 'Do Not Use' concentration of 30 mg Mn/L is recommended based on the skin irritation in some patients after a 10-min contact with 100 mg KMnO4/L.

  9. Diabetic ketoacidosis: difference between potassium determined by blood gas analysis versus plasma measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Fernando César; Laguna Neto, Daniel; Dias, Fábio Guirado; Spressão, Márcia; Matos, Priscila Nascimbeni; Cordeiro, José Antônio; Pires, Antônio Carlos

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of potassium concentrations measured by blood gas analysis (PBG) compared with laboratory serum potassium (LSP), in the initial care of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Fifty three patients with diabetes mellitus were evaluated in a retrospective analysis. PBG was carried out using the Radiometer ABL 700 (Radiometer Copenhagen(®)), and results were compared with LSP ADVIA 1650 Chemistry system (Siemens(®)), the gold standard method. Both methods are based on potentiometry. Mean PBG was 3.66 mmol/L and mean LSP was 4.79 mmol/L. Mean difference between PBG and LSP was -1.13 mmol/L (p < 0.0005, 95% CI, -1.39 to -0,86). Lin concordance correlation coefficient was rc = 0.28 (95% CIb, 0.10 to 0.45), demonstrating low concordance between the methods. Although PBG measurement is faster and easier, it should not be used as a surrogate for LSP in the clinical treatment of DKA.

  10. Plasma catecholamine and serum gastrin concentrations during sham feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker, Carsten; Andersen, D; Kronborg, O

    1983-01-01

    Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulcer...... an insulin test resulted in a 25-fold rise in plasma adrenaline. The ulcer patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline than the normal subjects both before and after sham feeding, and this difference was probably not caused only by age difference in the two...

  11. Elevated circulating plasma endothelin-1 concentrations in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Emmeluth, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1993-01-01

    As endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstricting peptide, may play a role in the circulatory derangement and renal impairment in cirrhosis, the aim of the present study was to investigate plasma concentrations of ET-1 in different vascular beds in relation to clinical and biochemical parameters.......70, P plasma concentration between the liver, renal, or femoral...

  12. Ion-sensitive field effect transistors for pH and potassium ion concentration sensing: towards detection of myocardial ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratyush; Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2008-03-01

    Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) for sensing change in ionic concentration in biological systems can be used for detecting critical conditions like Myocardial Ischemia. Having the ability to yield steady signal characteristics can be used to observe the ionic concentration gradients which mark the onset of ischemia. Two ionic concentrations, pH and [K +], have been considered as the indicator for Myocardial Ischemia in this study. The ISFETs in this study have an organic semi-conductor film as the electronically active component. Poly-3 hexylthiophene was chosen for its compatibility to the solution processing, which is a simple and economical method of thin film fabrication. The gate electrode, which regulates the current in the active layer, has been employed as the sensor element. The devices under study here were fabricated on a flexible substrate PEN. The pH sensor was designed with the Tantalum Oxide gate dielectric as the ion selective component. The charge accumulated on the surface of the metal oxide acts as the source of the effecter electric field. The device was tested for pH values between 6.5 and 7.5, which comprises the variation observed during ischemic attack. The potassium ion sensor has got a floating gate electrode which is functionalized to be selective to potassium ion. The device was tested for potassium ion concentration between 5 and 25 mM, which constitutes the variation in extra cellular potassium ion concentration during ischemic attack. The device incorporated a monolayer of Valinomycin, a potassium specific ionophore, on top of the gate electrode.

  13. Nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations affects atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bébarová, Markéta; Matejovič, Peter; Švecová, Olga; Kula, Roman; Šimurdová, Milena; Šimurda, Jiří

    2017-02-03

    Nicotine abuse is associated with variety of diseases including arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation (AF). Altered inward rectifier potassium currents including acetylcholine-sensitive current I K(Ach) are known to be related to AF pathogenesis. Since relevant data are missing, we aimed to investigate I K(Ach) changes at clinically relevant concentrations of nicotine. Experiments were performed by the whole cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat atrial myocytes. Nicotine was applied at following concentrations: 4, 40 and 400 nM; ethanol at 20 mM (∼0.09%). Nicotine at 40 and 400 nM significantly activated constitutively active component of I K(Ach) with the maximum effect at 40 nM (an increase by ∼100%); similar effect was observed at -110 and -50 mV. Changes at 4 nM nicotine were negligible on average. Coapplication of 40 nM nicotine and 20 mM ethanol (which is also known to activate this current) did not show cumulative effect. In the case of acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach), a dual effect of nicotine and its correlation with the current magnitude in control were apparent: the current was increased by nicotine in the cells showing small current in control and vice versa. The effect of 40 and 400 nM nicotine on acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) was significantly different at -110 and -50 mV. We conclude that nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations significantly increased constitutively active component of I K(Ach) and showed a dual effect on its acetylcholine-induced component, similarly as ethanol. Synchronous application of nicotine and ethanol did not cause additive effect.

  14. Guanfacine in essential hypertension: Effect on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeppe, W.; Brecht, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    1 The acute and chronic effects of guanfacine on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity were investigated in 23 patients (15 males, 8 females) with essential hypertension (WHO grade I-II).

  15. Increased plasma carnitine concentrations in preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, IGI; Niezen-Koning, KE; van Gennip, AH; Aarnoudse, JG

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism, including fatty acid metabolism. Carnitine plays an indispensable role in the oxidation of fatty acids. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible role of abnormal fatty add oxidation in preeclampsia by comparing plasma car

  16. Vitamin E plasma concentration in osteoporotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajimahmoodi M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of osteoporosis is multifactorial and many dietary factors are important in the prevention of this disease. Antioxidants as free radical scavengers may influence osteoporosis by reducing the effects of oxidative stress that may be associated with bone loss. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in cell membranes from oxidation. There are only two studies regarding vitamin E plasma levels in subjects suffering from osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between plasma vitamin E levels and bone mineral density (BMD in Iranian patients. Methods: Subjects were consecutively recruited between May and September 2005 from among a total of approximately 1000 people referred for instrumental screening for osteoporosis to the Jami Clinic in Tehran. Inclusion criteria for the study group were: a femoral neck T-score of -1 or less, osteopenia, severe osteopenia and osteoporosis. A total of 137 subjects were enrolled. According to their femoral and spinal BMD scores, 54 persons were selected as a control group. The control group consisted of subjects with a femoral neck T-score and spine T-score of -1 or more. In selecting the case group, only the femoral BMD score was used. Plasma vitamin E was measured, after extraction with methanol, by HPLC with UV detection at 280 nm. Methanol, deionized water and butanol (90:4:6 was used as a mobile phase with a C8 column. The flow rate was 1.0 ml. min-1 and the acetate ester of vitamin E was used as an internal standard. Results: The results show no significant difference in plasma vitamin E between the control and case groups, however linear regression analysis does reveal a significant difference between the T-score and plasma vitamin E. Conclusion: Deceleration Femoral bone Density during osteoporosis will be Accelerated with Decrease of Vitamin E Antioxidant level.

  17. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in patients with liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Dejgaard, A; Clemmensen, I

    1983-01-01

    Plasma, obtained just prior to diagnostic liver biopsy in 71 patients with various liver diseases, was examined by electroimmunoassay using immunoglobulin against human fibronectin and purified plasma fibronectin as standard. The plasma fibronectin concentration was not significantly different from...... (n = 7); type non A, non B (n = 1] had significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentrations (median 506 mg/l (range 339-804] compared to controls (median 399 mg/l (range 304-462]. Morbidly obese patients with fatty liver (n = 11) had significantly (P less than 0.001) raised...... plasma fibronectin concentrations (median 610 mg/l (range 429-862] compared to controls (median 361 mg/l (range 303-419]....

  18. IS THERE ANY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LITHIUM-INDUCED QT PROLONGATION AND PLASMA OR ERYTHROCYTE CONCENTRATION OF LITHIUM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMIN DASHTI-KHAVIDAKI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to find possible relationship between QTc prolongation and erythrocyte or plasma lithium concentrations. Fifty-six patients with bipolar disorder entered this case- control study. Subjects were between 17 to 63 years of age and were receiving lithium alone, or lithium plus haloperidol or lithium plus thioridazine. The exclusion criteria were past history of cardiovascular, hepatic, renal or metabolic disorders or using other medications known to cause rhythm disturbances. The case group included males with QTc 450ms and females with QTc470ms while the control group included males and females with QTc<450 and QTc< 470ms, respectively. Serum sodium and potassium levels, erythrocyte and plasma lithium concentrations as well as lithium ratio were determined for all subjects and compared between the case and control groups by independent sample t-test. The mean of these levels were not different between the case and control groups. Additionally, no correlations were found between QTc and erythrocyte or plasma lithium concentration, lithium ratio, serum sodium or potassium levels. Analyzing the data for patients treated with lithium alone showed no significant correlations between QTc prolongation and erythrocyte or plasma lithium concentration, lithium ratio or serum potassium level. However, a significant correlation was found between serum sodium concentration and QTc prolongation. It should be noted that QTc prolongation occurred six times more in patients who were taking thioridazine and lithium concomitantly. This study noted no influence of sex or co-administration of haloperidol with lithium on QTc prolongation. It is concluded that plasma or erythrocyte lithium levels may not be able to predict QTc prolongation and its consequences.

  19. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  20. High extracellular potassium ion concentration attenuates the blockade action of ketanserin on Kvl.3 channels expressed in xenopus oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Ketanserin (KT), a selective serotonin (5-HT) 2-receptor antagonist, reduces peripheral blood pressure by blocking the activation of peripheral 5-HT receptors. In this study electrophysiological method was used to investigate the effect of KT and potassium ion on Kv1.3 potassium channels and explore the role of blocker KT in the alteration of channel kinetics contributing to the potassium ion imbalances. Methods Kvl.3 channels were expressed in xenopus oocytes, and currents were measured using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Results KCI made a left shift of activation and an inactivation curve of Kv1.3 current and accelerated the activation and inactivation time constant. High extracellular [K+] attenuated the blockade effect of KT on Kv1.3 channels. In the presence of KT and KCI the activation and inactivation time constants were not influenced significantly no matter what was administered first. KT did not significantly inhibit Kv1.3 current induced by tetraethylammonium (TEA). Conclusions KT is a weak blocker of Kv1.3 channels at different concentrations of extracellular potassium and binds to the intracellular side of the channel pore. The inhibitor KT of ion channels is not fully effective in clinical use because of high [K+]o and other electrolyte disorders.

  1. Plasma copper, zinc and blood selenium concentrations of sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veek. 1 990, 20(3). Concentrations of plasma mpper, plasma zinc and blood selenium ... these breeds make them suitable for meat production in arid, cxtonsive regions. ..... effect of high levels of dietary molyMenum and sulphate on SA Mutton ...

  2. Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc and blood selenium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Human and Animal Physiology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, ... Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc as well as blood selenium were determined in single and twin lambs ... of zinc within the body; notably.

  3. Can Infrared Spectroscopy Be Used to Measure Change in Potassium Nitrate Concentration as a Proxy for Soil Particle Movement?

    OpenAIRE

    Mila Ivanova Luleva; Harald van der Werff; Freek van der Meer; Victor Jetten

    2011-01-01

    Displacement of soil particles caused by erosion influences soil condition and fertility. To date, the cesium 137 isotope (137Cs) technique is most commonly used for soil particle tracing. However when large areas are considered, the expensive soil sampling and analysis present an obstacle. Infrared spectral measurements would provide a solution, however the small concentrations of the isotope do not influence the spectral signal sufficiently. Potassium (K) has similar electrical, chemical an...

  4. Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentration in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Cicchella, Antonio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Lätt, Evelin; Haljaste, Kaja; Purge, Pritt; Hamra, Jena; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2007-10-01

    We examined the effect of regular physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration after onset of puberty in girls. In addition, we also examined the association of fasting plasma ghrelin concentration with various plasma biochemical, body composition, and aerobic capacity variables in healthy adolescent girls. Fifty healthy schoolgirls ages 11 to 16 yr were divided either into a physically active (N = 25) or a physically inactive (N = 25) group. The physically active group consisted of swimmers who had trained on an average of 6.2 +/- 2.0 h.wk(-1) for the last 2 yr, whereas the inclusion criterion for the physically inactive group was the participation in physical education classes only. The subjects were matched for age (+/- 1 yr) and body mass index (BMI; +/- 2 kg.m(-2)). Maturation I group (14 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 2 and 3, and maturation II group (11 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 4 and 5. Physically active girls had significantly higher (P ghrelin levels than the physically inactive girls (maturation I: 1152.1 +/- 312.9 vs 877.7 +/- 114.8 pg.mL(-1); maturation II: 1084.0 +/- 252.5 vs 793.4 +/- 164.9 pg.mL(-1)). Plasma ghrelin concentration was negatively related to percent body fat, fat mass, peak oxygen consumption per kilogram of body mass, leptin, estradiol, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (r > -0.298; P ghrelin concentration using the variables that were significantly associated with ghrelin concentration demonstrated that plasma IGF-I was the most important predictor of plasma ghrelin concentration (beta = -0.396; P = 0.008). Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentrations in girls with different pubertal maturation levels. Plasma IGF-I concentration seems to be the main determinant of circulating ghrelin in healthy, normal-weight adolescent girls.

  5. Long-term reduction in {sup 137}Cs concentration in food crops on coral atolls resulting from potassium treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, William L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-642, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States)]. E-mail: robison1@llnl.gov; Stone, E.L. [Soil Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32609 (United States); Hamilton, T.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-642, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States); Conrado, C.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-642, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Bikini Island was contaminated on March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S. nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 2070 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking-coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4% of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8-10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  6. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W; Stone, E; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C

    2005-04-08

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 1970 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4 % of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  7. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L

    2004-04-14

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 2070 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4% of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  8. Effect of breed on plasma endothelin-1 concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K.; Lequarré, A.-S.; Ljungvall, I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined...... blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, ECG, blood and urine analysis. RESULTS: Median ET-1 concentration was 1.29 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-1.82) pg/mL, median cortisol concentration 46.0 (IQR, 29.0-80.8) nmol/L, and median renin activity 0.73 (IQR, 0.48-1.10) ng/mL/h in all dogs. Overall...

  9. Oxidation Level of Vacuum-Packaged Shredded Meat Treated with Different Concentrations of Potassium Sorbate, Sodium Diacetate and Nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The preservatives have been common used in food product, drugs and cosmetics to prevent their aging and decay. Shredded meat has been frequently used in Chinese traditional dishes. However, there is little information available for the corrosion protection of preservatives in commercial shredded meat products. The effect of different concentrations of potassium sorbate, sodium diacetate and nisin on the inhibition of oxidation process of shredded meat was studied. Results showed that potassium sorbate (0.05 g/kg and nisin (0.2 g/kg showed the greatest antioxidation activity by determining the Aerobic Plate Count (APC, Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS and Peroxide Value (PV. It could help to provide theoretical basis for developing convenience shredded meat products with long shelf life.

  10. Plasma radioiron kinetics in man: explanation for the effect of plasma iron concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarberg, K; Eng, M; Huebers, H; Marsaglia, G; Finch, C

    1978-03-01

    The plasma iron turnover was measured in 19 normal subjects. A correlation was found between plasma iron concentration and plasma iron turnover. In addition to the turnover of 55Fe at normal plasma iron concentration (predominantly monoferric transferrin), a second turnover in which the labeled plasma was saturated with iron (to produce predominantly diferric transferrin) was studied with 50Fe. It was demonstrated that diferric transferrin had a greater rate of iron turnover but that the distribution between erythroid and non-erythroid tissues was unchanged. It was concluded that plasma iron turnover is dependent on the monoferric/diferric transferrin ratio in the plasma but that the internal distribution of iron is unaffected.

  11. A viscometric method of measuring plasma fibrinogen concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, E.; Resch, K L; Saradeth, T.; A. Maier; Matrai, A

    1992-01-01

    A technique based on deducing the viscosity of serum from that of plasma was compared with the commonly used Clauss method. The two methods correlated closely (r = 0.914). The reproducibility of the viscometric method was slightly poorer than the Clauss technique at low fibrinogen concentrations, equal to that at medium fibrinogen concentrations, and marginally better at high concentrations. Fibrinogen can therefore be measured reasonably accurately with the viscometric method, and can be rec...

  12. Abnormalities of serum potassium concentration in dialysis-associated hyperglycemia and their correction with insulin: review of published reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Ing, Todd S; Elisaf, Moses S; Raj, Dominic S C; Siamopoulos, Kostas C; Rohrscheib, Mark; Murata, Glen H

    2011-06-01

    The main difference between dialysis-associated hyperglycemia (DH) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) occurring in patients with preserved renal function is the absence of osmotic diuresis in DH, which eliminates the need for large fluid and solute (including potassium) replacement. We analyzed published reports of serum potassium (K(+)) abnormalities and their treatment in DH. Hyperkalemia was often present at presentation of DH with higher frequency and severity than in hyperglycemic syndromes in patients with preserved renal function. The frequency and severity of hyperkalemia were higher in DH episodes with DKA than those with NKH in both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. For DKA, the frequency and severity of hyperkalemia were similar in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. For NKH, hyperkalemia was more severe and frequent in hemodialysis than in peritoneal dialysis. Insulin infusion corrected the hyperkalemia of DH in most cases. Additional measures for the management of hyperkalemia or modest potassium infusions for hypokalemia were needed in a few DH episodes. The predictors of the decrease in serum K(+) during treatment of DH with insulin included the starting serum K(+) level, the decreases in serum values of glucose concentration and tonicity, and the increase in serum total carbon dioxide level. DH represents a risk factor for hyperkalemia. Insulin infusion is the only treatment for hyperkalemia usually required.

  13. Effect of acute potassium-magnesium aspartate supplementation on ammonia concentrations during and after resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, J L; Potteiger, J A; Evans, B W; Ozmun, J C

    1995-06-01

    This study examined the effects of aspartate supplementation (ASP) on plasma ammonia concentrations ([NH4+]) during and after a resistance training workout (RTW). Twelve male weight trainers were randomly administered ASP or vitamin C in a crossover, double blind protocol, each trial separated by 1 wk. ASP and vitamin C were given over a 2-hr period beginning 5 hr prior to the RTW. The RTW consisted of bench, incline, shoulder, and triceps presses, and biceps curls at 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM). After the RTW a bench press test (BPT) to failure at 65% of 1-RM was used to assess performance. [NH4+] was determined preexercise, 20 and 40 min midworkout, immediately postexercise, and 15 min postexercise. Treatment-by-time ANOVAs, paired t tests, and contrast comparisons were used to identify mean differences. No significant differences were observed between treatments for [NH4+] or BPT. [NH4+] increased significantly from Pre to immediately postexercise for both the ASP and vitamin C trials. Acute ASP supplementation does not reduce [NH4+] during and after a high intensity RTW in weight trained subjects.

  14. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine after epidural administration in conscious cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Clark, Christopher R; Ambros, Barbara; Gilbert, Peter; Steagall, Paulo V M

    2011-06-01

    Buprenorphine plasma concentrations were measured after administering buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) into the lumbosacral epidural space of conscious cats chronically instrumented with an epidural catheter. Blood was collected from a jugular vein before injection and 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were measured using ELISA. Background concentration (before injection) was 1.27 ± 0.27 ng/mL (mean ± SD). Including background concentration, the mean peak plasma concentration was obtained 15 min after injection (5.82 ± 3.75 ng/mL), and ranged from 3.79 to 2.20 ng/mL (30 min-3 h), remaining between 1.93 and 1.77 ng/mL (4-12 h), and declined to 1.40 ± 0.62 ng/mL at 24h. Elimination half-life was 58.8 ± 40.2 min and clearance 56.7 ± 21.5 mL/min. Results indicate early rapid systemic uptake of buprenorphine from epidural administration with plasma concentrations similar to using buccal or IM routes by 15 min postinjection.

  15. Knowledge Representation of Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor Voltage Response for Potassium Ion Concentration Detection in Mixed Potassium/Ammonium Ion Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan F.H. Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET is a metal-oxide field-effect transistor-based sensor that reacts to ionic activity at the electrolye/membrane/gate interface. The ionic sensor faces issue of selectivity from interfering ions that contribute to the sensor electrical response in mixed solutions. Approach: We present the training data collection of ISFET voltage response for the purpose of post-processing stage neural network supervised learning. The role of the neural network is to estimate the main ionic activity from the interfering ion contribution in mixed solutions given time-independent input voltages. In this work, potassium ion (K+ and ammonium ion (NH4+ ISFET response data are collected with readout interface circuit that maintains constant voltage and current bias levels to the ISFET drain-source terminals. Sample solutions are prepared by keeping the main ion concentration fixed while the activity of an interfering ion varied based on the fixed interference method. Results: Sensor demonstrates linear relationship to the ion concentration within detection limit but has low repeatability of 0.52 regression factor and 0.16 mean squared error between similarly repeated measurements. We find that referencing the voltage response to the sensor response in DIW prior to measurement significantly improves the repeatability by 15.5% for correlation and 98.3% for MSE. Demonstration of multilayer perceptron feed-forward neural network estimation of ionic concentration from the data collection shows a recognition of >0.8 regression factor. Conclusion: Time-independent DC voltage response of ISFET of the proposed setup can be used as training data for neural network supervised learning for the estimation of K+ in mixed K+/NH4+ solutions.

  16. The production and use of citric acid for the removal of potassium from the iron ore concentrate of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Williams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the richer iron ore worldwide has made it necessary to process lower quality iron ore. Certain substances, such as potassium, contained within the lower quality iron ore, have a detrimental effect on the smelting process during steel manufacturing. Therefore, international steel-making companies charge penalties when purchasing iron ore concentrates containing high concentrations of potassium. To date, lower quality iron ore has been blended with high quality iron ore in an attempt to alleviate the potassium concentrations in the export iron ore; however, the ratio of low quality iron ore to high quality iron ore is increasing, thereby becoming an escalating problem within the economic functioning of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine. It has, therefore, become necessary to develop an economically viable and environmentally friendly process to reduce the high potassium concentrations contained in the iron ore concentrate of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine. In this study, we compared solid substrate and submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger for the production of citric acid, which is used for the chemical leaching of potassium from the iron ore concentrate. It was found that submerged fermentation proved to be more economical and efficient, producing a maximum citric acid concentration of 102.3 g/L in 96 h of fermentation. ‘Heap leaching’ simulation experiments were found to be uneconomical, due to the required addition of fungal growth medium every 5 days as a result of growth factor depletion within this time; however, this process removed 17.65% of the potassium from the iron ore concentrate. By contrast, chemical leaching of potassium from the iron ore concentrate proved to be most efficient when using a 1 mol citric acid leaching solution at 60 ºC, removing 23.53% of the potassium contained within the iron ore concentrate. Therefore, the most economical and efficient process for the removal of potassium from the iron

  17. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6± 8.9 and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men aged 22-60 years (39.8± 9.4. The patients’ alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6± 7.5. Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9± 151.5. Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0, 30th (T30 and 49th (T49 day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC and total (TC carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student’s t-test was used.Results: At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05 in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01 as well as AC (p < 0.001 were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05, whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05.Conclusions: Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine

  18. Potassium maldistribution revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distributor of 15% potassium chloride has printed instructions ... maldistribution of concentrated 15% potassium chloride after injection into one-liter, flexible, ... rates should be controlled, preferably using an electronic infusion controller.

  19. Histochemical characterization of cytotoxic brain edema. Potassium concentrations after cerebral ischemia and during the postmortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M; Ochs, U; Meissner, C

    2000-08-01

    Cytotoxic edema is a phenomenon of the ischemically damaged brain. In the present study we tested a histochemical method that detects this phenomenon based on potassium (K+) levels in the brain. In a first series focal cerebral ischemia was induced by arterial occlusion in 23 gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). After survival times of 30, 60 and 120 min, the animals were killed and brain section histochemically stained for potassium and quantitatively evaluated with a morphometric method. The results were compared with those using physicochemical techniques. A distinct K+ depletion could be demonstrated in the area of the focal ischemia within a survival time of 30 min, the depletion growing thereafter with increasing survival time. In a second series histochemical and chemical methods were used to study the stability of K+ levels in undamaged brains of 15 healthy rats during postmortem intervals of 2.5 and 5 h. Within these intervals K+ levels were clearly depleted, apparently as a result of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) diffusion. Even if neuronal injury can be demonstrated histochemically after very brief survival times of about 30 min, postmortem storage of the cadavers rendered detection impossible due to electrolyte and water diffusion. In autoptic human cases, therefore, this technique is of no practical utility in detecting cytotoxic brain edema in postmortem tissue.

  20. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Kępka; Napoleon Waszkiewicz; Beata Zalewska-Szajda; Sylwia Chojnowska; Paweł Płudowski; Emilia Konarzewska; Agata Szulc; Jerzy Robert Ładny; Krzysztof Zwierz; Sławomir Dariusz Szajda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men) aged from 26 to 60 years (44...

  1. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.; Boers, G.H.; Blom, H.J.; Broekhuizen, R.; Jong, de R.; Rijt, van L.; Katan, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Background: An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Objective: We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma

  2. Caffeine Alters Blood Potassium and Catecholamine Concentrations but not the Perception of Pain and Fatigue with a 1 km Cycling Sprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Cordingley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine has been used by some athletes to improve short-term high-intensity exercise performance; however, the literature is equivocal. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on plasma potassium and catecholamine concentrations, pain and fatigue perception, to determine whether potassium ion handling and altered perception related to the central nervous system are associated with enhanced performance during a 1 km cycling time trial.  Methods: Thirteen well trained men with a mean age of 27 ± 6 yrs (body mass: 76.4 ± 6.4 kg, height: 180 ± 7 cm, and max: 57.5 ± 4.6 ml·kg-1·min-1 were recruited.  Participants were randomized to a caffeine (5 mg·kg-1 or a placebo condition using a double blind, cross over design.  Results: Caffeine had no significant effects on the 1 km time-trial performance indicators of time (82.1 ± 2.4 vs. 81.9 ± 3.9s, peak (633.0 ± 83.6 vs. 638.7 ± 110.1 watts or average power (466.0 ± 37.3 vs. 467.5 ± 59.9 watts; caffeine and placebo conditions respectively.  In addition, caffeine had no significant effect on oxygen consumption ( (4.11 ± 0.24 vs 4.06 ± 0.29 L,the perception of pain (5.6 ± 2.4 vs. 5.5 ± 2.6 or fatigue (7.1 ± 1.8 vs.7.1 ± 1.8: caffeine and placebo conditions respectively.  There was a significantly greater increase in post-exercise blood lactate (p<0.05 and catecholamines (p<0.05 as well as a lower pre-exercise blood potassium concentration (p<0.05 in the caffeine condition. Conclusions: The results suggest that caffeine can enhance certain metabolic parameters, but these changes were unable to augment short-distance (1km, high-intensity cycling performance. Keywords: ergogenic, anaerobic exercise, performance, oxygen consumption

  3. Plasma mepivacaine concentrations in patients undergoing third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarparo, H C; Maia, R N; Filho, Ea Dos Santos; Soares, Ecs; Costa, Fwg; Fonteles, Csr; Bezerra, T P; Ribeiro, T R; Romero, N R

    2016-12-01

    Local anaesthetic-related systemic toxicity mainly results from elevated plasma concentrations of these drugs. We hypothesized that intraoral injection of submaximal doses of mepivacaine does not lead to toxic levels of this drug in blood. This study evaluated the plasma levels of mepivacaine in third molars surgeries. Twenty-one patients were randomly assigned into two groups: group I (two unilateral third molars; submaximal dose of mepivacaine 108 mg with epinephrine 54 μg) and group II (four third molars; submaximal dose of mepivacaine 216 mg with epinephrine 108 μg). Blood samples were collected before anaesthesia, and 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 90 and 120 min after anaesthesia. Individual peak plasma concentrations ranged 0.77-8.31 μg/mL (group I) and from 2.36-7.72 μg/mL (group II). An increase in the average dose of mepivacaine from 1.88 ± 0.12 mg/kg (group I) to 3.35 ± 0.17 mg/kg (group II) increased the mean mepivacaine peak plasma levels from 2.33 ± 0.58 to 4.01 ± 0.69 μg/mL, respectively. Four patients obtained plasma levels of mepivacaine above the threshold for toxicity (5 μg/mL). Toxic levels of mepivacaine are possible, even when a submaximal dose is used. A twofold increase in the dose of mepivacaine caused the mean peak plasma concentration to increase proportionally, indicating that they may be predicted based on the relation of dose per bodyweight. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Protection against β adrenoceptor agonist reduction of plasma potassium in severe but not in moderate hypokalemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Cao Thach Tran; Kjeldsen, Keld

    2011-01-01

    .2 mm for each 10 mmol/g wet wt. decrease in muscle K content (n = 8, R(2) = 0.66, P = 0.01). Hence, for baseline pK of 4, 3 and 2 mm, decrease in pK was 0.7, 0.4 and 0.1 mm, respectively. In severe hypokalemia (1.7 mm), terbutain induced no further reduction in pK. The combined infusion of insulin......K-depleted and control rats were anesthetized and infused with terbutalin. In controls, plasma K concentration (pK) decreased by 0.7 mm (P = 0.01). In moderate hypokalemia terbutalin-induced decrease in pK was reduced by 0.3 mm for each 1 mm decrease in pK (n = 8, R(2) = 0.82, P = 0.002) and by 0...... and terbutalin showed no additive effect. Normalization of pK by KCl infusion in severe hypokalemia immediately abolished protection against terbutalin induced further pK reduction. Hence, terbutalin clamped pK at around 4 mm, whereas it continued to increase to around 5 mm without terbutalin infusion. Major new...

  5. Use of refractometry for determination of psittacine plasma protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated both poor and good correlation of total protein concentrations in various avian species using refractometry and biuret methodologies. The purpose of the current study was to compare these 2 techniques of total protein determination using plasma samples from several psittacine species and to determine the effect of cholesterol and other solutes on refractometry results. Total protein concentration in heparinized plasma samples without visible lipemia was analyzed by refractometry and an automated biuret method on a dry reagent analyzer (Ortho 250). Cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid concentrations were measured using the same analyzer. Results were compared using Deming regression analysis, Bland-Altman bias plots, and Spearman's rank correlation. Correlation coefficients (r) for total protein results by refractometry and biuret methods were 0.49 in African grey parrots (n=28), 0.77 in Amazon parrots (20), 0.57 in cockatiels (20), 0.73 in cockatoos (36), 0.86 in conures (20), and 0.93 in macaws (38) (Prefractometry in Amazon parrots, conures, and macaws (n=25 each, PRefractometry can be used to accurately measure total protein concentration in nonlipemic plasma samples from some psittacine species. Method and species-specific reference intervals should be used in the interpretation of total protein values.

  6. Effect of pregnancy on plasma phenobarbital concentrations in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama,Masahiro; Domoto, Haruyo; Yamashita, Syoichi; Furuno,Katsushi; Oishi, Ryozo; Kawasaki,Hiromu; Gomita, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital before and during pregnancy in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: (a) control, (b) pregnant, (c) phenobarbital-treated, and (d) phenobarbital-treated pregnant groups. The increase in body weight of nonpregnant or pregnant rats was not influenced by long-term phenobarbital treatment. Plasma phenobarbital concentrations during the period of long-term phenobarbital treatment with a fixed dosage by body weight were not significantly affe...

  7. Elevated circulating plasma endothelin-1 concentrations in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Emmeluth, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1993-01-01

    veins on the one hand and the femoral artery on the other (P > 0.1), indicating no major net elimination or release in the liver, kidney or lower limb. A significant negative correlation was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressures on the one hand and circulating ET-1 on the other (r = -0.......70, P vein catheterization (n = 8), no significant differences were found in ET-1 plasma concentration between the liver, renal, or femoral...

  8. Note: Enhancement of the extreme ultraviolet emission from a potassium plasma by dual laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Mami; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Nagata, Takeshi [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences and Center for Optical Research (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 Japan (Japan); Ohashi, Hayato [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Li, Bowen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); D’Arcy, Rebekah; Dunne, Padraig; O’Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2014-09-15

    Emission spectra from multiply charged potassium ions ranging from K{sup 3+} to K{sup 5+} have been obtained in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region. A strong emission feature peaking around 38 nm, corresponding to a photon energy of 32.6 eV, is the dominant spectral feature at time-averaged electron temperatures in the range of 8−12 eV. The variation of this emission with laser intensity and the effects of pre-pulses on the relative conversion efficiency (CE) have been explored experimentally and indicate that an enhancement of about 30% in EUV CE is readily attainable.

  9. [Isolation and purification of human blood plasma proteins able to form potassium channels in artificial bilayer lipid membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venediktova, N I; Kuznetsov, K V; Gritsenko, E N; Gulidova, G P; Mironova, G D

    2012-01-01

    Protein fraction able to induce K(+)-selective transport across bilayer lipid membrane was isolated from human blood plasma with the use of the detergent and proteolytic enzyme-free method developed at our laboratory. After addition of the studied sample to the artificial membrane in the presence of 100 mM KCl, a discrete current change was observed. No channel activity was recorded in the presence of calcium and sodium ions. Channel forming activity of fraction was observed only in the presence of K+. Using a threefold gradient of KCl in the presence of studied proteins the potassium-selective potential balanced by voltage of -29 mV was registered. This value is very close to the theoretical Nernst potential in this case. This means that the examined ion channel is cation-selective. According to data obtained with MS-MALDI-TOF/TOF and database NCBI three protein components were identified in isolated researched sample.

  10. Protection against β adrenoceptor agonist reduction of plasma potassium in severe but not in moderate hypokalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cao Thach; Kjeldsen, Keld

    2011-08-01

    K-depleted and control rats were anesthetized and infused with terbutalin. In controls, plasma K concentration (pK) decreased by 0.7 mm (P = 0.01). In moderate hypokalemia terbutalin-induced decrease in pK was reduced by 0.3 mm for each 1 mm decrease in pK (n = 8, R(2) = 0.82, P = 0.002) and by 0.2 mm for each 10 mmol/g wet wt. decrease in muscle K content (n = 8, R(2) = 0.66, P = 0.01). Hence, for baseline pK of 4, 3 and 2 mm, decrease in pK was 0.7, 0.4 and 0.1 mm, respectively. In severe hypokalemia (1.7 mm), terbutain induced no further reduction in pK. The combined infusion of insulin and terbutalin showed no additive effect. Normalization of pK by KCl infusion in severe hypokalemia immediately abolished protection against terbutalin induced further pK reduction. Hence, terbutalin clamped pK at around 4 mm, whereas it continued to increase to around 5 mm without terbutalin infusion. Major new findings are: Protection against terbutalin induced further reduction in pK in severe pre-existing hypokalemia (hypokalemia; immediate abolishment of protection by normalization of pK; protection against additive reduction in pK by terbutalin and insulin in severe hypokalemia. It may be advisable to avoid hypokalemia when using β adrenoceptor agonists and to maintain pK in the upper normal range if at the risk of arrhythmia.

  11. Can infrared spectroscopy be used to measure change in potassium nitrate concentration as a proxy for soil particle movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luleva, Mila Ivanova; van der Werff, Harald; Jetten, Victor; van der Meer, Freek

    2011-01-01

    Displacement of soil particles caused by erosion influences soil condition and fertility. To date, the cesium 137 isotope ((137)Cs) technique is most commonly used for soil particle tracing. However when large areas are considered, the expensive soil sampling and analysis present an obstacle. Infrared spectral measurements would provide a solution, however the small concentrations of the isotope do not influence the spectral signal sufficiently. Potassium (K) has similar electrical, chemical and physical properties as Cs. Our hypothesis is that it can be used as possible replacement in soil particle tracing. Soils differing in texture were sampled for the study. Laboratory soil chemical analyses and spectral sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the wavelength range related to K concentration. Different concentrations of K fertilizer were added to soils with varying texture properties in order to establish spectral characteristics of the absorption feature associated with the element. Changes in position of absorption feature center were observed at wavelengths between 2,450 and 2,470 nm, depending on the amount of fertilizer applied. Other absorption feature parameters (absorption band depth, width and area) were also found to change with K concentration with coefficient of determination between 0.85 and 0.99. Tracing soil particles using K fertilizer and infrared spectral response is considered suitable for soils with sandy and sandy silt texture. It is a new approach that can potentially grow to a technique for rapid monitoring of soil particle movement over large areas.

  12. Can Infrared Spectroscopy Be Used to Measure Change in Potassium Nitrate Concentration as a Proxy for Soil Particle Movement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Ivanova Luleva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Displacement of soil particles caused by erosion influences soil condition and fertility. To date, the cesium 137 isotope (137Cs technique is most commonly used for soil particle tracing. However when large areas are considered, the expensive soil sampling and analysis present an obstacle. Infrared spectral measurements would provide a solution, however the small concentrations of the isotope do not influence the spectral signal sufficiently. Potassium (K has similar electrical, chemical and physical properties as Cs. Our hypothesis is that it can be used as possible replacement in soil particle tracing. Soils differing in texture were sampled for the study. Laboratory soil chemical analyses and spectral sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the wavelength range related to K concentration. Different concentrations of K fertilizer were added to soils with varying texture properties in order to establish spectral characteristics of the absorption feature associated with the element. Changes in position of absorption feature center were observed at wavelengths between 2,450 and 2,470 nm, depending on the amount of fertilizer applied. Other absorption feature parameters (absorption band depth, width and area were also found to change with K concentration with coefficient of determination between 0.85 and 0.99. Tracing soil particles using K fertilizer and infrared spectral response is considered suitable for soils with sandy and sandy silt texture. It is a new approach that can potentially grow to a technique for rapid monitoring of soil particle movement over large areas.

  13. Midazolam plasma concentration after anesthesia premedication in clinical routine - an observational study : Midazolam plasma concentration after anesthesia premedication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, C; Steurer, M P; Mueller, D; Zueger, M; Dullenkopf, A

    2016-10-24

    Midazolam is commonly used as a pre-anesthesia anxiolytic. It`s elimination may not be fast enough for short procedures. In orally premedicated patients we obtained midazolam plasma concentrations at the end of surgical procedures and compared those to concentrations at anesthesia induction. The study was conducted prospectively with consent of the local ethics committee (Ethikkomission Kanton Thurgau, Switzerland) and carried out with written informed consent of each patient. Female patients aged 20 to 60 years undergoing elective procedures with general anesthesia were included, and were divided in two groups according to the planned surgical time: group S (Midazolam po as premedication. Blood samples were drawn at anesthesia induction, and at the end of surgery. Data were compared with t-test (independent samples; significance level p midazolam was not detectable in any samples. Time of premedication to the 1st blood sample was not statistically different between groups, neither were Midazolam plasma levels at this time point (p = 0.94). None of the patients from group L (n = 24), but five patients in group S (n = 22) did have a higher plasma level of Midazolam at the end of the case compared to the beginning. The elimination half-life of oral Midazolam can lead to higher plasma levels at the end of a short procedure compared to those at induction of anesthesia. German Clinical Trials Register (Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien), DRKS00005429 ; date of registration 3(rd) January 2014.

  14. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  15. Plasma D-dimer concentration in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagnana Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue characterized by widespread vascular lesions and fibrosis. Little is known so far on the activation of the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems in SSc, and most preliminary evidences are discordant. Methods To verify whether SSc patients might display a prothrombotic condition, plasma D-dimer was assessed in 28 consecutive SSc patients and in 33 control subjects, matched for age, sex and environmental habit. Results and discussion When compared to healthy controls, geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (IC95% of plasma D-dimer were significantly increased in SSc patients (362 ng/mL, IC 95%: 361–363 ng/mL vs 229 ng/mL, IC95%: 228–231 ng/mL, p = 0.005. After stratifying SSc patients according to disease subset, no significant differences were observed between those with limited cutaneous pattern and controls, whereas patients with diffuse cutaneous pattern displayed substantially increased values. No correlation was found between plasma D-dimer concentration and age, sex, autoantibody pattern, serum creatinine, erythrosedimentation rate, nailfold videocapillaroscopic pattern and pulmonary involvement. Conclusion We demonstrated that SSc patients with diffuse subset are characterized by increased plasma D-dimer values, reflecting a potential activation of both the hemostatic and fibrinolytic cascades, which might finally predispose these patients to thrombotic complications.

  16. [Changes in platelet concentrates from dogs due to storage. II. Biochemical changes in concentrate plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A; Adamik, A; Mischke, R

    1999-08-01

    Platelet concentrate (PC) obtained from dogs with an automatic cell separator was stored in C4-cell separation sets with low gasdiffusionable Polyvinylchlorid (PVC) storage containers or in C4L-sets developed for storage with high gasdiffusionable Polyolefin(PO) containers, respectively. PC were stored for 10 days under permanent agitation at 22 degrees C (C4/22 degrees C, n = 10; C4L/22 degrees C, n = 11) or at 4 degrees C (C4L/4 degrees C, n = 6), respectively. Measurements were carried out directly after production of the PC, after 6 hours and then daily during the 10-day storage period. In the second part of this paper the results of pH, the concentration of bicarbonate, glucose, lactate and potassium ions as well as the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are presented. The varying duration and intensity of the energy metabolism of the platelets and different part of glycolysis became obvious by the consumption of glucose and production of lactate, which differed significantly between the different storage conditions. Resulting from this, the mean pH decreased under the limit prescribed for human PC (pH = 6.3) already after a storage period of 3 days due to the slight capacity of gas diffusion in PVC-containers (C4/22 degrees C). In the PO-containers the pH fell below this limit at 22 degrees C (C4L/22 degrees C) after a storage period of 5 days and at 4 degrees C (C4L/4 degrees C) after 10 days. The latter reflects the high gas diffusion capacity of the PO-containers and the decreased metabolism activity at 4 degrees C. The increase of activity of LDH and of the concentration of potassium ions, which are localized in the cytosol of platelets, depended also on the different storage conditions and, thereby, reflected the different rapidity of increasing membrane permeability or the destruction of the cell membrane, respectively. The results of this study nearly are in agreement with the changes of platelet function shown in part I. Biochemical changes occur

  17. Plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations in patients with Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshito Nishi; Hajime Isomoto; Hiroaki Ueno; Ken Ohnita; Chun Yang Wen; Fuminao Takeshima; Ryosuke Mishima; Masamitsu Nakazato; Shigeru Kohno

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the concentrations of leptin and ghrelin, which have opposite effects on appetite,energy expenditure, and weight control, in the plasma of patients with Crohn's disease (CD), which is often associated with weight loss and malnutrition.METHODS: Plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations were determined in 28 outpatients with CD by radioimmunoassay. Age- and sex-matched controls with and without Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) infection (28for each) were enrolled in the study. Circulating levels of these hormones were assessed with respect to CD activity, disease localization and medical treatment.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in ghrelin levels between CD patients and H pylorinegative controls. However, circulating ghrelin levels were significantly lower in H pylori-infected subjects than in CD patients and uninfected controls. Plasma leptin levels were comparable among the groups. Localization and medication profile had no significant impact on circulating ghrelin and leptin levels.CONCLUSION: Apart from H pyloriinfection, CD itself has no significant influence on circulating ghrelin and leptin levels in the outpatients who were mostly in inactive state.

  18. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  19. Plasma concentrations of coffee polyphenols and plasma biomarkers of diabetes risk in healthy Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A H; Tan, L 'b; Hiramatsu, N; Ishisaka, A; Alfonso, H; Tanaka, A; Uemura, N; Fujiwara, Y; Takechi, R

    2016-06-06

    Coffee consumption has been reported to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. This anti-diabetic effect of coffee may be attributed to its high content in polyphenols especially caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. However, the association between plasma coffee polyphenols and diabetic risks has never been investigated in the literature. In this study, fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38-73 (mean 52, s.d. 8) years recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma coffee polyphenols were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Diabetes biomarkers in the plasma/serum samples were analysed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The results showed that plasma chlorogenic acid exhibited negative associations with fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and C-reactive protein, whereas plasma total coffee polyphenol and plasma caffeic acid were weakly associated with these biomarkers. Our preliminary data support previous findings that coffee polyphenols have anti-diabetic effects but further replications with large samples of both genders are recommended.

  20. Use of antibiotics is associated with lower enterolactone plasma concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Kyrø, Cecilie; Nørskov, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    the association between antibiotic use and enterolactone concentration. Methods and results Using LC–MS/MS, enterolactone concentrations were quantified in plasma samples from 2237 participants from the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. The participants were healthy at enrollment, but were later diagnosed...... with cancer. At enrollment, participants had blood drawn and completed a food frequency questionnaire and lifestyle questionnaire. Antibiotic use was assessed as reimbursed antibiotic prescriptions up to 12 months before enrollment. Antibiotic use ≤3 months before enrollment was associated with a 41% (Δcrude......: –41; 95% CI: –52, –28) lower enterolactone concentration in women and 12% in men (Δcrude: –12; 95% CI: –31, 11), while antibiotic use >3–12 months before enrollment was associated with 26% lower enterolactone in women (Δcrude: –26; 95% CI: –37, –14) and 14% in men (Δcrude: –14; 95% CI: –28, 1...

  1. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, R.A. (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, St Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

  2. Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, S; Mol, JA; Boer, P; Boer, WH; Runberk, A

    2003-01-01

    The mean (se) basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower in 31 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) (75 [9] pmol/litre) than in 12 healthy dogs (118 [14] pmol/litre), whereas in five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumour they were si

  3. Plasma oxytocin concentrations following MDMA or intranasal oxytocin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Francis, Sunday M; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet; Jacob, Suma

    2014-08-01

    MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 'ecstasy') is reportedly used recreationally because it increases feelings of sociability and interpersonal closeness. Prior work suggests that the pro-social effects of MDMA may be mediated by release of oxytocin. A direct examination of plasma levels of oxytocin after acute doses of oxytocin and MDMA, in the same individuals, would provide further evidence for the idea that MDMA produces its pro-social effects by increasing oxytocin. Fourteen healthy MDMA users participated in a 4-session, double-blind study in which they received oral MDMA (0.75 and 1.5mg/kg), intranasal oxytocin (20IU or 40IU), and placebo. Plasma oxytocin concentrations, as well as cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed before and at several time points after drug administration. MDMA (1.5mg/kg only) increased plasma oxytocin levels to a mean peak of 83.7pg/ml at approximately 90-120min, compared to 18.6pg/ml after placebo. Intranasal oxytocin (40IU, but not 20IU) increased plasma oxytocin levels to 48.0pg/ml, 30-60min after nasal spray administration. MDMA dose-dependently increased heart rate, blood pressure, feelings of euphoria (e.g., 'High' and 'Like Drug'), and feelings of sociability, whereas oxytocin had no cardiovascular or subjective effects. The subjective and cardiovascular responses to MDMA were not related to plasma oxytocin levels, although the N was small for this analysis. Future studies examining the effects of oxytocin antagonists on responses to MDMA will help to determine the mechanism by which MDMA produces pro-social effects.

  4. Plasma concentrations of four pregnancy proteins in complications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T M; Halbert, S P; Spellacy, W N; Berne, B H

    1977-08-01

    Toxemia of pregnancy was associated with an elevation of the pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A concentration, as compared to the level in normal pregnancy in the last month of gestation. The other pregnancy proteins measured were not altered in toxemia. In twin pregnancies, the PAPP-A, PAPP-C, and human placental lactogen levels were all increased, particularly PAPP-A. On the other hand, pregnancy zone protein was not affected by twinning. Pregnancy with diabetes showed normal levels of these proteins.

  5. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  6. Relationship between Plasma Albumin Concentration and Plasma Volume in 5 Inbred Rat Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Rajiv; Klemcke, Harold G

    2015-09-01

    Using the Evans Blue procedure, we previously found strain-related differences in plasma volumes in 5 inbred rat strains. Because albumin binds strongly with Evans blue, this protein is important in the Evans blue method of plasma volume determination. Therefore, we speculated that interstrain differences in plasma albumin concentration (PAC) could distort calculated plasma volumes. To address this concern, we used ELISA techniques to measure PAC in these inbred rat strains. In study A, the blood volume was measured by using Evans blue dye, and albumin was measured at the start of hemorrhage. In study B, blood volume was not measured, and albumin was measured twice, near the start and end of hemorrhage (approximately 14 min apart). Neither study revealed any interstrain differences in PAC, which decreased after hemorrhage in all 5 strains. No correlation was found between PAC and plasma volume, survival time, blood lactate, or blood base excess. Percentage changes in PAC during hemorrhage were greater in salt-sensitive compared with Lewis rats. Moreover, these percentage changes were associated with survival time in Fawn hooded hypertensive rats. Our data show that the plasma volumes we measured previously were not misrepresented due to variations in PAC.

  7. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, van de N.C.A.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, van B.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, de A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was dire

  8. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, N.C.A. van de; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was

  9. Approaches to modeling of plasmas containing impurity at arbitrary concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Mikhail Z.

    2016-02-01

    A new approximate method to modeling of two-ion-species plasmas with arbitrary concentration of impurity is developed. It based on the usage of equations for the electron density and the ratio of the ion species densities as new dependent variables. In contrast to motion equations for the ion mass velocities used normally, those for the new variables have a singularity at the Debye sheath only, as in the case of a one species plasma. Computations for the most critical situations of weak and intermediate friction between species due to Coulomb collisions reproduce nearly perfectly the results got by solving the original equations, however within a calculation time reduced by a factor of 102-103. In the case of strong friction, where ions’ velocities are very close each other, the normal procedure does not converge at all, but the new one, being precise in this limit, operates very reliably. Calculations are done for conditions typical in the linear device PSI-2, with deuterium plasmas seeded by neon impurity. For fixed electron and ion temperatures a critical density of impurity atoms is found, at which the electron density grows without limits. Such a catastrophic behavior does not occur if the electron and ion heat balances are taken into account to calculate the temperature profiles self-consistently.

  10. Plasma Concentrations of Hepcidin in Anemic Zimbabwean Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatenda G Mupfudze

    Full Text Available Anemia in infancy is a global public health problem. We evaluated the relative contributions of iron deficiency and inflammation to infant anemia.We measured plasma hepcidin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein (CRP by ELISA on archived plasma from 289 HIV-unexposed anemic or non-anemic Zimbabwean infants at ages 3 mo, 6 mo and 12 mo. Among anemic infants, we determined the proportion with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA and anemia of inflammation (AI. We undertook regression analyses of plasma hepcidin and anemia status, adjusting for sex, age and birthweight.Anemic infants at 3 mo were more stunted and had higher CRP (median 0.45 vs 0.21 mg/L; P = 0.037 and hepcidin (median 14.7 vs 9.7 ng/mL; P = 0.022 than non-anemic infants, but similar levels of ferritin and sTfR; 11% infants had IDA and 15% had AI. Anemic infants at 6 mo had higher hepcidin (median 7.9 vs 4.5 ng/mL; P = 0.016 and CRP (median 2.33 vs 0.32 mg/L; P<0.001, but lower ferritin (median 13.2 vs 25.1 μg/L; P<0.001 than non-anemic infants; 56% infants had IDA and 12% had AI. Anemic infants at 12 mo had lower ferritin (median 3.2 vs 22.2 μg/L; P<0.001 and hepcidin (median 0.9 vs 1.9 ng/mL; P = 0.019, but similar CRP levels; 48% infants had IDA and 8% had AI. Comparing anemic with non-anemic infants, plasma hepcidin was 568% higher, 405% higher and 64% lower at 3 mo, 6 mo and 12 mo, respectively, after adjusting for sex and birthweight (all p<0.01. Plasma hepcidin declined significantly with age among anemic but not non-anemic infants. Girls had 61% higher hepcidin than boys, after adjusting for age, anemia and birthweight (p<0.001.Anemia is driven partly by inflammation early in infancy, and by iron deficiency later in infancy, with plasma hepcidin concentrations reflecting the relative contribution of each. However, there is need to better characterize the drivers of hepcidin during infancy in developing countries.

  11. Effect of low potassium concentration on cadmium induced epileptiform activity of leech retzius neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Nebojša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsies have a large significance and require detailed investigation of cellular mechanisms that lead to this disorder. Environmental, especially industrial, toxins are having increasingly more prominent role in these investigations. The aim of our research was to investigate the significance of Cd2+ in generation of epileptiform electrical activity of neurons, and the role of Na+/K+ pump in mechanisms that lead to cessation of this activity. Experiments were performed on Retzius nerve cells of the leech Haemopis sanguisuga. Intracellularly placed microelectrodes were used to measure membrane potential changes upon administration of Cd2+ (100 µmol/l, and the same concentration of Cd2+ in low K+ (1 mmol/l solution. In our experiments Cd2+ led to generation of rhythmic repetitive oscillatory activity. This activity closely resembles paroxysmal depolarizing shifts (PDS which represent the cellular basis of epilepsy. Cd2+ induced epileptiform activity had the following characteristics: frequency of 3.9±0.8 PDS/minute, PDS duration of 4.0±0.3 s, and PDS amplitude of 8.1±0.7 mV. Cd2+ induces effects similar to those of Ni2+ and Co2+, but in 30 times smaller concentration. Application of Cd2+ in low K+ solution led to a significant reduction of PDS frequency (by 2.34±0.55 PDS/minute, p<0.05, Student's t-test, highly significant increase in PDS duration (by 2.84±0.23 s, p<0.01, Student's t-test and highly significant reduction in PDS amplitude (by 1.91±0.33 mV, p=0.01, Student's t-test. Our results show that Cd2+ is a potent initiator of epileptiform activity, and that Na+/K+ pump significantly affects this activity and has a potentially important role in mechanisms that lead to its cessation.

  12. Effects of Different Levels of Supplementary Nitrogen and Potassium in Nutrient Solution on Yield and Leaf N and K Concentrations of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Farzaneh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different levels of nitrogen (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/L and potassium (125, 250 and 375 mg/L on yield and leaf N and K concentrations of tomato were investigated in perlit culture using a factorial randomized design with three replications. The highest fruit yield was obtained with 200 mg/L N. Higher levels of nitrogen decreased tomato yield. With increasing nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution, N content of leaf increased significantly whereas leaf K concentration decreased. Different potassium levels had no significant effect on tomato yield. With increasing potassium levels of nutrient solution, concentration of leaf N decreased significantly whereas concentration of leaf K increased. The greatest and the least fruit yields were obtained from N200K250 and N400K375 treatments, respectively. The highest and the lowest concentrations of leaf N were observed in N400K125 and N100K375 treatments, respectively. The greatest and the least concentrations of leaf K were observed in N100K375 and N400K125 treatments, respectively.

  13. Diagnostic evaluation of plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity ratio in primary aldosteronism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huilan ZHANG; Daowen WANG

    2008-01-01

    Using the plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity ratio (PAC/PRA ratio) as the screening test of choice for primary aldosteronism in hypertensive patients, we studied the clinical character-istics and the diagnostic value of PAC/PRA ratio in primary aldosteronism. The plasma aldosterone concen-tration (PAC) and plasma renin activity (PRA) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 902 hypertensive patients from out-patient clinics or hospitals. One hundred and twenty-six suspected primary aldosteronism patients whose PAC/PRA ratio was > 25 ng/dL/ng/mL/ hr had a lamellar computed tomography (CT) scan in the adrenal gland and follow-up visits. The proportion of primary aldosteronism in hypertensive patients was 14% (126/902). There were 54 patients with unilateral or bilateral hyperplasia and 25 patients with adenoma according to the CT scan. 39% (49/126) of the patients with primary aldosteronism had hypokalemia. Twenty-five patients received surgical treatment. The efficacy and cure rates were 100% (25/25) and 48% (12/25), respect-ively. The effective rate of aldactone and the single-drug cure rate were 89% (48/54) and 24% (13/54), respectively. Primary aldosteronism affects over 10% of hypertensive patients in China. The PAC/PRA ratio can be considered as a routine screening test in hypertensives, especially resistant hypertensive patients and a high PAC/PRA ratio is an invaluable index in primary aldosteronism diagnosis.

  14. Effect of potassium iodide and potassium iodate on antioxidative capability of rat blood plasma%不同剂量的碘化钾与碘酸钾对大鼠血浆抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翼; 王海燕; 李军延; 李秀维; 李淑华; 刘诗川; 刘列钧

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察饲喂不同剂量的碘化钾与碘酸钾的大鼠血浆抗氧化能力相关指标的变化.方法 将116只Wistar大鼠随机分为8组,碘化钾与碘酸钾各设4个剂量组:适量剂量组、10倍剂量组、50倍剂量组和100倍剂量组.实验大鼠饲喂12个月后,检测血浆中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量.结果 碘化钾组:SOD活性,50倍组低于适量组;GSH-Px活性,100倍组高于适量组;MDA含量,50倍组与100倍组均低于适量组;碘酸钾组:各指标高剂量组与适量组比较无统计学差异;不同碘剂相同剂量组间,SOD与GSH-Px活性100倍碘酸钾组均低于100倍碘化钾组.其余各组无统计学差异.结论 高剂量的碘化钾与碘酸钾均会对大鼠血浆抗氧化系统产生影响;血浆中抗氧化系统复杂,其机制有待进一步的研究.%Objective To study the effect of different dosages potassium iodide and potassium iodate on the antioxidative capability of rat blood plasma.Methods The rats were divided into 8 groups.4 groups of them given by different dosages of potassium iodide,and another 4 groups were given by different dosages of potassium iodate.The groups were normal dosage (KI and KIO3),10 fold high dosage (10KI and 10KIO3),50 fold high dosage (50KI and 50KIO3) and 100 fold high dosage (100KI and 100KIO3).12 months later,the rats were sacrificed and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity,glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured.Results After treatment for 12 months,the statistic differences among different dosage groups with the same drug were compared by SPSS13.0.The SOD activity of 50KI group was markedly lower than that in KI group.Furthermore,the GSH-Px activity of 100KI group was higher than that in KI group.The MDA content of 50KI and 100KI groups were both lower than that in KI group after administration for 12 months.After comparison between two

  15. Therapeutic plasma exchange as a steroid-sparing therapy in a patient with limbic encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Isabella W; Martin, Christi-Lynn B; Dunbar, Nancy M; Lee, Stephen L; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M

    2016-02-01

    Autoantibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex cause a spectrum of non-paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes including limbic encephalitis (LE). We report a case of a man with LE who underwent a course of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in addition to other immunomodulatory therapies and experienced sustained clinical resolution of his symptoms. This report adds to the existing literature supporting TPE in cases of LE due to VGKC complex autoantibodies.

  16. Decrease in pyridoxal-5'-phosphate concentration and increase in pyridoxal concentration in rat plasma by 4'-O-methylpyridoxine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Teruki; Johno, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Mika; Sasaki, Keiko; Wada, Keiji

    2015-07-01

    Food poisoning from Ginkgo biloba seeds can cause epilepsy because of a decrease in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in the brain. We previously demonstrated that 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (MPN) is responsible for this observed toxicity of G biloba seeds; however, the mechanism for the decrease in GABA and plasma concentration profile of MPN has not been clarified. Our hypothesis is that MPN induces a decrease in vitamin B6 concentrations, resulting in a decrease in GABA concentration. This study aimed to characterize the plasma concentration profile of MPN and intrinsic vitamin B6 concentrations (pyridoxal [PL], PL-5'-phosphate [PLP], and 4-pyridoxic acid) using a rat model. Plasma concentrations of B6 vitamers after intravenous MPN administration (5 mg/kg) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The half-life of MPN (0.91 ± 0.05 hours) was shorter in rats than the previously reported value in humans. We found a significant decrease in the plasma concentration of PLP, an active form of vitamin B6, after MPN administration. We also observed an increase in plasma PL and 4-pyridoxic acid concentrations; the increase in PL concentration may be caused by either metabolism of MPN to PL or by MPN-mediated inhibition of PL kinase. The present study is the first in vivo study showing relatively rapid elimination of MPN in rats and a decrease in plasma PLP concentration caused by MPN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of water balance in the enhanced potassium excretion and hypokalaemia of rats with diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Repollet, E; Martínez-Maldonado, M; Opava-Stitzer, S

    1980-08-01

    1. The role of water balance in the hypokalaemia of rats with diabetes insipidus (DI rats) was studied. 2. After a 3-day balance study DI rats had a lower muscle potassium content, and plasma [K+], and the urinary excretion of potassium in response to oral KCl loading was reduced when compared to normal rats. The hypokalaemia was found to be associated with elevated concentrations of potassium in renal medulla and papilla when compared to values in normal Long-Evans rats. 3. During a 9-day balance study urinary potassium excretion was higher than that of normal rats on days 1-3, but not different on days 4-9; this transient elevation was observed in DI rats on normal, high and low potassium diets. On a low potassium diet the urinary potassium excretion of DI rats fell to minimal levels, making unlikely the existence of a renal defect in potassium handling. 4. Muscle potassium content and plasma [K+] were normal after 9 days in metabolism cages. This spontaneous reversal of the hypokalaemia of DI rats was associated with increased water content of renal medulla and papilla, and decreased potassium concentration in these zones. 5. The effect of acute mild dehydration on potassium handling of DI rats was evaluated. Water deprivation for 1-8 hr was sufficient to raise the urinary potassium excretion of DI rats above that of DI rats drinking ad lib. Renal tissue [K+] was significantly increased after 8 hr of dehydration. Water deprivation also enhanced the response of DI rats to an oral KCl load. Two days of chronic dehydration in the form of water rationing also significantly enhanced the urinary potassium excretion of DI rats. 6. These data suggest that chronic mild dehydration may be responsible for the modest potassium deficiency observed in DI rats via alterations in renal tissue [K+] and consequently in urinary potassium excretion. Correction of dehydration during prolonged periods in metabolism cages may account for the spontaneous reversal of the hypokelaemic

  18. Trace elements in the human endometrium. I. Zinc, copper, manganese, sodium and potassium concentrations at various phases of the normal menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenfeldt, K; Plantin, L O; Diczfalusy, E

    1970-11-01

    The cyclic variations in the content of 5 trace elements in the normal human endometrium were studied by means of neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of zinc, copper, manganese, sodium, and potassium were measured in endometrial biopsy specimens taken from 6 healthy, normally menstruating volunteers from 10 to 32 years of age. 4 specimens were obtained from each during 4 consecutive cycles in the following phases: a) early proliferative (Days 6-10); late proliferative (Days 11-14); c) early secretory (Days 15-18); and d) late secretory Days 22-27). Biopsies were taken with a Novak type suction curette without anesthesia and without dilation of the cervix. Chemical methodology is described. An analysis of variance of the data revealed that in the early proliferative phase the human endometrium is characterized by significantly elevated concentrations of manganese (p greater than .001), sodium (p greater than .01), and potassium (p greater than .001). However, the late secretory endometrium is characterized by a highly significant rise in its zinc concentration (p greater than .001), accompanied by a highly significantly decreased concentration of sodium (p greater than .001) and potassium (p greater than .001). The copper concentration of the secretory endometria was significantly higher than that of the proliferative endometria (p greater than .001). The significance of the findings was the same whether values were expressed per g protein or per g wet tissue. It is suggested that the high concentrations of zinc and copper associated with low levels of manganese, sodium, and potassium at the expected time of implantation may be a reflection of changes in endometrial enzyme activities. Investigations are in progress to explore this possibility.

  19. The effect of concurrent aspirin upon plasma concentrations of tenoxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R O; Paull, P D; Lam, S; Swanson, B R; Williams, K M; Wade, D N

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of chronic, high-dose aspirin therapy upon the disposition of a single dose and multiple doses of tenoxicam was examined in normal volunteers. 2. Aspirin caused a 24% drop in the t1/2 (P less than 0.005), a 49% rise in the volume of distribution (P less than 0.0003) and a 98% increase in the clearance (P less than 0.0001) of tenoxicam after a single dose of the tenoxicam. 3. Steady-state concentrations of tenoxicam decreased significantly from 10.4 +/- 1.5 to 4.5 +/- 1.6 micrograms ml-1 in the presence of chronic, high-dose aspirin treatment. 4. Tenoxicam percentage free measured in plasma from a normal volunteer was 0.56 +/- 0.05% over the tenoxicam concentration range 1-20 micrograms ml-1 and rose to 1.24 +/- 0.07% in the presence of aspirin 150 micrograms ml-1. 5. The effect of aspirin upon the disposition of tenoxicam was consistent with a competitive protein binding interaction. PMID:3190995

  20. The influence of insulin on the raised plasma fibronectin concentration in human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgård, A; Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1986-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of fibronectin, free insulin, C-peptide and plasma glucose were determined in 40 morbidly obese subjects and in 51 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. All plasma concentrations were significantly elevated (p less than 0.01) among the obese subjects. A significant...

  1. Regulation of serum potassium during insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, K G; Schlüter, K J; Kerp, L

    1982-07-01

    Counterregulatory secretion of epinephrine occurs during severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Under these conditions (minimal plasma glucose 27.4 +/- 1 mg/dl) the decrease of serum potassium concentration (0.9 mVal/L) is mediated by two mechanisms: insulin-induced (0.48 mVal/L) and epinephrine-induced (0.42 mVal/L) cellular uptake of potassium. Epinephrine-induced serum potassium uptake appears to be more sensitive to beta-adrenoceptor blockade than glucose production. The intensification of insulin-induced hypokalemia by epinephrine is of clinical significance.

  2. Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljevic Dragan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the concentration of serum homocysteine (Hcy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA compared with the control group and the connection between homocysteine and parameters of inflammation and disease activity. Sixty RA patients and 20 healthy controls were included in the study, and clinical examination and investigation were performed during which disease activity was assessed. Peripheral blood samples were used for all of the assays. Levels of Hcy were 33% higher in the RA patients than in the control subjects (mean +/− SD 11.79±3.72 μmol/L versus 8.90±1.38 μmol/L; p< 0.01. A significant correlation was found between parameters of inflammation (C-reactive protein and homocysteine in patients (r=0.322, p=0.012. Patients with high disease activity had a significantly greater increase in homocysteine (p<0.05. An increase in plasma homocysteine in RA patients is related to the parameters of inflammation and disease activity. Elevated Hcy levels occur commonly in patients with RA and may explain some of the increased cardiovascular mortality seen in RA patients.

  3. Is plasma urotensin II concentration an indicator of myocardial damage in patients with acute coronary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Babińska, Magdalena; Holecki, Michał; Prochaczek, Fryderyk; OWCZAREK, ALEKSANDER; Kokocińska, Danuta; Chudek,Jerzy; Więcek, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urotensin II (UII) is a vasoactive peptide secreted by endothelial cells. Increased plasma UII concentration was observed in patients with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, diabetic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. In patients with myocardial infarction both increased and decreased plasma UII concentrations were demonstrated. The aim of this study was to analyze whether plasma UII concentration reflects the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Material and methods One hun...

  4. The influence of a cooked meat meal on creatinine plasma concentration and creatinine clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayersohn, M; Conrad, K A; Achari, R

    1983-01-01

    1 The influence of a meal containing cooked meat (225 g) on creatinine plasma concentration, creatinine urinary excretion and creatinine clearance was determined in six healthy male subjects. 2 The meat meal produced an average 52% increase in creatinine plasma concentration within 1.5 to 3.5 h after ingestion. The 24 h area under the creatinine plasma concentration-time curve increased by about 19%. Urinary creatinine excretion during 24 h increased by an average of 13%. Creatinine clearance...

  5. Atazanavir increases the plasma concentrations of 1200 mg raltegravir dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Rajesh; East, Lilly; Larson, Patrick; Valiathan, Chandni; Deschamps, Kathleen; Luk, Julie Ann; Bethel-Brown, Crystal; Manthos, Helen; Brejda, John; Gartner, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Raltegravir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor currently marketed at a dose of 400 mg twice-daily (b.i.d.). Raltegravir 1200 mg once-daily (q.d.) (investigational q.d. formulation of 2 × 600 mg tablets; q.d. RAL) was found to be generally well tolerated and non-inferior to the marketed 400 mg b.i.d. dose at 48 weeks in a phase 3 trial. Since raltegravir is eliminated mainly by metabolism via a uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1-mediated glucuronidation pathway, co-administration of UGT1A1 inhibitors may increase the plasma levels of q.d. RAL. To assess this potential, the drug interaction of 1200 mg raltegravir using atazanavir, a known UGT1A1 inhibitor, was studied. An open-label, randomized, 2-period, fixed-sequence phase 1 study was performed in adult healthy male and female (non-childbearing potential) subjects ≥ 19 and ≤ 55 years of age, with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 18.5 and ≤ 32.0 kg/m(2) . Subjects (n = 14) received a single oral dose of 1200 mg raltegravir in period 1. After a washout period of at least 7 days, the subjects received oral doses of 400 mg atazanavir q.d. for 9 consecutive days, with a single oral dose of 1200 mg raltegravir co-administered on day 7 of period 2. Serial blood samples were collected for 72 h following raltegravir dosing and analysed using a validated bioanalytical method to quantify raltegravir plasma concentrations. Co-administration with atazanavir yielded GMRs (90% CIs) for raltegravir AUC0-∞ , Cmax and C24 of 1.67 (1.34, 2.10), 1.16 (1.01, 1.33) and 1.26 (1.08, 1.46), respectively. There was no effect of raltegravir on serum total bilirubin. In contrast, atazanavir increased the mean bilirubin by up to 200%, an effect that was preserved in the atazanavir/raltegravir treatment group. Administration of single q.d. RAL alone and co-administered with multiple oral doses of atazanavir were generally well tolerated in healthy subjects. The results show that

  6. Plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with skeletal muscle insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and low plasma concentration precedes a decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Norbert; Vozarova, Barbora; Funahashi, Tohru;

    2002-01-01

    -induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and also increase whole-body insulin sensitivity. To further characterize the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and insulin sensitivity in humans, we examined 1) the cross-sectional association between plasma adiponectin......Adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, has been found to be negatively associated with degree of adiposity and positively associated with insulin sensitivity in Pima Indians and other populations. Moreover, adiponectin administration to rodents has been shown to increase insulin...... concentration and skeletal muscle IR tyrosine phosphorylation and 2) the prospective effect of plasma adiponectin concentration at baseline on change in insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma adiponectin concentration, body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity...

  7. Effects of potassium deficiency on potassium, polyamines and amino acids in mouse tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremades, A; Sanchez-Capelo, A; Monserrat, A; Monserrat, F; Peñafiel, R

    2003-03-01

    Sexual dimorphism in potassium content was found in plasma, kidney, heart and skeletal muscle of CD1 mice. We observed that feeding mice with a K(+)-deficient diet had an uneven and gender-dependent effect on organ weight and tissue potassium concentrations. Treatment produced a marked decrease in plasma, pancreas and skeletal muscle K(+) levels in both sexes, and a reduction in kidney, liver and heart potassium concentrations in females. Moreover, K(+) deficiency produced a 2-3-fold increase in the concentrations of cationic amino acids, such as arginine and lysine in both heart and skeletal muscle of the two sexes, a slight increase ( approximately 37%) in renal arginine in the male mice. The concentrations of these amino acids in plasma and other tissues in both sexes remained unaltered. Polyamine levels in heart, liver, skeletal muscle and pancreas from male and female mice were not affected by K(+) deficiency. However, in the male kidney potassium deficiency was accompanied by an increase of putrescine and spermidine concentration, and a reduction of putrescine excretion into the urine, even though renal K(+) concentration was not significantly affected and ornithine decarboxylase activity was dramatically decreased. The general lack of correlation between tissue potassium decrease and the increase in organic cations suggests that it is unlikely that the changes observed could be related with an attempt of the tissues to compensate for the reduction in cellular positive charge produced by the fall in K(+) content. The mechanisms by which these changes are produced are discussed, but their physiological implications remain to be determined.

  8. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations during military training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Suzuki

    Full Text Available Decreased concentrations of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and serum BDNF have been proposed to be a state marker of depression and a biological indicator of loaded psychosocial stress. Stress evaluations of participants in military mission are critically important and appropriate objective biological parameters that evaluate stress are needed. In military circumstances, there are several problems to adopt plasma BDNF concentration as a stress biomarker. First, in addition to psychosocial stress, military missions inevitably involve physical exercise that increases plasma BDNF concentrations. Second, most participants in the mission do not have adequate quality or quantity of sleep, and sleep deprivation has also been reported to increase plasma BDNF concentration. We evaluated plasma BDNF concentrations in 52 participants on a 9-week military mission. The present study revealed that plasma BDNF concentration significantly decreased despite elevated serum enzymes that escaped from muscle and decreased quantity and quality of sleep, as detected by a wearable watch-type sensor. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF during the mission. VEGF is also neurotrophic and its expression in the brain has been reported to be up-regulated by antidepressive treatments and down-regulated by stress. This is the first report of decreased plasma VEGF concentrations by stress. We conclude that decreased plasma concentrations of neurotrophins can be candidates for mental stress indicators in actual stressful environments that include physical exercise and limited sleep.

  9. Intracellular CD3+ T Lymphocyte Teriflunomide Concentration Is Poorly Correlated with and Has Greater Variability Than Unbound Plasma Teriflunomide Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Ashley M; Moghaddami, Mahin; Foster, David J R; Proudman, Susanna M; Upton, Richard N; Wiese, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Leflunomide's active metabolite teriflunomide inhibits dihydro-oroate dehydrogenase, an enzyme essential to proliferation of T lymphocytes. As teriflunomide must reach the target site to have this effect, this study assessed the distribution of teriflunomide into T lymphocytes, as intracellular concentrations may be a superior response biomarker to plasma concentrations. CD3 MicroBeads (Miltenyi Biotec, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany) were used to extract CD3(+) T cells from the peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were taking a stable dose of leflunomide. Unbound plasma and intra-CD3(+) T cell teriflunomide concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentration (log transformed) and partition differences were assessed through paired Student t tests. Sixteen patients provided plasma steady-state teriflunomide samples, and eight provided a sample 6-12 weeks later. At time-point one, the geometric mean teriflunomide concentration (range) in CD3(+) T cells was 18.12 μg/L (6.15-42.26 μg/L) compared with 69.75 μg/L (32.89-263.1 μg/L) unbound in plasma (P < 0.001). The mean partition coefficient (range) for unbound plasma teriflunomide into CD3(+) T cells was 0.295 (0.092-0.632), which was significantly different from unity (P < 0.001). The median (range) change in teriflunomide concentration between the two time points was 14% (-10% to 40%) in unbound plasma and -29% (-69 to 138%) for CD3(+) T cells. Because teriflunomide concentrations in CD3(+) T cells were lower and displayed a higher intraindividual variability than the unbound plasma concentrations, its applicability as a therapeutic drug-monitoring marker may be limited. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Association of lopinavir concentrations with plasma lipid or glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinxadi Phumla Z

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslipidaemia and dysglycaemia have been associated with exposure to ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors. Lopinavir/ritonavir, the most commonly used protease inhibitor in resource-limited settings, often causes dyslipidaemia. There are contradictory data regarding the association between lopinavir concentrations and changes in lipids. Aim To investigate associations between plasma lopinavir concentrations and lipid and glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South African adults. Methods Participants stable on lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. After an overnight fast, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lopinavir concentrations were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Regression analyses were used to determine associations between plasma lopinavir concentrations and fasting and 2 hour plasma glucose, fasting cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations. Results There were 84 participants (72 women with a median age of 36 years. The median blood pressure, body mass index and waist: hip ratio were 108/72 mmHg, 26 kg/m2 and 0.89 respectively. The median CD4 count was 478 cells/mm3. Median duration on lopinavir was 18.5 months. The median (interquartile range lopinavir concentration was 8.0 (5.2 to 12.8 μg/mL. Regression analyses showed no significant association between lopinavir pre-dose concentrations and fasting cholesterol (β-coefficient −0.04 (95% CI −0.07 to 0.00, triglycerides (β-coefficient −0.01 (95% CI −0.04 to 0.02, fasting glucose (β-coefficient −0.01 (95% CI −0.04 to 0.02, or 2-hour glucose concentrations (β-coefficient −0.02 (95% CI −0.09 to 0.06. Lopinavir concentrations above the median were not associated with presence of dyslipidaemia or dysglycaemia. Conclusions There was no association between lopinavir plasma concentrations and plasma lipid and glucose concentrations.

  11. Potassium Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium iodide is used to protect the thyroid gland from taking in radioactive iodine that may be released ... damage the thyroid gland. You should only take potassium iodide if there is a nuclear radiation emergency and ...

  12. Changes in plasma potassium levels following massive transfusion in trauma%大量输血导致血钾变化的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍玉容; 李朝金; 李玲; 郑强; 王逊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of plasma potassium levels and the impact factor of hyperkalemia following massive transfusion. Methods The clinical data of all non - crush trauma patients with massive transfusion treated in this hospital from March 2007 to December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Multivariate analysis was used to examine the effect of massive transfusion on plasma potassium level. Results There was no significant difference in plasma potassium level between study group and control group before and after blood transfusion and surgery ( P >0.05). Although the incidence of hyperkalemia in study group was higher than that in control group during 12 h postoperation ( P 0.05). Logistic regression identifed only preoperative high K + level ( P < 0.05 ) and postoperative lower pH ( P < 0. 05 ), but not massive transfusion, as independent risk factors for postoperative hyperkalemia. Conclusion Massive transfusion patients with non - crush trauma were at no higher risk of hyperkalemia than those who received no blood products, but we should detect the levels of plasma potassium dynamically following massive transfusion.%目的 探讨大量输血与血清钾变化的相关性.方法 回顾性分析2007年3月至2010年12月所有非挤压伤病人大量输血(观察组)和非输血患者(对照组)的临床资料,采用多因素分析方法分析输血前后血钾变化规律及影响因素.结果 手术和输血前、后两组血清钾水平无显著差异(P>0.05),但术后12 h内观察组的高钾血症发生率高于对照组(P<0.05),而12 h后两组高血钾的发生率无显著差异(P>0.05).Logistic回归分析显示术前高血钾(P<0.05)和术后低pH值(P<0.05)是导致术后高钾血症的主要原因,而与大量输血治疗无明显相关性(P> 0.05).结论 非挤压伤病人大量输血并不是导致高钾血症的发生的直接原因,但同样需要动态监测输血前后的血钾变化.

  13. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, John C; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Van der Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Coin, Lachlan J; Deng, Guohong; Gieger, Christian; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kühnel, Brigitte; Kumar, Vinod; Lagou, Vasiliki; Liang, Liming; Luan, Jian'an; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Mateo Leach, Irene; O'Reilly, Paul F; Peden, John F; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Soininen, Pasi; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Yuan, Xin; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Atwood, Larry D; Borecki, Ingrid B; Brown, Morris J; Charoen, Pimphen; Cucca, Francesco; Das, Debashish; de Geus, Eco J C; Dixon, Anna L; Döring, Angela; Ehret, Georg; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I; Farrall, Martin; Forouhi, Nita G; Friedrich, Nele; Goessling, Wolfram; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Harris, Tamara B; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heath, Simon; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hyppönen, Elina; Janssen, Harry L A; Johnson, Toby; Kangas, Antti J; Kema, Ido P; Kühn, Jens P; Lai, Sandra; Lathrop, Mark; Lerch, Markus M; Li, Yun; Liang, T Jake; Lin, Jing-Ping; Loos, Ruth J F; Martin, Nicholas G; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Munroe, Patricia B; Musunuru, Kiran; Nakamura, Yusuke; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Olafsson, Isleifur; Penninx, Brenda W; Pouta, Anneli; Prins, Bram P; Prokopenko, Inga; Puls, Ralf; Ruokonen, Aimo; Savolainen, Markku J; Schlessinger, David; Schouten, Jeoffrey N L; Seedorf, Udo; Sen-Chowdhry, Srijita; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Smit, Johannes H; Spector, Timothy D; Tan, Wenting; Teslovich, Tanya M; Tukiainen, Taru; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wallace, Chris; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wichmann, H-Erich; Willemsen, Gonneke; Würtz, Peter; Xu, Chun; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark; Cookson, William O; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Froguel, Philippe; Matsuda, Koichi; McCarthy, Mark I; Meisinger, Christa; Mooser, Vincent; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Schumann, Gunter; Snieder, Harold; Sternberg, Michael J E; Stolk, Ronald P; Thomas, Howard C; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Uda, Manuela; Waeber, Gérard; Wareham, Nicholas J; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Hugh; Whitfield, John B; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Fox, Caroline S; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Stefansson, Kari; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, James; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Elliott, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190))

  14. Pedophilia is accompanied by increased plasma concentrations of catecholamines, in particular epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; De Vos, N; Van Hunsel, F; Van West, D; Westenberg, H; Cosyns, P; Neels, H

    2001-08-05

    Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were measured in pedophiles and normal men both in placebo conditions and after administration of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), a post-synaptic 5-HT2 receptor agonist. The plasma concentrations of catecholamines, in particular epinephrine, were significantly increased in pedophiles. It is concluded that pedophiles may have an increased activity of the sympathoadrenal system.

  15. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, J.C.; Zhang, W.; Sehmi, J.; Li, X.; Wass, M.N.; Harst, P. van der; Holm, H.; Sanna, S.; Kavousi, M.; Baumeister, S.E.; Coin, L.J.; Deng, G.; Gieger, C.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Hottenga, J.J.; Kuhnel, B.; Kumar, V.; Lagou, V.; Liang, L.; Luan, J.; Vidal, P.M.; Mateo Leach, I.; O'Reilly, P.F.; Peden, J.F.; Rahmioglu, N.; Soininen, P.; Speliotes, E.K.; Yuan, X.; Thorleifsson, G.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Atwood, L.D.; Borecki, I.B.; Brown, M.J.; Charoen, P.; Cucca, F.; Das, D.; Geus, E.J. de; Dixon, A.L.; Doring, A.; Ehret, G.; Eyjolfsson, G.I.; Farrall, M.; Forouhi, N.G.; Friedrich, N.; Goessling, W.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Harris, T.B.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Heath, S.; Hirschfield, G.M.; Hofman, A.; Homuth, G.; Hypponen, E.; Janssen, H.L.; Johnson, T.; Kangas, A.J.; Kema, I.P.; Kuhn, J.P.; Lai, S.; Lathrop, M.; Lerch, M.M.; Li, Y.; Liang, T.J.; Lin, J.P.; Loos, R.J.; Martin, N.G.; Moffatt, M.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Munroe, P.B.; Musunuru, K.; Nakamura, Y.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Olafsson, I.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Pouta, A.; Prins, B.P.; Prokopenko, I.; Puls, R.; Ruokonen, A.; Savolainen, M.J.; Schlessinger, D.; Schouten, J.N.; Seedorf, U.; Sen-Chowdhry, S.; Siminovitch, K.A.; Smit, J.H.; Spector, T.D.; Tan, W.; Teslovich, T.M.; Tukiainen, T.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Klauw, M.M. Van der; Vasan, R.S.; Wallace, C.; Wallaschofski, H.; Wichmann, H.E.; Willemsen, G.; Wurtz, P.; Xu, C.; Yerges-Armstrong, L.M.; Abecasis, G.R.; Ahmadi, K.R.; Boomsma, D.I.; Caulfield, M.; Cookson, W.O.; Duijn, C.M. van; Froguel, P.; Matsuda, K.; McCarthy, M.I.; Meisinger, C.; Mooser, V.; Pietilainen, K.H.; Schumann, G.; Snieder, H.; Sternberg, M.J.; Stolk, R.P.; Thomas, H.C.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Uda, M.; Waeber, G.; Wareham, N.J.; Waterworth, D.M.; Watkins, H.; Whitfield, J.B.; Witteman, J.C.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Fox, C.S.; Ala-Korpela, M.; Stefansson, K.; Vollenweider, P.; Volzke, H.; Schadt, E.E.; Scott, J.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Elliott, P.; Kooner, J.S.; Heijer, M. den; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P =

  16. An Experimental Study on RBC Count and Serum Potassium Concentration Changes During Compres-sion Transfusion of WBC-removal Whole Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Lian Cheng; Shi-Fan Han; Ya-Qin Li; Yin-Ping Chu; Yu-Mei Sun; Jin-Feng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe changes in RBC count, changes, RBC morphology, and serum potassium during compressed transfusion of WBC-removal whole blood. Methods: Prepared human WBC-removal whole blood and connected transfusion apparatus with different sizes of intravenous detaining needles ( 18G, 20G, 22G and 24G) . Observed RBC count and serum potassium concentration under different pressures ( 100 mmHg, 200 mmHg, and 300 mmHg) as blood flowed out of the pinhead end of the intravenous detaining needle. Samples ob-tained with the 20G needle were smeared on glass slides, and RBC morphologic changes were ob-served under an oil immersion lens. Results: RBC count and serum potassium changed slightly under different pressures with differ-ent sizes of intravenous detaining needles as blood flowed through the transfusion apparatus. In ad-dition, the observation of blood samples under a common light microscope revealed that coarse-prick, oblong, and spindle cell counts in the visual fields increased gradually as the pressure in-creased. Additionally, a portion of cells had undergone splintering. Conclusions: While applying 18G, 20G, 22G and 24G intravenous detaining needles for blood transfusion under less than 300 mmHg of pressure, no significant RBC count change was found in blood samples in the short term. However, there were significant RBC morphologic changes. The results could offer more basis to ensure the clinical safety of patients undergoing blood transfusion.

  17. Characterization of a phosphorus-potassium solution obtained during a protein concentrate process from sunflower flour. Application on rye-grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, C; Tejada, M; Benítez, C; González, J L

    2006-02-01

    The process that permits the ability to obtain a protein extract from defatted sunflower flour also produces a solution very rich in phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), which also contains small concentrations of humic substances. The aim of this study has been to determine the possible agricultural use of this extract. Therefore the phosphorus-potassium solution (experimental solution) was analyzed to determinate its pH and its content of nitrogen, proteins, organic carbon, humic substances potassium and phosphorous. The experimental solution was applied on rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and afterwards the results were analyzed we calculated the germination percentage and the fresh and dry weights that were obtained after each cut throughout the duration of the experiment. In addition the different pigment types (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) were quantified. The conclusions of the study examine how this time-stable experimental solution improves the long-term effects and also the level of pigments, especially carotenoids, of the plants that have been treated.

  18. Higher plasma prorenin concentration plays a role in the development of coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Gakuro; Kawasaki, Masanori; MURATA, Ichijiro; Hayakawa, Yuka; AOYAMA, Takuma; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Yamada, Yoshihisa; NISHIGAKI, Kazuhiko; Arai, Yoshie; Suzuki, Fumiaki; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Background Prorenin and renin are both involved in atherosclerosis. However, the role of plasma prorenin and renin in the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) is still not clear. Thus, we aimed to examine the relationships among plasma prorenin concentration, CAD and clinical parameters. Methods We measured plasma prorenin and renin concentrations and other parameters in 85 patients who underwent coronary angiography. Patients were divided into a CAD group (≥75 % steno...

  19. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  20. Elevated plasma and urinary concentrations of green tea catechins associated with improved plasma lipid profile in healthy Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated green tea catechins in plasma and urine and chronic disease biomarkers. We hypothesized that plasma and urinary concentration of green tea catechins are associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers. First void urine and fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38 to 73 years (mean, 52 ± 8 years) recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma and urinary green tea catechins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and C-reactive protein in plasma/serum samples were analyzed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed weak associations between plasma total catechin and triglyceride (r = -0.30) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.28), whereas plasma (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin exhibited weak to moderate associations with triglyceride or LDL cholesterol, but little associations with HDL cholesterol, body fat, and body mass index were evident. Urinary total catechin was weakly associated with triglyceride (r = -0.19) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.15), whereas urinary (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33), (-)-epigallocatechin (r = -0.23), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33) had weak to moderate correlations with triglyceride and similarly with body fat and body mass index. Both plasma (r = -0.24) and urinary (r = -0.24) total catechin, as well as individual catechins, were weakly associated with glycated hemoglobin. Plasma total and individual catechins were weakly to moderately associated with C-reactive protein, but not the case for urinary catechins. In conclusion, we found weak to moderate associations between plasma and urinary green tea

  1. Comparison of bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium in normal and dehydrated rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood AHMAD; Muhammad IQBAL; Ghulam MURTAZA

    2009-01-01

    Two different salts of diclofenac, diclofenac sodium and dielofenae potassium, in tablet dosage form were tested for their bioavailability and disposition kinetics in a group of eighteen rabbits in normal and experimentally induced dehydrated conditions with a wash out period of 7 days between both stages of study. Biochemical and physiological parameters were also measured in both normal and dehydrated states. Diclofenac levels in plasma were determined using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. Primary kinetic parameters i.e. AUC0-∞, Cmax, Tmax and other disposition kinetics were obtained with non-compartmental procedure. Biochemical parameters i.e. packed cell volume, plasma glucose and total lipid concentration in dehydrated rabbits increased significantly. Plasma concentration of diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium decreased significantly in water deprived rabbits. In comparison, diclofenac potassium in normal and dehydrated state of the same group of rabbits showed a significantly increased plasma concentration when compared with diclofenac sodium.

  2. Anemia as a factor that elevates plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in apparently healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mika; Tsujino, Takeshi; Naito, Yoshiro; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Ezumi, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru

    2008-09-01

    Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is widely used as a biomarker of heart failure (HF); however, its concentration is often found to be high even in apparently healthy subjects and little is known about which factors contribute to physiological change in plasma BNP concentration in subjects without HF. We examined the effects of gender, age, and anemia on plasma BNP concentration in apparently healthy subjects. The study population consisted of 1036 healthy subjects who underwent an annual health examination at their company in 2005. There were 874 women, ranging in age from 30 to 63 years (mean, 41 years). Plasma BNP concentration was abnormal (> 18.4 pg/mL) in 292 subjects. The incidence was significantly higher in women than in men (31% versus 14%, P < 0.01). Mean plasma BNP concentration was higher in women than in men. The difference in plasma BNP concentration was associated with the difference in blood hemoglobin and age. Logarithmically transformed BNP concentration correlated inversely with blood hemoglobin (r = -0.30, P < 0.01 for all; r = -0.21, P < 0.01 for women; r = -0.20, P < 0.01 for men). By multiple regression analysis, logarithmically transformed BNP concentration correlated with hemoglobin, age, and gender. In conclusion, anemia is likely a critical determinant that elevates plasma BNP concentration in apparently healthy subjects.

  3. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    2017-08-22

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2012-01-01

    , a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were......Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover...... design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P

  5. Measurement of plasma cell-free DNA concentrations in dogs with sepsis, trauma, and neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Jo-Annie; Goggs, Robert

    2017-05-01

    To determine if cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was identifiable in canine plasma, to evaluate 3 techniques for the measurement of plasma cfDNA concentrations in dogs presented to an emergency service, and to compare the plasma cfDNA concentrations of healthy dogs to those with sepsis, trauma, and neoplasia. Retrospective study of banked canine plasma samples collected between May 2014 and December 2014. Dogs presented to the emergency service of a university veterinary teaching hospital. Plasma cfDNA was measured on residual plasma samples obtained from 15 dogs with sepsis, 15 dogs with moderate-severe trauma, 15 dogs diagnosed with a sarcoma. Plasma cfDNA was also measured in 15 healthy dogs. None. Assay linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility were evaluated. Quantification of cfDNA was performed in duplicate on diluted citrated plasma and following DNA purification using 2 fluorescence assays (SYBR-Gold; Quant-iT) and by ultraviolet absorbance spectroscopy. Fluorescence intensities (FIs) were converted to cfDNA concentrations using standard curves. Median FI values and cfDNA concentrations were compared to healthy controls using the Kruskal-Wallis test, with adjustment for multiple comparisons. Alpha was set at 0.05. Both assays had excellent linearity, and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility. Compared to controls, plasma cfDNA concentrations were significantly increased in dogs with sepsis or moderate-severe trauma with both assays (P ≤ 0.003). Dogs with neoplasia had significantly increased cfDNA concentrations with the Quant-iT assay only (P = 0.003). When measurements were performed on purified DNA, only dogs with moderate-severe trauma had significantly increased cfDNA concentrations (P plasma using 2 fluorescence assays. DNA extraction offers no advantage over direct measurement. Compared to healthy controls, dogs with sepsis or moderate-severe trauma have significantly increased plasma cfDNA concentrations. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care

  6. Comparative changes in plasma protein concentration, hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise, bedrest and + Gz acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of experiments which indicate that under conditions of a constant red cell volume the proportional changes in hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise are never equal. On the basis of direct measurements and calculated changes of plasma volume it is concluded that during maximal exercise there is a small loss of protein from the plasma. It is clear that changes in content of blood constituents can only be evaluated correctly after determination of changes in plasma volume.

  7. Implications of Plasma Renin Activity and Plasma Aldosterone Concentration in Critically Ill Patients with Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Soo Chung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is closely associated with volume status and vascular tone in septic shock. The present study aimed to assess whether plasma renin activity (PRA and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC measurements compared with conventional severity indicators are associated with mortality in patients with septic shock. Methods We evaluated 105 patients who were admitted for septic shock. Plasma levels of the biomarkers PRA and PAC, the PAC/PRA ratio, C-reactive protein (CRP level, and cortisol level on days 1, 3, and 7 were serially measured. During the intensive care unit stay, relevant clinical information and laboratory results were recorded. Results Patients were divided into two groups according to 28-day mortality: survivors (n = 59 and non-survivors (n = 46. The survivor group showed lower PRA, PAC, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score than did the non-survivor group (all P < 0.05. The SOFA score was positively correlated with PRA (r = 0.373, P < 0.001 and PAC (r = 0.316, P = 0.001. According to receiver operating characteristic analysis, the areas under the curve of PRA and PAC to predict 28-day mortality were 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.79; P = 0.001 and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.77; P = 0.003, respectively, similar to the APACHE II scores and SOFA scores. In particular, the group with PRA value ≥3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 on day 1 showed significantly greater mortality than did the group with PRA value <3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 (log-rank test, P < 0.001. According to multivariate analysis, SOFA score (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.22, PRA value ≥3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 (hazard ratio, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.60 to 6.60, previous history of cancer (hazard ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.72 to 6.90, and coronary arterial occlusive disease (hazard ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.26 to 7.08 were predictors of 28-day mortality. Conclusions Elevated

  8. Optimum potassium chloride concentration to reduce hydration capacity of clay formations; Concentracao otima de cloreto de potassio para reduzir a capacidade de hidratacao das formacoes argilosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Jose Carlos Vieira [PETROBRAS, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Recursos Humanos Norte-Nordeste. Setor de Programas de Perfuracao; Oliveira, Manoel Martins de [PETROBRAS, BA (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao

    1988-12-31

    An experimental method for ascertaining the optimal concentration of potassium chloride for reducing the hydration and dispersion capacity of clayey formations sensitive to water-based fluids is described. Under this method, filtering time for disperse systems prepared from clayey formation samples is measured. A discussion is offered on theoretical aspects of hydration, expansion, and dispersion of clayey rocks in response to the variations in stress equilibrium states produced by these phenomena when a hole (well) is opened in the rock. The state of the art of this technological branch is also described. (author) 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD.

  10. The effects of antidiuretic hormone and state of potassium balance on the renin-angiotensin system in rats with diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Repollet, E; Maldonado, M M; Opava-Stitzer, S

    1982-02-01

    1. The influence of ADH and the state of potassium balance on the renin-angiotensin system was studied in rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI rats). 2. Plasma renin concentration in DI rats was higher than in control Long-Evans rats. 3. Spontaneous reversal of the hypokalaemia normally found in DI rats did not reduce plasma renin concentration (p.r.c.), suggesting that potassium deficiency does not contribute significantly to the elevation of p.r.c. in DI rats. Similarly, a low potassium diet failed to further increase p.r.c. in DI rats. 4. In contrast, the p.r.c. of DI rats was significantly diminished by a high potassium intake both in the presence and absence of ADH. A highly significant inverse correlation was found between p.r.c. and urinary potassium excretion in both ADH-treated and untreated DI rats on low, normal and high potassium diets. 5. Plasma renin concentration was significantly lower in ADH-treated than in untreated DI rats on a high potassium intake, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of ADH and potassium are additive. 6. ADH consistently reduced p.r.c. in DI rats independent of the state of potassium balance. 7. ADH and potassium may inhibit renin secretion via different mechanisms of action.

  11. Low plasma concentrations achieved with conventional schedules of administration of ganciclovir in patients with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, C; Bardin, C; Gilquin, J; Mahe, V; Kazatchkine, M D; Chast, F

    1996-07-01

    Plasma concentration of ganciclovir was studied prospectively in 15 AIDS patients treated for acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. Ganciclovir was administered at a mean dose of 10.3 +/- 0.6 mg/kg/day. The mean trough plasma concentration was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/L (n = 24), and the mean peak concentration was 7.2 +/- 2.4 mg/L (n = 6). In 12 patients, trough concentrations were below the range that has been associated with effective treatment. Low trough concentrations were associated with treatment failure in 6 patients. Following an increase in the daily dose, improvement was observed in 4 of the 6 patients. These results suggest that low plasma ganciclovir levels are associated with the failure of therapy. Monitoring the plasma concentration of ganciclovir may thus be useful before considering the virus to be resistant to the drug or before switching from ganciclovir to foscarnet.

  12. Plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with skeletal muscle insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and low plasma concentration precedes a decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Norbert; Vozarova, Barbora; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Weyer, Christian; Lindsay, Robert S; Youngren, Jack F; Havel, Peter J; Pratley, Richard E; Bogardus, Clifton; Tataranni, P Antonio

    2002-06-01

    Adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, has been found to be negatively associated with degree of adiposity and positively associated with insulin sensitivity in Pima Indians and other populations. Moreover, adiponectin administration to rodents has been shown to increase insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and also increase whole-body insulin sensitivity. To further characterize the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and insulin sensitivity in humans, we examined 1) the cross-sectional association between plasma adiponectin concentration and skeletal muscle IR tyrosine phosphorylation and 2) the prospective effect of plasma adiponectin concentration at baseline on change in insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma adiponectin concentration, body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, hyperinsulinemic clamp), and glucose tolerance (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) were measured in 55 Pima Indians (47 men and 8 women, aged 31 +/- 8 years, body fat 29 +/- 8% [mean +/- SD]; 50 with normal glucose tolerance, 3 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 2 with diabetes). Group 1 (19 subjects) underwent skeletal muscle biopsies for the measurement of basal and insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR (stimulated by 100 nmol/l insulin). The fold increase after insulin stimulation was calculated as the ratio between maximal and basal phosphorylation. Group 2 (38 subjects) had follow-up measurements of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Cross-sectionally, plasma adiponectin concentration was positively associated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (r = 0.58, P < 0.0001) and negatively associated with percent body fat (r = -0.62, P < 0.0001) in the whole group. In group 1 plasma adiponectin was negatively associated with the basal (r = -0.65, P = 0.003) and positively associated with the fold increase in IR

  13. Plane of nutrition affects plasma ghrelin concentrations in neonatal calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigating different planes of nutrition on appetite-related hormones could provide knowledge into the role of these hormones on growth performance in neonatal calves. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feeding rates on ghrelin in plasma from preruminant calves....

  14. Plasma vitamin C concentration in pregnant women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oxidative stress plays a role in the aetiology of pre-eclampsia and ... plasma vitamin C and pre-eclampsia in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. ... Health workers need to advise women at risk in the antenatal period about diet, ...

  15. Influence and Analysis of Concentrate Degree of Plasma Arc for Heat Process of Hardening Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuo-gui; YAN Hong-ri

    2004-01-01

    According to the practicable model of the plasma arc surface quench, the influence law of the heat process、cooling course、 temperature field about surface quench treatment by plasma arc due to the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source are discussed in this paper. It shows that the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source can change the width of the hardening zone and can not change the maximum harden depth. With the increase of the concentrate degree, the area of the heat influence zone is decreased and its shape is narrowed after the heat source. Relative to cooling rate, the influence of the heat source concentrate degree for heat absorption is bigger. The correctness of the practical model are proved with experimental results for quench hardening of 45# steel by plasma arc.

  16. Influence and Analysis of Concentrate Degree of Plasma Arc for Heat Process of Hardening Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShuo-gui; YANHong-ri

    2004-01-01

    According to the practicable model of the plasma arc surtace quench, the influence law ot me heat process, cooling course, temperature field about surface quench treatment by plasma arc due to the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source are discussed in this paper. It shows that the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source can change the width of the hardening zone and can not change the maximum harden depth. With the increase of the concentrate degree, the area of the heat influence zone is decreased and its shape is narrowed after the heat source. Relative to cooling rate, the influence of the heat source concentrate degree for heat absorption is bigger. The correctness of the practical model are proved with experimental results for quench hardening of 45# steel by plasma arc.

  17. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration cou...

  18. Plasma soluble (pro)renin receptor is independent of plasma renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations but is affected by ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Geneviève; Blanchard, Anne; Curis, Emmanuel; Bergerot, Damien; Chambon, Yann; Hirose, Takuo; Caumont-Prim, Aurore; Tabard, Sylvie Brailly; Baron, Stéphanie; Frank, Michael; Totsune, Kazuhito; Azizi, Michel

    2014-02-01

    A soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR) circulates in plasma and is able to bind renin and prorenin. It is not known whether plasma sPRR concentrations vary with the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. We measured plasma sPRR, renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations in 121 white and 9 black healthy subjects, 40 patients with diabetes mellitus, 41 hypertensive patients with or without renin-angiotensin system blockers, 9 patients with primary aldosteronism, and 10 patients with Gitelman syndrome. Median physiological plasma sPRR concentration was 23.5 ng/mL (interquartile range, 20.9-26.5) under usual uncontrolled sodium diet. sPRR concentration in healthy subjects, unlike renin and prorenin, did not display circadian variation or dependence on age, sex, posture, or hormonal status. sPRR concentrations were ≈25% lower in black than in white subjects, whereas renin concentrations were ≈40% lower. Patients with diabetes mellitus (average renin-high prorenin levels) and with hypertension only (average renin-average prorenin levels) had sPRR concentrations similar to healthy subjects. Renin-angiotensin system blockade was associated with increase of sPRR concentration by ≈12%. sPRR in patients with primary aldosteronism (low renin-low prorenin) and Gitelman syndrome (high renin-high prorenin) were similar and ≈10% higher than in healthy subjects. There was no correlation between sPRR and renin or prorenin. In conclusion, our results show that plasma sPRR concentrations are dependent on ethnicity and independent of renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations in healthy subjects and in patients with contrasted degrees of renin-angiotensin system activity.

  19. Variable aromatase inhibitor plasma concentrations do not correlate with circulating estrogen concentrations in post-menopausal breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Daniel L; Speth, Kelly A; Kidwell, Kelley M; Gersch, Christina L; Desta, Zeruesenay; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Stearns, Vered; Skaar, Todd C; Hayes, Daniel F; Henry, N Lynn; Rae, James M

    2017-06-22

    The aromatase inhibitors (AI) exemestane (EXE), letrozole (LET), and anastrozole suppress estrogen biosynthesis, and are effective treatments for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Prior work suggests that anastrozole blood concentrations are associated with the magnitude of estrogen suppression. The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of estrogen suppression, as determined by plasma estradiol (E2) concentrations, in EXE or LET treated patients is associated with plasma AI concentrations. Five hundred post-menopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the prospective Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetic (ELPh) Study conducted by the COnsortium on BReast cancer phArmacogomics (COBRA) and randomly assigned to either drug. Estrogen concentrations were measured at baseline and after 3 months of AI treatment and drug concentrations were measured after 1 or 3 months. EXE or LET concentrations were compared with 3-month E2 concentration or the change from baseline to 3 months using several complementary statistical procedures. Four-hundred patients with on-treatment E2 and AI concentrations were evaluable (EXE n = 200, LET n = 200). Thirty (7.6%) patients (EXE n = 13, LET n = 17) had 3-month E2 concentrations above the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) (median: 4.75; range: 1.42-63.8 pg/mL). EXE and LET concentrations were not associated with on-treatment E2 concentrations or changes in E2 concentrations from baseline (all p > 0.05). Steady-state plasma AI concentrations do not explain variability in E2 suppression in post-menopausal women receiving EXE or LET therapy, in contrast with prior evidence in anastrozole treated patients.

  20. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and outcomes after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quan; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Yang, Ding-Bo; Shen, Yong-Feng; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Li; Du, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Qun-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Higher plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations have been associated with poor outcome of severe traumatic brain injury. We further investigated the relationships between plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations of 128 consecutive patients and 128 sex- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We assessed their relationships with disease severity and clinical outcomes including 1-week mortality, 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score>2). Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were positively associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and hematoma volume using a multivariate linear regression. It emerged as an independent predictor for clinical outcomes of patients using a forward stepwise logistic regression. ROC curves identified the predictive values of plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations, and found its predictive value was similar to NIHSS scores and hematoma volumes. However, it just numerically added the predictive values of NIHSS score and hematoma volume. Increased plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma IL-6 concentration correlates with clinical disease activity and serum C-reactive protein concentration in chronic urticaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, A; Sztylc, J; Machura, E; Jop, G

    2011-10-01

    Our previous study was the first to demonstrate enhanced plasma IL-6 concentrations in chronic urticaria (CU). It is known that C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of an underlying systemic inflammation, triggered mainly as a response to IL-6. To evaluate plasma IL-6 concentration in CU patients relating to the clinical disease activity and serum CRP concentration. Serum CRP and plasma IL-6 concentrations were measured in 58 CU patients and 30 healthy subjects. Ten CU patients were evaluated twice, during the active period as well as upon the spontaneous clinical remission of the disease. CU activity was assessed with the use of the symptom scores recommended by EAACI/GALEN/EDF guidelines. IL-6 and CRP concentrations were significantly increased in CU patients as compared with the healthy subjects, whereas they decreased remarkably upon the spontaneous remission. IL-6 concentration was associated with weekly urticaria activity scores and also significant differences were found between patients showing different degrees of urticarial activity. Significant correlation was observed between IL-6 and CRP concentrations. This study reinforces evidence that, apart from a local cutaneous inflammation, CU is associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Such acute-phase response is manifested by increased circulating IL-6, which varies along with CRP changes and may be related to the urticarial activity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. PLASMA ADIPONECTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN NON PREGNANT, NORMAL PREGNANCY AND OVERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. This hormone has been implicated in both the physiological adaptation to normal pregnancy and obstetrical complications. The aims of this study were to determine normal maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin throughout gestation and to explore the relationships between plasma adiponectin concentration, pregnancy, and maternal overweight. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include normal pregnant women (normal weight and overweight; 11–42 weeks of gestation), and non-pregnant women. Plasma adiponectin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Adiponectin was detectable in the plasma of all patients; (2) there was no significant difference in the median adiponectin concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant women; (3) plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age only among normal weight pregnant women; and (4) overweight patients had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than normal weight women. Conclusion Consistent with the increased insulin resistance and weight gain that occur in pregnancy, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age. The results of this study and the nomogram herein presented can serve as the basis to explore the relationship between adiponectin and pregnancy complications and facilitate the clinical use of this important adipokine. Condensation Plasma adiponectin concentrations decrease with advancing gestational age only in nonobese women. PMID:17919116

  3. Plasma carnitine concentration and lipid metabolism in infants receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M L; Helms, R A; Mauer, E C; Storm, M C

    1989-11-01

    The relationships among plasma total carnitine concentration, postnatal age, and fatty acid metabolism were evaluated in 57 infants receiving parenteral nutrition. Concentrations of plasma carnitine, triglycerides, free fatty acids, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate were determined before and at 2 and 4 hours from the beginning of a standardized 2-hour lipid infusion. Plasma carnitine concentrations declined with increasing postnatal age. There were no significant differences in gestational age or triglyceride concentrations between infants less than or equal to 4 weeks of age and those greater than 4 weeks of age, whereas free fatty acid concentrations were lower and acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were higher in the younger infants. Infants less than or equal to 4 weeks of age were further grouped according to plasma carnitine concentration greater than 13 nmol/ml (group 1) and less than or equal to 13 nmol/ml (group 2) and were then compared with infants greater than 4 weeks of age (group 3). There were no significant differences in triglyceride concentrations among the three groups; free fatty acids, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations for group 2 patients were similar to those of group 1 patients or fell between values for group 1 and group 3 patients. These results demonstrate decreasing plasma carnitine concentrations and possibly for more than 4 weeks.

  4. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p

  5. Influence of Plasma Temperature on the Concentration of NO Produced by Pulsed Arc Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡辉; 陈卫鹏; 张锦丽; 陆僖; 何俊佳

    2012-01-01

    This study conducted experiments on producing inhaled medical nitric oxide (iNO) by pulsed arc discharge in dry and clean air under different discharge current. The concentration of NO and NO2 produced by air discharge, as well as the change of the ratio of NO2/NO under different discharge current were investigated. Through the analysis of plasma emission spectrum, the relationship between discharge current and arc plasma temperature was studied. The results indicate that, as discharge current increases, the arc plasma temperature increases, which then leads to the increase of NO concentration, the decrease of NO2 concentration, and the rapid decrease of the ratio of NO2/NO. When the plasma temperature is 9000 K, the ratio of NO2/NO is approximately 60%, while when the plasma temperature varies between 10550 K and 11300 K, the NO2/NO ratio is within the range of 4.2% to 4.6%.

  6. Three Candida albicans potassium uptake systems differ in their ability to provide Saccharomyces cerevisiae trk1trk2 mutants with necessary potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elicharová, Hana; Hušeková, Barbora; Sychrová, Hana

    2016-06-01

    Yeasts usually have one or two high-affinity potassium transporters. Two complete and one interrupted gene encoding three types of putative potassium uptake system exist in Candida albicans SC5314. As high intracellular potassium is essential for many yeast cell functions, the existence of three transporters with differing transport mechanisms (Trk uniporter, Hak cation-proton symporter, Acu ATPase) may help pathogenic C. albicans cells to acquire the necessary potassium in various organs and tissues of the host. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking their own potassium uptake systems, all three putative transporters were able to provide cells with the ability to grow with low amounts of potassium over a broad range of external pH. Only CaTrk1 was properly recognized and secreted to the plasma membrane. Nevertheless, even the small number of CaHak1 and mainly CaAcu1 molecules which reached the plasma membrane resulted in an improved growth of cells in low potassium concentrations, suggesting a high affinity and capacity of the transporters. A single-point mutation restored the complete CaACU1 gene, and the resulting protein not only provided cells with the necessary potassium but also improved their tolerance to toxic lithium. In contrast to its known homologues, CaAcu1 did not seem to transport sodium. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Evaluation of an immunoassay for determination of plasma efavirenz concentrations in resource-limited settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, Alemseged; Wiesner, Lubbe; McIlleron, Helen

    2014-01-01

    to be implemented in resource-limited settings. This study evaluated a commercially available immunoassay for measurement of plasma efavirenz. Methods: The immunoassay-based method was applied to measure efavirenz using a readily available Humastar 80 chemistry analyzer. We compared plasma efavirenz concentrations...

  8. Effects of Betaine Intake on Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations and Consequences for Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  9. Cardiac C-type natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse; Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens P

    2014-01-01

    in plasma and cardiac tissue extracts were quantified by a porcine-specific radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Cardiac CNP mRNA contents (n=24) were low compared to sites of known expression, where porcine seminal vesicle CNP mRNA contents were 200-fold higher. In addition, plasma proCNP concentrations...

  10. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Erick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High plasma uric acid (UA is a precipitating factor for gout and renal calculi as well as a strong risk factor for Metabolic Syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The main causes for higher plasma UA are either lower excretion, higher synthesis or both. Higher waist circumference and the BMI are associated with higher insulin resistance and leptin production, and both reduce uric acid excretion. The synthesis of fatty acids (tryglicerides in the liver is associated with the de novo synthesis of purine, accelerating UA production. The role played by diet on hyperuricemia has not yet been fully clarified, but high intake of fructose-rich industrialized food and high alcohol intake (particularly beer seem to influence uricemia. It is not known whether UA would be a causal factor or an antioxidant protective response. Most authors do not consider the UA as a risk factor, but presenting antioxidant function. UA contributes to > 50% of the antioxidant capacity of the blood. There is still no consensus if UA is a protective or a risk factor, however, it seems that acute elevation is a protective factor, whereas chronic elevation a risk for disease.

  11. Concentration of plasma haptoglobin and symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Yi-mu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation of plasma haptoglobin concentration to symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (SCVS after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH was investigated. The plasma concentration of haptoglobin was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. SCVS was determined by aggravated headache, deteriorated conscious state a few days after ictus or by new neurologic impairment and new ischemic injuries on repeated CT scans. The mean concentration of plasma haptoglobin in 19 patients with SCVS was (0.29 ± 0.14 g/L, whereas it was (0.78 ± 0.48 g/L in 24 patients without SCVS. These findings may suggest that plasma haptoglobin concentration seems to be associated with the development of SCVS after SAH.

  12. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S;

    2002-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...... an etiologic role in development of obesity in Pima Indians. Therefore, the predictive effect of low plasma adiponectin concentrations on the development of type 2 diabetes seems to be mediated by factors other than increased adiposity....

  13. Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imwong, M.; Woodrow, C.; Hendriksen, I.C.E.; Veenemans, J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In endemic areas malaria parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed the performance of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentration measurement in distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in

  14. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    1990-01-01

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  15. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  16. Clinical significance of 2 h plasma concentrations of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, Julie B; Johansen, Isik S; Cohen, Arieh S;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study 2 h plasma concentrations of the first-line tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Denmark and to determine the relationship between the concentrations and the clinical outcome. METHODS: After 6......-207 days of treatment (median 34 days) 2 h blood samples were collected from 32 patients with active tuberculosis and from three patients receiving prophylactic treatment. Plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. Normal ranges were obtained from the literature. Clinical charts were reviewed...... failure occurred more frequently when the concentrations of isoniazid and rifampicin were both below the normal ranges (P = 0.013) and even more frequently when they were below the median 2 h drug concentrations obtained in the study (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: At 2 h, plasma concentrations of isoniazid...

  17. Evaluation of factors important in modeling plasma concentrations of tetracycline hydrochloride administered in water in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sharon E; Almond, Glen W; Riviere, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E

    2012-10-01

    To model the plasma tetracycline concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domestica) treated with medication administered in water and determine the factors that contribute to the most accurate predictions of measured plasma drug concentrations. Plasma tetracycline concentrations measured in blood samples from 3 populations of swine. Data from previous studies provided plasma tetracycline concentrations that were measured in blood samples collected from 1 swine population at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, 80, 96, and 104 hours and from 2 swine populations at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours hours during administration of tetracycline hydrochloride dissolved in water. A 1-compartment pharmacostatistical model was used to analyze 5 potential covariate schemes and determine factors most important in predicting the plasma concentrations of tetracycline in swine. 2 models most accurately predicted the tetracycline plasma concentrations in the 3 populations of swine. Factors of importance were body weight or age of pig, ambient temperature, concentration of tetracycline in water, and water use per unit of time. The factors found to be of importance, combined with knowledge of the individual pharmacokinetic and chemical properties of medications currently approved for administration in water, may be useful in more prudent administration of approved medications administered to swine. Factors found to be important in pharmacostatistical models may allow prediction of plasma concentrations of tetracycline or other commonly used medications administered in water. The ability to predict in vivo concentrations of medication in a population of food animals can be combined with bacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations to decrease the risk of developing antimicrobial resistance.

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Deng, Guohong; Gieger, Christian; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, includi...

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Deng, Guohong; Gieger, Christian; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10−8 to P = 10−190). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, including g...

  20. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma.

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, includi...

  1. Effect of bath and luminal potassium concentration on ammonia production and secretion by mouse proximal tubules perfused in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagami, G T

    1990-01-01

    To determine the effects of acute changes in K+ concentration in vitro on ammonia production and secretion by the proximal tubule, we studied mouse S2 segments perfused with and bathed in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffers containing various K+ concentrations. All bath solutions contained L-glutamine as the ammoniagenic substrate. High bath and luminal K+ concentrations (8 mM), but not high luminal K+ concentration alone, inhibited total ammonia production rates by 26%, while low bath and lumin...

  2. Influence of meal composition on postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of vasoactive peptides in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høst, U; Kelbaek, H

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over study healthy non-obese male human subjects received standardized isocaloric, isovolumetric meals consisting of either carbohydrate, protein or fat and a non-caloric control meal consisting of an equal volume of water. Peripheral venous plasma concentrations of calcitonin...... that the postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of CGRP, VIP and PYY are dependent on the caloric meal composition. The VIP, but not the CGRP and PYY concentrations seem to be influenced by gastric distension. The physiological significance of the postprandial alterations in peripheral concentrations...

  3. Platelet-rich plasma releasate differently stimulates cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage according to concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo JFC do Amaral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma has been used to treat articular cartilage defects, with the expectations of anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on cellular chondrogenic or fibrogenic commitment is still a controversy. Herein, the role of platelet-rich plasma releasate, the product obtained following platelet-rich plasma activation, on cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage was evaluated in vitro. Human nasoseptal chondrogenic cells and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells were used as cell types already committed to the chondrogenic lineage and undifferentiated cells, respectively, as different concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were tested in comparison to commonly used fetal bovine serum. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate (2.5% presented similar effects on cellular growth compared to 10% fetal bovine serum, for both cell types. In a three-dimensional culture system, platelet-rich plasma releasate alone did not induce full nasoseptal chondrogenic cells cartilage-like pellet formation. Nonetheless, platelet-rich plasma releasate played a significant role on cell commitment as high-passage nasoseptal chondrogenic cells only originated cartilage-like pellets when expanded in the presence of platelet-rich plasma releasate rather than fetal bovine serum. Histological analyses and measurements of pellet area demonstrated that even low concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were enough to prevent nasoseptal chondrogenic cells from losing their chondrogenic potential due to in vitro expansion thereby promoting their recommitment. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate supplemented in chondrogenic medium also increased the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells seeded on collagen-hyaluronic acid scaffolds, as observed by an increase in chondrogenic-related gene expression, sulfated glycosaminoglycan production, and compressive modulus following in vitro

  4. Platelet-rich plasma releasate differently stimulates cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage according to concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsiko, Amos; Tomazette, Marcel RP; Rocha, Wanessa KR; Cordeiro-Spinetti, Eric; Levingstone, Tanya J; Farina, Marcos; O’Brien, Fergal J; El-Cheikh, Marcia C; Balduino, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma has been used to treat articular cartilage defects, with the expectations of anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on cellular chondrogenic or fibrogenic commitment is still a controversy. Herein, the role of platelet-rich plasma releasate, the product obtained following platelet-rich plasma activation, on cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage was evaluated in vitro. Human nasoseptal chondrogenic cells and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells were used as cell types already committed to the chondrogenic lineage and undifferentiated cells, respectively, as different concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were tested in comparison to commonly used fetal bovine serum. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate (2.5%) presented similar effects on cellular growth compared to 10% fetal bovine serum, for both cell types. In a three-dimensional culture system, platelet-rich plasma releasate alone did not induce full nasoseptal chondrogenic cells cartilage-like pellet formation. Nonetheless, platelet-rich plasma releasate played a significant role on cell commitment as high-passage nasoseptal chondrogenic cells only originated cartilage-like pellets when expanded in the presence of platelet-rich plasma releasate rather than fetal bovine serum. Histological analyses and measurements of pellet area demonstrated that even low concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were enough to prevent nasoseptal chondrogenic cells from losing their chondrogenic potential due to in vitro expansion thereby promoting their recommitment. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate supplemented in chondrogenic medium also increased the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells seeded on collagen-hyaluronic acid scaffolds, as observed by an increase in chondrogenic-related gene expression, sulfated glycosaminoglycan production, and compressive modulus following in vitro culture. On the

  5. Plasma and Intracellular Antiretroviral Concentrations in HIV-Infected Patients under Short Cycles of Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zehnacker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of plasma and intracellular concentrations of atazanavir, lopinavir, nevirapine, and efavirenz was conducted on 48 patients under short cycles of antiretroviral therapy. Intracellular concentrations (IC were still measurable for all drugs after 85 h or 110 h drug intake despite the absence of drug in plasma for atazanavir and lopinavir. A linear relationship between plasma and intracellular efavirenz was observed. Further studies to fully understand the impact of IC in the intermittent antiviral treatment are required.

  6. Temporal plasma vitamin concentrations are altered by fat-soluble vitamin administration in suckling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y D; Ma, J Y; Monegue, J S; Monegue, H J; Stuart, R L; Lindemann, M D

    2015-11-01

    Piglets are born with purportedly low plasma vitamin D levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration, primarily vitamin D, by different administration routes on plasma vitamin concentrations in suckling pigs. A total of 45 pigs from 5 litters were allotted at birth to 3 treatments within each litter. Pigs were administered 400 IU of α-tocopherol, 40,000 IU of retinyl palmitate, and 40,000 IU of vitamin D at d 1 of age either orally or by i.m. injection and compared with control pigs with no supplemental vitamin administration. Blood samples were collected at d 0 (initial), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 20 after administration. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), α-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, and retinol concentrations were analyzed. Except for retinol, the effects of treatment, day, and day × treatment interaction ( vitamin concentrations. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD and α-tocopherol increased immediately regardless of administration routes to peak at d 2 and 1 after administration, respectively. Plasma retinyl palmitate concentrations increased only with the injection treatment, with the peak at d 1 after administration. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD in both administration treatments and α-tocopherol in the injection treatment were maintained at greater levels than those in the control treatment until d 20 after administration. With regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma 25OHD concentrations, the injection treatment had greater elimination half-life ( vitamins administered and between administration routes and that the injection route had a greater increase and slower disappearance of plasma vitamin levels than the oral route during the suckling period.

  7. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    plasma, in cold activated plasma and in FVII deficient plasma. There was a positive correlation (r=0.96) between FVII:Ag and FVII:Am with slightly but significantly higher values for FVII:Ag (FVII:Ag= 106 U/ml and FVII:Am=100 U/ml; p ...Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII......:Ag) or estimated with an amidolytic method (FVII:Am). We have investigated whether FVII:Am is a valuable alternative to FVII:Ag. FVII:Ag and FVII:Am were measured in 147 plasma samples from blood donors, patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy, in postprandial...

  8. Plasma and synovial fluid meclofenamic acid concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koup, J R; Thomas, D; Tucker, E; Black, A; Ruderman, M; Dixon, J A; Kinkel, A

    1988-01-01

    We have measured plasma and synovial fluid concentrations of meclofenamic acid at 2, 4, 8, and 12 h during steady-state administration (100 mg three times daily for 4-7 days). Paired plasma and synovial samples were obtained pre-treatment and at one of the above times in twelve patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the extent of protein binding of meclofenamic acid was assessed in vitro in the pre-treatment plasma and synovial fluid specimens. Peak total concentrations of 1.73 and 0.86 micrograms.ml-1 were observed in plasma (at 2 h) and synovial fluid (at 4 h) respectively. The extent of protein binding was 99.7 and 99.6% (not significantly different) in plasma and synovial fluid respectively. The results of this study are compared to those from similar reported studies of other nonsteroidal anti-inflamatory compounds.

  9. Co-pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake with potassium carbonate and zinc oxide using plasma torch to produce bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Tzeng, Chin-Ching; Wu, Chung-Yu; Lin, Kae-Long; Tseng, Jyi-Yeong; Yuan, Min-Hao; Li, Heng-Yi; Kuo, Ching-Hui; Yu, Yuh-Jeng; Chang, Lieh-Chih

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effects of additives of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and zinc oxide (ZnO) on the pyrolysis of waste sunflower-oil cake using a 60 kW pilot-scale plasma torch reactor. The major gaseous products were CO and H2. The productions of CO and CH4 increased while that of H2 decreased with the addition of K2CO3. The use of ZnO reduced while enhanced the formation of CO and H2, respectively. In order to match the appeal of resource reutilization, one can use the waste K2CO3 resulted from the sorption of CO2 with KOH in greenhouse gas control and the waste ZnO obtained from the melting process as additives for the co-pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake, yielding fuels rich in CO and H2, respectively.

  10. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K; Kristensen, N B

    2010-12-01

    Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design was a randomized block design with repeated measurements. Cows were assigned to one of 2 treatments: control or infusion of 1,500 g of glucose/d into the abomasum from the day of parturition to 29 d in milk. Cows were sampled 12 ± 6 d prepartum and at 4, 15, and 29 d in milk. Concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide, and oxyntomodulin were measured in pooled samples within cow and sampling day, whereas active ghrelin was measured in samples obtained 30 min before and after feeding at 0800 h. Postpartum, dry matter intake increased at a lower rate with infusion compared with the control. Arterial, portal venous, and hepatic venous plasma concentrations of the measured gut peptides were unaffected by abomasal glucose infusion. The arterial, portal venous, and hepatic venous plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide increased linearly from 12 d prepartum to 29 d postpartum. Plasma concentrations of oxyntomodulin were unaffected by day relative to parturition. Arterial and portal venous plasma concentrations of ghrelin were lower postfeeding compared with prefeeding concentrations. Arterial plasma concentrations of ghrelin were greatest prepartum and lowest at 4 d postpartum, giving a quadratic pattern of change over the transition period. Positive portal venous-arterial and hepatic venous-arterial concentration differences were observed for glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide. A negative portal venous-arterial concentration difference was observed for ghrelin pre-feeding. The remaining portal venous-arterial and hepatic venous-arterial concentration differences of

  11. Tryptophan and its metabolite concentrations in human plasma and breast milk during the perinatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamimura,Shigehito

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of tryptophan (free and protein bound and its metabolites in plasma of maternal vein at delivery, umbilical vein, umbilical artery, neonatal vein and breast milk were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The plasma levels of tryptophan and most of its metabolites in umbilical vein and artery were significantly higher than those in maternal vein. The concentration of total tryptophan in plasma of neonatal vein showed marked decrease at 24 h after birth in comparison with that at birth, but the total kynurenine concentration was not decreased in plasma of neonatal vein. The colostrum contained a high level of total tryptophan. There were high ratios of free to total tryptophan in colostrum, transitional and mature milk. In the blood, ratios of free to total of tryptophan and kynurenine were kept at constant level throughout the perinatal period.

  12. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  13. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil L Spector

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER in human tumors.Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor.In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers.Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor concentrations that maximally

  14. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi on Dry Matter and Concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Berseem Clover, by Cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hashem aram

    2016-02-01

    Zanjan, after the complete analysis of soil and obtaining the chemical and physical properties in the laboratory. 6 kg of soil was weighed for each pot and then the soil was contaminated. Cadmium sulfate was used in this experiment. The mycorrhizal fungi weighed 150 grams and was mixed with the soil. After mixing the soil with mycorrhizal fungi, the soil was put in pots and then it was cultivated with clover. In this study, clover seeds weighed 0/5 grams and were disinfected with 10% hydrogen peroxide solution and were added to each pot. Distilled water was used for irrigation. After the completion of growth of plants (about 70 day, plant aerial parts and roots were harvested and before measuring, they were washed with distilled water and then were dried in the oven for 72 hours. Plant aerial parts were harvested. Data were analyzed by SAS (version 9 and MSTATC (version 2.10 software, and obtained variance analysis tables. Mean comparison of different treatments was conducted by Duncan test. Charts were obtained by excel software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured (P< 0.01. With increasing cadmium concentration in soil, dry matter of 37% and 39%, nitrogen concentration of 35% and 28%, Potassium 9/27% and 37%, and phosphorus concentration of 37% and 39%, reduced in root and aerial, respectively. Also the results showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased dry matter amount by 42% and 26%, nitrogen concentration by 40.3% and 30%, phosphorus concentration by 6% and 15.4%, potassium concentrations by 54% and 91.2% in root and aerial, respectively. Interaction between cadmium levels and mycorrhizal fungi in statistics was significant on dry matter aerial, nitrogen concentration in aerial and root, and potassium concentrations in plant root (P< 0.01. Conclusion: The results showed that mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured in one percent level. Cadmium

  15. The effect of concurrent aspirin upon plasma concentrations of tenoxicam.

    OpenAIRE

    Day, R O; Paull, P D; Lam, S; Swanson, B R; Williams, K. M.; Wade, D. N.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of chronic, high-dose aspirin therapy upon the disposition of a single dose and multiple doses of tenoxicam was examined in normal volunteers. 2. Aspirin caused a 24% drop in the t1/2 (P less than 0.005), a 49% rise in the volume of distribution (P less than 0.0003) and a 98% increase in the clearance (P less than 0.0001) of tenoxicam after a single dose of the tenoxicam. 3. Steady-state concentrations of tenoxicam decreased significantly from 10.4 +/- 1.5 to 4.5 +/- 1.6 microgr...

  16. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 μg/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 μg/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  17. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and renal function contribute to variations in plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its molecular precursor (proBNP). Recent studies indicate that anemia may also affect proBNP concentrations in patients with heart failure or stroke. However...... the proBNP plasma concentration. RESULTS: The mean proBNP concentration was increased 1.7-fold in the group with anemia vs the nonanemic group [mean (SD) 42 (45) pmol/L vs 25 (29) pmol/L, P ... was modest. CONCLUSIONS: Because moderate anemia is associated with a 1.7-fold increase in proBNP concentrations, hemoglobin concentrations should be taken into consideration in patients with nonspecific symptoms of heart disease and increased proBNP concentrations....

  18. Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Eliza Facione Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test was done. In 24 ejaculates, it were done thermo-resistance test, and in 21 ejaculates it were determined the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma. The male goats presented difference in the semen physical and morphological aspects, in the hiposmotic test and thermo-resistance test, but they did not presented difference in total soluble proteins concentration in seminal plasma. Results of the slow thermo-resistance test and hiposmotic test were positively correlated (r = 0.60. It was concluded, according to our results, that the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality of Alpine bucks.It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test

  19. Impact of hemolysis during sample collection: how different is drug concentration in hemolyzed plasma from that of normal plasma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aimin; Gagné, Sébastien; Lévesque, Isabelle A; Lachance, Sylvain; Boudreau, Nadine; Lévesque, Ann

    2012-07-15

    Hemolysis is a common phenomenon in clinical studies. Despite the growing interest in hemolysis matrix effect, how hemolysis impacts the representability of hemolyzed plasma samples was rarely evaluated. The purpose of this research is to perform such an evaluation by theoretical consideration and experiment. A formula for estimating the impact is proposed, which includes the degree of hemolysis and the drug's red blood cell (RBC): plasma concentration ratio. The impact of hemolysis on the representability of hemolyzed plasma samples is compound-dependant. Given the same degree of hemolysis, the stronger a drug binds to RBCs, the more significant the impact of hemolysis. For a drug with high affinity to RBCs, the results of hemolyzed plasma samples may not be useful even though they are accurate. There is an overall agreement between theoretical predication and experimental results. Among the ten different drug compounds tested, only methazolamide, which binds strongly to RBCs, showed significant change in plasma concentration due to hemolysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and

  1. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and car

  2. Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Brink, E.J.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high homocysteine concentration is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can be reduced through betaine supplementation. Choline is the precursor for betaine, but the effects of choline supplementation on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in healthy

  3. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Age, sex, and renal function contribute to variations in plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its molecular precursor (proBNP). Recent studies indicate that anemia may also affect proBNP concentrations in patients with heart failure or stroke. However, the impact...

  4. Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Brink, E.J.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high homocysteine concentration is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can be reduced through betaine supplementation. Choline is the precursor for betaine, but the effects of choline supplementation on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in healthy huma

  5. A twin study of the trough plasma steady-state concentration of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore B; Damkier, Per; Pedersen, Rasmus S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS: We included 16 twin pairs (eight monozygotic and eight dizygotic twin pairs) for this study after contacting 524...... twin pairs. They were dosed with metformin to steady state (1 g twice daily) for 6 days and on day 7, the trough concentration of metformin was determined 12 h after the last dose. RESULTS: There was no strong intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in either...... dizygotic or monozygotic twin pairs. CONCLUSION: The trough steady-state plasma concentration of metformin does not appear to be tightly genetically regulated. The interpretation of this finding is limited by the small sample size....

  6. [Influence of Perftoran nanoemulsion on blood plasma concentrations of lipophilic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenkina, N N

    2012-01-01

    The influence of perfluorocarbon blood substitute Perfloran on the plasma concentrations of bendazole, drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil upon intravenous introduction after Perfloran infusion (5 ml/kg) has been investigated on rabbits. It has been found that the plasma concentrations of verapamil, drotaverine and bendazole (highly lipophilic drugs with log(P) = 4.5, 4.9 and 3.5, respectively) increased in the presence of Perfloran. The influence of Perfloran on the concentration of weakly lipophilic ketorolac was less significant. Perfloran effectively bound drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil in vitro, whereas the binding of ketorolac by the emulsion particles was weak. Evidently, the infusion of hydrophobic nanoemulsion Perftoran elevates the sorption capacity of plasma and creates prerequisites for the redistribution drugs and favors increase in their concentrations.

  7. A high plasma concentration of TNF-alpha is associated with dementia in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Andersen-Ranberg, K.; Jeune, B.;

    1999-01-01

    Background Inflammatory mechanisms and immune activation have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of age-associated diseases such as dementia and atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in a large...... cohort of centenarians and to look for its possible associations with cognitive function, atherosclerosis, and general health status. Furthermore, we investigated whether the concentration of TNF-alpha was correlated with the blood concentration of leucocyte subsets or the plasma concentrations...... of interleukin (IL)-6, soluble TNF receptor II (sTNFR-II) (75 kDa) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. Plasma TNF-alpha was measured by ELISA in 126 centenarians, 45 subjects aged 81 years, 23 subjects aged 55-65 years, and 38 subjects aged 18-30 years. Atherosclerosis was evaluated by the ankle...

  8. Effects of Acute Exposure to Increased Plasma Branched-Chain Amino Acid Concentrations on Insulin-Mediated Plasma Glucose Turnover in Healthy Young Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Everman; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Carroll, Chad C.; Katsanos, Christos S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity. Objective To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans. Methods Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to...

  9. NITROGEN AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION OF GRASS XARAÉS NITROGEN AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION OF ADUBAÇÃO NITROGENADA E POTÁSSICA NA CONCENTRAÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES DO CAPIM-XARAÉS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in glasshouse, at Rice and Beans Embrapa aiming to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization, on nutrients concentration in grass Xaraés. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme combination  (four doses of N: 0; 25, 50 and 100 mg dm-3 and four doses of K: 0; 25, 50 and 100 mg dm-3 with three replicates. The nitrogen source utilized, was urea and the K source was potassium chloride. Three cuttings were performed with 30 days intervals. Each dose of nitrogen and potassium fertilization was split into three applications. The forage plant was cut at a height of 5 cm from the ground.  The results showed significant interactions between doses of nitrogen and potassium that increases the leaf nitrogen and potassium concentrations. Nitrogen fertilization increased the potassium, copper and iron concentration. Considering that the plant used in this study is a new cultivar, it suggests studies of these nutrients, in a field condition, in order to get more information on this forage plant so that the handling strategies one becomes more efficient.

    KEY WORDS: Brachiaria brizantha cv. xaraés, macronutrients, micronutrients, potassium chloride and urea

    Desenvolveu-se o experimento em casa de vegetação na Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito da adubação nitrogenada e potássica na concentração de nutrientes do capim-xaraés. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 (quatro doses de nitrogênio: 0; 25, 50 e 100 mg dm-3 e quatro doses de potássio: 0; 25, 50 e 100 mg dm-3 com três repetições. Empregou-se, como fonte de nitrogênio, a uréia e de

  10. Motility of liquid stored ram spermatozoa is altered by dilution rate independent of seminal plasma concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Campuzano, M; Soleilhavoup, C; Tsikis, G; Martinez-Pastor, F; de Graaf, S P; Druart, X

    2015-11-01

    The fertility after use of liquid stored ram semen following cervical AI rapidly decreases if semen is stored beyond 12h. The dilution of seminal plasma is often cited as a key contributor to the diminished motility and fertility of ram spermatozoa subjected to liquid preservation. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of spermatozoa concentration (i.e. dilution rate) and percentage of seminal plasma on the motility and viability of liquid stored ram spermatozoa. In Experiment 1, semen was diluted to one of seven concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1.4×10(9)spermatozoa/ml with milk and assessed for motility after 3 or 24h of storage at 15°C. In Experiment 2, semen was collected and washed to remove seminal plasma before re-dilution to 0.2-1.4×10(9)spermatozoa/ml with milk containing 0%, 20% or 40% (final v/v ratio) seminal plasma and assessed for viability and motility after 3 or 24h of storage at 15°C. Whereas motility was not affected by spermatozoa concentration after 3h of storage, the proportion of progressive spermatozoa decreased after 24h of storage when spermatozoa concentration was greater than 1.0×10(9)spermatozoa/ml. The duration of preservation and the spermatozoa concentration affected spermatozoa motility but had no impact on spermatozoa viability. This negative effect of greater spermatozoa concentrations on motility was independent of the presence and the concentration of seminal plasma. The seminal plasma at both concentrations (20% and 40%) had a protective effect on spermatozoa motility after 24h of storage. These findings have the potential to improve the efficiency of cervical AI with liquid stored ram semen.

  11. Evaluation of the serum fructosamine test to monitor plasma glucose concentration in the transition dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorondo, María L; Cirio, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    The usefulness of the serum fructosamine (Fser) to monitor the retrospective glucose concentrations in transitional dairy cows (n=17) was evaluated. In weekly blood samples (3 weeks before to 5 weeks after calving) concentrations of plasma glucose and serum fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta OHB) and total proteins were determined. The observed Fser concentrations (271+/-55 mean value, range 152-423 mumol/l) were within the range reported in the literature, and showed a progressive and significant decrease after calving. Mean plasma glucose concentration was 60.6+/-5.0 (range 39.9-82.2) mg/dl increasing from week 3 before calving to the week of calving and then decreasing during the next 5 weeks of lactation. This decrease was coincident with inverse relationships between plasma glucose and milk yield (P=0.03) and serum beta OHB (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis performed between serum fructosamine and (a) plasma glucose concentration of the same sampling and (b) plasma glucose concentration of 1, 2 and 3 weeks preceding the sampling, did not show significant and systematizing positive correlations. Persistent hypoproteinaemias that could affect the fructosamine concentrations were not found: mean value and range of serum proteins was 6.3+/-1.0 and 4.8-7.8 g/dl, respectively, and no correlation was found between serum proteins and Fser (P=0.26). Results did not support the possibility of retrospective monitoring of the plasma glucose concentration by serum fructosamine in dairy cows in the transition period.

  12. Plasma clusterin concentration is associated with longitudinal brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambisetty, Madhav; An, Yang; Kinsey, Anna; Koka, Deepthi; Saleem, Muzamil; Güntert, Andreas; Kraut, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Davatzikos, Christos; Lovestone, Simon; Resnick, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Recent genetic and proteomic studies demonstrate that clusterin/apolipoprotein-J is associated with risk, pathology, and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our main aim was to examine associations between plasma clusterin concentration and longitudinal changes in brain volume in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A secondary objective was to examine associations between peripheral concentration of clusterin and its concentration in the brain within regions that undergo neuropathological changes in AD. Non-demented individuals (N=139; mean baseline age 70.5 years) received annual volumetric MRI (912 MRI scans in total) over a mean six-year interval. Sixteen participants (92 MRI scans in total) were diagnosed during the course of the study with amnestic MCI. Clusterin concentration was assayed by ELISA in plasma samples collected within a year of the baseline MRI. Mixed effects regression models investigated whether plasma clusterin concentration was associated with rates of brain atrophy for control and MCI groups and whether these associations differed between groups. In a separate autopsy sample of individuals with AD (N=17) and healthy controls (N=4), we examined the association between antemortem clusterin concentration in plasma and postmortem levels in the superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus and cerebellum. The associations of plasma clusterin concentration with rates of change in brain volume were significantly different between MCI and control groups in several volumes including whole brain, ventricular CSF, temporal gray matter as well as parahippocampal, superior temporal and cingulate gyri. Within the MCI but not control group, higher baseline concentration of plasma clusterin was associated with slower rates of brain atrophy in these regions. In the combined autopsy sample of AD and control cases, representing a range of severity in AD pathology, we observed a significant association between clusterin concentration in the plasma and

  13. Effects of Paper Mill Sludge on Potassium, Sodium, Calcium,and Magnesium Concentrations in Different Soybean Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiang-Kui; K.W.CHANG; H.L.XU

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil at an Experimental Farm in Taejon, South Korea, to determine the effects of paper mill sludge compost application rates on K, Na, Ca and Mg concentrations of soybean (Glycine max(L.) Merr.) aboveground tissues and the genotypic effects on the concentrations of these elements. Sludge compost treatments of 0, 75, and 150 t ha-1 were applied to 30 diverse soybean cultivars. Concentrations of K, Na, Ca, and Mg in aboveground tissues harvested 69 days after planting (DAP) varied with the genotype and the application rate of paper-mill sludge compost, with the sludge compost application rate exerting stronger influence on these concentrations than the genotype. The magnitude of variation caused by both genotype and sludge compost application was in the order of Mg > K > Ca > Na. Significantly positive correlations were observed between K and Na (P < 0.01), Na and Ca(P < 0.05), and Ca and Mg (P < 0.01). Also, the lower the sludge compost application rate, the larger the variation in the concentrations of K, Na, and Ca. From this several cultivars were identified for use as an accumulator for one or more of these elements.

  14. Plasma bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein concentrations in critically ill children with the sepsis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H R; Doughty, L A; Wedel, N; White, M; Nelson, B J; Havrilla, N; Carcillo, J A

    1995-12-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is a neutrophil azurophilic granule component that is bactericidal towards Gram-negative bacteria and inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory responses. We conducted a prospective study to measure plasma BPI concentrations in 36 critically ill children with and without the sepsis syndrome. Plasma BPI concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 452 ng/ml. Patients with the sepsis syndrome had higher median plasma BPI concentrations than critically ill controls (5.1 vs. 1.8 ng/ml, P = 0.006). Patients with organ system failure had higher median plasma BPI concentrations than those with no organ system failure (4.5 vs. 1.3 ng/ml, P = 0.001). Plasma BPI concentrations were positively associated with pediatric risk of mortality score (P = 0.03, rs = 0.4). These data provide the first clinical insights regarding the role of endogenous BPI production in critically ill children and suggest that BPI may play an important role in host defenses.

  15. Plasma hemoglobin concentration was related to estimated glomerular filtration rate in elderly patients with ischemic Cardiomyopatny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Li; Zhihua Wang; Canjing Zhang; Yang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objectlves To stuaythe relationship between plasma hemoglobin concentration and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)in elderly patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM).Methods Clinical data of patients with coronary heart disease who weredischarged from The First Affiliated Hospital,Chongqing Medicai University between 2005 and 2007 were analyzed retrospectively.Echocardiography resuIts.plasma hemoglobin and creatinine concentration were abstracted from the medical records.The study included235 Chinese Han patients with age 60 years and older with angiography confwmed coronary heart disease.silent myocardial ischemia orangina pectoris,of whom 154 had ICM defined as left ventricular end-diastolic diameter(LVDd),male≥56mm,female≥51 mm(63.51±7.70 mm)measured by M-mode echocardiography.The differences in plasma hemoglobin concentration were analyzed retrospec-were no significant changes in plasma hemoglobin concentration and eGFR;however,plasma hernoglobin concentration was related toeGFR significantly positively in elderly patients with ICM due to coronary heart disease.

  16. Follicle profile and plasma gonadotropin concentration in pubertal female ponies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve female ponies were examined daily for 30 days and classified as ovulating (OV; N = 6; 197 ± 6 kg or prepubertal (PP; N = 6; 196 ± 9 kg. Follicles were detected by ultrasound and gonadotropins quantified by radioimmunoassay. The mean diameter of the largest follicles was significantly larger in OV (38 ± 1 mm than in PP (26 ± 2 mm but there was no difference between groups in the size of the second largest follicle. There were more small follicles (29 mm than the OV fillies. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH levels did not differ between groups but PP fillies had lower luteinizing hormone (LH peak (8 ± 1 ng/ml and basal (4 ± 0.5 ng/ml levels, lower peak magnitude (2 ± 0.2 ng/ml and period average (5 ± 0.6 ng/ml than OV fillies (32 ± 4.5, 8 ± 1.2, 17.1 ± 6, and 15 ± 2.3 ng/ml, respectively. The PP group, in contrast to the OV group, showed no relationship between FSH surge and follicle wave emergence. We conclude that an LH concentration higher than 8 ng/ml is needed for follicle growth to a preovulatory size. Wave emergence and FSH secretion seem to be independent events, probably due to an inhibitory neural system in these PP animals. PP fillies may provide a physiological model for the study of follicle wave emergence which apparently does not depend on gonadotropin levels.

  17. Second trimester amniotic fluid glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium concentrations in relation to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and birth weight centiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Maria; Michaelidou, Alexandra Maria; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Menexes, Georgios; Symeonidou, Maria; Koulourida, Vasiliki; Ganidou, Maria; Theodoridis, Theodoros D; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2015-05-01

    To study the evolution profile of amniotic fluid (AF) glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium, in the second trimester of pregnancy, and explore the possible relations between the concentration of these components and maternal, as well as neonatal characteristics. AF of 52 pregnant women was analyzed using an automatic multichannel analyzer. Maternal age, pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), inter-pregnancy intervals, and smoking status were derived from questionnaires. Information on pregnancy and delivery was collected from medical records. Uric acid increased (r = 0.423, p uric acid concentration (r = 0.460, p uric acid and phosphate levels were significantly related to birth weight centiles (R(2)( )= 0.345, p uric acid concentration, and (c) in appropriate for gestational age infants, AF phosphate and uric acid levels may serve as potential biomarkers of birth weight centiles. Further studies on AF composition may help to unravel the biochemical pathways underlying fetal development and could offer insight on the potential impact of maternal nutritional management on fetal growth regulation.

  18. Enhancement of delayed-rectifier potassium conductance by low concentrations of local anaesthetics in spinal sensory neurones

    OpenAIRE

    Olschewski, Andrea; Wolff, Matthias; Bräu, Michael E; Hempelmann, Gunter; Vogel, Werner; Safronov, Boris V.

    2002-01-01

    Combining the patch-clamp recordings in slice preparation with the ‘entire soma isolation' method we studied action of several local anaesthetics on delayed-rectifier K+ currents in spinal dorsal horn neurones.Bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine at low concentrations (1–100 μM) enhanced delayed-rectifier K+ current in intact neurones within the spinal cord slice, while exhibiting a partial blocking effect at higher concentrations (>100 μM). In isolated somata 0.1–10 μM bupivacaine enhanced...

  19. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay Monique; Loucif Yacine; Methot Julie; Brisson Diane; Gaudet Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Met...

  20. Mechanism of Action and Pharmacology of Patiromer, a Nonabsorbed Cross-Linked Polymer That Lowers Serum Potassium Concentration in Patients With Hyperkalemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Stephen D.; Cope, M. Jamie; Park, Craig; Lee, Lawrence; Salaymeh, Faleh; Madsen, Deidre; Benton, Wade W.; Berman, Lance; Buysse, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition, and patients who have chronic kidney disease, who are diabetic, or who are taking renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors are at increased risk. Therapeutic options for hyperkalemia tend to have limited effectiveness and can be associated with serious side effects. Colonic potassium secretion can increase to compensate when urinary potassium excretion decreases in patients with renal impairment, but this adaptation is insufficient and hyperkalemia still results. Patiromer is a novel, spherical, nonabsorbed polymer designed to bind and remove potassium, primarily in the colon, thereby decreasing serum potassium in patients with hyperkalemia. Patiromer has been found to decrease serum potassium in patients with hyperkalemia having chronic kidney disease who were on renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors. Results of nonclinical studies and an early phase clinical study are reported here. Two studies with radiolabeled drug, one in rats and the other in dogs, confirmed that patiromer was not absorbed into the systemic circulation. Results of an in vitro study showed that patiromer was able to bind 8.5 to 8.8 mEq of potassium per gram of polymer at a pH similar to that found in the colon and had a much higher potassium-binding capacity compared with other resins, including polystyrene sulfonate. In a study in hyperkalemic rats, a decrease in serum potassium was observed via an increase in fecal potassium excretion. In a clinical study in healthy adult volunteers, a significant increase in fecal potassium excretion and a significant decrease in urinary potassium excretion were observed. Overall, patiromer is a high-capacity potassium binder, and the chemical and physical characteristics of patiromer may lead to good clinical efficacy, tolerability, and patient acceptance. PMID:26856345

  1. Fever and changes in plasma zinc and iron concentrations in the goat: The role of leukocytic pyrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, J.H.M.; Miert, A. S. J. P. A. M. Van; Duin, C.T.M. van; Schotman, A.J.H.; Nieuwenhuis, J.

    1984-01-01

    In goats with trypanosomiasis (T. vivax or T. congolense) no marked fall in plasma zinc concentration was seen despite high temperature peaks, whereas plasma concentrations of iron tended to undergo some decline. In goats infected with Ehrlichia phagocytophila, there was a marked decline in plasma z

  2. Determining Concentrations and Temperatures in Semiconductor Manufacturing Plasmas via Submillimeter Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Yaser H.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Ewing, Paul R.; Agarwal, Ankur; Craver, Barry; Stout, Phillip J.; Armacost, Michael D.

    2016-06-01

    Plasmas used in the manufacturing processes of semiconductors are similar in pressure and temperature to plasmas used in studying the spectroscopy of astrophysical species. Likewise, the developed technology in submillimeter absorption spectroscopy can be used for the study of industrial plasmas and for monitoring manufacturing processes. An advantage of submillimeter absorption spectroscopy is that it can be used to determine absolute concentrations and temperatures of plasma species without the need for intrusive probes. A continuous wave, 500 - 750 GHz absorption spectrometer was developed for the purpose of being used as a remote sensor of gas and plasma species. An important part of this work was the optical design to match the geometry of existing plasma reactors in the manufacturing industry. A software fitting routine was developed to simultaneously fit for the background and absorption signal, solving for concentration, rotational temperature, and translational temperature. Examples of measurements made on inductively coupled plasmas will be demonstrated. We would like to thank the Texas Analog Center of Excellence/Semiconductor Research Corporation (TxACE/SRC) and Applied Materials for their support of this work.

  3. Neural synchronization via potassium signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry E; Ryazanova, Ludmila S; Mosekilde, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Using a relatively simple model we examine how variations of the extracellular potassium concentration can give rise to synchronization of two nearby pacemaker cells. With the volume of the extracellular space and the rate of potassium diffusion as control parameters, the dual nature of this reso...

  4. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed very-low-birth-weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, P J; Adcock, E W; DelPaggio, D; Swift, L L; Greene, H L

    1996-08-01

    Preterm infant formulas (PIFs) for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight, pyridoxine at levels up to five-fold greater than in term infant formula and 18-fold greater than in human milk. We evaluated plasma riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in VLBW infants who received PIF during their first postnatal month. Eighty-eight plasma and 124 urine samples were collected for riboflavin- and pyridoxine-concentration measurements from 57 clinically healthy VLBW infants weekly during their first postnatal month. Concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. At the time of the sample, patients were receiving > or = 80% of their total calories via enteral feedings. Plasma riboflavin concentrations rose from 45.3 +/- 7.3 ng/ml at baseline (mean +/- SEM) to 173.5 +/- 20.3 ng/ml by 1 week of age and remained at 177.3-199.7 ng/ml during the following three weekly measurements; values were up to 14-fold above baseline concentration. Urine riboflavin concentration increased from 534 +/- 137 ng/ml at baseline to 3,521 +/- 423 ng/ml by 1 week of age and remained at 4,451-5,216 ng/ml during the next 3 weeks. In a similar pattern, baseline plasma (69.4 +/- 10.4 ng/ml) and urine (145 +/- 30 ng/ml) pyridoxine concentrations were significantly increased by 1 week postnatal age; they remained at 163-248 ng/ml (plasma) and 1,573-2,394 ng/ml (urine) through the first postnatal month. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed VLBW infants increased from baseline concentrations by 1 week of postnatal age and remained elevated for the first postnatal month. High daily intake and immature renal development are probable contributing causes of the elevated plasma riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations. We suggest that lower daily enteral administration of riboflavin and pyridoxine should maintain adequate blood concentrations and minimize potential toxicity.

  5. Reduction in penis size and plasma testosterone concentrations in juvenile alligators living in a contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, L J; Pickford, D B; Crain, D A; Rooney, A A; Percival, H F

    1996-01-01

    The development of the male reproductive ducts and external genitalia in vertebrates is dependent on elevated androgen concentrations during embryonic development and the period of postnatal growth. We have observed that a population of juvenile alligators living on Lake Apopka exhibit significantly smaller penis size (24% average decrease) and lower plasma concentrations of testosterone (70% lower concentrations) when compared to animals of similar size on Lake Woodruff. In addition to smaller phalli, no relationship exists between plasma testosterone concentrations and penile size in males from Lake Apopka, whereas a positive relationship exists for males from Lake Woodruff. The alligators on Lake Apopka are known to have elevated concentrations of the antiandrogenic DDT breakdown product p.p'-DDE stored in their fat. We suggest a number of hypotheses that could explain the modification in the phenotype of the juvenile male living in Lake Apopka. These modifications in phenotype include a smaller penis size, lower plasma androgen concentrations, and lack of responsiveness of the penis to the plasma androgens present.

  6. Dietary predictors and plasma concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl acids in a Singapore population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Su, Jin; van Dam, Rob M; Prem, Kiesha; Hoong, Joey Y S; Zou, Li; Lu, Yonghai; Ong, Choon Nam

    2017-03-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), a family of man-made organofluorinated compounds, have drawn much attention due to their ubiquitous existence in the environment and their bioaccumulation potential. Here, we examined the plasma concentrations of thirteen PFAAs in a healthy population (N = 270) in Singapore, and investigated the association between major food groups and plasma PFAA concentrations. We detected eight types of PFAAs in more than 75% of all samples (N = 270), and their median concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 8.34 ng mL(-1). Age- and gender-related differences were observed for the three dominant PFAAs, i.e., perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanoate acid (PFOA), with concentrations being higher in men and older adults. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that fish, shellfish, red meat and poultry were associated with increased PFAAs concentrations in plasma, whereas grains and soy products showed inverse associations with PFAAs. Further, significant correlations were observed between various long-chain PFAAs and plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, suggesting seafood was a significant source of these PFAAs, within this population. Future studies on diet exposure to PFAAs are encouraged to focus more on the effects on diet pattern.

  7. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, M. N.; Chaikov, L. L.; Zaritskii, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r-4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids.

  8. 心衰合并低钾血症患者高浓度静脉补钾的临床观察%Clinical observation of intravenous potassium in high concentration in patients with heart failure combined hypokalemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喜梅; 苏庆丰; 师东武; 弓清梅

    2012-01-01

      Objective To observe the efficacy and safety of intravenous potassium in patients with heart failure. Methods 82 patients with NYHA class IV heart failure with hypokalemia were randomly divided into conventional concentration potassium (control group) of 42 cases and a high concentration potassium by deep vein (treatment group) of 40 cases, comparing the efficacy and safety of two potassium method.Results High concentration potassium group were better to correct hypokalemia in patients with heart failure (P <0 0.01),compared with the control group, no hyperkalemia occurred. Conclusion High concentrations potassium by deep vein in Micro pump show better efficacy and safety in patients with heart failure.%  目的观察心衰患者高浓度静脉补钾的有效性和安全性.方法82例NYHA心功能分级Ⅳ级心衰伴低血钾患者随机分为常规浓度补钾组(对照组)42例和深静脉高浓度微量泵补钾组(治疗组)40例,比较两种补钾方法的有效性和安全性.结果与对照组比较,深静脉高浓度微量泵补钾能更好纠正心衰患者低血钾( P <0.0.01),无高血钾发生.结论深静脉高浓度微量泵输钾对心衰患者有较好的补钾疗效,而且是安全的.

  9. Endocannabinoids concentrations in plasma associated with feed efficiency and carcass composition of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, V M; Foote, A P; Lewis, R M; King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Freetly, H C

    2016-12-01

    Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are a class of endogenous lipid mediators that activate cannabinoids receptors and may be involved in the control of feed intake and energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to quantify AEA and 2-AG in plasma and identify possible associations with production traits and carcass composition in finishing beef steers. Individual DMI and BW gain were measured on 140 Angus-sired steers for 105 d on a finishing ration. Blood samples were collected on d 84 of the experiment, which was 40 d before slaughter. Variables were analyzed using Pearson CORR procedure of SAS. Mean endocannabinoid concentrations in plasma were 4.48 ± 1.82 ng/mL and 0.44 ± 0.24 ng/mL for AEA and 2-AG, respectively. The AEA concentration was positively correlated with G:F ratio ( = 0.20; = 0.02), indicating that more efficient animals had greater AEA plasma concentrations. In addition, AEA concentration tended to be negatively correlated with the 12th rib fat thickness ( = -0.17; = 0.07); but no correlation was found with USDA-calculated yield grade ( = -0.14; = 0.11), or marbling score ( = 0.05; = 0.54). The concentration of 2-AG was positively correlated with AEA ( = 0.21; = 0.01); however, 2-AG concentration was not correlated with parameters of feed efficiency or carcass composition. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report plasma concentration of endocannabinoids in steers. These results provide evidence that plasma concentration of a key endocannabinoid, AEA, was favorably correlated with feed efficiency and fat thickness in finishing steers.

  10. Products of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage in relation to vitamin C plasma concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dusinská, M; Valachovicová, M; Blazícek, P; Pauková, V

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic age-related free radical-induced diseases. Improved antioxidant status minimizes oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules. Diet-derived antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and related plant pigments are important in antioxidative defense and maintaining health. The results of long-term epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that protective vitamin C plasma concentration for minimum risk of free radical disease is higher than 50 micromol/l. Products of oxidative damage to DNA (DNA strand breaks with oxidized purines and pyrimidines), proteins (carbonyls) and lipids (conjugated dienes of fatty acids, malondialdehyde) were estimated in a group of apparently healthy adult non-smoking population in dependence on different vitamin C plasma concentrations. Under conditions of protective plasma vitamin C concentrations (>50 micromol/l) significantly lower values of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage were found in comparison with the vitamin C-deficient group (fruit and vegetable consumption (leading to higher vitamin C intake and higher vitamin C plasma concentrations) on oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids is also expressed by an inverse significant correlation between plasma vitamin C and products of oxidative damage. The results suggest an important role of higher and frequent consumption of protective food (fruit, vegetables, vegetable oils, nuts, seeds and cereal grains) in prevention of free radical disease.

  11. Fasting plasma chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid concentrations are inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laville Martine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating data suggest a novel role for bile acids (BAs in modulating metabolic homeostasis. BA treatment has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and to increase energy expenditure in mice. Here, we investigated the relationship between fasting plasma BAs concentrations and metabolic parameters in humans. Findings Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured in 14 healthy volunteers, 20 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, and 22 non-diabetic abdominally obese subjects. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the determination of the glucose infusion rate (GIR during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in a subgroup of patients (9 healthy and 16 T2D subjects. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Plasma cholic acid (CA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA and deoxycholic acid (DCA concentrations were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. In univariable analysis, a positive association was found between HOMA-IR and plasma CDCA (β = 0.09, p = 0.001, CA (β = 0.03, p = 0.09 and DCA concentrations (β = 0.07, p Conclusions Both plasma CDCA, CA and DCA concentrations were negatively associated with insulin sensitivity in a wide range of subjects.

  12. Plasma concentrations of testosterone and nandrolone in racing and nonracing intact male horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, L R; Uboh, C E; You, Y; Guan, F; McDonnell, S

    2012-04-01

    Pennsylvania (PA) State Racing Commissions regulate the endogenous androgenic steroid, testosterone (TES), in racing intact males (RIM) by quantification of TES in post-race samples. Post-race plasma samples (2209) collected between March 2008 and November 2010 were analyzed for TES, nandrolone (NAN), and other anabolic steroids (ABS). Of the 2209 plasma samples, 2098 had quantifiable TES ≥ 25 pg/mL. Plasma (mean ± SD) concentrations of TES and NAN in RIM were 329.2 ± 266.4 and 96.0 ± 67.8 pg/mL, respectively. Only 64.6% of RIM had quantifiable concentration of NAN, and there was no relationship between TES and NAN. Plasma TES concentrations were significantly (P horses. Based on quantile distribution of TES in the RIM and BS populations, 99.5% were at or below 1546.1 and 1778.0 pg/mL, respectively. Based on this population of RIM, the suggested upper threshold plasma concentration of endogenous TES in horses competing in PA should remain at 2000 pg/mL. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Relationship between plasma resistin concentrations, inflammatory chemokines, and components of the metabolic syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilante, Christina L; Kosmiski, Lisa A; Knutsen, Shannon D; Zineh, Issam

    2008-04-01

    Recent data suggest that resistin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, has a putative role in inflammatory processes and metabolic derangements. In vitro data suggest that resistin stimulates the production of inflammatory chemokines, yet the relationship in vivo is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between plasma resistin concentrations, plasma inflammatory chemokine aged concentrations (ie, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1] and epithelial neutrophil activator 78 [ENA-78]), and components of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic subjects without known cardiovascular disease (CVD). Plasma samples were obtained from nondiabetic subjects (N = 123) aged 18 to 55 years without known CVD or CVD risk equivalents. The presence of the metabolic syndrome was assessed using consensus guidelines. Fasting plasma resistin, MCP-1, ENA-78, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations were analyzed. The study population consisted of 67.5% women and 68.3% Caucasians (mean age = 44 +/- 7 years and mean body mass index = 33.3 +/- 6 kg/m(2)). The metabolic syndrome was present in 46.3% of study participants. Resistin concentrations were significantly correlated with white blood cell count (r = 0.326, P metabolic syndrome compared with those without the metabolic syndrome (P = .003). In stepwise regression analysis, white blood cell count (P metabolic syndrome, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Data from our cross-sectional study demonstrate that plasma resistin concentrations are associated with circulating chemokine markers of inflammation, namely, MCP-1, and white blood cell count in nondiabetic adults without CVD. Future studies examining the causal relationship between plasma resistin concentrations, chemokine markers of inflammation, CVD, and diabetes are warranted.

  14. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasmaconcentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  15. Impact of Annexin A 7 Deficiency on FGF23 Plasma Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja T. Umbach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The release of fibroblast growth factor FGF23, a powerful regulator of 1,25(OH2D3 formation and mineral metabolism, is stimulated by store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE, which is accomplished by the pore forming Ca2+ release activated channel protein Orai1. Regulators of Orai1 and thus FGF23 release include serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, a kinase up-regulated by glucocorticosteroids. Some effects of glucocorticoids require the presence of annexin A7, such as suppression of prostaglandin E2 in gastric glands. The present study thus explored whether annexin A7 impacts on FGF23 plasma levels. Methods: Comparisons were made between gene targeted mice lacking functional annexin A7 (Anx7-/- and their wild type littermates (Anx7+/+. Serum C-terminal-FGF23, intact FGF23, 1,25(OH2D3 and PTH concentrations were measured by ELISA or EIA. The serum and urinary phosphate concentrations were measured by colorimetry, the serum Ca2+ concentration and the urinary Ca2+ concentration by flame photometry. Results: Serum C-terminal FGF23 levels and corticosterone levels were significantly higher and serum 1,25(OH2 D3 and PTH levels were significantly lower in Anx7-/- than in Anx7+/+ mice. Water intake was slightly but significantly higher in Anx7-/- mice than in Anx7+/+ mice. No significant difference was observed between Anx7-/- and Anx7+/+ mice in urinary fluid excretion, plasma Ca2+ concentration, plasma phosphate concentration and urinary Ca2+ output. The urinary phosphate output was significantly lower in Anx7-/- mice than in Anx7+/+ mice. Conclusion: Annexin A7 deficiency upregulates FGF23 plasma levels, an effect paralleled by increased corticosterone plasma levels, as well as decreased 1,25(OH2 D3 and PTH plasma levels.

  16. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health.

  17. Pathogen inactivation treatment of plasma and platelet concentrates and their predicted functionality in massive transfusion protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaeen, Ahmad F; Schubert, Peter; Serrano, Katherine; Carter, Cedric J; Culibrk, Brankica; Devine, Dana V

    2017-05-01

    Trauma transfusion packages for hemorrhage control consist of red blood cells, plasma, and platelets at a set ratio. Although pathogen reduction improves the transfusion safety of platelet and plasma units, there is an associated reduction in quality. This study aimed to investigate the impact of riboflavin/ultraviolet light-treated plasma or platelets in transfusion trauma packages composed of red blood cell, plasma, and platelet units in a ratio of 1:1:1 in vitro by modeling transfusion scenarios for trauma patients and assessing function by rotational thromboelastometry. Pathogen-reduced or untreated plasma and buffy coat platelet concentrate units produced in plasma were used in different combinations with red blood cells in trauma transfusion packages. After reconstitution of these packages with hemodiluted blood, the hemostatic functionality was analyzed by rotational thromboelastometry. Hemostatic profiles of pathogen-inactivated buffy coat platelet concentrate and plasma indicated decreased activity compared with their respective controls. Reconstitution of hemodiluted blood (hematocrit = 20%) with packages that contained treated or nontreated components resulted in increased alpha and maximum clot firmness and enhanced clot-formation time. Simulating transfusion scenarios based on 30% blood replacement with a transfusion trauma package resulted in a nonsignificant difference in rotational thromboelastometry parameters between packages containing treated and nontreated blood components (p ≥ 0.05). Effects of pathogen inactivation treatment were evident when the trauma package percentage was 50% or greater and contained both pathogen inactivation-treated plasma and buffy coat platelet concentrate. Rotational thromboelastometry investigations suggest that there is relatively little impact of pathogen inactivation treatment on whole blood clot formation unless large amounts of treated components are used. © 2017 AABB.

  18. Fatigue and plasma cytokine concentrations at rest and during exercise in patients with sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydur, Ahmet; Alavy, Bahram; Nawathe, Amar; Liu, Shanshan; Louie, Stan; Sharma, Om Prakash

    2011-07-01

    Patients with sarcoidosis exhibit exercise intolerance-related fatigue and increased levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines at rest. Exercise may result in increased plasma cytokine levels (PCLs) in healthy adults, but such a relationship has not been studied in sarcoidosis patients. To assess relationship of fatigue in sarcoidosis with PCLs at rest and with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). We assessed lung function, CPET data, multidimensional fatigue inventory, plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations before, immediately after, and 4-6 h following CPET in 22 sarcoidosis patients (13 receiving immunomodulatory drugs) and 22 controls. Patients exhibited greater fatigue, reduced cardiorespiratory function, higher Medical Research Council (MRC) scores and higher plasma TNF-α concentrations than controls at all times. Plasma IL-1β levels did not differ between cohorts. Patients exhibited a 28% increase (statistically not significant) in TNF-α level immediately post exercise. Plasma IL-β concentrations did not change among cohorts. Treated patients exhibited higher MRC and physical fatigue scores and lower breathing reserve, but no differences in cardiorespiratory function or PCLs compared to untreated patients. In treated patients, pre-exercise plasma IL-1β correlated with physical fatigue, reduced motivation and total fatigue; TNF-α levels only correlated with general fatigue score. Treated sarcoidosis patients exhibit a relation between physical fatigue, reduced motivation and total fatigue and pre-exercise plasma IL-1β concentrations. Acute exercise does not increase PCLs. Whether the reduced MRC score and physical fatigue in treated patients is related to the therapy or to the underlying inflammatory process is difficult to determine. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Effects of potassium iodide in concentrations of TSH, tT3 and tT4 in serum of subjects with sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Soto, Max Carlos

    2014-08-01

    The saturated potassium iodide solution (SSKI) as treatment for sporotrichosis may cause hypothyroidism by suppressing the synthesis of thyroid hormones (tT3 and tT4 ) and the iodine excess could lead to thyrotoxicosis. Evaluating the changes in serum levels of TSH, tT3 and tT4 in euthyroid patients with sporotrichosis treated with SSKI. For the selection of euthyroid patients, TSH, tT3 and tT4 concentrations were measured for those adults and children diagnosed with sporotrichosis. Each paediatric patient was administered SSKI orally in increasing doses of 2-20 drops/3 times/day and 4-40 drops/3 times/day in adults. Serum concentrations of TSH, tT3 and tT4 were measured 20 days after started the treatment and 15 days posttreatment. Eight euthyroid patients aged between 2 to 65 years old were included. After 20 days of treatment, two suffered subclinical hypothyroidism, one developed subclinical hyperthyroidism, and one hyperthyroxinaemia euthyroid. At 15 days posttreatment only four patients were evaluated and all serum levels of TSH, tT3 and tT4 were normal. Some euthyroid patients with sporotrichosis can develop hyperthyroidism or subclinical iodine-induced hypothyroidism, during the administration of 3 or 6 g SSKI/day.

  20. Green tea ingestion greatly reduces plasma concentrations of nadolol in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaka, S; Yatabe, J; Müller, F; Takano, K; Kawabe, K; Glaeser, H; Yatabe, M S; Onoue, S; Werba, J P; Watanabe, H; Yamada, S; Fromm, M F; Kimura, J

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the β-blocker nadolol. Ten healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of 30 mg nadolol with green tea or water after repeated consumption of green tea (700 ml/day) or water for 14 days. Catechin concentrations in green tea and plasma were determined. Green tea markedly decreased the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-48)) of nadolol by 85.3% and 85.0%, respectively (P green tea. [(3)H]-Nadolol uptake assays in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing the organic anion-transporting polypeptides OATP1A2 and OATP2B1 revealed that nadolol is a substrate of OATP1A2 (Michaelis constant (K(m)) = 84.3 μmol/l) but not of OATP2B1. Moreover, green tea significantly inhibited OATP1A2-mediated nadolol uptake (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, IC(50) = 1.36%). These results suggest that green tea reduces plasma concentrations of nadolol possibly in part by inhibition of OATP1A2-mediated uptake of nadolol in the intestine.

  1. Perioperative plasma concentrations of stable nitric oxide products are predictive of cognitive dysfunction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    In this study our objectives were to determine the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients aged >40 and <85 yr and to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of i) S-100beta protein and ii) stable nitric oxide (NO) products and POCD in this clinical setting. Neuropsychological tests were performed on 42 ASA physical status I-II patients the day before, and 4 days and 6 wk after surgery. Patient spouses (n = 13) were studied as controls. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as deficit in one or more cognitive domain(s). Serial measurements of serum concentrations of S-100beta protein and plasma concentrations of stable NO products (nitrate\\/nitrite, NOx) were performed perioperatively. Four days after surgery, new cognitive deficit was present in 16 (40%) patients and in 1 (7%) control subject (P = 0.01). Six weeks postoperatively, new cognitive deficit was present in 21 (53%) patients and 3 (23%) control subjects (P = 0.03). Compared with the "no deficit" group, patients who demonstrated a new cognitive deficit 4 days postoperatively had larger plasma NOx at each perioperative time point (P < 0.05 for each time point). Serum S-100beta protein concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative (and postoperative) plasma concentrations of stable NO products (but not S-100beta) are associated with early POCD. The former represents a potential biochemical predictor of POCD.

  2. Submicromolar concentrations of zinc irreversibly reduce a calcium-dependent potassium current in rat hippocampal neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, J A; Cherubini, E

    1990-01-01

    The action of the endogenous divalent cation zinc on Ca2+ and Ca2(+)-dependent currents was studied in rat hippocampal CA1 and CA3 neurons in vitro, by means of a single electrode voltage clamp technique. Bath application of zinc (0.5-1 microM) produced a small membrane depolarization associated with an increase in synaptic noise and cell excitability and a depression of the afterhyperpolarization following a train of action potentials. The effects on the afterhyperpolarization, could not be reversed on washout. In voltage-clamped neurons, zinc induced a steady inward current and reduced, at resting membrane potential, the peak amplitude of the outward current underlying the afterhyperpolarization, IAHP. In caesium loaded neurons (in the presence of tetrodotoxin and tetraethylammonium), zinc reduced the slow inactivating Ca2+ current activated from a holding potential of -40 mV. Similar results were observed with nickel and cobalt at comparable concentrations, with Zn2+ greater than Ni2+ greater than Co2+, in their order of potency. In contrast to nickel and cobalt the effects of zinc did not reverse on washout. These results suggest that low concentrations of zinc enhance cell excitability by reducing IAHP. In addition, zinc reduces the slow inactivating voltage-dependent Ca2+ current. The irreversible effect of this metal ion is compatible with a toxic, intracellular site of action.

  3. Variation in absorption and half-life of hydrocortisone influence plasma cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Peter C; Charmandari, Evangelia

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocortisone therapy should be individualized in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients to avoid over and under replacement. We have assessed how differences in absorption and half-life of cortisol influence glucocorticoid exposure. Forty-eight patients (21 M) aged between 6·1 and 20·3 years with CAH due to CYP21A2 deficiency were studied. Each patient underwent a 24-h plasma cortisol profile with the morning dose used to calculate absorption parameters along with an intravenous (IV) hydrocortisone (15 mg/m(2) body surface area) bolus assessment of half-life. Parameters derived were maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), time of maximum plasma concentration (tmax ), time to attaining plasma cortisol concentration cortisol. Mean half-life was 76·5 ± 5·2 (range 40-225·3) min, Cmax 780·7 ± 61·6 nmol/l and tmax 66·7 (range 20-118) min. Time taken to a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l was 289 (range 140-540) min. Those with a fast half-life and slow tmax took longest to reach a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l (380 ± 34·6 min), compared to those with a slow half-life and fast tmax (298 ± 34·8 min) and those with a fast half-life and fast tmax (249·5 ± 14·4 min) (One-way anovaF = 4·52; P = 0·009). Both rate of absorption and half-life of cortisol in the circulation play important roles in determining overall exposure to oral glucocorticoid. Dose regimens need to incorporate estimates of these parameters into determining the optimum dosing schedule for individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; pglycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  5. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting Apo

  6. Aging related changes in mixed basal saliva concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride in healthy non medicated humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Rui; Navas, Eunice; Duran, Carolina; Pinto, Maria; Gutierrez, Jose; Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the salivary flow is reduced by aging but ionic composition changes associated to aging have been less evaluated. To measure salivary and plasmatic [Na(+)], [K(+)] and [Cl(-)] and to correlate with age in healthy, non-medicated subjects of any gender, 165 healthy participating subjects (over 15 years old) were asked to give sample of 5 mL mix basal saliva in a plastic vial without any stimulation technique, additionally, 5 mL of venous blood was collected. Samples [Na(+)] and [K(+)] were measured by flame photometry (Corning™ M-405) and [Cl(-)] by voltametric chlorometry (Corning™ M-920). Ionic concentrations were expressed as (X±DE; meq.L⁻¹). All three ionic concentrations progressively increased with age, with the lineal regression equation being: [Na(+)] mEq=17.76 + 0.26(Age); r=+0.42; F=31.5; P=0.00001; [K(+)] mEq=13.2+0.15(Age); r=+0.32; F=16.5; P=0.00001; [Cl(-)] mEq=9.05+0.18(Age); r=+0.35; F=7.8; P=0.0071. Age induced changes in salivary ionic concentrations were not associated to blood ionic changes. However, saliva and blood [Na(+)] and [K(+)] were correlated (r=+0.25; F=4.49; P=0.04 and r=+0.30; F=6.98; P=0.01, respectively). Significant association was found among salivary ions: [Na(+)] mEq=9.14+0.99[K(+)] (r=+0.79; F=95.2; P=0.000001); [Cl(-)] mEq=0.95+0.56[Na(+)] (r=0.79; F=106.6; P=0.000001) and [Cl(-)] mEq=3.45+0.69[K(+)] (r=0.73; F=72.5; P=0.000001). These results confirm and measure the impact of aging over the mixed and resting salivary secretion process and suggest that local changes are not related to blood ionic composition.

  7. Comparison between the effects of potassium phosphite and chitosan on changes in the concentration of Cucurbitacin E and on antibacterial property of Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Moazzameh; Rahmani, Fatemeh; Dehestani, Ali

    2017-06-05

    Cucurbitacins are mostly found in the members of the family Cucurbitaceae and are responsible for the bitter taste of cucumber. Pharmacological activities such as anti-bacterial and anti-tumor effects have been attributed to these structurally divers triterpens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of potassium phosphite (KPhi) and chitosan on Cucurbitacin E (CuE) concentration in different tissues of Cucumis sativus. The antibacterial effect of plant ethanolic extracts was also examined against E.coli PTCC 1399 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1430 bacterial strains. After emergence of secondary leaves, cucumber plants were divided into 4 groups (each group consisted of 6 pots and each pot contained one plant) and different treatments performed as follows: group1. Leaves were sprayed with distilled water (Control), group 2. The leaves were solely treated with potassium phosphite (KPhi), group 3. Leaves were solely sprayed with chitosan (Chitosan), group 4. Leaves were treated with KPhi and chitosan (KPhi + chitosan). The KPhi (2 g L(-1)) and chitosan (0.2 g L(-1)) were applied twice every 12 h for one day. Fruits, roots and leaves were harvested 24 h later. The ethanolic extract of plant organs was used for determination of CuE concentration using HPLC approach. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar well diffusion method. The experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) and performed in six biological replications for each treatment. Analysis of variance was performed by one-way ANOVA and Dunnette multiple comparison using SPSS. The highest level of CuE was recorded in fruit (2.2 g L(-1)) of plants under concomitant applications of KPhi and chitosan. Result of antibacterial activity evaluation showed that under concomitant treatments of KPhi and chitosan, fruit extract exhibited the highest potential for activity against E. coli PTCC 1399 (with mean zone of inhibition equal to 36 mm) and Pseudomonas

  8. Refractory cachexia is associated with increased plasma concentrations of fentanyl in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suno M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Manabu Suno,1,* Yuriko Endo,1,* Hiroyuki Nishie,2 Makoto Kajizono,3 Toshiaki Sendo,3 Junji Matsuoka4 1Department of Oncology Pharmaceutical Care and Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 3Department of Pharmacy, Okayama University Hospital, 4Faculty of Health Sciences, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: An appropriate plasma concentration of fentanyl is the key to achieving good pain control in cancer patients. Cachexia, a multifactorial syndrome, is known to affect drug-metabolizing enzymes. However, the fentanyl concentrations in the blood of patients with cachexia have not been analyzed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cancer cachexia on dose-adjusted plasma fentanyl concentrations in cancer patients.Methods: Blood was collected from 21 Japanese cancer patients treated with a 24-hour transdermal fentanyl patch during the steady state of fentanyl plasma concentration. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, and the levels were adjusted with the dose of fentanyl. Laboratory data were collected, and the cachexia stage was determined, based on study by Fearon et al. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the factors that affected fentanyl plasma concentrations.Results: Eight patients were classified as precachexia, nine as cachexia, and four as refractory cachexia, and the median dose-adjusted fentanyl concentrations (ng/mL per mg/kg/day were 27.5, 34.4, and 44.5, respectively. The dose-adjusted fentanyl concentration in patients with refractory cachexia was higher than that in patients with precachexia (Kruskal–Wallis test and post hoc Mann–Whitney U-test, P<0.01. The factors that

  9. [Effects of fertilization on aquic brown soil potassium budget and crop potassium allocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zishao; Yu, Wantai; Zhang, Lu

    2006-12-01

    Through a consecutive 15 years field trial on the aquic brown soil in Shenyang suburb of Northeast China, this paper studied the soil potassium budget and crop potassium allocation under effects of different fertilization systems. The results indicated that applying nitrogen or nitrogen plus phosphorous without potassium application accelerated the deficit of soil potassium. The potassium concentration in soybean grain and stalk was higher under potassium application than with no potassium supply, while that in maize grain had no significant difference in different fertilization treatments. The reutilization of recycled nutrients in farming system could mitigate the deficit of soil potassium budget, and such reutilization assorted with appropriate amount of potassium fertilization could not only produce high crop yield, but also balance soil potassium budget.

  10. Relationship between labile plasma iron, liver iron concentration and cardiac response in a deferasirox monotherapy trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John C.; Glynos, Tara; Thompson, Alexis; Giardina, Patricia; Harmatz, Paul; Kang, Barinder P.; Paley, Carole; Coates, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    The US04 trial was a multicenter, open-label, single arm trial of deferasirox monotherapy (30–40 mg/kg/day) for 18 months. Cardiac iron response was bimodal with improvements observed in patients with mild to moderate initial somatic iron stores; relationship of cardiac response to labile plasma iron is now presented. Labile plasma iron was measured at baseline, six months, and 12 months. In patients having a favorable cardiac response at 18 months, initial labile plasma iron was elevated in only 31% of patients at baseline and no patient at six or 12 months. Cardiac non-responders had elevated labile plasma iron in 50% of patients at baseline, 50% patients at six months, and 38% of patients at 12 months. Risk of abnormal labile plasma iron and cardiac response increased with initial liver iron concentration. Persistently increased labile plasma iron predicts cardiac non-response to deferasirox but labile plasma iron suppression does not guarantee favorable cardiac outcome. Study registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00447694). PMID:21393329

  11. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart A; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R (2) > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  12. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Batterman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS. Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models.Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80, and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  13. Effects of Different Heavy-Resistance Exercise Protocols on Plasma Beta-Endorphin Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    exercise increases in muscular hypertrophy (27). Thus each exer- protocols used previously. Each subject gave informed cise series provides for...ANTE. P. D., AND M. E. HOUSTON. Effects of concentric and DUDLEY. C. M. MARESH, L. MARCHIrELLI, C. CRUTHIRDS, T. eccentric exercise on protein catabolism...DTIC Effects of different heavy-resistance exercise ELECTE protocols on plasma #-endorphin concentrations MAR 3 0 1993 C WILLIAM J. KRAEMER, JOSEPH E

  14. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  15. Effect of procainamide on transmembrane action potentials in guinea-pig papillary muscles as affected by external potassium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, H; Kojima, M; Ban, T

    1979-11-01

    Effects of procainamide (PA), 0.18, 0.37 and 0.74 mmol/l, on the transmembrane potential were studied in isolated guinea-pig papillary muscles, superfused with modified Tyrode's solution (external K concentration, [K]0 = 5.4 mmol/l) at the basic driving rate of 1 Hz. PA, at 0.37 mmol/l, significantly reduced the maximum rate of rise of action potential (Vmax) with no change in the resting potential. When 2.7 mmol/l [K]0 of the superfusate was exchanged for 15 mmol/l [K]0 solution a decrease in Vmax induced by 0.37 mmol/l PA became more prominent with decrease in resting potential. The reduction of Vmax at steady state was less at lower driving rates (0.25 and 0.5 Hz) and more at higher driving rates (2-5 Hz) than at 1 Hz in 2.7, 5.4 and 10.0 mmol/l [K]0 solution. Such changes were enhanced concentration-dependently by PA at 5.4 mmol/l [K]0. Also, the changes became more significant with an increase in [K]0 from 2.7 mmol/l to 5.4 mmol/l and then to 10.0 mmol/l. The recovery process of Vmax proceeded with two components. The time course of the slow component seen in the Vmax of the first response after interruption of basic driving stimulation at 1 Hz, followed an approximate monoexponential function. The time constants were 6.3, 4.4 and 5.8 s in the presence of 0.18, 0.37 and 0.74 mmol/l PA at 5.4 mmol/l [K]0 and 3.4 and 3.7 s both in the presence of 0.37 mmol/l PA at 2.7 and 10.0 mmol/l [K]0. Vmax values after 30 or 60 s interruption of stimulation were 80-92% of the predrug Vmax value at 1 Hz. The time constants of the first component, estimated by the peeling-off methods at the driving rate of 0.1 Hz, were 11, 31 and 5-22 ms in the presence of 0.37 mmol/l at 5.4, 10.0 and 2.7 mmol/l [K]0 and did not differ significantly from the time constants in control preparations. The results were found to be consistent, to a certain extent, with the model proposed by Hondeghem and Katzung (1977).

  16. The roles of various plasma species in the plasma and plasma-catalytic removal of low-concentration formaldehyde in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Zhu, Tianle; Sun, Yifei; Yan, Xiao

    2011-11-30

    The contributions of various plasma species to the removal of low-concentration formaldehyde (HCHO) in air by DC corona discharge plasma in the presence and absence of downstream MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst were systematically investigated in this study. Experimental results show that HCHO can be removed not only by short-living active species in the discharge zone, but also by long-living species except O(3) downstream the plasma reactor. O(3) on its own is incapable of removing HCHO in the gas phase but when combined with the MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, considerable HCHO conversion is seen, well explaining the greatly enhanced HCHO removal by combining plasma with catalysis. The plasma-catalysis hybrid process where HCHO is introduced through the discharge zone and then the catalyst bed exhibits the highest energy efficiency concerning HCHO conversion, due to the best use of plasma-generated active species in a two-stage HCHO destruction process. Moreover, the presence of downstream MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst significantly reduced the emission of discharge byproducts (O(3)) and organic intermediates (HCOOH).

  17. Concentrations of Nicotinamide in Plasma by RP-HPLC With Fluorescence Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish a new method for detecting nicotinamide concentration in plasma. In the experiment, the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used, with a fluorescence detector. The nicotinamide in the plasma was first converted to N1- methylnicotinamide, then reacted with acetophenone under certain conditions to produce fluorescent derivatives for testing. The method is a kind of highly sensitive detection, of which the lower limit is 10 ng/mL, the recovery rate is between 92.75% and 105.13%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD is between 3.76% and 4.43%. The results showed that this measurement method is accurate, sensitive and rapid. It meets the requirements of the experiment, and applies to the detection of nicotinamide concentration in plasma.

  18. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    proteins from wheat, peas, field beans, sunflower and soybean. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein of 7 fish in each dietary treatment group prior to feeding, as well as: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding (sampling 7 new fish at each time point), and plasma amino acid......Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... concentrations were subsequently measured by HPLC. Nutrient digestibility and ammonia excretion of the two experimental diets were measured in a parallel experiment using a modified Guelph setup. Results showed that the appearance of most amino acids (essential and non-essential) in the plasma was delayed...

  19. Species-dependent effective concentration of DTPA in plasma for chelation of 241Am.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Jay, Michael; Di Pasqua, Anthony J

    2013-08-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a chelating agent that is used to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides such as americium from contaminated individuals. Its primary site of action is in the blood, where it competes with various biological ligands, including transferrin and albumin, for the binding of radioactive metals. To evaluate the chelation potential of DTPA under these conditions, the competitive binding of Am between DTPA and plasma proteins was studied in rat, beagle, and human plasma in vitro. Following incubation of DTPA and Am in plasma, the Am-bound ligands were fractionated by ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography, and each fraction was assayed for Am content by gamma scintillation counting. Dose response curves of DTPA for Am binding were established, and these models were used to calculate the 90% maximal effective concentration, or EC90, of DTPA in each plasma system. The EC90 were determined to be 31.4, 15.9, and 10.0 μM in rat, beagle, and human plasma, respectively. These values correspond to plasma concentrations of DTPA that maximize Am chelation while minimizing excess DTPA. Based on the pharmacokinetic profile of DTPA in humans, after a standard 30 μmol kg intravenous bolus injection, the plasma concentration of DTPA remains above EC90 for approximately 5.6 h. Likewise, the effective duration of DTPA in rat and beagle were determined to be 0.67 and 1.7 h, respectively. These results suggest that species differences must be considered when translating DTPA efficacy data from animals to humans and offer further insights into improving the current DTPA treatment regimen.

  20. Transient decrease in serum potassium level during ischemic attack of acute coronary syndrome: Paradoxical contribution of plasma glucose level and glycohemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiyama Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a decrease in serum potassium level has been suggested to be a fairly common observation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS, there have so far been no definitive reports directly demonstrating the transient potassium decrease (the potassium dip during ischemic attack of ACS compared to stable phase in individual patients. To understand the pathophysiological significance of the potassium dip, we examined the changes in serum potassium level throughout ischemic attack and evaluated the clinical factors affecting it. Methods The degree of the potassium dip during ischemic attack (as indicated by ΔK, ΔK = K at discharge − K on admission was examined in 311 consecutive patients with ACS who required urgent hospitalization in our institution. Results Serum potassium level during ischemic attack was significantly decreased compared to that during stable phase (P  Conclusions We have clearly demonstrated that there is a transient decrease in serum potassium level during ischemic attack of ACS compared to stable phase. The degree of the potassium dip was tightly correlated with glucose level, which overwhelmed the diabetic condition, and it also indicates the disease severity. The present study therefore promotes awareness of the significance of monitoring potassium level in parallel with glucose level in patients with ACS.

  1. The survival of cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells is not dependent on elevated potassium-ion concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Hack, N; Balázs, R

    1994-01-01

    The effects of K(+)-induced membrane depolarization were studied on the survival and biochemical parameters in mouse and rat cerebellar granule cells grown in micro-well cultures. Cell numbers were determined by estimating DNA content using the Hoechst 33258 fluorochrome binding assay. DNA from d...... that although cultivation in 'high' K+ promotes biochemical differentiation in mouse cerebellar granule cells, these cells differ from their rat counterparts in that they do not develop a survival requirement for K(+)-induced membrane depolarization.......The effects of K(+)-induced membrane depolarization were studied on the survival and biochemical parameters in mouse and rat cerebellar granule cells grown in micro-well cultures. Cell numbers were determined by estimating DNA content using the Hoechst 33258 fluorochrome binding assay. DNA from...... degenerated cells was removed by prior DNAase treatment. These DNA estimates of cell numbers were comparable with values obtained by direct counting of fluorescein diacetate-stained viable cells. In agreement with previous studies, the survival of rat granule cells was promoted by increasing the concentration...

  2. Potassium starvation in yeast: mechanisms of homeostasis revealed by mathematical modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kahm

    Full Text Available The intrinsic ability of cells to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions is a fundamental process required for survival. Potassium is the most abundant cation in living cells and is required for essential cellular processes, including the regulation of cell volume, pH and protein synthesis. Yeast cells can grow from low micromolar to molar potassium concentrations and utilize sophisticated control mechanisms to keep the internal potassium concentration in a viable range. We developed a mathematical model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae to explore the complex interplay between biophysical forces and molecular regulation facilitating potassium homeostasis. By using a novel inference method ("the reverse tracking algorithm" we predicted and then verified experimentally that the main regulators under conditions of potassium starvation are proton fluxes responding to changes of potassium concentrations. In contrast to the prevailing view, we show that regulation of the main potassium transport systems (Trk1,2 and Nha1 in the plasma membrane is not sufficient to achieve homeostasis.

  3. Potassium starvation in yeast: mechanisms of homeostasis revealed by mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahm, Matthias; Navarrete, Clara; Llopis-Torregrosa, Vicent; Herrera, Rito; Barreto, Lina; Yenush, Lynne; Ariño, Joaquin; Ramos, Jose; Kschischo, Maik

    2012-01-01

    The intrinsic ability of cells to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions is a fundamental process required for survival. Potassium is the most abundant cation in living cells and is required for essential cellular processes, including the regulation of cell volume, pH and protein synthesis. Yeast cells can grow from low micromolar to molar potassium concentrations and utilize sophisticated control mechanisms to keep the internal potassium concentration in a viable range. We developed a mathematical model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae to explore the complex interplay between biophysical forces and molecular regulation facilitating potassium homeostasis. By using a novel inference method ("the reverse tracking algorithm") we predicted and then verified experimentally that the main regulators under conditions of potassium starvation are proton fluxes responding to changes of potassium concentrations. In contrast to the prevailing view, we show that regulation of the main potassium transport systems (Trk1,2 and Nha1) in the plasma membrane is not sufficient to achieve homeostasis.

  4. Plasma concentrations of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate in critically ill children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enno D Wildschut

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO support on pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate (OC in children. METHODOLOGY: Steady state 0-12 hour pharmacokinetic sampling was performed in new influenza A (H1N1 infected children treated with oseltamivir while on ECMO support. Cmax, Cmin and AUC(0-12 h were calculated. The age-specific oseltamivir dosage was doubled to counter expected decreased plasma drug concentrations due to increased volume of distribution on ECMO support. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three patients were enrolled aged 15, 6 and 14 years in this pharmacokinetic case series. For two children the OC plasma concentrations were higher than those found in children and adults not on ECMO. These increased plasma concentrations related to the increased oseltamivir dosage and decreased kidney function. In one patient suboptimal plasma concentrations coincided with a decreased gastric motility. CONCLUSION: Oseltamivir pharmacokinetics do not appear to be significantly influenced by ECMO support. Caution is required in case of nasogastric administration and decreased gastric motility. Due to the limited number of (paediatric patients available further multicenter studies are warranted.

  5. Phenylbutyrate reduces plasma leucine concentrations without affecting the flux of leucine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) has been used as an alternative pathway to excrete nitrogen in urea cycle disorder patients for the last 20 years. PB, after oxidation to phenylacetate, is conjugated with glutamine and excreted in the urine. A reduction in the plasma concentration of branched amino acids (BCAA) ...

  6. Plasma prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations around parturition in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverne, M.; Willemse, A.H.; Dieleman, S.J.; Bevers, M.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples taken from 2–15 days before until 1–4 days after spontaneous parturition in four sows and in one sow around prostaglandin F2α-induced parturition. Between Days −15 and −2 (Day 0 = partur

  7. Decreased coenzyme Q10 concentration in plasma of children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, J.H.; Lecluse, A.L.Y.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.; Laag, J. van der; Houwen, R.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an effective lipophilic antioxidant and protects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging radicals. Patients with cystic fibrosis generally have fat malabsorption; thus, we hypothesized that overall plasma CoQ10 concentration in pediatric patients with cystic fibr

  8. Plasma concentrations of generic lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV type-1-infected individuals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt, J. van der; Lange, J.; Avihingsanon, A.; Ananworanich, J.; Sealoo, S.; Burger, D.M.; Gorowara, M.; Phanuphak, P.; Ruxrungtham, K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic drugs can contribute to access to treatment for HIV-infected patients. However quality and safety remains an issue of concern. Therefore, we evaluated minimal plasma concentrations and short-term safety of a generic lopinavir/ritonavir 200/50 mg tablet formulation. METHODS: In a

  9. High plasma arginine concentrations in critically ill patients suffering from hepatic failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Nijveldt (Robin); M.P.C. Siroen; B. van der Hoven (Ben); T. Teerlink (Tom); H.A. Prins (Hubert); A.R.J. Girbes (Armand); P.A.M. van Leeuwen

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjective: In physiological conditions, the liver plays an important role in the regulation of plasma arginine concentrations by taking up large amounts of arginine from the hepatic circulation. When hepatic failure is present, arginine metabolism may be disturbed. Therefore, we hypothes

  10. Orlistat treatment increases fecal bilirubin excretion and decreases plasma bilirubin concentrations in hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishioka, T; Hafkamp, AM; Havinga, R; Van Lierop, PPE; Velvis, H; Verkade, HJ

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine whether serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) can be decreased by enhancing fecal fat excretion. Study design Gunn rats were fed a high-fat diet (control) or the same diet mixed with the lipase inhibitor orlistat. At regular intervals, plasma UCB concentrations were det

  11. Coal pyrolysis to acetylene using dc hydrogen plasma torch: effects of system variables on acetylene concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Longwei; Meng Yuedong; Shen Jie; Shu Xingsheng; Fang Shidong [Laboratory of Applied Low-temperature Plasma Physics, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Xiong Xinyang, E-mail: lwchen@ipp.ac.c [Xinjiang Tianye Group, Xinjiang, 832000 (China)

    2009-03-07

    In order to unveil the inner mechanisms that determine acetylene concentration, experimental studies on the effect of several parameters such as plasma torch power, hydrogen flux and coal flux were carried out from coal pyrolysis in a dc plasma torch. Xinjiang long flame coals including volatile constituents at a level of about 42% were used in the experiment. Under the following experimental conditions, namely plasma torch power, hydrogen flow rate and pulverized coal feed speed of 2.12 MW, 32 kg h{sup -1} and 900 kg h{sup -1}, respectively, acetylene volume concentration of about 9.4% was achieved. The experimental results indicate that parameters such as plasma torch power and coal flux play important roles in the formation of acetylene. Acetylene concentration increases inconspicuously with hydrogen flux. A chemical thermodynamic equilibrium model using the free energy method is introduced in this paper to numerically simulate each experimental condition. The numerical results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. Two parameters, i.e. the gas temperature and the ratio of hydrogen/carbon, are considered to be the dominant and independent factors that determine acetylene concentration.

  12. Coal pyrolysis to acetylene using dc hydrogen plasma torch: effects of system variables on acetylene concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longwei; Meng, Yuedong; Shen, Jie; Shu, Xingsheng; Fang, Shidong; Xiong, Xinyang

    2009-03-01

    In order to unveil the inner mechanisms that determine acetylene concentration, experimental studies on the effect of several parameters such as plasma torch power, hydrogen flux and coal flux were carried out from coal pyrolysis in a dc plasma torch. Xinjiang long flame coals including volatile constituents at a level of about 42% were used in the experiment. Under the following experimental conditions, namely plasma torch power, hydrogen flow rate and pulverized coal feed speed of 2.12 MW, 32 kg h-1 and 900 kg h-1, respectively, acetylene volume concentration of about 9.4% was achieved. The experimental results indicate that parameters such as plasma torch power and coal flux play important roles in the formation of acetylene. Acetylene concentration increases inconspicuously with hydrogen flux. A chemical thermodynamic equilibrium model using the free energy method is introduced in this paper to numerically simulate each experimental condition. The numerical results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. Two parameters, i.e. the gas temperature and the ratio of hydrogen/carbon, are considered to be the dominant and independent factors that determine acetylene concentration.

  13. Reduced cooperativeness and reward-dependence in depression with above-normal plasma vasopressin concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goekoop, J. G.; de Winter, R. F. P.; Wolterbeek, R.; Spinhoven, P.; Zitman, F. G.; Wiegant, V. M.

    2009-01-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin is centrally involved in the regulation of social behaviour and response to stress. We previously found support for a subcategory of depression defined by above-normal plasma vasopressin (AVP) concentration. This subcategory is validated by a positive family history of d

  14. Plasma Concentration of the Novel Peptide Apelin is Regularly Changed in Patients With Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yanju; Li Tianchang; Yan Jun; Bian Hong; Yao Daokuo; Xu Shiying; Zheng Jianyong

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Apelin, the novel endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, has been observed in many animals and humans studies. It is concluded that it has inotropic effects,hypotension and diuretic properties. The change of apelin in relation to heart failure is still controversial.Our goal was to observe the change of apelin-12 in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods From 2005 to 2006, 81 consecutive patients (46 male and 35 female, mean age 68.5±12.1 years) with heart failure resulting from variable etiologies and 15 healthy controls were included in this study. Plasma concentration of apelin-12 was measured through ELISA on admission. All patients received conventional therapy and recorded detailed the clinical conditions. Results (1) Plasma concentration of apelin of the controls is lower than the ones of heart failure patients. (2) Plasma concentration of apelin is increased in the early stage and decreased in the advanced period. (3) Apelin is related with variable indexes in the Pearson's association analysis. Apelin is also changed with the atrium and ventricular's diameter. Conclusions Plasma concentration of apelin is increased in early stage and decreased in advanced period. The apelin-APJ system might be important in the pathophysiological process of heart failure. And it might be valuable in diagnosis and therapeutic implications in heart failure.

  15. [Determination of cyclohexanone concentration in the plasma separator by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-Ju; Yan, Lin; He, Yan-Ying; Lin, Wei-Cong

    2009-09-01

    This essay is to determine the cyclohexanone concentration of the plasma separator. The compound was introduced into the GC analytical system by the carrier gas. The determination was performed by the measurement of their peak area and by the external standard method.

  16. Decreased coenzyme Q10 concentration in plasma of children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, J.H.; Lecluse, A.L.Y.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.; Laag, J. van der; Houwen, R.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an effective lipophilic antioxidant and protects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging radicals. Patients with cystic fibrosis generally have fat malabsorption; thus, we hypothesized that overall plasma CoQ10 concentration in pediatric patients with cystic

  17. Perioperative dilutional coagulopathy treated with fresh frozen plasma and fibrinogen concentrate: a prospective randomized intervention trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lance, M.D.; Ninivaggi, M.; Schols, S.E.; Feijge, M.A.; Oehrl, S.K.; Kuiper, G.J.; Nikiforou, M.; Marcus, M.A.; Hamulyak, K.; Pampus, E.C.M. van; Cate, H. ten; Heemskerk, J.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of dilutional coagulopathy by transfusing fresh frozen plasma (FFP) remains sub-optimal. We hypothesized that partial replacement of transfused FFP by fibrinogen concentrate results in improved coagulant activity and haemostasis. This was tested in a controlled c

  18. Plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics following rectal administration in neonates and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; O'Brien, K; Morton, N S

    1999-01-01

    Despite widespread use in children pharmacokinetic data about paracetamol are relatively scarce, not the least in the youngest age groups. This study aimed to describe plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics of a single rectal paracetamol dose in neonates and young infants....

  19. Plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate after various inhalation methods in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y; Muraki, K; Fujitaka, M; Sakura, N; Ueda, K

    1999-01-01

    Aims To compare the plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) following various inhalation procedures in healthy volunteers. Methods Nine healthy subjects inhaled 2 mg of aerosol, 20 mg of nebuliser solution only, 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with isotonic saline, or 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with saline and procaterol, a β2-adenoceptor agonist, on separate occasions 2–3 weeks apart. Plasma concentrations of DSCG were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). Results The peak plasma concentrations of DSCG were 1.5±0.7 (range 0.4–2.4) ng ml−1 in the aerosol group, 8.8±6.2 (range 5.3–19.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution only group, 17.2±16.3 (range 5.0–38.6) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus isotonic saline group, and 24.5±11.9 (range 10.2–44.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus saline and procaterol group. Thus subjects who used the nebuliser had markedly higher plasma concentrations of DSCG than subjects who used the aerosol inhaler. Conclusions These findings may have important implications for the evaluation of inhalation treatment with DSCG for bronchial asthma. PMID:10417491

  20. A physiologically based kinetic model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in mice and man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, van de N.

    2011-01-01

    An increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, individuals vary largely in their response to cholesterol lowering drugs and 40% of them, do not reach their cholesterol-lowering target. Development of novel therapies, for example co

  1. Cardiac C-type natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse H; Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    and cardiac tissue extracts were quantified by a porcine-specific radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Cardiac CNP mRNA contents (n=24) were low compared to sites of known expression, where porcine seminal vesicle CNP mRNA contents were 200-fold higher. In addition, plasma proCNP concentrations in the newborn piglets...

  2. Persistent increase of plasma butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine concentrations as marker of SCAD defect and ethylmalonic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merinero, B; Perez-Cerda, C; Ruiz Sala, P

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine (C(4)-carnitine) in plasma with increase of ethylmalonic acid (EMA) in urine point to different genetic entities, and further investigations are required to differentiate the possible underlying defect. Here we report three unrelated cases, two...

  3. High fetal plasma adenosine concentration: a role for the fetus in preeclampsia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Espinoza, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical observations suggest a role for the fetus in the maternal manifestations of preeclampsia, but the possible signaling mechanisms remain unclear. This study compares the fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine from normal pregnancies with those from preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis included normal pregnancies (n = 27) and patients with preeclampsia (n = 39). Patients with preeclampsia were subclassified into patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 14) abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry (UADV). RESULTS: Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (1.35 +\\/- 0.09 mumol\\/L) than in normal pregnancies (0.52 +\\/- 0.06 mumol\\/L; P < .0001). Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine in patients with preeclampsia with abnormal UADV (1.78 +\\/- 0.15 mumol\\/L), but not with normal UADV (0.58 +\\/- 0.14 mumol\\/L), were significantly higher than in normal pregnancies (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Patients with preeclampsia with sonographic evidence of chronic uteroplacental ischemia have high fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine.

  4. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of plasma Aβ peptides concentrations in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Chouraki (Vincent); R.F.A.G. de Bruijn (Renée); J. Chapuis; J.C. Bis (Joshua); C. Reitz (Christiane); S. Schraen (Susanna); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); B. Grenier-Boley (Benjamin); C. Delay; R. Rogers; F. Demiautte; A. Mounier; A.L. Fitzpatrick (Annette); C. Berr (Claudine); J.-F. Dartigues; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); J.T. Becker; M. Lathrop (Mark); N. Schupf; A. Alperovitch (Annick); R. Mayeux (Richard); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia M.); L. Buee (Luc); P. Amouyel (Philippe); O.L. Lopez (Oscar); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); C. Tzourio (Christophe); J.-C. Lambert (J.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAmyloid beta (Aβ) peptides are the major components of senile plaques, one of the main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, Aβ peptides' functions are not fully understood and seem to be highly pleiotropic. We hypothesized that plasma Aβ peptides concentrations coul

  5. Plasma prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations around parturition in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverne, M.; Willemse, A.H.; Dieleman, S.J.; Bevers, M.

    Plasma concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples taken from 2–15 days before until 1–4 days after spontaneous parturition in four sows and in one sow around prostaglandin F2α-induced parturition. Between Days −15 and −2 (Day 0 =

  6. Plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics following rectal administration in neonates and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; O'Brien, K; Morton, N S

    1999-01-01

    Despite widespread use in children pharmacokinetic data about paracetamol are relatively scarce, not the least in the youngest age groups. This study aimed to describe plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics of a single rectal paracetamol dose in neonates and young infants....

  7. Relationship between craving and plasma leptin concentrations in patients with cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Giovanni; Montemitro, Chiara; Baroni, Gaia; Andreoli, Sara; Alimonti, Flaminia; Di Nicola, Marco; Tonioni, Federico; Leggio, Lorenzo; di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2017-08-05

    There is robust evidence indicating an overlap between neurobiological circuitry and pathways that regulate addictions and those that regulate appetite and food intake. Rodent work suggests a role of the appetitive peptide leptin in cocaine-seeking behaviours. The goal of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between plasma leptin concentrations and cocaine craving and use in patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence. Patients (N=43) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of cocaine dependence were studied before starting detoxification (baseline; T0) and then again 14days after (T1; only those patients who abstained from cocaine during the study). Blood samples for plasma leptin concentrations were collected and cocaine craving was assessed using the Brief Cocaine Craving Questionnaire (Brief-CCQ). Food craving was also assessed using a food Visual Analogue Scale (f-VAS). Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) was used to evaluate impulsivity. Plasma leptin concentrations at T0 significantly correlated with baseline Brief-CCQ scores (r=0.34, p0.05). The present study suggests a potential relationship between plasma leptin concentrations and cocaine craving and use. Future mechanistic studies are needed to determine whether manipulations of leptin signalling may lead to novel pharmacological approaches to treat cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Zinc and iron concentration and SOD activity in human semen and seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Kamiński, Piotr; Lakota, Paweł; Szymański, Marek; Wasilow, Karolina; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Kuligowska-Prusińska, Magdalena; Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Grażyna; Stuczyński, Tomasz; Michałkiewicz, Jacek

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentration in human semen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in seminal plasma and correlate the results with sperm quality. Semen samples were obtained from men (N = 168) undergoing routine infertility evaluation. The study design included two groups based on the ejaculate parameters. Group I (n = 39) consisted of males with normal ejaculate (normozoospermia), and group II (n = 129) consisted of males with pathological spermiogram. Seminal Zn and Fe were measured in 162 samples (group I, n = 38; group II, n = 124) and SOD activity in 149 samples (group I, n = 37; group II, n = 112). Correlations were found between SOD activity and Fe and Zn concentration, and between Fe and Zn concentration. SOD activity was negatively associated with volume of semen and positively associated with rapid progressive motility, nonprogressive motility, and concentration. Negative correlation was stated between Fe concentration and normal morphology. Mean SOD activity in seminal plasma of semen from men of group I was higher than in seminal plasma of semen from men of group II. Fe concentration was higher in teratozoospermic males than in males with normal morphology of spermatozoa in group II. Our results suggest that Fe may influence spermatozoa morphology.

  9. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  10. Overestimation of canine albumin concentration with the bromcresol green method in heparinized plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokol, Tracy; Tarrant, Jacqueline M.; Scarlett, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    Albumin concentrations are routinely measured in dogs with bromcresol green (BCG)-binding assays on automated chemistry analyzers. Several variables affect this assay, including the length of reaction time, sample type, and lack of specificity of BCG for albumin. We observed that albumin concentrations measured with BCG appeared higher in heparinized plasma samples in sick dogs. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of anticoagulant and assay procedure on BCG albumin concentrations in clinically ill dogs. We hypothesized that albumin concentrations would be overestimated in heparinized plasma compared with serum because of the combination of heparin and fibrinogen. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the overestimation would be influenced by assay parameters. Blood was collected from 32 clinically ill dogs into tubes containing heparin, citrate, or no anticoagulant. Citrate was chosen to assess the effect of fibrinogen in the absence of heparin. Albumin concentration was measured in all 3 sample types from each dog using 2 different BCG procedures on an automated chemistry analyzer. The BCG procedures (standard and modified) differed in the wavelengths used for absorbance readings (standard, 600/700; modified, 570/505) and the time point at which absorbance was measured (standard, 100 seconds; modified, 40 seconds). In addition, the modified method incorporated a sample blank. Globulin fractions, fibrinogen concentration, and indices of lipemia, hemolysis, and icterus were evaluated for their contribution to the overestimation of albumin concentration in heparinized plasma compared with serum samples. Albumin concentrations were significantly higher (P plasma (mean +/- SE, 3.8 +/- 0.1 g/dL) than in serum (3.6 +/- 0.2 g/dL) or citrated plasma (3.2 +/- 0.1 g/dL). Overestimation was evident only with the standard BCG procedure. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that fibrinogen was largely responsible for the higher

  11. Increases in plasma motilin follow each episode of gallbladder emptying during the interdigestive period, and changes in serum bile acid concentration correlate to plasma motilin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Pedersen, S A

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between each single period of gallbladder emptying during the migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle and changes in concentration of plasma motilin and serum bile acids is unknown. METHODS: The variations in the concentration of plasma motilin and serum bile acids in rel...

  12. Clinical relevance of plasma prostaglandin F2α metabolite concentrations in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku Aihara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a devastating lung disease of unknown etiology with few current treatment options. Recently, we determined an important role of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α in pulmonary fibrosis by using a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model and found an abundance of PGF2α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of IPF patients. We investigated the role of PGF2α in human IPF by assessing plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α, a stable metabolite of PGF2α. METHODS: We measured plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α in 91 IPF patients and compared these values with those of controls (n = 25. We further investigated the relationships of plasma 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α concentrations with disease severity and mortality. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α were significantly higher in IPF patients than controls (p<0.001. Plasma concentrations of this metabolite were significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (Rs [correlation coefficient] = -0.34, p = 0.004, forced vital capacity (Rs = -0.33, p = 0.005, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (Rs = -0.36, p = 0.003, the composite physiologic index (Rs = 0.40, p = 0.001, 6-minute walk distance (Rs = -0.24, p = 0.04 and end-exercise oxygen saturation (Rs = -0.25, p = 0.04 when patients with emphysema were excluded. Multivariate analysis using stepwise Cox proportional hazards model showed that a higher composite physiologic index (relative risk = 1.049, p = 0.002 and plasma 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α concentrations (relative risk = 1.005, p = 0.002 were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated significant associations of plasma concentrations of PGF2α metabolites with disease severity and prognosis, which support a potential pathogenic role for PGF2α in human IPF.

  13. Soil transport parameters of potassium under a tropical saline soil condition using STANMOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanye da Silva Santos, Rafaelly; Honorio de Miranda, Jarbas; Previatello da Silva, Livia

    2015-04-01

    Environmental responsibility and concerning about the final destination of solutes in soil, so more studies allow a better understanding about the solutes behaviour in soil. Potassium is a macronutrient that is required in high concentrations, been an extremely important nutrient for all agricultural crops. It plays essential roles in physiological processes vital for plant growth, from protein synthesis to maintenance of plant water balance, and is available to plants dissolved in soil water while exchangeable K is loosely held on the exchange sites on the surface of clay particles. K will tend to be adsorbed onto the surface of negatively charged soil particles. Potassium uptake is vital for plant growth but in saline soils sodium competes with potassium for uptake across the plasma membrane of plant cells. This can result in high Na+:K+ ratios that reduce plant growth and eventually become toxic. This study aimed to obtain soil transport parameters of potassium in saline soil, such as: pore water velocity in soil (v), retardation factor (R), dispersivity (λ) and dispersion coefficient (D), in a disturbed sandy soil with different concentrations of potassium chlorate solution (KCl), which is one of the most common form of potassium fertilizer. The experiment was carried out using soil samples collected in a depth of 0 to 20 cm, applying potassium chlorate solution containing 28.6, 100, 200 and 500 mg L-1 of K. To obtain transport parameters, the data were adjusted with the software STANMOD. At low concentrations, interaction between potassium and soil occur more efficiently. It was observed that only the breakthrough curve prepared with solution of 500 mg L-1 reached the applied concentration, and the solution of 28.6 mg L-1 overestimated the parameters values. The STANMOD proved to be efficient in obtaining potassium transport parameters; KCl solution to be applied should be greater than 500 mg L-1; solutions with low concentrations tend to overestimate

  14. Cholesterol concentration in seminal plasma as a predictive tool for quality semen evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer-Ljubić, B; Aladrović, J; Marenjak, T S; Laskaj, R; Majić-Balić, I; Milinković-Tur, S

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lipid composition of bovine serum and seminal plasma, seasonality, and semen quality. The experiment was carried out in two groups of Simmental breeding bulls: Group I (ages 2 to 4 yr) and Group II (ages 5 to 10 yr). Blood samples were collected from jugular vein, and bovine semen was sampled with an artificial vagina once per season. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerols, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and lipoprotein electrophoretic patterns were determined. Seminal plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C were assayed. Serum concentration of triacylglycerols in young bulls was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn, whereas serum NEFA concentration was significantly higher in autumn compared with that in other seasons. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and LDL lipoproteins in older bulls was significantly higher in winter than in spring. Seminal plasma concentration of total cholesterol in young bulls was significantly higher in spring compared with that in summer, whereas in older bulls it was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn samples. Sperm volume of both groups was significantly higher in summer compared with that in autumn and winter. Sperm motility in young bulls was lowest in summer and differed significantly from the values recorded in other seasons. The changes observed in seminal plasma cholesterol concentration were associated with extracellular lipid use and appeared to be applicable as a biochemical marker of sperm quality.

  15. High Variability of Plasma Drug Concentrations in Dual Protease Inhibitor Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiard-Schmid, Jean-Baptiste; Poirier, Jean-Marie; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Bonnard, Philippe; Gbadoe, Ayi Hola; Amiel, Corinne; Calligaris, Frédérique; Abraham, Bruno; Pialoux, Gilles; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Jaillon, Patrice; Rozenbaum, Willy

    2003-01-01

    Ritonavir (RTV) strongly increases the concentrations of protease inhibitors (PIs) in plasma in patients given a combination of RTV and another PI. This pharmacological interaction is complex and poorly characterized and shows marked inter- and intraindividual variations. In addition, RTV interacts differently with saquinavir (SQV), indinavir (IDV), amprenavir (APV), and lopinavir (LPV). In this retrospective study on 542 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, we compared inter- and intraindividual variability of plasma PI concentrations and correlations between the Cmin (minimum concentration of drug in plasma) values for RTV and the coadministered PI Cmin values. Mean RTV Cmins are significantly lower in patients receiving combinations containing APV or LPV than in combinations with SQV or IDV. With the most common PI dose regimens (600 mg of IDV twice a day [BID], 800 mg of SQV BID, and 400 mg of LPV BID), the interindividual Cmin variability of patients treated with a PI and RTV seemed to be lower with APV and LPV than with IDV and SQV. As regards intraindividual variability, APV also differed from the other PIs, exhibiting lower Cmin variability than with the other combinations. Significant positive correlations between RTV Cmin and boosted PI Cmin were observed with IDV, SQV, and LPV, but not with APV. Individual dose adjustments must take into account the specificity the pharmacological interaction of each RTV/PI combination and the large inter- and intraindividual variability of plasma PI levels to avoid suboptimal plasma drug concentrations which may lead to treatment failure and too high concentrations which may induce toxicity and therefore reduce patient compliance. PMID:12604531

  16. Potassium Iodide (KI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Potassium Iodide (KI) Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... can I get KI (potassium iodide)? What is Potassium Iodide (KI)? KI (potassium iodide) is a salt of ...

  17. Sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma of patients with late-life depression: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hideyuki Shimizu,1 Minoru Takebayashi,2 Masayuki Tani,1 Hiroaki Tanaka,1 Bun Yamagata,1 Kenzo Kurosawa,1 Hiroki Yamada,1 Mitsugu Hachisu,3 Kazue Hisaoka-Nakashima,2 Mami Okada-Tsuchioka,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Akira Iwanami11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Institute for Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Psychopharmacy, Pharmacy School, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and after antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD and explored whether changes in depressive status are related to sigma-1 receptor concentrations.Methods: The study participants were 12 subjects with late-life MDD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All of the participants were over 60 years old. Immediately prior to and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, sigma-1 receptor concentration and mental status, including depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-D, were measured. Treatment for depression was performed according to a developed algorithm based on the choice of treatments. We examined the association between changes in sigma-1 receptor concentration and HAM-D scores during antidepressant treatment. For the measurement of plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration, blood plasma samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western

  18. Calcium-dependent modulation and plasma membrane targeting of the AKT2 potassium channel by the CBL4/ CIPK6 calcium sensor/protein kinase complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katrin Held; Jean-Baptiste Thibaud; J(o)rg Kudla; Francois Pascaud; Christian Eckert; Pawel Gajdanowicz; Kenji Hashimoto; Claire Corratgé-Faillie; Jan Niklas Offenborn; Beno(i)t Lacombe; Ingo Dreyer

    2011-01-01

    Potassium (K+) channel function is fundamental to many physiological processes. However, components and mechanisms regulating the activity of plant K+ channels remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the calcium (Ca2+)sensor CBL4 together with the interacting protein kinase CIPK6 modulates the activity and plasma membrane (PM)targeting of the K+ channel AKT2 from Arabidopsis thaliana by mediating translocation of AKT2 to the PM in plant cells and enhancing AKT2 activity in oocytes. Accordingly, akt2, cbl4 and cipk6 mutants share similar developmental and delayed flowering pheuotypes. Moreover, the isolated regulatory C-terminal domain of CIPK6 is sufficient for mediating CBL4- and Ca2+-dependent channel translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to the PM by a novel targeting pathway that is dependent on dual lipid modifications of CBL4 by myristoylation and palmitoylation. Thus, we describe a critical mechanism of ion-channel regulation where a Ca2+ sensor modulates K+ channel activity by promoting a kinase interaction-dependent but phosphorylation-independent translocation of the channel to the PM.

  19. Effect of potassium fluoride on the in-situ sealing pores of plasma electrolytic oxidation film on AM50 Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Feng [National Engineering Center for Corrosion Control, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yu, Juan [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Song, Yingwei, E-mail: ywsong@imr.ac.cn [National Engineering Center for Corrosion Control, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shan, Dayong; Han, En-Hou [National Engineering Center for Corrosion Control, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The influence of potassium fluoride (KF) on the in-situ sealing pores of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) film on AM50 Mg alloy has been investigated using a stereo–zoom optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X–ray spectroscope (EDS). The films formed in the solutions with and without KF were compared. The sketch map for the formation process of in-situ sealing pores was established. The in-situ sealing pore PEO film can be obtained in the solution with KF, while the PEO film with open pores is obtained in the solution without KF. It indicates that the addition of KF plays a key role in the formation of in-situ sealing pores. Moreover, KF can change the initial film and promote the film growth rate. - Highlights: • The PEO films formed in the solutions with and without KF were compared. • KF makes a main contribution to the in-situ sealing pores of PEO film. • KF can change the initial film formation process and enhance the film growth rate.

  20. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes.

  1. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of different concentration potassium oxalate on pyrolysis characteristics of cigarette paper and mainstream smoke%草酸钾添加量对卷烟纸热解性能及主流烟气的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭华

    2012-01-01

    Potassium oxalate solution with different concentration was added to cigarette paper to investigate its effect on pyrolysis characteristics of cigarette paper and mainstream smoke through thermal analysis and tobacco smoke analysis. The results showed that tar and CO content decreased when potassium oxalate was added to cigarette paper;and U-shape profile could be found to illustrate the trend of puffs,CO and tar in smoke with potassium oxalate' s concentration increase. More details showed that tar and CO content minimized when potassium oxalate' s concentration was 1.5% ;thermal analysis indicated that cigarette paper initially pyrolyzed at a relatively lower temperature with higher potassium oxalate concentration, and active energy decreased at 200 ~ 300 ℃.%通过在卷烟纸上添加不同量的草酸钾,采用常规烟气分析、同步热分析,研究其对卷烟纸热解性能及主流烟气的影响.结果表明:在卷烟纸上添加草酸钾后对卷烟主流烟气中的焦油和CO有一定的降低作用,随着添加量的继续增加,抽吸口数、CO和焦油释放量均呈先下降后缓慢上升趋势;在草酸钾添加量为1.5%时,其降焦及降CO效率最高;随着草酸钾添加量的增加,卷烟纸热解起始温度降低,在200~300℃时反应活化能降低.

  3. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Monique

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  4. HEMOFILTRATION AND COUPLED PLASMA FILTRATION ADSORPTION IMPACT ON TACROLIMUS BLOOD CONCENTRATION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of hemofi ltration and coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption on tacrolimus blood concentration in renal transplant recipients.Methods and results. The study included 8 renal transplant recipients. In these patients immediately after the operation was performed the coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption with hemofiltration using a cartridge Mediasorb to reduce the severity of reperfusion injury. We have found that during this extracorporeal blood correction procedure there was statistically not signifi cant decrease of tacrolimus blood concentration. However, concentration of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range even after the procedure and it was not signifi cantly different from the control point С0.Conclusion. Coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption is safe in renal transplant recipients and has no signifi cant impact on tacrolimus blood concentration. However, the downward trend in the concentration of tacrolimus in the course of these procedures, especially in continuous or semicontinuous mode, as well as in patients with low hematocrit and hypoalbuminemia, requires individual monitoring.

  5. The Relationship between the Plasma Triglyceride Concentration and the Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglycerides (TG may be involved in the pathogenesis of critical impairments. Objective: to study the relationship between the plasma concentration of TG, the outcome of the disease, and the markers of its severity in intensive care unit patients with early-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Subjects and methods. The prospective study included 18 patients with acute lung injury (ALI, who needed respiratory support. For further analysis, all the patients were divided into groups with TG < 1.00 mmol/l (TGlow; n=7 and >1.00 mmol/l (TGhigh; n=11. Results. A negative correlation was found between plasma TG concentration and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2. In the TG^jgh group, extravas-cular lung water index was significantly higher and cardiac index was lower than those in the TGlow group. Among the deceased patients, there was a 1.03 mmol/l reduction in TG concentration by day 4 of the study whereas in the survivors, TG concentration increased by an average of 0.15 mmol/l (p=0.02. Conclusion. In the patients with ALI, the plasma concentration of TG is related to oxygenation impairments and the degree of pulmonary edema, as well as with the outcome of the disease. Key words: triglycerides, acute lung injury, extravascular lung water index, pulmonary edema.

  6. Kinetic and Related Determinants of Plasma Triglyceride Concentration in Abdominal Obesity: Multicenter Tracer Kinetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borén, Jan; Watts, Gerald F; Adiels, Martin; Söderlund, Sanni; Chan, Dick C; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Matikainen, Niina; Kahri, Juhani; Vergès, Bruno; Barrett, P Hugh R; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A major cause is an atherogenic dyslipidemia related primarily to elevated plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to clarify determinants of plasma triglyceride concentration. We focused on factors that predict the kinetics of very-low density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) triglycerides. A multicenter study using dual stable isotopes (deuterated leucine and glycerol) and multicompartmental modeling was performed to elucidate the kinetics of triglycerides and apoB in VLDL1 in 46 subjects with abdominal obesity and additional cardiometabolic risk factors. Results showed that plasma triglyceride concentrations were dependent on both the secretion rate (r=0.44, Ptriglycerides and VLDL1-apoB. Liver fat mass was independently and directly associated with secretion rates of VLDL1-triglycerides (r=0.56, Ptriglycerides (r=0.48, Ptriglyceride concentrations in abdominal obesity are determined by the kinetics of VLDL1 subspecies, catabolism being mainly dependent on apoC-III concentration and secretion on liver fat content. Reduction in liver fat and targeting apoC-III may be an effective approach for correcting triglyceride metabolism atherogenic dyslipidemia in obesity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Increased plasma concentration of serum amyloid P component in centenarians with impaired cognitive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Olsen, H; Jeune, B;

    1998-01-01

    these to the cognitive performance evaluated by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). We observed a significantly (p ... higher SAP concentration (60.2 microg/ml), while the subgroup of cognitive intact centenarians (MMSE score >24) showed a normal SAP concentration (38.4+/-9.3 microg/ml). No dehydration or hepatic dysfunction was demonstrable in the centenarians. We conclude that the centenarians with impaired cognitive...... performance had significantly increased plasma concentrations of SAP, while the values for cognitive intact centenarians were within the normal range....

  8. [The concentration of free lidocaine in arterial, central venous and peripheral vein plasma following intravenous injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, H; al Saydali, B; Weissenberg, W

    1990-03-01

    Ten intensive care patients and five healthy volunteers each received a bolus injection of lidocaine HCl (100 mg, 2%) over an injection period of 5 s. After 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 25 min arterial, central venous and peripheral venous blood samples were collected. In four of the volunteers, arterial and central venous samples were also taken about 10 s after the end of injection. The fluorescence polarization method by means of the Abbott-TDx system was used, and plasma concentrations of lidocaine were determined. The measurements showed that lidocaine levels in central venous plasma 10 s after the end of administration were higher than those in arterial plasma. By 30 s after administration the opposite situation had developed, so that arterial concentrations were higher than those in central venous plasma. This relation did not change throughout the study, though the two levels became closer, as is shown by the ratios (Table 3, Fig. 2). Concentrations in peripheral venous plasma increased more slowly but remained far below those in arterial and central venous plasma, at least for the first 8 min. After 15 min lidocaine levels were almost the same in all three samples. During the entire study there were no ECG changes, and neither heart rate nor blood pressure showed any significant deviation from the values obtained at the beginning. The volunteers had minor toxic manifestations, such as dizziness, tinnitus and a metallic taste in the mouth; one person had a sensation of pressure in his chest, which improved following oxygen administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Plasma concentrations of organohalogenated pollutants in predatory bird nestlings: associations to growth rate and dietary tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bårdsen, Bård J; Herzke, Dorte; Johnsen, Trond V; Eulaers, Igor; Ballesteros, Manuel; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Covaci, Adrian; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Eens, Marcel; Sonne, Christian; Halley, Duncan; Moum, Truls; Nøst, Therese Haugdal; Erikstad, Kjell E; Ims, Rolf Anker

    2013-11-01

    The extent to which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with different physicochemical properties originated from the food (dietary input) was assessed in raptor nestlings. Lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153, 1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and protein-bound perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured repeatedly in blood plasma of individual goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) nestlings, 1 to 3 wk after hatching and near fledging. Maternally derived POPs dilute as nestlings grow (growth dilution), and increasing plasma concentrations would indicate dietary input. First, plasma concentrations given no dietary input were estimated, and concentrations of p,p'-DDE, HCB, and notably PFOS were significantly higher than predicted from a growth-dilution scenario (approximately 1.5-fold to 2.5-fold higher; p growth rate. Both δ(15) N and δ(13) C (measured in body feathers) were significantly associated to the accumulation of most POPs, except PFOS. In conclusion, pollutant data acquired in plasma of nestling raptors should be interpreted and further investigated in the light of individual feeding ecology, and the use of raptor nestlings as sentinels for POP monitoring could be optimized by correcting for different factors such as body condition, brood size, and age.

  10. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  11. Consumption of canned citrus fruit meals increases human plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentration, whereas lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao H; Gertz, Erik R; Cai, Yimeng; Burri, Betty J

    2016-07-01

    Several studies suggest that β-cryptoxanthin has a greater plasma response from its common food sources than other carotenoids such as β-carotene and lycopene. The hypothesis of this study is that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations will be greater than changes in plasma β-carotene or lycopene concentrations even if these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix, such as citrus fruit. We tested this hypothesis by measuring changes in plasma concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β-carotene after feeding measured amounts of canned tangerines and pink grapefruit to healthy nonsmoking adult humans. Volunteers served as their own controls and received both citrus fruit treatments randomly. In the first study, 8 subjects ate single meals of 234-304g of tangerines or 60-540g of pink grapefruit. The second study compared changes in plasma carotenoid concentration caused by feeding 234g of tangerines or 540g of pink grapefruit to 11 subjects. Blood was collected 5 times within 24hours after each citrus meal. Carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased within 5hours and then stabilized, remaining high throughout the 24hours measured. Plasma concentrations of lycopene and β-carotene did not change. These results show that β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased after a citrus fruit meal, but lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change after a similar citrus fruit meal. These results support our hypothesis that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin are greater than changes in plasma lycopene or β-carotene, even when these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix.

  12. Rapid screening test for primary hyperaldosteronism: ratio of plasma aldosterone to renin concentration determined by fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perschel, F.H.; Schemer, R.; Seiler, L.; Reincke, M.; Deinum, J.; Maser-Gluth, C.; Mechelhoff, D.; Tauber, R.; Diederich, S.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ratio of plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity (PAC/PRA) is the most common screening test for primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA), but it is not standardized among laboratories. We evaluated new automated assays for the simultaneous measurement of PAC and plasma ren

  13. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestorino, N. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: nmestorino@yahoo.com; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-04-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg{sup -1}). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 {mu}g h mL{sup -1} and its elimination half life (T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2}) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2} from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal.

  14. Development of a microfluidic device for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Kumar, B S; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2015-12-01

    This work presents design, fabrication and test of a microfluidic device which employs Fahraeus-Lindqvist and Zweifach-Fung effects for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation. The device design comprises a straight main channel with a series of branched channels placed symmetrically on both sides of the main channel. The design implements constrictions before each junction (branching point) in order to direct cells that would have migrated closer to the wall (naturally or after liquid extraction at a junction) towards the centre of the main channel. Theoretical and numerical analysis are performed for design of the microchannel network to ensure that a minimum flow rate ratio (of 2.5:1, main channel-to-side channels) is maintained at each junction and predict flow rate at the plasma outlet. The dimensions and location of the constrictions were determined using numerical simulations. The effect of presence of constrictions before the junctions was demonstrated by comparing the performances of the device with and without constrictions. To demonstrate the performance of the device, initial experiments were performed with polystyrene microbeads (10 and 15 μm size) and droplets. Finally, the device was used for concentration of HL60 cells and separation of plasma and cells in diluted blood samples. The cell concentration and blood-plasma purification efficiency was quantified using Haemocytometer and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). A seven-fold cell concentration was obtained with HL60 cells and a purification efficiency of 70 % and plasma recovery of 80 % was observed for diluted (1:20) blood sample. FACS was used to identify cell lysis and the cell viability was checked using Trypan Blue test which showed that more than 99 % cells are alive indicating the suitability of the device for practical use. The proposed device has potential to be used as a sample preparation module in lab on chip based diagnostic platforms.

  15. Increased plasma soluble CD40 ligand concentration in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsung-chin; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Po-Hui; Lin, Long-Yau; Tee, Yi-Torng; Liao, Wen-Chun; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The role of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains unclear. We sought to determine whether sCD40L was an efficient serum marker as with WBC and CRP in PID patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the plasma levels of sCD40L before and after routine protocol treatments in sixty-four PID patients and seventy healthy controls. The level of plasma sCD40L (pg/ml) was significantly elevated in PID patients (1632.83±270.91) compared to that in normal controls (700.33±58.77; p=0.001) and decreased significantly as compared to that in the same patients (928.77±177.25; p=0.0001) after they received treatment. The concentration of sCD40L was significantly correlated with the level of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood (r=0.202, p=0.01, n=134). When the cutoff level of plasma sCD40L levels was determined to be 1612.26pg/ml based on ROC, the sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve of plasma sCD40L level for predicting PID were 0.26, 0.97, and 0.58 (95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.68), respectively, while the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with their 95% CI of plasma sCD40L for PID risk was 7.09 (95% CI=1.14-43.87, p=0.03). The expression of plasma sCD40L was increased in patients with PID and detection of plasma sCD40L could be useful for the diagnosis of PID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-07-04

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration could modify PRP efficacy in routine applications. The aim of this study was to test the influence of environmental, individual and agonistic variables on the PLT concentration of PRP in horses. Six healthy Standardbred mares were exposed to six different variables with a one-week washout period between variables, and PRP was subsequently obtained from each horse. The variables were time of withdrawal during the day (morning/evening), hydration status (overhydration/dehydration) treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and training periods on a treadmill. The platelet concentration was significantly higher in horses treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (P = 0.03). The leukocyte concentration increased 2-9 fold with respect to whole blood in the PRP which was obtained after exposure to all the variable considered. Environmental variation in platelet concentration should be taken into consideration during PRP preparation.

  17. Determination of lead by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HG-ICP-MS): on-line generation of plumbane using potassium hexacyanomanganate(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Vedat; Arslan, Zikri; Rose, LaKeysha

    2013-01-25

    A hydride generation (HG) procedure has been described for determination of Pb by ICP-MS using potassium hexacyanomanganate(III), K(3)Mn(CN)(6), as an additive to facilitate the generation of plumbane (PbH(4)). Potassium hexacyanomanganate(III) was prepared in acidic medium as it was unstable in water. The stability of hexacyanomanganate(III) was examined in dilute solutions of HCl, HNO(3) and H(2)SO(4). The solutions prepared in 1% v/v H(2)SO(4) were found to be stable for over a period of 24h. The least suitable medium was 1% v/v HNO(3). For generation of plumbane, acidic hexacyanomanganate(III) and sample solutions were mixed on-line along a 5-cm long tygon tubing (1.14 mm i.d.) and then reacted with 2% m/v sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)). A concentration of 0.5% m/v K(3)Mn(CN)(6) facilitated the generation of PbH(4) remarkably. In comparison to H(2)SO(4), HCl provided broader working range for which optimum concentration was 1% v/v. No significant interferences were noted from transition metals and hydride forming elements, up to 0.5 μg mL(-1) levels, except Cu which depressed the signals severely. The depressive effects in the presence of 0.1 μg mL(-1) Cu were alleviated by increasing the concentration of K(3)Mn(CN)(6) to 2% m/v. Under these conditions, the sensitivity was enhanced by a factor of at least 42 to 48. The detection limit (3s) was 0.008 μg L(-1) for (208)Pb isotope. Average signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) ranged between 18 and 20 for 1.0 μg mL(-1) Pb solution. The accuracy of the method was verified by analysis of several certified reference materials, including Nearshore seawater (CASS-4), Bone ash (SRM 1400), and Mussel tissue (SRM 2976). The procedure was also successfully applied to the determination of Pb in coastal seawater samples by ICP-MS.

  18. Evaluation of an immunoassay for determination of plasma efavirenz concentrations in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemseged Abdissa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM may improve antiretroviral efficacy through adjustment of individual drug administration. This could result in reduced toxicity, prevent drug resistance, and aid management of drug–drug interactions. However, most measurement methods are too costly to be implemented in resource-limited settings. This study evaluated a commercially available immunoassay for measurement of plasma efavirenz. Methods: The immunoassay-based method was applied to measure efavirenz using a readily available Humastar 80 chemistry analyzer. We compared plasma efavirenz concentrations measured by the immunoassay with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (reference method in 315 plasma samples collected from HIV patients on treatment. Concentrations were categorized as suboptimal4 µg/ml. Agreement between results of the methods was assessed via Bland-Altman plot and κ statistic values. Results: The median Interquartile range (IQR efavirenz concentration was 2.8 (1.9; 4.5 µg/ml measured by the LC–MS/MS method and 2.5 (1.8; 3.9 µg/ml by the immunoassay and the results were well correlated (ρ=0.94. The limits of agreement assessed by Bland–Altman plots were −2.54; 1.70 µg/ml. Although immunoassay underestimated high concentrations, it had good agreement for classification into low, normal or high concentrations (K=0.74. Conclusions: The immunoassay is a feasible alternative to determine efavirenz in areas with limited resources. The assay provides a reasonable approximation of efavirenz concentration in the majority of samples with a tendency to underestimate high concentrations. Agreement between tests evaluated in this study was clinically satisfactory for identification of low, normal and high efavirenz concentrations.

  19. Patient age does not affect mefloquine concentrations in erythrocytes and plasma during the acute phase of falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Fernandes Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate whether patient age has a significant impact on mefloquine concentrations in the plasma and erythrocytes over the course of treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Methods A total of 20 children aged between 8 and 11 years and 20 adult males aged between 22 and 41 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled in the study. Mefloquine was administered to patients in both age groups at a dose of 20 mg kg−1. The steady-state drug concentrations were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results All patients had an undetectable mefloquine concentration on day 0. In adults, the plasma mefloquine concentrations ranged from 770 to 2930 ng mL−1 and the erythrocyte concentrations ranged from 2000 to 6030 ng mL−1. In children, plasma mefloquine concentrations ranged from 881 to 3300 ng mL−1 and erythrocyte concentrations ranged from 3000 to 4920 ng mL−1. There was no significant correlation between mefloquine concentrations in the plasma and erythrocytes in either adults or children. Conclusion In the present study, we observed no effect of patient age on the steady-state concentrations of mefloquine in the plasma and erythrocytes. We found that the mefloquine concentration in the erythrocytes was approximately 2.8-times higher than in the plasma. There were no significant correlations between mefloquine concentrations in the erythrocytes and plasma for either age group.

  20. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations.Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC.Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry.Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale.Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  1. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1–2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions. PMID

  2. Relationship between physical activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in adults without chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Gomez-Marcos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR, and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women. Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs/hour/week and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute for 7 days. RESULTS: Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week. Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = -0.100; p<0.001 and METs/hour/week (r = -0.162; p<0.001. In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile, maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = -0.03; p = 0.046 and β = -0.06; p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of methimazole in children and adolescents with Graves' disease. Studies on plasma and intrathyroidal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, A; Yano, K; Inyaku, F; Suzuki, Y; Sanae, N; Kumai, M; Naitoh, Y

    1987-05-01

    Methimazole concentrations in plasma and in the thyroid glands were measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetics of methimazole were studied after a single oral dose (175 mumol/m2) in nine children and adolescent who were in the thyrotoxic state. Plasma levels of methimazole showed peak concentrations of 4.4 to 12.6 (median 9.2) mumol/l at 0.5 to 4 h after drug administration. Plasma half-life, area under the curve, and distribution volume ranged from 2.73 to 6.04 h, 32.8 to 77.9 mumol X l-1 X h-1, and 0.516 to 0.913 l/kg, respectively. These pharmacokinetic parameters showed a wide variation among the patients, but were quite reproducible in the same subject. Intrathyroidal concentrations of methimazole were measured in another nine subjects including four adolescents and five adults who underwent thyroidectomy. The drug concentrations in the thyroid glands ranged between 3.5 and 23.8 mumol/kg tissue and were far higher than those in the plasma obtained at the time of surgery. In this series of experiments, the dose of the drug varied from 76 to 319 mumol/m2, time after the last dose to surgery from 5 to 24 h, and the mode of drug administration from a single to three divided doses. Among these variable factors, only the daily dose of methimazole corrected by body surface area showed significant correlation with the intrathyroidal concentration, whereas the time after the last dose of the drug and the mode of drug administration did not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Influence of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Beynen, A C

    1993-05-01

    The effects of amount and type of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations were evaluated in female rats. The isonitrogenous diets used contained 10 g cholesterol/kg and were carefully balanced for residual fat, cholesterol, Ca, Mg and P in the protein preparations. Cod meal, soya-bean protein or casein was incorporated into the diets as the only source of dietary protein at three levels: either 24, 48 or 72 g N/kg diet. Extra protein was added to the diet at the expense of the glucose component. In a second experiment soya-bean protein, casein, cod meal, whiting meal or plaice meal was added to the diet at a level of 24 g N/kg. When compared with casein, cod meal and soya-bean protein decreased plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. A further cholesterol-lowering effect was achieved by increasing the proportion of either soya-bean protein or cod meal in the diet. Substitution of casein for glucose did not influence plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. Plaice meal in the diet produced lower group mean plasma cholesterol concentrations than did whiting meal. In rats fed on the diet containing plaice meal, liver cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower than those in their counterparts fed on either cod meal or whiting meal. The present study demonstrates that different fish proteins in the diet have different effects on cholesterol metabolism and that the cholesterol-influencing properties of cod meal can be enhanced by the incorporation of higher proportions of this protein in the diet.

  5. Potassium clavulanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Fujii

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, K+·C8H8NO5− [systematic name: potassium (2R,5R,Z-3-(2-hydroxyethylidene-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate], a widely used β-lactam antibiotic, is usually chemically unstable even in the solid state owing to its tendency to be hydrolysed. In the crystal structure, the potassium cations are arranged along the a axis, forming interactions to the carboxylate and hydroxy groups, resulting in one-dimensional ionic columns. These columns are arranged along the b axis, connected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a layer in the ab plane.

  6. Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL. For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  7. Plasma protein concentrations in hypertriglyceridaemic subjects. Effect of clofibrate and comparison with normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, F C; Morrison, B A; Ballantyne, D; Dryburgh, F J; Epenetos, A A

    1978-07-01

    Clofibrate, a widely used hypolipidaemic agent was given for twelve weeks to ten subjects with hypertriglyceridaemia. Its effect on lipoprotein-lipids and caeruloplasmin, IgA, IgM, alpha2-microglobulin and transferrin was assessed by comparing analyses at 4, 8 and 12 weeks on therapy with the means of values at two weeks before and at the start of treatment. The normal variation in plasma proteins was assessed in six healthy volunteers during the same period of time. On clofibrate, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations fell, but the concentrations of cholesterol in low density (LDL) and high density (HDL) lipoproteins showed no consistent change. Caeruloplasmin and IgM concentrations decreased significantly, IgA showed a limited falls (significant only at 8 weeks) and alpha2-macroglobulin did not change. The concentration of transferrin increased on therapy. No relationships were found between the falls in VLDL-lipid concentrations and the alterations in other plasma proteins. No significant variation occurred in the concentrations of lipids or proteins in the normal subjects during the period of study. The results indicate that clofibrate exerts general effects on protein metabolism.

  8. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rinder, Christiane; Beige, Joachim;

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure.......Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure....

  9. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group...

  10. Plasma alcohol, smoking, hormone concentrations and self-reported aggression. A study in a social-drinking situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, L E; Robertson, L S; Tuchfeld, B

    1975-05-01

    Plasma alcohol concentrations and the number of cigarettes smoked by men during social-drinking situations were significantly related to change in testosterone levels. Age, height, plasma alcohol and smoking were related to self-reports of prior assault and verbal aggression. Agression was not related to testosterone concentration.

  11. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda;

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group...

  12. ADAMTS13 content in plasma-derived factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, Flora; Mannucci, Pier M; Valsecchi, Carla; Pontiggia, Silvia; Farina, Claudio; Retzios, Anastassios D

    2013-10-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a microangiopathy syndrome caused by a congenital or acquired deficiency of ADAMTS13, a plasma metalloprotease that cleaves von Willebrand factor (VWF) and thus prevents the formation of platelet-rich thrombi in the microcirculation. TTP can be fatal if not appropriately and timely treated with the infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or exchange plasmapheresis, that reverse the process of microangiopathy by removing anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies and replacing functional ADAMTS13. The treatment of TTP with FFP is not free from risks and must be administered in hospitals or clinics, owing to the substantial amount of plasma volume infused or exchanged and the frequent need of catheter application. Moreover, most FFPs are not subjected to treatments to remove or inactivate blood-borne infectious agents. A number of recent reports indicate that certain plasma-derived VWF-factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates are clinically effective in the treatment of congenital TTP. In this study, we measured ADAMTS13 levels in various plasma-derived VWF-FVIII concentrates, showing that Koate(®) -DVI (Grifols), contained relatively high amounts of ADAMTS13 and that Alphanate(®) (Grifols) was the closest other product in terms of protease content. Koate(®) -DVI contains, on average (five lots tested), 0.091 ± 0.007 Units of ADAMTS13 activity per IU of FVIII. On the basis of this analysis and other reports of VWF-FVIII concentrate utilization in congenital TTP, potential dosing, and future clinical developments are discussed.

  13. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  14. An Advanced Model to Precisely Estimate the Cell-Free Fetal DNA Concentration in Maternal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huixin; Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Weiwei; Chen, Fang; Zeng, Peng; Li, Xuchao; Xie, Yifan; Liu, Hongtai; Huang, Guodong; Chen, Dayang; Liu, Ping; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Xiuqing

    2016-01-01

    Background With the speedy development of sequencing technologies, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been widely applied in clinical practice for testing for fetal aneuploidy. The cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) concentration in maternal plasma is the most critical parameter for this technology because it affects the accuracy of NIPT-based sequencing for fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13. Several approaches have been developed to calculate the cffDNA fraction of the total cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma. However, most approaches depend on specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele information or are restricted to male fetuses. Methods In this study, we present an innovative method to accurately deduce the concentration of the cffDNA fraction using only maternal plasma DNA. SNPs were classified into four maternal-fetal genotype combinations and three boundaries were added to capture effective SNP loci in which the mother was homozygous and the fetus was heterozygous. The median value of the concentration of the fetal DNA fraction was estimated using the effective SNPs. A depth-bias correction was performed using simulated data and corresponding regression equations for adjustments when the depth of the sequencing data was below 100-fold or the cffDNA fraction is less than 10%. Results Using our approach, the median of the relative bias was 0.4% in 18 maternal plasma samples with a median sequencing depth of 125-fold. There was a significant association (r = 0.935) between our estimations and the estimations inferred from the Y chromosome. Furthermore, this approach could precisely estimate a cffDNA fraction as low as 3%, using only maternal plasma DNA at the targeted region with a sequencing depth of 65-fold. We also used PCR instead of parallel sequencing to calculate the cffDNA fraction. There was a significant association (r = 98.2%) between our estimations and those inferred from the Y chromosome. PMID:27662469

  15. The effects of therapeutic concentrations ofamisulpride andrisperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation – invitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dietrich-Muszalska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antipsychotics may in different ways affect the oxidative stress measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. Probably some of them may intensify the oxidative balance disturbances occurring in schizophrenia. The effects of amisulpride and risperidone on redox processes are not known sufficiently yet. Aim of the study: Establishment of the effects of amisulpride and risperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation measured by determination of the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, in vitro. Material and methods: Blood for the studies was collected from healthy volunteers (aged 24-26 years for ACD solution. Active substances of the examined drugs were dissolved in 0.01% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO to the final concentrations (of amisulpride 578 ng/ml and risperidone 64 ng/ml and incubated with plasma for 1 and 24 hours at 37ºC. For each experiment the control samples of plasma with DMSO (without the drug were performed. The lipid peroxidation level was measured in plasma by determining the TBARS concentration, using the spectrophotometric method (acc. to Rice-Evans, 1991. The results were analysed using the following statistical methods: the paired Student t-test and ANOVA II variance analysis and NIR test (StatSoft Inc., Statistica v. 6.0. Results: The ANOVA II variance analysis indicated significant differences in the effects of both drugs on TBARS level (F=4.26; df=2, p0.05. Conclusion: Amisulpride and risperidone in concentrations corresponding to doses recommended for treatment of acute episode of schizophrenia do not induce oxidative stress measured by lipid peroxidation. Unlike risperidone, amisulpride exhibits antioxidative effects.

  16. Technical note: Effect of determining baseline plasma urea nitrogen concentrations on subsequent posttreatment plasma urea nitrogen concentrations in 20- to 50-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waguespack, A M; Powell, S; Roux, M L; Frugé, E D; Bidner, T D; Payne, R L; Southern, L L

    2011-12-01

    Plasma urea N (PUN) has been used as an indicator of AA requirements and efficiency of AA utilization in swine. However, PUN concentrations vary among a population of pigs, even a population with a close range of BW and fed the same diet. Thus, pretreatment or baseline PUN concentrations are used as a covariate to reduce variation of posttreatment PUN. However, this procedure increases experimental costs and stress to the pigs. Data from 14 experiments (26 to 28 d in duration) conducted using PUN as a response variable were compiled into 1 data set. Each experiment had 4 to 6 treatments. The purpose of this technical report was to summarize the effect of determining pretreatment baseline PUN concentrations on subsequent posttreatment PUN concentrations in 20- to 50-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets and low-CP diets with various AA additions; pigs were assigned to dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with a minimum of 4 replicates of 3 to 5 pigs each. Before the start of each experiment, all pigs were fed a common diet for a minimum of 3 d. Blood samples were collected from each pig before allotment to dietary treatments (d 0) and at the end of each experiment. The baseline (d 0) PUN was analyzed as a covariate for posttreatment PUN. Data from each experiment were analyzed without and with baseline PUN in the statistical model. In all experiments combined, there were 768 possible treatment comparisons. The covariate baseline PUN was statistically significant (P < 0.10) in 9 of 14 experiments. However, only 8 treatment differences changed statistical significance as a result of analyzing the data with baseline PUN as a covariate. These 8 treatment differences were in 3 experiments. These results indicate that it is not always necessary to determine baseline PUN concentrations when feeding diets with large differences in AA content.

  17. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma total antioxidant capacity in cats with IRIS stages I-IV chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofič Žel, M; Tozon, N; Nemec Svete, A

    2014-01-01

    Serum selenium concentrations and the activity of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decrease with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in human patients. Selenium is considered a limiting factor for plasma GPx synthesis. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is decreased in CKD cats in comparison to healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations and plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity in cats with CKD are lower than in healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations, the activity of enzymes, and plasma TAC progressively decrease with the progression of kidney disease according to IRIS (International Renal Interest Society) classification. Twenty-six client-owned cats in IRIS stages I-IV of CKD were compared with 19 client-owned healthy cats. A CBC, serum biochemical profile, urinalysis, plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC were measured in each cat. Cats in IRIS stage IV CKD had a significantly higher (P = .025) activity of plasma GPx (23.44 ± 6.28 U/mL) than cats in the control group (17.51 ± 3.75 U/mL). There were no significant differences in erythrocyte GPx, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC, either among IRIS stages I-IV CKD cats or between CKD cats and healthy cats. Erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC do not change in CKD cats compared with healthy cats. Selenium is not a limiting factor in feline CKD. Increased plasma GPx activity in cats with stage IV CKD suggests induction of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Antioxidant defense systems might not be exhausted in CKD in cats. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. [Plasma lipid concentration in smoking and nonsmoking male adults treated from alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodczyk, Ewa; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Kozar-Konieczna, Aleksandra; Goniewicz, Jerzy; Ptak, Małgorzata; Olszowy, Zofia; Kośmider, Leon; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking affect plasma lipid levels and are both independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol and nicotine addictions are more common among man than women in Poland. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in plasma lipid levels after cessation of heavy drinking in smoking and nonsmoking Polish male adults. Subjects were recruited from individuals who participated in an inpatient addiction program following alcohol detoxification. We recruited 119 male adults: 48 non-smokers in age between 31 and 60 years (mean 48.7 +/- 8.8) and 71 smokers in age between 30 and 60 years (mean 46.1 +/- 7.8). Each subjects provided three blood samples: at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma samples were analyzed for lipids by manual precipitation and automatic enzymatic methods. Changes in plasma lipid concentrations were analyzed using two-way analysis of variances with repeated measures with smoking status as between subjects factor and time post alcohol cessation as within-subject factors. All analyses were adjusted for age, and BMI. We found that plasma levels of HDL decreased in smoking and nonsmoking subjects by 30% and 24%, respectively (p smoking subjects, plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL increased significantly after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking cessation by 17% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.001). We also found that total cholesterol levels remained high in smoking subjects, but decreased significantly by 7% (p = 0.022) in nonsmoking subjects after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased LDL and inhibited the decline in plasma cholesterol among subjects addicted to alcohol following cessation of heavy drinking. Alcohol addiction therapy should be complemented with smoking cessation to prevent increase in cardiovascular risk.

  19. Endothelin-1 concentration in plasma is increased after jogging but decreased after cycling in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, P; Söhnchen, N; Kele, H; Reimers, C D; Ehrenreich, H

    2003-02-01

    Endothelin-1 plays an important role as a paracrine factor in the regulation of regional blood flow. Plasma levels may represent the net result of spill-over from local stimulation/release and elimination of endothelin-1. In order to compare changes in the concentration of endothelin-1 in the plasma of subjects performing different types of sports exercises we measured immunoreactive endothelin-1 in healthy volunteers ( n=20) performing in random order jogging on a treadmill and cycling on a bicycle ergometer, for 30 min each. Plasma immunoreactive endothelin-1 increased significantly after jogging (2.13+/-0.8 pg/ml versus 2.6+/-0.8 pg/ml, before and after exercise, respectively, Pjogging than during cycling, resulting in a greater increase in plasma endothelin-1, which is too high to be immediately eliminated by the lung despite exercise-induced enhanced pulmonary perfusion. In contrast, similarly enhanced lung perfusion together with a relatively lower stimulation of endothelin-1 compared with jogging, may explain the net decrease in plasma after cycling.

  20. Plasma concentrations of corticosterone and buprenorphine in rats subjected to jugular vein catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the postoperative plasma concentrations of corticosterone and buprenorphine in male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats, treated with buprenorphine administered either through subcutaneous (SC) injection or through voluntary ingestion (VI). The animals were treated...... with buprenorphine for pre-emptive analgesia prior to surgical placement of a jugular catheter, followed by automated blood sampling during 96 h. Buprenorphine was administered on a regular basis throughout the experiment, and blood was collected on selected time points. Body weight was measured before and 96 h...... after surgery. It was found that the two rat stocks responded in a similar manner to both buprenorphine treatments, with the exception of body weight change in Wistar rats, in which body weight was reduced after SC treatment. The plasma concentration of corticosterone was significantly higher in the SC...

  1. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U;

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  2. Plasma concentrations and clinical effects after single oral doses of prazepam, clorazepate, and diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shader, R I; Pary, R J; Harmatz, J S; Allison, S; Locniskar, A; Greenblatt, D J

    1984-10-01

    In a double-blind parallel-group pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study, 31 healthy volunteers received single oral doses of prazepam (10 mg), clorazepate (7.5 mg), or diazepam (5 mg). Appearance in plasma of diazepam and of desmethyldiazepam was rapid after administration of diazepam and clorazepate, respectively, with peak plasma concentrations reached within an average of 1 hour. After oral prazepam, however, desmethyldiazepam appeared in blood slowly, with the highest mean concentration at 6 hours postdosage. Clinical self-ratings of fatigue and of "feeling spacey" were significantly different among groups, with changes over baseline being more marked with clorazepate and diazepam than with prazepam. Thus, differences in absorption rate of orally administered benzodiazepines can lead to differences in the intensity of single-dose effects, despite administration of doses that are equivalent in terms of long-term anxiolytic efficacy.

  3. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    was diluted at 3 different levels giving 57 data sets. Calculated and measured plasma albumin concentrations were compared using correlation coefficient (r(2)), regression line, and Bland-Altman bias and limits of agreement. RESULTS: Albumin levels covered the clinically interesting range from 8.8 to 53.3 g....../L. Calculated and measured plasma albumin concentrations compared well with r(2) = 0.9, a regression line of albumin-calculated = 1.05 × albumin-measured - 2.25, a small average bias between measured and calculated values of 0.7 g/L, and Bland-Altman limits of agreement of 10 g/L. CONCLUSIONS: This new method...

  4. Treatment efficiency observation of high concentration potassium infusion via central vein for hypokalemias%经中心静脉高浓度补钾治疗低钾血症疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴帅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of high concentration potassium infusion via central vein for hypokalemias. Methods 38 cases of hypokalemia patients in the hospital as the research object were divided into treatment group and control groups respectively, and treated with different concentrations of potassium liquid. Results In the treatment group, the average time of serum potassium concentration returned to 4.0mmol was (14.82±4.56)h, duration of response of malignant sinus arrhythmia was(1.43±0.52)h, total potassium supplement liquid volume in 24h was (412.63 ±58.36)ml, which were less than those in the control group (P<0.05 or 0.01), and serum potassium concentration at 24h was 4.69 ±0.35mmol/L, which was higher than control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Injection high concentration potassium by using micro pump in treatment of critically ill patients with hypokalemia via central vein had the advantages of fast correction of hypokalemia, safe and effective, which was worthy of further clinical study.%目的:探讨经中心静脉置管微量泵高浓度补钾治疗低钾血症的临床疗效。方法将我院收治的38例低钾血症患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,分别采用不同浓度补钾方法进行治疗。结果治疗组平均血钾浓度恢复至4.0 mmol/L的时间为(14.82±4.56)h,恶性窦性心律失常缓解时间为(1.43±0.52)h,24 h补钾液体量为(412.63±58.36)mL,均较对照组少(P<0.05或<0.01),而24 h时血钾浓度平均(4.69±0.35)mmol/L较对照组高(P<0.05)。结论采用微量泵经中心静脉注入高浓度钾治疗危重患者低钾血症,纠正低血钾速度快,安全有效,值得临床进一步研究推广。

  5. Transport and concentration controls for chloride, strontium, potassium and lead in Uvas Creek, a small cobble-bed stream in Santa Clara County, California, U.S.A. 2. Mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, A.P.; Walters, R.A.; Kennedy, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Three models describing solute transport of conservative ion species and another describing transport of species which adsorb linearly and reversibly on bed sediments are developed and tested. The conservative models are based on three different conceptual models of the transient storage of solute in the bed. One model assumes the bed to be a well-mixed zone with flux of solute into the bed proportional to the difference between stream concentration and bed concentration. The second model assumes solute in the bed is transported by a vertical diffusion process described by Fick's law. The third model assumes that convection occurs in a selected portion of the bed while the mechanism of the first model functions everywhere. The model for adsorbing species assumes that the bed consists of particles of uniform size with the rate of uptake controlled by an intraparticle diffusion process. All models are tested using data collected before, during and after a 24-hr. pulse injection of chloride, strontium, potassium and lead ions into Uvas Creek near Morgan Hill, California, U.S.A. All three conservative models accurately predict chloride ion concentrations in the stream. The model employing the diffusion mechanism for bed transport predicts better than the others. The adsorption model predicts both strontium and potassium ion concentrations well during the injection of the pulse but somewhat overestimates the observed concentrations after the injection ceases. The overestimation may be due to the convection of solute deep into the bed where it is retained longer than the 3-week post-injection observation period. The model, when calibrated for strontium, predicts potassium equally well when the adsorption equilibrium constant for strontium is replaced by that for potassium. ?? 1984.

  6. Effects of major depression, aging and gender upon calculated diurnal free plasma cortisol concentrations: a re-evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschle, M; Weber, B; Colla, M; Depner, M; Heuser, I

    1998-12-01

    Depression, aging and female gender are associated with increased diurnal concentrations of total plasma cortisol. For the physical effects of hypercortisolemia, however, it is generally assumed that free rather than total plasma cortisol concentrations are of importance. Herein, we report a mathematical approach to determine free plasma cortisol concentrations on the basis of total cortisol, corticosteroid binding-globulin (CBG) and albumin plasma concentrations. This approach was used to re-evaluate two sets of data in order to estimate the effect of depression as well as the effect of aging and gender upon free plasma cortisol concentrations. Comparing male depressed patients with healthy controls, we found 24-hour free cortisol minima (MIN: 4.1 +/- 1.8 vs. 1.6 +/- 1.1 nmol/l, p MAX: 85.3 +/- 23.3 vs. 45.2 +/- 15. 8 nmol/l, p problems triggered and/or maintained by glucocorticoids (e.g. osteoporosis) are frequently seen.

  7. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid concentration in plasma obtained from overnight fasted patients.

  8. Plasma Drug Concentrations of Orally Administered Rosuvastatin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Papich, Mark G; Brandão, João; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic diseases are common in pet psittacine birds, in particular Amazon parrots. While hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia have not definitely been associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis in parrots, these are important and well-known risk factors in humans. Therefore statin drugs such as rosuvastatin constitute the mainstay of human treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. No pharmacologic studies have been performed in psittacine birds despite the high prevalence of atherosclerosis in captivity. Thirteen Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used to test a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin with blood sampling performed according to a balanced incomplete block design over 36 hours. Because low plasma concentrations were produced in the first study, a subsequent pilot study using a dose of 25 mg/kg in 2 Amazon parrots was performed. Most plasma samples for the 10 mg/kg dose and all samples for the 25 mg/kg dose had rosuvastatin concentration below the limits of quantitation. For the 10 mg/kg study, the median peak plasma concentration and time to peak plasma concentration were 0.032 μg/mL and 2 hours, respectively. Our results indicate that rosuvastatin does not appear suitable in Amazon parrots as compounded and used at the dose in this study. Pharmacodynamic studies investigating lipid-lowering effects of statins rather than pharmacokinetic studies may be more practical and cost effective in future studies to screen for a statin with more ideal properties for potential use in psittacine dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic diseases.

  9. Enantiospecific ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral and intramuscular administration in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen Katja; Niemi Anneli; Raekallio Marja; Heinonen Mari; Peltoniemi Olli AT; Palviainen Mari; Siven Mia; Peltoniemi Marikki; Vainio Outi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been widely used for domestic animals. Orally administered racemic ketoprofen has been reported to be absorbed well in pigs, and bioavailability was almost complete. The objectives of this study were to analyze R- and S-ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral (PO) and intra muscular (IM) routes of administration, and to assess the relative bioavailability of racemic ketoprofen for both enantiomers betwee...

  10. Relationship between brain serotonin transporter binding, plasma concentration and behavioural effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterise the relationship between in vivo brain serotonin transporter (SERT) binding, plasma concentration and pharmacological effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in mice. Oral administration of fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline at pharmacologically relevant doses exerted dose- and time-dependent binding activity of brain SERT as revealed by significant increases in KD for specific [3H]paroxetine binding, and the i...

  11. High Variability of Plasma Drug Concentrations in Dual Protease Inhibitor Regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Guiard-Schmid, Jean-Baptiste; Poirier, Jean-Marie; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Bonnard, Philippe; Gbadoe, Ayi Hola; Amiel, Corinne; Calligaris, Frédérique; Abraham, Bruno; Pialoux, Gilles; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Jaillon, Patrice; Rozenbaum, Willy

    2003-01-01

    Ritonavir (RTV) strongly increases the concentrations of protease inhibitors (PIs) in plasma in patients given a combination of RTV and another PI. This pharmacological interaction is complex and poorly characterized and shows marked inter- and intraindividual variations. In addition, RTV interacts differently with saquinavir (SQV), indinavir (IDV), amprenavir (APV), and lopinavir (LPV). In this retrospective study on 542 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, we compared inter- and ...

  12. Comparison of Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) and Plasma Carotenoid Concentrations: A Validation Study in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lee; Williams, Rebecca; Rollo, Megan; Pezdirc, Kristine; Collins, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Diet quality indices can predict nutritional adequacy of usual intake, but validity should be determined. The aim was to assess the validity of total and sub-scale score within the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), in relation to fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations. Diet quality and fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed in 99 overweight and obese adults (49.5% female, aged 44.6 ± 9.9 years) at baseline and after three months (198 paired observations). Associations were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and regression analysis, and agreement using weighted kappa (Kw). Small, significantly positive correlations were found between total ARFS and plasma concentrations of total carotenoids (r = 0.17, p < 0.05), β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.18, p < 0.05), β-carotene (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). Significant agreement between ARFS categories and plasma carotenoid concentrations was found for total carotenoids (Kw 0.12, p = 0.02), β-carotene (Kw 0.14, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (Kw 0.13, p < 0.01). In fully-adjusted regression models the only signification association with ARFS total score was for α-carotene (β = 0.19, p < 0.01), while ARFS meat and fruit sub-scales demonstrated significant relationships with α-carotene, β-carotene, and total carotenoids (p < 0.05). The weak associations highlight the issues with self-reporting dietary intakes in overweight and obese populations. Further research is required to evaluate the use of the ARFS in more diverse populations. PMID:28817083

  13. Evidence that plasma concentration rather than dose per kilogram body weight predicts ribavirin-induced anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, K; Schvarcz, R; Bruchfeld, A; Ståhle, L

    2004-01-01

    Ribavirin in combination with interferon alpha-2 or pegylated interferon is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. The current dosage recommendations for ribavirin are based on body weight (bw). Ribavirin is mainly eliminated by the kidneys and we have recently shown that ribavirin plasma concentrations are determined primarily by renal function. It is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that side-effects of ribavirin, i.e. anaemia, should be more closely related to plasma concentrations of ribavirin than to the dose per kg bw. A total of 108 consecutive patients eligible for treatment of chronic hepatitis C were studied. Ribavirin concentrations in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV after solid-phase extraction in trough samples taken 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the treatment commenced. A total of 213 samples were obtained and the change in the haemoglobin level and the creatinine concentration was measured in addition to ribavirin. The dose of ribavirin per kg bw did not correlate with the drop in haemoglobin level induced by ribavirin. The concentration of ribavirin was non-linearly related to the drop in the haemoglobin level as revealed by fitting a standard Hill equation type dose-response curve. The half maximal drop in haemoglobin was obtained at 4.4 microm. The results from this study suggest that the anaemia induced by ribavirin depends primarily on the concentration of ribavirin, and not on the dose per kg bw. This lends further support to the idea that ribavirin should be dosed according to renal function.

  14. The relation between plasma tyrosine concentration and fatigue in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrolijk Jan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC fatigue is a major clinical problem. Abnormal amino acid (AA patterns have been implicated in the development of fatigue in several non-hepatological conditions but for PBC and PSC no data are available. This study aimed to identify abnormalities in AA patterns and to define their relation with fatigue. Methods Plasma concentrations of tyrosine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, valine, leucine and isoleucine were determined in plasma of patients with PBC (n = 45, PSC (n = 27, chronic hepatitis C (n = 22 and healthy controls (n = 73. Fatigue and quality of life were quantified using the Fisk fatigue severity scale, a visual analogue scale and the SF-36. Results Valine, isoleucine, leucine were significantly decreased in PBC and PSC. Tyrosine and phenylalanine were increased (p Conclusion In patients with PBC and PSC, marked abnormalities in plasma AA patterns occur. Normal tyrosine concentrations, compared to increased concentrations, may be associated with fatigue and diminished quality of life.

  15. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da [Unidade de Aterosclerose, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-10

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats.

  16. Posaconazole plasma concentrations in pediatric patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Michaela; Cabanillas Stanchi, Karin Melanie; Klinker, Hartwig; Eikemeier, Melinda; Feucht, Judith; Blaeschke, Franziska; Schwarze, Carl-Philipp; Ebinger, Martin; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Handgretinger, Rupert; Heinz, Werner J

    2016-10-04

    Invasive fungal infections are one of the major complications in pediatric patients during prolonged neutropenia after chemotherapy. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of the triazole posaconazole in these patients is missing. This multicenter survey analyzed trough concentrations of 33 pediatric patients with a median age of 8 years during 108 neutropenic episodes who received prophylactic posaconazole oral suspension. A total of 172 posaconazole trough levels were determined to median 438 ng/ml (range 111-2011 ng/ml; mean 468 ± 244 ng/ml). Age and gender had no influence on posaconazole plasma levels. Posaconazole was not discontinued due to adverse events in any of the patients. Only hepatic parameters significantly increased beyond the upper normal limit to median values of ALT of 87 U/l (P posaconazole trough concentration of 306 ng/ml experienced an invasive fungal infection. In conclusion, posaconazole was effective, safe and feasible in 33 pediatric patients with neutropenia ≥5 days after chemotherapy. Median posaconazole plasma concentrations were approximately 1.6-fold lower than the recommended plasma level of 700 ng/ml. Larger patient cohorts are needed to evaluate these findings.

  17. Decreased dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations in plasma of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Sarah; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    DHEA is secreted by the adrenal cortex and is also a neurosteroid. Its sulfate (DHEAS) is the most abundant steroid in circulation. The levels of both are seen to decline in concentration with age. Evidence is available for altered levels of DHEA and DHEAS in AD but is limited to relatively few studies assessing small cohorts. This study assessed plasma DHEA and DHEAS levels in AD sufferers (n=72) and compared them to age-matched controls (n=72). Plasma DHEA concentrations were significantly lower in AD patients compared to control (4.24+/-0.4 ng/ml for AD; 3.38+/-0.3 ng/ml for control, p=0.027, Mann-Whitney 1-tailed) and DHEA levels were significantly correlated to DHEAS levels in both control and AD conditions (Spearman's rho correlation coefficient=0.635 in controls and 0.467 in AD, pDHEA and DHEAS concentrations in plasma from a large cohort of patients suffering from AD when compared to age-matched controls. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in the forearm during dynamic handgrip exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askew Christopher D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that adenosine triphosphate (ATP released from red blood cells (RBCs may contribute to the tight coupling between blood flow and oxygen demand in contracting skeletal muscle. To determine whether ATP may contribute to the vasodilatory response to exercise in the forearm, we measured arterialised and venous plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in 10 healthy young males at rest, and at 30 and 180 seconds during dynamic handgrip exercise at 45% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Results Venous plasma ATP concentration was elevated above rest after 30 seconds of exercise (P Conclusions Collectively these results indicate that ATP in the plasma originated from the muscle microcirculation, and are consistent with the notion that deoxygenation of the blood perfusing the muscle acts as a stimulus for ATP release. That ATP concentration was elevated just 30 seconds after the onset of exercise also suggests that ATP may be a contributing factor to the blood flow response in the transition from rest to steady state exercise.

  19. Oral vitamin B12 supplementation reduces plasma total homocysteine concentration in women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Lubree, Himangi G; Thuse, Nileema V; Ramdas, Lalita V; Deshpande, Swapna S; Deshpande, Vaishali U; Deshpande, Jyoti A; Uradey, Bhagyashree S; Ganpule, Anjali A; Naik, Sadanand S; Joshi, Niranjan P; Farrant, Hannah; Refsum, Helga

    2007-01-01

    People in India have a high prevalence of low vitamin B12 status and high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. In a proof of principle trial, we studied the effect of oral vitamin B12 (500 microg) and/or 100 g cooked green leafy vegetables (GLV) every alternate day in a 2x2 factorial design over a 6-week period. Forty-two non-pregnant vegetarian women (age 20-50 years) were randomly allocated to four study groups. Clinical measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of the study, and blood samples were collected before, and 2 and 6 weeks after commencement of intervention. Forty women completed the trial. Twenty-six women had low vitamin B12 status (15 micromol/L). GLV supplementation did not alter plasma folate or tHcy. Vitamin B12 supplementation increased plasma vitamin B12 concentration (125 to 215 pmol/L, p homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations.

  20. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawasumi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years and aged (11-18 years. They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 μg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 μg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses.

  1. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...

  2. Increased fasting plasma acylation-stimulating protein concentrations in nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozata, Metin; Oktenli, Cagatay; Gulec, Mustafa; Ozgurtas, Taner; Bulucu, Fatih; Caglar, Kayser; Bingol, Necati; Vural, Abdulgaffar; Ozdemir, I Caglayan

    2002-02-01

    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipocyte-derived protein that has recently been suggested to play an important role in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and triglyceride (TG) storage. ASP also appears to have a role in the regulation of energy balance. In addition to its role as a hormonal regulator of body weight and energy expenditure, leptin is now implicated as a regulatory molecule in lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the alterations in fasting plasma ASP and leptin concentrations in the nephrotic syndrome. As hyperlipidemia is one of the most striking manifestations of the nephrotic syndrome, we have investigated fasting plasma ASP and leptin levels and their relation to lipid levels in this syndrome. Twenty-five patients with untreated nephrotic syndrome and 25 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Fasting plasma lipoproteins, TG, total cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apoB, urinary protein, plasma albumin, third component of complement (C3), ASP, and leptin levels were measured in both groups. Total cholesterol, TG, low and very low density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), apoB, and urinary protein levels were increased in the patient group, whereas plasma albumin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoAI levels were decreased compared with those in the control group (P Fasting ASP concentrations showed no correlation with body mass index, proteinuria, plasma albumin, leptin, or any lipid parameter in either group, but C3 levels (in patient group: r(s) = 0.92; P < 0.001; in control group: r(s) = 0.68; P < 0.001). Our findings showed that plasma ASP levels were significantly elevated, whereas leptin levels were normal in the nephrotic syndrome. Increased ASP levels in the setting of dyslipidemia in the nephrotic syndrome raise the possibility of an ASP receptor defect in adipocytes, which also suggests the existence of so-called ASP resistance. Moreover

  3. Thanatochemistry: Study of vitreous humor potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Keshav Tumram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the death interval from the biochemical parameter of vitreous potassium. In 308 medicolegal cases vitreous humor was taken and analyzed for potassium with known time of death. There was a linear rise in potassium concentration with increasing death interval. Regression equation was calculated for the same. The study indicates that potassium levels in vitreous for determining death interval are useful and can afford a good method of determining the death interval along with other traditional methods. Also the previously established formulae for estimating death interval from vitreous potassium were also studied.

  4. Two distinct pools of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the somatic plasma membrane of central principal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, W.A.; Kasugai, Y.; Ferraguti, F.; Storm, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Although nerve cell membranes are often assumed to be uniform with respect to electrical properties, there is increasing evidence for compartmentalization into subdomains with heterogeneous impacts on the overall cell function. Such microdomains are characterized by specific sets of proteins determining their functional properties. Recently, clustering of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels was shown at sites of subsurface membrane cisterns in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC), where they likely participate in building a subcellular signaling unit, the 'PLasmERosome'. By applying SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labeling (SDS-FRL) and postembedding immunogold electron microscopy, we have now studied the spatial organization of somatic BKCa channels in neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons, principal neurons of the central and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei, hippocampal pyramidal neurons and dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells to establish whether there is a common organizational principle in the distribution of BKCa channels in central principal neurons. In all cell types analyzed, somatic BKCa channels were found to be non-homogenously distributed in the plasma membrane, forming two pools of channels with one pool consisting of clustered channels and the other of scattered channels in the extrasynaptic membrane. Quantitative analysis by means of SDS-FRL revealed that about two-thirds of BKCa channels belong to the scattered pool and about one-third to the clustered pool in principal cell somata. Overall densities of channels in both pools differed in the different cell types analyzed, although being considerably lower compared to cerebellar PC. Postembedding immunogold labeling revealed association of clustered channels with subsurface membrane cisterns and confirmed extrasynaptic localization of scattered channels. This study indicates a common organizational principle for somatic BKCa channels in central principal neurons with the

  5. Estimation of electron concentration in plasma and plasma frequency in the vicinity of a hypersonic aircraft that moves in atmosphere and analysis of propagation frequencies of electromagnetic waves in such plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    Electron concentration in plasma and plasma frequency are estimated for the plasma that is formed in the vicinity of a hypersonic aircraft that moves in atmosphere. The frequencies of electromagnetic waves that may propagate in plasma emerging in the vicinity of the aircraft are determined. Formulas that make it possible to analytically (rather than graphically) calculate electron concentration in plasma at altitudes of 30, 60, and 90 km are derived for two speeds. Several specific features of variations in the electron concentration in plasma depending on the above altitudes and speeds are presented. Quasi-periodic variations in the plasma concentration can be obtained using an increase and decrease in the speed of aircraft.

  6. Evaluation of cobalt, chromium, and nickel concentrations in plasma and blood of patients with removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denizoğlu, Saip; Duymuş, Zeynep Yeşil

    2006-06-01

    This study assessed the plasma and blood concentrations of Cr, Co, and Ni among subjects using removable partial dentures. A comparison was made between subjects with and without RPD treatment history. Control group consisted of 10 healthy individuals without dentures. Concentrations of Cr, Co, and Ni in subjects' plasma and blood were measured with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA, and multiple comparison test (alpha = 0.05) was used to identify significant differences between groups. RPD use had a significant effect on the concentrations of Cr (P partial dentures with metal frameworks led to an increase in the concentrations of Cr and Ni in both blood and plasma.

  7. The relationship between the daily dose, the plasma concentration of blonanserin, and its plasma anti-dopamine D2 and anti-serotonin 5-HT2A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Gen, Keishi

    2010-01-01

    Blonanserin (BNS) possesses anti-serotonin 5-HT(2A) activity in addition to anti-dopamine D(2) activity, which is characteristic of second-generation antipsychotics, little information is available on its pharmacologic profile in vivo. We investigated the BNS daily dose, plasma concentration, plasma anti-D(2) activity, and plasma anti-5-HT(2A) activity in schizophrenia in a total of 14 subjects. Blood samples were taken 14 days after the BNS dose was fixed, and the plasma concentration was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. In addition, the plasma anti-D(2) activity and anti-5-HT(2A) activity were measured by means of radioreceptor assays in which [(3)H]-spiperone and [(3)H]-ketanserin were used. The results revealed a statistically significant correlation between the daily dose and the plasma concentration (p = 0.04). Statistically significant correlations were also observed between the plasma concentration and the anti-D(2) activity and between the plasma concentration and the anti-5-HT(2A) activity (p = 0.003 and 0.04). It is therefore believed that both the anti-D(2) activity in plasma and the anti-5-HT(2A) activity in plasma are regulated almost solely by the unchanged principal. Moreover, the mean plasma serotonin/dopamine (S/D) ratio was 0.9 and BNS exhibited both anti-D(2) activity and also anti-5-HT(2A) activity in vivo, as well, so it was clear that the in vitro pharmacological profile was retained in vivo.

  8. Effect of Addition of Concentrated Proteins and Seminal Plasma Low Molecular Weight Proteins in Freezing and Thawing of Equine Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fagundes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in obtaining equine frozen semen with potential fertility are recognized. This study was designed to investigate the effect of seminal plasma on frozen/thawing of eight stallion semen from different breed using the following treatments: Seminal plasma with ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender; Part of seminal plasma with proteins under 10 kDa on frozen extender; Conventional freezing, using whole seminal plasma on frozen extender. Using the parameter of 30% of seminal motility post-thawing as index of good freezability, it was verified an increased percentage of stallions that presented good freezability when semen was frozen with seminal plasma containing ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender. These results, suggested the use of seminal plasma concentrated proteins from own stallion to freezing/thawing semen.

  9. Effect of seminal plasma and egg yolk concentration on freezability of goat semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg yolk and seminal plasma on the viability of cryopreserved goat semen. To this end, four fertile Saanen bucks, aged between 10 months and 1 year, and weighing 18 to 25 kg, were used. Semen was collected from each buck by the artificial vagina method at the end of breeding season (June-July. The extender used was the yolk citrate, which was split into two equal aliquots: 5% egg yolk (2.5 mL egg yolk: 47.5 mL citrate solution were added to one of the samples and 10% egg yolk (5.0 mL egg yolk: 45.0 mL citrate solution were added to another. The sperm motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT were evaluated and the data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test at 5.0% probability. The observed values for motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT, fast and slow, according to the presence of seminal plasma and egg yolk percentage were: 5% egg yolk with plasma (25.0% and 3.3; 1.60% and 0.7; 12.36% and 1.6, respectively; 5% egg yolk without plasma (23.61% and 3.1; 1.25% and 0.2; 9.93% and 1.3, respectively; 10% egg yolk with plasma (30.8% and 3.3; 4.4% and 1.9; 19.5% and 2.7, respectively; and 10% egg yolk without plasma (13.4% and 2.5; 4.1% and 0.5; 17.0% and 1.0, respectively. There were significant differences between the analyzed data in relation to semen with or without plasma at different percentages of egg yolk, and the group that presented the best results was 10% egg yolk citrate in extender with plasma. The presence of seminal plasma and higher concentration of egg yolk in extender provide a higher viability of cryopreserved goat semen.

  10. Plasma concentrations resulting from florfenicol preparations given to pigs in their drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, L; Vargas, D; Ocampo, L; Sumano, H; Martinez, R; Tapia, G

    2011-09-01

    Florfenicol administered through the drinking water has been recommended as a metaphylactic antibacterial drug to control outbreaks of respiratory diseases in pigs caused by strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida, yet it is difficult to pinpoint in practice when the drug is given metaphylactically or therapeutically. Further, pigs are likely to reject florfenicol-medicated water, and plasma concentrations of the drug are likely to be marginal for diseases caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The reported minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for these organisms show a breakpoint of 2 to 3 μg/mL. An experiment was conducted during September and October 2009. One hundred twenty healthy crossbred pigs (Landrace-Yorkshire), weighing 23 ± 6.2 kg, were used in this trial. They were randomly assigned to 5 groups, with 3 replicates of 8 animals/group. Two commercial preparations of florfenicol were administered through the drinking water at 2 concentrations (0.01 and 0.015%). Water intake was measured before and after medication, and plasma concentrations of florfenicol were determined by HPLC. Considerable rejection of florfenicol-medicated water was observed. However, plasma florfenicol concentrations were of a range sufficient for a methaphylaxis approach to preventing disease by bacteria, with MIC breakpoints of ≤ 0.25 μg/mL. Decreased efficacy as a metaphylactic medication should be expected for bacteria with MIC >0.25 μg/mL, considering the reported existence of bacteria resistant to florfenicol and the natural resistance of Streptococcus suis or E. coli to this drug.

  11. Arginines Plasma Concentration and Oxidative Stress in Mild to Moderate COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinellu, Angelo; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Sotgia, Salvatore; Sotgiu, Elisabetta; Zinellu, Elisabetta; Bifulco, Fabiana; Mangoni, Arduino A; Pirina, Pietro; Carru, Ciriaco

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated plasma concentrations of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) have been observed in respiratory conditions such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Since oxidative stress has been shown to increase the activity of arginine methylating enzymes, hence increased ADMA synthesis, and to reduce ADMA degrading enzymes, hence increased ADMA concentrations, we assessed methylated arginines concentrations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterized by increased oxidative stress. Methods Plasma arginine, ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, and plasma proteins SH, PSH) and antioxidants (taurine and paraoxonase 1, PON1, activity) were measured in 43 COPD patients with mild (n = 29) or moderate (n = 14) disease and 43 age- and sex-matched controls. Results TBARS significantly increased with COPD presence and severity (median 2.93 vs 3.18 vs 3.64 μmol/L, respectively in controls, mild and moderate group, p<0.0001 by ANOVA) whereas PSH decreased (6.69±1.15 vs 6.04±0.85 vs 5.33±0.96 μmol/gr prot, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). Increased ADMA/arginine ratio, primarily due to reduced arginine concentrations, was also observed with COPD presence and severity (median 0.0067 vs 0.0075 vs 0.0100, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). In multiple logistic regression analysis, only TBARS (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25–0.77; p = 0.0045) and ADMA/Arginine ratio (OR 1.72, 95% CI 2.27–13.05; p = 0.02) were independently associated with COPD severity. Conclusion COPD presence and severity are associated with increased oxidative stress and alterations in arginine metabolism. The reduced arginine concentrations in COPD may offer a new target for therapeutic interventions increasing arginine availability. PMID:27479314

  12. Effectiveness of the aldosterone-sodium and -potassium feedback control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D B; McCaa, R E; Pan, U J; Guyton, A C

    1976-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the quantitative importance of the aldosterone feedback mechanism in controlling each one of three major factors that have often been associated with aldosterone, namely, extracellular fluid sodium concentration, extracellular fluid potassium concentration, and extracellular fluid volume. To do this, the ability of the body to control these three factors in the face of marked changes in daily sodium or potassium intake was studied under two conditions: 1) in the normal dog, and 2) in the dog in which the aldosterone feedback mechanism was prevented from functioning by removing the adrenal glands and then providing a continuous fixed level of supportive aldosterone and glucocorticoids during the low and high electrolyte intake periods. Under these conditions, removal of feedback control of aldosterone secretion decreased the effectiveness of plasma potassium control by nearly fivefold (39% vs. 8% change in plasma potassium concentration), fluid volume by sixfold (12% vs. 2% change in sodium space) and had no effect on control of plasma sodium concentration (2% change with and without feedback control of aldosterone secretion.)

  13. Effects of tocainide and lidocaine on the transmembrane action potentials as related to external potassium and calcium concentrations in guinea-pig papillary muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, S; Sada, H; Kojima, M; Ban, T

    1980-10-01

    Effects of lidocaine and tocainide on transmembrane potentials were studied in isolated guinea-pig papillary muscles, superfused with modified Tyrode's solution containing either 5.4, 2.7, 10.0 or 8.1 mmol/l potassium concentration, [K]0. The last solution applied contained either 1.8 (normal [Ca]0) or 7.2 mmol/l [Ca]0 (high [Ca]0. The concentrations of lidocaine and tocainide used were 18.5, 36.9 and 73.9 mumol/l and 43.7, 87.5 and 174.9 mumol/l in 5.4 mmol/l [K]0 solution and 36.9 and 87.5 mumol/l in the other solutions, respectively. At the driving rate of 1 Hz in 5.4 mmol/l "K]0 solution, both drugs produced dose-dependently a reduction of maximum rate of rise of action potential (Vmax), together with a prolongation of the relative refractory period. Vmax decreased progressively as the driving rate was increased from 1 Hz (for lidocaine) and from 0.25 Hz (for tocainide) to 5 Hz. This action was accentuated dose-dependently. A slow component (time constant tau = 232 ms for lidocaine, 281--303 ms for tocainide) and slower component (tau = 2.1--3.8 s for tocainide) of the recovery (reactivation) of Vmax were observed in premature responses at 0.25 Hz and in the first response after interruption of the basic driving rate at 1 Hz. All these effects were accentuated with rising [K]0 and attenuated in the high [Ca]0 solution. Both drugs abbreviated the action potential duration at 50% (APD50) and 90% (APD90) levels at 5.4, 8.1 and 10.0 mmol/l [K]0 but not at 2.7 mmol/l [K]0 nor a high [Ca]0 at 1 Hz. These [K]0-dependent effects of lidocaine on Vmax were successfully simulated by the model proposed by Hondeghem and Katzung (1977), with a slight change in parameter values. The mode of interaction of lidocaine with sodium channels in the open, closed and rested states was deduced from these results.

  14. Haemostasis monitored in stored red blood cells, plasma and platelet concentrates in the proportion of 4 :  4 :  1 diluted with crystalloids and colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Anna; Edgren, Gustaf; Ambrosio, Daniela; Gryfelt, Gunilla; Östlund, Anders; Wikman, Agneta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate haemostasis analysed with thromboelastometry and blood gas and blood count variables, in stored blood components and the effects after dilution with Ringer[Combining Acute Accent]s acetate, albumin and hydroxyethyl starch (HES). Aliquots from stored red blood cells, plasma and platelet concentrates were mixed in the proportion of 4 : 4 : 1 and analysed with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), blood count [haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, platelet count] and blood gas (pH, calcium, sodium, potassium, glucose levels). The blood mix was thereafter diluted 20 and 33% with Ringer's acetate, albumin or HES. The stored blood component mix in a ratio of 4 : 4 : 1 had a low pH (7.11 ± 0.03, mean ± standard deviation), nonmeasurable calcium level, and high concentrations of sodium, potassium and glucose but ROTEM curves within normal range after recalcification. With Ringer's acetate dilution, the ROTEM variables changed almost linearly with increasing dilution volume. When albumin was used in the 33% dilution, the clot firmness of the fibrin clot (FibTEM) was further reduced, and with HES dilution, there was a pronounced impairment. The stored blood mix had a low pH and calcium level, both of which might have a significant influence on the coagulation process but normal ROTEM curves after recalcification. Dilution with Ringer's acetate and albumin resulted in moderate deterioration, while dilution with HES showed severely impaired haemostasis.

  15. Plasma uric acid concentrations and risk of ischaemic stroke in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M C; Curhan, G C; Choi, H K; Forman, J P; Rexrode, K M

    2016-07-01

    Elevated plasma uric acid has been inconsistently associated with an increased risk of total stroke; however, data are sparse amongst women. The association between plasma uric acid concentrations and ischaemic stroke amongst women was examined and the effect modification by key cardiovascular risk factors was evaluated. A nested case-control design with matching by age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, menopausal status, postmenopausal hormone therapy use, date of blood draw and fasting status was utilized amongst female participants of the Nurses' Health Study who provided blood samples between 1989 and 1990. Plasma uric acid was measured on stored blood samples. The National Survey of Stroke criteria were utilized to confirm 460 incident cases of ischaemic stroke by medical records from 1990 to 2006. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were estimated. In matched analysis, risk of ischaemic stroke increased by 15% for each 1 mg/dl increase in plasma uric acid [95% confidence interval (CI) 3%-28%], but was no longer significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, particularly history of hypertension. The highest quartile of uric acid was significantly associated with greater risk of ischaemic stroke (relative risk 1.56; 95% CI 1.06-2.29, extreme quartiles) in matched analysis, but estimates were no longer significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (relative risk 1.43; 95% CI 0.93-2.18). Significant effect modification by key cardiovascular risk factors was not observed. Plasma uric acid levels were not independently associated with increased risk of ischaemic stroke in this cohort of women. Whilst plasma uric acid was associated with stroke risk factors, it was not independently associated with stroke risk. © 2016 EAN.

  16. Relationship Between Electrocardiogram Changes in Hypokalemia and Serum Potassium Concentration of Criminals%服刑人员低钾血症的心电图与血清钾浓度的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁翊

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between electrocardiogram ( ECG) changes and serum potassium concentration of hypokalemia in criminals patients .Methods:The clinical data of 322 cases of hypokalemia patients of criminals in our hospital from Janu-ary 2009 to December 2014 was retrospectively summarized and analyzed .The patients with ECG features of hypokalemia and serum potas-sium concentration were contrasted and analyzed .Results:ECG and serum potassium concentration are in good agreement .The incidence of ECG abnormalities is connected with the severity of hypokalemia .The level of serum potassium concentration was 1.45 to 2.0mmol/L, the change rate of ECG was 100%, the level of serum potassium concentration was 2.0 to 2.5mmol/L, the change rate of ECG was 96. 55%, the level of serum potassium concentration was 2.5 to 3.0mmol/L, the change rate of ECG was 85.71%, the level of serum potas-sium concentration was 3.0 to 3.5mmol/L, the change rate of ECG was 58.87%.Conclusion:With the level of serum potassium de-creased, the incidence of abnormal changes of ECG is higher and the degree of abnormal ECG is also aggravated .ECG is an important auxiliary means for diagnostic method in hypokalemia , can help clinician to detect as soon as possible and guide treatment of hypokalemia .%目的:探讨服刑人员低钾血症患者的心电图改变与血清钾浓度的关系。方法:将2009年1月~2014年12月之间治疗的322例服刑人员低钾血症的临床资料进行回顾性总结与分析。将患者的心电图特征与血清钾浓度作对比分析。结果:心电图的改变率与血清钾浓度有较好的一致性,心电图异常表现的发生率与低钾血症的严重程度有关,具体为血清钾浓度(1.45~2.0)mmol/L、(2.0~2.5)mmol/L、(2.5~3.0)mmol/L、(3.0~3.5)mmol/L时所对应的心电图改变率分别是100%、96.55%、85.71%和58.87%。结论:心电图异常

  17. Cytokine Concentrations in Plasma from Children with Severe and Non-Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Haugen

    Full Text Available Children in low and middle-income countries have a high burden of pneumonia. Measuring the cytokine responses may be useful to identify novel markers for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating pneumonia.To describe and compare a wide range of inflammatory mediators in plasma from children with WHO-defined severe and non-severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP, and explore to what extent certain mediators are associated with severity and viral detection.We collected blood samples from 430 children with severe (n = 43 and non-severe (n = 387 CAP. Plasma from these children were analysed for 27 different cytokines, and we measured the association with age, disease severity and viral detection.There were generally higher plasma concentrations of several cytokines with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects among children with severe CAP than in children with non-severe CAP. We found significantly higher concentrations of interleukin (IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-15, eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in the group of severe CAP. Most of these associations persisted when adjusting for age in linear regression analyses. The cytokine response was strongly associated with age but to a lesser extent with viral etiology.The plasma concentrations of several cytokines, both with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects, were higher among children with severe illness. In particular G-CSF and IL-6 reflected severity and might provide complementary information on the severity of the infection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00148733.

  18. The effect of exercise intensity on plasma and tissue acyl ghrelin concentrations in fasted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Rozita; Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Kraemer, Robert R; Talebi-Garakani, Elahe; Saghebjoo, Marziyeh

    2010-12-10

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of exercise training and feeding status on plasma and tissue acyl ghrelin concentrations. Thirty-two, eight-week-old male Wistar rats (185±5g) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: high intensity (HI: 34 m/min ~80-85% VO(2)max), moderate intensity (MI: 28 m/min ~70-75% VO(2)max), low intensity (LI: 20 m/min ~50-55% VO(2)max), and sedentary control (SED) groups. All experimental groups performed a 12-week exercise program consisting of treadmill running on a 0° slope for 1 h/day, 5 days/week at their respective training intensity. Twenty four hours following the last training session the animals completed a 12h fast. Rats were then killed, blood was collected and plasma separated; the fundus and soleus muscle were excised and frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis. Fasting levels of circulating acyl ghrelin and acyl ghrelin content in the soleus muscle and fundus, as well as glycogen in the soleus muscle were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results demonstrated that 12 weeks of exercise training combined with a 12h fast significantly increased plasma as well as soleus muscle concentrations of acyl ghrelin in the HI and MI groups (pghrelin concentrations in the fundus (pexercise training enhances fasting plasma acyl ghrelin in an intensity-dependent manner which is accompanied by a significant increase in soleus muscle and reduction in fundus acyl ghrelin levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of epidural analgesia on platelet function and correlation with plasma bupivacaine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoom, J A; Dokter, P W; Sturk, A; Ten Cate, J W; Sih, I L; Bovill, J G

    1988-09-01

    The effect of epidural anaesthesia with bupivacaine 0.5% on platelet aggregation was studied in seven patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate. Peak plasma concentrations of bupivacaine 470 +/- 270 ng ml-1 occurred at 30 min after administration. At that time there were no significant changes in platelet aggregation. However, the maximum rate of the primary- and secondary-aggregation velocities induced by 1.0 microM ADP were significantly decreased at 1 h and 3 h after bupivacaine administration. The maximum percentage ADP-induced platelet aggregation was also decreased significantly at 1 h and 3 h. The minimum concentration of ADP required to induce secondary-phase platelet aggregation was significantly increased at 1 h but not at 3 h. There was a significant correlation between bupivacaine concentrations and all platelet aggregation parameters except the maximum ADP-induced aggregation. Platelet inhibition occurred at plasma bupivacaine concentrations that were considerably lower than those needed to produce similar inhibition in vitro.

  20. Plasma lactate concentration increases as a parabola with delay during ramp exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péronnet, F; Morton, R H

    1994-01-01

    This study presents an elementary model of a system which relates plasma lactate concentration ([La-]) during ramp exercise to its rate of accumulation (Rc) within its extramuscular distribution space (S). Under the parsimonious assumptions that Rc increases linearly with time (t) with a kinetic delay (delta), and that the volume of S is constant, it is shown that plasma [La-] increases as a parabola with the kinetic delay delta when t increases. This elementary system model describes changes in plasma [La-] observed in five healthy young subjects during ramp exercise on the cycle ergometer (1 W every 2 s) with great accuracy (r > 0.99) with very small residuals (average value less than 0.01 mmol.l-1), randomly distributed around the fitting curves. The delay between the beginning of exercise and the onset of increase in Rc could be due to the fact that at the corresponding work rates: (1) rate of lactate appearance (Ra), which is equal to the rate of lactate disappearance (Rd), is not modified from rest, since the exercising muscles work in fully aerobic conditions (hypothesis of the anaerobic threshold); or (2) the increase in Ra is associated with a similar increase in Rd. An alternate or complementary hypothesis is that, during ramp exercise, plasma [La-] could reflect metabolic events within the muscles, with a significant delay.

  1. Impurity identifications, concentrations and particle fluxes from spectral measurements of the EXTRAP T2R plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menmuir, S.; Kuldkepp, M.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-10-01

    An absolute intensity calibrated 0.5 m spectrometer with optical multi-channel analyser detector was used to observe the visible-UV radiation from the plasma in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Spectral lines were identified indicating the presence of oxygen, chromium, iron and molybdenum impurities in the hydrogen plasma. Certain regions of interest were examined in more detail and at different times in the plasma discharge. Impurity concentration calculations were made using the absolute intensities of lines of OIV and OV measured at 1-2 ms into the discharge generating estimates of the order of 0.2% of ne in the central region rising to 0.7% of ne at greater radii for OIV and 0.3% rising to 0.6% for OV. Edge electron temperatures of 0.5-5 eV at electron densities of 5-10×1011 cm-3 were calculated from the measured relative intensities of hydrogen Balmer lines. The absolute intensities of hydrogen lines and of multiplets of neutral chromium and molybdenum were used to determine particle fluxes (at 4-5 ms into the plasma) of the order 1×1016, 7×1013 and 3×1013 particles cm-2 s-1, respectively.

  2. Effect of losartan potassium combined with Yishenhuashi on the levels of plasma protein, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-13 in the patients with chronic glomerulonephritis%氯沙坦钾联合益肾化湿颗粒对慢性肾炎患者血浆蛋白浓度和IL-1、IL-6、IL-13水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪志刚

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of losartan potassium combined with yishenhuashi on the levels of urine protein, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-13 in the patients with chronic glomerulonephritis.Methods: Fifty-nine cases of patients with chronic glomerulonephritis were retrospectively analyzed and divided into a control group (29 cases, treated with losartan potassium 50 mg/d qd) and an observation group (30 cases, treated with losartan potassium combined with yishenhuashi 10 g bid) and the treatment was lasted for 12 weeks. The changes of the concentrations of plasma and urine proteins and the levels of IL-1, IL-6 and IL-13 were observed before and after treatment, meanwhile the incidence of adverse reactions was recorded.Results: After treatment, the levels of urine protein were lower and the levels of plasma protein, IL-6 and IL-13 were higher in the observation group than in the control group (P0.05)。结论:氯沙坦钾联合益肾化湿颗粒治疗慢性肾炎的疗效更好,能有效增加血浆蛋白含量,减少尿蛋白,降低血清IL-1、IL-6、IL-13的水平,不良反应较少。

  3. The concentrations of adipokines in goat milk: relation to plasma levels, inflammatory status, milk quality and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUZEL, Saime; YIBAR, Artun; BELENLI, Deniz; CETIN, Ismail; TANRIVERDI, Meltem

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of our study were to measure the major adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin in goat milk, to assess their interrelationships and to assess their relationships with the plasma and serum concentrations of total protein, cholesterol, total lipids, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk total aerobic colony and lactobacillus count, and milk components in lactating Saanen goats. The study was performed on eighteen lactating Saanen goats. Milk and blood samples were collected on days 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 of lactation postpartum. The milk and plasma adiponectin levels on days 50, 65 and 80 postpartum were significantly higher than those on day 20. The milk and plasma leptin levels were lower on day 20 than on days 35, 50, 65 and 80. The milk concentrations of these major adipokines were positively intercorrelated. The milk and plasma concentrations of these three adipokines were also positively correlated. The plasma CRP concentrations correlated positively with milk leptin and resistin concentrations and inversely with milk adiponectin concentration. Milk adiponectin concentration was inversely related with its SCC. These data confirm that adiponectin, leptin and resistin are present in goat milk. The milk concentrations of these three adipokines were interrelated and interacted with the general inflammatory marker, CRP. The inverse relationship between milk adiponectin concentrations and its SCC suggests that variations in milk adiponectin might be involved in the udder health of lactating goats, but clinical trials are needed to support this hypothesis. PMID:28111374

  4. [Congenital cardiopathies screening associated with diabetes mellitus using maternal fructosamine plasma concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Zilma Silveira Nogueira; Miranda, Ana Paula Brum; de Alencar Lima Rezende, Cezar; Detofol, Renan Bragança; Costa, Carolina Ribeiro; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2010-02-01

    to evaluate the importance of maternal plasma concentration of fructosamine as an indicator of fetal congenital cardiopathies in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. this was a retrospective study conducted on 91 pregnant women with diabetes mellitus who underwent routine fetal echocardiography at a university reference center in fetal medicine. Sixty-five patientes who presented pre-gestational diabetes mellitus and plasma fructosamine level were registered in the medical records prior to the ultrasound exam. The first measurement recorded was compared with the result of routine fetal echocardiography, carried out by a specialist physician of the service. The presence or absence of echocardiographic findings of congenital cardiopathies (EFCC) was related to plasma levels of fructosamine by the mean t-test and its accuracy for EFCC was verified by the ROC curve. Plsama fructosamine concentrations of 2.68, 2.9 and 2.23 mmol/L, which are, respectively, the local reference laboratory values, the value of the kit employed for measurement and the one of highest overall accuracy, were discussed as the cut-off values. EFCC was found in 52.3% of the fetuses. The first measurement of fructosamine, during the prenatal care period, was performed, on average, at 20.4+/-8.0 weeks of pregnancy. The maternal concentration ability of the fructosamine to identify fetuses with EFCC was significant (p<0.0001) and had an area under the ROC curve of 0.78 (95%CI=0.66-0.89). The 2.9 mmol/L plasma concentration of fructosamine revealed EFCC with better specificity, but with a higher percentage of false-negative results (96.8 and 55.9%). Values above 2.68 mmol/L were associated with a probability of 4.6 to identify fetuses with EFCC compared with lower values, with 58.8% of sensitivity and 87.1%, specificity. The value of 2.23 mmol/L proved to be the most overall accurate of the three values suggested, with a sensitivity of 88.2% in the identification of fetuses with

  5. Hepatitis C virus infection influences the S-methadone metabolite plasma concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiow-Ling Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heroin-dependent patients typically contract hepatitis C virus (HCV at a disproportionately high level due to needle exchange. The liver is the primary target organ of HCV infection and also the main organ responsible for drug metabolism. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is a major treatment regimen for opioid dependence. HCV infection may affect methadone metabolism but this has rarely been studied. In our current study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that HCV may influence the methadone dosage and its plasma metabolite concentrations in a MMT cohort from Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 366 MMT patients were recruited. The levels of plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV, HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies (Ab, liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, as well as methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP were measured along with the urine morphine concentration and amphetamine screening. RESULTS: Of the 352 subjects in our cohort with HCV test records, 95% were found to be positive for plasma anti-HCV antibody. The liver functional parameters of AST (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.02 and ALT (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.04, the plasma methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.043 and the R-enantiomer of methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.032 were significantly higher in the HCV antibody-positive subjects than in the HCV antibody-negative patients, but not the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio. The HCV levels correlated with the methadone dose (β= 14.65 and 14.13; P = 0.029 and 0.03 and the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio (β= -0.41 and -0.40; P = 0.00084 and 0.002 in both univariate and multivariate regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that HCV may influence the methadone dose and plasma S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio in MMT patients in this preliminary study.

  6. Effects of plant stanol ester consumption on fasting plasma oxy(phyto)sterol concentrations as related to fecal microbiota characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Mensink, Ronald P; Smet, Els De; Konings, Maurice; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M; Plat, Jogchum

    2016-03-03

    Information regarding dietary effects on plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations as well as on the origin of oxyphytosterols is scarce. We hypothesized that plant sterols are oxidized in the intestinal lumen, mediated by microbial activity, followed by uptake into the circulation. To address this hypothesis, we carried out, a randomized, double blind, crossover study in 13 healthy subjects, who consumed for 3 weeks control and plant stanol ester enriched margarines (3.0g/d plant stanols) separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Plasma oxy(phyto)sterols were determined via GC-MS/MS, while microbiota analyses were performed on fecal DNA using a phylogenetic microarray to assess microbial composition and diversity. Plasma plant sterol concentrations did not correlate with plasma oxyphytosterols concentrations at baseline. Plant stanol consumption reduced serum sitosterol and campesterol concentrations (-37% and -38%), respectively (pmicrobiota composition and diversity of the faecal contents were not different between the two periods, we observed significant correlations between several specific bacterial groups and plasma plant sterol, but not with plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations. In conclusion, plant stanol ester consumption reduced serum plant sterol and plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations, while intestinal microbiota composition and diversity were not changed. To definitely answer the effects of microbiota on oxyphytosterol formation, future studies could examine oxyphytosterol concentrations after changing intestinal microbial composition or by measuring intestinal oxyphytosterol formation after providing labelled non-oxidized plant sterols.

  7. Plasma cytokine concentration changes induced by the antitumor agents dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP) and related calcium pterins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheno, Phillip; Pfleiderer, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of plasma cytokine concentration changes determined that oral dosing with the antitumor agent (1:4 mol:mol) calcium pterin (CaPterin) increased plasma IL-10, decreased plasma IL-6, and decreased plasma IFN-gamma concentrations in nude mice with MDA-MB-231 xenograph tumors [Moheno, P., Pfleiderer, W., Dipasquale, A.G., Rheingold, A.L., Fuchs, D., 2008. Cytokine and IDO metabolite changes effected by calcium pterin during inhibition of MDA-MB-231 xenograph tumors in nude mice. Int. J. Pharm. 355, 238-248]. A further analysis, reported here, of plasma cytokine concentration changes in nude mice with the same tumor xenographs treated with dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP), (1:2 mol:mol) calcium pterin, and CaCl(2).2H(2)O has been carried out. The measured cytokines included: IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. The major preliminary findings from the analyses of these data are that (1) the overall relative tumor volumes for the treatments correlated significantly with a full study antitumor plasma cytokine pattern (fsAPCP), a composite measure consisting of decreased plasma IL-6 and increased IL-4 concentrations, and (2) DCP induces a significant threshold antitumor response strongly correlated to a derived DCP antitumor plasma cytokine pattern (DCP/APCP) consisting of plasma IL-12, IL-6, and IL-4 concentration changes. This DCP/APCP composite measure identifies plasma IL-12 concentration increases, plasma IL-6 concentration decreases, and plasma IL-4 concentration increases correlated to relative tumor volume decreases caused by DCP dosing. The finding that the novel calcium pterins and CaCl(2).2H(2)O treatments decrease plasma IL-6 concentrations corroborates the previous finding that CaPterin dosing decreases plasma IL-6 concentrations in this mouse/tumor system [Moheno, P., Pfleiderer, W., Dipasquale, A.G., Rheingold, A.L., Fuchs, D., 2008. Cytokine and IDO metabolite changes effected by calcium pterin during inhibition

  8. Tramadol Induced QTc-Interval Prolongation: Prevalence, Clinical Factors and Correlation to Plasma Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Guillermo A; Etchegoyen, María C V; Fernandez, Nicolás; Olivera, Nancy M; Quiroga, Patricia N; Belloso, Waldo H; Diez, Roberto A; Di Girolamo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several cases of torsade de pointes have been associated with many opioids. However, to present no cases have been reported with tramadol. To evaluate the effect of tramadol on QT-interval in the clinical setting. Medical history and comorbidities predisposing to QT interval prolongation were registered for patients requiring medical assistance that involved tramadol administration. Ionograms and ECGs were performed at baseline and intratreatment; QT interval was analyzed after correction with Bazzet, Fridericia, Framinghan and Hogdes formula. 115 patients were studied (50.4% males) All patients had received tramadol 150-400 mg/day during 3.0-5.0 days at the moment of intratreatment control. Plasma concentrations of tramadol were 201-1613 ng/mL. Intratreatment electrocardiographic control, as mean ± SD (range), showed QTcB 372±32 (305 to 433), QTcFri 356±37 (281 to 429), QTcFra 363±33 (299 to 429), QTcH 362±30 (304 to 427), ΔQTcB 26±40 (-73 to 110), ΔQTcFri 24±48 (-97 to 121), ΔQTcFra 22±42 (-81 to 109) and .QTcH 22±38 (-68 to 110) ms. QTc interval presents high correlation with plasma tramadol concentrations (for .QTc, R>0.77). Renal failure was associated with a relative risk for ΔQTc > 30 ms of 1.90 (IC95% 1.31-2.74) and for ΔQTc > 60 ms of 4.74 (IC95% 2.57-8.74). No patient had evidence of arrhythmia during the present study. Tramadol produces QTc interval prolongation in good correlation with plasma drug concentrations; renal failure is a risk factor for higher concentration and QT prolongation by tramadol.

  9. Effect of ozone exposure on lung functions and plasma prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.D.; Ainsworth, D.; Lam, H.F.; Amdur, M.O.

    1987-03-30

    Male Hartley guinea pigs were exposed either to filtered air or to 1 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/) for 1 hr. At 2, 8, 24, or 48 hr after exposure we measured ventilation, respiratory mechanics, lung volumes, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and alveolar volume (VA) in anesthetized, tracheotomized animals. Respiratory frequency and tidal volume were unchanged in all groups. Pulmonary resistance was increased 2 hr after O/sub 3/ but returned to control at 8 hr and thereafter. Prolonged reductions in lung volumes (total lung capacity, vital capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume) as well as in DLCO and VA occurred after O/sub 3/, with maximum decreases at 8 and 24 hr postexposure. Increased ratios of wet lung weight to body weight were seen at 2, 8, and 24 hr. In separate groups of animals, also exposed either to filtered air or to 1 ppm O/sub 3/, plasma eicosanoid (EC) concentrations were measured at 2, 8, 24, 48, or 72 hr after exposure. Significant increases in thromboxane B2 concentrations were seen at 2, 24, and 48 hr after exposure. Plasma concentrations of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha) and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) were increased at 24 hr and at 24, 48, and 72 hr, respectively. The nature of this long-term pulmonary response to a short-term exposure to O/sub 3/ suggests alveolar involvement, including probable alveolar duct constriction and localized pulmonary edema. Although changes in plasma EC concentrations were observed concurrent with impaired lung functions, no simple causal relationship was apparent from these studies.

  10. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K

    2010-01-01

    -dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide, and oxyntomodulin were measured in pooled samples within cow and sampling day, whereas active ghrelin was measured in samples obtained 30 min before and after feeding at 0800 h. Postpartum, dry matter intake increased at a lower rate with infusion...... portal venous-arterial concentration difference was observed for ghrelin pre-feeding. The remaining portal venous-arterial and hepatic venous-arterial concentration differences of gut peptides did not differ from zero. In conclusion, increased postruminal glucose supply to postpartum transition dairy......Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design...

  11. Postprandial Plasma Concentrations of Individual Bile Acids and FGF-19 in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; van Nierop, F Samuel; Kulik, Willem

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may be implic......CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may...... be implicated in postprandial glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To describe postprandial plasma concentrations of 12 individual bile acids and FGF-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study, performed at the Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital...... and FGF-19 concentrations. RESULTS: Postprandial total bile acid concentrations increased with increasing meal fat content (P

  12. Normal values for plasma creatinine concentration related to maturity in normal term and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompeter, R S; Al-Dahhan, J; Haycock, G B; Chik, G; Chantler, C

    1983-09-01

    Creatinine concentration was measured by a kinetic method in 475 plasma samples obtained from 260 term and preterm infants during the first 2 months post-natal age. In term infants plasma creatinine fell from 88 +/- 4.4 mumol/L (mean + SEM) at birth, to 60 +/- 1.9 mumol/L by the fourth day remaining stable thereafter; in preterm infants creatinine fell to 86 +/- 7 mumol/L by the fourth day. Analysis of pooled data from all infants of more than 4 days post natal age revealed a progressive fall in creatinine with increasing post conceptual age. The normal range of values varies with post conceptual age and was not influenced by gestational age at the time of birth.

  13. 饮食干预对老年低钾血症患者血钾浓度的影响%Dietary intervention on serum potassium concentration in elderly patients with hypokalemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆红; 石艳琴

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of dietary intervention on serum potassium concentration in elderly patients with hypokalemia. Methods Prospective random control study methods were used in this study. Forty elderly inpatients with hypokalemia were divided into control and study groups randomly. The control group received conventional therapy and nursing while based on that the study group received systematic diet intervention. The serum potassium concentration of the patients were tested on the first, fourth, seventh and fourteenth admission day. The data were analyzed by SPSS 13. 0 software. Results There were no significant different in serum potassium concentration between the first day and fourth day. However, serum potassium concentration in control group is higher than study group in the seventh day and fourteenth day. Conclusions Systematized diet intervention could improve serum potassium concentration in elderly patients with hypokalemia.%目的 探讨饮食干预对老年低钾血症患者血钾浓度的影响.方法 采用前瞻性随机对照研究,将40例住院治疗的老年低钾血症患者随机均分为2组,即饮食干预观察组和对照组.对照组行常规治疗和护理,观察组在此基础上加以系统化的饮食干预.采用血生化分析仪检测患者入院当日、入院后第4天、1周、2周的血清钾浓度,采用SPSS 13.0统计软件比较组间差异.结果 观察组与对照组平均血钾浓度在入院当日及第4天差异无统计学意义,在第1周及第2周观察组高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 系统化的饮食干预有助于老年低钾血症患者血清钾浓度的恢复.

  14. The effect of severe starvation and captivity stress on plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations in an antarctic bird (emperor penguin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groscolas, R; Leloup, J

    1989-01-01

    The effect of confinement and severe starvation on the plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations was determined in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri). During their annual cycle, emperor penguins fast freely for periods of up to 4 months and may thus represent a unique subject to study endocrine adaptations to fasting. Plasma T4 concentrations progressively decreased following capture and confinement of naturally fasting penguins, and within 15-20 days stabilized at levels three times lower than in free-living penguins. A transient fourfold increase in plasma T3 concentration developed within the day following confinement in parallel with a rise in daily body mass loss. Both plasma T3 concentration and mass loss subsided to normal levels within 15 days. The decrease in plasma T4 concentration is in accordance with the well-known inhibitory effect of stress on thyroid function in birds and mammals, whereas the transient increase in plasma T3 concentration seems related to enhancement of energy expenditure as a consequence of restlessness. Starvation severe enough to exhaust fat stores and to activate protein catabolism induced a 6- and 5 to 10-fold fall in plasma T4 and T3, respectively. This is in marked contrast with maintenance of plasma thyroid levels during long-term natural fasting associated with protein sparing (R. Groscolas and J. Leloup (1986) Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 63, 264-274). Surprisingly, there was a final reincrease in plasma T4 concentration in very lean penguins. These results suggest that the effect of starvation on plasma thyroid hormones seems to depend on how much protein catabolism is activated and demonstrate the acute sensitivity of thyroid hormone balance to stress in penguins.

  15. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B;

    1983-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... formulation, whereas this was not the case for the other (r = 0.27 and 0.49). The daily dose necessary to keep the plasma concentration within the therapeutic range of 55-110 mumole/liter varied from 7.9 to 22.9 mg/kg. Only mild side effects were recorded, but they were not correlated to the plasma...... theophylline concentration....

  16. Body weight, concentration of plasma leptin and serum testosterone of ratsin response to feeding of chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Hao Sun; Zhi Fang Liu; Shu Ran Wang; Chao Xu Wang; Kun Wu

    2000-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of chitosan on rat body weight, concetration of plasma leptin and serumtestosterone.METHODS Five groups of rats were respectively given access to basic diet, high fat diet and high fat dietwith different doses of chitosan (1.5%,3.0% and 6.0% of chitosan in high fat diet respectively) for 7 wk.All rats were weighed once a week. By the end of wk 7, the animals were sacrificed and their blood sampleswere taken, the concentration of plasma leptin and serum testosterone were determined by RIA Kit method.RESULTS At the end of wk7, the average body weight of rats treated with high-fat diet was 67.3 gheavier than that with the basic diet, however, the average body weight of rats treated with high doses of chitosan in high-fat diet was 56.3 g lighter than that with high-fat diet (P < 0.01). In addition, plasma leptinconcentration in rats treated with high fat diet was significantly different from those with basic diet(P<0.01); plasma leptin concentration in rats treated with high dose of chitosan in high-fat diet wassignificantly lower than those with high-fat diet (P<0.01), but was significantly higher than those withbasic diet (P<0.05). Serum testosterone level in rats treated with high-fat diet was significantly lower thanthose with basic diet (P<0.01). Serum testosterone levels in rats administrated high dose of chitosan inhigh-fat diet were sighificantly lower than those with high-fat diet (P<0.01).CONCLUSION Chitosan prevents the increase of rat body weight induced by high-fat diet, and lowersplasma leptin and serum testosterone in rats.

  17. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC

  18. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperkalemia; Potassium - high; High blood potassium ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when the heartbeat gets too ...

  19. Plasma insulin-like peptide 3 and testosterone concentrations in male dogs: changes with age and effects of cryptorchidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, I N; Yamasaki, H; Kawate, N; Tsuji, M; Büllesbach, E E; Takahashi, M; Hatoya, S; Inaba, T; Tamada, H

    2012-02-01

    The objectives were to: (1) develop a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) to measure insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) in canine plasma; (2) investigate changes of plasma concentrations of INSL3 and testosterone with age in normal male dogs; and (3) compare hormonal concentrations among cryptorchid, normal, and castrated dogs to evaluate endocrine function of the Leydig cell component in retained testes. Blood samples were taken from normal male dogs from prepubertal age to advanced age (4 mo to 14 y, n = 89), and from unilateral cryptorchid (n = 31), bilateral cryptorchid (n = 7), and castrated dogs (n = 3). Canine plasma INSL3 was measured with a newly developed TRFIA. The minimum detection limit of the INSL3 assay was 0.02 ng/ml and the detection range was 0.02 to 20 ng/ml. Plasma INSL3 concentrations increased (P castrated dogs (INSL3 < 0.02 ng/ml; testosterone < 0.04 ng/ml). In conclusion, plasma INSL3 concentrations in male dogs measured by a newly developed TRFIA had a transient surge at a pubertal age, whereas testosterone did not. Lower plasma concentrations of INSL3 and testosterone in bilateral cryptorchid dogs suggest impaired endocrine functions of Leydig cell component in paired retained testes. Therefore, peripheral plasma INSL3 and testosterone concentrations have potential diagnostic value in predicting the presence of bilaterally retained testes in male dogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors for a low linezolid trough plasma concentration in acute infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Laura; Cuesta, Marta; Rojas, Jhon F; Rodriguez, Sebastian; Brunet, Merce; Casals, Gregori; Cobos, Nazareth; Hernandez, Cristina; Martínez, José A; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Linezolid is an antibiotic with time-dependent activity, and both the percentage of time that plasma concentrations exceed the MIC and the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC24/MIC ratio) are associated with clinical response. The aim of this study was to analyze the linezolid trough plasma concentration (C(min)) and to determine factors associated with a C(min) 80 ml/min, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and in patients with an infection due to Staphylococcus aureus. The independent predictors of C(min) 80 ml/min (odds ratio [OR], 10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.732 to 37.037; P = 0.001) and infection due to S. aureus (OR, 5.906; 95% CI, 1.651 to 21.126; P = 0.006). A linezolid C(min) of 80 ml/min and in infections due to S. aureus. In patients with severe sepsis, a loading dose or continuous infusion and drug monitoring could improve the pharmacodynamic parameters associated with linezolid efficacy.

  1. Plasma-derived versus recombinant factor concentrates in PUPs: a never ending debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntorp, Erik

    2017-01-31

    Inhibitor development in haemophilia is a serious complication to treatment with factor concentrates. Since the advent of more pure products, especially developed using recombinant DNA technology, some studies have shown an increased incidence of inhibitors in previously untreated patients (PUPs) receiving recombinant products whereas plasma-derived concentrates sometimes have been claimed to have a protective role, probably due to the content of von Willebrand factor (VWF). In fact, experiments indicate that the VWF may block uptake of factor VIII into macrophages for further processing to the immune system. Also, a competition between VWF and inhibitor binding to the C2 domain of factor VIII has been suggested. Recently, large cohort and surveillance studies have created a vigorous debate about the role of product class for inhibitor development as results have been conflicting. The only randomised prospective study, the SIPPET study, was published in 2016, and substantiated previous reports claiming that plasma derived concentrates give less inhibitors in patients with severe haemophilia A, previously not exposed to factor VIII. The debate will continue.

  2. The ratios of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (ARR) versus aldosterone / direct renin concentration (ADRR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinicki, Piotr; Jeske, Wojciech; Bednarek-Papierska, Lucyna; Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata; Rosłonowska, Elżbieta; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is estimated to occur in 5-12% of patients with hypertension. Assessment of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) has been used as a screening test in patients suspected of PA. Direct determination of renin (DRC) and calculation of aldosterone / direct renin concentration ratio (ADRR) could be similarly useful for screening patients suspected of PA. The study included 62 patients with indication for evaluation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and 35 healthy volunteers. In all participants we measured concentrations of serum aldosterone, plasma direct renin, and PRA after a night's rest and again after walking for two hours. The concentrations of aldosterone, direct renin, and PRA were measured by isotopic methods (radioimmunoassay (RIA) / immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)). Correlations of ARR with ADRR in the supine position were r = 0.9162, r(2) = 0.8165 (p 80% and 100%, respectively) appeared for the ratios ≥ 30. We suggest that for practical and economic reasons ARR can be replaced by ADRR.

  3. Effect of Dietary Inulin Source on Piglet Performance, Immunoglobulin Concentration, and Plasma Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grela Eugeniusz R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an inulin source (aqueous or aqueous-alcoholic extract, dried chicory root, or dried Jerusalem artichoke tubers on piglet performance, plasma lipid profile, and immunoglobulin concentration. The study was conducted on 534 piglets (44 litters allocated to five nutritional groups: group I (control - fed basal diet, groups II and III receiving basal diet supplemented with 2% of inulin (aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic extract respectively, and groups IV and V -4% additive of dried artichoke or dried chicory respectively. During the trial, piglets’ body weight, feed intake, diarrhoea incidence, and mortality were controlled. Blood samples were collected twice from six animals of each group. In blood plasma, indices of lipid profile and concentrations of IgA, IgG and IgM were measured. The addition of inulin, regardless of its form (extracts or dried plants, significantly improved the rearing indices. In piglets of groups III, IV and V a significant improvement of daily weight gains and feed efficiency was noted. Inulin showed hypolipidemic activity (lowered total cholesterol level and stimulated piglet immune system manifested by elevated IgA and IgG concentrations. Irrespective of the inulin source, a lower mortality rate resulting from the improvement of animal health was noted in all experimental groups.

  4. Genetic variation in hyaluronan metabolism loci is associated with plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanktree, Matthew B; Johansen, Christopher T; Anand, Sonia S; Davis, A Darlene; Miller, Ruby; Yusuf, Salim; Hegele, Robert A

    2010-09-23

    Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration is associated with cardiovascular disease risk. PAI-1 is the primary inhibitor of fibrinolysis within both the circulation and the arterial wall, playing roles in both atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To define the heritable component, subjects within the population-based SHARE (Study of Health Assessment and Risk in Ethnic groups) and SHARE-AP (Study of Health Assessment and Risk Evaluation in Aboriginal Peoples) studies, composed of Canadians of South Asian (n = 298), Chinese (n = 284), European (n = 227), and Aboriginal (n = 284) descent, were genotyped using the gene-centric Illumina HumanCVD BeadChip. After imputation, more than 150,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in more than 2000 loci were tested for association with plasma PAI-1 concentration. Marginal association was observed with the PAI-1 locus itself (SERPINE1; P HABP2, HSPA1A, HYAL1, MBTPS1, TARP) were associated with PAI-1 concentration at a P HABP2) and hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL1), play key roles in hyaluronan metabolism, providing genetic evidence to link these pathways.

  5. Risk Factors for a Low Linezolid Trough Plasma Concentration in Acute Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Laura; Cuesta, Marta; Rojas, Jhon F.; Rodriguez, Sebastian; Brunet, Merce; Casals, Gregori; Cobos, Nazareth; Hernandez, Cristina; Martínez, José A.; Mensa, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Linezolid is an antibiotic with time-dependent activity, and both the percentage of time that plasma concentrations exceed the MIC and the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC24/MIC ratio) are associated with clinical response. The aim of this study was to analyze the linezolid trough plasma concentration (Cmin) and to determine factors associated with a Cmin 80 ml/min, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and in patients with an infection due to Staphylococcus aureus. The independent predictors of Cmin 80 ml/min (odds ratio [OR], 10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.732 to 37.037; P = 0.001) and infection due to S. aureus (OR, 5.906; 95% CI, 1.651 to 21.126; P = 0.006). A linezolid Cmin of 80 ml/min and in infections due to S. aureus. In patients with severe sepsis, a loading dose or continuous infusion and drug monitoring could improve the pharmacodynamic parameters associated with linezolid efficacy. PMID:23403416

  6. Plasma glutathione and oxidized glutathione level, glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, and albumin concentration in complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loeki Enggar Fitri; Agustin Iskandar; Teguh Wahju Sardjono; Ummu Ditya Erliana; Widya Rahmawati; Didi Candradikusuma; Utama Budi Saputra; Eko Suhartono; Bambang Setiawan; Erma Sulistyaningsih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the level of glutathione(GSH) and oxidized glutathione(GSSG),the ratio of GSH/GSSG and the concentration of albumin in plasma of patients with complicated and un-complicated falciparum malaria.Methods: This research was a cross sectional study using comparison analysis with the plasma GSH and GSSG, the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG and the concentration of plasma albumin as variables. The complicated malaria patients were obtained from Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang, whereas uncomplicated malaria patients were obtained from the Regency of Pleihari South Kalimantan. Plasma GSH and GSSG levels were determined by the spectrophotometer at the wave length of 412 nm, whereas the concentration of albumin was determined by bromocresol green method in the p H of 4.1.Results: There were no significant differences between the level of plasma GSH and GSSG in complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients, as well as the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG in the two groups(P = 0.373; P = 0.538; and P = 0.615, respectively, independent ttest). In contrast, the plasma albumin concentration in complicated malaria patients were significantly higher than uncomplicated malaria patients(P = 0.000, Mann Whitney U test).Conclusions: It can be concluded that the average of plasma GSH and GSSG level, also plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in complicated malaria are not different from uncomplicated malaria. Although plasma concentration of albumin in both groups is below the normal range,there is an increase in complicated malaria that might be as compensation of oxidative stress.

  7. Plasma glutathione and oxidized glutathione level, glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, and albumin concentration in complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loeki Enggar Fitri; Erma Sulistyaningsih; Agustin Iskandar; Teguh Wahju Sardjono; Ummu Ditya Erliana; Widya Rahmawati; Didi Candradikusuma; Utama Budi Saputra; Eko Suhartono; Bambang Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the level of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the ratio of GSH/GSSG and the concentration of albumin in plasma of patients with complicated and un-complicated falciparum malaria. Methods: This research was a cross sectional study using comparison analysis with the plasma GSH and GSSG, the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG and the concentration of plasma albumin as variables. The complicated malaria patients were obtained from Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang, whereas uncomplicated malaria patients were obtained from the Regency of Pleihari South Kalimantan. Plasma GSH and GSSG levels were determined by the spectrophotometer at the wave length of 412 nm, whereas the concentration of albumin was determined by bromocresol green method in the pH of 4.1. Results: There were no significant differences between the level of plasma GSH and GSSG in complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients, as well as the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG in the two groups (P=0.373;P=0.538;and P=0.615, respectively, independent t-test). In contrast, the plasma albumin concentration in complicated malaria patients were significantly higher than uncomplicated malaria patients (P=0.000, Mann Whitney U test). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the average of plasma GSH and GSSG level, also plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in complicated malaria are not different from uncomplicated ma-laria. Although plasma concentration of albumin in both groups is below the normal range, there is an increase in complicated malaria that might be as compensation of oxidative stress.

  8. [Isolation, extractive concentration, and determination of caffeine in the studies of blood plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Ia I; Shormanov, V K; Mokshina, N Ia; Krivosheeva, O A; Golubitskiĭ, G B

    2012-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the isolation of caffeine from human blood by means of acetone extraction are described with special reference to the peculiarities of extraction from aqueous solutions. The possibility of concentration and purification of caffeine from blood plasma using acetone and aceton-chlorophorm mixture (2:8) as the solvents is illustrated. In addition, purification by silica-gel thin layer chromatography is discussed. Thin layer chromatography, UV-spectrophotometry, and high performance liquid chromatography are considered as potential methods for the identification and quantitative determination of caffeine.

  9. Associations between plasma tenofovir concentration and renal function markers in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwila Mulubwa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF has been associated with kidney tubulardys function and reduced renal function. Limited studies were performed in Europe and Asia that related plasma tenofovir (TFV concentration with renal function; no such studies to date have been performed on Africans.Objective: To investigate the correlation between plasma tenofovir (TFV concentration and certain renal function markers in HIV-infected women on TDF antiretroviral therapy (ART.These markers were also compared to a HIV-uninfected control group.Methods: HIV-infected women (n = 30 on TDF-based ART were matched with 30 controls forage and body mass index. Renal markers analysed were estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, creatinine clearance (CrCl, serum creatinine, albuminuria, glucosuria, serum urea, serum uric acid, urine sodium and maximum tubular reabsorption of phosphate. Baseline eGFR and CrCl data were obtained retrospectively for the HIV-infected women. Plasma TFV was assayed using a validated HPLC-MS/MS method. Step wise regression, Mann–Whitney test, unpaired and paired t-tests were applied in the statistical analyses.Results: TFV concentration was independently associated with albuminuria (adjusted r2 = 0.339; p = 0.001 in HIV-infected women. In the adjusted (weight analysis, eGFR (p = 0.038,CrCl (p = 0.032 and albuminuria (p = 0.048 were significantly higher in HIV-infected compared to the uninfected women, but eGFR was abnormally high in HIV-infected women. Both eGFR (p < 0.001 and CrCl (p = 0.008 increased from baseline to follow-up in HIV-infected women.Conclusion: Plasma TFV concentration was associated with increased albuminuria in HIV infected women in this sub-study. Both eGFR and CrCl were increased in HIV-infected women from baseline. These findings should be confirmed in larger studies, and hyperfiltration in HIV-infected women warrants further investigation.

  10. Enantiospecific ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral and intramuscular administration in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustonen Katja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been widely used for domestic animals. Orally administered racemic ketoprofen has been reported to be absorbed well in pigs, and bioavailability was almost complete. The objectives of this study were to analyze R- and S-ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral (PO and intra muscular (IM routes of administration, and to assess the relative bioavailability of racemic ketoprofen for both enantiomers between those routes of administration in growing pigs. Methods Eleven pigs received racemic ketoprofen at dose rates of 4 mg/kg PO and 3 mg/kg IM in a randomized, crossover design with a 6-day washout period. Enantiomers were separated on a chiral column and their concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and relative bioavailability (Frel was determined for S and R –ketoprofen. Results S-ketoprofen was the predominant enantiomer in pig plasma after administration of the racemic mixture via both routes. The mean (± SD maximum S-ketoprofen concentration in plasma (7.42 mg/L ± 2.35 in PO and 7.32 mg/L ± 0.75 in IM was more than twice as high as that of R-ketoprofen (2.55 mg/L ± 0.99 in PO and 3.23 mg/L ± 0.70 in IM, and the terminal half-life was three times longer for S-ketoprofen (3.40 h ± 0.91 in PO and 2.89 h ± 0.85 in IM than R-ketoprofen (1.1 h ± 0.90 in PO and 0.75 h ± 0.48 in IM. The mean (± SD relative bioavailability (PO compared to IM was 83 ± 20% and 63 ± 23% for S-ketoprofen and R-ketoprofen, respectively. Conclusions Although some minor differences were detected in the ketoprofen enantiomer concentrations in plasma after PO and IM administration, they are probably not relevant in clinical use. Thus, the pharmacological effects of racemic ketoprofen should be comparable after intramuscular and oral routes of

  11. Plasma estrogen concentrations after oral and vaginal estrogen administration in women with atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Mary Beth; Nelson, Anita L; Mayer, Philip R; Ranganath, Radhika P; Norris, Paul M; Helzner, Eileen C; Preston, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    In this open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, two-treatment crossover study, 24 postmenopausal women with moderate to severe atrophic vaginitis received 0.3 mg conjugated estrogens daily for 14 days: 7 days orally (0.3 mg tablet) and 7 days vaginally (0.5 g cream). Steady-state plasma concentrations of E2 and estrone were one-third lower after vaginal versus oral administration of conjugated estrogens. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of vancomycin concentration in human plasma by HPLC%HPLC法测定万古霉素血药浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海珍; 郭义明; 于倩

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法测定人血浆中万古霉素浓度,考察不同沉淀剂对万古霉素提取率的影响。方法:以去甲万古霉素为内标,采用Wondasil® C18-WR色谱柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5μm),流速1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长236 nm。采用甲醇-0.05 mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾缓冲液(pH 3.2)与乙腈-0.05 mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾缓冲液(pH 3.2)为流动相,选择其最佳配比,通过实验优化蛋白沉淀剂的浓度及体积,并考察5种沉淀剂对血浆样品提取率的影响。结果:采用甲醇-0.05 mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾缓冲液(pH 3.2)(16:84)为流动相,乙腈-6%高氯酸(1:6)200μL为沉淀剂时对血浆中万古霉素提取率最好。结论:本实验优化了万古霉素血药浓度测定方法,该方法提取率高、重现性好、操作简便、灵敏,适用于万古霉素血药浓度测定。%[AbstrAct]Objective: To establish the method for determination of vancomycin in human plasma by HPLC, and investigate the effects of different precipitants to vancomycin extraction rate.Methods: Norvancomycin was used as the internal standard, the liquid chromatography was performed on Wondasil® C18-WR column (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm), the lfow rate was 1.0 mL·min-1, and UV detector wavelength was 236 nm. Using two mobile phases of methanol-0.05 mol·L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.2) and acetonitrile-0.05 mol·L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.2) to select the best ratio of mobile phase. The concentration and volume of protein precipitants were optimized through experiments, ifve kinds of precipitant were used to investigate the affect of plasma sample extraction rate.results: The results showed that mobile phase consisted of methanol-0.05 mol·L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.2) (16 : 84) and acetonitrile-6% perchloric acid (1 : 6) as a precipitant, the extraction rate was the best.conclusion:The method for the

  13. Modeling of the Flow, Temperature and Concentration Fields in an Arc Plasma Reactor with Argon-Nitrogen Atmosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fudolig, Agustin M; Nogami, Hiroshi; Yagi, Jun-ichiro

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical formulation was developed for describing the flow behavior, temperature profile and concentration fields in pure or mixed argon and nitrogen arc plasmas impinging on a metal target inside a reactor...

  14. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  15. Cardiac natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations during the first 72 hours of life in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Christoffersen, Christina; Nørgaard, Linn Maiken

    2013-01-01

    Plasma measurement of cardiac natriuretic peptides constitutes promising markers of congenital heart disease. However, concentrations change rapidly and dramatically during the first days after delivery even in healthy neonates, which complicates clinical interpretation. It is unknown whether...

  16. Age- and therapy-related effects on morphine requirements and plasma concentrations of morphine and its metabolites in postoperative infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bouwmeester (Nancy); J.N. van den Anker (John); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); K.J.S. Anand (Kanwaljeet); D. Tibboel (Dick)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: To investigate clinical variables such as gestational age, sex, weight, the therapeutic regimens used and mechanical ventilation that might affect morphine requirements and plasma concentrations of morphine and its metabolites. METHODS: In a double-blind stu

  17. Effect of chronic elevation of plasma calcium concentration by PTH or vitamin D3on blood pressure and hypotensive activity of nifedipine in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, F.A.M.; Thoolen, M.J.M.C.; Wilffert, B.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a chronically elevated total plasma calcium concentration on blood pressure and heart rate was investigated in conscious normotensive rats. The plasma calcium concentration was elevated by continuous subcutaneous infusion with parathormone (PTH) after parathyreoidectomy, and by oral

  18. Modulation of carbachol-stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown in rat cerebral cortical miniprisms at excitatory amino acids and by BAY K-8644 is dependent upon the assay calcium and potassium concentrations used

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiger, G. (Univ. of Umea (Sweden)); Fowler, C.J. (Astra Research Centre, Soedertalje (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    The calcium and potassium ion dependency of the inositol phospholipid breakdown response to stimulatory agents has been investigated in rat cerebral cortical miniprisms. The calcium channel agonist BAY K-8644 potentiated the response to carbachol at 6 mM K{sup +} when Ca{sup 2+}-free, but not when 2.52 mM Ca{sup 2+} assay buffer was used. In Ca{sup 2+}-free buffer, verapamil inhibited the response to carbachol at both 6 and 18 mM K{sup +} but higher concentrations were needed when 2.52 mM Ca{sup 2+} was used. At these higher concentrations, however, verapamil inhibited the binding of 2 nM ({sup 3}H)pirenzepine to muscarinic recognition sites. N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) significantly reduced the basal phosphoinositide breakdown rate at 18 mM K{sup +} at 1.3 mM Ca{sup 2+}, but was without effect on the basal rate at other K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} concentrations. In the presence of NMDA or quisqualate, the responses to carbachol were reduced, the degree of reduction showing a complex dependency upon the assay K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} concentrations used. These results indicate that the inositol phospholipid breakdown response to carbachol in cerebral cortical miniprisms can be modulated in a manner dependent upon the extracellular calcium and potassium concentrations used.

  19. Platelet Concentration in Platelet-Rich Plasma Affects Tenocyte Behavior In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Giusti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since tendon injuries and tendinopathy are a growing problem, sometimes requiring surgery, new strategies that improve conservative therapies are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP seems to be a good candidate by virtue of its high content of growth factors, most of which are involved in tendon healing. This study aimed to evaluate if different concentrations of platelets in PRP have different effects on the biological features of normal human tenocytes that are usually required during tendon healing. The different platelet concentrations tested (up to 5 × 106 plt/µL stimulated differently tenocytes behavior; intermediate concentrations (0.5 × 106, 1 × 106 plt/µL strongly induced all tested processes (proliferation, migration, collagen, and MMPs production if compared to untreated cells; on the contrary, the highest concentration had inhibitory effects on proliferation and strongly reduced migration abilities and overall collagen production but, at the same time, induced increasing MMP production, which could be counterproductive because excessive proteolysis could impair tendon mechanical stability. Thus, these in vitro data strongly suggest the need for a compromise between extremely high and low platelet concentrations to obtain an optimal global effect when inducing in vivo tendon healing.

  20. Effects of humidity on the plasma-catalytic removal of low-concentration BTX in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Zhu, Tianle; Wan, Yajuan; Yan, Xiao

    2010-08-15

    Effects of relative humidity (30%, 50% and 80% RH) on the removal of low-concentration benzene, toluene and p-xylene (BTX mixture) in air by non-thermal plasma (NTP) and the combination of NTP and MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst (CPC) were systematically investigated in a link tooth wheel-cylinder plasma reactor. A long-term (150 h) CPC experiment under 30% RH was also conducted to investigate the stability of the catalyst. Results show that increasing humidity inhibits the O(3) production in plasma and its decomposition over the catalyst. As for BTX conversion, increasing humidity suppresses the benzene conversion by both NTP and CPC; although higher humidity slightly promotes the toluene conversion by NTP, it negatively influences that by CPC; while the conversion of p-xylene by both NTP and CPC is insensitive to the humidity levels. Irrespective of the RH, the introduction of MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst significantly promotes BTX conversion and improves the energy efficiency. On the other hand, CPC under 30% RH shows the best performance towards CO(x) formation during BTX oxidation processes. However, for a specific input energy of 10 J L(-1) in this study, organic intermediates generated and accumulated over the catalyst surface, resulting in a slight deactivation of the MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst after 150-h reactions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma mitomycin C concentrations determined by HPLC coupled to solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroni, R; Arcelloni, C; De Vecchi, E; Fermo, I; Mauri, D; Colombo, R

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study was to set up a method for quantification of plasma mitomycin C (MMC) concentrations during intravesical chemotherapy delivered in the presence of local bladder hyperthermia (HT). In comparison with existing methods, this assay, characterized by relative simplicity and efficiency, resulted in the facilitation of performance with nondedicated instrumentation or nonspecialized staff. Purification from plasma matrix was carried out by solid-phase extraction under vaccuum. The purified drug was then collected directly into the vials of the HPLC autosampler. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with water:acetonitrile (85:15 by vol) as the mobile phase and the UV detector set at 365 nm. The use of porfiromycin as internal standard provided a method with good within-day precision (CV 6.0% at 5 micrograms/L, n = 6), linearity (0.5-50 micrograms/L), and specificity. The lower limit of detection (< or = 0.5 microgram/L) proved to be suitable for plasma pharmacokinetics monitoring in two tested patients treated with MMC + HT for superficial bladder cancer.

  2. Ion mobility spectrometry as a simple and rapid method to measure the plasma propofol concentrations for intravenous anaesthesia monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qinghua; Jiang, Dandan; Gong, Yulei; Li, Enyou; Li, Haiyang

    2016-11-01

    The plasma propofol concentration is important information for anaesthetists to monitor and adjust the anaesthesia depth for patients during a surgery operation. In this paper, a stand-alone ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) was constructed for the rapid measurement of the plasma propofol concentrations. Without any sample pre-treatment, the plasma samples were dropped on a piece of glass microfiber paper and then introduced into the IMS cell by the thermal desorption directly. Each individual measurement could be accomplished within 1 min. For the plasma propofol concentrations from 1 to 12 μg mL-1, the IMS response was linear with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.998, while the limit of detection was evaluated to be 0.1 μg mL-1. These measurement results did meet the clinical application requirements. Furthermore, other clinically-often-used drugs, including remifentanil, flurbiprofen and atracurium, were found no significant interference with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the plasma propofol. The plasma propofol concentrations measured by IMS were correlated well with those measured by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results confirmed an excellent agreement between these two methods. Finally, this method was applied to monitor the plasma propofol concentrations for a patient undergoing surgery, demonstrating its capability of anaesthesia monitoring in real clinical environments.

  3. Estimating time of last oral ingestion of cannabis from plasma THC and THCCOOH concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Elsohly, Mahmoud; Nebro, Wesenyalsh; Barnes, Allan; Gustafson, Richard A; Smith, Michael L

    2006-08-01

    Estimating the time of last cannabis use is important in assessing possible impairment of drivers involved in accidents, in verifying accuracy of court testimony and in the future, helpful in therapeutic monitoring of cannabis agonists. In 1992, Huestis et al developed model 1, based on plasma Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations, and model 2, on plasma 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannbinol/THC ratios, that predicted 95% confidence intervals for time of last cannabis use. These models seemed to be valuable when applied to the small amount of data from published studies of oral ingestion, a route of administration more popular with the advent of cannabis therapies. A study was designed to further validate the models after oral ingestion of THC, and to determine whether they could predict last usage after multiple oral doses. Eighteen subjects in IRB-approved studies participated after providing informed consent. Each of 12 subjects in one group received a single 10 mg oral dose of dronabinol (synthetic THC). In another protocol, 6 subjects received 4 different oral daily doses, divided into thirds and administered with meals for 5 consecutive days. There was a 10-day washout period between each dosing regimen. Daily doses were 0.39, 0.47, and 14.8 mg THC in hemp oil and 7.5 mg dronabinol. Blood specimens were collected throughout the study and analyzed for plasma THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannbinol by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL, respectively. Actual times between ingestion of THC and blood collection spanned 0.5 to 16 hours. All plasma specimens with analyte concentrations >LOQ (n=90) were evaluated. Models 1 and 2 correctly predicted time of last THC ingestion for 74.4% and 90.0% of plasma specimens, respectively. 96.7% of predicted times were correct with one overestimate and 2 underestimates using the time interval defined by the lowest and highest 95

  4. Increased plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α concentration in severe human traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo-Feng; Jie, Yuan-Qing; Wu, An; Huang, Qiang; Dai, Wei-Min; Fan, Xiao-Feng

    2013-06-05

    8-Iso-Prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) is considered as a gold standard for measuring oxidative stress in vivo. The present study was undertaken to investigate plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in severe human traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to analyze its correlation with disease outcome. One hundred six healthy subjects and 106 severe TBI patients were recruited. The correlations of plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentration with 1-year mortality and unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) were analyzed. Thirty-one patients (29.2%) died and 48 patients (45.3%) had an unfavorable outcome at 1 year after TBI. Patients had significantly higher plasma 8-iso-PGF2α levels compared to healthy controls (572.1±157.5 pg/ml vs. 84.3±18.9 pg/ml, Piso-PGF2α level as an independent predictor for 1-year unfavorable outcome [odds ratio (OR) 1.401, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.107-2.371, P=0.005] and mortality (OR 1.609, 95% CI 1.113-3.142, P=0.003). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed plasma 8-iso-PGF2α level predicted 1-year unfavorable outcome [area under curve (AUC), 0.871; 95% CI, 0.792-0.928] and mortality (AUC, 0.881; 95% CI, 0.804-0.936) as statistically significantly. The prognostic value of 8-iso-PGF2α was similar to that of Glasgow Coma Scale score for 1-year clinical outcomes (both P>0.05). However, 8-iso-PGF2α did not improve the prognostic value of Glasgow Coma Scale score for 1-year clinical outcomes (both P>0.05). Plasma 8-iso-PGF2α level is highly associated with 1-year clinical outcomes of TBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  6. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis. However, studies that prospectively examined circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-[OH] D in relation to diabetes risk are limited. Our objective is to determine the association between maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations in early pregnancy and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted among a prospective cohort of 953 pregnant women. Among them, 57 incident GDM cases were ascertained and 114 women who were not diagnosed with GDM were selected as controls. Controls were frequency matched to cases for the estimated season of conception of the index pregnancy. RESULTS: Among women who developed GDM, maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations at an average of 16 weeks of gestation were significantly lower than controls (24.2 vs. 30.1 ng/ml, P<0.001. This difference remained significant (3.62 ng/ml lower on average in GDM cases than controls (P value = 0.018 after the adjustment for maternal age, race, family history of diabetes, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Approximately 33% of GDM cases, compared with 14% of controls (P<0.001, had maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations consistent with a pre-specified diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml. After adjustment for the aforementioned covariates including BMI, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a 2.66-fold (OR (95% CI: 2.66 (1.01-7.02 increased GDM risk. Moreover, each 5 ng/ml decrease in 25-[OH] D concentrations was related to a 1.29-fold increase in GDM risk (OR (95% CI: 1.29 (1.05-1.60. Additional adjustment for season and physical activity did not change findings substantially. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the present study suggest that maternal vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy is significantly associated with an elevated risk for GDM.

  7. Effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in female patients with shoulder pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Min-Sung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Baek, Yeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in female patients with shoulder pain. [Subjects] Subjects comprised 20 female patients with shoulder pain. [Methods] Subjects were divided into 2 groups: a Hatha yoga exercise group (n = 10) and a control group that performed no exercise (n = 10). The subjects’ body composition, plasma malondialdehyde concentrations, and s...

  8. Effects of exercise intensity on plasma concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones: Potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Tom J; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K; Schmale, Matt S; Copeland, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Research to date suggests short-term appetite regulation following a single exercise session is likely affected by decreases in acylated ghrelin and increases in PYY, GLP-1, and PP. Further, this exercise-induced response may be intensity-dependent. In an effort to guide future research, it is important to consider how exercise alters the circulating concentrations of these appetite-regulating hormones. Potential mechanisms include blood redistribution, sympathetic nervous system activity, gastrointestinal motility, cytokine release, free fatty acid concentrations, lactate production, and changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. This review of relevant research suggests blood redistribution during exercise may be important for suppressing ghrelin, while other mechanisms involving cytokine release, changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, SNS activity, and muscle metabolism likely mediate changes in the anorexigenic signals PYY and GLP-1. Overall, changes in appetite-regulating hormones following acute exercise appear to be intensity-dependent, with increasing intensity leading to a greater suppression of orexigenic signals and greater stimulation of anorexigenic signals. However, there is less research on how exercise-induced responses in appetite-regulating hormones differ between sexes or different age groups. A better understanding of how exercise intensity and workload affect appetite across the sexes and life

  9. Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Motor Prognosis in Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years. Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900.Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021 for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030 for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900. The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61 and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.

  10. Seasonal effects on plasma cortisol concentrations in the Bedouin buck: circadian studies and response to ACTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chergui, N; Mormede, P; Foury, A; Khammar, F; Amirat, Z

    2017-03-01

    Our work aims at the exploration of cortisol secretion in the Bedouin goat, native to the Algerian Sahara desert, to understand the mechanisms of adaptation to extreme hot climates. In the present study, diurnal and seasonal variations of cortisol concentrations were measured in basal conditions, as well as the response to ACTH stimulation tests across seasons in bucks. The plasma concentrations of cortisol showed no diurnal cycle but a large variation across seasons. The highest levels occurred in summer and winter when the environmental conditions are at their extreme levels. The rectal temperature showed nychthemeral and seasonal variations, and BW was also different across seasons with highest values in summer and lowest in winter. The results obtained after administration of two doses (2 or 10 μg/kg BW) of synthetic ACTH to three different age groups (kids, adults and elderly animals) showed a strong increase in plasma cortisol concentrations under all conditions with maximum levels achieved between 15 and 120 min. The analysis of the area under the cortisol curve showed no significant difference between the responses to the two doses of ACTH and between age groups, but showed seasonal variations with the lowest response in autumn than in other seasons. We conclude that season significantly affects secretion of cortisol in both basal state and under ACTH stimulation. However, the variation of adrenal reactivity to ACTH is not sufficient to explain seasonal differences, and in particular the summer peak in basal circulating cortisol concentrations. Further research should focus on the respective contribution of environmental factors (such as day length, temperature, humidity) and the mechanisms involved in cortisol regulation.

  11. High-intensity endurance training improves adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadasi, Mehrzad; Mohebbi, Hamid; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Hassan-Nia, Sadegh; Noroozi, Hamid; Pirooznia, Nazanin

    2012-04-01

    Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory protein that reduced in obesity. Exercise training may reduce the adipose tissue (AT), although it is not well known whether exercise-induced change in AT, increases the adiponectin mRNA expression and plasma concentrations or not; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations in middle-aged men after 12 weeks high-intensity exercise training and after a week detraining. Sixteen sedentary overweight and obese middle-aged men (age 41.18 ± 6.1 years; ± SD) volunteered to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to training group (n = 8) or control group (n = 8). The training group performed endurance training 4 days a week for 12 weeks at an intensity corresponding to 75-80% individual maximum oxygen consumption for 45 min. After 12 weeks of training, subjects underwent a week of detraining. The results showed that the BMI as well as central and peripheral AT volume were decreased in the training group compared to the control group (P training group resulted in a significant increase (P training compared to the control group (P training group. In conclusion, high-intensity endurance training caused an increase adiponectin mRNA in obese middle-aged men.

  12. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M; Chen, Chung Y; Malloy, Mary J; Browne, Amanda; Chiu, Elisa Y; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Milbury, Paul; Paul, Steven M; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

  13. Plasma retinoids concentration in Leptodactylus chaquensis (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) from rice agroecosystems, Santa Fe province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglia, Carla M; Attademo, Andrés M; Peltzer, Paola M; Goicoechea, Héctor C; Lajmanovich, Rafael C

    2015-09-01

    Retinoids are known to regulate important processes such as differentiation, development, and embryogenesis of vertebrates: Alteration in endogenous retinoids concentration is linked with teratogenic effects. Retinol (ROH), retinoid acid (RA), and isoform 13-Cis-retinoic acid (13-Cis-RA), in plasma of a native adults frog, Leptodactylus chaquensis from a rice field (RF) and a forest (reference site; RS) were measured. ROH did not vary between treatment sites. RA and 13-Cis-RA activities were higher (93.7±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 131.7±11.4 μg mL(-1), respectively) in individuals collected from RF than in those from RS (65.5±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 92.2±10.2 μg mL(-1), respectively). The ratios retinoic acid-retinol (RA/ROH) and 13-Cis-RA/ROH revealed significantly higher values in RF than in RS. RA and 13-Cis-RA concentrations in plasma on wild amphibian's species such as L. chaquensis would be suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure in field monitoring. Finally, the mechanism of alteration in retinoid metabolites alteration should be further explored both in larvae and adult, considering that the potential exposition and uptake contaminants vary between the double lives of these vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transplacental pharmacokinetics and maternal/fetal plasma concentrations of cocaine in pregnant macaques near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binienda, Z; Bailey, J R; Duhart, H M; Slikker, W; Paule, M G

    1993-01-01

    The transplacental pharmacokinetics of cocaine were studied in three pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at 150-154 days of pregnancy (term approximately 165 days). Animals were dosed intramuscularly with cocaine hydrochloride at 1 mg/kg, supplemented with a tritiated cocaine tracer. Plasma cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine levels were determined after separation by HPLC and subsequent quantification by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Cocaine levels peaked in maternal blood within 10-20 min after dosing, and cocaine was detected in fetal blood within 5 min, reaching peak concentrations within 30-120 min. Mean maternal elimination half-lives (t1/2) for cocaine and benzoylecgonine were 1.2 +/- 0.5 hr and 12.4 +/- 6.6 hr (+/- SEM), respectively; fetal half-lives were 0.5 +/- 0.2 and 7.7 +/- 3.0 hr. Mean maternal residence times were 1.9 +/- 0.5 and 17.0 +/- 9.1 hr for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, respectively; fetal values were 2.1 +/- 0.2 and 11.6 +/- 3.5 hr. Total areas under the concentration versus time curves (AUCs) for cocaine and benzoylecgonine in maternal plasma were 360 +/- 38 and 585 +/- 260 (ng/ml) hr, respectively; fetal values were 104 +/- 29 and 262 +/- 61 (ng/ml) hr. Based on AUC comparisons for cocaine, fetal exposures are thus approximately one-third of maternal exposures, demonstrating that substantial exposure to cocaine does occur in utero.

  15. Effect of Resistance Training on Plasma Nitric Oxide and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Concentrations in Type I Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Parivash Shekarchizadeh; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Karimian, Jahangir; Khazaei, Majid; Feizi, Awat; Safarzade, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has a predominant role in progression of some cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes. It interferes with L-arginine in production of nitric oxide (NO) by inhibition of NO synthase. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of resistance training on plasma NO and ADMA concentrations in type 1 diabetic male rats. Methods: Thirty-six male wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control; (2) diabetic; (3) diabetic trained, and (4) control trained (n = 9 each). In the trained groups, the animals undertook one training session per day, 3 days/week, for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, blood samples were taken and the concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile, NO and ADMA concentrations were determined. Results: plasma ADMA concentration showed a significant increase in diabetic rats compare to control group (0.73 ± 0.07 vs. 0.62 ± 0.04 μmol/l; P < 0.05). The plasma ADMA level in the trained diabetic and control were lower than the sedentary groups, although it was not statistically significant. Plasma NO concentration in diabetic group was lower than control (P < 0.05). Resistance training significantly increased plasma NO concentration in diabetic animals (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Elevated ADMA level in diabetic animals can normalize during resistance exercise. Reduced ADMA level and increased NO level following resistance training might improve cardiovascular risk in diabetic subjects. PMID:23717776

  16. Study on Plasma Concentration and Bioavailability of Wogonin in Beagle's Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-chun; CHEN Fei-hu; DONG Hai-jun; GAO Shu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop an LC-MS/MS method for determining the concentration of wogonin in dog plasma and investigate the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability by different administrations of wogonin in Beagle's dogs. Methods LC-MS/MS was employed in determining the concentration of wogonin with the selected ion monitoring model after liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate of dog plasma samples. The lower limit of quantification was 0.105 μg/L. Target ions were at m/z 285.0→270.0 for wogonin and 373.3→305.3 for finasteride. In a randomized, self-control, and cross-over study, six male Beagle's dogs were treated with different administration methods in three test periods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS software (Ver. 2.0). Results The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.105-107.36 μg/L for wogonin in dog plasma samples. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of ig administration (native drug of 15 mg/kg and solution preparation of 5 mg/kg) and iv route were as follows: Cmax (2.5 ± 1.1), (7.9 ± 3.3), and (6838.7 ± 1322.1) μg/L, tmax (0.7 ± 0.3) and (0.3 ± 0.2) h for the both former, AUC0-1 (7.1 ± 2.0), (21.0 ± 3.2), and (629.7 ±111.8) μg·h/L. The absolute bioavailability of native and solution of wogonin were (0.59 ± 0.35)% and (3.65 ± 2.00)%, respectively. Conclusion The validated method is convenient, sensitive, and specific, and the improvement of wogonin solubility could remarkably increase the absolute bioavailability.

  17. Determination of plasma lactic acid concentration and specific activity using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiberg, B; Steinberg, J J; Katz, S D; Wexler, J; LeJemtel, T

    1991-08-23

    Assessment of lactate metabolism is of particular interest during exercise and in disease states such as diabetes, shock, and absorptive abnormalities of short-chain fatty acids by the colon. We describe an analytical method that introduces radio-active tracers and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to simultaneously analyze concentrations and specific activities (SAs) of plasma lactate. The HPLC conditions included separation on a reversed-phase column (octadecylsilane) and an isocratic buffer (30% acetonitrile in water). [3H]Acetate served as an internal standard. Lactate and acetate were extracted from plasma samples with diethyl ether following a pH adjustment to less than 1.0 and back-extracted into a hydrophilic phase with sodium carbonate (2 mM, pH greater than 10.0). Lactate is detected in the ultraviolet range (242 and 320 nm) by derivatization with alpha-bromoacetophenone. Control plasma samples were studied after an overnight fast for precision and analytical recovery. Calibration curves were linear in the range 0.18-6.0 mM (r = 0.92). The precision was 3% and the analytical recovery was 87%. The detection limit of the method was 36 pmol. Determination of lactate metabolism was performed in a patient with chronic congestive heart failure who was administered primed-continuous L-[U-14C]lactate (10 microCi bolus and 0.3 microCi/min continuously) during a 60-min rest period. Mean arterial lactate concentration and SA were 1.69 +/- 0.2 mM and 253.8 +/- 22 dpm/mumol, respectively. Systemic lactate turnover was 25.65 mumol/kg per min. Lactic acid systemic turnover, organ uptake and release rates can be accurately determined by isocratic HPLC.

  18. Relationship between plasma concentrations of the l-enantiomer of methadone and response to methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meini, Milo; Moncini, Marco; Daini, Laura; Giarratana, Tania; Scaramelli, Daniela; Chericoni, Silvio; Stefanelli, Fabio; Rucci, Paola

    2015-08-05

    This study evaluated the relationship between the plasma concentration of l-methadone and response to methadone in real-world patients, in order to identify a minimum plasma concentration above which methadone treatment is effective. Ninety-four patients with opioid dependence under maintenance methadone treatment were consecutively recruited. Response was defined as negative urine analyses in the three weeks prior to the blood sampling. The percentage of participants with a plasma l-methadone concentration between 100 and 250 ng/ml was 54.2% among those with a methadone dosage ≥60 mg/day. Plasma l-methadone concentrations were significantly higher in patients with negative urine analyses compared with those with positive urine analyses (median 93 vs. 77 ng/ml, Mann-Whitney test, Pmethadone concentrations of 200 ng/ml no heroin use was reported and urine analyses were negative. Moreover, above concentrations of 250 ng/ml craving was absent. Examination of demographic correlates of treatment outcome indicated that older age, a stable job and being married were protective against the use of heroin. Mean plasma l-methadone concentration was significantly lower in patients who used cannabis compared with those who did not use cannabis, after adjusting for methadone dosage. In conclusion our results identify specific cut-offs for plasma l-methadone concentrations about which therapeutic response is observed and provide new evidence that therapeutic response is associated with patient׳s demographic characteristics. This underscores the need to monitor plasma methadone concentrations as part of Drug Addiction Services routine practice, in order to provide an objective framework for changing the methadone dosage.

  19. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.;

    2006-01-01

    A lignan complex rich in the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was isolated from flaxseed. SDG is metabolized by the colonic microflora to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), and was hypothesized to reduce plasma lipid concentrations and improve...... (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), serum lipoprotein oxidation lag time, plasma Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were measured at the beginning and end of each intervention period. ENL concentrations in serum (P

  20. Plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin following single subcutaneous administration to cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzmann, Manfred; Niedorf, Frank; Kramer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Marina; Schneider, Marc; Vallé, Marc; Pankow, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofoxacin, a third generation fluoroquinolone, were investigated in 12 healthy adult cats after single subcutaneous (SC) administration of 2 mg/kg BW (Part I, n=8 cats) and 4 mg/kg BW (Part II, n=4 cats). In each part of the study blood and urine samples were collected before treatment and thereafter for 5 days. The plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin were determined by HPLC with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed for each treated animal using an open one-compartment-model with first-order elimination after SC dosing. Marbofloxacin in plasma (means): Maximum concentrations (Cmax) of about 1.2 and 3.0 microg/ml were measured 2.3 and 4 hours (tmax) after dosing of 2 and 4 mg/kg BW, respectively. Elimination from the body was low with a total clearance (Cl/F) of approximately 0.1 l/h/kg for both dosages. The half-life (t 1/2) for this process was calculated with 8-10 hours. AUC increased almost proportional when doubling the dose, i.e., 19.77 +/- 6.25 microg * h/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 51.26 +/- 11.83 microg * h/ml (4 mg/kg BW). Plasma kinetics measured were in accordance with data from literature. Marbofloxacin in urine (means): Maximum drug concentrations were detected 4 and 8 hours after dosing with 70 microg/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 160 microg/ml (4 mg/kg BW), respectively. Inhibitory effects of the urinary matrix on the antimicrobial activity of the drug were taken into account when performing PK/PD calculations. However, a concentration-dependent bactericidal activity (Cmax/MIC > 8-10) which is claimed for fluoroquinolones was sufficiently met with focus on Escherichia (E.) coli (MIC90 0.5 microg/ml). In the same matrix a threshold value of 1.0 microg/ml was undercut 82 and 116 hours after SC dosing, respectively. Hence, a time-dependent bacteria killing kinetic (T > MIC) which may be of relevance for some Gram-positive germs like Staphylococcus spp. (MIC90 1.0 microg/ml) should be covered, too.

  1. Posaconazole plasma concentration in pediatric patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Werner J; Cabanillas Stanchi, Karin M; Klinker, Hartwig; Blume, Olivia; Feucht, Judith; Hartmann, Ulrike; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Lang, Peter; Handgretinger, Rupert; Döring, Michaela

    2016-02-01

    Posaconazole has been proven to be effective for antifungal prophylaxis in adults after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Due to low gastrointestinal resorption of posaconazole suspension, bioavailability is impaired. Fatty food improves the uptake of posaconazole, but insufficient data on the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole in pediatric patients are available so far. The single-center analysis investigated 161 posaconazole serum concentrations in 27 pediatric patients after HSCT receiving 12 mg·kg BW(-1)·d(-1) posaconazole suspension depending on age, gender, and intestinal graft-versus-host (iGvHD) disease, and the influence of posaconazole on cyclosporine A plasma concentrations. To improve the uptake of posaconazole, one patient cohort received higher fat nutrition with the drug administration. A comparison of the regular nutrition and higher-fat nutrition groups revealed the following values: 31 (27.4%) versus 8 (16.7%) 2000 ng/ml. The mean posaconazole concentrations in patients with regular nutrition was 1123 ± 811 ng/ml and with higher-fat nutrition was 1191 ± 673 ng/ml. Posaconazole levels in patients with iGvHD were significantly lower (P = 0.0003) than in patients without GvHD. The majority of samples showed a sufficient posaconazole concentration above 700 ng/ml. Posaconazole levels were slightly higher in patients with higher-fat nutrition and significantly lower in patients with iGvHD. Cyclosporine A levels were not significantly higher during posaconazole administration.

  2. Fluctuation in Plasma 5-Fluorouracil Concentration During Continuous 5-Fluorouracil Infusion for Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideo; Okumura, Hideo; Murakami, Haruaki; Kubota, Hisako; Higashida, Masaharu; Tsuruta, Atsushi; Tohyama, Kaoru; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    It is generally believed that the plasma concentration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is constant when 5-FU is continually administered for chemotherapy. The aim of the present study was to verify whether this is true. Nine patients with colorectal cancer were enrolled in this study. All patients received chemotherapy; four patients received FOLFIRI (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan) and five received FOLFOX (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin). 5-FU was administered continuously (2400 mg/m(2)) for 46 h. Serum was collected at 12 points after the start of administration. The concentration of 5-FU was evaluated using a new immunoassay method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method. The concentrations of 5-FU fluctuated dramatically over time, with greater than 3-fold changes in each individual, and the pattern was not constant. Because the serum concentration of 5-FU fluctuates and displays various patterns, the dosage should not be based on body surface area. A new individualized method for determining the 5-FU dosage should be developed. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Establishing human heart chromium, cobalt and vanadium concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Patrick L; Eckdahl, Steven J; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Wright, Thomas C; Murray, David L

    2017-05-01

    Chromium, cobalt, and vanadium are used in metallic joint prosthesis. Case studies have associated elevated heart tissue cobalt concentrations with myocardial injury. To document the long term heart metal ion concentrations, a validated inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) method was needed. The method utilized a closed-vessel microwave digestion system to digest the samples. An ICP-MS method utilizing Universal Cell Technology was used to determine our target analyte concentrations. Accuracy was verified using reference materials. Precision, sensitivity, recovery and linearity studies were performed. This method was used to establish a reference range for a non-implant containing cohort of 80 autopsy human heart tissues RESULTS: This method demonstrated an analytic measurement range of 0.5-100ng/mL for each element. Accuracy was within ±10% of target value for each element. Within-run precision for each element was below 20% CV. The chromium, vanadium and cobalt concentrations (mean±SD) were 0.1523±0.2157μg/g, 0.0094±0.0211μg/g and 0.1039±0.1305μg/g respectively in 80 non-implant containing human heart tissue samples. This method provides acceptable recovery of the chromium, cobalt and vanadium in heart tissue; allowing assessment of the effects of metallic joint prosthesis on myocardial health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of ophthalmic disease on concentrations of plasma fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, A L; Hamor, R E; Macneill, A L; Lascola, K M; Breaux, C B; Tolar, E L

    2011-07-01

    There is little scientific information available about the ability of ocular disease to cause a systemic inflammatory response. Horses are frequently affected with ocular disease and ensuring their systemic health prior to performing vision saving surgery under anaesthesia is essential for the successful treatment of ophthalmic disease. Ocular disease will cause elevations in the concentration of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in peripheral blood. Whole blood and serum samples were obtained from 38 mature horses with ulcerative keratitis or uveitis and no evidence of systemic disease, 9 mature horses with no evidence of ocular or systemic disease (negative controls) and 10 mature horses with systemic inflammatory disease and no evidence of ocular disease (positive controls). Blood samples were assayed for concentrations of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A. Fibrinogen and serum amyloid A were significantly different in the positive control group compared to the negative control, corneal disease and uveitis groups (P<0.126). There was no significant difference between the negative control, corneal disease and uveitis groups (P<0.001). Ulcerative keratitis and anterior uveitis are not associated with elevated concentrations of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in peripheral blood. When the clinician is presented with a patient with ocular disease and elevated plasma fibrinogen or serum amyloid A concentrations, a nonocular inflammatory focus should be suspected. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Effect of vacuum conditions and plasma concentration on the chemical composition and adhesion of vacuum-plasma coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, D. P.; Kuznetsov, V. M.; Slabodchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper reports on the chemical composition of titanium nitride (TiN) and silicon (Si) coatings deposited with a new technological vacuum plasma setup which comprises magnetron sputtering systems, arc evaporators, and an efficient plasma generator. It is shown that due to highly clean vacuum conditions and highly clean surface treatment in the gas discharge plasma, both the coating-substrate interface and the coatings as such are almost free from oxygen and carbon. It is found that the coating-substrate interface represents a layer of thickness ≥ 60 nm formed through vacuum plasma mixing of the coating and substrate materials. The TiN coatings obtained on the new equipment display a higher adhesion compared to brass coatings deposited by industrial technologies via intermediate titanium oxide layers. It is concluded that the designed vacuum plasma equipment allows efficient surface modification of materials and articles by vacuum plasma immersion processes.

  6. Synovial fluid and plasma selenium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, M; Sarban, S; Kocyigit, A; Isikan, U E

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, a great number of studies have investigated the possible role of trace elements in the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoartritis (OA). We studied synovial fluid and plasma concentrations of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in patients with RA and OA and compared them with sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. Plasma albumin levels were measured as an index of nutritional status. Plasma Se, Cu, and Zn concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Fe concentrations were determined by the colorimetric method. Although plasma and synovial fluid Se concentration were found to be significantly lower (p 0.05). On the other hand, synovial fluid Cu and Fe concentrations were significantly higher in patients with OA than those of healthy subjects (p < 0.05). There was a significantly positive correlation between synovial fluid Se-Cu values and Zn-Fe values in patients with RA. Our results showed that synovial fluid and plasma trace element concentrations, excluding Zn, change in inflammatory RA, but not in OA. These alterations in trace element concentrations in inflammatory RA might be a result of the changes of the immunoregulatory cytokines.

  7. Calculated plasma medial effective concentration of propofol with and without magnesium sulfate at loss of consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong-liang; YE Tie-hu; SUN Li

    2011-01-01

    Background Perioperative disorder of magnesium,an important cation in the human body,may affect clinical anesthesia. The pharmacological data of propofol use,which is popularly used in the anesthesiology department and intensive care unit,is incomplete in Chinese patients. This study aimed to assess the effect of magnesium sulfate on the calculated plasma medial effective concentration (Cp50cal) of propofol at loss of response to command in Chinese females.Methods Fifty patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly divided into the control group and the magnesium group. Before induction,magnesium sulfate (30 mg/kg) or placebo (equal volume of 0.9% saline)was given to patients in the magnesium group or the control group,respectively. Propofol was infused using a target-controlled infusion system,with a target concentration for each patient decided by up-and-down sequential allocation. After the equilibration between target plasma concentration and effective-site concentration,the state of consciousness was assessed. For determination of serum magnesium and calcium concentration,blood samples were taken before induction,after induction and at the end of surgery.Results The Cp50cal was 2.52 μg/ml (2.47-2.57 μg/ml) for patients in the control group,and 2.46 μg/ml (2.41-2.51μg/ml) for those in the magnesium group. A significant reduction of Cp50cal was observed (P=0.021). There was a significant difference between the serum magnesium concentrations after induction and at the end of the surgery (P <0.05). In the magnesium group,there was a trend toward decreasing after surgery,while in the control group,Cp50cal decreased significantly (P <0.01).Conclusions Cp50cal of propofol at loss of response to command was 2.52 μg/ml (2.47-2.57 μg/ml) for Chinese female adults in this study. Infusion of 30 mg/kg magnesium sulfate may reduce the Cp50cal of propofol at loss of consciousness,which implies that magnesium may enhance the pharmacological

  8. Increasing in activity and plasma concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadeghi1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 30 March, 2009 ; Accepted 22 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Matrix metalloproteinase are a family of proteolytic enzymes that have specific functions in digestion of cells cohesive extra cellular matrix and also, increasing metastasis behavior of acute human tumors. It has been reported that MMPs in two forms, namely proenzyme and active enzyme in biological samples. It is distinguished that among this family, (MMP-9 Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 has function in both initiation and invasion steps of breast cancer. In our previous study, we reported a correlation between C/T polymorphism at promoter region of this gene and metastasis step of breast cancer.Considering few findings regarding the relationship between the active form of this enzyme and occurrence of cancer, and also the correlation between active form and allelic genotype of persons, in this study we decided to do a parallel study on measurement of active plasma MMP-9 and its relationship with allelic genotype of breast cancer patients.Materials and methods: After analysis of data, we found that concentration of active MMP-9 has a significant difference in breast cancer patients in comparison with control group, as the concentration of active form of this enzyme was less in control group than the breast cancer patients group (0.7 ng and 1.7 ng respectively. Thus, the level of active MMP-9 showed a significant increase in persons with CT and TT genotypes in comparison with CC genotype (1.5 folds.Results: The present data suggest the concentration of active MMP-9 in breast cancer patients has significantly increased in comparison with the control group and the increased in plasma level of this enzyme is related with the existence of T allele at this gene promoter and also in progression of breast cancer in these patients. We can use the active plasma level of this enzyme or the existence of T allele as a diagnostic tool for discriminating subgroups of breast cancer

  9. Effect of pubertal development and physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, J; Cicchella, A; Tillmann, V; Lätt, E; Haljaste, K; Purge, P; Pomerants, T; Jürimäe, T

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of regular physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration in pre-pubertal and pubertal boys. In addition, the impact of ghrelin concentration on bone mineral density (BMD) was examined. In total, 56 healthy schoolboys aged between 10 and 16 yr were divided into the swimming (no.=28) and the control (no.=28) groups. The subjects were matched by age and body mass index (BMI), generating 9 matched pairs in pubertal group I (Tanner stage 1), 11 pairs in group II (Tanner stages 2 and 3), and 8 pairs in group III (Tanner stages 4 and 5). Swimmers in pubertal groups II and III had significantly (both pghrelin levels than the controls (group II: 1126.8+/-406.0 vs 868.3+/-411.2 pg/ml; group III: 1105.5+/-337.5 vs 850.8+/-306.0 pg/ml, respectively), whereas no difference was seen in the pubertal group I (1230.8+/-386.0 vs 1272.7+/-424.4 pg/ml). Ghrelin was the most important hormonal determinant for total BMD and lumbar apparent volumetric BMD (BMAD) (R2=27.2% and R2=19.8%, respectively) in swimmers, whereas in control boys, plasma IGF-I was the most important hormonal predictor accounting for 41.8% of the variability of total BMD and 20.4% of the variability of lumbar BMAD. In conclusion, ghrelin concentration decreased during puberty in physically inactive boys, while in regularly physically active boys it remained relatively unchanged. Ghrelin appears to be an important hormonal predictor for BMD in physically active boys, while BMD is mostly determined by IGF-I in physically inactive boys.

  10. An HPLC-UV method for determining plasma dimethylacetamide concentrations in patients receiving intravenous busulfan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendana, Mildred; Lee, Samiuela; Upadhyay, Parth J; Byrne, Jennifer A; Shaw, Peter J; Earl, John; Nath, Christa E

    2016-12-07

    Dimethylacetamide (DMA) is a solvent used in the preparation of intravenous busulfan, an alkylating agent used in blood or marrow transplantation. DMA may contribute to hepatic toxicity, so it is important to monitor its clearance. The aim of this study was to develop an HPLC-UV assay for measurement of DMA in human plasma. After precipitation of plasma proteins with acetonitrile followed by dilution (1:4) with water, the extract was injected onto the HPLC and detected at 195 nm. Separation was performed using a Cogent-HPS 5 μm C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm) preceded by a Brownlee 7 μm RP18 , pre-column (1.5 cm × 3.2 mm). The mobile phase was 25 mm sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3), containing 2.5% (v/v) acetonitrile and 0.0005% (v/v) sodium-octyl-sulfonate. Using a flow rate of 1 mL/min, the retention times of DMA and the internal standard (IS), 2-chloroacetamide, were 9.5 and 3.5 min, respectively. Peak area ratio (DMA:IS) was a linear function of concentration from 1 to 1000 μg/mL. There was excellent intraday precision (<5% for 5-700 μg/mL DMA), accuracy (<3% deviation from the true concentration) and recovery (74-98%). The limits of detection and quantification were 1 and 5 μg/mL, respectively. In eight children who received in